Science.gov

Sample records for fast hardware track

  1. Fast TracKer: A fast hardware track trigger for the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandini, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system at the ATLAS experiment is designed to lower the event rate occurring from the nominal bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to about 1 kHz for a LHC luminosity of the order of 1034cm-2s-1. To achieve high background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals, sophisticated algorithms are needed which require an extensive use of tracking information. The Fast TracKer (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to perform track-finding at 100 kHz. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the combinatorial problem of pattern recognition is solved by 8000 standard-cell ASICs used to implement an Associative Memory architecture. The availability of the tracking and subsequent vertex information within a short latency ensures robust selections and allows improved trigger performance for the most difficult signatures, such as b-jets and τ leptons.

  2. Fast track evaluation methodology.

    PubMed

    Duke, J R

    1991-06-01

    Evaluating hospital information systems has taken a variety of forms since the initial development and use of automation. The process itself has moved from a hardware-based orientation controlled by data processing professionals to systems solutions and a user-driven process overseen by management. At Harbor Hospital Center in Baltimore, a fast track methodology has been introduced to shorten system evaluation time to meet the rapid changes that constantly affect the healthcare industry.

  3. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    PubMed

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  4. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  5. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  6. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  7. Fast track to 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals that are newly qualified for the 340B Drug Pricing Program may have an opportunity for fast-track approval to participate in the program. Three steps are required to seize this opportunity: Use data analytics to assess current and future percentages of Medicaid utilization and eligibility for federal SSI cash benefits. Determine the feasibility of early cost report filing. Prepare appropriate documentation and undertake the initial enrollment process. PMID:26863836

  8. Fast track to 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals that are newly qualified for the 340B Drug Pricing Program may have an opportunity for fast-track approval to participate in the program. Three steps are required to seize this opportunity: Use data analytics to assess current and future percentages of Medicaid utilization and eligibility for federal SSI cash benefits. Determine the feasibility of early cost report filing. Prepare appropriate documentation and undertake the initial enrollment process.

  9. Fast Track'' nuclear thermal propulsion concept

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.A.; Zweig, H.R. ); Cooper, M.H.; Wett, J. Jr. )

    1993-01-10

    The objective of the Space Exploration Initiative ( America at the Threshold...,'' 1991) is the exploration of Mars by man in the second decade of the 21st century. The NASA Fast Track'' approach (NASA-LeRC Presentation, 1992) could accelerate the manned exploration of Mars to 2007. NERVA-derived nuclear propulsion represents a viable near-term technology approach to accomplish the accelerated schedule. Key milestones in the progression to the manned Mars mission are (1) demonstration of TRL-6 for the man-rateable system by 1999, (2) a robotic lunar mission by 2000, (3) the first cargo mission to Mars by 2005, and (4) the piloted Mars mission in 2007. The Rocketdyne-Westinghouse concept for nuclear thermal propulsion to achieve these milestones combines the nuclear reactor technology of the Rover/NERVA programs and the state-of-the-art hardware designs from hydrogen-fueled rocket engine successes like the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME).

  10. Hardware Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maganga, Othman; Phillip, Navneesh; Burnham, Keith J.; Montecucco, Andrea; Siviter, Jonathan; Knox, Andrew; Simpson, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work describes the practical implementation of two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, namely those of perturb and observe, and extremum seeking control. The proprietary dSPACE system is used to perform hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation whereby the two control algorithms are implemented using the MATLAB/Simulink (Mathworks, Natick, MA) software environment in order to control a synchronous buck-boost converter connected to two commercial thermoelectric modules. The process of performing HIL simulation using dSPACE is discussed, and a comparison between experimental and simulated results is highlighted. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the two MPPT algorithms, and in conclusion the benefits and limitations of real-time implementation of MPPT controllers using dSPACE are discussed.

  11. The Physics of Fast Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Toys can provide motivational contexts for learning and teaching about physics. A cheap car track provides an almost frictionless environment from which a quantitative study of conservation of energy and circular motion can be made.

  12. Functional design specification for Stowage List And Hardware Tracking System (SLAHTS). [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keltner, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    This functional design specification defines the total systems approach to meeting the requirements stated in the Detailed Requirements Document for Stowage List and Hardware Tracking System for the space shuttle program. The stowage list and hardware tracking system is identified at the system and subsystem level with each subsystem defined as a function of the total system.

  13. Fast convolution-superposition dose calculation on graphics hardware.

    PubMed

    Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoît; Després, Philippe

    2009-06-01

    The numerical calculation of dose is central to treatment planning in radiation therapy and is at the core of optimization strategies for modern delivery techniques. In a clinical environment, dose calculation algorithms are required to be accurate and fast. The accuracy is typically achieved through the integration of patient-specific data and extensive beam modeling, which generally results in slower algorithms. In order to alleviate execution speed problems, the authors have implemented a modern dose calculation algorithm on a massively parallel hardware architecture. More specifically, they have implemented a convolution-superposition photon beam dose calculation algorithm on a commodity graphics processing unit (GPU). They have investigated a simple porting scenario as well as slightly more complex GPU optimization strategies. They have achieved speed improvement factors ranging from 10 to 20 times with GPU implementations compared to central processing unit (CPU) implementations, with higher values corresponding to larger kernel and calculation grid sizes. In all cases, they preserved the numerical accuracy of the GPU calculations with respect to the CPU calculations. These results show that streaming architectures such as GPUs can significantly accelerate dose calculation algorithms and let envision benefits for numerically intensive processes such as optimizing strategies, in particular, for complex delivery techniques such as IMRT and are therapy.

  14. Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The full complement of EDOMP investigations called for a broad spectrum of flight hardware ranging from commercial items, modified for spaceflight, to custom designed hardware made to meet the unique requirements of testing in the space environment. In addition, baseline data collection before and after spaceflight required numerous items of ground-based hardware. Two basic categories of ground-based hardware were used in EDOMP testing before and after flight: (1) hardware used for medical baseline testing and analysis, and (2) flight-like hardware used both for astronaut training and medical testing. To ensure post-landing data collection, hardware was required at both the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) landing sites. Items that were very large or sensitive to the rigors of shipping were housed permanently at the landing site test facilities. Therefore, multiple sets of hardware were required to adequately support the prime and backup landing sites plus the Johnson Space Center (JSC) laboratories. Development of flight hardware was a major element of the EDOMP. The challenges included obtaining or developing equipment that met the following criteria: (1) compact (small size and light weight), (2) battery-operated or requiring minimal spacecraft power, (3) sturdy enough to survive the rigors of spaceflight, (4) quiet enough to pass acoustics limitations, (5) shielded and filtered adequately to assure electromagnetic compatibility with spacecraft systems, (6) user-friendly in a microgravity environment, and (7) accurate and efficient operation to meet medical investigative requirements.

  15. Accelerated Leadership Development: Fast Tracking School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter; Jones, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    "Accelerated Leadership Development" captures and communicates the lessons learned from successful fast-track leadership programmes in the private and public sector, and provides a model which schools can follow and customize as they plan their own leadership development strategies. As large numbers of headteachers and other senior staff retire,…

  16. Autonomous target tracking of UAVs based on low-power neural network hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Jin, Zhanpeng; Thiem, Clare; Wysocki, Bryant; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2014-05-01

    Detecting and identifying targets in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and videos have been challenging problems due to various types of image distortion. Moreover, the significantly high processing overhead of existing image/video processing techniques and the limited computing resources available on UAVs force most of the processing tasks to be performed by the ground control station (GCS) in an off-line manner. In order to achieve fast and autonomous target identification on UAVs, it is thus imperative to investigate novel processing paradigms that can fulfill the real-time processing requirements, while fitting the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constrained environment. In this paper, we present a new autonomous target identification approach on UAVs, leveraging the emerging neuromorphic hardware which is capable of massively parallel pattern recognition processing and demands only a limited level of power consumption. A proof-of-concept prototype was developed based on a micro-UAV platform (Parrot AR Drone) and the CogniMemTMneural network chip, for processing the video data acquired from a UAV camera on the y. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of incorporating emerging neuromorphic hardware into next-generation UAVs and their superior performance and power advantages towards the real-time, autonomous target tracking.

  17. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  18. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  19. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  20. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  1. Outline of a fast hardware implementation of Winograd's DFT algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1980-01-01

    The main characteristics of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm considered by Winograd (1976) is a significant reduction in the number of multiplications. Its primary disadvantage is a higher structural complexity. It is, therefore, difficult to translate the reduced number of multiplications into faster execution of the DFT by means of a software implementation of the algorithm. For this reason, a hardware implementation is considered in the current study, taking into account a design based on the algorithm prescription discussed by Zohar (1979). The hardware implementation of a FORTRAN subroutine is proposed, giving attention to a pipelining scheme in which 5 consecutive data batches are being operated on simultaneously, each batch undergoing one of 5 processing phases.

  2. FPS-RAM: Fast Prefix Search RAM-Based Hardware for Forwarding Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Kuroda, Yasuto; Inoue, Kazunari; Ata, Shingo; Oka, Ikuo

    Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is becoming very popular for designing high-throughput forwarding engines on routers. However, TCAM has potential problems in terms of hardware and power costs, which limits its ability to deploy large amounts of capacity in IP routers. In this paper, we propose new hardware architecture for fast forwarding engines, called fast prefix search RAM-based hardware (FPS-RAM). We designed FPS-RAM hardware with the intent of maintaining the same search performance and physical user interface as TCAM because our objective is to replace the TCAM in the market. Our RAM-based hardware architecture is completely different from that of TCAM and has dramatically reduced the costs and power consumption to 62% and 52%, respectively. We implemented FPS-RAM on an FPGA to examine its lookup operation.

  3. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  4. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  5. Security market reaction to FDA fast track designations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher W; Zhang, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical firms can apply for the Food and Drug Administration to 'fast track' research and de velopment on new drugs, accelerating clinical trials and expediting regulatory review required prior to marketing to consumers. We investigate security market reaction to more than 100 fast track designations from 1998 to 2004. Fast track designation appears to enhance investor recognition of firm value. Specifically, fast track designation coincides with abnormal trading volume and excess daily stock returns for sponsoring firms. Institutional ownership and analyst attention also increase. Market response is more pronounced for firms that are smaller, do not yet market products, and have low institutional ownership. PMID:21294437

  6. Fast Track: A Language Arts Program for Middle School Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jean

    2008-01-01

    "Fast Track" is a pseudonym for an accelerated, advanced language arts program for verbally gifted and high potential students in grades 6-8. The critical thinking model used for "Fast Track" was gleaned from Coalition of Essential Schools founder Ted Sizer's Habits of Mind: significance, evidence, connections, perspective, and supposition, as…

  7. Fast Track Teaching: Beginning the Experiment in Accelerated Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churches, Richard; Hutchinson, Geraldine; Jones, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the development of the Fast Track teaching programme and personalised nature of the training and support that has been delivered. Fast Track teacher promotion rates are compared to national statistics demonstrating significant progression for certain groups, particularly women. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  8. A Fast MEANSHIFT Algorithm-Based Target Tracking System

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Tracking moving targets in complex scenes using an active video camera is a challenging task. Tracking accuracy and efficiency are two key yet generally incompatible aspects of a Target Tracking System (TTS). A compromise scheme will be studied in this paper. A fast mean-shift-based Target Tracking scheme is designed and realized, which is robust to partial occlusion and changes in object appearance. The physical simulation shows that the image signal processing speed is >50 frame/s. PMID:22969397

  9. Anger, Heavy Exertion: Fast Track to A Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Anger, Heavy Exertion: Fast Track to a Heart Attack? But researchers suggest that artery-clogging plaque has ... physical exertion may be triggers for a first heart attack in some people, new research suggests. In the ...

  10. Fast Markerless Tracking for Augmented Reality in Planar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Afif, Fadhil Noer; Almazyad, Abdulaziz S.; AbuJabal, Hamza Ali S.; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim

    2015-12-01

    Markerless tracking for augmented reality should not only be accurate but also fast enough to provide a seamless synchronization between real and virtual beings. Current reported methods showed that a vision-based tracking is accurate but requires high computational power. This paper proposes a real-time hybrid-based method for tracking unknown environments in markerless augmented reality. The proposed method provides collaboration of vision-based approach with accelerometers and gyroscopes sensors as camera pose predictor. To align the augmentation relative to camera motion, the tracking method is done by substituting feature-based camera estimation with combination of inertial sensors with complementary filter to provide more dynamic response. The proposed method managed to track unknown environment with faster processing time compared to available feature-based approaches. Moreover, the proposed method can sustain its estimation in a situation where feature-based tracking loses its track. The collaboration of sensor tracking managed to perform the task for about 22.97 FPS, up to five times faster than feature-based tracking method used as comparison. Therefore, the proposed method can be used to track unknown environments without depending on amount of features on scene, while requiring lower computational cost.

  11. Education For All (EFA) - Fast Track Initiative Progress Report 30046

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank Education Advisory Service, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Launched in June 2002, the Education For All-Fast Track Initiative (FTI) is a performance-based program focusing on the implementation of sustainable policies in support of universal primary completion (UPC) and the required resource mobilization. During its twenty months of implementation, FTI has delivered on results, which give reason for…

  12. Fast Track: Elementary School. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Fast Track" is a comprehensive intervention designed to reduce conduct problems and promote academic, behavioral, and social improvement. The program's components include the "Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies" curriculum, parent groups, parent-child sharing time, child social skills training, home visiting, child…

  13. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  14. Pre-Hardware Optimization and Implementation Of Fast Optics Closed Control Loop Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Lyon, Richard G.; Herman, Jay R.; Abuhassan, Nader

    2004-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The FFT is particularly useful in two-dimensional (2-D) image processing (FFT2) within optical systems control. However, timing constraints of a fast optics closed control loop would require a supercomputer to run the software implementation of the FFT2 and its inverse, as well as other image processing representative algorithm, such as numerical image folding and fringe feature extraction. A laboratory supercomputer is not always available even for ground operations and is not feasible for a night project. However, the computationally intensive algorithms still warrant alternative implementation using reconfigurable computing technologies (RC) such as Digital Signal Processors (DSP) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), which provide low cost compact super-computing capabilities. We present a new RC hardware implementation and utilization architecture that significantly reduces the computational complexity of a few basic image-processing algorithm, such as FFT2, image folding and phase diversity for the NASA Solar Viewing Interferometer Prototype (SVIP) using a cluster of DSPs and FPGAs. The DSP cluster utilization architecture also assures avoidance of a single point of failure, while using commercially available hardware. This, combined with the control algorithms pre-hardware optimization, or the first time allows construction of image-based 800 Hertz (Hz) optics closed control loops on-board a spacecraft, based on the SVIP ground instrument. That spacecraft is the proposed Earth Atmosphere Solar Occultation Imager (EASI) to study greenhouse gases CO2, C2H, H2O, O3, O2, N2O from Lagrange-2 point in space. This paper provides an advanced insight into a new type of science capabilities for future space exploration missions based on on-board image processing

  15. Detailed requirements document for Stowage List and Hardware Tracking System (SLAHTS). [computer based information management system in support of space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keltner, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stowage list and hardware tracking system, a computer based information management system, used in support of the space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration and the Johnson Space Center hardware tracking is described. The input, processing, and output requirements that serve as a baseline for system development are defined.

  16. Fast-track drug approval in inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H.; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Giagkou, Eftychia; Malakos, Zikos; Almpani, Eleni; Skamnelos, Alexandros; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K.

    2016-01-01

    Fast-track drug designation of safe regimens represents an emerging method of development and approval of new medications targeting debilitating diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The goal of accelerated drug approval pathways is to shorten the time between application and approval of therapies that treat diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, fast-track drug approval approaches were supported by data deriving from central reading of images, a method of clinical data interpretation that has significantly benefited patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Biological agents and other emerging therapies in IBD represent “game-changing” or “treat-to-target” drugs and have satisfied quite successfully some of the patients’ unmet needs. The development of biosimilars is an area where the Federal Drug Administration and the European Agency for Evaluation of Medicinal Products seem to have different approval processes. Biosimilars, including those for IBD, promise cost reductions and wide access to biologic therapies by patients, advantages similar to those already offered by generic drugs. Given the rapid development of IBD drugs and patients’ needs, a consensus among the academic community, clinicians, researchers, sponsors, patients and regulatory authorities is required to standardize better the IBD trials and create a productive environment for fast-track approval of any “changing-game” IBD drug.

  17. [FastTrack approach to major colorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Susa, Antonio; Roveran, Antonietta; Bocchi, Anna; Carrer, Sara; Tartari, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation programs after major abdominal, thoracic and vascular surgery have been published over the last few years, showing early recovery, fewer complications and a quicker discharge. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a multimodal intensive rehabilitation program (FastTrack) after major colorectal surgery, according to the experience of Dr. H. Kehlet of Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen. The study design was of the prospective, randomized, controlled type. Forty patients undergoing elective colonic surgery were randomly selected and assigned to two groups well matched for age, weight, ASA and type of resection. The FastTrack group underwent a multimodal rehabilitation program with epidural analgesia, short laparotomy, early feeding and mobilisation. The control group had the usual postoperative treatment with a pain control program. The FastTrack group exhibited a shorter need for assisted ventilation, a lower sedation level and lower opioid consumption over the first 24 hours. We also observed a statistically significant earlier onset of peristalsis (0.5 vs 2.7 days), gastrointestinal function (defecation) (2.8 vs 5.8 days), regular feeding (3.1 vs 7.2 days) and autonomous ambulation (3.3 vs 6.9). The multimodal rehabilitation approach to colon surgery permits an earlier postoperative recovery, better postoperative performance and quicker functional autonomy. These results may have important implications for the management of patients after major colorectal surgery. PMID:15771036

  18. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    E. Mazzucato

    2010-07-14

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (≥10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  19. Fast-neutron spectroscopy studies using induced-proton tracks in PADC track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sersy, A. R.; Eman, S. A.

    2010-06-01

    In this work, a simple and adequate method for fast-neutron spectroscopy is proposed. This method was performed by free-in-air fast-neutron irradiation of CR-39 Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) using an Am-Be source. Detectors were then chemically etched to remove few layers up to a thickness of 6.25 μm. By using an automatic image analyzer system for studying the registration of the induced-proton tracks in the NTD, the obtained data were analyzed via two tracks shapes. In the first one, the elliptical tracks were eliminated from the calculation and only the circular ones were considered in developing the response function. In the second method all registered tracks were considered and the corresponding response function was obtained. The rate of energy loss of the protons as a function of V[(d E/d X) - V] was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation. The induced-proton energy was extracted from the corresponding d E/d X in NTD using a computer program based on the Bethe-Bloch function. The energy of the incident particles was up to few hundred MeV/nucleon. The energy of the interacting neutrons was then estimated by means of the extracted induced-proton energies and the scattering angle. It was found that the present resulting energy distribution of the fast-neutron spectrum from the Am-Be source was similar to that given in the literature where an average neutron energy of 4.6MeV was obtained.

  20. X-33 Environmental Impact Statement: A Fast Track Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaleb, Rebecca C.; Holland, Donna L.

    1998-01-01

    NASA is required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to prepare an appropriate level environmental analysis for its major projects. Development of the X-33 Technology Demonstrator and its associated flight test program required an environmental impact statement (EIS) under the NEPA. The EIS process is consists of four parts: the "Notice of Intent" to prepare an EIS and scoping; the draft EIS which is distributed for review and comment; the final ETS; and the "Record of Decision." Completion of this process normally takes from 2 - 3 years, depending on the complexity of the proposed action. Many of the agency's newest fast track, technology demonstration programs require NEPA documentation, but cannot sustain the lengthy time requirement between program concept development to implementation. Marshall Space Flight Center, in cooperation with Kennedy Space Center, accomplished the NEPA process for the X-33 Program in 13 months from Notice of Intent to Record of Decision. In addition, the environmental team implemented an extensive public involvement process, conducting a total of 23 public meetings for scoping and draft EIS comment along with numerous informal meetings with public officials, civic organizations, and Native American Indians. This paper will discuss the fast track approach used to successfully accomplish the NEPA process for X-33 on time.

  1. A fast track trigger processor for the OPAL experiment at LEP, CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Bramhall, M.; Jaroslawski, S.; Penton, A.; Hammarstrom, R.; Joos, D.; Weber, C.

    1989-02-01

    A fast programmable trigger processor for the OPAL experiment is described. The processor can handle multihit events. The tracks are found in the R-Z and the R-PHI planes by 24 fast track finder circuits operating in parallel using a novel histogramming technique. A semicustom coincidence array circuit is used to match tracks.

  2. Fast molecular tracking maps nanoscale dynamics of plasma membrane lipids

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, Steffen J.; Leutenegger, Marcel; Hilbert, Michael; Hell, Stefan W.; Eggeling, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We describe an optical method capable of tracking a single fluorescent molecule with a flexible choice of high spatial accuracy (∼10–20 nm standard deviation or ∼20–40 nm full-width-at-half-maximum) and temporal resolution (< 1 ms). The fluorescence signal during individual passages of fluorescent molecules through a spot of excitation light allows the sequential localization and thus spatio-temporal tracking of the molecule if its fluorescence is collected on at least three separate point detectors arranged in close proximity. We show two-dimensional trajectories of individual, small organic dye labeled lipids diffusing in the plasma membrane of living cells and directly observe transient events of trapping on < 20 nm spatial scales. The trapping is cholesterol-assisted and much more pronounced for a sphingo- than for a phosphoglycero-lipid, with average trapping times of ∼15 ms and < 4 ms, respectively. The results support previous STED nanoscopy measurements and suggest that, at least for nontreated cells, the transient interaction of a single lipid is confined to macromolecular dimensions. Our experimental approach demonstrates that fast molecular movements can be tracked with minimal invasion, which can reveal new important details of cellular nano-organization. PMID:20351247

  3. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  4. A planning process for a fast track to IAIMS.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, A. J.; Baker, W. L.; Sittig, D. F.; Stead, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    The strategic planning process that is part of Vanderbilt University's fast track to IAIMS is evolving based on feedback from the process itself. Led by a committee of VUMC's top management, broad-based sub-committees for administration, education, patient care, and research worked initially on the following strategic issues: identifying key external pressures that constrain and provide opportunities, visioning how VUMC might operate in the future, and establishing a mission and high-level goals for information management. Next steps include identifying the critical mass of function that will prompt daily use of the IAIMS by everyone at VUMC and adding groups to focus on information and technology architectures and developing academic informatics. This manuscript gives detailed, practical information about the evolution of the planning process, committees' responsibilities, working relationships, and lessons learned. PMID:8130533

  5. Fast-Acquisition/Weak-Signal-Tracking GPS Receiver for HEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintemitz, Luke; Boegner, Greg; Sirotzky, Steve

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the technical background and design of the Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver -- . a radiation-hardened receiver intended for use aboard spacecraft. Navigator is capable of weak signal acquisition and tracking as well as much faster acquisition of strong or weak signals with no a priori knowledge or external aiding. Weak-signal acquisition and tracking enables GPS use in high Earth orbits (HEO), and fast acquisition allows for the receiver to remain without power until needed in any orbit. Signal acquisition and signal tracking are, respectively, the processes of finding and demodulating a signal. Acquisition is the more computationally difficult process. Previous GPS receivers employ the method of sequentially searching the two-dimensional signal parameter space (code phase and Doppler). Navigator exploits properties of the Fourier transform in a massively parallel search for the GPS signal. This method results in far faster acquisition times [in the lab, 12 GPS satellites have been acquired with no a priori knowledge in a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) scenario in less than one second]. Modeling has shown that Navigator will be capable of acquiring signals down to 25 dB-Hz, appropriate for HEO missions. Navigator is built using the radiation-hardened ColdFire microprocessor and housing the most computationally intense functions in dedicated field-programmable gate arrays. The high performance of the algorithm and of the receiver as a whole are made possible by optimizing computational efficiency and carefully weighing tradeoffs among the sampling rate, data format, and data-path bit width.

  6. Ultra-fast data-mining hardware architecture based on stochastic computing.

    PubMed

    Morro, Antoni; Canals, Vincent; Oliver, Antoni; Alomar, Miquel L; Rossello, Josep L

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hardware implementations able to cope with the processing of large amounts of data in reasonable times are highly desired in our information-driven society. In this work we review the application of stochastic computing to probabilistic-based pattern-recognition analysis of huge database sets. The proposed technique consists in the hardware implementation of a parallel architecture implementing a similarity search of data with respect to different pre-stored categories. We design pulse-based stochastic-logic blocks to obtain an efficient pattern recognition system. The proposed architecture speeds up the screening process of huge databases by a factor of 7 when compared to a conventional digital implementation using the same hardware area.

  7. Global tracking and inventory of military hardware via LEO satellite: A system approach and likely scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, David; Estabrook, Polly; Romer, Richard

    1995-01-01

    A system for global inventory control of electronically tagged military hardware is achievable using a LEO satellite constellation. An equipment Tag can communicate directly to the satellite with a power of 5 watts or less at a data rate of 2400 to 50,000 bps. As examples, two proposed commercial LEO systems, IRIDIUM and ORBCOMM, are both capable of providing global coverage but with dramatically different telecom capacities. Investigation of these two LEO systems as applied to the Tag scenario provides insight into satellite design trade-offs, constellation trade-offs and signal dynamics that effect the performance of a satellite-based global inventory control system.

  8. Fast-track for fast times: catching and keeping generation Y in the nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kim

    2007-04-01

    There is little doubt we find ourselves in challenging times as never before has there been such generational diversity in the nursing workforce. Currently, nurses from four distinct (and now well recognised and discussed) generational groups jostle for primacy of recognition and reward. Equally significant is the acute realisation that our ageing profession must find ways to sustain itself in the wake of huge attrition as the 'baby boomer' nurses start retiring over the next ten to fifteen years. These realities impel us to become ever more strategic in our thinking about how best to manage the workforce of the future. This paper presents two exciting and original innovations currently in train at one of Australia's leading Catholic health care providers: firstly, a new fast-track bachelor of nursing program for fee-paying domestic students. This is a collaborative venture between St Vincent's and Mater Health, Sydney (SV&MHS) and the University of Tasmania (UTas); as far as we know, it is unprecedented in Australia. As well, the two private facilities of SV&MHS, St Vincent's Private (SVPH) and the Mater Hospitals, have developed and implemented a unique 'accelerated progression pathway' (APP) to enable registered nurses with talent and ambition to fast track their career through a competency and merit based system of performance management and reward. Both these initiatives are aimed squarely at the gen Y demographic and provide potential to significantly augment our capacity to recruit and retain quality people well into the future.

  9. Financing Access and Participation in Primary Education: Is There a "Fast-Track" for Fragile States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrent, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Despite moves to "fast-track" progress towards universal primary education, few fragile states have been able to access Fast Track Initiative (FTI) funding facilities. Weak systems and capacity have made these countries a high-risk proposition for donor investment. The absence of credible education sector plans has meant that the majority of…

  10. National Diffusion Network's Evaluation of the Fast Track Music System 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymczuk, Michael

    This document reports on an evaluation project to determine the effectiveness of the Fast Track method of instrumental music instruction as applied to beginning band instruction. The Fast Track music system is unique because it simultaneously aids both visual and aural learning by using a book and cassette tape approach to instruction. Traditional…

  11. "Fast Track" and "Traditional Path" Coaches: Affordances, Agency and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynne, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A recent development in large-scale coach accreditation (certification) structures has been the "fast tracking" of former elite athletes. Former elite athletes are often exempted from entry-level qualifications and are generally granted access to fast track courses that are shortened versions of the accreditation courses undertaken by…

  12. Early recovery after fast-track Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose After total knee arthroplasty with conventional surgical approach, more than half of the quadriceps extension strength is lost in the first postoperative month. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) operated with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) results in less operative trauma. We investigated changes in leg-extension power (LEP) in the first month after MIS Oxford UKA and its relation to pain, knee motion, functional performance, and knee function. Patients and methods In 35 consecutive Oxford UKA patients, LEP was measured 1 week before and 1 month after surgery together with knee motion, knee swelling, the 30-second chair-stand test, and Oxford knee score. Assessment of knee pain at rest and walking was done using a visual analog scale. Results 30 patients were discharged on the day after surgery, and 5 on the second day after surgery. LEP and functional performance reached the preoperative level after 1 month. Only slight postoperative knee swelling was observed with rapid restoration of knee flexion and function. A high level of pain during the first postoperative night and day fell considerably thereafter. None of the patients needed physiotherapy supervision in the first month after discharge. Interpretation Fast-track MIS Oxford UKA with discharge on the day after surgery is safe and leads to early recovery of knee motion and strength even when no physiotherapy is used. PMID:22313368

  13. A fast track influenza virus vaccine produced in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Manon M J; Hashimoto, Yoshifumi

    2011-07-01

    The viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA) has been recognized as a key antigen in the host response to influenza virus in both natural infection and vaccination because neutralizing antibodies directed against HA can mitigate or prevent infection. The baculovirus-insect cell system can be used for the production of recombinant HA molecules and is suitable for influenza vaccine production where annual adjustment of the vaccine is required. This expression system is generally considered safe with minimal potential for growth of human pathogens. Extensive characterization of this novel cell substrate has been performed, none of which has revealed the presence of adventitious agents. Multiple clinical studies have demonstrated that the vaccine is safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic. The baculovirus-insect cell system could, therefore, be used for the expedited production of a safe and efficacious influenza vaccine. As a result, this technology should provide a fast track worldwide solution for newly emerging influenza strains or pandemic preparedness within a few years. PMID:21784229

  14. Resource efficient hardware architecture for fast computation of running max/min filters.

    PubMed

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Running max/min filters on rectangular kernels are widely used in many digital signal and image processing applications. Filtering with a k × k kernel requires of k(2) - 1 comparisons per sample for a direct implementation; thus, performance scales expensively with the kernel size k. Faster computations can be achieved by kernel decomposition and using constant time one-dimensional algorithms on custom hardware. This paper presents a hardware architecture for real-time computation of running max/min filters based on the van Herk/Gil-Werman (HGW) algorithm. The proposed architecture design uses less computation and memory resources than previously reported architectures when targeted to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Implementation results show that the architecture is able to compute max/min filters, on 1024 × 1024 images with up to 255 × 255 kernels, in around 8.4 milliseconds, 120 frames per second, at a clock frequency of 250 MHz. The implementation is highly scalable for the kernel size with good performance/area tradeoff suitable for embedded applications. The applicability of the architecture is shown for local adaptive image thresholding. PMID:24288456

  15. Real-time object tracking based on scale-invariant features employing bio-inspired hardware.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Shinsuke; Okuno, Hirotsugu; Ishii, Kazuo; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    We developed a vision sensor system that performs a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) in real time. To apply the SIFT algorithm efficiently, we focus on a two-fold process performed by the visual system: whole-image parallel filtering and frequency-band parallel processing. The vision sensor system comprises an active pixel sensor, a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS)-based resistive network, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and a digital computer. We employed the MOS-based resistive network for instantaneous spatial filtering and a configurable filter size. The FPGA is used to pipeline process the frequency-band signals. The proposed system was evaluated by tracking the feature points detected on an object in a video. PMID:27268260

  16. Minimal hardware Bluetooth tracking for long-term at-home elder supervision.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Damian; McLoone, Sean; Farrell, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically detect the location of an elder within their own home is a significant enabler of remote elder supervision and interaction applications. This location information is typically generated via a myriad of sensors throughout the home environment. Even with high sensor redundancy, there are still situations where traditional elder monitoring systems are unable to resolve the location of the elder. This work develops a minimal infrastructure radio-frequency localisation system for long-term elder location tracking. An RFID room-labelling technique is employed and with it, the localisation system developed in this work is shown to exhibit superior performance to more traditional localisation systems in realistic long-term deployments.

  17. Minimal hardware Bluetooth tracking for long-term at-home elder supervision.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Damian; McLoone, Sean; Farrell, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically detect the location of an elder within their own home is a significant enabler of remote elder supervision and interaction applications. This location information is typically generated via a myriad of sensors throughout the home environment. Even with high sensor redundancy, there are still situations where traditional elder monitoring systems are unable to resolve the location of the elder. This work develops a minimal infrastructure radio-frequency localisation system for long-term elder location tracking. An RFID room-labelling technique is employed and with it, the localisation system developed in this work is shown to exhibit superior performance to more traditional localisation systems in realistic long-term deployments. PMID:21096578

  18. A fast assistant decision-making system on the emergent maneuver of the tracking ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiong; Xue, G. H.; Ni, X. Q.

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a fast assistant decision-making system on the emergent maneuver of the tracking ship, adopting the design method of the emergent working state of the tracking ship based on the meteorological prediction, the virtual display technology based on the multi-stage mapping, and the 2-dimension area algorithm based on the line-scanning. It solves problems that the tracking ship met during working, such as the long TT&C time, the dense crucial observation arc, the complicated working flow, and the changeful scheme. It established the hard basement for the fast design of the emergency working state when the tracking ship in the awful sea conditions.

  19. Fast polarization-state tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanfu; Cao, Guoliang; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Yao, Yong; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2015-07-27

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fast polarization tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter. It has the advantages of fast convergence and is inherently insensitive to phase noise and frequency offset effects. The scheme is experimentally compared to conventional polarization tracking methods on the polarization rotation angular frequency. The results show that better tracking capability with more than one order of magnitude improvement is obtained in the cases of polarization multiplexed QPSK and 16QAM signals. The influences of the filter tuning parameters on tracking performance are also investigated in detail.

  20. 42 CFR 422.626 - Fast-track appeals of service terminations to independent review entities (IREs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fast-track appeals of service terminations to... Grievances, Organization Determinations and Appeals § 422.626 Fast-track appeals of service terminations to independent review entities (IREs). (a) Enrollee's right to a fast-track appeal of an MA...

  1. 42 CFR 422.626 - Fast-track appeals of service terminations to independent review entities (IREs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fast-track appeals of service terminations to... ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances, Organization Determinations and Appeals § 422.626 Fast-track appeals of service terminations to independent review entities (IREs). (a) Enrollee's right to a fast-track appeal...

  2. Repositioning: the fast track to new anti-malarial medicines?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repositioning of existing drugs has been suggested as a fast track for developing new anti-malarial agents. The compound libraries of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Pfizer and AstraZeneca (AZ) comprising drugs that have undergone clinical studies in other therapeutic areas, but not achieved approval, and a set of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and other bio-actives were tested against Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. Methods Molecules were tested initially against erythrocytic co-cultures of P. falciparum to measure proliferation inhibition using one of the following methods: SYBR®I dye DNA staining assay (3D7, K1 or NF54 strains); [3H] hypoxanthine radioisotope incorporation assay (3D7 and 3D7A strain); or 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) DNA imaging assay (3D7 and Dd2 strains). After review of the available clinical pharmacokinetic and safety data, selected compounds with low μM activity and a suitable clinical profile were tested in vivo either in a Plasmodium berghei four-day test or in the P. falciparum Pf3D70087/N9 huSCID ‘humanized’ mouse model. Results Of the compounds included in the GSK and Pfizer sets, 3.8% (9/238) had relevant in vitro anti-malarial activity while 6/100 compounds from the AZ candidate drug library were active. In comparison, around 0.6% (24/3,800) of the FDA-approved drugs and other bio-actives were active. After evaluation of available clinical data, four investigational drugs, active in vitro were tested in the P. falciparum humanized mouse model: UK-112,214 (PAF-H1 inhibitor), CEP-701 (protein kinase inhibitor), CEP-1347 (protein kinase inhibitor), and PSC-833 (p-glycoprotein inhibitor). Only UK-112,214 showed significant efficacy against P. falciparum in vivo, although at high doses (ED90 131.3 mg/kg [95% CI 112.3, 156.7]), and parasitaemia was still present 96 hours after treatment commencement. Of the six actives from the AZ library, two compounds (AZ-1 and AZ-3) were marginally

  3. 77 FR 1697 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Fast Track Generic Clearance for the Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Fast Track Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery: IHS Web Site Customer... on Agency Service Delivery: IHS Web site Customer Service Satisfaction Survey. Abstract:...

  4. Fast String Search on Multicore Processors: Mapping fundamental algorithms onto parallel hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpazza, Daniele P.; Villa, Oreste; Petrini, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    String searching is one of these basic algorithms. It has a host of applications, including search engines, network intrusion detection, virus scanners, spam filters, and DNA analysis, among others. The Cell processor, with its multiple cores, promises to speed-up string searching a lot. In this article, we show how we mapped string searching efficiently on the Cell. We present two implementations: • The fast implementation supports a small dictionary size (approximately 100 patterns) and provides a throughput of 40 Gbps, which is 100 times faster than reference implementations on x86 architectures. • The heavy-duty implementation is slower (3.3-4.3 Gbps), but supports dictionaries with tens of thousands of strings.

  5. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  6. Note: Fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S.

    2015-03-15

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed.

  7. Note: fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, S

    2015-03-01

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed.

  8. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199

  9. New method for fast detection of railway track smoothness by fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lixin; Liang, Lei; Hu, Wenbin

    2000-05-01

    In this article, the conducting schemes for fiber optic gyro (FOG) used int he fast detecting of the smoothness of rail track has been proposed from the practical use point of view. The relevant approximate method of calculating has been given. The experiments in lab have been carried out, and the factors to influence the detecting precision of the smoothness of rail track such as the precision of FOG have been analyzed.

  10. Tracking Changing Environments: Innovators Are Fast, but Not Flexible Learners

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Andrea S.; Guez, David; Lermite, Françoise; Patience, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural innovations are increasingly thought to provide a rich source of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. Innovation propensity shows substantial variation across avian taxa and provides an adaptive mechanism by which behaviour is flexibly adjusted to changing environmental conditions. Here, we tested for the first time the prediction that inter-individual variation in innovation propensity is equally a measure of behavioural flexibility. We used Indian mynas, Sturnus tristis, a highly successful worldwide invader. Results revealed that mynas that solved an extractive foraging task more quickly learnt to discriminate between a cue that predicted food, and one that did not more quickly. However, fast innovators were slower to change their behaviour when the significance of the food cues changed. This unexpected finding appears at odds with the well-established view that avian taxa with larger brains relative to their body size, and therefore greater neural processing power, are both faster, and more flexible learners. We speculate that the existence of this relationship across taxa can be reconciled with its absence within species by assuming that fast, innovative learners and non innovative, slow, flexible learners constitute two separate individual strategies, which are both underpinned by enhanced neural processing power. This idea is consistent with the recent proposal that individuals may differ consistently in ‘cognitive style’, differentially trading off speed against accuracy in cognitive tasks. PMID:24391981

  11. Fast tracking based on local histogram of oriented gradient and dual detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huan; Kai; Cheng, Fei; Ding, Wenwen; Zhang, Baijian

    2016-05-01

    Visual tracking is important in computer vision. At present, although many algorithms of visual tracking have been proposed, there are still many problems which are needed to be solved, such as occlusion and frame speed. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel method which based on compressive tracking. Firstly, we make sure the occlusion happens if the testing result about image features by the classifiers is lower than a threshold value which is certain. Secondly, we mark the occluded image and record the occlusion region. In the next frame, we test both the classifier and the marked image. This algorithm makes sure the tracking is fast, and the result about solving occlusion is much better than other algorithms, especially compressive tracking.

  12. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per R

    2014-12-01

    Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising and clinically emerging treatment modality for radiotherapy of mobile tumours. Still, new quality assurance (QA) methods are warranted to safely introduce MLC tracking in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to create and experimentally validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets.MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder system. A three-axis motion stage reproduced eight representative tumour trajectories; four lung and four prostate. Low and high modulation 6 MV single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans were delivered for each trajectory with and without MLC tracking, as well as without motion for reference. Temporally resolved doses were measured during all treatments using a biplanar dosimeter. Offline, the dose delivered to each of 1069 diodes in the dosimeter was reconstructed with 500 ms temporal resolution by a motion-including pencil beam convolution algorithm developed in-house. The accuracy of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified. Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of-0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3 mm γ failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295 ms. The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose and is adequately fast to be feasible for online use. An online implementation could allow treatment intervention in case of erroneous dose delivery in both

  13. Fast Flux Test Facility Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS, J.A.

    1999-04-13

    Procedure Number HNF-PRO-408, revision 0, paragraph 1.0, ''Purpose,'' and paragraph 2.0, ''Requirements for Facility Management of Asbestos,'' relate building inspection and requirements for documentation of existing asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) per each building assessment. This documentation shall be available to all personnel (including contractor personnel) entering the facility at their request. Corrective action was required by 400 Area Integrated Annual Appraisal/Audit for Fiscal Year 1992 (IAA-92-0007) to provide this notification documentation. No formal method had been developed to communicate the location and nature of ACBM to maintenance personnel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) 400 Area. The scope of this Data Package Document is to locate and evaluate any ACBM found at FFTF which constitutes a baseline. This includes all buildings within the protected area. These findings are compiled from earlier reports, numerous work packages and engineering evaluations of employee findings.

  14. Fast track-finding processor based on RAM look-up table for the VENUS detector at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsugi, T.; Chiba, Y.; Hayashibara, I.; Taketani, A.; Yasuishi, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Uehara, S.

    1988-06-01

    We have developed a fast track-finding processor using signals from the central tracking chamber of the VENUS detector in the TRISTAN experiments. Particle tracks are recognized by a look-up table made with a high-speed static RAM. This method enables us to implement the track finder in the first level triggering. The track finder has been working excellently under heavy background due to synchrotron radiation. A processing time of 110 ns is attained.

  15. Fast Track Initiative: Building a Global Compact for Education. Education Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Network Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education. "Fast Track Initiative" ("FTI") was launched in 2002 as a partnership between donor and developing countries to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. "FTI" is built on…

  16. New Medical-School Programs Put Students on a Fast Track to the White Coat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    California's lieutenant governor has proposed a fast-track medical school that would shave three years off the training needed to become a physician. It is not the first time such an idea has been offered. The proposal, for a hoped-for medical school at the University of California at Merced, struck some medical educators as both unrealistic and…

  17. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder across Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social…

  18. Research on shaftless fast-steering mirror used in a precision tracking-aiming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianmin; Yin, Hongyan; Wang, Yonghui; Guo, Jin

    2007-12-01

    Based on the analysis of principle of tracking and aiming system, some important factors to design the structure of tracking-aiming system and the layout of optical system are discussed. Besides, the paper gives the present developing situation of fast-steering mirror at home and abroad, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of FSM with axis, and presents a novel design of flexible axis FSM. The main axis of composite axis system is tracked by motor to drive the frame, and the sub-axis is tracked by voice coil motor (VCM) to drive FSM. The structure of FSM and designing principle of VCM are introduced, and the emulation analyses of inherent frequency and deformation under load of the FSM with software COSMOS are also given.

  19. Unbounded Binary Search for a Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a technique for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a concentrating photovoltaic system using cell level power optimization. Perturb and observe (P&O) has been a standard for an MPPT, but it introduces a tradeoff between the tacking speed and the accuracy of the maximum power delivered. The P&O algorithm is not suitable for a rapid environmental condition change by partial shading and self-shading due to its tracking time being linear to the length of the voltage range. Some of researches have been worked on fast tracking but they come with internal ad hoc parameters. In this paper, by using the proposed unbounded binary search algorithm for the MPPT, tracking time becomes a logarithmic function of the voltage search range without ad hoc parameters.

  20. Fast randomized Hough transformation track initiation algorithm based on multi-scale clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian; Qian, Weixian; Wang, Pengcheng

    2015-10-01

    A fast randomized Hough transformation track initiation algorithm based on multi-scale clustering is proposed to overcome existing problems in traditional infrared search and track system(IRST) which cannot provide movement information of the initial target and select the threshold value of correlation automatically by a two-dimensional track association algorithm based on bearing-only information . Movements of all the targets are presumed to be uniform rectilinear motion throughout this new algorithm. Concepts of space random sampling, parameter space dynamic linking table and convergent mapping of image to parameter space are developed on the basis of fast randomized Hough transformation. Considering the phenomenon of peak value clustering due to shortcomings of peak detection itself which is built on threshold value method, accuracy can only be ensured on condition that parameter space has an obvious peak value. A multi-scale idea is added to the above-mentioned algorithm. Firstly, a primary association is conducted to select several alternative tracks by a low-threshold .Then, alternative tracks are processed by multi-scale clustering methods , through which accurate numbers and parameters of tracks are figured out automatically by means of transforming scale parameters. The first three frames are processed by this algorithm in order to get the first three targets of the track , and then two slightly different gate radius are worked out , mean value of which is used to be the global threshold value of correlation. Moreover, a new model for curvilinear equation correction is applied to the above-mentioned track initiation algorithm for purpose of solving the problem of shape distortion when a space three-dimensional curve is mapped to a two-dimensional bearing-only space. Using sideways-flying, launch and landing as examples to build models and simulate, the application of the proposed approach in simulation proves its effectiveness , accuracy , and adaptivity

  1. Fast non-iterative calibration of an external motion tracking device

    PubMed Central

    Zahneisen, Benjamin; Lovell-Smith, Chris; Herbst, Michael; Zaitsev, Maxim; Speck, Oliver; Armstrong, Brian; Ernst, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prospective motion correction of MR scans commonly uses an external device, such as a camera, to track the pose of the organ of interest. However, in order for external tracking data to be translated into the MR scanner reference frame, the pose of the camera relative to the MR scanner must be known accurately. Here, we describe a fast, accurate, non-iterative technique to determine the position of an external tracking device de novo relative to the MR reference frame. Theory and Methods The method relies on imaging a sparse object that allows simultaneous tracking of arbitrary rigid body transformations in the reference frame of the MRI machine and that of the external tracking device. Results Large motions in the MRI reference frame can be measured using a sparse phantom with an accuracy of 0.2 mm, or approximately 1/10 of the voxel size. By using a dual quaternion algorithm to solve the calibration problem, a good camera calibration can be achieved with fewer than 6 measurements. Further refinements can be achieved by applying the method iteratively and using motion correction feedback. Conclusion Independent tracking of a series of movements in two reference frames allows for an analytical solution to the hand-eye-calibration problem for various motion tracking setups in MRI. PMID:23788117

  2. Internal model control of a fast steering mirror for electro-optical fine tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yun-xia; Bao, Qi-liang; Wu, Qiong-yan

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop advanced control methods to improve the bandwidth and tracking precision of the electro-optical fine tracking system using a fast steering mirror (FSM). FSM is the most important part in this control system. The model of FSM is established at the beginning of this paper. Compared with the electro-optical fine tracking system with ground based platform, the electro-optical fine tracking system with movement based platform must be a wide bandwidth and a robustness system. An advanced control method based on internal model control law is developed for electro-optical fine tracking system. The IMC is an advanced algorithm. Theoretically, it can eliminate disturbance completely and make sure output equals to input even there is model error. Moreover, it separates process to the system dynamic characteristic and the object perturbation. Compared with the PID controller, the controller is simpler and the parameter regulation is more convenient and the system is more robust. In addition, we design an improved structure based on classic IMC. The tracking error of the two-port control system is much better than which of the classic IMC. The simulation results indicate that the electro-optical control system based on the internal model control algorithm is very effective. It shows a better performance at the tracing precision and the disturbance suppresses. Thus a new method is provided for the high-performance electro-optical fine tracking system.

  3. Preventing Serious Conduct Problems in School-Age Youths: The Fast Track Program

    PubMed Central

    Slough, Nancy M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Foster, E. Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2009-01-01

    Children with early-starting conduct Problems have a very poor prognosis and exact a high cost to society. The Fast Track project is a multisite, collaborative research project investigating the efficacy of a comprehensive, long-term, multicomponent intervention designed to prevent the development of serious conduct problems in high-risk children. In this article, we (a) provide an overview of the development model that serves as the conceptual foundation for the Fast Track intervention and describe its integration into the intervention model; (b) outline the research design and intervention model, with an emphasis on the elementary school phase of the intervention; and (c) summarize findings to dale concerning intervention outcomes. We then provide a case illustration, and conclude with a discussion of guidelines for practitioners who work with children with conduct problems. PMID:19890487

  4. Fast left ventricle tracking in CMR images using localized anatomical affine optical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queirós, Sandro; Vilaça, João. L.; Morais, Pedro; Fonseca, Jaime C.; D'hooge, Jan; Barbosa, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In daily cardiology practice, assessment of left ventricular (LV) global function using non-invasive imaging remains central for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Despite the different methodologies currently accessible for LV segmentation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images, a fast and complete LV delineation is still limitedly available for routine use. In this study, a localized anatomically constrained affine optical flow method is proposed for fast and automatic LV tracking throughout the full cardiac cycle in short-axis CMR images. Starting from an automatically delineated LV in the end-diastolic frame, the endocardial and epicardial boundaries are propagated by estimating the motion between adjacent cardiac phases using optical flow. In order to reduce the computational burden, the motion is only estimated in an anatomical region of interest around the tracked boundaries and subsequently integrated into a local affine motion model. Such localized estimation enables to capture complex motion patterns, while still being spatially consistent. The method was validated on 45 CMR datasets taken from the 2009 MICCAI LV segmentation challenge. The proposed approach proved to be robust and efficient, with an average distance error of 2.1 mm and a correlation with reference ejection fraction of 0.98 (1.9 +/- 4.5%). Moreover, it showed to be fast, taking 5 seconds for the tracking of a full 4D dataset (30 ms per image). Overall, a novel fast, robust and accurate LV tracking methodology was proposed, enabling accurate assessment of relevant global function cardiac indices, such as volumes and ejection fraction

  5. A fast track path improves access to palliative care for people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Whitington, Jane; Ma, Peng

    People with learning disabilities often experience inequalities in accessing general health services. This group, their families and carers need access to effective palliative care when facing a life limiting illness. This article describes the development and implementation of a fast track referral pathway for people with learning disabilities at St Francis Hospice in Essex. Our aim is to share this pathway so others can replicate the collaborative working to improve access to palliative care services for this group. PMID:20514883

  6. FAST: A fully asynchronous and status-tracking pattern for geoprocessing services orchestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayi; You, Lan; Gui, Zhipeng; Gao, Shuang; Li, Zhenqiang; Yu, Jingmin

    2014-09-01

    Geoprocessing service orchestration (GSO) provides a unified and flexible way to implement cross-application, long-lived, and multi-step geoprocessing service workflows by coordinating geoprocessing services collaboratively. Usually, geoprocessing services and geoprocessing service workflows are data and/or computing intensive. The intensity feature may make the execution process of a workflow time-consuming. Since it initials an execution request without blocking other interactions on the client side, an asynchronous mechanism is especially appropriate for GSO workflows. Many critical problems remain to be solved in existing asynchronous patterns for GSO including difficulties in improving performance, status tracking, and clarifying the workflow structure. These problems are a challenge when orchestrating performance efficiency, making statuses instantly available, and constructing clearly structured GSO workflows. A Fully Asynchronous and Status-Tracking (FAST) pattern that adopts asynchronous interactions throughout the whole communication tier of a workflow is proposed for GSO. The proposed FAST pattern includes a mechanism that actively pushes the latest status to clients instantly and economically. An independent proxy was designed to isolate the status tracking logic from the geoprocessing business logic, which assists the formation of a clear GSO workflow structure. A workflow was implemented in the FAST pattern to simulate the flooding process in the Poyang Lake region. Experimental results show that the proposed FAST pattern can efficiently tackle data/computing intensive geoprocessing tasks. The performance of all collaborative partners was improved due to the asynchronous mechanism throughout communication tier. A status-tracking mechanism helps users retrieve the latest running status of a GSO workflow in an efficient and instant way. The clear structure of the GSO workflow lowers the barriers for geospatial domain experts and model designers to

  7. Nurse initiated thrombolysis in the accident and emergency department: safe, accurate, and faster than fast track

    PubMed Central

    Heath, S; Bain, R; Andrews, A; Chida, S; Kitchen, S; Walters, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the time between arrival at hospital of a patient with acute myocardial infarction and administration of thrombolytic therapy (door to needle time) by the introduction of nurse initiated thrombolysis in the accident and emergency department. Methods: Two acute chest pain nurse specialists (ACPNS) based in A&E for 62.5 hours of the week were responsible for initiating thrombolysis in the A&E department. The service reverts to a "fast track" system outside of these hours, with the on call medical team prescribing thrombolysis on the coronary care unit. Prospectively gathered data were analysed for a nine month period and a head to head comparison made between the mean and median door to needle times for both systems of thrombolysis delivery. Results: Data from 91 patients were analysed; 43 (47%) were thrombolysed in A&E by the ACPNS and 48 (53%) were thrombolysed in the coronary care unit by the on call medical team. The ACPNS achieved a median door to needle time of 23 minutes (IQR=17 to 32) compared with 56 minutes (IQR=34 to 79.5) for the fast track. The proportion of patients thrombolysed in 30 minutes by the ACPNS and fast track system was 72% (31 of 43) and 21% (10 of 48) respectively (difference=51%, 95% confidence intervals 34% to 69%, p<0.05). Conclusion: Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and administration of thrombolysis by experienced cardiology nurses in A&E is a safe and effective strategy for reducing door to needle times, even when compared with a conventional fast track system. PMID:12954678

  8. A Comparison of "Reading Mastery Fast Cycle" and "Horizons Fast Track A-B" on the Reading Achievement of Students with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy L.; Gibbs, Susan L.; Campbell, Monica L.; Shalvis, Shawnna L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the reading gains of students with mild disabilities who were taught with one of two programs: "Horizons Fast Track A-B" (Engelmann, Engelmann, & Seitz-Davis, 1997) or "Reading Mastery Fast Cycle" (Engelmann & Bruner, 1995). A quasi-experimental design with preexisting groups was used to examine changes from pretest to…

  9. [Dosimetry of fast neutrons in 1W nuclear reactor with plastic nuclear-track detectors].

    PubMed

    Yasubuchi, S; Hoshi, M; Itoh, T; Hisanaga, S; Niwa, T; Miki, R; Kondo, S

    1989-09-01

    A nuclear reactor at Kinki University is operated at the maximum of 1W. It produces fission neutrons as much as gamma-rays. To facilitate its use for neutron radiobiology, fast neutrons inside the reactor were measured with nuclear-track detectors TS 16 N and a pair of ion chambers. The angular dependence of TS 16 N response, an anisotropy of fast neutron fluxes in the reactor and misuse of the kerma factor assumed for radiation protection business are the major causes of discrepancy is measured doses by the two methods. Correction factors for the three causes are proposed. After correction, neutron doses estimated with TS 16 N and chambers agree within 5%. The dose-rate at the reactor's center is about 20 tissue-cGy/h. This is the first in situ dosimetry of fast neutrons in a reactor with track detectors attached to biologic samples. Our routine usage has demonstrated that, if used with caution, TS 16 N elements are handy, reliable monitors for fast neutron dosimetry as they are insensitive to contaminated gamma-rays and small enough to be attached to biologic samples.

  10. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods. PMID:22838731

  11. A video demonstration of the Li's anastomosis-the key part of the "non-tube no fasting" fast track program for resectable esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yin; Wang, Zongfei; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixiang

    2015-07-01

    The main obstacle of fast track surgery for esophagectomy is early oral feeding. The main concern of early oral feeding is the possibility of increasing the incidence of anastomotic leakage. Dr. Yin Li used the Li's anastomosis to ensure oral feeding at will the first day after esophagectomy. This safe and efficient anastomosis method significantly reduced the anastomotic leak rate, the number of post-operative days and stricture. Importantly, the "non-tube no fasting" fast track program for esophageal cancer patients was conducted smoothly with Li's anastomosis. This article was focused on the surgical procedure of Li's anastomosis.

  12. Fast interactive elastic registration of 12-bit multi-spectral images with subvoxel accuracy using display hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2007-03-01

    Multi-spectral images of human tissue taken in-vivo often contain image alignment problems as patients have difficulty in retaining their posture during the acquisition time of 20 seconds. Previously, it has been attempted to correct motion errors with image registration software developed for MR or CT data but these algorithms have been proven to be too slow and erroneous for practical use with multi-spectral images. A new software package has been developed which allows the user to play a decisive role in the registration process as the user can monitor the progress of the registration continuously and force it in the right direction when it starts to fail. The software efficiently exploits videocard hardware to gain speed and to provide a perfect subvoxel correspondence between registration field and display. An 8 bit graphic card was used to efficiently register and resample 12 bit images using the hardware interpolation modes present on the graphic card. To show the feasibility of this new registration process, the software was applied in clinical practice evaluating the dosimetry for psoriasis and KTP laser treatment. The microscopic differences between images of normal skin and skin exposed to UV light proved that an affine registration step including zooming and slanting is critical for a subsequent elastic match to have success. The combination of user interactive registration software with optimal addressing the potentials of PC video card hardware greatly improves the speed of multi spectral image registration.

  13. Fast track in colo-rectal surgery. Preliminary experience in a rural hospital

    PubMed Central

    FRONTERA, D.; ARENA, L.; CORSALE, I.; FRANCIOLI, N.; MAMMOLITI, F.; BUCCIANELLI, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background “Fast Track surgery” is a therapeutic program of large application, despite some doubts about its applicability and real validity. Literature review shows that this approach to colo-rectal surgery, particularly video-assisted, can allow a rapid recovery, better performance and a faster postoperative functional autonomy of the work, which can be discharged without cause additional welfare costs; in addition it can be reproducible in different health reality. Purpose To analyze the possibility to apply the Fast Truck protocol in patients undergoing colorectal surgery in a rural hospital and non specialistic Unit of Surgery. Patients and methods We have conducted a prospective, randomized study on 80 patients subjected to colorectal surgery in the last year. Results The protocol was observed in 95% of cases, compliance with the Fast Track was high and general morbidity was limited (7.8%). Conclusion This “aggressive” approach, which has fundamentally altered the usual surgical behavior, seems to allow a mean length of stay significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.05) with positive implications for patients and containment of health care costs, even after discharge (no need for home care in 92% of cases, no early re-admittance to the hospital). Homogeneous protocols are desirable, as well as an increased enrollment, to consolidate these rehabilitation programs in order to provide a reference for all hospitals. PMID:25644732

  14. Infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on fast wavelet image focusing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2009-08-01

    We studied the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the fast wavelet image focusing and tracking. Here we uses the image of the uncooled infrared imager mounted on the two axis gimbal system and the developed new auto focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform. The developed new focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform processes the result of the high pass filter effect to meet the direct detection of the objects. This new focusing gives us the distance information of the outside world smoothly, and the information of the gimbal system gives us the direction of objects in the outside world to match the sense of the spherical coordinate system. We installed this system on the hand made electric ground vehicle platform powered by 24VDC battery. The electric vehicle equips the rotary encoder units and the inertia rate sensor units to make the correct navigation process. The image tracking also uses the developed newt wavelet focusing within several image processing. The size of the hand made electric ground vehicle platform is about 1m long, 0.75m wide, 1m high, and 50kg weight. We tested the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking using the electric vehicle indoor and outdoor. The test shows the good results by the developed infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking.

  15. Atom ejection from a fast-ion track: A molecular-dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Urbassek, H.M. ); Kafemann, H. ); Johnson, R.E. )

    1994-01-01

    As a model for atom ejection from fast-ion tracks, molecular-dynamics simulations of a cylindrical track of energized particles are performed. An idealized situation is studied where every atom in a cylindrical track of radius [ital R][sub 0] is energized with energy [ital E][sub 0]. The emission yield [ital Y]([ital E][sub 0],[ital R][sub 0]) shows the existence of two ejection regimes. If the particle energy [ital E][sub 0] is below the sublimation energy [ital U] of the material, a threshold regime is seen in which [ital Y] rises roughly like the third power of [ital E][sub 0]; for high-energy densities [ital E][sub 0][approx gt][ital U], the yield rises much more slowly, roughly linearly. In both cases, ejected particles mostly originate from the track, rather than from its surroundings, and from the first or the first few monolayers. The behavior found is interpreted here in terms of emission due to a pressure-driven jet (linear regime) or due to a pressure pulse (threshold regime). These both behave differently from the often-used thermal-spike sputtering model.

  16. Morbidity and mortality after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty in a fast-track setting

    PubMed Central

    Gromov, Kirill; Troelsen, Anders; Stahl Otte, Kristian; Ørsnes, Thue; Husted, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose The safety aspects of bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (BSTKA) are still debated. In this retrospective single-center study, we investigated early morbidity and mortality following BSTKA in a modern fast-track setting. We also identified risk factors for re-admission within 90 days and for a length of stay (LOS) of more than 5 days. Patients and methods 284 patients were selected to receive BSTKA at our institution from 2008 through 2014 in a well-described, standardized fast-track setup (Husted 2012a, b). All re-admissions within 90 days were identified and mortality rates and time until death were recorded. Transfusion rates and numbers of transfusions were also recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for re-admission within 90 days, and also for a LOS of more than 5 days. Results 90-day mortality was 0%. 10% of the patients were re-admitted within 90 days. Median time to re-admission was 18 (3–75) days. 153 patients (54%) received postoperative blood transfusions. An ASA score of 3 was identified as an independent risk factor for re-admission within 90 days (OR = 5, 95% CI: 1.3–19) and for LOS of > 5 days (OR = 6, 95% CI: 1.6–21). Higher BMI was a weak risk factor for re-admission within 90 days. Interpretation BSTKA in selected patients without cardiopulmonary disease in a fast-track setting appears to be safe with respect to early postoperative morbidity and mortality. Surgeons should be aware that patients with an ASA score of 3 have an increased risk of re-admission and a prolonged length of stay, while patients with higher BMI have an increased risk of re-admission following BSTKA. PMID:26823094

  17. "Fast-Tracking": Ain't No Golden Parachute So Don't Slide off the Rainbow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburger, Craig; Butler, Jerry

    Awareness of the corporate cultural phenomenon of fast-tracking, a process whereby executives are advanced within and among organizations, should assist communication students and practicing professionals to become more effective corporate communicators. A critical distinction between self-directed fast-trackers and their corporately-sanctioned…

  18. A steady tracking technology adopted to fast FH/BPSK signal under satellite channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, SuLi; Lou, Zhigang; Wang, XiDuo; Xia, ShuangZhi

    2015-07-01

    In order to survive under the conditions with great jamming and interference, fast frequency hopped signal are employed in satellite communication system. This paper discusses the nonlinear phases induced by the equipment and atmosphere, and their influence on the FFH/BPSK tracking loop. Two methods are developed including compensating phase which is based on channel estimation and compensating Doppler frequency based on velocity normalization. Simulation results for a real circuit with proper parameters shows that the degradation due to the demodulation of frequency-hopped is only a fraction of one dB in an AWGN environment under satellite channel.

  19. Performing track reconstruction at the ALICE TPC using a fast Hough Transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos S.; Hristov, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The Hough Transform algorithm is a popular image analysis method that is widely used to perform global pattern recognition in images through the identification of local patterns in a suitably chosen parameter space. The algorithm can also be used to perform track reconstruction; to estimate the trajectory of individual particles when passed through the active elements of a detector volume. This paper presents a fast reconstruction method for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE experiment at LHC. The method, that combines a linear Hough Transform algorithm with a fast filling of the Hough Transform parameter space, is developed within AliceO2, the new computing framework of ALICE for RUN3.

  20. Fast track anesthesia for liver transplantation: Review of the current practice

    PubMed Central

    Aniskevich, Stephen; Pai, Sher-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Historically, patients undergoing liver transplantation were left intubated and extubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) after a period of recovery. Proponents of this practice argued that these patients were critically ill and need time to be properly optimized from a physiological and pain standpoint prior to extubation. Recently, there has been a growing movement toward early extubation in transplant centers worldwide. Initially fueled by research into early extubation following cardiac surgery, extubation in the operating room or soon after arrival to the ICU, has been shown to be safe with proper patient selection. Additionally, as experience at determining appropriate candidates has improved, some institutions have developed systems to allow select patients to bypass the ICU entirely and be admitted to the surgical ward after transplant. We discuss the history of early extubation and the arguments in favor and against fast track anesthesia. We also described our practice of fast track anesthesia at Mayo Clinic Florida, in which, we extubate approximately 60% of our patients in the operating room and send them to the surgical ward after a period of time in the post anesthesia recovery unit. PMID:26380654

  1. Fast-track program in laparoscopic liver surgery: Theory or fact?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Belinda; Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; Suárez-Muñoz, Miguel Angel; elAdel-delFresno, Moises; Fernández-Aguilar, José Luis; Pérez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze our results after the introduction of a fast-track (FT) program after laparoscopic liver surgery in our Hepatobiliarypancreatic Unit. METHODS: All patients (43) undergoing laparoscopic liver surgery between March 2004 and March 2010 were included and divided into two consecutive groups: Control group (CG) from March 2004 until December 2006 with traditional perioperative cares (17 patients) and fast-track group (FTG) from January 2007 until March 2010 with FT program cares (26 patients). Primary endpoint was the influence of the program on the postoperative stay, the amount of re-admissions, morbidity and mortality. Secondarily we considered duration of surgery, use of drains, conversion to open surgery, intensive cares needs and transfusion. RESULTS: Both groups were homogeneous in age and sex. No differences in technique, time of surgery or conversion to open surgery were found, but more malignant diseases were operated in the FTG, and then transfusions were higher in FTG. Readmissions and morbidity were similar in both groups, without mortality. Postoperative stay was similar, with a median of 3 for CG vs 2.5 for FTG. However, the 80.8% of patients from FTG left the hospital within the first 3 d after surgery (58.8% for CG). CONCLUSION: The introduction of a FT program after laparoscopic liver surgery improves the recovery of patients without increasing complications or re-admissions, which leads to a reduction of the stay and costs. PMID:23493957

  2. Real-Time Robust Tracking for Motion Blur and Fast Motion via Correlation Filters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyun; Luo, Haibo; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Visual tracking has extensive applications in intelligent monitoring and guidance systems. Among state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, Correlation Filter methods perform favorably in robustness, accuracy and speed. However, it also has shortcomings when dealing with pervasive target scale variation, motion blur and fast motion. In this paper we proposed a new real-time robust scheme based on Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) to significantly improve performance on motion blur and fast motion. By fusing KCF and STC trackers, our algorithm also solve the estimation of scale variation in many scenarios. We theoretically analyze the problem for CFs towards motions and utilize the point sharpness function of the target patch to evaluate the motion state of target. Then we set up an efficient scheme to handle the motion and scale variation without much time consuming. Our algorithm preserves the properties of KCF besides the ability to handle special scenarios. In the end extensive experimental results on benchmark of VOT datasets show our algorithm performs advantageously competed with the top-rank trackers. PMID:27618046

  3. Real-Time Robust Tracking for Motion Blur and Fast Motion via Correlation Filters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyun; Luo, Haibo; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Visual tracking has extensive applications in intelligent monitoring and guidance systems. Among state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, Correlation Filter methods perform favorably in robustness, accuracy and speed. However, it also has shortcomings when dealing with pervasive target scale variation, motion blur and fast motion. In this paper we proposed a new real-time robust scheme based on Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) to significantly improve performance on motion blur and fast motion. By fusing KCF and STC trackers, our algorithm also solve the estimation of scale variation in many scenarios. We theoretically analyze the problem for CFs towards motions and utilize the point sharpness function of the target patch to evaluate the motion state of target. Then we set up an efficient scheme to handle the motion and scale variation without much time consuming. Our algorithm preserves the properties of KCF besides the ability to handle special scenarios. In the end extensive experimental results on benchmark of VOT datasets show our algorithm performs advantageously competed with the top-rank trackers. PMID:27618046

  4. A new fast scanning system for the measurement of large angle tracks in nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Galati, G.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M. C.; Pupilli, F.; Shchedrina, T.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear emulsions have been widely used in particle physics to identify new particles through the observation of their decays thanks to their unique spatial resolution. Nevertheless, before the advent of automatic scanning systems, the emulsion analysis was very demanding in terms of well trained manpower. Due to this reason, they were gradually replaced by electronic detectors, until the '90s, when automatic microscopes started to be developed in Japan and in Europe. Automatic scanning was essential to conceive large scale emulsion-based neutrino experiments like CHORUS, DONUT and OPERA. Standard scanning systems have been initially designed to recognize tracks within a limited angular acceptance (θ lesssim 30°) where θ is the track angle with respect to a line perpendicular to the emulsion plane. In this paper we describe the implementation of a novel fast automatic scanning system aimed at extending the track recognition to the full angular range and improving the present scanning speed. Indeed, nuclear emulsions do not have any intrinsic limit to detect particle direction. Such improvement opens new perspectives to use nuclear emulsions in several fields in addition to large scale neutrino experiments, like muon radiography, medical applications and dark matter directional detection.

  5. A Trend for Increased Risk of Revision Surgery due to Deep Infection following Fast-Track Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Amlie, Einar; Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L; Høvik, Øystein; Nordsletten, Lars; Dimmen, Sigbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Rates of revision surgery due to deep infection following total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased at a Norwegian hospital following implementation of fast-track procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether selected demographic (age and sex) and clinical (body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, surgery duration, length of hospital stay, cemented versus uncemented prosthesis, and fast-track procedures) factors were associated with higher risk of revision surgery due to deep infection following THA. In a prospective designed study 4,406 patients undergoing primary THA between January 2001 and January 2013 where included. Rates of infection-related revision surgery within 3 months of THA were higher among males and among patients who received fast-track THA. Adjusting for sex and age, the implemented fast-track elements were significantly associated with increased risk of revision surgery. Risk of infection-related revision surgery was unrelated to body mass index, physical status, surgery duration, length of hospital stay, and prosthesis type. Because local infiltration analgesia, drain cessation, and early mobilization were introduced in combination, it could not be determined which component or combination of components imposed the increased risk. The findings in this small sample raise concern about fast-track THA but require replication in other samples. PMID:27034841

  6. A Trend for Increased Risk of Revision Surgery due to Deep Infection following Fast-Track Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Amlie, Einar; Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L.; Høvik, Øystein; Nordsletten, Lars; Dimmen, Sigbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Rates of revision surgery due to deep infection following total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased at a Norwegian hospital following implementation of fast-track procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether selected demographic (age and sex) and clinical (body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, surgery duration, length of hospital stay, cemented versus uncemented prosthesis, and fast-track procedures) factors were associated with higher risk of revision surgery due to deep infection following THA. In a prospective designed study 4,406 patients undergoing primary THA between January 2001 and January 2013 where included. Rates of infection-related revision surgery within 3 months of THA were higher among males and among patients who received fast-track THA. Adjusting for sex and age, the implemented fast-track elements were significantly associated with increased risk of revision surgery. Risk of infection-related revision surgery was unrelated to body mass index, physical status, surgery duration, length of hospital stay, and prosthesis type. Because local infiltration analgesia, drain cessation, and early mobilization were introduced in combination, it could not be determined which component or combination of components imposed the increased risk. The findings in this small sample raise concern about fast-track THA but require replication in other samples. PMID:27034841

  7. Study of absolute fast neutron dosimetry using CR-39 track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sersy, A. R.

    2010-06-01

    In this work, CR-39 track detectors have extensively been used in the determination of fast neutron fluence-to-dose factor. The registration efficiency, ɛ, of CR-39 detectors for fast neutrons was calculated using different theoretical approaches according to each mode of neutron interaction with the constituent atoms (H, C and O) of the detector material. The induced proton-recoiled showed the most common interaction among the others. The dependence of ɛ on both neutron energy and etching time was also studied. In addition, the neutron dose was calculated as a function of neutron energy in the range from 0.5 to 14 MeV using the values of (d E/d X) for each recoil particle in CR-39 detector. Results showed that the values of ɛ were obviously affected by both neutron energy and etching time where the contribution in ɛ from proton recoil was the most. The contribution from carbon and oxygen recoils in dose calculation was pronounced due to their higher corresponding values of d E/d X in comparison to those from proton recoils. The present calculated fluence-to-dose factor was in agreement with that either from ICRP no. 74 or from TRS no. 285 of IAEA, which reflected the importance of using CR-39 in absolute fast neutron dosimetry.

  8. Fast-track surgery in gynaecology and gynaecologic oncology: a review of a rolling clinical audit.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Clinical audit is the process by which clinicians are able to demonstrate to themselves, their patients, hospital administrators, and healthcare financial providers the outcome and safety of their clinical practice. It is a process by which the public can be assured of safety and outcomes. A fast-track surgery program was initiated in January 2008, and this paper represents a rolling clinical audit of the outcomes of that program until the end of June 2012. Three hundred and eighty-nine patients underwent fast track surgical management after having a laparotomy for suspected or confirmed gynaecological cancer. There were no exclusions and the data presented represents the practice and outcomes of all patients referred to a single gynaecological oncologist. The majority of patients were deemed to have complex surgical procedures performed usually through a vertical midline incision. One third of patients had a nonzero performance status, median weight was 68 kilograms, and median BMI was 26.5 with 31% being classified as obese. Median operating time was 2.25 hours, and the median estimated blood loss was 175 mL. Overall the median length of stay (LOS) was 3 days with 95% of patients tolerating early oral feeding. Four percent of patients required readmission, and 0.5% were required to return to the operating room. Whilst the wound infection rate was 2.6%, there were no ureteric, bowel or neurovascular injuries. Overall there were 2 bladder injuries (0.5%), and the incidence of venous thromboembolism was 1%. Subset analysis was also undertaken. Whilst a number of variables were associated with reduced LOS, on multivariate analysis, benign pathology, shorter operating time, and the ability to tolerate early oral feeding were found to be significant. The data and experience presented is the largest and most extensive reported in the literature relating to fast-track surgery in gynaecology and gynaecologic oncology. The public can be reassured of the safety and

  9. Comparison of imaging plates with track detectors for fast-neutron dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Belafrites, A; Nourreddine, A; Mouhssine, D; Nachab, A; Pape, A; Boucenna, A; Fernández, F

    2004-01-01

    Imaging plate (IP) radiation detectors are widely used in industrial radiography, medical imagery and autoradiography. When an IP is exposed to ionising radiation, some of the energy is absorbed to form a latent image. The energy stored, which is proportional to the dose received, can be liberated by a selective optical stimulation and collected to reconstitute the distribution of the ionising radiation on the IP. In this work, IPs for use in fast-neutron measurements are characterised. The response of our IP dosemeters in conjunction with their reading system was found to be linear in dose between 75 microSv and 10 mSv. This performance is compared with those of dosemeters based on the plastic track detectors PN3 and CR-39.

  10. Electric eels use high-voltage to track fast-moving prey

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) are legendary for their ability to incapacitate fish, humans, and horses with hundreds of volts of electricity. The function of this output as a weapon has been obvious for centuries but its potential role for electroreception has been overlooked. Here it is shown that electric eels use high-voltage simultaneously as a weapon and for precise and rapid electrolocation of fast-moving prey and conductors. Their speed, accuracy, and high-frequency pulse rate are reminiscent of bats using a ‘terminal feeding buzz' to track insects. Eel's exhibit ‘sensory conflict' when mechanosensory and electrosensory cues are separated, striking first toward mechanosensory cues and later toward conductors. Strikes initiated in the absence of conductors are aborted. In addition to providing new insights into the evolution of strongly electric fish and showing electric eels to be far more sophisticated than previously described, these findings reveal a trait with markedly dichotomous functions. PMID:26485580

  11. Health Preemption Behind Closed Doors: Trade Agreements and Fast-Track Authority

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies’ influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. “Fast-track authority,” in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests. PMID:25033124

  12. Fast cine-magnetic resonance imaging point tracking for prostate cancer radiation therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, J.; Dang, K.; Fox, Chris D.; Chandra, S.; Gill, Suki; Kron, T.; Pham, D.; Foroudi, F.

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of intra-fraction organ motion is important for improving the precision of radiation therapy treatment delivery. One method to quantify this motion is for one or more observers to manually identify anatomic points of interest (POIs) on each slice of a cine-MRI sequence. However this is labour intensive and inter- and intra- observer variation can introduce uncertainty. In this paper a fast method for non-rigid registration based point tracking in cine-MRI sagittal and coronal series is described which identifies POIs in 0.98 seconds per sagittal slice and 1.35 seconds per coronal slice. The manual and automatic points were highly correlated (r>0.99, p<0.001) for all organs and the difference generally less than 1mm. For prostate planning peristalsis and rectal gas can result in unpredictable out of plane motion, suggesting the results may require manual verification.

  13. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder Across Childhood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social cognitive skills, reading, home visiting, mentoring, and classroom curricula. Outcomes included psychiatric diagnoses after grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 for conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and any externalizing disorder. Significant interaction effects between intervention and initial risk level indicated that intervention prevented the lifetime prevalence of all diagnoses, but only among those at highest initial risk, suggesting that targeted intervention can prevent externalizing disorders to promote the raising of healthy children. PMID:21291445

  14. The Vanderbilt University fast track to IAIMS: transition from planning to implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, W W; Borden, R; Bourne, J; Giuse, D; Giuse, N; Harris, T R; Miller, R A; Olsen, A J

    1996-01-01

    Vanderbilt University Medical Center is implementing an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) using a fast-track approach. The elapsed time between start-up and completion of implementation will be 7.5 years. The Start-Up and Planning phases of the project are complete. The Implementation phase asks one question: How does an organization create an environment that redirects and coordinates a variety of individual activities so that they come together to provide an IAIMS? Four answers to this question are being tested. First, design resources to be "scalable"--i.e., capable of supporting enterprise-wide use. Second, provide information technology planning activities as ongoing core functions that direct local efforts. Third, design core infrastructure resources to be both reusable and expandable at the local level. Fourth, use milestones to measure progress toward selected endpoints to permit early refinement of plans and strategies. PMID:8880678

  15. Electric eels use high-voltage to track fast-moving prey.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-10-20

    Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) are legendary for their ability to incapacitate fish, humans, and horses with hundreds of volts of electricity. The function of this output as a weapon has been obvious for centuries but its potential role for electroreception has been overlooked. Here it is shown that electric eels use high-voltage simultaneously as a weapon and for precise and rapid electrolocation of fast-moving prey and conductors. Their speed, accuracy, and high-frequency pulse rate are reminiscent of bats using a 'terminal feeding buzz' to track insects. Eel's exhibit 'sensory conflict' when mechanosensory and electrosensory cues are separated, striking first toward mechanosensory cues and later toward conductors. Strikes initiated in the absence of conductors are aborted. In addition to providing new insights into the evolution of strongly electric fish and showing electric eels to be far more sophisticated than previously described, these findings reveal a trait with markedly dichotomous functions.

  16. Fast Three-Dimensional Single-Particle Tracking in Natural Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sokoll, Stefan; Prokazov, Yury; Hanses, Magnus; Biermann, Barbara; Tönnies, Klaus; Heine, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Observation of molecular dynamics is often biased by the optical very heterogeneous environment of cells and complex tissue. Here, we have designed an algorithm that facilitates molecular dynamic analyses within brain slices. We adjust fast astigmatism-based three-dimensional single-particle tracking techniques to depth-dependent optical aberrations induced by the refractive index mismatch so that they are applicable to complex samples. In contrast to existing techniques, our online calibration method determines the aberration directly from the acquired two-dimensional image stream by exploiting the inherent particle movement and the redundancy introduced by the astigmatism. The method improves the positioning by reducing the systematic errors introduced by the aberrations, and allows correct derivation of the cellular morphology and molecular diffusion parameters in three dimensions independently of the imaging depth. No additional experimental effort for the user is required. Our method will be useful for many imaging configurations, which allow imaging in deep cellular structures. PMID:26445447

  17. Comparison of imaging plates with track detectors for fast-neutron dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Belafrites, A; Nourreddine, A; Mouhssine, D; Nachab, A; Pape, A; Boucenna, A; Fernández, F

    2004-01-01

    Imaging plate (IP) radiation detectors are widely used in industrial radiography, medical imagery and autoradiography. When an IP is exposed to ionising radiation, some of the energy is absorbed to form a latent image. The energy stored, which is proportional to the dose received, can be liberated by a selective optical stimulation and collected to reconstitute the distribution of the ionising radiation on the IP. In this work, IPs for use in fast-neutron measurements are characterised. The response of our IP dosemeters in conjunction with their reading system was found to be linear in dose between 75 microSv and 10 mSv. This performance is compared with those of dosemeters based on the plastic track detectors PN3 and CR-39. PMID:15353669

  18. The effects of the fast track preventive intervention on the development of conduct disorder across childhood.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social cognitive skills, reading, home visiting, mentoring, and classroom curricula. Outcomes included psychiatric diagnoses after grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 for conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and any externalizing disorder. Significant interaction effects between intervention and initial risk level indicated that intervention prevented the lifetime prevalence of all diagnoses, but only among those at highest initial risk, suggesting that targeted intervention can prevent externalizing disorders to promote the raising of healthy children.

  19. Tracking Down a Fast Instability in the PEP-II LER

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, U.; Akre, R.; Curry, S.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F.J.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Heifets, S.A.; Krasnykh, A.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.K.; Teytelman, D.; Van Winkle, D.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2007-05-18

    During Run 5, the beam in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) became affected by a predominantly vertical instability with very fast growth rate of 10...60/ms and varying threshold. The coherent amplitude of the oscillation was limited to approx. 1 mm peak and would damp down over a few tens of turns, however, beam loss set in even as the amplitude signal damped, causing a beam abort. This led to the conclusion that the bunches were actually blowing up. The appearance of a 2{nu}{sub S} line in the spectrum suggested a possible head-tail nature of the instability, although chromaticity was not effective in changing the threshold. The crucial hints in tracking down the cause turned out to be vacuum activity near the rf cavities and observance of signals on the cavity probes of certain rf cavities.

  20. The value of materials R&D in the fast track development of fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. J.; Taylor, N. P.; Cook, I.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the international fusion program is the creation of power plants with attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. There is a range of possible plants that can meet these objectives, as studied for instance in the recent EU studies of power plant concepts. All of the concepts satisfy safety and environmental objectives but the economic performance is interpreted differently in different world regions according to the perception of future energy markets. This leads to different materials performance targets and the direction and timescales of the materials development programme needed to meet those targets. In this paper, the implications for materials requirements of a fast track approach to fusion development are investigated. This includes a quantification of the overall benefits of more advanced materials: including the effect of trading off an extended development time against a reduced cost of electricity for resulting power plants.

  1. Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using the synthetic tracking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G.; Sandhu, Jagmit; Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K.

    2014-09-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA) using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. With an apparent magnitude of 23 (H = 29, assuming detection at 20 lunar distances), the asteroid was moving at 6.°32 day{sup –1} and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 15 using 30 s of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation 77 minutes later at the same S/N. Because of its high proper motion, the NEA moved 7 arcsec over the 30 s of observation. Synthetic tracking avoided image degradation due to trailing loss that affects conventional techniques relying on 30 s exposures; the trailing loss would have degraded the surface brightness of the NEA image on the CCD down to an approximate magnitude of 25 making the object undetectable. This detection was a result of our 12 hr blind search conducted on the Palomar 200 inch telescope over two nights, scanning twice over six (5.°3 × 0.°046) fields. Detecting only one asteroid is consistent with Harris's estimates for the distribution of the asteroid population, which was used to predict a detection of 1.2 NEAs in the H-magnitude range 28-31 for the two nights. The experimental design, data analysis methods, and algorithms are presented. We also demonstrate milliarcsecond-level astrometry using observations of two known bright asteroids on the same system with synthetic tracking. We conclude by discussing strategies for scheduling observations to detect and characterize small and fast-moving NEAs using the new technique.

  2. Detection of a Faint Fast-moving Near-Earth Asteroid Using the Synthetic Tracking Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G.; Sandhu, Jagmit; Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K.

    2014-09-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA) using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. With an apparent magnitude of 23 (H = 29, assuming detection at 20 lunar distances), the asteroid was moving at 6.°32 day-1 and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 15 using 30 s of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation 77 minutes later at the same S/N. Because of its high proper motion, the NEA moved 7 arcsec over the 30 s of observation. Synthetic tracking avoided image degradation due to trailing loss that affects conventional techniques relying on 30 s exposures; the trailing loss would have degraded the surface brightness of the NEA image on the CCD down to an approximate magnitude of 25 making the object undetectable. This detection was a result of our 12 hr blind search conducted on the Palomar 200 inch telescope over two nights, scanning twice over six (5.°3 × 0.°046) fields. Detecting only one asteroid is consistent with Harris's estimates for the distribution of the asteroid population, which was used to predict a detection of 1.2 NEAs in the H-magnitude range 28-31 for the two nights. The experimental design, data analysis methods, and algorithms are presented. We also demonstrate milliarcsecond-level astrometry using observations of two known bright asteroids on the same system with synthetic tracking. We conclude by discussing strategies for scheduling observations to detect and characterize small and fast-moving NEAs using the new technique.

  3. Catalyzing Country Ownership and Aid Effectiveness: Role of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the contribution of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) global partnership in strengthening aid effectiveness in the education sector, and specifically how the implementation modalities of the EFA-FTI Catalytic Fund (CF) have contributed to this strengthening. The empirical findings are based on a review…

  4. Fast-track extreme event attribution: How fast can we disentangle thermodynamic (forced) and dynamic (internal) contributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haustein, Karsten; Otto, Friederike; Uhe, Peter; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    provide sufficient guidance to determine the dynamic contribution to the event on the basis of monthly mean values. No such link can be made (North Atlantic/Western Europe region) for shorter time-scales, unless the observed state of the circulation is taken as reference for the model analysis (e.g. Christidis et al. 2014). We present results from our most recent attribution analysis for the December 2015 UK floods (Storm Desmond and Eva), during which we find a robust teleconnection link between Pacific SSTs and North Atlantic Jetstream anomalies. This is true for both experiments, with forecast and observed SSTs. We propose a fast and simple analysis method based on the comparison of current climatological circulation patterns with actual and natural conditions. Alternative methods are discussed and analysed regarding their potential for fast-track attribution of the role of dynamics. Also, we briefly revisit the issue of internal vs forced dynamic contributions.

  5. Development of hardware accelerator for molecular dynamics simulations: a computation board that calculates nonbonded interactions in cooperation with fast multipole method.

    PubMed

    Amisaki, Takashi; Toyoda, Shinjiro; Miyagawa, Hiroh; Kitamura, Kunihiro

    2003-04-15

    Evaluation of long-range Coulombic interactions still represents a bottleneck in the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biological macromolecules. Despite the advent of sophisticated fast algorithms, such as the fast multipole method (FMM), accurate simulations still demand a great amount of computation time due to the accuracy/speed trade-off inherently involved in these algorithms. Unless higher order multipole expansions, which are extremely expensive to evaluate, are employed, a large amount of the execution time is still spent in directly calculating particle-particle interactions within the nearby region of each particle. To reduce this execution time for pair interactions, we developed a computation unit (board), called MD-Engine II, that calculates nonbonded pairwise interactions using a specially designed hardware. Four custom arithmetic-processors and a processor for memory manipulation ("particle processor") are mounted on the computation board. The arithmetic processors are responsible for calculation of the pair interactions. The particle processor plays a central role in realizing efficient cooperation with the FMM. The results of a series of 50-ps MD simulations of a protein-water system (50,764 atoms) indicated that a more stringent setting of accuracy in FMM computation, compared with those previously reported, was required for accurate simulations over long time periods. Such a level of accuracy was efficiently achieved using the cooperative calculations of the FMM and MD-Engine II. On an Alpha 21264 PC, the FMM computation at a moderate but tolerable level of accuracy was accelerated by a factor of 16.0 using three boards. At a high level of accuracy, the cooperative calculation achieved a 22.7-fold acceleration over the corresponding conventional FMM calculation. In the cooperative calculations of the FMM and MD-Engine II, it was possible to achieve more accurate computation at a comparable execution time by incorporating larger nearby

  6. Analysis on multiple-component synchronization of ultra-fast time-interleaved analog-to-digital conversion systems and its novel parameterized hardware solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wuhuang; Wang, Houjun; Tian, Shulin; Ye, Peng; Zeng, Hao; Qiu, Duyu

    2014-10-01

    Parallelism-based technique of time-interleaved analog-to-digital conversion (TIADC) has become an effective solution for the higher sampling rate acquisition system to acquire non-repetitive waveforms. With the increase of sampling frequency, the indeterminacy of combining sequence of sampled data among multiple components has become a highlighted barrier for the reset operation of high-speed acquisition systems, and this is especially obvious for the ultra-fast TIADC systems. In this paper, we clarify the root of the problem in multiple-component synchronization (MCS) caused by such reset operation. Also we propose a novel and reliable hardware solution to precisely condition each reset signal, including three key circuit design parameters, i.e., the best time interval, required edge uncertainty, and the minimum delay precision. Besides, the designing scheme and debugging procedures are presented in detail in a generalized platform of this system type. Finally, in order to demonstrate the feasibility, parametric materialization and testing verification are gradually accomplished in a 20 Giga Samples Per Second (GSPS) TIADC system composed of four 5 GSPS ADC components. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective for ensuring the combined determinacy of multiple groups of sampled data and solving the MCS problem. In comparison with other existing solutions, it adopts some simple logic components more easily and flexibly, and this is significant for the development of congeneric systems or instruments featuring the MCS.

  7. A segmentation algorithm for automated tracking of fast swimming unlabelled cells in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, J A; Carneiro, J; Darszon, A; Corkidi, G

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microscopy and cytolabelling methods enable the real time imaging of cells as they move and interact in their real physiological environment. Scenarios in which multiple cells move autonomously in all directions are not uncommon in biology. A remarkable example is the swimming of marine spermatozoa in search of the conspecific oocyte. Imaging cells in these scenarios, particularly when they move fast and are poorly labelled or even unlabelled requires very fast three-dimensional time-lapse (3D+t) imaging. This 3D+t imaging poses challenges not only to the acquisition systems but also to the image analysis algorithms. It is in this context that this work describes an original automated multiparticle segmentation method to analyse motile translucent cells in 3D microscopical volumes. The proposed segmentation technique takes advantage of the way the cell appearance changes with the distance to the focal plane position. The cells translucent properties and their interaction with light produce a specific pattern: when the cell is within or close to the focal plane, its two-dimensional (2D) appearance matches a bright spot surrounded by a dark ring, whereas when it is farther from the focal plane the cell contrast is inverted looking like a dark spot surrounded by a bright ring. The proposed method analyses the acquired video sequence frame-by-frame taking advantage of 2D image segmentation algorithms to identify and select candidate cellular sections. The crux of the method is in the sequential filtering of the candidate sections, first by template matching of the in-focus and out-of-focus templates and second by considering adjacent candidates sections in 3D. These sequential filters effectively narrow down the number of segmented candidate sections making the automatic tracking of cells in three dimensions a straightforward operation. PMID:21999166

  8. A segmentation algorithm for automated tracking of fast swimming unlabelled cells in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, J A; Carneiro, J; Darszon, A; Corkidi, G

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microscopy and cytolabelling methods enable the real time imaging of cells as they move and interact in their real physiological environment. Scenarios in which multiple cells move autonomously in all directions are not uncommon in biology. A remarkable example is the swimming of marine spermatozoa in search of the conspecific oocyte. Imaging cells in these scenarios, particularly when they move fast and are poorly labelled or even unlabelled requires very fast three-dimensional time-lapse (3D+t) imaging. This 3D+t imaging poses challenges not only to the acquisition systems but also to the image analysis algorithms. It is in this context that this work describes an original automated multiparticle segmentation method to analyse motile translucent cells in 3D microscopical volumes. The proposed segmentation technique takes advantage of the way the cell appearance changes with the distance to the focal plane position. The cells translucent properties and their interaction with light produce a specific pattern: when the cell is within or close to the focal plane, its two-dimensional (2D) appearance matches a bright spot surrounded by a dark ring, whereas when it is farther from the focal plane the cell contrast is inverted looking like a dark spot surrounded by a bright ring. The proposed method analyses the acquired video sequence frame-by-frame taking advantage of 2D image segmentation algorithms to identify and select candidate cellular sections. The crux of the method is in the sequential filtering of the candidate sections, first by template matching of the in-focus and out-of-focus templates and second by considering adjacent candidates sections in 3D. These sequential filters effectively narrow down the number of segmented candidate sections making the automatic tracking of cells in three dimensions a straightforward operation.

  9. Pivotal role of ATP in macrophages fast tracking wound repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Girish J; Sarojini, Harshini; Chien, Sufan

    2015-09-01

    Chronic wounds occurring during aging or diabetes pose a significant burden to patients. The classical four-phase wound healing process has a 3-6 day lag before granulation starts to appear and it requires an intermediate step of activation of resident fibroblasts during the remodeling phase for production of collagen. This brief communication discusses published articles that demonstrate how the entire wound healing process can be fast tracked by intracellular ATP delivery, which triggers a novel pathway where alternatively activated macrophages play absolutely critical and central roles. This novel pathway involves an increase in proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6) and a chemokine (MCP-1) release. This is followed by activation of purinergic receptor (a family of plasma membrane receptors found in almost all mammalian cells), production of platelets and platelet microparticles, and activation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes. The end result is a massive influx and in situ proliferation of macrophages, increases in vascular endothelial growth factors that promote neovascularization, and most prominently, the direct production of collagen. PMID:26053302

  10. The constraints on day-case total knee arthroplasty: the fastest fast track.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, E; Lavand'homme, P; Kehlet, H

    2015-10-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major orthopaedic intervention. The length of a patient's stay has been progressively reduced with the introduction of enhanced recovery protocols: day-case surgery has become the ultimate challenge. This narrative review shows the potential limitations of day-case TKA. These constraints may be social, linked to patient's comorbidities, or due to surgery-related adverse events (e.g. pain, post-operative nausea and vomiting, etc.). Using patient stratification, tailored surgical techniques and multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, day-case TKA might be achievable in a limited group of patients. The younger, male patient without comorbidities and with an excellent social network around him might be a candidate. Demographic changes, effective recovery programmes and less invasive surgical techniques such as unicondylar knee arthroplasty, may increase the size of the group of potential day-case patients. The cost reduction achieved by day-case TKA needs to be balanced against any increase in morbidity and mortality and the cost of advanced follow-up at a distance with new technology. These factors need to be evaluated before adopting this ultimate 'fast-track' approach. PMID:26430085

  11. [Anxiety in patients undergoing fast-track knee arthroplasty in the light of recent literature].

    PubMed

    Ziętek, Paweł; Ziętek, Joanna; Szczypiór, Karina

    2014-01-01

    The rapid progress in knee implants technology and operational techniques go together with more and more modem medical programs, designed to optimize the patients' care and shorten their stay in hospital. However, this does not guarantee any elimination ofperioperative stress in patients. Anxiety is a negative emotional state arising from stressful circumstances accompanied by activation of the autonomous nervous system. Anxiety causes negative physiological changes, including wound healing, resistance to anesthetic induction, it is associated with an increased perioperative pain and prolong recovery period. The purpose of this work is to present the current state of knowledge on the preoperative anxiety and discuss its impact on pain and other parameters in patients undergoing fast-track arthroplasty of big joints. The work also shows selected issues of anxiety pathomechanism, and actual methods reducing preoperative anxiety in hospitalized patients. The common prevalence of anxiety in patients undergoing surgery induces the attempt to routinely identify patients with higher anxiety, which may be a predictive factor of worse results after TKA. Undertaking widely understood psychological support in these patients before and after the operation could be a favorable element, which would influence thefinal result of the treatment of patients after big joints arthroplasties. PMID:25639020

  12. Predictor Variables Associated With Positive Fast Track Outcomes at the End of Third Grade

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Progress has been made in understanding the outcome effects of preventive interventions and treatments designed to reduce children's conduct problems. However, limited research has explored the factors that may affect the degree to which an intervention is likely to benefit particular individuals. This study examines selected child, family, and community baseline characteristics that may predict proximal outcomes from the Fast Track intervention. The primary goal of this study was to examine predictors of outcomes after 3 years of intervention participation, at the end of 3rd grade. Three types of proximal outcomes were examined: parent-rated aggression, teacher-rated oppositional-aggressive behavior, and special education involvement. The relation between 11 risk factors and these 3 outcomes was examined, with separate regression analyses for the intervention and control groups. Moderate evidence of prediction of outcome effects was found, although none of the baseline variables were found to predict all 3 outcomes, and different patterns of prediction emerged for home versus school outcomes. PMID:11930970

  13. Mass tracking and material accounting in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)

    SciTech Connect

    Orechwa, Y.; Adams, C.H.; White, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic advanced liquid metal cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). There are a number of technical features of the IFR which contribute to its potential as a next-generation reactor. These are associated with large safety margins with regard to off-normal events involving the heat transport system, and the use of metallic fuel which makes possible the utilization of innovative fuel cycle processes. The latter feature permits fuel cycle closure the compact, low-cost reprocessing facilities, collocated with the reactor plant. These primary features are being demonstrated in the facilities at ANL-West, utilizing Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the associated Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) as an IFR prototype. The demonstration of this IFR prototype includes the design and implementation of the Mass-Tracking System (MTG). In this system, data from the operations of the FCF, including weights and batch-process parameters, are collected and maintained by the MTG running on distributed workstations. The components of the MTG System include: (1) an Oracle database manager with a Fortran interface, (2) a set of MTG Tasks'' which collect, manipulate and report data, (3) a set of MTG Terminal Sessions'' which provide some interactive control of the Tasks, and (4) a set of servers which manage the Tasks and which provide the communications link between the MTG System and Operator Control Stations, which control process equipment and monitoring devices within the FCF.

  14. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  15. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Metaxas, Peter J.; Chanthbouala, Andre; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-12-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 107 A/cm2. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  16. High-dynamic GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

  17. Impact of a Fast-Track Esophagectomy Protocol on Esophageal Cancer Patient Outcomes and Hospital Charges

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Jitesh B.; Correa, Arlene M.; Baker, Carla M.; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Jordan, Victoria S.; Kehlet, Henrik; Lewis, Katie M.; Mehran, Reza J.; Summers, Barbara L.; Schaub, Diane; Wilks, Sonia A.; Swisher, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of a fast-track esophagectomy protocol (FTEP) on esophageal cancer patients' safety, length of hospital stay (LOS) and hospital charges. Background FTEP involved transferring patients to the telemetry unit instead of the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) after esophagectomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 708 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy for primary esophageal cancer during the 4 years before (group A; 322 patients) or 4 years after (group B; 386 patients) the institution of an FTEP. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, LOS, and hospital charges were reviewed. Results Compared with group A, group B had significantly shorter median LOS (12 days vs 8 days; P < 0.001); lower mean numbers of SICU days (4.5 days vs 1.2 days; P < 0.001) and telemetry days (12.7 days vs 9.7 days; P < 0.001); and lower rates of atrial arrhythmia (27% vs 19%; P = 0.013) and pulmonary complications (27% vs 20%; P = 0.016). Multivariable analysis revealed FTEP to be associated with shorter LOS (P < 0.001) even after adjustment for predictors like tumor histology and location. FTEP was also associated with a lower rate of pulmonary complications (odds ratio = 0.655; 95% confidence interval = 0.456, 0.942; P = 0.022). In addition, the median hospital charges associated with primary admission and readmission within 90 days for group B ($65,649) were lower than that for group A ($79,117; P < 0.001). Conclusion These findings suggest that an FTEP reduces patients' LOS, perioperative morbidity and hospital charges. PMID:25243545

  18. Traditional healers and the "Fast-Track" HIV response: is success possible without them?

    PubMed

    Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne; Green, Edward; Hallin, Mary

    2016-07-01

    The rapid scale-up of effective HIV prevention strategies is a central theme of the post-2015 health and development agenda. All major global HIV and AIDS funders have aligned their policies and plans to achieve sharp reductions in new HIV infections and reach epidemic control by 2030. In these "fast-track" plans, increased antiretroviral treatment coverage and the attainment of viral suppression are pivotal, and there is firm recognition of the need for countries to mobilise more domestic resources and build stronger community clinic systems. There is little in these bold plans, however, to suggest that the now 30-year-old call by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other organisations to establish systematic collaborations with the traditional health sector will finally be heeded. In the context of sub-Saharan Africa's HIV epidemic, a significant body of literature demonstrates the critical role that traditional healers can play in improving the success of health programmes, including those for HIV prevention. This paper provides a brief history of collaboration with traditional healers for HIV followed by a description of several successful collaborations and discussion of key elements for success. We argue that the traditional health sector is a major resource that has yet to be sufficiently mobilised against HIV. As we shift from a short-term HIV response to a longer-term and more sustainable response, there is an urgent need to accelerate efforts to leverage and partner with the hundreds of thousands of traditional health practitioners who are already providing health services in communities. Failure to better attune our work to the medical pluralism of communities affected by HIV will continue to hinder HIV programming success and help assure that ambitious post-2015 HIV prevention and control goals are not realised.

  19. Traditional healers and the "Fast-Track" HIV response: is success possible without them?

    PubMed

    Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne; Green, Edward; Hallin, Mary

    2016-07-01

    The rapid scale-up of effective HIV prevention strategies is a central theme of the post-2015 health and development agenda. All major global HIV and AIDS funders have aligned their policies and plans to achieve sharp reductions in new HIV infections and reach epidemic control by 2030. In these "fast-track" plans, increased antiretroviral treatment coverage and the attainment of viral suppression are pivotal, and there is firm recognition of the need for countries to mobilise more domestic resources and build stronger community clinic systems. There is little in these bold plans, however, to suggest that the now 30-year-old call by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other organisations to establish systematic collaborations with the traditional health sector will finally be heeded. In the context of sub-Saharan Africa's HIV epidemic, a significant body of literature demonstrates the critical role that traditional healers can play in improving the success of health programmes, including those for HIV prevention. This paper provides a brief history of collaboration with traditional healers for HIV followed by a description of several successful collaborations and discussion of key elements for success. We argue that the traditional health sector is a major resource that has yet to be sufficiently mobilised against HIV. As we shift from a short-term HIV response to a longer-term and more sustainable response, there is an urgent need to accelerate efforts to leverage and partner with the hundreds of thousands of traditional health practitioners who are already providing health services in communities. Failure to better attune our work to the medical pluralism of communities affected by HIV will continue to hinder HIV programming success and help assure that ambitious post-2015 HIV prevention and control goals are not realised. PMID:27399048

  20. Hardly Hardware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    In a never-ending search for new and inspirational still-life objects, the author discovered that home improvement retailers make great resources for art teachers. Hardware and building materials are inexpensive and have interesting and variable shapes. She especially liked the dryer-vent coils and the electrical conduit. These items can be…

  1. The Implementation of the Fast Track Program: An Example of a Large-Scale Prevention Science Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 1990, the Fast Track Project was initiated to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting children at risk for conduct disorders in four demographically diverse American communities (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group [CPPRG], 1992). Representing a prevention science approach toward community-based preventive intervention, the Fast Track intervention design was based upon the available data base elucidating the epidemiology of risk for conduct disorder and suggesting key causal developmental influences (R. P. Weissberg & M. T. Greenberg, 1998). Critical questions about this approach to prevention center around the extent to which such a science-based program can be effective at (1) engaging community members and stakeholders, (2) maintaining intervention fidelity while responding appropriately to the local norms and needs of communities that vary widely in their demographic and cultural/ethnic composition, and (3) maintaining community engagement in the long-term to support effective and sustainable intervention dissemination. This paper discusses these issues, providing examples from the Fast Track project to illustrate the process of program implementation and the evidence available regarding the success of this science-based program at engaging communities in sustainable and effective ways as partners in prevention programming. PMID:11930968

  2. Exhausting Attentional Tracking Resources with a Single Fast-Moving Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Alex O.; Chen, Wei-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Driving on a busy road, eluding a group of predators, or playing a team sport involves keeping track of multiple moving objects. In typical laboratory tasks, the number of visual targets that humans can track is about four. Three types of theories have been advanced to explain this limit. The fixed-limit theory posits a set number of attentional…

  3. Hunting for hardware changes in data centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho dos Santos, M.; Steers, I.; Szebenyi, I.; Xafi, A.; Barring, O.; Bonfillou, E.

    2012-12-01

    With many servers and server parts the environment of warehouse sized data centres is increasingly complex. Server life-cycle management and hardware failures are responsible for frequent changes that need to be managed. To manage these changes better a project codenamed “hardware hound” focusing on hardware failure trending and hardware inventory has been started at CERN. By creating and using a hardware oriented data set - the inventory - with detailed information on servers and their parts as well as tracking changes to this inventory, the project aims at, for example, being able to discover trends in hardware failure rates.

  4. Radiation-hardened fast acquisition/weak signal tracking system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winternitz, Luke (Inventor); Boegner, Gregory J. (Inventor); Sirotzky, Steve (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A global positioning system (GPS) receiver and method of acquiring and tracking GPS signals comprises an antenna adapted to receive GPS signals; an analog radio frequency device operatively connected to the antenna and adapted to convert the GPS signals from an analog format to a digital format; a plurality of GPS signal tracking correlators operatively connected to the analog RF device; a GPS signal acquisition component operatively connected to the analog RF device and the plurality of GPS signal tracking correlators, wherein the GPS signal acquisition component is adapted to calculate a maximum vector on a databit correlation grid; and a microprocessor operatively connected to the plurality of GPS signal tracking correlators and the GPS signal acquisition component, wherein the microprocessor is adapted to compare the maximum vector with a predetermined correlation threshold to allow the GPS signal to be fully acquired and tracked.

  5. Fast and Accurate Cell Tracking by a Novel Optical-Digital Hybrid Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Cisneros, M.; Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; Pérez-Careta, E.; Ambriz-Colín, F.; Tinoco, Verónica; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Plascencia-Mora, H.; Aguilera-Gómez, E.; Ibarra-Manzano, M. A.; Guzman-Cabrera, R.; Debeir, Olivier; Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.

    2013-09-01

    An innovative methodology to detect and track cells using microscope images enhanced by optical cross-correlation techniques is proposed in this paper. In order to increase the tracking sensibility, image pre-processing has been implemented as a morphological operator on the microscope image. Results show that the pre-processing process allows for additional frames of cell tracking, therefore increasing its robustness. The proposed methodology can be used in analyzing different problems such as mitosis, cell collisions, and cell overlapping, ultimately designed to identify and treat illnesses and malignancies.

  6. DCSP hardware maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Pazmino, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the necessary changes to be implemented on the hardware side of the DCSP database. DCSP is currently tracking hardware maintenance costs in six separate databases. The goal is to develop a system that combines all data and works off a single database. Some of the tasks that will be discussed in this paper include adding the capability for report generation, creating a help package and preparing a users guide, testing the executable file, and populating the new database with data taken from the old database. A brief description of the basic process used in developing the system will also be discussed. Conclusions about the future of the database and the delivery of the final product are then addressed, based on research and the desired use of the system.

  7. Ares I-X Flight Test - On the Fast Track to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Personnel from the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) will incorporate flight and mockup hardware similar in mass and weight to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, up to approximately130,OOO feet and through maximum dynamic pressure ("Max Q") of approximately 800 pounds per square foot. Data from the Ares I-X flight will support the Ares I Critical Design Review (CDR), scheduled for 2010. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. All of the individual elements are undergoing CDRs, followed by an integrated vehicle CDR in March 2008. The various hardware elements are on schedule to begin deliveries to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in early September 2008.

  8. Costs and Effectiveness of the Fast Track Intervention for Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Foster, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Antisocial behavior is enormously costly to the youth involved, their families, victims, taxpayers and other members of society. These costs are generated by school failure, delinquency and involvement in the juvenile justice system, drug use, health services and other services. For prevention programs to be cost effective, they must reduce these costly behaviors and outcomes. Aim The Fast Track intervention is a 10-year, multi-component prevention program targeting antisocial behavior. The intervention identified children at school entry and provided intervention services over a 10-year period. This study examined the intervention’s impact on outcomes affecting societal costs using data through late adolescence. Methodology The intervention is being evaluated through a multi-cohort, multi-site, multi-year randomized control trial of program participants and comparable children and youth in similar schools, and that study provides the data for these analyses. Schools within four sites (Durham, NC; Nashville, TN; Seattle, WA; and rural central Pennsylvania) were selected as high-risk based on crime and poverty statistics of the neighborhoods they served. Within each site, schools were divided into multiple sets matched for demographics (size, percentage free/reduced lunch, ethnic composition); one set within each pair was randomly assigned to the intervention and one to the control condition. Within participating schools, high-risk children were identified using a multiple-gating procedure. For each of three annual cohorts, all kindergarteners (9,594 total) in 54 schools were screened for classroom conduct problems by teachers. Those children scoring in the top 40% within cohort and site were then solicited for the next stage of screening for home behavior problems by the parents, and 91% agreed (n = 3,274). The teacher and parent screening scores were then standardized within site and combined into a sum score. These summed scores represented a total

  9. Fast TPC Online Tracking on GPUs and Asynchronous Data Processing in the ALICE HLT to facilitate Online Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Breitner, Timo; Kretz, Matthias; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Heavy Ion Experiment) is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is today the most powerful particle accelerator worldwide. The High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online compute farm of about 200 nodes, which reconstructs events measured by the ALICE detector in real-time. The HLT uses a custom online data-transport framework to distribute data and workload among the compute nodes. ALICE employs several calibration-sensitive subdetectors, e.g. the TPC (Time Projection Chamber). For a precise reconstruction, the HLT has to perform the calibration online. Online- calibration can make certain Offline calibration steps obsolete and can thus speed up Offline analysis. Looking forward to ALICE Run III starting in 2020, online calibration becomes a necessity. The main detector used for track reconstruction is the TPC. Reconstructing the trajectories in the TPC is the most compute-intense step during event reconstruction. Therefore, a fast tracking implementation is of great importance. Reconstructed TPC tracks build the basis for the calibration making a fast online-tracking mandatory. We present several components developed for the ALICE High Level Trigger to perform fast event reconstruction and to provide features required for online calibration. As first topic, we present our TPC tracker, which employs GPUs to speed up the processing, and which bases on a Cellular Automaton and on the Kalman filter. Our TPC tracking algorithm has been successfully used in 2011 and 2012 in the lead-lead and the proton-lead runs. We have improved it to leverage features of newer GPUs and we have ported it to support OpenCL, CUDA, and CPUs with a single common source code. This makes us vendor independent. As second topic, we present framework extensions required for online calibration. The extensions, however, are generic and can be used for other purposes as well. We have extended the framework to support asynchronous compute

  10. Fast parallel interferometric 3D tracking of numerous optically trapped particles and their hydrodynamic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Dominic; Tränkle, Benjamin; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2011-10-24

    Multi-dimensional, correlated particle tracking is a key technology to reveal dynamic processes in living and synthetic soft matter systems. In this paper we present a new method for tracking micron-sized beads in parallel and in all three dimensions - faster and more precise than existing techniques. Using an acousto-optic deflector and two quadrant-photo-diodes, we can track numerous optically trapped beads at up to tens of kHz with a precision of a few nanometers by back-focal plane interferometry. By time-multiplexing the laser focus, we can calibrate individually all traps and all tracking signals in a few seconds and in 3D. We show 3D histograms and calibration constants for nine beads in a quadratic arrangement, although trapping and tracking is easily possible for more beads also in arbitrary 2D arrangements. As an application, we investigate the hydrodynamic coupling and diffusion anomalies of spheres trapped in a 3 × 3 arrangement. PMID:22109012

  11. IRST system: hardware implementation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Suyog D.; Chan, Philip; Ser, W.; Venkateswarlu, Ronda

    1999-07-01

    Generally, Infrared Search and Track systems use linear focal-plane-arrays with time-delay and integration, because of their high sensitivity. However, the readout is a cumbersome process and needs special effort. This paper describes signal processing and hardware (HW) implementation issues related to front-end electronics, non-uniformity compensation, signal formatting, target detection, tracking and display system. This paper proposes parallel pipeline architecture with dedicated HW for computationally intensive algorithms and SW intensive DSP HW for reconfigurable architecture.

  12. Fast-digitizing and track-finding electronics for the vertex detector in the Opal experiment at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at Cern

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslawski, S.; Jeffs, M.; Matson, R.; Milborrow, R.; White, D. )

    1990-10-01

    The vertex front-end electronics is described. It comprises fast analog-to-digital conversion circuits and a fast programmable track trigger processor. The function of the electronics is to examine, within one LEP beam crossing (22 {mu}s), data generated in the detector for the evidence of charged particle tracks. Measurements of ionization drift times are based on a gated 93-MHz oscillator synchronized to a precision crystal clock and give points in space. The axial positions of these points along the detector are found by analyzing the difference in time of arrivals of signals at the ends of the detector ({ital z} by timing). Particle tracks are found by 36 track finders operating in parallel and are matched by semicuston coincidence chips. The track information is used in the first stage of data reduction in Opal (the first-level trigger).

  13. Can Genetics Predict Response to Complex Behavioral Interventions? Evidence from a Genetic Analysis of the Fast Track Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Dustin; Belsky, Daniel W.; Crowley, D. Max; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Aliev, Fazil; Riley, Brien; Sun, Cuie; Dick, Danielle M.; Dodge, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Early interventions are a preferred method for addressing behavioral problems in high-risk children, but often have only modest effects. Identifying sources of variation in intervention effects can suggest means to improve efficiency. One potential source of such variation is the genome. We conducted a genetic analysis of the Fast Track Randomized Control Trial, a 10-year-long intervention to prevent high-risk kindergarteners from developing adult externalizing problems including substance abuse and antisocial behavior. We tested whether variants of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 were associated with differences in response to the Fast Track intervention. We found that in European-American children, a variant of NR3C1 identified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10482672 was associated with increased risk for externalizing psychopathology in control group children and decreased risk for externalizing psychopathology in intervention group children. Variation in NR3C1 measured in this study was not associated with differential intervention response in African-American children. We discuss implications for efforts to prevent externalizing problems in high-risk children and for public policy in the genomic era. PMID:26106668

  14. Can Genetics Predict Response to Complex Behavioral Interventions? Evidence from a Genetic Analysis of the Fast Track Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dustin; Belsky, Daniel W; Crowley, D Max; Latendresse, Shawn J; Aliev, Fazil; Riley, Brien; Sun, Cuie; Dick, Danielle M; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Early interventions are a preferred method for addressing behavioral problems in high-risk children, but often have only modest effects. Identifying sources of variation in intervention effects can suggest means to improve efficiency. One potential source of such variation is the genome. We conducted a genetic analysis of the Fast Track randomized control trial, a 10-year-long intervention to prevent high-risk kindergarteners from developing adult externalizing problems including substance abuse and antisocial behavior. We tested whether variants of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 were associated with differences in response to the Fast Track intervention. We found that in European-American children, a variant of NR3C1 identified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10482672 was associated with increased risk for externalizing psychopathology in control group children and decreased risk for externalizing psychopathology in intervention group children. Variation in NR3C1 measured in this study was not associated with differential intervention response in African-American children. We discuss implications for efforts to prevent externalizing problems in high-risk children and for public policy in the genomic era.

  15. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    There are several reasons why hardware is removed: Pain from the hardware Infection Allergic reaction to hardware To prevent problems with growing bones in young people Nerve damage Broken hardware Bones that did not heal and join properly

  16. Development of a radiation-hardened SRAM with EDAC algorithm for fast readout CMOS pixel sensors for charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.; Li, B.; Chen, N.; Wang, J.; Zheng, R.; Gao, W.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2014-08-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) are attractive for use in the innermost particle detectors for charged particle tracking due to their good trade-off between spatial resolution, material budget, radiation hardness, and readout speed. With the requirements of high readout speed and high radiation hardness to total ionizing dose (TID) for particle tracking, fast readout CPS are composed by integrating a data compression block and two SRAM IP cores. However, the radiation hardness of the SRAM IP cores is not as high as that of the other parts in CPS, and thus the radiation hardness of the whole CPS chip is lowered. Especially, when CPS are migrated into 0.18-μm processes, the single event upset (SEU) effects should be also considered besides TID and single event latchup (SEL) effects. This paper presents a radiation-hardened SRAM with enhanced radiation hardness to SEU. An error detection and correction (EDAC) algorithm and a bit-interleaving storage strategy are adopted in the design. The prototype design has been fabricated in a 0.18-μm process. The area of the new SRAM is increased 1.6 times as compared with a non-radiation-hardened SRAM due to the integration of EDAC algorithm and the adoption of radiation hardened layout. The access time is increased from 5 ns to 8 ns due to the integration of EDAC algorithm. The test results indicate that the design satisfy requirements of CPS for charged particle tracking.

  17. Analysis of Tracking Measuring Method of Focus Cabin of Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope(FAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hui; Zhu, Lichun

    2015-08-01

    FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope) project is one of the Chinese mega-Science Projects to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. FAST has three outstanding innovation aspects: in the karst depression which is large to host the 500-meter telescope, an active main reflector correcting for spherical aberration on the ground to achieve a full polarization is being built, the light-weight feed focus cabin in which a parallel robot as a secondary adjustable system to move with high precision is driven by cables and servomechanism plus. The part of main reflector which is illuminated by the feed is continually adjusted to fit the paraboloid of revolution in real time when tracking the radio source. How to get high precise real-time feedback data of moving focus cabin’s position when tracking the source is one of the crucial problems for the astronomical observation.At present 24 steady basis pillars for measurement whose position coordinates are already known, have been built in the construction field of FAST. Total stations will be installed on one of those pillars, and prisms will be installed on focus cabin. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of two measuring method: the space distance intersection calculation method and polar measuring method. The space distance intersection calculation method is only using multiple measuring distances between three pillars and prism and known coordinates of pillars to calculate the prism’s coordinates, the polar measurement is using the measuring distance and angles to get the prism’s coordinate.

  18. Fast Track Teacher Education: A Review of the Research Literature on "Teach For All" Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConney, Andrew; Price, Anne; Woods-McConney, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This review of the research literature was commissioned by the New Zealand Post-Primary Teachers Association (PPTA) Te Wehengarua as a means of informing the decision-making of the Association and its members about the Teach For All (TFA) scheme seeking to prepare teachers for New Zealand's schools. The systematic review is about fast track…

  19. A Comparative Study of Postoperative Pulmonary Complications Using Fast Track Regimen and Conservative Analgesic Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aghdam, Babak Abri; Golzari, Samad Eslam Jamal; Moghadaszadeh, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative pulmonary complications and pain are important causes of postoperative morbidity following thoracotomy. This study aimed to compare the effects of fast track and conservative treatment regimens on patients undergoing thoracotomy. Materials and Methods In this randomized controlled clinical trial, we recruited 60 patients admitted to the thoracic ICU of Imam Reza Hospital in two matched groups of 30 patients each. Group 1 patients received fast track regimen randomly; whereas, group 2 cases randomly received conservative analgesic regimen after thoracotomy and pulmonary resection. The outcome was determined based on the incidence of pulmonary complications and reduction of post-thoracotomy pain in all patients with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) <75% predicted value which was measured while the patients were in ICU. The length of ICU stay, thoracotomy pain, morbidity, pulmonary complications and mortality were compared in two groups. Results A total of 60 patients, 45 (75%) males and 15(25%) females with ASA class I-III were recruited in this study. Postoperative pulmonary complications were observed in 5 (16.7%) patients in group 1 versus 17 (56.7%) patients in group 2. There were statistically significant differences in development of postoperative pulmonary complications such as atelectasis and prolonged air leak between both groups (P< 0.001 and P = 0.003). There was also a statistically significant difference in the rate of preoperative FEV1 (p = 0.001) and ASA scoring (p = 0.01) and value of FEV1 < 75% predicted in the two groups. The difference in length of ICU stay in two groups was statistically significant (P= 0.003 and P = 0.017 in FEV1 < 75% group). Four patients in group 1 and 9 patients in group 2 had FEV1reduced to less than 75% of predicted value (p = 0.03). Conclusion Using fast track regimen reduced postoperative pain and incidence of some pulmonary complications significantly when compared to the

  20. Indirect Effects of the Fast Track Intervention on Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Distinct Pathways Involving Discipline and Warmth.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about intervening processes that explain how prevention programs improve particular youth antisocial outcomes. We examined whether parental harsh discipline and warmth in childhood differentially account for Fast Track intervention effects on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in early adolescence. Participants included 891 high-risk kindergarteners (69% male; 51% African American) from urban and rural United States communities who were randomized into either the Fast Track intervention (n = 445) or non-intervention control (n = 446) groups. The 10-year intervention included parent management training and other services (e.g., social skills training, universal classroom curriculum) targeting various risk factors for the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline (Grades 1 to 3) and warmth (Grades 1 and 2) were measured using parent responses to vignettes and direct observations of parent-child interaction, respectively. Parents reported on children's CD symptoms in Grade 6 and CU traits in Grade 7. Results demonstrated indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on reducing risk for youth antisocial outcomes. That is, Fast Track was associated with lower scores on harsh discipline, which in turn predicted decreased levels of CD symptoms. In addition, Fast Track was associated with higher scores on warmth, which in turn predicted reduced levels of CU traits. Our findings inform developmental and intervention models of youth antisocial behavior by providing evidence for the differential role of harsh discipline and warmth in accounting for indirect effects of Fast Track on CD symptoms versus CU traits, respectively. PMID:26242993

  1. Indirect Effects of the Fast Track Intervention on Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Distinct Pathways Involving Discipline and Warmth.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about intervening processes that explain how prevention programs improve particular youth antisocial outcomes. We examined whether parental harsh discipline and warmth in childhood differentially account for Fast Track intervention effects on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in early adolescence. Participants included 891 high-risk kindergarteners (69% male; 51% African American) from urban and rural United States communities who were randomized into either the Fast Track intervention (n = 445) or non-intervention control (n = 446) groups. The 10-year intervention included parent management training and other services (e.g., social skills training, universal classroom curriculum) targeting various risk factors for the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline (Grades 1 to 3) and warmth (Grades 1 and 2) were measured using parent responses to vignettes and direct observations of parent-child interaction, respectively. Parents reported on children's CD symptoms in Grade 6 and CU traits in Grade 7. Results demonstrated indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on reducing risk for youth antisocial outcomes. That is, Fast Track was associated with lower scores on harsh discipline, which in turn predicted decreased levels of CD symptoms. In addition, Fast Track was associated with higher scores on warmth, which in turn predicted reduced levels of CU traits. Our findings inform developmental and intervention models of youth antisocial behavior by providing evidence for the differential role of harsh discipline and warmth in accounting for indirect effects of Fast Track on CD symptoms versus CU traits, respectively.

  2. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8-10 bit resolution, 50-100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  3. Evaluation of the influence of pulmonary hypertension in ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Cartacho, Márcio Portugal Trindade; de Castro, Casimiro Cardoso; Salgado Filho, Marcello Fonseca; Brandão, Antônio Carlos Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of pulmonary hypertension in the ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult cardiac surgery. Methods A retrospective study. They were included 40 patients divided into two groups: GI (without pulmonary hypertension) and GII (with pulmonary hypertension). Based on data obtained by transthoracic echocardiography. We considered as the absence of pulmonary hypertension: a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP) <36 mmHg, with tricuspid regurgitation velocity <2.8 m/s and no additional echocardiographic signs of PH, and PH as presence: a sPAP >40 mmHg associated with additional echocardiographic signs of PH. It was established as influence of pulmonary hypertension: the impossibility of extubation in the operating room, the increase in the time interval for extubation and reintubation the first 24 hours postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed when necessary. Considered significant a P value <0.05. Results The GI was composed of 21 patients and GII for 19. All patients (100%) were extubated in the operating room in a medium time interval of 17.58±8.06 min with a median of 18 min in GII and 17 min in GI. PH did not increase the time interval for extubation (P=0.397). It required reintubation of 2 patients in GII (5% of the total), without statistically significant as compared to GI (P=0.488). Conclusion In this study, pulmonary hypertension did not influence on ultra-fast-track anesthesia in adult cardiac surgery. PMID:27163419

  4. A "package solution" fast track program can reduce the diagnostic waiting time in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Gano, Lars; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Andersen, Peter Bøgeskov; Thomassen, Anders; Godballe, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, a fast track program for patients with suspicion of head and neck cancer (HNC) was introduced in Denmark to reduce unnecessary waiting time. The program was based on so called "package solutions" including pre-booked slots for outpatient evaluation, imaging, and diagnostic surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to present a model for fast track handling of patients suspicious of cancer in the head and neck region and to evaluate the effect of implementation on the diagnostic work up time. Patients with suspicion of HNC referred to the same university department of ENT Head and Neck Surgery during three comparable time intervals 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2011-2012 (groups 1-3) were investigated. We recorded the time from patient referral, to first consultation and final diagnosis. The first interval was before initiation of the "package solution", the second just after the introduction, and the third interval represents the current situation. The median time from referral to first consultation was reduced from eight calendar days in group 1 to only one day in groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001). The combined median time from referral to the final cancer diagnosis decreased from 24 calendar days in group 1 to 7 and 10 days in groups 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005). The hit rate of finding malignancy was 41% in group 1, 49% in group 2, and 43% in group 3 with no difference among the groups (p = 0.13). The frequency of newly diagnosed HNC was 19% in group 1, 21% in group 2, and 17% in group 3 (p = 0.52). A "package solution" including pre-booked slots for diagnostic procedures is feasible and can significantly reduce the waiting time for patients with suspicion of HNC. PMID:23775302

  5. A fast-initializing digital equalizer with on-line tracking for data communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, R. C.; Barksdale, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    A theory is developed for a digital equalizer for use in reducing intersymbol interference (ISI) on high speed data communications channels. The equalizer is initialized with a single isolated transmitter pulse, provided the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is not unusually low, then switches to a decision directed, on-line mode of operation that allows tracking of channel variations. Conditions for optimal tap-gain settings are obtained first for a transversal equalizer structure by using a mean squared error (MSE) criterion, a first order gradient algorithm to determine the adjustable equalizer tap-gains, and a sequence of isolated initializing pulses. Since the rate of tap-gain convergence depends on the eigenvalues of a channel output correlation matrix, convergence can be improved by making a linear transformation on to obtain a new correlation matrix.

  6. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2014-10-15

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

  7. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    PubMed

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  8. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  9. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jens B; Tanneti, Nikhila S; Hogue, Ian B; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution.

  10. Scientists raise alarms about fast tracking of transoceanic canal through Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L; Rittmann, Bruce E; Clayton, Anthony; Acosta, Maria L; Bicudo, Carlos E M; K Arroyo, Mary T; Brett, Michael T; Campos, Victor M; Chaimovich, Hernan; Jimenez-Cisneros, Blanca; Covich, Alan; Lacerda, Luiz D; Maes, Jean-Michel; Miranda, Julio C; Montenegro-Guillén, Salvador; Ortega-Hegg, Manuel; Urquhart, Gerald R; Vammen, Katherine; Zambrano, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Seeking economic growth and job creation to tackle the nation's extreme poverty, the Nicaraguan government awarded a concession to build an interoceanic canal and associated projects to a recently formed Hong Kong based company with no track record or related expertise. This concession was awarded without a bidding process and in advance of any feasibility, socio-economic or environmental impact assessments; construction has begun without this information. The 278 km long interoceanic canal project may result in significant environmental and social impairments. Of particular concern are damage to Lake Cocibolca, a unique freshwater tropical lake and Central America's main freshwater reservoir; damage to regional biodiversity and ecosystems; and socio-economic impacts. Concerned about the possibly irreparable damage to the environment and to native communities, conservationists and the scientific community at large are urging the Nicaraguan government to devise and reveal an action plan to address and mitigate the possible negative repercussions of this interoceanic canal and associated projects. Critical research needs for preparation of a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis for this megaproject are presented. PMID:25730497

  11. Scientists raise alarms about fast tracking of transoceanic canal through Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L; Rittmann, Bruce E; Clayton, Anthony; Acosta, Maria L; Bicudo, Carlos E M; K Arroyo, Mary T; Brett, Michael T; Campos, Victor M; Chaimovich, Hernan; Jimenez-Cisneros, Blanca; Covich, Alan; Lacerda, Luiz D; Maes, Jean-Michel; Miranda, Julio C; Montenegro-Guillén, Salvador; Ortega-Hegg, Manuel; Urquhart, Gerald R; Vammen, Katherine; Zambrano, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Seeking economic growth and job creation to tackle the nation's extreme poverty, the Nicaraguan government awarded a concession to build an interoceanic canal and associated projects to a recently formed Hong Kong based company with no track record or related expertise. This concession was awarded without a bidding process and in advance of any feasibility, socio-economic or environmental impact assessments; construction has begun without this information. The 278 km long interoceanic canal project may result in significant environmental and social impairments. Of particular concern are damage to Lake Cocibolca, a unique freshwater tropical lake and Central America's main freshwater reservoir; damage to regional biodiversity and ecosystems; and socio-economic impacts. Concerned about the possibly irreparable damage to the environment and to native communities, conservationists and the scientific community at large are urging the Nicaraguan government to devise and reveal an action plan to address and mitigate the possible negative repercussions of this interoceanic canal and associated projects. Critical research needs for preparation of a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis for this megaproject are presented.

  12. Fast internal marker tracking algorithm for onboard MV and kV imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Mao, W; Wiersma, R D; Xing, L

    2008-05-01

    Intrafraction organ motion can limit the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) due to target position uncertainty. To ensure high accuracy in beam targeting, real-time knowledge of the target location is highly desired throughout the beam delivery process. This knowledge can be gained through imaging of internally implanted radio-opaque markers with fluoroscopic or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). In the case of MV based images, marker detection can be problematic due to the significantly lower contrast between different materials in comparison to their kV-based counterparts. This work presents a fully automated algorithm capable of detecting implanted metallic markers in both kV and MV images with high consistency. Using prior CT information, the algorithm predefines the volumetric search space without manual region-of-interest (ROI) selection by the user. Depending on the template selected, both spherical and cylindrical markers can be detected. Multiple markers can be simultaneously tracked without indexing confusion. Phantom studies show detection success rates of 100% for both kV and MV image data. In addition, application of the algorithm to real patient image data results in successful detection of all implanted markers for MV images. Near real-time operational speeds of approximately 10 frames/sec for the detection of five markers in a 1024 x 768 image are accomplished using an ordinary PC workstation.

  13. Design and DSP implementation of star image acquisition and star point fast acquiring and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guohui; Wang, Xiaodong; Hao, Zhihang

    2006-02-01

    Star sensor is a special high accuracy photoelectric sensor. Attitude acquisition time is an important function index of star sensor. In this paper, the design target is to acquire 10 samples per second dynamic performance. On the basis of analyzing CCD signals timing and star image processing, a new design and a special parallel architecture for improving star image processing are presented in this paper. In the design, the operation moving the data in expanded windows including the star to the on-chip memory of DSP is arranged in the invalid period of CCD frame signal. During the CCD saving the star image to memory, DSP processes the data in the on-chip memory. This parallelism greatly improves the efficiency of processing. The scheme proposed here results in enormous savings of memory normally required. In the scheme, DSP HOLD mode and CPLD technology are used to make a shared memory between CCD and DSP. The efficiency of processing is discussed in numerical tests. Only in 3.5ms is acquired the five lightest stars in the star acquisition stage. In 43us, the data in five expanded windows including stars are moved into the internal memory of DSP, and in 1.6ms, five star coordinates are achieved in the star tracking stage.

  14. Fast internal marker tracking algorithm for onboard MV and kV imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Mao, W.; Wiersma, R. D.; Xing, L.

    2008-01-01

    Intrafraction organ motion can limit the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) due to target position uncertainty. To ensure high accuracy in beam targeting, real-time knowledge of the target location is highly desired throughout the beam delivery process. This knowledge can be gained through imaging of internally implanted radio-opaque markers with fluoroscopic or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). In the case of MV based images, marker detection can be problematic due to the significantly lower contrast between different materials in comparison to their kV-based counterparts. This work presents a fully automated algorithm capable of detecting implanted metallic markers in both kV and MV images with high consistency. Using prior CT information, the algorithm predefines the volumetric search space without manual region-of-interest (ROI) selection by the user. Depending on the template selected, both spherical and cylindrical markers can be detected. Multiple markers can be simultaneously tracked without indexing confusion. Phantom studies show detection success rates of 100% for both kV and MV image data. In addition, application of the algorithm to real patient image data results in successful detection of all implanted markers for MV images. Near real-time operational speeds of ∼10 frames∕sec for the detection of five markers in a 1024×768 image are accomplished using an ordinary PC workstation. PMID:18561670

  15. Expanding Support for Education in Fragile States: What Role for the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrent, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The new international aid architecture was established to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development aid by emphasising country ownership, alignment with national priorities and the harmonisation of donor processes. These features are evident in the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative [EFA-FTI], a global partnership between donor…

  16. Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al

  17. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  18. Fast, automatic, and accurate catheter reconstruction in HDR brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Eric; Racine, Emmanuel; Beaulieu, Luc; Binnekamp, Dirk

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this technical note is to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for automated and real-time catheter reconstruction. Methods: For this preclinical study, a total of ten catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a 18G biopsy needle, used as an EM stylet and equipped with a miniaturized sensor, and the second generation Aurora{sup ®} Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system provides position and orientation value with precisions of 0.7 mm and 0.2°, respectively. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical computed tomography (CT) system with a spatial resolution of 89 μm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, five catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 s, leading to a total reconstruction time inferior to 3 min for a typical 17-catheter implant. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.66 ± 0.33 mm and 1.08 ± 0.72 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be more accurate. A maximum difference of less than 0.6 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusions: The EM reconstruction was found to be more accurate and precise than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators.

  19. Monitoring Fast-Moving Landslide in the Three Gorges Area By Offset Tracking Method with High-Resolution SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L.; Balz, T.

    2014-12-01

    Landslide has long been considered as a major geological hazard with great threats to local residents and social economic developments within the Three Gorges area, China. With the regular operation of Three Gorges Dam since 2009, the reservoir water level undergoes an annual cycle from 145 m in early summer to 175 m in early winter caused by storage and discharge operations. Consequently, many ancient landslides were activated by such large variations of water level. One of typical examples is the famous Shuping landslide located in Zigui County. To reduce the risks of landslide collapse, long-term monitoring of ground surface deformation must be carried out. Terrestrial surveillance like GPS and extensometer have been installed at Shuping in 2003. Although these methods can achieve highly accurate displacement measurements, only sparse points can be observed, which is far from the requirement of monitoring vast reservoir area coverage. For such a vast and inaccessible area, D-InSAR and PS-InSAR can measure long-term and continuous displacement trends. Nevertheless, it has been revealed by several studies that InSAR can hardly retrieve accurate deformation signal on fast-moving landslides such as Shuping. Therefore, we further investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of pixel offset tracking (POT) method to detect fast-moving with high-resolution SAR data. One of the key points is to estimate displacement at each pixel through subpixel-level SAR image matching. In order to tackle the difficulties of using traditional POT technique, the point-like target offset tracking (PTOT) is developed. By making use of point-like targets with stable backscattering behavior over long time span, PTOT method is can achieve more reliable results with accuracies at 1/20 of SAR pixel resolution. More importantly, PTOT method can measure two-dimensional displacements, i.e. in both azimuth and slant range direction, while InSAR can measure displacement only along the line

  20. SU-E-J-206: A Comparison of Different Hardware Design Approaches for Feature-Supported Optical Head-Tracking with Respect to Angular Dependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Stueber, P; Wissel, T; Wagner, B; Bruder, R; Schweikard, A; Ernst, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Recent research has shown that optical features significantly improve marker-less optical head-tracking for cranial radiotherapy. Simulations, however, showed that these optical features, which are used to derive tissue thickness, depend on the incident angle of the IR scanning laser beam and the perspective of the camera analyzing the reflective patterns. We present an experimental analysis determining which is the most robust optical setup concerning angular influences. Methods: In three consecutive experiments, the incident angle of the laser (1), the perspective of the camera (2) or both simultaneously (3, ‘inBeam’-perspective) were changed with respect to the target. We analyzed how this affects feature intensity. These intensities were determined from seven concentric regions of interest (ROIs) around the laser spot. Two targets were used: a tissue-like silicone phantom and a human's forehead. Results: For each experiment, the feature intensity generally decreases with increasing angle. We found that the optical properties of the silicone phantom do not fit the properties of human skin. Furthermore, the angular influence of the laser on the features is significantly higher than the perspective of the camera. With the ‘inBeam’- perspective, the smoothest decays of feature intensity were found. We suppose that this is because of a fixed relationship between both devices. This smoothness, suggesting a predictable functional relationship, may simplify angle compensation for machine learning algorithms. This is particularly prominent for the medial ROIs. The inner ROIs highly depend on the angle and power of the laser. The outer ROIs show less angular dependency but the signal strength is critically low and prone to artifacts. Therefore and because of the smooth decays, medial ROIs are a suitable tradeoff between susceptibility, signal-noise-ratio and distance to the center of the laser spot. Conclusion: For tissue thickness correlated feature

  1. Rapid and complete hitless defragmentation method using a coherent RX LO with fast wavelength tracking in elastic optical networks.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Roberto; Qin, Chuan; Guan, Binbin; Yin, Yawei; Scott, Ryan P; Yu, Runxiang; Yoo, S J B

    2012-11-19

    This paper demonstrates a rapid and full hitless defragmentation method in elastic optical networks exploiting a new technique for fast wavelength tracking in coherent receivers. This technique can be applied to a single-carrier connection or each of the subcarriers forming a super-channel. A proof-of-concept demonstration shows hitless defragmentation of a 10 Gb/s QPSK single-carrier connection from 1547.75 nm to 1550.1 nm in less than 1 µs. This was obtained using a small (0.625 kB) link-layer transmitter buffer without the need for any additional transponder. We also demonstrated that the proposed defragmentation technique is capable of hopping over an existing connection, i.e. 10 Gb/s OOK at 1548.5 nm, without causing any degradation of its real-time Bit Error Rate (BER) value. The proposed scheme gives advantages in terms of overall network blocking probability reduction up to a factor of 40. PMID:23187551

  2. Stroke fast track reduces time delay to neuroimaging and increases use of thrombolysis in an academic medical center in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ratanakorn, Disya; Keandoungchun, Jesada; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares; Laothamatas, Jiraporn; Tegeler, Charles H

    2012-01-01

    Delays between hospital arrival and neuroimaging prevented patients from receiving thrombolysis. We report impact of Stroke Fast Track (SFT) on time to imaging, and rates of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in eligible patients. Characteristics, time intervals, and rates of rt-PA were evaluated in 464 patients with suspected acute stroke within 7 days (2005-2006). Complete time intervals were available on 380. Median times between emergency room arrival, brain computerized tomography (CT), and CT results were 25 and 45 minutes, respectively, for patients arriving <3 hours from onset, 40, and 65 minutes for those arriving >3 hours, and 35 and 60 minutes for all patients, which is significantly shorter than 2.5 hours to CT in 2004, prior to SFT (P < .0001). Although not different in time to first physician, patients arriving >3 hours had longer times to CT and CT results (P < .001). Overall, 5.5% of ischemic stroke patients received intravenous rt-PA, including 27.1% of those arriving within 3 hours, which represented 100% of all eligible patients, compared with 0% in 2004. SFT reduced time delay in neuroimaging and increased use of rt-PA in Thailand. Continuous quality improvement is needed to achieve best results in each setting, and to insure optimal care for acute stroke patients.

  3. School Outcomes of Aggressive-Disruptive Children: Prediction From Kindergarten Risk Factors and Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1–4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7–10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes. PMID:23386568

  4. Trajectories of Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Early Substance Use in the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit early-starting conduct problems are more likely than their peers to initiate sexual activity and substance use at an early age, experience pregnancy, and contract a sexually-transmitted disease [STD], placing them at risk for HIV/AIDS. Hence, understanding the development of multi-problem profiles among youth with early-starting conduct problems may benefit the design of prevention programs. In this study, 1,199 kindergarten children (51 % African American; 47 % European American; 69 % boys) over-sampled for high rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior problems were followed through age 18. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to define developmental profiles associated with the timing of initiation of sexual activity, tobacco and alcohol/drug use and indicators of risky adolescent sex (e.g. pregnancy and STD). Half of the high-risk children were randomized to a multi-component preventive intervention (Fast Track). The intervention did not significantly reduce membership in the classes characterized by risky sex practices. However, additional analyses examined predictors of poor outcomes, which may inform future prevention efforts. PMID:23417666

  5. School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the fast track prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1-4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7-10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes.

  6. School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the fast track prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1-4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7-10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes. PMID:23386568

  7. On the Fast Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Northeastern University's continuing-education division is being rejuvenated with market research, faculty involvement, and a non-traditional approach under its new vice president Christopher E. Hopey. The college shifted its emphasis from undergraduates to graduate and certificate programs aimed at working professionals, resulting in a 20 percent…

  8. Fast Tracks to Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. H.

    It is often assumed that the evolution of intelligence is inevitable, given the self-organizing seen in dissapative systems and the gradual shaping-up of Darwinism. While compound-interest reasoning suggests that small advantages will eventually triumph, eventually may be a very long time: there are few examples of rapid brain growth, suggesting that "smarter-is-better" is not a potent force for evolution.

  9. Role of epidural anesthesia in a fast track liver resection protocol for cirrhotic patients - results after three years of practice

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gamberini, Lorenzo; Bardi, Tommaso; Laici, Cristiana; Gamberini, Elisa; Francorsi, Letizia; Faenza, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the potential benefits and risks of the use of epidural anaesthesia within an enhanced recovery protocol in this specific subpopulation. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted, including all cirrhotic patients who underwent open liver resection between January 2013 and December 2015 at Bologna University Hospital. Patients with an abnormal coagulation profile contraindicating the placement of an epidural catheter were excluded from the analysis. The control group was composed by patients refusing epidural anaesthesia. RESULTS Of the 183 cirrhotic patients undergoing open liver resections, 57 had contraindications to the placement of an epidural catheter; of the remaining 126, 86 patients received general anaesthesia and 40 combined anaesthesia. The two groups presented homogeneous characteristics. Intraoperatively the metabolic data did not differ between the two groups, whilst the epidural group had a lower mean arterial pressure (P = 0.041) and received more colloid infusions (P = 0.007). Postoperative liver and kidney function did not differ significantly. Length of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.003) and hospital stay (P = 0.032) were significantly lower in the epidural group. No complications related to the epidural catheter placement or removal was recorded. CONCLUSION The use of Epidural Anaesthesia within a fast track protocol for cirrhotic patients undergoing liver resections had a positive impact on the patient’s outcomes and comfort as demonstrated by a significantly lower length of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay in the epidural group. The technique appears to be safely manageable in this fragile population even though these results need confirmation in larger studies. PMID:27660677

  10. Fast-track surgery protocol in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guozheng; Jian, Fengguo; Wang, Xiuqin; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the efficacy of the fast-track surgery (FTS) program combined with laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for elderly gastric cancer (GC) patients. Methods Eighty-four elderly patients diagnosed with GC between September 2014 and August 2015 were recruited to participate in this study and were divided into four groups randomly based on the random number table as follows: FTS + laparoscopic group (Group A, n=21), FTS + laparotomy group (Group B, n=21), conventional perioperative care (CC) + laparoscopic group (Group C, n=21), and CC + laparotomy group (Group D, n=21). Observation indicators include intrasurgery indicators, postoperative recovery indicators, nutritional status indicators, and systemic stress response indicators. Results Preoperative and intraoperative baseline characteristics showed no significant differences between patients in each group (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between each group in nausea and vomiting, intestinal obstruction, urinary retention, incision infection, pulmonary infection, and urinary tract infection after operation (P>0.05). Time of first flatus and postoperative hospital stay time of FTS Group A were the shortest, and total medical cost of this group was the lowest. For all groups, serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin significantly decreased, while CRP and interleukin 6 were significantly increased postoperative day 1. From postoperative day 4–7, all indicators of the four groups gradually recovered, but compared with other three groups, those of Group A recovered fastest. Conclusion FTS combined with laparoscopic surgery can promote faster postoperative recovery, improve early postoperative nutritional status, and more effectively reduce postoperative stress reaction, and hence is safe and effective for elderly GC patients. PMID:27330314

  11. Fast Track Reservoir Modeling of Shale Formations in the Appalachian Basin. Application to Lower Huron Shale in Eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Grujic, Ognjen; Mohaghegh, Shahab; Bromhal, Grant

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a fast track reservoir modeling and analysis of the Lower Huron Shale in Eastern Kentucky is presented. Unlike conventional reservoir simulation and modeling which is a bottom up approach (geo-cellular model to history matching) this new approach starts by attempting to build a reservoir realization from well production history (Top to Bottom), augmented by core, well-log, well-test and seismic data in order to increase accuracy. This approach requires creation of a large spatial-temporal database that is efficiently handled with state of the art Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining techniques (AI & DM), and therefore it represents an elegant integration of reservoir engineering techniques with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining. Advantages of this new technique are a) ease of development, b) limited data requirement (as compared to reservoir simulation), and c) speed of analysis. All of the 77 wells used in this study are completed in the Lower Huron Shale and are a part of the Big Sandy Gas field in Eastern Kentucky. Most of the wells have production profiles for more than twenty years. Porosity and thickness data was acquired from the available well logs, while permeability, natural fracture network properties, and fracture aperture data was acquired through a single well history matching process that uses the FRACGEN/NFFLOW simulator package. This technology, known as Top-Down Intelligent Reservoir Modeling, starts with performing conventional reservoir engineering analysis on individual wells such as decline curve analysis and volumetric reserves estimation. Statistical techniques along with information generated from the reservoir engineering analysis contribute to an extensive spatio-temporal database of reservoir behavior. The database is used to develop a cohesive model of the field using fuzzy pattern recognition or similar techniques. The reservoir model is calibrated (history matched) with production history from the most recently

  12. Fast-track surgery and exclusive enteral nutrition applied to a rat model of heterotopic intestinal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    XU, XINGWEI; FENG, TAO; GAO, XIN; ZHAO, XIN; LIAO, YANNIAN; JI, WU

    2016-01-01

    The present study applied fast-track surgery (FTS) concepts and exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) to a rat model of heterotopic intestinal transplantation (HIT). A total of 96 pairs of Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into three groups, as follows: i) The conventional group (group 1); ii) the FTS group (group 2); and iii) the FTS with EEN group (EEN group). FTS alterations to the HIT protocol were as follows: i) The use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic; ii) alterations to the order of the procedure and iii) a modified suturing technique. In addition, the EEN group rats underwent an early EEN gavage. The operation time, success rate, recovery state and morphological characteristics of the grafts were compared among the groups. The average operative time was significantly decreased in the group 2 and EEN group rats (137.44±16.03 and 139.67±15.25 min, respectively), as compared with the group 1 rats (169.36±13.72 min; P<0.05). In addition, the percentage of rats surviving >14 days was significantly increased in the group 2 (87.5%) and EEN group (90.6%) rats, as compared with the group 1 rats (68.7%; P<0.05). Furthermore, the villi of graft in EEN group appeared longer, and exhibited narrower interspaces. The ischemia-reperfusion injury and mononuclear cell infiltration were attenuated at postoperative day 7. The results of the present study suggested that the application of FTS concepts and EEN gavage to HIT may accelerate recovery and ameliorate graft damage following surgery. PMID:26998015

  13. Role of epidural anesthesia in a fast track liver resection protocol for cirrhotic patients - results after three years of practice

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gamberini, Lorenzo; Bardi, Tommaso; Laici, Cristiana; Gamberini, Elisa; Francorsi, Letizia; Faenza, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the potential benefits and risks of the use of epidural anaesthesia within an enhanced recovery protocol in this specific subpopulation. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted, including all cirrhotic patients who underwent open liver resection between January 2013 and December 2015 at Bologna University Hospital. Patients with an abnormal coagulation profile contraindicating the placement of an epidural catheter were excluded from the analysis. The control group was composed by patients refusing epidural anaesthesia. RESULTS Of the 183 cirrhotic patients undergoing open liver resections, 57 had contraindications to the placement of an epidural catheter; of the remaining 126, 86 patients received general anaesthesia and 40 combined anaesthesia. The two groups presented homogeneous characteristics. Intraoperatively the metabolic data did not differ between the two groups, whilst the epidural group had a lower mean arterial pressure (P = 0.041) and received more colloid infusions (P = 0.007). Postoperative liver and kidney function did not differ significantly. Length of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.003) and hospital stay (P = 0.032) were significantly lower in the epidural group. No complications related to the epidural catheter placement or removal was recorded. CONCLUSION The use of Epidural Anaesthesia within a fast track protocol for cirrhotic patients undergoing liver resections had a positive impact on the patient’s outcomes and comfort as demonstrated by a significantly lower length of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay in the epidural group. The technique appears to be safely manageable in this fragile population even though these results need confirmation in larger studies.

  14. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  15. The impact of the Medicines Control Council backlog and fast-track review system on access to innovative and new generic and biosimilar medicines of public health importance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leng, Henry Martin John; Pollock, Allyson M; Sanders, David

    2016-03-17

    The fast-track registration policy of the South African National Department of Health allows for rapid registration of new medicines of public health importance and of all medicines on the Essential Medicines List, most of which are generics. No limit is placed on the number of generic brands of a medicine that can be submitted for fast-track registration. This, together with resource constraints at the regulator, may delay access to important new medicines, new fixed-dose combinations of critical medicines or affordable versions of biological medicines (biosimilars). One reason for not limiting the number of fast-track generic applications was to promote price competition among generic brands. We found this not to be valid, since market share correlated poorly with price. Generic brands with high market share were, mostly, those that were registered first. We propose that the number of generic brands accepted for fast-tracking be limited to not more than seven per medicine.

  16. The impact of the Medicines Control Council backlog and fast-track review system on access to innovative and new generic and biosimilar medicines of public health importance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leng, Henry Martin John; Pollock, Allyson M; Sanders, David

    2016-04-01

    The fast-track registration policy of the South African National Department of Health allows for rapid registration of new medicines of public health importance and of all medicines on the Essential Medicines List, most of which are generics. No limit is placed on the number of generic brands of a medicine that can be submitted for fast-track registration. This, together with resource constraints at the regulator, may delay access to important new medicines, new fixed-dose combinations of critical medicines or affordable versions of biological medicines (biosimilars). One reason for not limiting the number of fast-track generic applications was to promote price competition among generic brands. We found this not to be valid, since market share correlated poorly with price. Generic brands with high market share were, mostly, those that were registered first. We propose that the number of generic brands accepted for fast-tracking be limited to not more than seven per medicine. PMID:27032846

  17. How Fast Is Your Body Motion? Determining a Sufficient Frame Rate for an Optical Motion Tracking System Using Passive Markers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Ho; Godøy, Rolf Inge

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how to determine a sufficient frame (sampling) rate for an optical motion tracking system using passive reflective markers. When using passive markers for the optical motion tracking, avoiding identity confusion between the markers becomes a problem as the speed of motion increases, necessitating a higher frame rate to avoid a failure of the motion tracking caused by marker confusions and/or dropouts. Initially, one might believe that the Nyquist-Shannon sampling rate estimated from the assumed maximal temporal variation of a motion (i.e. a sampling rate at least twice that of the maximum motion frequency) could be the complete solution to the problem. However, this paper shows that also the spatial distance between the markers should be taken into account in determining the suitable frame rate of an optical motion tracking with passive markers. In this paper, a frame rate criterion for the optical tracking using passive markers is theoretically derived and also experimentally verified using a high-quality optical motion tracking system. Both the theoretical and the experimental results showed that the minimum frame rate is proportional to the ratio between the maximum speed of the motion and the minimum spacing between markers, and may also be predicted precisely if the proportional constant is known in advance. The inverse of the proportional constant is here defined as the tracking efficiency constant and it can be easily determined with some test measurements. Moreover, this newly defined constant can provide a new way of evaluating the tracking algorithm performance of an optical tracking system. PMID:26967900

  18. Hardware Controller DNA Synthesizer

    1995-07-27

    The program controls the operation of various hardware components of an automatic 12-channel parrallel oligosynthesizer. This involves accepting information regarding the DNA sequence to be generated and converting this into a series of instructions to I/O ports to actuate the appropriate hardware components. The design and function of the software is specific to a particular hardware platform and has no utility for controlling other configurations.

  19. The study of control methods in opto-electronic tracking technology for fast object with horizontal gimbal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-jun; Liu, Qiong; Mao, Yao

    2015-10-01

    It is inevitable that tracking high-elevation object exists blind region with horizontal gimbal, need to take some control methods to improve the system for high-elevation target tracking capability and reduce the blind region. This paper compares several common tracking control methods, including compound axis control of dual detector, compound axis control of single detector, compound axis control of single detector with modified guidance, analyzes the principle of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and validates by experiments. The experimental results showed that it is stable and reliable using guide modified compound axis control of single detector when the target position information is more accurate. On the other hand, it is able to meet the needs to track target with high speed and high acceleration using improved compound axis control of single detector when the target position information is not very accurate.

  20. What Is Required to End the AIDS Epidemic as a Public Health Threat by 2030? The Cost and Impact of the Fast-Track Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stover, John; Bollinger, Lori; Izazola, Jose Antonio; Loures, Luiz; DeLay, Paul; Ghys, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually—far from the UNAIDS goal of ending AIDS by 2030. In response, UNAIDS has developed the Fast-Track approach that is intended to provide a roadmap to the actions required to achieve this goal. The Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up of focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 5 years and then maintaining a high level of programme implementation until 2030. Fast-Track aims to reduce new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% from 2010 to 2030 and proposes a set of biomedical, behavioral and enabling intervention targets for 2020 and 2030 to achieve that goal, including the rapid scale-up initiative for antiretroviral treatment known as 90-90-90. Compared to a counterfactual scenario of constant coverage for all services at early-2015 levels, the Fast-Track approach would avert 18 million HIV infections and 11 million deaths from 2016 to 2030 globally. This paper describes the analysis that produced these targets and the estimated resources needed to achieve them in low- and middle-income countries. It indicates that it is possible to achieve these goals with a significant push to achieve rapid scale-up of key interventions between now and 2020. The annual resources required from all sources would rise to US$7.4Bn in low-income countries, US$8.2Bn in lower middle-income countries and US$10.5Bn in upper-middle-income-countries by 2020 before declining

  1. Fast and accurate calibration of an X-ray imager to an electromagnetic tracking system for interventional cardiac procedures.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andrew; Stanton, Douglas; Parthasarathy, Vijay; Jain, Ameet

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease affects millions of Americans each year. Interventional guidance systems are being developed as treatment options for some of the more delicate procedures, including targeted stem cell therapy. As advanced systems for such types of interventional guidance are being developed, electromagnetic (EM) tracking is coming in demand to perform navigation. To use this EM tracking technology, a calibration is necessary to register the tracker to the imaging system. In this paper we investigate the calibration of an X-ray imaging system to EM tracking. Two specially designed calibration phantoms have been designed for this purpose, each having a rigidly attached EM sensor. From a clinical usability point-of-view, we propose to divide this calibration problem into two steps: i) in initial calibration of the EM sensor to the phantom design using an EM tracked needle to trace out grooves in the phantom surface and ii) segmentation from X-ray images and 3D reconstruction of beads embedded in the phantom in a known geometric pattern. Combining these two steps yields and X-ray-to-EM calibration accuracy of less than 1 mm when overlaying an EM tracked needle on X-ray images.

  2. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  3. Adaptive welding of fillet welds using a fast seam-tracking sensor in combination with a standard industrial robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischetsrieder, Alexandra

    1996-08-01

    In laser welding, problems often arise from the accuracy required by the laser process, particularly where joints have narrow tolerance limits, e.g. with a fillet weld at an overlap joint. In a number of applications seam-tracking sensors can improve this situation. They are able to detect and follow the joint geometry autonomously. In addition to the tolerances, a varying gap between the parts to weld can cause welding flaws. To solve the problems caused by the height of the gap a functionality for adaptive welding can be integrated into the tracking sensor, rendering possible a determined influence on process parameters. Functional dependencies between the height of the gap and the welding parameters are presented in this paper. To further enhance the accuracy of path tracking the dynamic behavior of the system is investigated. With the integration of these dependencies into the tracking sensor, an algorithm for adaptive welding has been obtained, which takes another step towards the raise of profitability of laser installations by a simplified weld seam preparation and an enhanced stability of the welding process.

  4. Eruptions on the fast track: application of Particle Tracking Velocimetry algorithms to visual and thermal high-speed videos of Strombolian explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Monica, Moroni; Jacopo, Taddeucci; Luca, Shindler; Piergiorgio, Scarlato

    2013-04-01

    Strombolian eruptions are characterized by mild, frequent explosions that eject gas and ash- to bomb-sized pyroclasts into the atmosphere. Studying these explosions is crucial, both for direct hazard assessment and for understanding eruption dynamics. Conventional thermal and optical imaging already allows characterizing several eruptive processes, but the quantification of key parameters linked to magma properties and conduit processes requires acquiring images at higher frequency. For example, high speed imaging already demonstrated how the size and the pressure of the gas bubble are linked to the decay of the ejection velocity of the particles, and the origin of the bombs, either fresh or recycled material, could be linked to their thermal evolution. However, the manual processing of the images is time consuming. Consequently, it does not allows neither the routine monitoring nor averaged statistics, since only a few relevant particles - usually the fastest - of a few explosions can be taken into account. In order to understand the dynamics of strombolian eruption, and particularly their cyclic behavior, the quantification of the total mass, heat and energy discharge are a crucial point. In this study, we use a Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithm jointly to traditional images processing to automatically extract the above parameters from visible and thermal high-speed videos of individual Strombolian explosions. PTV is an analysis technique where each single particle is detected and tracked during a series of images. Velocity, acceleration, and temperature can then be deduced and time averaged to get an extensive overview of each explosion. The suitability of PTV and its potential limitations in term of detection and representativity is investigated in various explosions of Stromboli (Italy), Yasur (Vanuatu) and Fuego (Guatemala) volcanoes. On most event, multiple sub-explosion are visible. In each sub-explosion, trends are noticeable : (1) the ejection

  5. Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test Sets and Networks Integration Management Office Testing for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

  6. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  7. Bion 11 mission hardware.

    PubMed

    Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Skidmore, M G; Hines, J W; Kozlovskaya, I B; Korolkov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The mission hardware provided for Bion 11 shared primate experiments included the launch vehicle, biosatellite, spaceflight operational systems, spacecraft recovery systems, life support systems, bioinstrumentation, and data collection systems. Under the unique Russia/US bilateral contract, the sides worked together to ensure the reliability and quality of hardware supporting the primate experiments. Parameters recorded inflight covered biophysical, biochemical, biopotential, environmental, and system operational status.

  8. The EDRO Board Connected to the Associative Memory: a “Baby” FastTracKer Processor for the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annovi, A.; Beretta, M.; Bevacqua, V.; Cervigni, F.; Crescioli, F.; Fabbri, L.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, F.; Magalotti, D.; Negri, A.; Piendibene, M.; Roda, C.; Sbarra, C.; Villa, M.; Vitillo, R. A.; Volpi, G.

    The FastTracKer (FTK), a hardware dedicated processor, performs fast and precise online full track reconstruction at the ATLAS experiment, within an average latency of few dozens of microseconds. Before production of the final system for tracking in high-occupancy conditions with the best of available technology, we plan to use existing prototypes of the FTK hardware to exercise its functions in the ATLAS environment. We describe the "baby FTK", consisting of a few hardware elements implementing the first stages of the system, and discuss our plans to grow the system into a full-functionality FTK "vertical slice" covering a small projective wedge of the detector. We report on the performances and structure of the "baby FTK", including the pixel/strip hit clustering (clustering mezzanine), hit organization and distribution (EDRO) and the Associative Memory pattern recognition function. We describe briefly also the possible future evolution including the addition of the Track Fitter.

  9. Fast, Label-Free Tracking of Single Viruses and Weakly Scattering Nanoparticles in a Nanofluidic Optical Fiber.

    PubMed

    Faez, Sanli; Lahini, Yoav; Weidlich, Stefan; Garmann, Rees F; Wondraczek, Katrin; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Markus A; Orrit, Michel; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2015-12-22

    High-speed tracking of single particles is a gateway to understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes at the nanoscale. It is also a major experimental challenge, particularly for small, nanometer-scale particles. Although methods such as confocal or fluorescence microscopy offer both high spatial resolution and high signal-to-background ratios, the fluorescence emission lifetime limits the measurement speed, while photobleaching and thermal diffusion limit the duration of measurements. Here we present a tracking method based on elastic light scattering that enables long-duration measurements of nanoparticle dynamics at rates of thousands of frames per second. We contain the particles within a single-mode silica fiber having a subwavelength, nanofluidic channel and illuminate them using the fiber's strongly confined optical mode. The diffusing particles in this cylindrical geometry are continuously illuminated inside the collection focal plane. We show that the method can track unlabeled dielectric particles as small as 20 nm as well as individual cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) virions-26 nm in size and 4.6 megadaltons in mass-at rates of over 3 kHz for durations of tens of seconds. Our setup is easily incorporated into common optical microscopes and extends their detection range to nanometer-scale particles and macromolecules. The ease-of-use and performance of this technique support its potential for widespread applications in medical diagnostics and micro total analysis systems. PMID:26505649

  10. Airborne optical tracking control system design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The Kestrel LOS Tracking Program involves the development of a computer and algorithms for use in passive tracking of airborne targets from a high altitude balloon platform. The computer receivers track error signals from a video tracker connected to one of the imaging sensors. In addition, an on-board IRU (gyro), accelerometers, a magnetometer, and a two-axis inclinometer provide inputs which are used for initial acquisitions and course and fine tracking. Signals received by the control processor from the video tracker, IRU, accelerometers, magnetometer, and inclinometer are utilized by the control processor to generate drive signals for the payload azimuth drive, the Gimballed Mirror System (GMS), and the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM). The hardware which will be procured under the LOS tracking activity is the Controls Processor (CP), the IRU, and the FSM. The performance specifications for the GMS and the payload canister azimuth driver are established by the LOS tracking design team in an effort to achieve a tracking jitter of less than 3 micro-rad, 1 sigma for one axis.

  11. Fast ion conductivity in strained defect-fluorite structure created by ion tracks in Gd2Ti2O7

    DOE PAGES

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-10

    The structure and ion-conducting properties of the defect-fluorite ring structure formed around amorphous ion-tracks by swift heavy ion irradiation of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore are investigated. High angle annular dark field imaging complemented with ion-track molecular dynamics simulations show that the atoms in the ring structure are disordered, and have relatively larger cation-cation interspacing than in the bulk pyrochlore, illustrating the presence of tensile strain in the ring region. Density functional theory calculations show that the non-equilibrium defect-fluorite structure can be stabilized by tensile strain. The pyrochlore to defect-fluorite structure transformation in the ring region is predicted to be induced by recrystallizationmore » during a melt-quench process and stabilized by tensile strain. Static pair-potential calculations show that planar tensile strain lowers oxygen vacancy migration barriers in pyrochlores, in agreement with recent studies on fluorite and perovskite materials. Lastly, in view of these results, it is suggested that strain engineering could be simultaneously used to stabilize the defect-fluorite structure and gain control over its high ion-conducting properties.« less

  12. Fast ion conductivity in strained defect-fluorite structure created by ion tracks in Gd2Ti2O7

    PubMed Central

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The structure and ion-conducting properties of the defect-fluorite ring structure formed around amorphous ion-tracks by swift heavy ion irradiation of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore are investigated. High angle annular dark field imaging complemented with ion-track molecular dynamics simulations show that the atoms in the ring structure are disordered, and have relatively larger cation-cation interspacing than in the bulk pyrochlore, illustrating the presence of tensile strain in the ring region. Density functional theory calculations show that the non-equilibrium defect-fluorite structure can be stabilized by tensile strain. The pyrochlore to defect-fluorite structure transformation in the ring region is predicted to be induced by recrystallization during a melt-quench process and stabilized by tensile strain. Static pair-potential calculations show that planar tensile strain lowers oxygen vacancy migration barriers in pyrochlores, in agreement with recent studies on fluorite and perovskite materials. In view of these results, it is suggested that strain engineering could be simultaneously used to stabilize the defect-fluorite structure and gain control over its high ion-conducting properties. PMID:26555848

  13. Fast ion conductivity in strained defect-fluorite structure created by ion tracks in Gd2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-01

    The structure and ion-conducting properties of the defect-fluorite ring structure formed around amorphous ion-tracks by swift heavy ion irradiation of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore are investigated. High angle annular dark field imaging complemented with ion-track molecular dynamics simulations show that the atoms in the ring structure are disordered, and have relatively larger cation-cation interspacing than in the bulk pyrochlore, illustrating the presence of tensile strain in the ring region. Density functional theory calculations show that the non-equilibrium defect-fluorite structure can be stabilized by tensile strain. The pyrochlore to defect-fluorite structure transformation in the ring region is predicted to be induced by recrystallization during a melt-quench process and stabilized by tensile strain. Static pair-potential calculations show that planar tensile strain lowers oxygen vacancy migration barriers in pyrochlores, in agreement with recent studies on fluorite and perovskite materials. In view of these results, it is suggested that strain engineering could be simultaneously used to stabilize the defect-fluorite structure and gain control over its high ion-conducting properties.

  14. Fast ion conductivity in strained defect-fluorite structure created by ion tracks in Gd2Ti2O7.

    PubMed

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli; Chisholm, Matthew F; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2015-11-10

    The structure and ion-conducting properties of the defect-fluorite ring structure formed around amorphous ion-tracks by swift heavy ion irradiation of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore are investigated. High angle annular dark field imaging complemented with ion-track molecular dynamics simulations show that the atoms in the ring structure are disordered, and have relatively larger cation-cation interspacing than in the bulk pyrochlore, illustrating the presence of tensile strain in the ring region. Density functional theory calculations show that the non-equilibrium defect-fluorite structure can be stabilized by tensile strain. The pyrochlore to defect-fluorite structure transformation in the ring region is predicted to be induced by recrystallization during a melt-quench process and stabilized by tensile strain. Static pair-potential calculations show that planar tensile strain lowers oxygen vacancy migration barriers in pyrochlores, in agreement with recent studies on fluorite and perovskite materials. In view of these results, it is suggested that strain engineering could be simultaneously used to stabilize the defect-fluorite structure and gain control over its high ion-conducting properties.

  15. New Fast Fall Detection Method Based on Spatio-Temporal Context Tracking of Head by Using Depth Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Ren, Yanyun; Hu, Huosheng; Tian, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In order to deal with the problem of projection occurring in fall detection with two-dimensional (2D) grey or color images, this paper proposed a robust fall detection method based on spatio-temporal context tracking over three-dimensional (3D) depth images that are captured by the Kinect sensor. In the pre-processing procedure, the parameters of the Single-Gauss-Model (SGM) are estimated and the coefficients of the floor plane equation are extracted from the background images. Once human subject appears in the scene, the silhouette is extracted by SGM and the foreground coefficient of ellipses is used to determine the head position. The dense spatio-temporal context (STC) algorithm is then applied to track the head position and the distance from the head to floor plane is calculated in every following frame of the depth image. When the distance is lower than an adaptive threshold, the centroid height of the human will be used as the second judgment criteria to decide whether a fall incident happened. Lastly, four groups of experiments with different falling directions are performed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect fall incidents that occurred in different orientations, and they only need a low computation complexity. PMID:26378540

  16. New Fast Fall Detection Method Based on Spatio-Temporal Context Tracking of Head by Using Depth Images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Ren, Yanyun; Hu, Huosheng; Tian, Bo

    2015-09-11

    In order to deal with the problem of projection occurring in fall detection with two-dimensional (2D) grey or color images, this paper proposed a robust fall detection method based on spatio-temporal context tracking over three-dimensional (3D) depth images that are captured by the Kinect sensor. In the pre-processing procedure, the parameters of the Single-Gauss-Model (SGM) are estimated and the coefficients of the floor plane equation are extracted from the background images. Once human subject appears in the scene, the silhouette is extracted by SGM and the foreground coefficient of ellipses is used to determine the head position. The dense spatio-temporal context (STC) algorithm is then applied to track the head position and the distance from the head to floor plane is calculated in every following frame of the depth image. When the distance is lower than an adaptive threshold, the centroid height of the human will be used as the second judgment criteria to decide whether a fall incident happened. Lastly, four groups of experiments with different falling directions are performed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect fall incidents that occurred in different orientations, and they only need a low computation complexity.

  17. Skylab biomedical hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffstetler, W. J., Jr.; Lem, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The development of hardware to support biomedical experimentation and operations in the Skylab vehicle presented unique technical problems. Designs were required to enable the accurate measurement of many varied physiological parameters and to compensate for zero g such that uninhibited equipment operation would be possible. Because of problems that occurred during the orbital workshop launch, special tests were run and new equipment was designed and built for use by the first Skylab crew. Design concepts used in the development of hardware to support cardiovascular, pulmonary, vestibular, body, and specimen mass measuring experiments are discussed. Additionally, major problem areas and the corresponding design solutions, as well as knowledge gained that will be pertinent for future life sciences hardware development, are presented.

  18. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal. PMID:10535230

  19. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal.

  20. Safety profile of fast-track extubation in pediatric congenital heart disease surgery patients in a tertiary care hospital of a developing country: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mohammad Irfan; Hamid, Mohammad; Minai, Fauzia; Wali, Amina Rehmat; Anwar-ul-Haq; Aman-Ullah, Muneer; Ahsan, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Early extubation after cardiac operations is an important aspect of fast-track cardiac anesthesia. In order to reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of prolonged ventilation in pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD) surgical patients, the concept of early extubation has been analyzed at our tertiary care hospital. The current study was carried out to record the data to validate the importance and safety of fast-track extubation (FTE) with evidence. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 patients, including male and female aged 6 months to 18 years belonging to risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery-1 category 1, 2, and 3 were included in this study. All patients were anesthetized with a standardized technique and surgery performed by the same surgeon. At the end of operation, the included patients were assessed for FTE and standard extubation criteria were used for decision making. Results: Of the total 71 patients included in the study, 26 patients (36.62%) were extubated in the operating room, 29 (40.85%) were extubated within 6 h of arrival in cardiovascular intensive care unit and 16 (22.54%) were unable to get extubated within 6 h due to multiple reasons. Hence, overall success rate was 77.47%. The reasons for delayed extubation were significant bleeding in 5 (31.3%) cases, hemodynamic instability (low cardiac output syndrome) in 4 (25%) cases, respiratory complication in 2 (12.5%), bleeding plus hemodynamic instability in 2 (12.5) cases, hemodynamic instability, and respiratory complication in 2 (12.5%) cases and triad of hemodynamic instability, bleeding and respiratory complication in 1 (6.5%) case. There was no reintubation in the FTE cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the current study results, it is recommended to use FTE in pediatric CHD surgical patients safely with multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25190943

  1. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  2. Sled tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, George A., Jr.; Fountain, Hubert W.; Riding, Thomas J.; Eggleston, James; Hopkins, Michael; Adams, Billy

    1991-08-01

    The Sled Tracking System (STS) represents the successful merger of several technologies, including IR and visual sensors, real-time image processing, and real-time data processing and control. STS was developed to solve the dynamics of tracking seat ejection and vehicle tests at the Air Force's High Speed Test Track Facility at Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The system has the ability to track vehicles at transverse speeds exceeding Mach 1, while ignoring momentary loss of track due to background clutter. STS can discriminate among up to four seats sequentially ejected from a single vehicle and track only the event of interest. The system also maintains the track point of interest in the primary sensor's field-of-view while tracking an offset aim point and transitions from a transverse trajectory to a vertical trajectory while maintaining track through seat-mannequin separation and chute deployment. This paper discusses the hardware and software architectures implemented to solve these problems.

  3. Digital fast pattern recognizer for autonomous target recognition and tracking for advanced missile guidance and UAV reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastbacka, Albin A.

    2003-08-01

    A digital Fast Pattern Processor (DFPP) system under development for the Naval Air Warfare Center, is funded under a SBIR, Phase III contract. It is an automatic target recognizer and tracker candidate for supersonic missile guidance and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance to meet the U.S. navy's time-critical strike objectives. The former application requires rapid processing of moderate size, real time image arrays, versus large real time image arrays for the latter case. The DFPP correlates operator selected target filters against observed imagery at 1500 correlations per second as currently implemented with programmable logic devices (PLD's) - equivalent to thirty Pentium III (1 GHz) PC's. High performance and low weight, power, size, cost of the current version make it ideal for on-board image data processing in UAV's and cruise missiles or for ground station processing. Conversion to application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology provides scalable performance to meet future ATR/ATT needs. The Sanders proprietary DFPP technology embodies a Power-FFT, which is the fastest digital fast Fourier transform (DFTT) in the world with performance exceeding supercomputers, at a small fraction of the cost, size, weight, and power. The DFPP operates under control of Sanders Correlation Image Processor (SCIP) program and enables correlation against a plethora of stored target filters (templates).

  4. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  5. Standard gas hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Stan

    1995-01-01

    The Sierra College Space Technology Program is currently building their third GAS payload in addition to a small satellite. The project is supported by an ARPA/TRP grant. One aspect of the grant is the design of standard hardware for Get Away Specials (GAS) payloads. A standard structure has been designed and work is progressing on a standard battery box and computer.

  6. Fast and accurate global multiphase arrival tracking: the irregular shortest-path method in a 3-D spherical earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2013-09-01

    The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first arrivals or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax time path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax time path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum absolute traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average absolute traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU time consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase arrival tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.

  7. GRIN lens rod based probe for endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography with fast dynamic focus tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Chen, Zhongping; Mukai, David; Brenner, Matthew

    2006-04-01

    In this manuscript, a GRIN (gradient index) lens rod based probe for endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) with dynamic focus tracking is presented. Current endoscopic OCT systems have a fixed focal plane or working distance. In contrast, the focus of this endoscopic OCT probe can dynamically be adjusted at a high speed (500 mm/s) without changing reference arm length to obtain high quality OCT images for contact or non-contact tissue applications, or for areas of difficult access for probes. The dynamic focusing range of the probe can be from 0 to 7.5 mm without moving the probe itself. The imaging depth is 2.8 mm and the lateral scanning range is up to 2.7 mm or 4.5 mm (determined by the diameter of different GRIN lens rods). Three dimensional imaging can be performed using this system over an area of tissue corresponding to the GRIN lens surface. The experimental results demonstrate that this GRIN lens rod based OCT system can perform a high quality non-contact in vivo imaging. This rigid OCT probe is solid and can be adapted to safely access internal organs, to perform front or side view imaging with an imaging speed of 8 frames per second, with all moving parts proximal to the GRIN lens, and has great potential for use in extremely compact OCT endoscopes for in vivo imaging in both biological research and clinical applications.

  8. The Interactions between Global Education Initiatives and National Education Policy and Planning Processes: A Comparative Case Study of the Education For All Fast Track Initiative in Rwanda and Ethiopia. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermingham, Desmond

    2011-01-01

    The Education for All Fast Track Initiative (FTI) was launched by the World Bank in 2002 as a global initiative to help low income countries accelerate progress towards the MDG target of universal primary education by 2015. Over the past decade, the FTI has expanded to become one of the most important initiatives to emerge out of the Dakar World…

  9. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  10. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  11. Postflight hardware evaluation (RSRM-29, STS-54)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-09-01

    This document is the final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-29 flight set. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64221), represents a summary of the RSRM-29 hardware evaluation. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1990. The RSRM-29 flight set disassembly evaluations described in this document were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on September 9, 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  12. Postflight hardware evaluation (RSRM-29, STS-54)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-29 flight set. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64221), represents a summary of the RSRM-29 hardware evaluation. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1990. The RSRM-29 flight set disassembly evaluations described in this document were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on September 9, 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  13. Hardware Counter Multiplexing

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record various low-level events as software runs, but they can not record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  14. ATA50 telescope: hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Aksaker, N.; Yildiran, Y.; Güney, Y.; Güçsav, B. B.; Özeren, F. F.; Kiliç, Y.; Shameoni, M. N.; Fişek, S.; Kiliçerkan, G.; Nasiroğlu, İ.; Özbaldan, E. E.; Yaşar, E.

    2014-12-01

    ATA50 Telescope is a new telescope with RC optics and 50 cm diameter. It was supported by Atatürk University Scientific Research Project (2010) and established at about 2000 meters altitude in city of Erzurum in Turkey last year. The observations were started a few months ago under the direction and control of Atatürk University Astrophysics Research and Application Center (ATASAM). The technical properties and infrastructures of ATA50 Telescope are presented and we have been working on the robotic automation of the telescope as hardware and software in order to be a ready-on-demand candidate for both national and international telescope networks.

  15. Mir hardware heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    1995-01-01

    The heritage of the major Mir complex hardware elements is described. These elements include Soyuz-TM and Progress-M; the Kvant, Kvant 2, and Kristall modules; and the Mir base block. Configuration changes and major mission events of the Salyut 6, Salyut 7, and Mir multiport space stations are described in detail for the period 1977-1994. A comparative chronology of U.S. and Soviet/Russian manned spaceflight is also given for that period. The 68 illustrations include comparative scale drawings of U.S. and Russian spacecraft as well as sequential drawings depicting missions and mission events.

  16. Dithering Digital Ripple Correlation Control for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, C; Pilawa-Podgurski, RCN

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates a new method for rapid and precise maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic (PV) applications using dithered PWM control. Constraints imposed by efficiency, cost, and component size limit the available PWM resolution of a power converter, and may in turn limit the MPP tracking efficiency of the PV system. In these scenarios, PWM dithering can be used to improve average PWM resolution. In this study, we present a control technique that uses ripple correlation control (RCC) on the dithering ripple, thereby achieving simultaneous fast tracking speed and high tracking accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method solves some of the practical challenges that have to date limited the effectiveness of RCC in solar PV applications. We present a theoretical derivation of the principles behind dithering digital ripple correlation control, as well as experimental results that show excellent tracking speed and accuracy with basic hardware requirements.

  17. Comparison of the single-lumen endotracheal tube and double-lumen endobronchial tube used in minimally invasive cardiac surgery for the fast track protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Ji Hye; Park, Soon Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has been more commonly performed due to the reduced amount of bleeding and transfusion and length of hospital stay. We investigated the feasibility of performing MICS using single-lumen endotracheal tube (SLT). Methods We conducted a retrospective review of clinical data of 112 patients who underwent MICS between July 2012 and March 2015. The patients underwent MICS using a SLT or a double lumen endotracheal tube (DLT). The duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation were recorded and analyzed. Results Of the 96 patients, 50 were intubated with a SLT and 46 were intubated with a DLT. Anesthetic induction to skin incision time, surgical time and total anesthetic time were significant decreased in the SLT group (P<0.05). However, there was no difference in the duration of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation, and the incidence of extubation in operation room between the two groups. Conclusions Comparing with insertion of a SLT, insertion of a DLT provided equivalent duration of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation after the MICS. Therefore, the type of inserted endotracheal tube would not influence on failure of the fast track protocol and insertion of a SLT is feasible and could be an alternative method to a DLT. PMID:27162650

  18. Fast-track surgery in real life: how patient factors influence outcomes and compliance with an enhanced recovery clinical pathway after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Feroci, Francesco; Lenzi, Elisa; Baraghini, Maddalena; Garzi, Alessia; Vannucchi, Andrea; Cantafio, Stefano; Scatizzi, Marco

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify the patient factors that predict postoperative deviation from each item of a fast-track colorectal surgery protocol (FT) and these factors' influences on postoperative outcomes. A total of 606 patients with colorectal pathology from 2005 to 2011 were analyzed to assess the relationships between patient factors, the outcome variables, and the items of the FT program. The median length of stay was 5 days, and readmission rate was 2.3%. The morbidity rate was 26.7%. Independent predictors of prolonged length of stay were older than 75 years of age, ASA grade 3 and 4, and the presence of an ileostomy. Independent predictors of morbidity were age above 75 years old and ASA grade, whereas age was confirmed as an independent predictor of mortality. Male sex, age above 75 years old, and ASA 3 and 4 were identified as independent predictors of negative compliance to most of the postoperative FT items.

  19. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lone Bak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1%) were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4%) of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5%) patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions. PMID:27525117

  20. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings.

  1. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center.

    PubMed

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Hansen, Lone Bak; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1%) were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4%) of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5%) patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions. PMID:27525117

  2. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. PMID:27660489

  3. Robustness in Digital Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Roger; Lightbody, Gaye

    The growth in electronics has probably been the equivalent of the Industrial Revolution in the past century in terms of how much it has transformed our daily lives. There is a great dependency on technology whether it is in the devices that control travel (e.g., in aircraft or cars), our entertainment and communication systems, or our interaction with money, which has been empowered by the onset of Internet shopping and banking. Despite this reliance, there is still a danger that at some stage devices will fail within the equipment's lifetime. The purpose of this chapter is to look at the factors causing failure and address possible measures to improve robustness in digital hardware technology and specifically chip technology, giving a long-term forecast that will not reassure the reader!

  4. Space hardware microbial contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Kern, R.; Mancinelli, R.; Venkateswaren, K.; Wainwright, N.

    Planetary Protection (PP) requirements imposed on unmanned planetary missions require that the spacecraft undergo rigorous bioload reduction prior to launch. The ability to quantitate bioburden on such spacecraft is dependent on developing new analytical methodologies that can be used to identify and trace biological contamination on flight hardware. The focus of new method development is to move forward and to augment the current spore analysis method which was first used on Viking. The ultimate goal of the new techniques is not to increase the cleanliness requirement currently levied on various missions, b ut instead to better understand the nature of the bioburden through the use of well-characterized standard methods. Subsequently an array of standard techniques is needed to provide various analytical methodologies that can be used to access bioburden, depending upon mission specifications. This poster will provide information on two workshops that have been held to review the status of the development of new quantitative techniques for determining the bioload on spacecraft at the time of launch. The purpose of the workshops was to review and revise NASA Standard Operation Procedure NPG:5340.1C "Microbiological Examination of Space Hardware and Associated Environments" to incorporate improvements in the procedure and to reflect current field practices. I addition the paneln reviewed the status of new analytical methods currently under study for planetary protection applications, defining expected research that would bring the individual methods to a point where they can be drafted for submittal to the NASA standard procedure process. The poster will highlight changes to current standard procedures as well as review the status of new methods currently being studied. Methods included Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Epifluorescence Techniques, Live/Dead Cell Analysis, Capillary Electrophoresis of Amino Acids and Ionic Contaminants, High Sensitivity Assay for

  5. Space Hardware Microbial Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Kern, R.; Wainwright, N.

    Planetary Protection (PP) requirements imposed on unmanned planetary missions require that the spacecraft undergo rigorous bioload reduction prior to launch. The ability to quantitate bioburden on such spacecraft is dependent on developing new analytical methodologies that can be used to identify and trace biological contamination on flight hardware. The focus of new method development is to move forward and to augment the current spore analysis method which was first used on Viking. The ultimate goal of the new techniques is not to increase the cleanliness requirement currently levied on various missions, but instead to better understand the nature of the bioburden through the use of well-characterized standard methods. Subsequently an array of standard techniques is needed to provide various analytical methodologies that can be used to access bioburden, depending upon mission specifications. Since the Viking mission no new methods have been certified for inclusion in the NASA Standard Procedure NPG 5340. The process of transferring a new method from the research and development phase to a standardized laboratory technique suitable for use on space craft will be discussed. A historical overview of the process used to develop and certify the standard assay methods for the Viking mission will be provided. Ongoing challenges to certify new methods include: 1) development of surrogate sampling matrices when spacecraft hardware is not available, 2) a comprehensive laboratory process for standardizing a new method for routine use, and 3) the development of critical pass fail benchmarks for spacecraft using new biomarkers. In addition a proposed process that has been used to develop analytical methods using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate, and Adenosine Triphosphate will be presented.

  6. Fast track endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João Bosco Vieira; Kux, Peter; Castro, Carlos H V; Cruvinel, Marcos G C; Costa, José R R

    2003-12-01

    The length of hospital stay is an important factor of cost and psychological discomfort in the treatment of hyperhidrosis by endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy (ETS). Our experience enrolls 1587 patients operated on an outpatient basis in the last 10 years and seven months. This study aimed to confirm that ETS can be performed on an outpatient basis. Fifty-two consecutive patients (30 males and 22 females) were submitted to ETS under general anesthesia using a single lumen endotracheal tube, with lung collapse by intrapleural injection of CO(2). The sympathetic chain and the communicating rami were severed at different levels according to hyperhidrosis location. Patients were physical state American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2. Age varied between 13 and 55 years (27.3 +/- 10.2 years). They were monitored with ECG, SPO2, NIBP, expired CO(2), sevoflurane analyzer, and airway pressure. Normal saline (40.0 +/- 2.7 ml/kg) was infused intravenously. The drugs used were propofol, alfentanil, rocuronium, ondansetron, dexamethasone, dipyrone, cetoprofene and sevoflurane. Anesthesia and post-operative data were analyzed. Post-operative thoracic X-rays were taken in 20 patients before discharge. Anesthesia lasted 67.2 +/- 20.8 minutes, and the surgical procedure took 46.3 +/- 20.9 minutes. The patients stayed 18.0 +/- 11.0 minutes in the post-anaesthetic care unit and were discharged from hospital after 150.3 +/- 43.1 minutes. The only abnormal post-operative event observed was insignificant residual carbothorax, found in 2 (10%) of the thoracic X-rays taken. In conclusion, this study confirmed that ETS can be performed safely on an outpatient basis. PMID:14673677

  7. Monogamy on the fast track.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Tomaszycki, Michelle

    2007-12-22

    Social monogamy has evolved multiple times and is particularly common in birds. It is not well understood why some of these species are continuously and permanently paired while others occasionally 'divorce' (switch partners). Although several hypotheses have been considered, experimental tests are uncommon. Estrildid finches are thought to be permanently paired because being short-lived opportunistic breeders, they cannot afford the time to form a new pair relationship. Here it is shown through a controlled experimental manipulation that zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) allowed to remain with their partners to breed again are faster to initiate a clutch (by approx. 3 days) than birds separated from their mates that have to re-pair, supporting the hypothesis that continuous pairing speeds up initiation of reproduction, a benefit of long-term monogamy in a small, short-lived, gregarious species. PMID:17848359

  8. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert; McCabe, Mary; Paulick, Paul; Ruffner, Tim; Some, Rafi; Chen, Yuan; Vitalpur, Sharada; Hughes, Mark; Ling, Kuok; Redifer, Matt; Wallace, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    As part of NASA's Avionics Steering Committee's stated goal to advance the avionics discipline ahead of program and project needs, the committee initiated a multi-Center technology roadmapping activity to create a comprehensive avionics roadmap. The roadmap is intended to strategically guide avionics technology development to effectively meet future NASA missions needs. The scope of the roadmap aligns with the twelve avionics elements defined in the ASC charter, but is subdivided into the following five areas: Foundational Technology (including devices and components), Command and Data Handling, Spaceflight Instrumentation, Communication and Tracking, and Human Interfaces.

  9. Delivery of Hardware for Syracuse University Faculty Loaner Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jares, Terry

    This paper describes the Faculty Assistance and Computing Education Services (FACES) loaner program at Syracuse University and the method used by FACES staff to deliver and keep track of hardware, software, and documentation. The roles of the various people involved in the program are briefly discussed, i.e., the administrator, who handles the…

  10. Hardware assisted hypervisor introspection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangyong; Yang, Yuexiang; Tang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce hypervisor introspection, an out-of-box way to monitor the execution of hypervisors. Similar to virtual machine introspection which has been proposed to protect virtual machines in an out-of-box way over the past decade, hypervisor introspection can be used to protect hypervisors which are the basis of cloud security. Virtual machine introspection tools are usually deployed either in hypervisor or in privileged virtual machines, which might also be compromised. By utilizing hardware support including nested virtualization, EPT protection and #BP, we are able to monitor all hypercalls belongs to the virtual machines of one hypervisor, include that of privileged virtual machine and even when the hypervisor is compromised. What's more, hypercall injection method is used to simulate hypercall-based attacks and evaluate the performance of our method. Experiment results show that our method can effectively detect hypercall-based attacks with some performance cost. Lastly, we discuss our furture approaches of reducing the performance cost and preventing the compromised hypervisor from detecting the existence of our introspector, in addition with some new scenarios to apply our hypervisor introspection system. PMID:27330913

  11. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  12. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, P.E.

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  13. FORTE hardware-in-loop simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, K.K.; Murray, H.S.; Moore, T.K.

    1997-12-01

    Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is a small, low Earth orbit satellite scheduled for launch in August 1997. FORTE is a momentum-biased, gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft. This paper describes the use of a hardware-in-loop simulator, developed by Ithaco Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, in performing FORTE mission simulations. Scenarios studied include separation, acquisition on orbit, control system parameter sensitivity studies, sensor noise simulations, antenna deployment and momentum desaturation. Use of the simulator to refine control algorithms and sequences is also described.

  14. Fast computation of voxel-level brain connectivity maps from resting-state functional MRI using l₁-norm as approximation of Pearson's temporal correlation: proof-of-concept and example vector hardware implementation.

    PubMed

    Minati, Ludovico; Zacà, Domenico; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    An outstanding issue in graph-based analysis of resting-state functional MRI is choice of network nodes. Individual consideration of entire brain voxels may represent a less biased approach than parcellating the cortex according to pre-determined atlases, but entails establishing connectedness for 1(9)-1(11) links, with often prohibitive computational cost. Using a representative Human Connectome Project dataset, we show that, following appropriate time-series normalization, it may be possible to accelerate connectivity determination replacing Pearson correlation with l1-norm. Even though the adjacency matrices derived from correlation coefficients and l1-norms are not identical, their similarity is high. Further, we describe and provide in full an example vector hardware implementation of l1-norm on an array of 4096 zero instruction-set processors. Calculation times <1000 s are attainable, removing the major deterrent to voxel-based resting-sate network mapping and revealing fine-grained node degree heterogeneity. L1-norm should be given consideration as a substitute for correlation in very high-density resting-state functional connectivity analyses. PMID:25023958

  15. Hardware Removal in Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Thomas J.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Allori, Alexander C.; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Powers, David; Erdmann, Detlev; Hollenbeck, Scott T.; Levinson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Open reduction and internal fixation can be complicated by hardware exposure or infection. The literature often does not differentiate between these 2 entities; so for this study, we have considered all hardware exposures as hardware infections. Approximately 5% of adults with CMF trauma are thought to develop hardware infections. Management consists of either removing the hardware versus leaving it in situ. The optimal approach has not been investigated. Thus, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken and a resultant evidence-based approach to the treatment and management of CMF hardware infections was devised. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search of journal articles was performed in parallel using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect electronic databases. Keywords and phrases used were maxillofacial injuries; facial bones; wounds and injuries; fracture fixation, internal; wound infection; and infection. Our search yielded 529 articles. To focus on CMF fractures with hardware infections, the full text of English-language articles was reviewed to identify articles focusing on the evaluation and management of infected hardware in CMF trauma. Each article’s reference list was manually reviewed and citation analysis performed to identify articles missed by the search strategy. There were 259 articles that met the full inclusion criteria and form the basis of this systematic review. The articles were rated based on the level of evidence. There were 81 grade II articles included in the meta-analysis. Result Our meta-analysis revealed that 7503 patients were treated with hardware for CMF fractures in the 81 grade II articles. Hardware infection occurred in 510 (6.8%) of these patients. Of those infections, hardware removal occurred in 264 (51.8%) patients; hardware was left in place in 166 (32.6%) patients; and in 80 (15.6%) cases

  16. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, A

    2010-11-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), chipset, random access memory (RAM), and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. "Storage drive" is a term describing a "memory" hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. "Drive interfaces" connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular "input/output devices" used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The "bus" is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated) ISA bus. "Ports" are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the 'ever increasing' digital future. PMID:21423895

  17. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael; Goforth, Monte; Chen, Yuan; Powell, Wes; Paulick, Paul; Vitalpur, Sharada; Buscher, Deborah; Wade, Ray; West, John; Redifer, Matt; Partridge, Harry; Sherman, Aaron; McCabe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Avionics Technology Roadmap takes an 80% approach to technology investment in spacecraft avionics. It delineates a suite of technologies covering foundational, component, and subsystem-levels, which directly support 80% of future NASA space mission needs. The roadmap eschews high cost, limited utility technologies in favor of lower cost, and broadly applicable technologies with high return on investment. The roadmap is also phased to support future NASA mission needs and desires, with a view towards creating an optimized investment portfolio that matures specific, high impact technologies on a schedule that matches optimum insertion points of these technologies into NASA missions. The roadmap looks out over 15+ years and covers some 114 technologies, 58 of which are targeted for TRL6 within 5 years, with 23 additional technologies to be at TRL6 by 2020. Of that number, only a few are recommended for near term investment: 1. Rad Hard High Performance Computing 2. Extreme temperature capable electronics and packaging 3. RFID/SAW-based spacecraft sensors and instruments 4. Lightweight, low power 2D displays suitable for crewed missions 5. Radiation tolerant Graphics Processing Unit to drive crew displays 6. Distributed/reconfigurable, extreme temperature and radiation tolerant, spacecraft sensor controller and sensor modules 7. Spacecraft to spacecraft, long link data communication protocols 8. High performance and extreme temperature capable C&DH subsystem In addition, the roadmap team recommends several other activities that it believes are necessary to advance avionics technology across NASA: center dot Engage the OCT roadmap teams to coordinate avionics technology advances and infusion into these roadmaps and their mission set center dot Charter a team to develop a set of use cases for future avionics capabilities in order to decouple this roadmap from specific missions center dot Partner with the Software Steering Committee to coordinate computing hardware

  18. Modules and supporting hardware for FASTBUS test and diagnostic purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolucci, B.

    1981-10-01

    This paper contains detailed descriptions and circuitry of some modules and supporting hardware for the FASTBUS System developed at SLAC. A fast slave-only Memory Module (PRIMO), a Dummy Module (U2), a FASTBUS Test Box (LAIKA), and a Bus Display Bar (BBD) have been built, tested and used for test and diagnostic purposes for FASTBUS.

  19. Hardware Evolution of Control Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David; Steincamp, Jim; Corder, Eric; King, Ken; Ferguson, M. I.; Dutton, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of closed-loop motor speed controllers implemented on the JPL FPTA2 is presented. The response of evolved controller to sinusoidal commands, controller reconfiguration for fault tolerance,and hardware evolution are described.

  20. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  1. Evaluation of next generation hardware for lithography processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoaoki, T.; Enomoto, M.; Nafus, K.; Marumoto, H.; Kosugi, H.; Mallmann, J.; Maas, R.; Verspaget, C.; van der Heijden, E.; Wang, S.

    2010-04-01

    This work is the summary of improvements in processing capability implemented and tested on the LITHIUS ProTM -i / TWINSCANTM XT:1950Hi litho cluster installed at ASML's development clean room at Veldhoven, the Netherlands. Process performance with regards to CD uniformity (CDU) and defectivity are investigated to confirm adherence to ITRS roadmaps specifications. Specifically, imaging capabilities are tested for 40nm line 80nm pitch with the new bake plate hardware for below hp 3Xnm generation. For defectivity, the combination of Coater/Developer defect reduction hardware with the novel immersion hood design will be tested. For CDU improvements, the enhanced Post Exposure Bake (PEB) plate hardware was verified versus performance of the previous technology plate. Additionally, after the PEB improvement, a remaining across wafer signature was reduced with an optimized develop process. The total CDU budget was analyzed and compared to previous results. Finally the optimized process was applied to a non top coat resist process. For defectivity improvements, the effectiveness of ASML's new immersion hood and TEL's defect reduction hardware were evaluated. The new immersion hood performance was optimal on very hydrophobic materials, which requires optimization of the track hardware and process. The high contact angle materials could be shown to be successfully processed by using TEL's Advanced Defect Reduction (ADR) for residues related to the high contact angle and optimized bevel cut strategy with new bevel rinse hardware. Finally all the optimized processes were combined to obtain defect counts on a highly hydrophobic resist well within manufacturing specifications.

  2. Modular radar hardware for deep space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J.; Foerster, K. P.; Oudot, O.; Perrot, J. L.; Hartner, P.

    The authors describe work carried out under contract to the European Space Agency to investigate modular design approaches for a range of scientific missions. In order to provide meaningful design and performance requirements at the start of the study, three proposed planetary research missions featuring radar sensors were selected. The missions are CASSINI, Comet Nucleus Sample Return, and Mars-98. Under the first phase of the work, common instrument systems and subsystems have been proposed. Under a second phase of the work, a digital subsystem for signal processing and control has been developed which can fulfill the requirements of the various instruments but which is fully reconfigurable through software. The DSP (digital signal processor) architecture based on programmable signal processing cores has been demonstrated through development of breadboard hardware. Tracking and control in the breadboard is achieved through a programmable microprocessor with purpose-developed interfaces.

  3. Hardware cleanliness methodology and certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Lash, Thomas J.; Rawls, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Inadequacy of mass loss cleanliness criteria for selection of materials for contamination sensitive uses, and processing of flight hardware for contamination sensitive instruments is discussed. Materials selection for flight hardware is usually based on mass loss (ASTM E-595). However, flight hardware cleanliness (MIL 1246A) is a surface cleanliness assessment. It is possible for materials (e.g. Sil-Pad 2000) to pass ASTM E-595 and fail MIL 1246A class A by orders of magnitude. Conversely, it is possible for small amounts of nonconforming material (Huma-Seal conformal coating) to not present significant cleanliness problems to an optical flight instrument. Effective cleaning (precleaning, precision cleaning, and ultra cleaning) and cleanliness verification are essential for contamination sensitive flight instruments. Polish cleaning of hardware, e.g. vacuum baking for vacuum applications, and storage of clean hardware, e.g. laser optics, is discussed. Silicone materials present special concerns for use in space because of the rapid conversion of the outgassed residues to glass by solar ultraviolet radiation and/or atomic oxygen. Non ozone depleting solvent cleaning and institutional support for cleaning and certification are also discussed.

  4. Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-04-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

  5. Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware.

    PubMed

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit. PMID:24722360

  6. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T025 (RSRM-25, STS-46)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Ferral

    1993-01-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T025 (STS-46) Redesign Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. Along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-60687), a summary of the 360T025 hardware evaluation is provided. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60470. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1986. The 360T025 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 16 Mar. 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  7. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T026 (RSRM-26, STS-47)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T026 (STS-47) Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is provided. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64203), represents a summary of the 360T026 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60472. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1987. The 360T026 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 12 April 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield Postflight Engineering Evaluation Plan (PEEP), TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  8. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-28 (STS-53)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrett, William David, Jr.

    1993-11-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-28 (STS-53) RSRM flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64215), represents a summary of the RSRM-28 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-63638. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1989. The RSRM-28 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on July 15, 1993. Additional time was required to perform the evaluation of the stiffener rings per special issue 4.1.5.2 because of the washout schedule. The release of this report was after completion of all special issues per program management direction. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable team and tracked through the PFAR system.

  9. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T026 (RSRM-26, STS-47)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-05-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T026 (STS-47) Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is provided. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64203), represents a summary of the 360T026 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60472. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1987. The 360T026 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 12 April 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield Postflight Engineering Evaluation Plan (PEEP), TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  10. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T025 (RSRM-25, STS-46)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Ferral

    1993-03-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T025 (STS-46) Redesign Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. Along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-60687), a summary of the 360T025 hardware evaluation is provided. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60470. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1986. The 360T025 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 16 Mar. 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  11. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-28 (STS-53)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrett, William David, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-28 (STS-53) RSRM flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64215), represents a summary of the RSRM-28 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-63638. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1989. The RSRM-28 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on July 15, 1993. Additional time was required to perform the evaluation of the stiffener rings per special issue 4.1.5.2 because of the washout schedule. The release of this report was after completion of all special issues per program management direction. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable team and tracked through the PFAR system.

  12. Police Communications: Humans and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannes, Estelle

    This volume presents an overview of police communications and analyzes the relationships between the people and hardware in the police system. Chapters discuss the development and use of such communication devices as the telegraph, telephone, and computers; the role of mass media, feedback, and communicative settings in human communication;…

  13. Microcomputer Hardware. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in microcomputer hardware is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…

  14. Hardware Selection: A Nontechnical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiteka, Sebastian F.

    Presented in nontechnical language, this guide suggests criteria for the selection of three computer hardware essentials--a microcomputer, a monitor, and a printer. Factors to be considered in selecting the microcomputer are identified and discussed, including what the computer is to be used for, dealer support, software availability, modem…

  15. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    SciTech Connect

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  16. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  17. Satellite Communication Hardware Emulation System (SCHES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Ted

    1993-01-01

    Satellite Communication Hardware Emulator System (SCHES) is a powerful simulator that emulates the hardware used in TDRSS links. SCHES is a true bit-by-bit simulator that models communications hardware accurately enough to be used as a verification mechanism for actual hardware tests on user spacecraft. As a credit to its modular design, SCHES is easily configurable to model any user satellite communication link, though some development may be required to tailor existing software to user specific hardware.

  18. Video tracking algorithm of long-term experiment using stand-alone recording system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Young, Ming-Shing

    2008-08-01

    Many medical and behavioral applications require the ability to monitor and quantify the behavior of small animals. In general these animals are confined in small cages. Often these situations involve very large numbers of cages. Modern research facilities commonly monitor simultaneously thousands of animals over long periods of time. However, conventional systems require one personal computer per monitoring platform, which is too complex, expensive, and increases power consumption for large laboratory applications. This paper presents a simplified video tracking algorithm for long-term recording using a stand-alone system. The feature of the presented tracking algorithm revealed that computation speed is very fast data storage requirements are small, and hardware requirements are minimal. The stand-alone system automatically performs tracking and saving acquired data to a secure digital card. The proposed system is designed for video collected at a 640 x 480 pixel with 16 bit color resolution. The tracking result is updated every 30 frames/s. Only the locomotive data are stored. Therefore, the data storage requirements could be minimized. In addition, detection via the designed algorithm uses the Cb and Cr values of a colored marker affixed to the target to define the tracked position and allows multiobject tracking against complex backgrounds. Preliminary experiment showed that such tracking information stored by the portable and stand-alone system could provide comprehensive information on the animal's activity.

  19. Video tracking algorithm of long-term experiment using stand-alone recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Young, Ming-Shing

    2008-08-01

    Many medical and behavioral applications require the ability to monitor and quantify the behavior of small animals. In general these animals are confined in small cages. Often these situations involve very large numbers of cages. Modern research facilities commonly monitor simultaneously thousands of animals over long periods of time. However, conventional systems require one personal computer per monitoring platform, which is too complex, expensive, and increases power consumption for large laboratory applications. This paper presents a simplified video tracking algorithm for long-term recording using a stand-alone system. The feature of the presented tracking algorithm revealed that computation speed is very fast data storage requirements are small, and hardware requirements are minimal. The stand-alone system automatically performs tracking and saving acquired data to a secure digital card. The proposed system is designed for video collected at a 640×480 pixel with 16 bit color resolution. The tracking result is updated every 30 frames/s. Only the locomotive data are stored. Therefore, the data storage requirements could be minimized. In addition, detection via the designed algorithm uses the Cb and Cr values of a colored marker affixed to the target to define the tracked position and allows multiobject tracking against complex backgrounds. Preliminary experiment showed that such tracking information stored by the portable and stand-alone system could provide comprehensive information on the animal's activity.

  20. Faking it for pleasure and profit: the use of hardware simulation at AAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortridge, K.; Vuong, M.

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally, AAO tasks controlling hardware were able to operate in a simulation mode, simply ignoring the actual hardware and responding as if the hardware were working properly. However, this did not allow a rigorous testing of the low-level details of the hardware control software. For recent projects, particularly the replacement of the control system for the 3.9m AAT, we have introduced detailed software simulators that mimic the hardware and its interactions down to the individual bit level in the interfaces. By having one single simulator task representing the whole of the hardware, we get a realistic simulation of the whole system. Communications with the simulator task are introduced just above the driver calls that would normally communicate with the real hardware, allowing all of the hardware control software to be tested. Simulation can be partial, only simulating those bits of the hardware not yet available This allows incremental software releases that demonstrate full functioning of complete aspects of the system before any hardware is available, and supports a rigorous 'value-added' approach for tracking the software development process. This was particularly successful for the telescope control system, and has been used since for other projects including the new HERMES spectrograph.

  1. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based along track interferometry (ATI) approach to SAR-based ground moving target indication (GMTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel D.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-06-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) is used to detect ground moving targets against a stationary background in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-channel ATI wherein clutter cancellation is applied to each pixel of the multiple SAR images, followed by a Fourier transform to estimate range rate (Doppler). Range rate estimates allow us to compensate for the cross-range offset of the target, thus geo-locating the targets. We then present a number of benefits to this approach.

  2. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-08-04

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32-bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. The hardware accelerated solutions are accurate enough to enable scientists to explore the experimental design space with greater efficiency than the methods currently in use. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedral meshes that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester.

  3. Decoding: Codes and hardware implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The MST radars vary considerably from one installation to the next in the type of hardware, operating schedule and associated personnel. Most such systems do not have the computing power to decode in software when the decoding must be performed for each received pulse, as is required for certain sets of phase codes. These sets provide the best signal to sidelobe ratio when operating at the minimum band length allowed by the bandwidth of the transmitter. The development of the hardware phase decoder, and the applicability of each to decoding MST radar signals are discussed. A new design for a decoder which is very inexpensive to build, easy to add to an existing system and is capable of decoding on each received pulse using codes with a band length as short as one microsecond is presented.

  4. Minitrack tracking function description, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S.; Mango, S. A.; Roettcher, C. A.; Watters, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The minitrack tracking function is described and specific operations are identified. The subjects discussed are: (1) preprocessor listing, (2) minitrack hardware, (3) system calibration, (4) quadratic listing, and (5) quadratic flow diagram. Detailed information is provided on the construction of the tracking system and its operation. The calibration procedures are supported by mathematical models to show the application of the computer programs.

  5. Hardware Fault Simulator for Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, L. M.; Timoc, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Breadboarded circuit is faster and more thorough than software simulator. Elementary fault simulator for AND gate uses three gates and shaft register to simulate stuck-at-one or stuck-at-zero conditions at inputs and output. Experimental results showed hardware fault simulator for microprocessor gave faster results than software simulator, by two orders of magnitude, with one test being applied every 4 microseconds.

  6. Hardware support for interprocess communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, U.

    1986-01-01

    One of the main problems in existing multicomputer message-based operating systems has been the slowness of interprocess communication. This speed limitation is often due to the processing overhead associated with message passing. Previous studies implicitly assume that only communication between processes on different nodes in the network is expensive. However, the author shows that there is considerable processing overhead for local communication as well. Therefore, he proposes hardware support in the form of a message coprocessor. His solution to the message-passing problem has two components: a software partition, and a hardware organization. To determine an effective solution he followed a three-step process: (1) he profiled the kernels of four operating systems to identify the major components of system overhead in message passing; results suggested a partitioning of the software between the host and the message coprocessor; (2) he implemented such a partition on a multiprocessor and measured its performance; based on results, he proposed bus primitives for supporting the interactions between the host, the message coprocessor, and the network devices; (3) timed Petri nets were used to model and analyze several system architectures and show the effectiveness of the software partition and hardware organization for solving the message passing problem.

  7. Navigator GPS Receiver for Fast Acquisition and Weak Signal Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winternitz, Luke; Moreau, Michael; Boegner, Gregory J.; Sirotzky, Steve

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a new space-borne GPS receiver that can operate effectively in the full range of Earth orbiting missions from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to geostationary and beyond. Navigator is designed to be a fully space flight qualified GPS receiver optimized for fast signal acquisition and weak signal tracking. The fast acquisition capabilities provide exceptional time to first fix performance (TIFF) with no a priori receiver state or GPS almanac information, even in the presence of high Doppler shifts present in LEO (or near perigee in highly eccentric orbits). The fast acquisition capability also makes it feasible to implement extended correlation intervals and therefore significantly reduce Navigator s acquisition threshold. This greatly improves GPS observability when the receiver is above the GPS constellation (and satellites must be tracked from the opposite side of the Earth) by providing at least 10 dB of increased acquisition sensitivity. Fast acquisition and weak signal tracking algorithms have been implemented and validated on a hardware development board. A fully functional version of the receiver, employing most of the flight parts, with integrated navigation software is expected by mid 2005. An ultimate goal of this project is to license the Navigator design to an industry partner who will then market the receiver as a commercial product.

  8. A novel visual hardware behavioral language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xueqin; Cheng, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Most hardware behavioral languages just use texts to describe the behavior of the desired hardware design. This is inconvenient for VLSI designers who enjoy using the schematic approach. The proposed visual hardware behavioral language has the ability to graphically express design information using visual parallel models (blocks), visual sequential models (processes) and visual data flow graphs (which consist of primitive operational icons, control icons, and Data and Synchro links). Thus, the proposed visual hardware behavioral language can not only specify hardware concurrent and sequential functionality, but can also visually expose parallelism, sequentiality, and disjointness (mutually exclusive operations) for the hardware designers. That would make the hardware designers capture the design ideas easily and explicitly using this visual hardware behavioral language.

  9. Particle displacement tracking applied to air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) techniques offer many advantages over conventional photographic PIV methods such as fast turn around times and simplified data reduction. A new all electronic PIV technique was developed which can measure high speed gas velocities. The Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) technique employs a single CW laser, small seed particles (1 micron), and a single intensified, gated CCD array frame camera to provide a simple and fast method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity vector maps with unambiguous direction determination. Use of a single CCD camera eliminates registration difficulties encountered when multiple cameras are used to obtain velocity magnitude and direction information. An 80386 PC equipped with a large memory buffer frame-grabber board provides all of the data acquisition and data reduction operations. No array processors of other numerical processing hardware are required. Full video resolution (640 x 480 pixel) is maintained in the acquired images, providing high resolution video frames of the recorded particle images. The time between data acquisition to display of the velocity vector map is less than 40 sec. The new electronic PDT technique is demonstrated on an air nozzle flow with velocities less than 150 m/s.

  10. Particle displacement tracking applied to air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic Particle Image Velocimeter (PIV) techniques offer many advantages over conventional photographic PIV methods such as fast turn around times and simplified data reduction. A new all electronic PIV technique was developed which can measure high speed gas velocities. The Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) technique employs a single cw laser, small seed particles (1 micron), and a single intensified, gated CCD array frame camera to provide a simple and fast method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity vector maps with unambiguous direction determination. Use of a single CCD camera eliminates registration difficulties encountered when multiple cameras are used to obtain velocity magnitude and direction information. An 80386 PC equipped with a large memory buffer frame-grabber board provides all of the data acquisition and data reduction operations. No array processors of other numerical processing hardware are required. Full video resolution (640x480 pixel) is maintained in the acquired images, providing high resolution video frames of the recorded particle images. The time between data acquisition to display of the velocity vector map is less than 40 sec. The new electronic PDT technique is demonstrated on an air nozzle flow with velocities less than 150 m/s.

  11. Hardware and software reliability estimation using simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swern, Frederic L.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation technique is used to explore the validation of both hardware and software. It was concluded that simulation is a viable means for validating both hardware and software and associating a reliability number with each. This is useful in determining the overall probability of system failure of an embedded processor unit, and improving both the code and the hardware where necessary to meet reliability requirements. The methodologies were proved using some simple programs, and simple hardware models.

  12. Hardware-in-the-loop tow missile system simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, G.S.; Wootton, J.R.; Hobson, G.L.; Holder, D.L.

    1993-07-06

    A missile system simulator is described for use in training people for target acquisition, missile launch, and missile guidance under simulated battlefield conditions comprising: simulating means for producing a digital signal representing a simulated battlefield environment including at least one target movable therewithin, the simulating means generating an infrared map representing the field-of-view and the target; interface means for converting said digital signals to an infrared image; missile system hardware including the missile acquisition, tracking, and guidance portions thereof, said hardware sensing the infrared image to determine the location of the target in a field-of-view; and, image means for generating an infrared image of a missile launched at the target and guided thereto, the image means imposing the missile image onto the field-of-view for the missile hardware to acquire the image of the missile in addition to that of the target, and to generate guidance signals to guide the missile image to the target image, wherein the interfacing means is responsive to a guidance signal from the hardware to simulate, in real-time, the response of the missile to the guidance signal, the image means including a blackbody, laser means for irradiating the blackbody to heat it to a temperature at which it emits infrared radiation, and optic means for integrating the radiant image produced by heating the blackbody into the infrared map.

  13. Laser photography system: hardware configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piszczek, Marek; Rutyna, Krzysztof; Kowalski, Marcin; Zyczkowski, Marek

    2012-06-01

    Solution presented in this article is a system using image acquisition time gating method. The time-spatial framing method developed by authors was used to build Laser Photography System (LPS). An active vision system for open space monitoring and terrorist threats detection is being built as an effect of recent work lead in the Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT. The device is destined to prevent and recognize possible terrorist threats in important land and marine areas. The aim of this article is to discuss the properties and hardware configuration of the Laser Photography System.

  14. GENI: Grid Hardware and Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: The 15 projects in ARPA-E’s GENI program, short for “Green Electricity Network Integration,” aim to modernize the way electricity is transmitted in the U.S. through advances in hardware and software for the electric grid. These advances will improve the efficiency and reliability of electricity transmission, increase the amount of renewable energy the grid can utilize, and provide energy suppliers and consumers with greater control over their power flows in order to better manage peak power demand and cost.

  15. Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

    2011-03-15

    The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is

  16. Visual homing in analog hardware.

    PubMed

    Möller, R

    1999-10-01

    Insects of several species rely on visual landmarks for returning to important locations in their environment. The "average landmark vector model" is a parsimonious model which reproduces some aspects of the visual homing behavior of bees and ants. To gain insights in the structure and complexity of the neural apparatus that might underly the navigational capabilities of these animals, the average landmark vector model was implemented in analog hardware and used to control a mobile robot. The experiments demonstrate that the apparently complex task of visual homing might be realized by simple and mostly peripheral neural circuits in insect brains.

  17. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1509.7 Section 1509.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall...

  18. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner that eliminates from any hardware accessible to a child within the crib the possibility of the...

  19. Pupil Tracking for Real-Time Motion Corrected Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Nankivil, Derek; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric acquisition with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) is necessary to obtain accurate representations of the tissue structure and to account for asymmetries of the anterior eye anatomy. Additionally, recent interest in imaging of anterior segment vasculature and aqueous humor flow resulted in application of OCT angiography techniques to generate en face and 3D micro-vasculature maps of the anterior segment. Unfortunately, ASOCT structural and vasculature imaging systems do not capture volumes instantaneously and are subject to motion artifacts due to involuntary eye motion that may hinder their accuracy and repeatability. Several groups have demonstrated real-time tracking for motion-compensated in vivo OCT retinal imaging, but these techniques are not applicable in the anterior segment. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and low-cost pupil tracking system integrated into a custom swept-source OCT system for real-time motion-compensated anterior segment volumetric imaging. Pupil oculography hardware coaxial with the swept-source OCT system enabled fast detection and tracking of the pupil centroid. The pupil tracking ASOCT system with a field of view of 15 x 15 mm achieved diffraction-limited imaging over a lateral tracking range of +/- 2.5 mm and was able to correct eye motion at up to 22 Hz. Pupil tracking ASOCT offers a novel real-time motion compensation approach that may facilitate accurate and reproducible anterior segment imaging. PMID:27574800

  20. Pupil Tracking for Real-Time Motion Corrected Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Nankivil, Derek; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric acquisition with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) is necessary to obtain accurate representations of the tissue structure and to account for asymmetries of the anterior eye anatomy. Additionally, recent interest in imaging of anterior segment vasculature and aqueous humor flow resulted in application of OCT angiography techniques to generate en face and 3D micro-vasculature maps of the anterior segment. Unfortunately, ASOCT structural and vasculature imaging systems do not capture volumes instantaneously and are subject to motion artifacts due to involuntary eye motion that may hinder their accuracy and repeatability. Several groups have demonstrated real-time tracking for motion-compensated in vivo OCT retinal imaging, but these techniques are not applicable in the anterior segment. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and low-cost pupil tracking system integrated into a custom swept-source OCT system for real-time motion-compensated anterior segment volumetric imaging. Pupil oculography hardware coaxial with the swept-source OCT system enabled fast detection and tracking of the pupil centroid. The pupil tracking ASOCT system with a field of view of 15 x 15 mm achieved diffraction-limited imaging over a lateral tracking range of +/- 2.5 mm and was able to correct eye motion at up to 22 Hz. Pupil tracking ASOCT offers a novel real-time motion compensation approach that may facilitate accurate and reproducible anterior segment imaging. PMID:27574800

  1. Object oriented hardware-software test bench for OMTF diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabik, Pawel; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Bunkowski, Karol; Zawistowski, Krystian; Byszuk, Adrian; Bluj, Michał; Doroba, Krzysztof; Górski, Maciej; Kalinowski, Artur; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Królikowski, Jan; Oklinski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Michał; Skala, Aleksander; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the object oriented hardware-software model and its sample implementation of diagnostics for the Overlap Muon Track Finder trigger for the CMS experiment in CERN is described. It presents realization of test-bench for control and diagnosis class of multichannel, distributed measurement systems based on FPGA chips. The test-bench fulfills requirements for system's rapid changes, configurability and efficiency. This ability is very significant and desirable by expanded electronic systems. The solution described is a software model based on a method of address space management called the Component Internal Interface (CII). Establishment of stable link between hardware and software, as a purpose of designed and realized programming environment, is presented. The test-bench implementation and example of OMTF algorithm test is presented.

  2. A fast Adaptive-Gain Orientation Filter of inertial/magnetic data for human motion tracking in free-living environments.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ya; Tan, Jindong

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution, real-time data obtained by human motion tracking systems can be used for gait analysis, which helps better understanding the cause of many diseases for more effective treatments, such as rehabilitation for outpatients or recovery from lost motor functions after a stroke. This paper presents an analytically derived method for an adaptive-gain complementary filter based on the convergence rate from the Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm (GNA) and the divergence rate from the gyroscope, which is referred as Adaptive-Gain Orientation Filter (AGOF) in this paper. The AGOF has the advantages of one iteration calculation to reduce the computing load and accurate estimation of gyroscope measurement error. Moreover, for handling magnetic distortions especially in indoor environments and movements with excessive acceleration, adaptive measurement vectors and a reference vector for Earth's magnetic field selection schemes are introduced to help the GNA find more accurate direction of gyroscope error. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed method, which shows better accuracy of orientation estimation than several well-known methods.

  3. Electronic processing and control system with programmable hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalaj, Leon (Inventor); Fang, Wai-Chi (Inventor); Newell, Michael A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A computer system with reprogrammable hardware allowing dynamically allocating hardware resources for different functions and adaptability for different processors and different operating platforms. All hardware resources are physically partitioned into system-user hardware and application-user hardware depending on the specific operation requirements. A reprogrammable interface preferably interconnects the system-user hardware and application-user hardware.

  4. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Cabral, B.K.; Foran, J.

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially-designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture-mapping hardware, such as that on the Silicon Graphics Reality Engine (TM), shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in this case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. The techniques can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties.

  5. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Stephen G.; Cabral, Brian K.; Foran, Jim

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to a graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture- mapping hardware, such as that on the silicon Graphics Reality Engine, shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in our case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. Our technique can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties.

  6. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  7. Rapid space hardware development through computer-automated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, D.S.; Ruud, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    FORTE, the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events small satellite designed and built by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories, is scheduled for launch in August, 1997. In the spirit of {open_quotes}better, cheaper, faster{close_quotes} satellites, the RF experiment hardware (receiver and trigger sub-systems) necessitated rapid prototype testing and characterization in the development of space-flight components. This was accomplished with the assembly of engineering model hardware prior to construction of flight hardware and the design of component-specific, PC-based software control libraries. Using the LabVIEW{reg_sign} graphical programming language, together with off-the-shelf PC digital I/O and GPIB interface cards, hardware control and complete automation of test equipment was possible from one PC. Because the receiver and trigger sub-systems employed complex functions for signal discrimination and transient detection, thorough validation of all functions and illumination of any faults were priorities. These methods were successful in accelerating the development and characterization of space-flight components prior to integration and allowed more complete data to be gathered than could have been accomplished without automation. Additionally, automated control of input signal sources was carried over from bench-level to system-level with the use of networked Linux workstation utilizing a GPIB interface.

  8. A fast algorithm for non-Newtonian flow. An enhanced particle-tracking finite element code for solving boundary-valve problems in viscoelastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkus, David S.

    1989-01-01

    This project concerned the development of a new fast finite element algorithm to solve flow problems of non-Newtonian fluids such as solutions or melts of polymers. Many constitutive theories for such materials involve single integrals over the deformation history of the particle at the stress evaluation point; examples are the Doi-Edwards and Curtiss-Bird molecular theories and the BKZ family derived from continuum arguments. These theories are believed to be among the most accurate in describing non-Newtonian effects important to polymer process design, effects such as stress relaxation, shear thinning, and normal stress effects. This research developed an optimized version of the algorithm which would run a factor of two faster than the pilot algorithm on scalar machines and would be able to take full advantage of vectorization on machines. Significant progress was made in code vectorization; code enhancement and streamlining; adaptive memory quadrature; model problems for the High Weissenberg Number Problem; exactly incompressible projection; development of multimesh extrapolation procedures; and solution of problems of physical interest. A portable version of the code is in the final stages of benchmarking and testing. It interfaces with the widely used FIDAP fluid dynamics package.

  9. Fast-Track, One-Step E. coli Detection: A Miniaturized Hydrogel Array Permits Specific Direct PCR and DNA Hybridization while Amplification.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Antje; Pollok, Sibyll; Rudloff, Anne; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    A timesaving and convenient method for bacterial detection based on one-step, one-tube deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization on hydrogel array while target gene amplification is described. The hydrogel array is generated by a fast one-pot synthesis, where N,N'-dimethylacrylamide/polyethyleneglycol(PEG1900 )-bisacrylamide mixture polymerizes via radical photoinitiation by visible light within 20 min concomitant with in situ capture probe immobilization. These DNA-functionalized hydrogel droplets arrayed on a planar glass surface are placed in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture during the thermal amplification cycles. The bacterial cells can be implemented in a direct PCR reaction, omitting the need for prior template DNA extraction. The resulting fluorescence signal is immediately detectable after the end of the PCR (1 h) following one short washing step by microscopy. Therefore a valid signal can be reached within 1.5 h including 10 min for pipetting and placement of the tubes and chips. The performance of this novel hydrogel DNA array was successfully proven with varying cell numbers down to a limit of 10(1) Escherichia coli cells. PMID:27220309

  10. Fast-Track, One-Step E. coli Detection: A Miniaturized Hydrogel Array Permits Specific Direct PCR and DNA Hybridization while Amplification.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Antje; Pollok, Sibyll; Rudloff, Anne; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    A timesaving and convenient method for bacterial detection based on one-step, one-tube deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization on hydrogel array while target gene amplification is described. The hydrogel array is generated by a fast one-pot synthesis, where N,N'-dimethylacrylamide/polyethyleneglycol(PEG1900 )-bisacrylamide mixture polymerizes via radical photoinitiation by visible light within 20 min concomitant with in situ capture probe immobilization. These DNA-functionalized hydrogel droplets arrayed on a planar glass surface are placed in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture during the thermal amplification cycles. The bacterial cells can be implemented in a direct PCR reaction, omitting the need for prior template DNA extraction. The resulting fluorescence signal is immediately detectable after the end of the PCR (1 h) following one short washing step by microscopy. Therefore a valid signal can be reached within 1.5 h including 10 min for pipetting and placement of the tubes and chips. The performance of this novel hydrogel DNA array was successfully proven with varying cell numbers down to a limit of 10(1) Escherichia coli cells.

  11. Urban development change detection based on Multi-Temporal Satellite Images as a fast tracking approach--a case study of Ahwaz County, southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Maryam; Zarkesh, Mir Masoud Kheirkhah; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Jozi, Seyed Ali; Sharifi, Esmail

    2015-03-01

    Rapid land-use/land-cover changes in suburbs of metropolitan cities of Iran have recently caused serious environmental damages. Detection of these changes can be a very important step in urban planning and optimal use of natural resources. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to track land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes of Ahwaz County in southwestern Iran using remote sensing techniques over a period of 26 years, from 1987 to 2013. For this, ISODATA algorithm and Maximum Likelihood were initially used for unsupervised and supervised classifications of the satellite images. The accuracy of the LULC maps was checked by the Kappa Coefficient and the Overall Accuracy methods. As the final step, the LULC changes were detected using the cross-tabulation technique. The obtained results indicated that urban and agricultural areas have been increased about 57.5 and 84.5 %, respectively, from 1987 to 2013. Further, the area of poorly vegetated regions, in the same period, has been decreased to approximately 36 %. The largest land conversion area belongs to the poorly vegetated regions, which have been declined to about 10,371 and 1,334 ha during 1987-2007 and 2007-2013, respectively. Approximately 1,670 and 382 ha of the agricultural lands have also been changed to built-up areas by about 1,670 and 382 ha during the same periods. As a result, it was found that the northwest, southwest, and south of the county were highly subjected to urban development. This would be of great importance for urban planning decision-making faced by the planners of the city in the present and future.

  12. Urban development change detection based on Multi-Temporal Satellite Images as a fast tracking approach--a case study of Ahwaz County, southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Maryam; Zarkesh, Mir Masoud Kheirkhah; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Jozi, Seyed Ali; Sharifi, Esmail

    2015-03-01

    Rapid land-use/land-cover changes in suburbs of metropolitan cities of Iran have recently caused serious environmental damages. Detection of these changes can be a very important step in urban planning and optimal use of natural resources. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to track land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes of Ahwaz County in southwestern Iran using remote sensing techniques over a period of 26 years, from 1987 to 2013. For this, ISODATA algorithm and Maximum Likelihood were initially used for unsupervised and supervised classifications of the satellite images. The accuracy of the LULC maps was checked by the Kappa Coefficient and the Overall Accuracy methods. As the final step, the LULC changes were detected using the cross-tabulation technique. The obtained results indicated that urban and agricultural areas have been increased about 57.5 and 84.5 %, respectively, from 1987 to 2013. Further, the area of poorly vegetated regions, in the same period, has been decreased to approximately 36 %. The largest land conversion area belongs to the poorly vegetated regions, which have been declined to about 10,371 and 1,334 ha during 1987-2007 and 2007-2013, respectively. Approximately 1,670 and 382 ha of the agricultural lands have also been changed to built-up areas by about 1,670 and 382 ha during the same periods. As a result, it was found that the northwest, southwest, and south of the county were highly subjected to urban development. This would be of great importance for urban planning decision-making faced by the planners of the city in the present and future. PMID:25673271

  13. Hardware accelerator of convolution with exponential function for image processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Ivan; Bucha, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we describe a Hardware Accelerator (HWA) for fast recursive approximation of separable convolution with exponential function. This filter can be used in many Image Processing (IP) applications, e.g. depth-dependent image blur, image enhancement and disparity estimation. We have adopted this filter RTL implementation to provide maximum throughput in constrains of required memory bandwidth and hardware resources to provide a power-efficient VLSI implementation.

  14. Product Assurance for Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Mike

    1995-01-01

    This report contains information about the tasks I have completed and the valuable experience I have gained at NASA. The report is divided into two different sections followed by a program summary sheet. The first section describes the two reports I have completed for the Office of Mission Assurance (OMA). I describe the approach and the resources and facilities used to complete each report. The second section describes my experience working in the Receipt Inspection/Quality Assurance Lab (RI/QA). The first report described is a Product Assurance Plan for the Gas Permeable Polymer Materials (GPPM) mission. The purpose of the Product Assurance Plan is to define the various requirements which are to be met through completion of the GPPM mission. The GPPM experiment is a space payload which will be flown in the shuttle's SPACEHAB module. The experiment will use microgravity to enable production of complex polymeric gas permeable materials. The second report described in the first section is a Fracture Analysis for the Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP). The Fracture Analysis report is a summary of the fracture control classifications for all structural elements of the MEEP. The MEEP hardware consists of four experiment carriers, each of which contains an experiment container holding a passive experiment. The MEEP hardware will be attached to the cargo bay of the space shuttle. It will be transferred by Extravehicular Activity and mounted on the Mir space station. The second section of this report describes my experiences in the RVQA lab. I listed the different equipment I used at the lab and their functions. I described the extensive inspection process that must be completed for spaceflight hardware. Included, at the end of this section, are pictures of most of the equipment used in the lab. There is a summary sheet located at the end of this report. It briefly describes the valuable experience I have gained at NASA this summer and what I will be able to take

  15. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4. Volume 2: Analytical simulation of SPS system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The pilot signal parameter optimization and power transponder analyses are presented. The SPS antenna phase control system is modeled and the hardware simulation study described. Ionospheric and system phase error effects and the effects of high power amplifier phase and amplitude jitters are considered. Parameter optimization of the spread spectrum receiver, consisting of the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking loop, is described.

  16. Computer and information technology: hardware.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D

    1998-02-01

    Computers open the door to an ever-expanding arena of knowledge and technology. Most nurses practicing in perianesthesia setting were educated before the computer era, and many fear computers and the associated technology. Frequently, the greatest difficulty is finding the resources and knowing what questions to ask. The following is the first in a series of articles on computers and information technology. This article discusses computer hardware to get the novice started or the experienced user upgraded to access new technologies and the Internet. Future articles will discuss start up and usual software applications, getting up to speed on the information superhighway, and other technologies that will broaden our knowledge and expand our personal and professional world. PMID:9543967

  17. WE-A-17A-10: Fast, Automatic and Accurate Catheter Reconstruction in HDR Brachytherapy Using An Electromagnetic 3D Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, E; Racine, E; Beaulieu, L; Binnekamp, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), actual catheter reconstruction protocols are slow and errors prompt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for improved catheter reconstruction in HDR-B protocols. Methods: For this proof-of-principle, a total of 10 catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a Philips-design 18G biopsy needle (used as an EM stylet) and the second generation Aurora Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system exploits alternating current technology and generates 3D points at 40 Hz. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical CT system with a resolution of 0.089 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, 5 catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 seconds or less. This would imply that for a typical clinical implant of 17 catheters, the total reconstruction time would be less than 3 minutes. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.92 ± 0.37 mm and 1.74 ± 1.39 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be significantly more accurate (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05). A mean difference of less than 0.5 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusion: The EM reconstruction was found to be faster, more accurate and more robust than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators. We would like to disclose that the equipments, used in this study, is coming from a collaboration with Philips Medical.

  18. Liposome bupivacaine (EXPAREL®) for extended pain relief in patients undergoing ileostomy reversal at a single institution with a fast-track discharge protocol: an IMPROVE Phase IV health economics trial

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    -related adverse events. Conclusion A liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen reduced postoperative opioid consumption in patients undergoing ileostomy reversal under a fast-track discharge protocol. A reduction of 21% in LOS (0.8 days) was noted which, although not statistically significant, may be considered clinically meaningful given the already aggressive fast-track discharge program. PMID:23935387

  19. Real-time reconfigurable foveal target acquisition and tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, David J.; Bandera, Cesar; Wrigley, Christopher J.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a target acquisition and tracking system based on the biomimetic concept of foveal vision. The system electronically reconfigures the resolution, sizes, shape, and focal plane position of visual acuity to meet time- varying operational requirements while maximizing the relevance of acquired video. A reconfigurable multiresolution active pixel CMOS imaging array is integrated in a closed-loop fashion with video processing and configuration control. Imager and algorithm configuration is updated frame-by-frame and reactively to target and scene conditions. By dynamically tailoring the visual acuity of the senor itself, the relevance and acquired visual information is maximized and a fast update rate is achieved with reduced communications bandwidth and processing requirements throughout the entire system. The system also features small size and less power consumption, and does not require a pointing mechanism. The distinguishing features of reconfigurable foveal machine vision are presented, and the hardware and software architecture of the target acquisition and tracking system is discussed. Real-time experimental result for automated target search, detection, interrogation, and tracking are then presented.

  20. Electronic hardware implementations of neutral networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Moopenn, A.; Lambe, John; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines some of the present work on the development of electronic neural network hardware. In particular, the investigations currently under way at JPL on neural network hardware implementations based on custom VLSI technology, novel thin film materials, and an analog-digital hybrid architecture are reviewed. The availability of such hardware will greatly benefit and enhance the present intense research effort on the potential computational capabilities of highly parallel systems based on neural network models.

  1. Hardware Implementation of Singular Value Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Swanirbhar; Shaw, Anil Kumar; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a useful decomposition technique which has important role in various engineering fields such as image compression, watermarking, signal processing, and numerous others. SVD does not involve convolution operation, which make it more suitable for hardware implementation, unlike the most popular transforms. This paper reviews the various methods of hardware implementation for SVD computation. This paper also studies the time complexity and hardware complexity in various methods of SVD computation.

  2. Open-source hardware for medical devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Open-source hardware is hardware whose design is made publicly available so anyone can study, modify, distribute, make and sell the design or the hardware based on that design. Some open-source hardware projects can potentially be used as active medical devices. The open-source approach offers a unique combination of advantages, including reducing costs and faster innovation. This article compares 10 of open-source healthcare projects in terms of how easy it is to obtain the required components and build the device. PMID:27158528

  3. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  4. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass onmore » to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.« less

  5. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass on to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.

  6. Hardware simulation of Ku-band spacecraft receiver and bit synchronizer, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Eisenberg, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    A hardware simulation which emulates an automatically acquiring transmit receive spread spectrum communication and tracking system and developed for use in future NASA programs involving digital communications is considered. The system architecture and tradeoff analysis that led to the selection of the system to be simulated is presented.

  7. Tracking and vertex finding with drift chambers and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.

    1991-09-01

    Finding tracks, track vertices and event vertices with neural networks from drift chamber signals is discussed. Simulated feed-forward neural networks have been trained with back-propagation to give track parameters using Monte Carlo simulated tracks in one case and actual experimental data in another. Effects on network performance of limited weight resolution, noise and drift chamber resolution are given. Possible implementations in hardware are discussed. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Life Sciences Division Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center (ARC) is responsible for the development, integration, and operation of non-human life sciences payloads in support of NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) program. To help stimulate discussion and interest in the development and application of novel technologies for incorporation within non-human life sciences experiment systems, three hardware system models will be displayed with associated graphics/text explanations. First, an Animal Enclosure Model (AEM) will be shown to communicate the nature and types of constraints physiological researchers must deal with during manned space flight experiments using rodent specimens. Second, a model of the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) under development by ESA will be presented to highlight technologies that may benefit cell-based research, including advanced imaging technologies. Finally, subsystems of the Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in development by ARC will also be shown. A discussion will be provided on candidate technology requirements in the areas of specimen environmental control, biotelemetry, telescience and telerobotics, and in situ analytical techniques and imaging. In addition, an overview of the Center for Gravitational Biology Research facilities will be provided.

  9. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  10. Tinker's Toys: Lessons from Bank Street: Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Bank Street Laboratory (a set of hardware/software tools for measuring temperature, light, and sound) consists of a board that plugs into Apple microcomputers, cabling, software, and six probes. Discusses the laboratory's hardware, including the analog-to-digital converter, multiplier chip, and modular connectors. Circuit diagrams of components…

  11. A Survey of Display Hardware and Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Jesse H., Jr.; And Others

    Reported are two papers which deal with the fundamentals of display hardware and software in computer systems. The first report presents the basic principles of display hardware in terms of image generation from buffers presumed to be loaded and controlled by a digital computer. The concepts surrounding the electrostatic tube, the electromagnetic…

  12. Returned Solar Max hardware degradation study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack J.; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission returned with the replaced hardware that had been in low Earth orbit for over four years. The materials of this returned hardware gave the aerospace community an opportunity to study the realtime effects of atomic oxygen, solar radiation, impact particles, charged particle radiation, and molecular contamination. The results of these studies are summarized.

  13. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall be... abuse. (b) Non-full-size baby cribs shall incorporate locking or latching devices for dropsides or... non-full-size baby crib....

  14. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner...

  15. Hardware survey for the avionics test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of maor hardware items that could possibly be used in the development of an avionics test bed for space shuttle attached or autonomous large space structures was conducted in NASA Johnson Space Center building 16. The results of the survey are organized to show the hardware by laboratory usage. Computer systems in each laboratory are described in some detail.

  16. Dynamic testing of docking system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorland, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive dynamic testing was conducted to verify the flight readiness of the Apollo docking hardware. Testing was performed on a unique six degree-of-freedom motion simulator controlled by a computer that calculated the associated spacecraft motions. The test system and the results obtained by subjecting flight-type docking hardware to actual impact loads and resultant spacecraft dynamics are described.

  17. Properly Matching Microcomputer Hardware, Software Minimizes "Glitches."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredenburg, Philip B.

    1986-01-01

    Microcomputer systems for school districts are best obtained by selecting the software, and matching it with hardware. Discusses criteria for software and hardware, monitors, input/output devices, backup devices, and printers. Components of two basic microcomputer systems for the business office are proposed. (MLF)

  18. Hardware verification at Computational Logic, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Bishop C.; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) hardware verification; (2) Boyer-Moore logic; (3) core RISC; (4) the FM8502 fabrication, implementation specification, and pinout; (5) hardware description language; (6) arithmetic logic generator; (7) near term expected results; (8) present trends; (9) future directions; (10) collaborations and technology transfer; and (11) technology enablers.

  19. Environmental Conditions for Space Flight Hardware: A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Lee, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    Interest in generalization of the physical environment experienced by NASA hardware from the natural Earth environment (on the launch pad), man-made environment on Earth (storage acceptance an d qualification testing), the launch environment, and the space environment, is ed to find commonality among our hardware in an effort to reduce cost and complexity. NASA is entering a period of increase in its number of planetary missions and it is important to understand how our qualification requirements will evolve with and track these new environments. Environmental conditions are described for NASA projects in several ways for the different periods of the mission life cycle. At the beginning, the mission manager defines survivability requirements based on the mission length, orbit, launch date, launch vehicle, and other factors . such as the use of reactor engines. Margins are then applied to these values (temperature extremes, vibration extremes, radiation tolerances, etc,) and a new set of conditions is generalized for design requirements. Mission assurance documents will then assign an additional margin for reliability, and a third set of values is provided for during testing. A fourth set of environmental condition values may evolve intermittently from heritage hardware that has been tested to a level beyond the actual mission requirement. These various sets of environment figures can make it quite confusing and difficult to capture common hardware environmental requirements. Environmental requirement information can be found in a wide variety of places. The most obvious is with the individual projects. We can easily get answers to questions about temperature extremes being used and radiation tolerance goals, but it is more difficult to map the answers to the process that created these requirements: for design, for qualification, and for actual environment with no margin applied. Not everyone assigned to a NASA project may have that kind of insight, as many have

  20. An evaluation of Skylab habitability hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J.

    1974-01-01

    For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.

  1. Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

  2. Fast Track to College Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S225-227) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Fast-Tracked Soyuz Docks to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz TMA-08M spacecraft carrying three new Expedition 35 crew members docks with the International Space Station at 10:28 p.m. EDT Thursday, completing its accelerated journey to the orbiting ...

  4. Energy science: Fast track for silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilges, Tom

    2016-08-01

    A solid composite material has been made that conducts electricity through the rapid transport of silver ions, which diffuse faster than in some liquids. The material holds promise for applications in charge-storage devices. See Article p.159

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: A dark energy multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Rozas-Fernández, Alberto; González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2007-05-01

    We present cosmic solutions corresponding to universes filled with dark and phantom energy, all having a negative cosmological constant. All such solutions contain infinite singularities, successively and equally distributed along time, which can be either big bang/crunches or big rips singularities. Classically these solutions can be regarded as associated with multiverse scenarios, being those corresponding to phantom energy that may describe the current accelerating universe.

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Big Bounce and inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2010-03-01

    The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified.

  7. Certificates: A Fast Track to Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka

    2013-01-01

    Certificates are nondegree awards for completing an educational program of study after high school. Typically, students finish these programs to prepare for a specific occupation. And they do so in a relatively short period of time: Most certificates take less than a year to complete, and almost all are designed to take less than 2 years. Among…

  8. Materials Informatics: Fast Track to New Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, Kim F.; Peurrung, Loni M.; Marder, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods for new materials development focus on either deeper fundamental-level studies or generation of large quantities of data. The data challenge in materials science is not only the volume of data being generated by many independent investigators, but its heterogeneity and also its complexity that must be transformed, analyzed, correlated and communicated. Materials informatics addresses these issues. Materials informatics is an emerging information-based field combining computational, statistical, and mathematical approaches with materials sciences for accelerating discovery and development of new materials. Within the informatic framework, the various different forms of information form a system architecture, an iterative cycle for transforming data into knowledge.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Complexified dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Holm, Darryl D.; Hook, Daniel W.

    2007-08-01

    Many dynamical systems, such as the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model and the Euler equations for the free rotation of a rigid body, are {{\\cal P}}{{\\cal T}} symmetric. The standard and well-known real solutions to such dynamical systems constitute an infinitessimal subclass of the full set of complex solutions. This paper examines a subset of the complex solutions that contains the real solutions, namely those having {{\\cal P}}{{\\cal T}} symmetry. The condition of {{\\cal P}}{{\\cal T}} symmetry selects out complex solutions that are periodic.

  10. The design of flight hardware: Organizational and technical ideas from the MITRE/WPI Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looft, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Mitre Corporation of Bedford Mass. and the Worcester Polytechnic Institute are developing several experiments for a future Shuttle flight. Several design practices for the development of the electrical equipment for the flight hardware have been standardized. Some of the ideas are presented, not as hard and fast rules but rather in the interest of stimulating discussions for sharing such ideas.

  11. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  12. Applying a Genetic Algorithm to Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, B. Earl; Weir, John; Trevino, Luis; Patrick, Clint; Steincamp, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of applying genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems that are implemented entirely in reconfgurable hardware. The paper highlights the pe$ormance/design space trade-offs that must be understood to effectively implement a standard genetic algorithm within a modem Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, reconfgurable hardware environment and presents a case-study where this stochastic search technique is applied to standard test-case problems taken from the technical literature. In this research, the targeted FPGA-based platform and high-level design environment was the Starbridge Hypercomputing platform, which incorporates multiple Xilinx Virtex II FPGAs, and the Viva TM graphical hardware description language.

  13. Optical Properties of Nanosatellite Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Coker, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of very small satellites have been launched into space. These have been called nanosatellites (generally of a weight between 1 and 10 kg) or picosatellites (weight <1 kg). This also includes CubeSats, which are based on 10-cm cube units. With the addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (J-SSOD) to the International Space Station (ISS), CubeSats are easily cycled through the JEM airlock and deployed into space (fig. 1). The number of CubeSats launched since 2003 was approaching 100 at the time of publication, and the authors expect this trend in research to continue, particularly for high school and college flight experiments. Because these spacecraft are so small, there is usually no allowance for shielding or active heating or cooling of the avionics and other hardware. Parts that are usually ignored in the thermal analysis of larger spacecraft may contribute significantly to the heat load of a tiny satellite. In addition, many small satellites have commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. To reduce costs, many providers of COTS components do not include the optical and physical parameters necessary for accurate thermal analysis. Marshall Space Flight Center participated in the development and analysis of the Space Missile Defense Command-Operational Nanosatellite Effect (SMDC-ONE) and the Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) nanosatellites. These optical property measurements are documented here in hopes that they may benefit future nanosatellite and picosatellite programs and aid thermal analysis to ensure project goals are met, with the understanding that material properties may vary by vendor, batch, manufacturing process, and preflight handling. Where possible, complementary data are provided from ground simulations of the space environment and flight experiments, such as the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) series. NASA gives no recommendation

  14. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  15. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  16. Verification Challenges of Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Six Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a test facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas for performing dynamic verification of space structures and hardware. Some examples of past and current tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility is able to integrate a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or demating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is utilized for input to the simulation during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents many unique challenges, one particular area of interest is with respect to the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. There are many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) measurement systems available on the market, and the test facility measurement systems have evolved over time to include two separate COTS systems. The first system incorporates infra-red sensing cameras, while the second system employs a laser interferometer to determine position and orientation data. The specific technical challenges with the measurement systems in a large dynamic environment include changing thermal and humidity levels, operational area and measurement volume, dynamic tracking, and data synchronization. The facility is located in an expansive high-bay area that is occasionally exposed to outside temperature when large retractable doors at each end of the building are opened. The laser interferometer system, in particular, is vulnerable to the environmental changes in the building. The operational area of the test facility itself is sizeable, ranging from seven meters wide and five meters deep to as much as seven meters high. Both facility measurement systems have desirable measurement volumes and the accuracies vary

  17. Solar Array Tracking Control

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D)more » convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed at compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  18. Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test

    SciTech Connect

    Fingersh, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test measures the blade deflection along the span of the blade using simple off-the-shelf infrared security cameras along with blade-mounted retro-reflective tape and video image processing hardware and software to obtain these measurements.

  19. KOLAM: a cross-platform architecture for scalable visualization and tracking in wide-area imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Joshua; Haridas, Anoop; Seetharaman, Guna; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2013-05-01

    KOLAM is an open, cross-platform, interoperable, scalable and extensible framework supporting a novel multi- scale spatiotemporal dual-cache data structure for big data visualization and visual analytics. This paper focuses on the use of KOLAM for target tracking in high-resolution, high throughput wide format video also known as wide-area motion imagery (WAMI). It was originally developed for the interactive visualization of extremely large geospatial imagery of high spatial and spectral resolution. KOLAM is platform, operating system and (graphics) hardware independent, and supports embedded datasets scalable from hundreds of gigabytes to feasibly petabytes in size on clusters, workstations, desktops and mobile computers. In addition to rapid roam, zoom and hyper- jump spatial operations, a large number of simultaneously viewable embedded pyramid layers (also referred to as multiscale or sparse imagery), interactive colormap and histogram enhancement, spherical projection and terrain maps are supported. The KOLAM software architecture was extended to support airborne wide-area motion imagery by organizing spatiotemporal tiles in very large format video frames using a temporal cache of tiled pyramid cached data structures. The current version supports WAMI animation, fast intelligent inspection, trajectory visualization and target tracking (digital tagging); the latter by interfacing with external automatic tracking software. One of the critical needs for working with WAMI is a supervised tracking and visualization tool that allows analysts to digitally tag multiple targets, quickly review and correct tracking results and apply geospatial visual analytic tools on the generated trajectories. One-click manual tracking combined with multiple automated tracking algorithms are available to assist the analyst and increase human effectiveness.

  20. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Ohio State U. /Baylor U. /UC, Davis /Athens Natl. Capodistrian U. /Purdue U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  1. Rapid Production of Composite Prototype Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, T. K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide a mechanism to cost-effectively produce composite hardware prototypes. The task was to take a hands-on approach to developing new technologies that could benefit multiple future programs.

  2. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  3. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  4. Towards composition of verified hardware devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Computers are being used where no affordable level of testing is adequate. Safety and life critical systems must find a replacement for exhaustive testing to guarantee their correctness. Through a mathematical proof, hardware verification research has focused on device verification and has largely ignored system composition verification. To address these deficiencies, we examine how the current hardware verification methodology can be extended to verify complete systems.

  5. Development of robotics facility docking test hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T. E.; Winkler, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    Design and fabricate test hardware for NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are reported. A docking device conceptually developed was fabricated, and two docking targets which provide high and low mass docking loads were required and were represented by an aft 61.0 cm section of a Hubble space telescope (ST) mockup and an upgrading of an existing multimission modular spacecraft (MSS) mockup respectively. A test plan is developed for testing the hardware.

  6. IDD Archival Hardware Architecture and Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonsa, D; Nekoogar, F; Martz, H

    2008-10-09

    This document describes the functionality of every component in the DHS/IDD archival and storage hardware system shown in Fig. 1. The document describes steps by step process of image data being received at LLNL then being processed and made available to authorized personnel and collaborators. Throughout this document references will be made to one of two figures, Fig. 1 describing the elements of the architecture and the Fig. 2 describing the workflow and how the project utilizes the available hardware.

  7. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  8. An adaptive 6-DOF tracking method by hybrid sensing for ultrasonic endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Du, Chengyang; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi; Li, Junwei; Yu, Daoyin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid sensing method for tracking an ultrasonic endoscope within the gastrointestinal (GI) track is presented, and the prototype of the tracking system is also developed. We implement 6-DOF localization by sensing integration and information fusion. On the hardware level, a tri-axis gyroscope and accelerometer, and a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor array are attached at the end of endoscopes, and three symmetric cylindrical coils are placed around patients' abdomens. On the algorithm level, an adaptive fast quaternion convergence (AFQC) algorithm is introduced to determine the orientation by fusing inertial/magnetic measurements, in which the effects of magnetic disturbance and acceleration are estimated to gain an adaptive convergence output. A simplified electro-magnetic tracking (SEMT) algorithm for dimensional position is also implemented, which can easily integrate the AFQC's results and magnetic measurements. Subsequently, the average position error is under 0.3 cm by reasonable setting, and the average orientation error is 1° without noise. If magnetic disturbance or acceleration exists, the average orientation error can be controlled to less than 3.5°. PMID:24915179

  9. An Adaptive 6-DOF Tracking Method by Hybrid Sensing for Ultrasonic Endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chengyang; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi; Li, Junwei; Yu, Daoyin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid sensing method for tracking an ultrasonic endoscope within the gastrointestinal (GI) track is presented, and the prototype of the tracking system is also developed. We implement 6-DOF localization by sensing integration and information fusion. On the hardware level, a tri-axis gyroscope and accelerometer, and a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor array are attached at the end of endoscopes, and three symmetric cylindrical coils are placed around patients' abdomens. On the algorithm level, an adaptive fast quaternion convergence (AFQC) algorithm is introduced to determine the orientation by fusing inertial/magnetic measurements, in which the effects of magnetic disturbance and acceleration are estimated to gain an adaptive convergence output. A simplified electro-magnetic tracking (SEMT) algorithm for dimensional position is also implemented, which can easily integrate the AFQC's results and magnetic measurements. Subsequently, the average position error is under 0.3 cm by reasonable setting, and the average orientation error is 1° without noise. If magnetic disturbance or acceleration exists, the average orientation error can be controlled to less than 3.5°. PMID:24915179

  10. Fast scene recognition and camera relocalisation for wide area augmented reality systems.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tao; Duan, Liya; Chen, Yongjian; Yu, Junqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on online scene learning and fast camera relocalisation which are two key problems currently limiting the performance of wide area augmented reality systems. Firstly, we propose to use adaptive random trees to deal with the online scene learning problem. The algorithm can provide more accurate recognition rates than traditional methods, especially with large scale workspaces. Secondly, we use the enhanced PROSAC algorithm to obtain a fast camera relocalisation method. Compared with traditional algorithms, our method can significantly reduce the computation complexity, which facilitates to a large degree the process of online camera relocalisation. Finally, we implement our algorithms in a multithreaded manner by using a parallel-computing scheme. Camera tracking, scene mapping, scene learning and relocalisation are separated into four threads by using multi-CPU hardware architecture. While providing real-time tracking performance, the resulting system also possesses the ability to track multiple maps simultaneously. Some experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the validity of our methods. PMID:22219700

  11. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Analyzing Potential Tracking Algorithms for the Upgrade to the Silicon Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, John; McDermott, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    The research performed revolves around creating tracking algorithms for the proposed ten-year upgrade to the tracker for CMS, one of two main detectors for the LHC at CERN. The proposed upgrade to the tracker for CMS will use fast hardware to trace particle trajectories so that they can be used immediately in a trigger system. The additional information will be combined with other sub-detectors in CMS, enabling mostly the non-background events to be read-out by the detector. The algorithms would be implemented directly into the Level-1 trigger, the first trigger in a 2 trigger system, to be used in real time. Specifically, by analyzing computer generated stable particles over various ranges of transverse momentum and the tracks they produce, we created and tested various simulated trigger algorithms that might be used in hardware. As one algorithm has proved very effective, the next step is to test this algorithm against simulated events with an environment equivalent to SLHC luminosities.

  13. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-06-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology.

  14. Track Segment Finding with the CDFII Online Track Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, Christopher

    2000-04-01

    With increased accelerator luminosity and detector upgrades, Run II at the Tevatron offers not only unprecedented physics opportunities, but also exciting new technical challenges. At CDF, the new Central Outer Tracker (COT) coupled with the decreased bunch spacing requires the design of a new track processor to identify tracks in the central detector. This critical component of the triggering system must be efficient, fast and accurate. The eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) meets these criteria. The XFT is divided into two major subsystems, the segment finder and the segment linker. We report on the XFT's role in the Level 1 triggering system at CDF and the Finder subsytem. The Finder identifies track segments within a 12-wire layer of the COT. The device is highly parallel and makes use of field programmable gate arrays. The design, testing and commissioning of the Finder are detailed.

  15. An update on SCARLET hardware development and flight programs

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.A.; Murphy, D.M.; Piszczor, M.F.; Allen, D.M. |

    1995-10-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is one of the first practical photovoltaic concentrator array technologies that offers a number of benefits for space applications (i.e. high array efficiency, protection from space radiation effects, a relatively light weight system, minimized plasma interactions, etc.) The line-focus concentrator concept, however, also offers two very important advantages: (1) low-cost mass production potential of the lens material; and (2) relaxation of precise array tracking requirements to only a single axis. These benefits offer unique capabilities to both commercial and government spacecraft users, specifically those interested in high radiation missions, such as MEO orbits, and electric-powered propulsion LEO-to-GEO orbit raising applications. SCARLET is an aggressive hardware development and flight validation program sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and NASA Lewis Research Center. Its intent is to bring technology to the level of performance and validation necessary for use by various government and commercial programs. The first phase of the SCARLET program culminated with the design, development and fabrication of a small concentrator array for flight on the METEOR satellite. This hardware will be the first in-space demonstration of concentrator technology at the `array level` and will provide valuable in-orbit performance measurements. The METEOR satellite is currently planned for a September/October 1995 launch. The next phase of the program is the development of large array for use by one of the NASA New Millenium Program missions. This hardware will incorporate a number of the significant improvements over the basic METEOR design. This presentation will address the basic SCARLET technology, examine its benefits to users, and describe the expected improvements for future missions.

  16. Hardware Testing and System Evaluation: Procedures to Evaluate Commodity Hardware for Production Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, J

    2004-02-27

    Without stable hardware any program will fail. The frustration and expense of supporting bad hardware can drain an organization, delay progress, and frustrate everyone involved. At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), we have created a testing method that helps our group, SLAC Computer Services (SCS), weed out potentially bad hardware and purchase the best hardware at the best possible cost. Commodity hardware changes often, so new evaluations happen periodically each time we purchase systems and minor re-evaluations happen for revised systems for our clusters, about twice a year. This general framework helps SCS perform correct, efficient evaluations. This article outlines SCS's computer testing methods and our system acceptance criteria. We expanded the basic ideas to other evaluations such as storage, and we think the methods outlined in this article has helped us choose hardware that is much more stable and supportable than our previous purchases. We have found that commodity hardware ranges in quality, so systematic method and tools for hardware evaluation were necessary. This article is based on one instance of a hardware purchase, but the guidelines apply to the general problem of purchasing commodity computer systems for production computational work.

  17. Health Maintenance System (HMS) Hardware Research, Design, and Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Stefanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences division (SLSD) concentrates on optimizing a crew member's health. Developments are translated into innovative engineering solutions, research growth, and community awareness. This internship incorporates all those areas by targeting various projects. The main project focuses on integrating clinical and biomedical engineering principles to design, develop, and test new medical kits scheduled for launch in the Spring of 2011. Additionally, items will be tagged with Radio Frequency Interference Devices (RFID) to keep track of the inventory. The tags will then be tested to optimize Radio Frequency feed and feed placement. Research growth will occur with ground based experiments designed to measure calcium encrusted deposits in the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will assess the urine calcium levels with Portable Clinical Blood Analyzer (PCBA) technology. If effective then a model for urine calcium will be developed and expanded to microgravity environments. To support collaboration amongst the subdivisions of SLSD the architecture of the Crew Healthcare Systems (CHeCS) SharePoint site has been redesigned for maximum efficiency. Community collaboration has also been established with the University of Southern California, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hardware disbursements will transpire within these communities to support planetary surface exploration and to serve as an educational tool demonstrating how ground based medicine influenced the technological development of space hardware.

  18. VEG-01: Veggie Hardware Verification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gary; Hummerick, Mary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future Veggie investigators as they develop their payloads. Additionally, food safety data on the lettuce plants grown will be collected to help support the development of a pathway for the crew to safely consume produce grown on orbit. Significant background research has been performed on the Veggie plant growth system, with early tests focusing on the development of the rooting pillow concept, and the selection of fertilizer, rooting medium and plant species. More recent testing has been conducted to integrate the pillow concept into the Veggie hardware and to ensure that adequate water is provided throughout the growth cycle. Seed sanitation protocols have been established for flight, and hardware sanitation between experiments has been studied. Methods for shipping and storage of rooting pillows and the development of crew procedures and crew training videos for plant activities on-orbit have been established. Science verification testing was conducted and lettuce plants were successfully grown in prototype Veggie hardware, microbial samples were taken, plant were harvested, frozen, stored and later analyzed for microbial growth, nutrients, and A TP levels. An additional verification test, prior to the final payload verification testing, is desired to demonstrate similar growth in the flight hardware and also to test a second set of pillows containing zinnia seeds. Issues with root mat water supply are being resolved, with final testing and flight scheduled for later in 2013.

  19. Symptomatic Hardware Removal After First Tarsometatarsal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kyle S; McAlister, Jeffrey E; Hyer, Christopher F; Thompson, John

    2016-01-01

    Severe hallux valgus deformity with proximal instability creates pain and deformity in the forefoot. First tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis is performed to reduce the intermetatarsal angle and stabilize the joint. Dorsomedial locking plate fixation with adjunctive lag screw fixation is used because of its superior construct strength and healing rate. Despite this, questions remain regarding whether this hardware is more prominent and more likely to need removal. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic hardware at the first tarsometatarsal joint and to determine the incidence of hardware removal resulting from prominence and/or discomfort. A review of 165 medical records of consecutive patients who had undergone first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with plate fixation was conducted. The outcome of interest was the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal in patients with clinical union. The mean age was 55 (range 18.4 to 78.8) years. The mean follow-up duration was 65.9 ± 34.0 (range 7.0 to 369.0) weeks. In our cohort, 25 patients (15.2%) had undergone hardware removed because of pain and irritation. Of these patients, 18 (72.0%) had a locking plate and lag screw removed, and 7 (28.0%) had crossing lag screws removed. The fixation of a first tarsometatarsal joint fusion poses a difficult situation owing to minimal soft tissue coverage and the inherent need for robust fixation to promote fusion. Hardware can become prominent postoperatively and can become painful and/or induce cutaneous compromise. The results of the present observational investigation imply that surgeons can reasonably inform patients that the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal after first tarsometatarsal arthrodesis is approximately 15% within a median duration of 9.0 months after surgery.

  20. Tracking of deformable objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  1. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2015-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a SimulinkR library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL system.

  2. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2014-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a Simulink(R) library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL system.

  3. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia Mae; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2014-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (40,000 pound force thrust) (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a Simulink (R) library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL

  4. Interferometric tracking system for the tracking and data relay satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effland, John E.; Knight, Curtis A.; Webber, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents construction and testing of the Interferometric Tracking System project developed under the NASA SBIR contract NAS5-30313. Manuals describing the software and hardware, respectively entitled: 'Field Station Guide to Operations' and 'Field Station Hardware Manual' are included as part of this final report. The objective of this contract was to design, build, and operate a system of three ground stations using Very Long Baseline Interferometry techniques to measure the TDRS orbit. The ground stations receive signals from normal satellite traffic, store these signals in co-located computers, and transmit the information via phone lines to a central processing site which correlates the signals to determine relative time delays. Measurements from another satellite besides TDRS are used to determine clock offsets. A series of such measurements will ultimately be employed to derive the orbital parameters, yielding positions accurate to within 50 meters or possibly better.

  5. Real-time 2D floating-point fast Fourier transforms for seeker simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Richard; Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.

    2002-07-01

    The floating point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the most useful basic functions available to the image and signal processing engineer allowing many complex and detailed special functions to be implemented more simply in the frequency domain. In the Hardware-in-the-Loop field an image transformed using FFT would allow the designer to think about accurate frequency based simulation of seeker lens effects, motion blur, detector transfer functions and much more. Unfortunately, the transform requires many hundreds of thousands or millions of floating point operations on a single modest sized image making it impractical for realtime Hardware-in-the-Loop systems. .until now. This paper outlines the development, by Nallatech, of an FPGA based IEEE floating point core. It traces the subsequent use of this core to develop a full 256 X 256 FFT and filter process implemented on COTS hardware at frame rates up to 150Hz. This transform can be demonstrated to model optical transfer functions at a far greater accuracy than the current spatial models. Other applications and extensions of this technique will be discussed such as filtering for image tracking algorithms and in the simulation of radar processing in the frequency domain.

  6. Integrating reconfigurable hardware-based grid for high performance computing.

    PubMed

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process.

  7. FFT and cone-beam CT reconstruction on graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Després, Philippe; Sun, Mingshan; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Prevrhal, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for general purpose calculations. Their pipelined architecture can be exploited to accelerate various parallelizable algorithms. Medical imaging applications are inherently well suited to benefit from the development of GPU-based computational platforms. We evaluate in this work the potential of GPUs to improve the execution speed of two common medical imaging tasks, namely Fourier transforms and tomographic reconstructions. A two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm was GPU-implemented and compared, in terms of execution speed, to two popular CPU-based FFT routines. Similarly, the Feldkamp, David and Kress (FDK) algorithm for cone-beam tomographic reconstruction was implemented on the GPU and its performance compared to a CPU version. Different reconstruction strategies were employed to assess the performance of various GPU memory layouts. For the specific hardware used, GPU implementations of the FFT were up to 20 times faster than their CPU counterparts, but slower than highly optimized CPU versions of the algorithm. Tomographic reconstructions were faster on the GPU by a factor up to 30, allowing 256 3 voxel reconstructions of 256 projections in about 20 seconds. Overall, GPUs are an attractive alternative to other imaging-dedicated computing hardware like application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in terms of cost, simplicity and versatility. With the development of simpler language extensions and programming interfaces, GPUs are likely to become essential tools in medical imaging.

  8. Integrating reconfigurable hardware-based grid for high performance computing.

    PubMed

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process. PMID:25874241

  9. Integrating Reconfigurable Hardware-Based Grid for High Performance Computing

    PubMed Central

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process. PMID:25874241

  10. Real time atmospheric turbulence compensation: implementing dedicated hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Peter; Astroem, Anders; Dai, Guang-Ming; Forchheimer, Robert; Ardeberg, Arne L.

    1997-03-01

    We discuss a device for real time compensation of image quality deterioration induced by atmospheric turbulence. The device will permit ground based observations with very high image resolution. We propose an instrument with two channels. One is an ordinary image detection channel, while the other uses a Hartmann-Shack wavefront detector to measure image degradation. This information is obtained in the form of a set of lenslet focus shifts, each corresponding to the local tilt of the wavefront. Through modeling, the entire wavefront is reconstructed. Consequently, we can estimate the optical transfer function and its corresponding point spread function. Through convolution techniques, the distorted image can subsequently be restored. Thus, image correction is performed in software, eliminating the need for expensive live optics designs. Due to the nature of atmospheric turbulence, detection and correction have to be made with 50 - 100 frames per second. This implies a need for very high computing capacity. A study of the mathematical operations involved has been made with special emphasis on implementation in the hardware architecture known as radar video image processor (RVIP). This hardware utilizes a high degree of parallelism. Results available show that RVIP together with complementary units provide the necessary high-speed computing capacity. The detection system in both channels must meet very high demands. We mention high quantum efficiency, fast readout at low noise levels and a wide spectral range. A preliminary investigation evaluates suitable detectors. ICCDs are so far the most promising candidates.

  11. Economic impact of syndesmosis hardware removal.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Trapper A J; Matthews, Leslie J; Hanselman, Andrew E; Hubbard, David F; Bramer, Michelle A; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are commonly seen with 5-10% of sprains and 10% of ankle fractures involving injury to the ankle syndesmosis. Anatomic reduction has been shown to be the most important predictor of clinical outcomes. Optimal surgical management has been a subject of debate in the literature. The method of fixation, number of screws, screw size, and number of cortices are all controversial. Postoperative hardware removal has also been widely debated in the literature. Some surgeons advocate for elective hardware removal prior to resuming full weightbearing. Returning to the operating room for elective hardware removal results in increased cost to the patient, potential for infection or complication(s), and missed work days for the patient. Suture button devices and bioabsorbable screw fixation present other options, but cortical screw fixation remains the gold standard. This retrospective review was designed to evaluate the economic impact of a second operative procedure for elective removal of 3.5mm cortical syndesmosis screws. Two hundred and two patients with ICD-9 code for "open treatment of distal tibiofibular joint (syndesmosis) disruption" were identified. The medical records were reviewed for those who underwent elective syndesmosis hardware removal. The primary outcome measurements included total hospital billing charges and total hospital billing collection. Secondary outcome measurements included average individual patient operative costs and average operating room time. Fifty-six patients were included in the study. Our institution billed a total of $188,271 (USD) and collected $106,284 (55%). The average individual patient operating room cost was $3579. The average operating room time was 67.9 min. To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously provided cost associated with syndesmosis hardware removal. Our study shows elective syndesmosis hardware removal places substantial economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system.

  12. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  13. Pressure Sensor Calibration using VIPA Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, Reynold; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Forrester, Joel B.; Hayes, James C.; Lidey, Lance S.

    2008-10-08

    The VIPA hardware uses a series of modules to control the system. One of the modules that the VIPA hardware uses is a 16-bit analog input module. The main purpose of this module is to read in a voltage. The inputs of these modules are connected directly to the voltage outputs of all the pressure sensors in the system. Because the sensors have different pressure and voltage output ranges, it is necessary to calibrate and scale the sensors so that the values make sense to the operator of the system.

  14. Language of CTO interventions - Focus on hardware.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of variety of chronic total occlusion (CTO) hardware and the ability to use them represents the key to success of any CTO interventions. However, the multiplicity of CTO hardware and their physical character and the terminology used by experts create confusion in the mind of an average interventional cardiologist, particularly a beginner in this field. This knowledge is available but is scattered. We aim to classify and compare the currently used devices based on their properties focusing on how physical character of each device can be utilized in a specific situation, thus clarifying and simplifying the technical discourse. PMID:27543466

  15. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  16. Language of CTO interventions - Focus on hardware.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of variety of chronic total occlusion (CTO) hardware and the ability to use them represents the key to success of any CTO interventions. However, the multiplicity of CTO hardware and their physical character and the terminology used by experts create confusion in the mind of an average interventional cardiologist, particularly a beginner in this field. This knowledge is available but is scattered. We aim to classify and compare the currently used devices based on their properties focusing on how physical character of each device can be utilized in a specific situation, thus clarifying and simplifying the technical discourse.

  17. Implementation of pipelined FastICA on FPGA for real-time blind source separation.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Lee, Ming-Huan; Wu, Yu-Te; Lee, Po-Lei

    2008-06-01

    Fast independent component analysis (FastICA) algorithm separates the independent sources from their mixtures by measuring non-Gaussian. FastICA is a common offline method to identify artifact and interference from their mixtures such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Therefore, it is valuable to implement FastICA for real-time signal processing. In this paper, the FastICA algorithm is implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), with the ability of real-time sequential mixed signals processing by the proposed pipelined FastICA architecture. Moreover, in order to increase the numbers precision, the hardware floating-point (FP) arithmetic units had been carried out in the hardware FastICA. In addition, the proposed pipeline FastICA provides the high sampling rate (192 kHz) capability by hand coding the hardware FastICA in hardware description language (HDL). To verify the features of the proposed hardware FastICA, simulations are first performed, then real-time signal processing experimental results are presented using the fabricated platform. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented hardware FastICA as expected.

  18. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  19. Remote hardware-reconfigurable robotic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Maya-Rueda, Selene E.

    2001-10-01

    In this work, a camera with integrated image processing capabilities is discussed. The camera is based on an imager coupled to an FPGA device (Field Programmable Gate Array) which contains an architecture for real-time computer vision low-level processing. The architecture can be reprogrammed remotely for application specific purposes. The system is intended for rapid modification and adaptation for inspection and recognition applications, with the flexibility of hardware and software reprogrammability. FPGA reconfiguration allows the same ease of upgrade in hardware as a software upgrade process. The camera is composed of a digital imager coupled to an FPGA device, two memory banks, and a microcontroller. The microcontroller is used for communication tasks and FPGA programming. The system implements a software architecture to handle multiple FPGA architectures in the device, and the possibility to download a software/hardware object from the host computer into its internal context memory. System advantages are: small size, low power consumption, and a library of hardware/software functionalities that can be exchanged during run time. The system has been validated with an edge detection and a motion processing architecture, which will be presented in the paper. Applications targeted are in robotics, mobile robotics, and vision based quality control.

  20. Transistor Level Circuit Experiments using Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performs research in fault tolerant, long life, and space survivable electronics for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). With that focus, JPL has been involved in Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology research for the past several years. We have advanced the technology not only by simulation and evolution experiments, but also by designing, fabricating, and evolving a variety of transistor-based analog and digital circuits at the chip level. EHW refers to self-configuration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms, thereby maintaining existing functionality in the presence of degradations due to aging, temperature, and radiation. In addition, EHW has the capability to reconfigure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. Evolution experiments are performed using a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism and controlling the evolvable hardware mounted on a self-contained circuit board. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The paper illustrates hardware evolution results of electronic circuits and their ability to perform under 230 C temperature as well as radiations of up to 250 kRad.

  1. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  2. Common hardware-in-the-loop development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hajin J.; Moss, Stephen G.

    2010-04-01

    An approach to streamline the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation development process is under evaluation. This Common HWIL technique will attempt to provide a more flexible, scalable system. The overall goal of the Common HWIL system will be to reduce cost by minimizing redundant development, operational labor and equipment expense. This paper will present current results and future plans of the development.

  3. Microprocessor Design Using Hardware Description Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mita, Rosario; Palumbo, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The following paper has been conceived to deal with the contents of some lectures aimed at enhancing courses on digital electronic, microelectronic or VLSI systems. Those lectures show how to use a hardware description language (HDL), such as the VHDL, to specify, design and verify a custom microprocessor. The general goal of this work is to teach…

  4. Use of heat pipes in electronic hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A modular, multiple output power converter was developed in order to reduce costs of space hardware in future missions. The converter is of reduced size and weight, and utilizes advanced heat removal techniques, in the form of heat pipes which remove internally generated heat more effectively than conventional methods.

  5. Support for Diagnosis of Custom Computer Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molock, Dwaine S.

    2008-01-01

    The Coldfire SDN Diagnostics software is a flexible means of exercising, testing, and debugging custom computer hardware. The software is a set of routines that, collectively, serve as a common software interface through which one can gain access to various parts of the hardware under test and/or cause the hardware to perform various functions. The routines can be used to construct tests to exercise, and verify the operation of, various processors and hardware interfaces. More specifically, the software can be used to gain access to memory, to execute timer delays, to configure interrupts, and configure processor cache, floating-point, and direct-memory-access units. The software is designed to be used on diverse NASA projects, and can be customized for use with different processors and interfaces. The routines are supported, regardless of the architecture of a processor that one seeks to diagnose. The present version of the software is configured for Coldfire processors on the Subsystem Data Node processor boards of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. There is also support for the software with respect to Mongoose V, RAD750, and PPC405 processors or their equivalents.

  6. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, A

    2010-08-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called "buses". The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute "programs". A Pentium(®) 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration.

  7. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, A

    2010-08-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called "buses". The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute "programs". A Pentium(®) 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration. PMID:21042437

  8. A hardware accelerator for maze routing

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Y. ); Sahni, S. . Dept. of Computer Science); El-Ziq, Y. )

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors reexamine the problem of developing a suitable hardware accelerator for a maze router. The design is comprised of three 3-stage pipelines and a banked memory. The banked memory permits read/write to occur with no wait and no conflicts.

  9. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  10. Electrical Safety for Human Space Flight Payload Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnells, James A.

    2010-09-01

    Human Space Flight payload hardware designs must address both mission success and safety requirements for flight on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station(ISS), or International Partner(IP) Launch Vehicles. Flight hardware generally can be considered either Government Furnished Equipment(GFE) or Payload hardware, although some Commercial-off-the-shelf(COTS) hardware is also flown. In this case we will use the payload flight hardware system safety perspective, which closely resembles the GFE system safety process with a few exceptions. Why is Human space flight hardware treated differently than ground hardware? The key reason flight hardware is treated more conservatively than ground hardware is the relative impact to crew and vehicle, and the relative inability to provide immediate recovery of a disabled space vehicle or crewmember on-orbit. One aspect of safe payload flight hardware design is Electrical Power Systems(EPS), including the safe design and operations of electrical power systems for payloads.

  11. A hardware implementation of the discrete Pascal transform for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Thomas J.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2006-02-01

    The discrete Pascal transform is a polynomial transform with applications in pattern recognition, digital filtering, and digital image processing. It already has been shown that the Pascal transform matrix can be decomposed into a product of binary matrices. Such a factorization leads to a fast and efficient hardware implementation without the use of multipliers, which consume large amounts of hardware. We recently developed a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation to compute the Pascal transform. Our goal was to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the transform while keeping hardware requirements at a minimum. Images are uploaded into memory from a remote computer prior to processing, and the transform coefficients can be offloaded from the FPGA board for analysis. Design techniques like as-soon-as-possible scheduling and adder sharing allowed us to develop a fast and efficient system. An eight-point, one-dimensional transform completes in 13 clock cycles and requires only four adders. An 8x8 two-dimensional transform completes in 240 cycles and requires only a top-level controller in addition to the one-dimensional transform hardware. Finally, through minor modifications to the controller, the transform operations can be pipelined to achieve 100% utilization of the four adders, allowing one eight-point transform to complete every seven clock cycles.

  12. A fast meteor detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural, P.

    2016-01-01

    A low latency meteor detection algorithm for use with fast steering mirrors had been previously developed to track and telescopically follow meteors in real-time (Gural, 2007). It has been rewritten as a generic clustering and tracking software module for meteor detection that meets both the demanding throughput requirements of a Raspberry Pi while also maintaining a high probability of detection. The software interface is generalized to work with various forms of front-end video pre-processing approaches and provides a rich product set of parameterized line detection metrics. Discussion will include the Maximum Temporal Pixel (MTP) compression technique as a fast thresholding option for feeding the detection module, the detection algorithm trade for maximum processing throughput, details on the clustering and tracking methodology, processing products, performance metrics, and a general interface description.

  13. Electronic hardware design of electrical capacitance tomography systems.

    PubMed

    Saied, I; Meribout, M

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography techniques for process imaging are very prominent for industrial applications, such as the oil and gas industry and chemical refineries, owing to their ability to provide the flow regime of a flowing fluid within a relatively high throughput. Among the various techniques, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is gaining popularity due to its non-invasive nature and its capability to differentiate between different phases based on their permittivity distribution. In recent years, several hardware designs have been provided for ECT systems that have improved its resolution of measurements to be around attofarads (aF, 10(-18) F), or the number of channels, that is required to be large for some applications that require a significant amount of data. In terms of image acquisition time, some recent systems could achieve a throughput of a few hundred frames per second, while data processing time could be achieved in only a few milliseconds per frame. This paper outlines the concept and main features of the most recent front-end and back-end electronic circuits dedicated for ECT systems. In this paper, multiple-excitation capacitance polling, a front-end electronic technique, shows promising results for ECT systems to acquire fast data acquisition speeds. A highly parallel field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based architecture for a fast reconstruction algorithm is also described. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185964

  14. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the communication and tracking subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. R.; Robinson, W. M.; Trahan, W. H.; Daley, E. S.; Long, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Communication and Tracking hardware. The IOA analysis process utilized available Communication and Tracking hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  15. Codem: software/hardware codesign for embedded multicore systems supporting hardware services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Nedjah, Nadia; Wang, Aili

    2015-01-01

    Efficient software/hardware codesign is posing significant challenges to embedded systems. This paper proposes Codem, a software/hardware codesign flow for embedded systems, which models both processors and Intellectual Property (IP) cores as services. Tasks are regarded as abstract instructions which can be scheduled to IP cores for parallel execution automatically. In order to guide the hardware implementations of the hot spot functions, this paper incorporates a novel hot spot-based profiling technique to observe the hot spot functions while the application is being simulated. Furthermore, based on the hot spot of various applications, an adaptive mapping algorithm is presented to partition the application into multiple software/hardware tasks. We test the profiling-based design flow with classic Sort applications. Experimental results demonstrate that Codem can efficiently help researchers to identify the hot spots, and also outline a new direction to combine profiling techniques with state-of-the-art reconfigurable computing platforms for specific task acceleration.

  16. Analysis of sampling and quantization effects on the performance of PN code tracking loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, K. J.; Srinivasan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Pseudonoise (PN) code tracking loops in direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems are often implemented using digital hardware. Performance degradation due to quantization and sampling effects is not adequately characterized by the traditional analog system feedback loop analysis.

  17. ESTL tracking and data relay satellite /TDRSS/ simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapell, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) provides single access forward and return communication links with the Shuttle/Orbiter via S-band and Ku-band frequency bands. The ESTL (Electronic Systems Test Laboratory) at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) utilizes a TDRS satellite simulator and critical TDRS ground hardware for test operations. To accomplish Orbiter/TDRSS relay communications performance testing in the ESTL, a satellite simulator was developed which met the specification requirements of the TDRSS channels utilized by the Orbiter. Actual TDRSS ground hardware unique to the Orbiter communication interfaces was procured from individual vendors, integrated in the ESTL, and interfaced via a data bus for control and status monitoring. This paper discusses the satellite simulation hardware in terms of early development and subsequent modifications. The TDRS ground hardware configuration and the complex computer interface requirements are reviewed. Also, special test hardware such as a radio frequency interference test generator is discussed.

  18. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  19. The hardware accelerator array for logic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, N H

    1991-05-01

    Hardware acceleration exploits the parallelism inherent in large circuit simulations to achieve significant increases in performance. Simulation accelerators have been developed based on the compiled code algorithm or the event-driven algorithm. The greater flexibility of the event-driven algorithm has resulted in several important developments in hardware acceleration architecture. Some popular commercial products have been developed based on the event-driven algorithm and data-flow architectures. Conventional data-flow architectures require complex switching networks to distribute operands among processing elements resulting in considerable overhead. An accelerator array architecture based on a nearest-neighbor communication has been developed in this thesis. The design is simulated in detail at the behavioral level. Its performance is evaluated and shown to be superior to that of a conventional data-flow accelerator. 14 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE STATUS OF QCDOC.

    SciTech Connect

    BOYLE,P.A.; CHEN,D.; CHRIST,N.H.; PETROV.K.; ET AL.

    2003-07-15

    QCDOC is a massively parallel supercomputer whose processing nodes are based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This ASIC was custom-designed so that crucial lattice QCD kernels achieve an overall sustained performance of 50% on machines with several 10,000 nodes. This strong scalability, together with low power consumption and a price/performance ratio of $1 per sustained MFlops, enable QCDOC to attack the most demanding lattice QCD problems. The first ASICs became available in June of 2003, and the testing performed so far has shown all systems functioning according to specification. We review the hardware and software status of QCDOC and present performance figures obtained in real hardware as well as in simulation.

  1. Hardware-Independent Proofs of Numerical Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldo, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi Minh Tuyen

    2010-01-01

    On recent architectures, a numerical program may give different answers depending on the execution hardware and the compilation. Our goal is to formally prove properties about numerical programs that are true for multiple architectures and compilers. We propose an approach that states the rounding error of each floating-point computation whatever the environment. This approach is implemented in the Frama-C platform for static analysis of C code. Small case studies using this approach are entirely and automatically proved

  2. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  3. The minitrack tracking function description, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Mango, S. A.; Roettcher, C. A.; Watters, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of tracking data by the Minitrack system is described from the transmission of the nominal 136-MHz radio beacon energy from a satellite and the reception of this signal by the interferometer network through the ultimate derivation of the direction cosines (the angular coordinates of the vector from the tracking station to the spacecraft) as a function of time. Descriptions of some of the lesser-known functions operating on the system, such as the computer preprocessing program, are included. A large part of the report is devoted to the preprocessor, which provides for the data compression, smoothing, calibration correction, and ambiguity resolution of the raw interferometer phase tracking measurements teletyped from each of the worldwide Minitrack tracking stations to the central computer facility at Goddard Space Flight Center. An extensive bibliography of Minitrack hardware and theory is presented.

  4. Simplified fast neutron dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    1979-01-01

    Direct fast-neutron-induced recoil and alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate films may be enlarged for direct visual observation and automated counting procedures employing electrochemical etching techniques. Electrochemical etching is, for example, carried out in a 28% KOH solution at room temperature by applying a 2000 V peak-to-peak voltage at 1 kHz frequency. Such recoil particle amplification can be used for the detection of wide neutron dose ranges from 1 mrad. to 1000 rads. or higher, if desired.

  5. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration.

    PubMed

    Thuot, P J; Harbaugh, G J

    1995-07-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented. PMID:11541312

  6. "Greenbook Algorithms and Hardware Needs Analysis"

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Oehmen, Chris S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2007-01-09

    "This document describes the algorithms, and hardware balance requirements needed to enable the solution of real scientific problems in the DOE core mission areas of environmental and subsurface chemistry, computational and systems biology, and climate science. The MSCF scientific drivers have been outlined in the Greenbook, which is available online at http://mscf.emsl.pnl.gov/docs/greenbook_for_web.pdf . Historically, the primary science driver has been the chemical and the molecular dynamics of the biological science area, whereas the remaining applications in the biological and environmental systems science areas have been occupying a smaller segment of the available hardware resources. To go from science drivers to hardware balance requirements, the major applications were identified. Major applications on the MSCF resources are low- to high-accuracy electronic structure methods, molecular dynamics, regional climate modeling, subsurface transport, and computational biology. The algorithms of these applications were analyzed to identify the computational kernels in both sequential and parallel execution. This analysis shows that a balanced architecture is needed with respect to processor speed, peak flop rate, peak integer operation rate, and memory hierarchy, interprocessor communication, and disk access and storage. A single architecture can satisfy the needs of all of the science areas, although some areas may take greater advantage of certain aspects of the architecture. "

  7. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration.

    PubMed

    Thuot, P J; Harbaugh, G J

    1995-07-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented.

  8. Testing Microshutter Arrays Using Commercial FPGA Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapchun, David

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing micro-shutter arrays for the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These micro-shutter arrays allow NIRspec to do Multi Object Spectroscopy, a key part of the mission. Each array consists of 62414 individual 100 x 200 micron shutters. These shutters are magnetically opened and held electrostatically. Individual shutters are then programmatically closed using a simple row/column addressing technique. A common approach to provide these data/clock patterns is to use a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Such devices require complex VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) programming and custom electronic hardware. Due to JWST's rapid schedule on the development of the micro-shutters, rapid changes were required to the FPGA code to facilitate new approaches being discovered to optimize the array performance. Such rapid changes simply could not be made using conventional VHDL programming. Subsequently, National Instruments introduced an FPGA product that could be programmed through a Labview interface. Because Labview programming is considerably easier than VHDL programming, this method was adopted and brought success. The software/hardware allowed the rapid change the FPGA code and timely results of new micro-shutter array performance data. As a result, numerous labor hours and money to the project were conserved.

  9. Holding fast.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

  10. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  11. An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.

  12. Pre-Hardware Optimization of Spacecraft Image Processing Software Algorithms and Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Jentoft-Nilsen, Marit; Petrick, David J.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft telemetry rates have steadily increased over the last decade presenting a problem for real-time processing by ground facilities. This paper proposes a solution to a related problem for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft (GOES-8) image processing application. Although large super-computer facilities are the obvious heritage solution, they are very costly, making it imperative to seek a feasible alternative engineering solution at a fraction of the cost. The solution is based on a Personal Computer (PC) platform and synergy of optimized software algorithms and re-configurable computing hardware technologies, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processing (DSP). It has been shown in [1] and [2] that this configuration can provide superior inexpensive performance for a chosen application on the ground station or on-board a spacecraft. However, since this technology is still maturing, intensive pre-hardware steps are necessary to achieve the benefits of hardware implementation. This paper describes these steps for the GOES-8 application, a software project developed using Interactive Data Language (IDL) (Trademark of Research Systems, Inc.) on a Workstation/UNIX platform. The solution involves converting the application to a PC/Windows/RC platform, selected mainly by the availability of low cost, adaptable high-speed RC hardware. In order for the hybrid system to run, the IDL software was modified to account for platform differences. It was interesting to examine the gains and losses in performance on the new platform, as well as unexpected observations before implementing hardware. After substantial pre-hardware optimization steps, the necessity of hardware implementation for bottleneck code in the PC environment became evident and solvable beginning with the methodology described in [1], [2], and implementing a novel methodology for this specific application [6]. The PC-RC interface bandwidth problem for the

  13. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM NORTHEAST FACING SOUTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  14. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM SOUTHEAST FACING NORTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  15. Boulder Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-408, 1 July 2003

    If a boulder rolls down a slope on an uninhabited planet, does it make a sound? While we do not know the sound made by a boulder rolling down a slope in the martian region of Gordii Dorsum, we do know that it made an impression. This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of depressions made on a dust-mantled slope as a boulder rolled down it, sometime in the recent past. The boulder track is located just right of center in this picture. The boulder sits at the end of the track. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it is located near 11.2oN, 147.8oW. North is toward the lower left, sunlight illuminates the scene from the right. The picture covers an area only 810 meters (about 886 yards) across.

  16. Tracking and Mixed-Ability Grouping in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatakrishnan, Hamsa; Wiliam, Dylan

    2003-01-01

    Reports findings of retrospective study of tracked grouping (a fast track for top 25-30% of a cohort and a mixed track for the others) in a mathematics department in a greater London (England) coeducational comprehensive school. Outlines reasons for introducing tracking and explores its effects through teacher interviews and student data. (BT)

  17. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  18. A New Hardware Correlator in Korea: Performance Evaluation Using KVN Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Jongsoo; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Jung, Dong-Gyu; Byun, Do-Young; Jung, Taehyun; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Wajima, Kiyoaki

    2015-04-01

    We report results of the performance evaluation of a new hardware correlator in Korea, the Daejeon correlator, developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). We conduct Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations at 22~GHz with the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) in Korea and the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) in Japan, and correlated the aquired data with the Daejeon correlator. For evaluating the performance of the new hardware correlator, we compare the correlation outputs from the Daejeon correlator for KVN observations with those from a software correlator, the Distributed FX (DiFX). We investigate the correlated flux densities and brightness distributions of extragalactic compact radio sources. The comparison of the two correlator outputs shows that they are consistent with each other within <8%, which is comparable with the amplitude calibration uncertainties of KVN observations at 22~GHz. We also find that the 8% difference in flux density is caused mainly by (a) the difference in the way of fringe phase tracking between the DiFX software correlator and the Daejeon hardware correlator, and (b) an unusual pattern (a double-layer pattern) of the amplitude correlation output from the Daejeon correlator. The visibility amplitude loss by the double-layer pattern is as small as 3%. We conclude that the new hardware correlator produces reasonable correlation outputs for continuum observations, which are consistent with the outputs from the DiFX software correlator.

  19. Open Source Hardware for DIY Environmental Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hicks, S. D.; Damiano, S. G.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Arduino open source electronics platform has been very popular within the DIY (Do It Yourself) community for several years, and it is now providing environmental science researchers with an inexpensive alternative to commercial data logging and transmission hardware. Here we present the designs for our latest series of custom Arduino-based dataloggers, which include wireless communication options like self-meshing radio networks and cellular phone modules. The main Arduino board uses a custom interface board to connect to various research-grade sensors to take readings of turbidity, dissolved oxygen, water depth and conductivity, soil moisture, solar radiation, and other parameters. Sensors with SDI-12 communications can be directly interfaced to the logger using our open Arduino-SDI-12 software library (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12). Different deployment options are shown, like rugged enclosures to house the loggers and rigs for mounting the sensors in both fresh water and marine environments. After the data has been collected and transmitted by the logger, the data is received by a mySQL-PHP stack running on a web server that can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Once there, the data can be visualized on web pages or served though REST requests and Water One Flow (WOF) services. Since one of the main benefits of using open source hardware is the easy collaboration between users, we are introducing a new web platform for discussion and sharing of ideas and plans for hardware and software designs used with DIY environmental sensors and data loggers.

  20. Common hardware-in-the-loop development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hajin J.; Moss, Stephen G.

    2009-05-01

    An approach to streamline the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation development process is under evaluation. With increased microprocessor speed, FPGA capacity and increased bus bandwidth over the last decade, a common interface design may be able to support a large number of HWIL interfaces that were previously custom designed interfaces. The Common HWIL approach will attempt to provide a more flexible, scalable system. The overall goal of the Common HWIL system will be to reduce cost by minimizing redundant development and operational labor and equipment expenses. This paper will present current results and future plans of the development.

  1. Workmanship Challenges for NASA Mission Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several challenges in workmanship for NASA mission hardware development. Several standards for NASA workmanship exist, that are required for all programs, projects, contracts and subcontracts. These Standards contain our best known methods for avoiding past assembly problems and defects. These best practices may not be available if suppliers are used who are not compliant with them. Compliance includes having certified operators and inspectors. Some examples of problems that have occured from the lack of requirements flow-down to contractors are reviewed. The presentation contains a detailed example of the challenge in regards to The Packaging "Design" Dilemma.

  2. Orbiter CIU/IUS communications hardware evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    The DOD and NASA inertial upper stage communication system design, hardware specifications and interfaces were analyzed to determine their compatibility with the Orbiter payload communications equipment (Payload Interrogator, Payload Signal Processors, Communications Interface Unit, and the Orbiter operational communications equipment (the S-Band and Ku-band systems). Topics covered include (1) IUS/shuttle Orbiter communications interface definition; (2) Orbiter avionics equipment serving the IUS; (3) IUS communication equipment; (4) IUS/shuttle Orbiter RF links; (5) STDN/TDRS S-band related activities; and (6) communication interface unit/Orbiter interface issues. A test requirement plan overview is included.

  3. INTEGRATED MONITORING HARDWARE DEVELOPMENTS AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    R. PARKER; J. HALBIG; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The hardware of the integrated monitoring system supports a family of instruments having a common internal architecture and firmware. Instruments can be easily configured from application-specific personality boards combined with common master-processor and high- and low-voltage power supply boards, and basic operating firmware. The instruments are designed to function autonomously to survive power and communication outages and to adapt to changing conditions. The personality boards allow measurement of gross gammas and neutrons, neutron coincidence and multiplicity, and gamma spectra. In addition, the Intelligent Local Node (ILON) provides a moderate-bandwidth network to tie together instruments, sensors, and computers.

  4. MFL tool hardware for pipeline inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, K.K.

    1997-02-01

    The intelligent pig based on the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is frequently used for inline inspection of gas and liquid transportation pipelines. The tool is capable of reliably detecting and characterizing several commonly occurring pipeline defects including metal loss due to corrosion and gouges, dents, and buckles, which tend to threaten the structural integrity of the pipeline. The defect detection and characterization capabilities of the tool are directly dependent upon the type of critical hardware components and systems selected for the tool assembly. This article discusses the key components of an advanced or high resolution MFL tool.

  5. Hardware Counter Multiplexing V1.2

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record varius low-level events as software runs, but they can cannot record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  6. Available hardware for automated entry control

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.

    1990-11-01

    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Three questions are immediately raised when automated entry control is considered: What hardware is available How much does it cost How effective is it in maintaining security Ongoing work at Sandia National Labs is attempting to answer these questions and establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. 14 refs.

  7. A building block for hardware belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  8. Hardware-efficient autonomous quantum memory protection.

    PubMed

    Leghtas, Zaki; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Vlastakis, Brian; Schoelkopf, Robert J; Devoret, Michel H; Mirrahimi, Mazyar

    2013-09-20

    We propose to encode a quantum bit of information in a superposition of coherent states of an oscillator, with four different phases. Our encoding in a single cavity mode, together with a protection protocol, significantly reduces the error rate due to photon loss. This protection is ensured by an efficient quantum error correction scheme employing the nonlinearity provided by a single physical qubit coupled to the cavity. We describe in detail how to implement these operations in a circuit quantum electrodynamics system. This proposal directly addresses the task of building a hardware-efficient quantum memory and can lead to important shortcuts in quantum computing architectures.

  9. Hardware-Efficient Autonomous Quantum Memory Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leghtas, Zaki; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Vlastakis, Brian; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Devoret, Michel H.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar

    2013-09-01

    We propose to encode a quantum bit of information in a superposition of coherent states of an oscillator, with four different phases. Our encoding in a single cavity mode, together with a protection protocol, significantly reduces the error rate due to photon loss. This protection is ensured by an efficient quantum error correction scheme employing the nonlinearity provided by a single physical qubit coupled to the cavity. We describe in detail how to implement these operations in a circuit quantum electrodynamics system. This proposal directly addresses the task of building a hardware-efficient quantum memory and can lead to important shortcuts in quantum computing architectures.

  10. A building block for hardware belief networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-07-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models.

  11. A building block for hardware belief networks.

    PubMed

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  12. Configuration management for hardware-software codesign

    SciTech Connect

    Kobialka, H.U.; Gnedina, A.; Wilberg, J.

    1996-12-31

    Configuration Management (CM) has a long tradition in the area of software development. In other areas CM is still more a promise than a product to be used. During HW/SW codesign a large design space has to be explored in order to find the optimal combination of software and hardware. This is an optimization process where many variants (> 1000) and associated analysis results have to be maintained for later exploration. Each variant consists of hundreds of files. This paper describes the CM requirements we encountered when introducing CM in a HW/SW codesign project. CM support for HW/SW codesign has been implemented in the ADDD development environment.

  13. Evaluation of RSRM case hardware fretting concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swauger, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Fretting corrosion was first noted on Shuttle flight STS-26. This flight was the first usage of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The occurrence of fretting has since been observed on both the field and factory joints of the RSRM. Fretting is a form of corrosion that occurs at the interface between contacting, highly loaded, metal surfaces when exposed to slight relative vibratory motions. The engineering effort performed to evaluate the effect of fretting on the RSRM case hardware is summarized. Based on the results of this evaluation, several conclusions were made concerning flight safety. Also, recommendations were made concerning trending the effects of multiple generations of fretting damage.

  14. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  15. Open Hardware for CERN's accelerator control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bij, E.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.; Cattin, M.; Gousiou, E.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Boccardi, A.; Voumard, N.; Penacoba, G.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be upgraded and many electronics modules such as analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules are being redesigned. The new developments are based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card, PCI Express and VME64x standards while the Wishbone specification is used as a system on a chip bus. To attract partners, the projects are developed in an `Open' fashion. Within this Open Hardware project new ways of working with industry are being evaluated and it has been proven that industry can be involved at all stages, from design to production and support.

  16. CHeCS: International Space Station Medical Hardware Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  17. Is Hardware Removal Recommended after Ankle Fracture Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Jin-Il; Park, Jae-Yong; Park, Jong-Tae; Eom, Joon-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The indications and clinical necessity for routine hardware removal after treating ankle or distal tibia fracture with open reduction and internal fixation are disputed even when hardware-related pain is insignificant. Thus, we determined the clinical effects of routine hardware removal irrespective of the degree of hardware-related pain, especially in the perspective of patients' daily activities. This study was conducted on 80 consecutive cases (78 patients) treated by surgery and hardware removal after bony union. There were 56 ankle and 24 distal tibia fractures. The hardware-related pain, ankle joint stiffness, discomfort on ambulation, and patient satisfaction were evaluated before and at least 6 months after hardware removal. Pain score before hardware removal was 3.4 (range 0 to 6) and decreased to 1.3 (range 0 to 6) after removal. 58 (72.5%) patients experienced improved ankle stiffness and 65 (81.3%) less discomfort while walking on uneven ground and 63 (80.8%) patients were satisfied with hardware removal. These results suggest that routine hardware removal after ankle or distal tibia fracture could ameliorate hardware-related pain and improves daily activities and patient satisfaction even when the hardware-related pain is minimal.

  18. Safe to Fly: Certifying COTS Hardware for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichuk, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Providing hardware for the astronauts to use on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS) involves a certification process that entails evaluating hardware safety, weighing risks, providing mitigation, and verifying requirements. Upon completion of this certification process, the hardware is deemed safe to fly. This process from start to finish can be completed as quickly as 1 week or can take several years in length depending on the complexity of the hardware and whether the item is a unique custom design. One area of cost and schedule savings that NASA implements is buying Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) hardware and certifying it for human spaceflight as safe to fly. By utilizing commercial hardware, NASA saves time not having to develop, design and build the hardware from scratch, as well as a timesaving in the certification process. By utilizing COTS hardware, the current detailed certification process can be simplified which results in schedule savings. Cost savings is another important benefit of flying COTS hardware. Procuring COTS hardware for space use can be more economical than custom building the hardware. This paper will investigate the cost savings associated with certifying COTS hardware to NASA s standards rather than performing a custom build.

  19. Real-time 3D video conference on generic hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desurmont, X.; Bruyelle, J. L.; Ruiz, D.; Meessen, J.; Macq, B.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays, video-conference tends to be more and more advantageous because of the economical and ecological cost of transport. Several platforms exist. The goal of the TIFANIS immersive platform is to let users interact as if they were physically together. Unlike previous teleimmersion systems, TIFANIS uses generic hardware to achieve an economically realistic implementation. The basic functions of the system are to capture the scene, transmit it through digital networks to other partners, and then render it according to each partner's viewing characteristics. The image processing part should run in real-time. We propose to analyze the whole system. it can be split into different services like central processing unit (CPU), graphical rendering, direct memory access (DMA), and communications trough the network. Most of the processing is done by CPU resource. It is composed of the 3D reconstruction and the detection and tracking of faces from the video stream. However, the processing needs to be parallelized in several threads that have as little dependencies as possible. In this paper, we present these issues, and the way we deal with them.

  20. Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) Hardware Architecture Standard: Release 1.0 Hardware Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John; Hill, Gary; Mortensen, Dale J.; Andro, Monty; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Farrington, Allen

    2008-01-01

    This report defines a hardware architecture approach for software-defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general-purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays, and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radiofrequency front ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that compose a typical communication radio. This report describes the architecture details, the module definitions, the typical functions on each module, and the module interfaces. Tradeoffs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify a physical implementation internally on each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  1. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF: New findings and comparison to other retrieved spacecraft hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Blue, Donald; Hansen, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved in 1990 after spending 69 months in low-earth-orbit (LEO). A wide variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components were flown on LDEF. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed by NASA to investigate the effects of the 69 month exposure on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. This report is the Systems SIG final report which updates earlier findings and compares LDEF systems findings to results from other retrieved spacecraft hardware such as Hubble Space Telescope. Also included are sections titled (1) Effects of Long Duration Space Exposure on Optical Scatter, (2) Contamination Survey of LDEF, and (3) Degradation of Optical Materials in Space.

  2. Mark 3 correlator hardware and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Mark 3 correlator system is described in some detail. The correlator system is based on a modular philosophy. Each correlator module independently processes the data from one track pair. Therefore, 28 modules are necessary to complete a full one baseline processor and 84 modules for a full 3 baseline processor. Each correlator module has two interfaces: (1) data and clock from each of the two tracks to be correlated and (2) Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) dataway interface to the computer. The processor is organized around the IEEE CAMAC standard architecture, housing 15 correlator modules in each of 6 crates. This allows one pass processing of a full 3 baseline 28 track observation or a 6 baseline (4 station) 14 track observation. The correlator architecture allows easy expansion for up to 8 stations. The computer system is an HP 1000 system utilizing a 16 bit minicomputer with disc and tape peripherals. The processing software is also organized in a modular fashion with many independent but cooperative programs controlling the operation of the Mark 3 processor. Processing time through the correlator is normally real time or faster, with graphics displays providing real time monitor and control of the processing operation.

  3. A geometric approach for quadrotor trajectory tracking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Di

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the trajectory tracking problem for quadrotor with attitude finite-time convergence via geometric approach. First, a global geometric dynamic description is presented on the special Euclidean group (SE(3)), and the trajectory tracking control is decomposed into two cascaded tracking control loops: the position tracking control loop and the attitude tracking control loop. Then, based on the fact that the attitude tracking loop is a fast loop, a finite-time controller based on the exponential coordinate is proposed to speed up the response rate of the attitude control loop, so that the artificial singularity and redundancy can be avoided. In addition, a backstepping controller is designed for the position tracking loop to construct the thrust magnitude control input for the position dynamics and the reference rotation matrix for the attitude tracking loop. Finally, the numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this trajectory tracking strategy.

  4. A three-camera imaging microscope for high-speed single-molecule tracking and super-resolution imaging in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Brian P.; Singer, Robert H.

    2015-08-01

    Our aim is to develop quantitative single-molecule assays to study when and where molecules are interacting inside living cells and where enzymes are active. To this end we present a three-camera imaging microscope for fast tracking of multiple interacting molecules simultaneously, with high spatiotemporal resolution. The system was designed around an ASI RAMM frame using three separate tube lenses and custom multi-band dichroics to allow for enhanced detection efficiency. The frame times of the three Andor iXon Ultra EMCCD cameras are hardware synchronized to the laser excitation pulses of the three excitation lasers, such that the fluorophores are effectively immobilized during frame acquisitions and do not yield detections that are motion-blurred. Stroboscopic illumination allows robust detection from even rapidly moving molecules while minimizing bleaching, and since snapshots can be spaced out with varying time intervals, stroboscopic illumination enables a direct comparison to be made between fast and slow molecules under identical light dosage. We have developed algorithms that accurately track and co-localize multiple interacting biomolecules. The three-color microscope combined with our co-movement algorithms have made it possible for instance to simultaneously image and track how the chromosome environment affects diffusion kinetics or determine how mRNAs diffuse during translation. Such multiplexed single-molecule measurements at a high spatiotemporal resolution inside living cells will provide a major tool for testing models relating molecular architecture and biological dynamics.

  5. A three-camera imaging microscope for high-speed single-molecule tracking and super-resolution imaging in living cells

    PubMed Central

    English, Brian P.; Singer, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to develop quantitative single-molecule assays to study when and where molecules are interacting inside living cells and where enzymes are active. To this end we present a three-camera imaging microscope for fast tracking of multiple interacting molecules simultaneously, with high spatiotemporal resolution. The system was designed around an ASI RAMM frame using three separate tube lenses and custom multi-band dichroics to allow for enhanced detection efficiency. The frame times of the three Andor iXon Ultra EMCCD cameras are hardware synchronized to the laser excitation pulses of the three excitation lasers, such that the fluorophores are effectively immobilized during frame acquisitions and do not yield detections that are motion-blurred. Stroboscopic illumination allows robust detection from even rapidly moving molecules while minimizing bleaching, and since snapshots can be spaced out with varying time intervals, stroboscopic illumination enables a direct comparison to be made between fast and slow molecules under identical light dosage. We have developed algorithms that accurately track and co-localize multiple interacting biomolecules. The three-color microscope combined with our co-movement algorithms have made it possible for instance to simultaneously image and track how the chromosome environment affects diffusion kinetics or determine how mRNAs diffuse during translation. Such multiplexed single-molecule measurements at a high spatiotemporal resolution inside living cells will provide a major tool for testing models relating molecular architecture and biological dynamics. PMID:26819489

  6. Optimizing imaging hardware for estimation tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Gross, Kevin; Hoppin, John W.

    2003-05-01

    Medical imaging is often performed for the purpose of estimating a clinically relevant parameter. For example, cardiologists are interested in the cardiac ejection fraction, the fraction of blood pumped out of the left ventricle at the end of each heart cycle. Even when the primary task of the imaging system is tumor detection, physicians frequently want to estimate parameters of the tumor, e.g. size and location. For signal-detection tasks, we advocate that the performance of an ideal observer be employed as the figure of merit for optimizing medical imaging hardware. We have examined the use of the minimum variance of the ideal, unbiased estimator as a figure of merit for hardware optimization. The minimum variance of the ideal, unbiased estimator can be calculated using the Fisher information matrix. To account for both image noise and object variability, we used a statistical method known as Markov-chain Monte Carlo. We employed a lumpy object model and simulated imaging systems to compute our figures of merit. We have demonstrated the use of this method in comparing imaging systems for estimation tasks.

  7. CASIS Fact Sheet: Hardware and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Michael R.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    Vencore is a proven information solutions, engineering, and analytics company that helps our customers solve their most complex challenges. For more than 40 years, we have designed, developed and delivered mission-critical solutions as our customers' trusted partner. The Engineering Services Contract, or ESC, provides engineering and design services to the NASA organizations engaged in development of new technologies at the Kennedy Space Center. Vencore is the ESC prime contractor, with teammates that include Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Sierra Lobo, Nelson Engineering, EASi, and Craig Technologies. The Vencore team designs and develops systems and equipment to be used for the processing of space launch vehicles, spacecraft, and payloads. We perform flight systems engineering for spaceflight hardware and software; develop technologies that serve NASA's mission requirements and operations needs for the future. Our Flight Payload Support (FPS) team at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides engineering, development, and certification services as well as payload integration and management services to NASA and commercial customers. Our main objective is to assist principal investigators (PIs) integrate their science experiments into payload hardware for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), commercial spacecraft, suborbital vehicles, parabolic flight aircrafts, and ground-based studies. Vencore's FPS team is AS9100 certified and a recognized implementation partner for the Center for Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS

  8. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  9. Innovative Contamination Certification of Multi-Mission Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Montt, Kristina M.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1998-01-01

    Maintaining contamination certification of multi-mission flight hardware is an innovative approach to controlling mission costs. Methods for assessing ground induced degradation between missions have been employed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project for the multi-mission (servicing) hardware. By maintaining the cleanliness of the hardware between missions, and by controlling the materials added to the hardware during modification and refurbishment both project funding for contamination recertification and schedule have been significantly reduced. These methods will be discussed and HST hardware data will be presented.

  10. Innovative Contamination Certification of Multi-Mission Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Montt, Kristina M.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1999-01-01

    Maintaining contamination certification of multi-mission flight hardware is an innovative approach to controlling mission costs. Methods for assessing ground induced degradation between missions have been employed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project for the multi-mission (servicing) hardware. By maintaining the cleanliness of the hardware between missions, and by controlling the materials added to the hardware during modification and refurbishment both project funding for contamination recertification and schedule have been significantly reduced. These methods will be discussed and HST hardware data will be presented.

  11. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  12. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  13. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  14. OpenCV and TYZX : video surveillance for tracking.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jim; Spencer, Andrew; Chu, Eric

    2008-08-01

    As part of the National Security Engineering Institute (NSEI) project, several sensors were developed in conjunction with an assessment algorithm. A camera system was developed in-house to track the locations of personnel within a secure room. In addition, a commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tracking system developed by TYZX was examined. TYZX is a Bay Area start-up that has developed its own tracking hardware and software which we use as COTS support for robust tracking. This report discusses the pros and cons of each camera system, how they work, a proposed data fusion method, and some visual results. Distributed, embedded image processing solutions show the most promise in their ability to track multiple targets in complex environments and in real-time. Future work on the camera system may include three-dimensional volumetric tracking by using multiple simple cameras, Kalman or particle filtering, automated camera calibration and registration, and gesture or path recognition.

  15. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  16. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  17. Measuring FLOPS Using Hardware Performance Counter Technologies on LC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, D H

    2008-09-05

    FLOPS (FLoating-point Operations Per Second) is a commonly used performance metric for scientific programs that rely heavily on floating-point (FP) calculations. The metric is based on the number of FP operations rather than instructions, thereby facilitating a fair comparison between different machines. A well-known use of this metric is the LINPACK benchmark that is used to generate the Top500 list. It measures how fast a computer solves a dense N by N system of linear equations Ax=b, which requires a known number of FP operations, and reports the result in millions of FP operations per second (MFLOPS). While running a benchmark with known FP workloads can provide insightful information about the efficiency of a machine's FP pipelines in relation to other machines, measuring FLOPS of an arbitrary scientific application in a platform-independent manner is nontrivial. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we explore the FP microarchitectures of key processors that are underpinning the LC machines. Second, we present the hardware performance monitoring counter-based measurement techniques that a user can use to get the native FLOPS of his or her program, which are practical solutions readily available on LC platforms. By nature, however, these native FLOPS metrics are not directly comparable across different machines mainly because FP operations are not consistent across microarchitectures. Thus, the first goal of this paper represents the base reference by which a user can interpret the measured FLOPS more judiciously.

  18. TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

  19. Fast ion conductivity in strained defect-fluorite structure created by ion tracks in Gd2Ti2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-10

    The structure and ion-conducting properties of the defect-fluorite ring structure formed around amorphous ion-tracks by swift heavy ion irradiation of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore are investigated. High angle annular dark field imaging complemented with ion-track molecular dynamics simulations show that the atoms in the ring structure are disordered, and have relatively larger cation-cation interspacing than in the bulk pyrochlore, illustrating the presence of tensile strain in the ring region. Density functional theory calculations show that the non-equilibrium defect-fluorite structure can be stabilized by tensile strain. The pyrochlore to defect-fluorite structure transformation in the ring region is predicted to be induced by recrystallization during a melt-quench process and stabilized by tensile strain. Static pair-potential calculations show that planar tensile strain lowers oxygen vacancy migration barriers in pyrochlores, in agreement with recent studies on fluorite and perovskite materials. Lastly, in view of these results, it is suggested that strain engineering could be simultaneously used to stabilize the defect-fluorite structure and gain control over its high ion-conducting properties.

  20. Storage Information Management System (SIMS) Spaceflight Hardware Warehousing at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubicko, Richard M.; Bingham, Lindy

    1995-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on site and leased warehouses contain thousands of items of ground support equipment (GSE) and flight hardware including spacecraft, scaffolding, computer racks, stands, holding fixtures, test equipment, spares, etc. The control of these warehouses, and the management, accountability, and control of the items within them, is accomplished by the Logistics Management Division. To facilitate this management and tracking effort, the Logistics and Transportation Management Branch, is developing a system to provide warehouse personnel, property owners, and managers with storage and inventory information. This paper will describe that PC-based system and address how it will improve GSFC warehouse and storage management.

  1. Spares Management : Optimizing Hardware Usage for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulbrandsen, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    The complexity of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), combined with mounting requirements to reduce operations costs have increased demands for accurate tracking, maintenance, and projections of SSME assets. The SSME Logistics Team is developing an integrated asset management process. This PC-based tool provides a user-friendly asset database for daily decision making, plus a variable-input hardware usage simulation with complex logic yielding output that addresses essential asset management issues. Cycle times on critical tasks are significantly reduced. Associated costs have decreased as asset data quality and decision-making capability has increased.

  2. Cumulative hardware distortion effects on coded and uncoded performance via a satellite repeater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, T.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical investigation is presented of the cumulative impact of numerous hardware-induced distortions on BPSK bit-error-rate performance. Attention is given to 16 user and eight transponder constraints, as well as to the effect of filter bandlimiting. Uncoded and coded performance is evaluated with respect to both NRZ and Manchester signaling formats, and tight upper bounds to coded and uncoded SNR degradation are determined. Computed results based on TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System) specifications are presented as an example.

  3. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  4. Hardware development for Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardas, D.; Cheung, W. S.; Gill, D.; Hacker, R.; Keiser, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), also known as the Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment, will test two fundamental predictions of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by precise measurement of the precessions of nearly perfect gyroscopes in earth orbit. This endeavor embodies state-of-the-art technologies in many fields, including gyroscope fabrication and readout, cryogenics, superconductivity, magnetic shielding, precision optics and alignment methods, and satellite control systems. These technologies are necessary to enable measurement of the predicted precession rates to the milliarcsecond/year level, and to reduce to 'near zero' all non-General Relativistic torques on the gyroscopes. This paper provides a brief overview of the experiment followed by descriptions of several specific hardware items with highlights on progress to date and plans for future development and tests.

  5. Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-04-13

    Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer, including defining within a tree network of the parallel computer two or more sets of non-overlapping test levels of compute nodes of the network that together include all the data communications links of the network, each non-overlapping test level comprising two or more adjacent tiers of the tree; defining test cells within each non-overlapping test level, each test cell comprising a subtree of the tree including a subtree root compute node and all descendant compute nodes of the subtree root compute node within a non-overlapping test level; performing, separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, an uplink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels; and performing, separately from the uplink tests and separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, a downlink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels.

  6. Extensible Hardware Architecture for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Eric; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a new mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability. Currently implemented on the k9 rover. and won to be integrated onto the K10 series of human-robot collaboration research robots, this architecture allows for rapid changes in instrumentation configuration and provides a high degree of modularity through a synergistic mix of off-the-shelf and custom designed components, allowing eased transplantation into a wide vane6 of mobile robot platforms. A component level overview of this architecture is presented along with a description of the changes required for implementation on K10 , followed by plans for future work.

  7. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-04-05

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module.

  8. Hardware description languages for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-10-01

    Systolic principles can be used to construct special purpose computer systems that achieve high throughput by exploiting algorithmic properties. These principles of regularity, localized communications, and parallel/pipelined execution nicely match the capabilities of integrated circuit technology. Hence, systolic arrays are an attractive method for building high-speed special-purpose hardware to rapidly solve sophisticated problems. However, the use of special-purpose hardware limits the applications base, making fixed costs such as those associated with system design much more critical. Although design costs are in part reduced by the very nature of systolic systems, further reduction can result from the use of automated design and descriptive tools. The design process stretches from the conception of the algorithm and its mapping onto an architecture down to the electronic implementation. In general, a good set of design tools allows the designer to describe, test, and trade off only those factors that are important at that particular point in the design process. A principle requirement in automating the design process is a formal notational mechanism that is capable of providing complete and unambiguous descriptions of the concepts being explored. This notational mechanism then provides a common basis for comparisons between alternate methods and an input mechanism to automated design tools. This thesis identifies the notational features that are necessary for the description of highly parallel, regular architectures such as systolic arrays. A set of language criteria is developed. A number of the more popular HDLs are evaluated using these criteria and their shortcomings noted. 65 references.

  9. Environmental testing for new SOFIA flight hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachenmann, Michael; Wolf, Jürgen; Strecker, Rainer; Weckenmann, Benedikt; Trimpe, Fritz; Hall, Helen J.

    2014-07-01

    New flight hardware for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has to be tested to prove its safety and functionality and to measure its performance under flight conditions. Although it is not expected to experience critical issues inside the pressurized cabin with close-to-normal conditions, all equipment has to be tested for safety margins in case of a decompression event and/or for unusual high temperatures, e.g. inside an electronic unit caused by a malfunction as well as unusual high ambient temperatures inside the cabin, when the aircraft is parked in a desert. For equipment mounted on the cavity side of the telescope, stratospheric conditions apply, i.e., temperatures from -40 °C to -60°C and an air pressure of about 0.1 bar. Besides safety aspects as not to endanger personnel or equipment, new hardware inside the cavity has to function and to perform to specifications under such conditions. To perform these tests, an environmental test laboratory was set up at the SOFIA Science Center at the NASA Ames Research Center, including a thermal vacuum chamber, temperature measurement equipment, and a control and data logging workstation. This paper gives an overview of the test and measurement equipment, shows results from the commissioning and characterization of the thermal vacuum chamber, and presents examples of the component tests that were performed so far. To test the focus position stability of optics when cooling them to stratospheric temperatures, an auto-collimation device has been developed. We will present its design and results from measurements on commercial off-the-shelf optics as candidates for the new Wide Field Imager for SOFIA as an example.

  10. A novel robust and efficient algorithm for charge particle tracking in high background flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, C.; Cisbani, E.; Del Dotto, A.

    2015-05-01

    The high luminosity that will be reached in the new generation of High Energy Particle and Nuclear physics experiments implies large high background rate and large tracker occupancy, representing therefore a new challenge for particle tracking algorithms. For instance, at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) (VA,USA), one of the most demanding experiment in this respect, performed with a 12 GeV electron beam, is characterized by a luminosity up to 1039cm-2s-1. To this scope, Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) based trackers are under development for a new spectrometer that will operate at these high rates in the Hall A of JLab. Within this context, we developed a new tracking algorithm, based on a multistep approach: (i) all hardware - time and charge - information are exploited to minimize the number of hits to associate; (ii) a dedicated Neural Network (NN) has been designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector; (iii) the measurements of the associated hits are further improved in resolution through the application of Kalman filter and Rauch- Tung-Striebel smoother. The algorithm is shortly presented along with a discussion of the promising first results.

  11. Toward Evolvable Hardware Chips: Experiments with a Programmable Transistor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Evolvable Hardware is reconfigurable hardware that self-configures under the control of an evolutionary algorithm. We search for a hardware configuration can be performed using software models or, faster and more accurate, directly in reconfigurable hardware. Several experiments have demonstrated the possibility to automatically synthesize both digital and analog circuits. The paper introduces an approach to automated synthesis of CMOS circuits, based on evolution on a Programmable Transistor Array (PTA). The approach is illustrated with a software experiment showing evolutionary synthesis of a circuit with a desired DC characteristic. A hardware implementation of a test PTA chip is then described, and the same evolutionary experiment is performed on the chip demonstrating circuit synthesis/self-configuration directly in hardware.

  12. Computer hardware and software for robotic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Virgil Leon

    1987-01-01

    The KSC has implemented an integrated system that coordinates state-of-the-art robotic subsystems. It is a sensor based real-time robotic control system performing operations beyond the capability of an off-the-shelf robot. The integrated system provides real-time closed loop adaptive path control of position and orientation of all six axes of a large robot; enables the implementation of a highly configurable, expandable testbed for sensor system development; and makes several smart distributed control subsystems (robot arm controller, process controller, graphics display, and vision tracking) appear as intelligent peripherals to a supervisory computer coordinating the overall systems.

  13. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas & Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States` utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste.

  14. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    PubMed

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  15. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    PubMed

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  16. GSTAMIDS ground-penetrating radar: hardware description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sower, Gary D.; Eberly, John; Christy, Ed

    2001-10-01

    The Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) is now in the Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) Block 0 phase for USA CECOM. The Mine Detection Subsystem (MDS) presently utilizes three different sensor technologies to detect buried anti-tank (AT) land mines; Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI), and passive infrared (IR). The GSTAMIDS hardware and software architectures are designed so that other technologies can readily be incorporated when and if they prove viable. Each sensor suite is designed to detect the buried mines and to discriminate against various clutter and background objects. Sensor data fusion of the outputs of the individual sensor suites then enhances the detection probability while reducing the false alarm rate from clutter objects. The metal detector is an essential tool for buried mine detection, as metal land mines still account for a large percentage of land mines. Technologies such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR or QR) are presently being developed to detect or confirm the presence of explosive material in buried land mines, particularly the so-called plastic mines; unfortunately, the radio frequency signals required cannot penetrate into a metal land mine. The limitation of the metal detector is not in detection of the metal mines, but in the additional detection of metal clutter. A metal detector has been developed using singular value decomposition (SVD) extraction techniques to discriminate the mines from the clutter, thereby greatly reducing false alarm rates. This mine detector is designed to characterize the impulse response function of the metal objects, based on a parametric three-pole model of the response, and to use pattern recognition to determine the match of the responses to known mines. In addition to discrimination against clutter, the system can also generally tell one mine type from another. This paper describes the PMI sensor suite hardware and its physical incorporation

  17. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  18. Fast Initialization of Bubble-Memory Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved scheme several orders of magnitude faster than normal initialization scheme. State-of-the-art commercial bubble-memory device used. Hardware interface designed connects controlling microprocessor to bubblememory circuitry. System software written to exercise various functions of bubble-memory system in comparison made between normal and fast techniques. Future implementations of approach utilize E2PROM (electrically-erasable programable read-only memory) to provide greater system flexibility. Fastinitialization technique applicable to all bubble-memory devices.

  19. HASPRNG: Hardware Accelerated Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, JunKyu; Bi, Yu; Peterson, Gregory D.; Hinde, Robert J.; Harrison, Robert J.

    2009-12-01

    The Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators library (SPRNG) supports fast and scalable random number generation with good statistical properties for parallel computational science applications. In order to accelerate SPRNG in high performance reconfigurable computing systems, we present the Hardware Accelerated SPRNG library (HASPRNG). Ported to the Xilinx University Program (XUP) and Cray XD1 reconfigurable computing platforms, HASPRNG includes the reconfigurable logic for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) along with a programming interface which performs integer random number generation that produces identical results with SPRNG. This paper describes the reconfigurable logic of HASPRNG exploiting the mathematical properties and data parallelism residing in the SPRNG algorithms to produce high performance and also describes how to use the programming interface to minimize the communication overhead between FPGAs and microprocessors. The programming interface allows a user to be able to use HASPRNG the same way as SPRNG 2.0 on platforms such as the Cray XD1. We also describe how to install HASPRNG and use it. For HASPRNG usage we discuss a FPGA π-estimator for a High Performance Reconfigurable Computer (HPRC) sample application and compare to a software π-estimator. HASPRNG shows 1.7x speedup over SPRNG on the Cray XD1 and is able to obtain substantial speedup for a HPRC application. Program summaryProgram title: HASPRNG Catalogue identifier: AEER_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEER_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 594 928 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 509 724 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: VHDL (XUP and Cray XD1), C++ (XUP), C (Cray XD1) Computer: PowerPC 405

  20. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.