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Sample records for fast icrf antenna

  1. Taming the ICRF Antenna - Plasma Edge Interaction using Novel Field-Aligned ICRF Antenna on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yijun

    2014-10-01

    For ICRF antenna utilization in future fusion reactors, taming the antenna-plasma edge interaction while robustly coupling RF power is a critical challenge. Using a novel field-aligned (FA) ICRF antenna where the antenna straps are perpendicular to the total magnetic field, we have shown dramatically improved ICRF antenna performance. The FA antenna has significantly reduced antenna impurity sources, core impurity contamination and radiated power compared to conventional toroidally aligned antennas. The FA antenna also has load tolerance to plasma transients and significantly reduced RF-enhanced heat flux. The emerging physics picture is that the FA antenna minimizes generation of slow wave fields (E//B polarization). This reduction in slow wave lowers the local RF sheath around the ICRF antenna, and thus lowers the impurity source at local antenna structure. Simplified antenna simulations show a strong reduction in slow wave fields. The reduction of the slow wave field also impacts the antenna load tolerance. With the slow wave present, the antenna impedance is strongly modified by the slow wave coupling between antenna straps and this coupling is dependent upon the local density. With reduced slow wave coupling, the antenna reactive impedance is defined by the strap geometry and independent of the plasma whereas the real impedance is determined by the fast wave coupling. Experimentally we have found that the FA antenna loading has similar trends versus plasma current and densities to TA antennas, but the FA antenna reflection coefficient has significantly reduced variation, particularly during L-H and H-L transitions, and ELMs. Further comparisons of the FA and TA antennas are underway with an extensive array of diagnostics to characterize the RF plasma edge interaction and the latest results will be presented. Supported by US DoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 at MIT.

  2. Advanced ICRF antenna design for R-TOKAMAK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kako, E.; Ando, R.; Ichimura, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Amano, T.; Watari, T.

    1986-01-01

    The advanced ICRF antennas designed for the R-TOKAMAK (a proposal in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University) are described. They are a standard loop antenna and a panel heater antenna for fast wave heating, and a waveguide antenna for ion Bernstein wave heating. The standard loop antenna is made of Al-alloy and has a simple structure to install because of radioactivation by D-T neutrons. For high power heating, a new type antenna called Panel heater antenna is proposed. It has a wide radiation area and is able to select a parallel wave number k. The field pattern of the panel heater antenna is measured. The feasibility of the waveguide antenna is discussed for ion Bernstein wave heating. The radiation from the aperture of the double ridge waveguide is experimentally estimated with a load simulating the plasma.

  3. First results with 3-strap ICRF antennas in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkov, V.; Braun, F.; Dux, R.; Herrmann, A.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Kallenbach, A.; Neu, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ochoukov, R.; Pütterich, Th.; Tuccilo, A.; Tudisco, O.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Q.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-08-01

    The 3-strap antennas in ASDEX Upgrade allow ICRF operation with low tungsten (W) content in the confined plasma with W-coated antenna limiters. With the 3-strap antenna configuration, the local W impurity source at the antenna is drastically reduced and the core W concentration is similar to that of the boron coated 2-strap antenna at a given ICRF power. Operation of the 3-strap antennas with the power ratio between the central and the outer straps of 1.5:1 and 2:1 is adopted to minimize the ICRF-specific W release.

  4. Design of the ITER ICRF Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, D.; Nightingale, M.; Bamber, R.; Dalton, N.; Durodie, F.; Firdaouss, M.; Lister, J.; Porton, M.; Shannon, M.; Wilson, D.; Winkler, K.; Wooldridge, E.

    2011-12-01

    The CYCLE consortium has been designing the ITER ICRF antenna since March 2010, supported by an F4E grant. Following a brief introduction to the consortium, this paper: describes the present status and layout of the design; highlights the key mechanical engineering features; shows the expected impact of cooling and radiation issues on the design and outlines the need for future R&D to support the design process. A key design requirement is the need for the mechanical design and analysis to be consistent with all requirements following from the RF physics and antenna layout optimisation. As such, this paper complements that of Durodie et al [1].

  5. Recent developments in ICRF antenna modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamalle, P. U.; Messiaen, A. M.; Dumortier, P.; Louche, F.

    2006-04-01

    The antennas presently developed for ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating of the ITER plasma consist of a tightly packed array of a large number of radiating straps, in order to deliver a high power density without exceeding radio-frequency voltage standoffs. A recently developed three-dimensional electromagnetic commercial software has enabled important progress in the coupling analysis and optimization of such demanding systems. Approximations allowing these codes to convincingly model the effect of antenna loading by a magnetized plasma are discussed. It is shown that, for the purpose of antenna design calculations, a slab of ordinary dielectric with a high relative permittivity, KD, of the order of (c/VA)2, where VA is the plasma Alfvén velocity, can reproduce the main features of wave reflection and refraction by the plasma edge. Multi-layered dielectrics permit more refined approximations. The numerical application of the approximation is illustrated by a simulation of the JET 'A2' ICRF arrays, which fairly qualitatively reproduces the experimental frequency dependence of the coupling resistance. The same loading approximation is applied to the design of realistic experimental test-bed conditions for antenna prototypes or mock-ups, using water as a means of creating plasma-relevant antenna loading. Application to a scaled mockup of the ITER antenna is briefly presented. This paper is an expanded version of material originally presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura, Portugal, 1-6 November 2004 (Vienna: IAEA), CD-ROM file FT/PT-18.

  6. Modeling of the EAST ICRF antenna with ICANT Code

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Chengming; Zhao Yanping; Colas, L.; Heuraux, S.

    2007-09-28

    A Resonant Double Loop (RDL) antenna for ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is under construction. The new antenna is analyzed using the antenna coupling code ICANT which self-consistently determines the surface currents on all antenna parts. In this work, the modeling of the new ICRF antenna using this code is to assess the near-fields in front of the antenna and analysis its coupling capabilities. Moreover, the antenna reactive radiated power computed by ICANT and shows a good agreement with deduced from Transmission Line (TL) theory.

  7. Development of impedance matching technologies for ICRF antenna arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R.I.

    1998-03-01

    All high power ICRF heating systems include devices for matching the input impedance of the antenna array to the generator output impedance. For most types of antennas used, the input impedance is strongly time-dependent on timescales as rapid as 10-4 s, while the rf generators used are capable of producing full power only into a stationary load impedance. Hence, the dynamic response of the matching method is of great practical importance. In this paper, world-wide developments in this field over the past decade are reviewed. These techniques may be divided into several classes. The edge plasma parameters that determine the antenna array`s input impedance may be controlled to maintain a fixed load impedance. The frequency of the rf source can be feedback controlled to compensate for changes in the edge plasma conditions, or fast variable tuning elements in the transmission line between the generator output and the antenna input connections can provide the necessary time-varying impedance transformation. In lossy passive schemes, reflected power due to the time-varying impedance of the antenna array is diverted to a dummy load. Each of these techniques can be applied to a pre-existing antenna system. If a new antenna is to be designed, recent advances allow the antenna array to have the intrinsic property of presenting a constant load to the feeding transmission lines despite the varying load seen by each antenna in the array.

  8. Heating profiles on ICRF antenna Faraday shields

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Hahs, C.L.; Riemer, B.W.; Ryan, P.M.; Williamson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual design for an uncooled Faraday shield for the BPX ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna, which should withstand the proposed long-pulse operation, has been completed. A high-heat-flux, uncooled Faraday shield has also been designed for the fast-wave current drive (FWCD) antenna on D3-D. For both components, the improved understanding of the heating profiles made it possible to design for heat fluxes that would otherwise have been too close to mechanically established limits. The analytical effort is described in detail, with emphasis on the design work for the BPX ICRH antenna conceptual design and for the replacement Faraday shield for the D3-D FWCD antenna. Results of analyses are shown, and configuration issues involved in component modeling are discussed. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Assessment of ICRF Antenna Performance in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    G. Schilling; S.J. Wukitch; Y. Lin; N. Basse; P.T. Bonoli; E. Edlund; L. Lin; A. Parisot; M. Porkolab

    2004-08-10

    The Alcator C-Mod has presented a challenge to install high-power ICRF antennas in a tight space. Modifications have been made to the antenna plasma-facing surfaces and the internal current-carrying structure in order to overcome performance limitations. At the present time, the antennas have exceeded 5 MW into plasma with heating phasing, up to 2.7 MW with current-drive phasing, with good efficiency and no deleterious effects

  10. Assessment of a field-aligned ICRF antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Wukitch, S. J.; Brunner, D.; Ennever, P.; Garrett, M. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Ochoukov, R.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.

    2014-02-12

    Impurity contamination and localized heat loads associated with ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna operation are among the most challenging issues for ICRF utilization.. Another challenge is maintaining maximum coupled power through plasma variations including edge localized modes (ELMs) and confinement transitions. Here, we report on an experimental assessment of a field aligned (FA) antenna with respect to impurity contamination, impurity sources, RF enhanced heat flux and load tolerance. In addition, we compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to and the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E∥ (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20–30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. Further we observe that the fraction of RF energy deposited upon the antenna is less than 0.4 % of the total injected RF energy in dipole phasing. The total deposited energy increases significantly when the FA antenna is operated in monopole phasing. The FA antenna also exhibits an unexpected load tolerance for ELMs and confinement transitions compared to the TA antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing. In monopole phasing, the FA antenna has the highest plasma

  11. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  12. Design of an ICRF plasma thruster antenna by TOPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Giuseppe; Lancellotti, Vito; Maggiora, Riccardo

    2006-10-01

    A typical RF plasma thruster is comprised of an RF plasma source, an open-ended magnetic confinement device, an RF acceleration unit and a magnetic nozzle. The usual choice for the acceleration is to employ the Ion-Cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF), a well established technology in fusion experiments for transferring large RF powers to magnetized plasmas. To help design RF thruster ICRF antennas, TOPICA (Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna) code [1] has been recently extended to handle cylindrically symmetric plasmas. The latter entailed developing a wholly new module of TOPICA charged with the task of solving Maxwell's equations in cylindrical magnetized warm plasmas and yielding the Green's functionY (m,kz), i.e. the relationship at the air-plasma interface between the transverse magnetic and electric fields in the spectral (wavenumber) domain. The approach to the problem of determining the antenna input impedance relies on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. This work reports on TOPICA evolution and presents the design of an RF thruster ICRF antenna. *V. Lancellotti et al., Nucl. Fusion, 46 (2006) S476-S499

  13. Field-aligned ICRF antenna design for EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Lin, Y.; Qin, C.; Zhang, X.; Beck, W.; Koert, P.; Zhou, L.

    2015-12-01

    For ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF), a number of physics and technological challenges remain for steady state, toroidal devices. Among the most critical is maintaining good coupling and maximizing the coupled power through plasma variations including edge localized modes (ELMs) and confinement transitions. As pulse length increases, enhanced localized heat loads associated with antenna operation can challenge antenna integrity. In addition, ICRF impurity sources and contamination need to be minimized to enable effective plasma heating. Here, we report on a four strap field aligned (FA) antenna design for the EAST tokamak. A FA antenna is an antenna where the current straps and antenna side enclosure are perpendicular to the total magnetic field while the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In C-Mod, a FA antenna has been shown to be inherently load tolerant which allows for robust power delivery to the plasma. Furthermore, the RF enhanced heat flux and antenna impurity source were nearly eliminated. For both L and H-mode discharges, the core impurity contamination is 20-30% lower but not eliminated. The emerging physics understanding is that the local RF impurity sources and RF enhanced heat flux is reduced due to the geometric alignment of the FA antenna while impurity contamination is a result of far field sheaths. An important aspect of antenna design is to identify a core absorption scenario that is characterized by strong single pass absorption for a broad range of target discharges. To maximize power coupling, the antenna spectrum needs to balance the k|| needed for strong single pass absorption and high coupling efficiency through evanescent layer. The latest design for a FA four strap adapted to EAST device is balance between geometrical constraints and physics requirements.

  14. ICRF antenna modeling and simulation. Final report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-30

    SAIC has undergone a three year research and development program in support of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy`s (OFE) program in Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating of present, next generation, and future plasma fusion devices. The effort entailed advancing theoretical models and numerical simulation technology of ICRF physics and engineering issues associated predominately with, but not limited to, tokamak Ion Cyclotron Heating (ICH) and fast wave current drive (FWCD). Ion cyclotron heating and current drive is a central element in all current and planned large fusion experiments. In recent years, the variety of uses for ICRF systems has expanded, and includes the following: (1) Heating sufficient to drive plasma to ignition. (a) Second-harmonic T heating. (b) He{sup 3} minority heating. (2) Second-harmonic He{sup 4} heating in H plasma (for non-activated phase). (3) Detailed equilibrium profile control minority heating. (a) Ion minority (He{sup 3}) CD (for profile control on inside of plasma). (b) Ion minority (He{sup 3}) CD (for profile control on outside of plasma). (4) Ion-ion hybrid regime majority ion heating. (5) Electron current drive. (6) Mode conversion to drive current. (7) Deuterium minority heating. (8) Sawtooth instability stabilization. (9) Alpha particle parameter enhancement. (10) The generation of minority tails by ICRF to simulate D-T plasma particle physics in a deuterium plasma. Optimization of ICRF antenna performance for either heating or current drive depends critically on the complex balance and interplay between the plasma physics and the electromechanical system requirements. For example, ITER IC rf designs call for an IC. system frequency range from 20 MHz to 100 MHz. Additionally, antenna designs and operational modes that minimize impurity production and induced sheath formation may degrade current drive efficiency. Such effects have been observed in experiments involving it versus zero antenna phasing.

  15. ICRF antenna matching system with ferrite tuners for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Binus, A.; Wukitch, S. J.; Koert, P.; Murray, R.; Pfeiffer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time fast ferrite tuning (FFT) has been successfully implemented on the ICRF antennas on Alcator C-Mod. The former prototypical FFT system on the E-port 2-strap antenna has been upgraded using new ferrite tuners that have been designed specifically for the operational parameters of the Alcator C-Mod ICRF system (˜ 80 MHz). Another similar FFT system, with two ferrite tuners and one fixed-length stub, has been installed on the transmission line of the D-port 2-strap antenna. These two systems share a Linux-server-based real-time controller. These FFT systems are able to achieve and maintain the reflected power to the transmitters to less than 1% in real time during the plasma discharges under almost all plasma conditions, and help ensure reliable high power operation of the antennas. The innovative field-aligned (FA) 4-strap antenna on J-port has been found to have an interesting feature of loading insensitivity vs. plasma conditions. This feature allows us to significantly improve the matching for the FA J-port antenna by installing carefully designed stubs on the two transmission lines. The reduction of the RF voltages in the transmission lines has enabled the FA J-port antenna to deliver 3.7 MW RF power to plasmas out of the 4 MW source power in high performance I-mode plasmas.

  16. High voltage test-stand research done on ICRF antenna elements of the high-harmonic fast-wave system of NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. J.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bortolon, A.; Brunkhorst, C.; Ellis, R.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Hosea, J. C.; Kung, C.; Miller, D.

    2015-12-01

    The twelve-strap high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) antenna on NSTX has exhibited a high-voltage standoff around 25 kV during previous experimental campaigns; this standoff needs to be improved for increased power coupling. During the recent NSTX-U upgrade period, a test-stand was set up with two antenna straps along with Faraday screens for testing purposes. Using a diagnostic suite consisting of a fast camera, a residual gas analyzer, a pressure gage, high-voltage probes, and an infrared camera, several interesting discoveries were made, leading to possible improvements of the antenna RF voltage operation level. First, arcing was observed outside the Faraday shields towards the low-voltage ("grounded") end of the straps (faraday shield box ends); this arcing was successfully eliminated by installing an additional grounding point between the Faraday shield box and the vessel wall. Second, considerable outgassing was observed during the RF pulse and the amount of outgassing was found to decrease with increasing RF power, possibly indicative of multipacting. Finally, infrared camera measurements of heating on the Faraday shield assembly suggest that the return currents on the Faraday shield box are highly localized at the box sides and possibly account for the pressure increase observed. Computations of these RF currents using Microwave Studio show qualitative agreement with the heated regions. New grounding points between the antenna box and the vessel have been implemented in NSTX-U, where future tests will be done to determine if the high-voltage standoff has improved. Further antenna improvements will be sought through future experiments on the test stand.

  17. High Voltage Test-Stand Research Done on ICRF Antenna Elements of the High-Harmonic Fast-Wave System of NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R. J.; Ahn, J.W.; Bortolon, A.; Brunkhorst, C.; Ellis, R.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, Nevell; Hosea, J.; Kung, C. C.; Miller, D.

    2015-01-01

    The twelve-strap high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) antenna on NSTX has exhibited a high-voltage standoff around 25 kV during previous experimental campaigns; this standoff needs to be improved for increased power coupling. During the recent NSTX-U upgrade period, a test-stand was set up with two antenna straps along with Faraday screens for testing purposes. Using a diagnostic suite consisting of a fast camera, a residual gas analyzer, a pressure gage, high-voltage probes, and an infrared camera, several interesting discoveries were made, leading to possible improvements of the antenna RF voltage operation level. First, arcing was observed outside the Faraday shields towards the low-voltage ("grounded") end of the straps (faraday shield box ends); this arcing was successfully eliminated by installing an additional grounding point between the Faraday shield box and the vessel wall. Second, considerable outgassing was observed during the RF pulse and the amount of outgassing was found to decrease with increasing RF power, possibly indicative of multipacting. Finally, infrared camera measurements of heating on the Faraday shield assembly suggest that the return currents on the Faraday shield box are highly localized at the box sides and possibly account for the pressure increase observed. Computations of these RF currents using Microwave Studio show qualitative agreement with the heated regions. New grounding points between the antenna box and the vessel have been implemented in NSTX-U, where future tests will be done to determine if the high-voltage standoff has improved. Further antenna improvements will be sought through future experiments on the test stand.

  18. Theory and Practice in ICRF Antennas for Long Pulse Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Bremond, S.; Mitteau, R.; Chantant, M.; Goniche, M.; Basiuk, V.; Bosia, G.; Gunn, J.P.

    2005-09-26

    Long plasma discharges on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak were extended in 2004 towards higher powers and plasma densities by combined Lower Hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) waves. RF pulses of 20sx8MW and 60sx4MW were produced. TS is equipped with 3 ICRF antennas, whose front faces are ready for CW operation. This paper reports on their behaviour over high power long pulses, as observed with infrared (IR) thermography and calorimetric measurements. Edge parasitic losses, although modest, are concentrated on a small surface and can raise surface temperatures close to operational limits. A complex hot spot pattern was revealed with at least 3 physical processes involved : convected power, electron acceleration in the LH near field, and a RF-specific phenomenon compatible with RF sheaths. LH coupling was also perturbed in the antenna shadow. This was attributed to RF-induced DC ExB0 convection. This motivated sheath modelling in two directions. First, the 2D topology of RF potentials was investigated in relation with the RF current distribution over the antenna, via a Green's function formalism and full-wave calculation using the ICANT code. In front of phased arrays of straps, convective cells were interpreted using the RF current profiles of strip line theory. Another class of convective cells, specific to antenna box corners, was evidenced for the first time. Within 1D sheath models assuming independent flux tubes, RF and rectified DC potentials are proportional. 2D fluid models couple nearby flux tubes via transverse polarisation currents. Unexpectedly this does not necessarily smooth RF potential maps. Peak DC potentials can even be enhanced. The experience gained on TS and the numerical tools are valuable for designing steady state high power antennas for next step devices. General rules to reduce RF potentials as well as concrete design options are discussed.

  19. Design and control of phased ICRF antenna arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, R.H.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    Phased antenna arrays operating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are used to produce highly directional wave spectra, primarily for use in current drive experiments. RF current drive using phased antennas has been demonstrated in both the JET and DIII-D tokamaks, and both devices are planning to operate new four-element arrays beginning early next year. Features of antenna design that are relevant to phased operation and production of directional spectra are reviewed. Recent advances in the design of the feed circuits and the related control systems for these arrays should substantially improve their performance, by reducing the coupling seen by the matching networks and rf power supplies caused by the mutual impedance of the array elements. The feed circuit designs for the DIII-D and JET phased antenna arrays are compared. The two configurations differ significantly due to the fact that one power amplifier is used for the entire array in the former case, and one per element in the latter. The JET system uses automatic feedback control of matching, phase and amplitude of antenna currents, and the transmitter power balance. The design of this system is discussed, and a time dependent model used to predict its behavior is described.

  20. Development of a KSTAR ICRF antenna for long pulse operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Y. D.; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Wang, S. J.; Jeong, S. U.

    2003-09-01

    A prototype ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna with RF power of 6 MW has been developed for the long pulse (300 s), high power operation in the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) tokamak. Cooling paths in the antenna were carefully designed to remove the dissipated RF power loss. An RF power test has been performed to estimate the standoff capability of the antenna. A high power RF test at a frequency of 30 MHz gives a standoff voltage of 30.5 kVp for 60 s and 23.2 kVp for 300 s (without cooling). During the RF pulse, the peak voltage, forward/reflected powers, temperature of the antenna, and gas pressure are measured. A vacuum feedthrough of 1 MW RF power has been developed, which has two alumina ceramic cylinders and an O-ring seal. For cooling of the ceramic parts, dry air is injected into the ceramic surface through two outer nozzles. Independent cooling water channels are installed to cool the inner conductor of the feedthrough. RF high voltage tests show that stable operation is possible, with a peak voltage of 28.9 kVp for 300 s, without any severe damage.

  1. ICRF coupling on TFTR using the PPL antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.; Colestock, P.L.; Hosea, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Smithe, D.N.; Stevens, J.E.; Wilson, J.R. ); Gardner, W.; Hoffman, D. )

    1989-07-01

    Coupling of the PPL ICRF antenna to the TFTR plasma is experimentally measured as R{sub c}=P/I{sup 2}, where P is the net power dissipate and I is the RF current at a point in the resonant loop. The relation of R{sub c} to the equivalent antenna loading resistance is investigated using a transmission line model that includes the antenna structure and the feedthroughs. Coupling has been experimentally characterized for a variety of discharge conditions including H and {sup 3}He minority, D and {sup 4}He majority plasmas. Effects of antenna phasing, D neutral beam injection, RF power level, plasma density aned position are discussed. Distinct and reproducible eigenmodes in the loading are observed in H-minority, D-majority plasma during the density rise accompanying neutral beam injection. A 1-D wave propagation model has reproduced the general structure of the modes. For 0-{pi} toroidal phasing, the modes arise from radial reflections from both the reonance-absorption layer and the inner wall of the tokamak; for 0--0 phasing, the modes result from toroidal interference.

  2. The effect of ICRF antenna phasing on metal impurities in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.E.; Bush, C.; Colestock, P.L.; Greene, G.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Stratton, B.; von Goeler, S.; Wilson, J.R.; Gardner, W.; Hoffman, D.; Lysojvan, A.

    1989-07-01

    ICRF power levels of up to 2.8 MW were achieved during the 1988 experimental run on TFTR. Metal impurity concentrations (Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni) and Z/sub eff/ were monitored during ICRF heating by x-ray pulse height analysis and uv spectroscopy. Antenna phasing was the key variable affecting ICRF performance. No increase in metallic impurities was observed for P/sub rf//approx lt/ 2.8 MW with the antenna straps 0-/Pi/, while a measurable increase in titanium (Faraday screen material) was observed for P/sub rf/ /approx gt/ 1.0 MW with 0-0 phasing. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  3. A Simulation Approach for ICRF Plasma Thruster Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, G.; Valitutti, L.; Lancellotti, V.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.

    2005-09-01

    In the past twenty years plasma-based propulsion systems have found increasing aerospace interest; although they were initially conceived as rockets for interplanetary missions, more recent advances in plasma-based concepts have led to the identification of radio-frequency (RF) generation and acceleration systems as capable of providing not only continuous thrust, but also controllable exhaust velocities, as required in maneuvering applications. The most interesting such studies for plasma propulsion are those focused on the possibility of coupling radio frequency power to plasma, exploiting the possibility of having very efficient devices to generate and heat the plasma, magnetically confining it in a trap in the heating region, so that ion can escape the magnetic trap only when they are energetic enough to be converted into direct out-going flow which provides the thrust. The structure of this system is therefore based on of three stages where plasma is respectively generated, heated and expanded in a magnetic nozzle. The heating stage acts as an amplifier; here plasma is heated by the radio frequency waves by the process of ion cyclotron resonance. It has been developed and tested a numerical tool for the electromagnetic modeling of the ICRF antenna, of the RF booster unit of plasma thrusters, and of the RF-plasma interactions. The latter is studied in the critical ICRF acceleration region by setting up a convenient Electromagnetic (EM) analytical and numerical model based on the Moment-Method solution of a suitable set of integral equations. Solution of the relevant integral equation directly provides the electric surface current density induced on antenna conductors, but the ultimate quantity to be computed is the circuit characterization (e.g. admittance matrix) at the input ports.

  4. Measurements of Fast Ion Distribution in ICRF Heated Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, A.; Sears, J.; Bonoli, P.; Granetz, R.; Parker, R.; Wukitch, S.

    2009-11-26

    Alcator C-Mod uses ICRF for the bulk auxiliary heating and relies primarily on hydrogen minority heating scenarios. Measuring the resulting hydrogen ion distribution provides an opportunity to validate upgraded ICRF simulation capability that includes non-Maxwellian ions. The Compact Neutral Particle Analyzer (CNPA) is a diagnostic employed on Alcator C-Mod to measure this fast ion distribution function. The diagnostic can measure the energy distribution of the fast ion tail, serving as a benchmark for simulation results and allowing for an assessment of the simulation algorithm and physics kernel. In this poster, we will present results from the detector in the most recent campaigns. We will discuss the calculation of the fast ion distribution from the measured CNPA distribution and the resulting effective temperature from applying a Stix fit to this distribution.

  5. Estimation of sheath potentials in front of ASDEX upgrade ICRF antenna with SSWICH asymptotic code

    SciTech Connect

    Křivská, A.; Colas, L.; Milanesio, D.

    2015-12-10

    Multi-megawatt Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating became problematic in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak after coating of ICRF antenna limiters and other plasma facing components by tungsten. Strong impurity influx was indeed produced at levels of injected power markedly lower than in the previous experiments. It is assumed that the impurity production is mainly driven by parallel component of Radio-Frequency (RF) antenna electric near-field E// that is rectified in sheaths. In this contribution we estimate poloidal distribution of sheath Direct Current (DC) potential in front of the ICRF antenna and simulate its relative variations over the parametric scans performed during experiments, trying to reproduce some of the experimental observations. In addition, relative comparison between two types of AUG ICRF antenna configurations, used for experiments in 2014, has been performed. For this purpose we use the Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna (TOPICA) code and asymptotic version of the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating (SSWICH) code. Further, we investigate correlation between amplitudes of the calculated oscillating sheath voltages and the E// fields computed at the lateral side of the antenna box, in relation with a heuristic antenna design strategy at IPP Garching to mitigate RF sheaths.

  6. Estimation of sheath potentials in front of ASDEX upgrade ICRF antenna with SSWICH asymptotic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křivská, A.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Milanesio, D.; Ochoukov, R.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-megawatt Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating became problematic in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak after coating of ICRF antenna limiters and other plasma facing components by tungsten. Strong impurity influx was indeed produced at levels of injected power markedly lower than in the previous experiments. It is assumed that the impurity production is mainly driven by parallel component of Radio-Frequency (RF) antenna electric near-field E// that is rectified in sheaths. In this contribution we estimate poloidal distribution of sheath Direct Current (DC) potential in front of the ICRF antenna and simulate its relative variations over the parametric scans performed during experiments, trying to reproduce some of the experimental observations. In addition, relative comparison between two types of AUG ICRF antenna configurations, used for experiments in 2014, has been performed. For this purpose we use the Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna (TOPICA) code and asymptotic version of the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating (SSWICH) code. Further, we investigate correlation between amplitudes of the calculated oscillating sheath voltages and the E// fields computed at the lateral side of the antenna box, in relation with a heuristic antenna design strategy at IPP Garching to mitigate RF sheaths.

  7. Effect on the tritium breeding ratio for a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports results of MCNP-5 calculations to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) when integrating a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna in the blanket of DEMO fusion power reactor. The calculations consider different parameters such as the ICRF covering ratio and the type of breeding blanket including the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) concepts. For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidally at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m, the reduction of the TBR is -0.349% for the HCPB blanket and -0.532% for the HCLL blanket. The distributed ICRF antenna is thus shown to have only a marginal effect on the TBR of the DEMO reactor.

  8. Rf sheaths and impurity generation by ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, F.W.

    1988-11-01

    In general, Faraday screen elements in an ICRF antenna are not aligned precisely along the combined toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. When plasma of density n > 2epsilon/sub 0/V/eg/sup 2/ /approximately/ 10/sup 9/cm/sup -3/ is present in the gap between elements, electron response to the parallel electric field shorts out the electric field over most of the gap, leaving a narrow sheath of positive space charge and intense electric field. Here V denotes the voltage across the gap and g the gap spacing. This intense electric field accelerates ions up to an appreciable fraction of the gap voltage (/approximately/ 1 kV), sufficient to cause physical sputtering of the screen material. Impurities so generated constitute the principal limitation on power density (kW/cm/sup 2/) for ICRF antennas. ICRF antenna and Faraday screen design principles which minimize sputtering are discussed. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effect on the tritium breeding ratio for a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2015-12-10

    The paper reports results of MCNP-5 calculations to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) when integrating a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna in the blanket of DEMO fusion power reactor. The calculations consider different parameters such as the ICRF covering ratio and the type of breeding blanket including the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) concepts. For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidally at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m, the reduction of the TBR is −0.349% for the HCPB blanket and −0.532% for the HCLL blanket. The distributed ICRF antenna is thus shown to have only a marginal effect on the TBR of the DEMO reactor.

  10. Overview on Experiments On ITER-like Antenna On JET And ICRF Antenna Design For ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nightingale, M. P. S.; Blackman, T.; Edwards, D.; Fanthome, J.; Graham, M.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Hancock, D.; Jacquet, P.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I.; Nicholls, K.; Stork, D.; Whitehurst, A.; Wilson, D.; Wooldridge, E.

    2009-11-26

    Following an overview of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) system, the JET ITER-like antenna (ILA) will be described. The ILA was designed to test the following ITER issues: (a) reliable operation at power densities of order 8 MW/m{sup 2} at voltages up to 45 kV using a close-packed array of straps; (b) powering through ELMs using an internal (in-vacuum) conjugate-T junction; (c) protection from arcing in a conjugate-T configuration, using both existing and novel systems; and (d) resilience to disruption forces. ITER-relevant results have been achieved: operation at high coupled power density; control of the antenna matching elements in the presence of high inter-strap coupling, use of four conjugate-T systems (as would be used in ITER, should a conjugate-T approach be used); operation with RF voltages on the antenna structures up to 42 kV; achievement of ELM tolerance with a conjugate-T configuration by operating at 3{omega} real impedance at the conjugate-T point; and validation of arc detection systems on conjugate-T configurations in ELMy H-mode plasmas. The impact of these results on the predicted performance and design of the ITER antenna will be reviewed. In particular, the implications of the RF coupling measured on JET will be discussed.

  11. Implementation of the new multichannel X-mode edge density profile reflectometer for the ICRF antenna on ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiam, D. E.; Silva, A.; Bobkov, V.; Carvalho, P. J.; Carvalho, P. F.; Cavazzana, R.; Conway, G. D.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fattorini, L.; Faugel, H.; Fernandes, A.; Fünfgelder, H.; Gonçalves, B.; Guimarais, L.; De Masi, G.; Meneses, L.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pereira, R. C.; Rocchi, G.; Santos, J. M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.

    2016-11-01

    A new multichannel frequency modulated continuous-wave reflectometry diagnostic has been successfully installed and commissioned on ASDEX Upgrade to measure the plasma edge electron density profile evolution in front of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna. The design of the new three-strap ICRF antenna integrates ten pairs (sending and receiving) of microwave reflectometry antennas. The multichannel reflectometer can use three of these to measure the edge electron density profiles up to 2 × 1019 m-3, at different poloidal locations, allowing the direct study of the local plasma layers in front of the ICRF antenna. ICRF power coupling, operational effects, and poloidal variations of the plasma density profile can be consistently studied for the first time. In this work the diagnostic hardware architecture is described and the obtained density profile measurements were used to track outer radial plasma position and plasma shape.

  12. Simulations of Tore Supra and JET FWCD scenario experiments and ITER 2ωc(T) heating scenario with different ICRF codes. Influence of the plasma-ICRF antenna distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, F.; Zerlauth, P.; Fraboulet, D.; Bergeaud, V.; Bécoulet, A.; Beaumont, B.; Brémond, S.; Ladurelle, L.; Saoutic, B.

    1997-04-01

    A fast code of ICRF power deposition is in development at Tore Supra (ABSOR code) using the knowledge provided by existing codes (SINGLE, VICE, and ALCYON). The results of these codes are compared on different tokamaks. As the whole toroidal spectrum is considered, cavity modes appear with full wave codes on TS and JET Fast Wave Current Drive scenario plasmas. The cavity mode effect disappears for strong single pass absorption of the different species, in particular in ITER plasmas in 2ωc(T) heating scenario. It is then possible in this case to provide the dependence of the coupled power in function of the plasma-ICRF antenna distance with 1D full wave code and to validate the ABSOR calculations. Experimental study of coupled power in function the plasma-ICRF antenna distance in Tore Supra FWEH experiments is given and a good agreement is found with the ABSOR simulation. The power partitioning and the radial deposition profiles taking into account the whole toroidal spectrum are provided.

  13. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Ye. O. Van Eester, D.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-10

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (∼ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  14. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Van Eester, D.; Dumont, R.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (˜ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  15. Reduction of RF sheaths potentials by compensation or suppression of parallel RF currents on ICRF antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, A.; Colas, L.; Vulliez, K.; Argouarch, A.; Milanesio, D.

    2009-11-01

    Radio Frequency (RF) sheaths are suspected to limit the performance of present-day Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antennae over long pulses and should be minimized in future Fusion devices. Within the simplest models, RF sheath effects are quantified by the integral VRF = ∫E//ṡdl where the parallel RF field E// is linked with the slow wave. On "long open field lines" with large toroidal extension on both sides of the antenna it was shown that VRF is excited by parallel RF currents j// flowing on the antenna structure. We thus propose two ways to reduce |VRF| by acting on j// on the antenna front face. The first method, more adapted for protruding antennae, consists in avoiding the j// circulation on the antenna structure, by slotting the antenna frame on its horizontal edges and by cutting partially the Faraday screen rods. The second method, well suited for recessed antennae, consists in compensating j// of opposite signs along long flux tubes, with parallelepiped antennae aligned with tilted flux tubes. The different concepts are assessed numerically on a 2-strap Tore Supra antenna phased [0, π] using near RF fields from the antenna code TOPICA. Simulations stress the need to suppress all current paths for j// to reduce substantially |VRF| over the whole antenna height.

  16. RF-sheath heat flux estimates on Tore Supra and JET ICRF antennae. Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Portafaix, C.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, Ph.

    2009-11-26

    RF-sheath induced heat loads are identified from infrared thermography measurements on Tore Supra ITER-like prototype and JET A2 antennae, and are quantified by fitting thermal calculations. Using a simple scaling law assessed experimentally, the estimated heat fluxes are then extrapolated to the ITER ICRF launcher delivering 20 MW RF power for several plasma scenarios. Parallel heat fluxes up to 6.7 MW/m{sup 2} are expected very locally on ITER antenna front face. The role of edge density on operation is stressed as a trade-off between easy RF coupling and reasonable heat loads. Sources of uncertainty on the results are identified.

  17. Parasitic signals in the receiving band of the Sub-Harmonic Arc Detection system on JET ICRF Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, P.; Blackman, T.; Day, I. E.; Graham, M.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I.; Nightingale, M.; Sharapov, S. E.; Bobkov, V.; Laxaaback, M.

    2011-12-23

    When testing the SHAD system on JET ICRF antennas, parasitic signals in the detection band (5-20MHz) were detected. We have identified emission from grid breakdown events in the Neutral Beam injectors, and Ion Cyclotron Emission from the plasma. Spurious signals in the band 4-10 MHz are also often observed at the onset of ELM events. Such parasitic signals could complicate the design and operation of SHAD in ICRF systems for fusion devices.

  18. Analysis of 4-strap ICRF Antenna Performance in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    G. Schilling; S.J. Wukitch; R.L. Boivin; J.A. Goetz; J.C. Hosea; J.H. Irby; Y. Lin; A. Parisot; M. Porkolab; J.R. Wilson; the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2003-07-31

    A 4-strap ICRF antenna was designed and fabricated for plasma heating and current drive in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Initial upgrades were carried out in 2000 and 2001, which eliminated surface arcing between the metallic protection tiles and reduced plasma-wall interactions at the antenna front surface. A boron nitride septum was added at the antenna midplane to intersect electric fields resulting from radio-frequency sheath rectification, which eliminated antenna corner heating at high power levels. The current feeds to the radiating straps were reoriented from an E||B to E parallel B geometry, avoiding the empirically observed {approx}15 kV/cm field limit and raising antenna voltage holding capability. Further modifications were carried out in 2002 and 2003. These included changes to the antenna current strap, the boron nitride tile mounting geometry, and shielding the BN-metal interface from the plasma. The antenna heating efficiency, power, and voltage characteristics under these various configurations will be presented.

  19. Upgrades to the 4-strap ICRF Antenna in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    G. Schilling; J.C. Hosea; J.R. Wilson; W. Beck; R.L. Boivin; P.T. Bonoli; D. Gwinn; W.E. Lee; E. Nelson-Melby; M. Porkolab; R. Vieira; S.J. Wukitch; and J.A. Goetz

    2001-06-12

    A 4-strap ICRF antenna suitable for plasma heating and current drive has been designed and fabricated for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Initial operation in plasma was limited by high metallic impurity injection resulting from front surface arcing between protection tiles and from current straps to Faraday shields. Antenna modifications were made in February 2000, resulting in impurity reduction, but low-heating efficiency was observed when the antenna was operated in its 4-strap rather than a 2-strap configuration. Further modifications were made in July 2000, with the installation of BN plasma-facing tiles and radio- frequency bypassing of the antenna backplane edges and ends to reduce potential leakage coupling to plasma surface modes. Good heating efficiency was now observed in both heating configurations, but coupled power was limited to 2.5 MW in H-mode, 3 MW in L-mode, by plasma-wall interactions. Additional modifications were started in February 2001 and will be completed by this meeting. All the above upgrades and their effect on antenna performance will be presented.

  20. Modeling of EAST ICRF antenna performance using the full-wave code TORIC

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, E. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-12-10

    Access to advanced operating regimes in the EAST tokamak will require a combination of electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron range frequency heating (ICRF), with the addition of lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) for current profile control. Prior experiments at the EAST tokamak facility have shown relatively weak response of the plasma temperature to application of ICRF heating, with typical coupled power about 2 MW out of 12 MW source. The launched spectrum, at n{sub φ} = 34 for 0-π -0-π phasing and 27 MHz, is largely inaccessible at line-averaged densities of approximately 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. However, with variable antenna phasing and frequency, this system has considerable latitude to explore different heating schemes. To develop an ICRF actuator control model, we have used the full-wave code TORIC to explore the physics of ICRF wave propagation in EAST. The results presented from this study use a spectrum analysis using a superposition of n{sub φ} spanning −50 to +50. The low density regime typical of EAST plasmas results in a perpendicular wavelength comparable to the minor radius which results in global cavity resonance effects and eigenmode formation when the single-pass absorption is low. This behavior indicates that improved performance can be attained by lowering the peak of the k{sub ||} spectrum by using π/3 phasing of the 4-strap antenna. Based on prior studies conducted at Alcator C-Mod, this phasing is also expected to have the advantage of nearly divergence-free box currents, which should result in reduced levels of impurity production. Significant enhancements of the loading resistance may be achieved by using low k{sub ||} phasing and a combination of magnetic field and frequency to vary the location of the resonance and mode conversion regions. TORIC calculations indicate that the significant power may be channeled to the electrons and deuterium majority. We expect that

  1. Modeling of EAST ICRF antenna performance using the full-wave code TORIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlund, E. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Access to advanced operating regimes in the EAST tokamak will require a combination of electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron range frequency heating (ICRF), with the addition of lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) for current profile control. Prior experiments at the EAST tokamak facility have shown relatively weak response of the plasma temperature to application of ICRF heating, with typical coupled power about 2 MW out of 12 MW source. The launched spectrum, at nφ = 34 for 0-π -0-π phasing and 27 MHz, is largely inaccessible at line-averaged densities of approximately 2 × 1019 m-3. However, with variable antenna phasing and frequency, this system has considerable latitude to explore different heating schemes. To develop an ICRF actuator control model, we have used the full-wave code TORIC to explore the physics of ICRF wave propagation in EAST. The results presented from this study use a spectrum analysis using a superposition of nφ spanning -50 to +50. The low density regime typical of EAST plasmas results in a perpendicular wavelength comparable to the minor radius which results in global cavity resonance effects and eigenmode formation when the single-pass absorption is low. This behavior indicates that improved performance can be attained by lowering the peak of the k|| spectrum by using π/3 phasing of the 4-strap antenna. Based on prior studies conducted at Alcator C-Mod, this phasing is also expected to have the advantage of nearly divergence-free box currents, which should result in reduced levels of impurity production. Significant enhancements of the loading resistance may be achieved by using low k|| phasing and a combination of magnetic field and frequency to vary the location of the resonance and mode conversion regions. TORIC calculations indicate that the significant power may be channeled to the electrons and deuterium majority. We expect that implementation of these recommendations in EAST

  2. Present Status of the ITER-like ICRF Antenna on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Durodie, F.; Huygen, S.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.; Van Eester, D.; Vrancken, M.; Gauthier, M.; Goulding, R.

    2009-11-26

    The commissioning of the ITER-Like ICRF Antenna (ILA) on JET plasmas from May 2008 to April 2009 in various conditions (33, 42 and 47 MHz, L- and H-mode, antenna strap-plasma separatrix distances of {approx}9 to 17 cm) has provided relevant information for future antenna design and operation. The maximum power density achieved was 6.2 MW/m{sup 2} in L-mode with strap to plasma separatrix distance of {approx}9-10 cm at 42 MHz on the lower half of the ILA extrapolating to 8 MW/m{sup 2} if the full generator power had been available. Efficient (trip-free operation) ELM tolerance was obtained both at 33 and 42 MHz on a large range of ELMs with strap voltages up to 42 kV and a maximum power density of 4.1 MW/m{sup 2}. The paper reviews these achievements as well as remaining issues.

  3. Eigenmode analysis of the ITER ICRF antenna plug and electrical solution to the grounding of the antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Louche, F.; Messiaen, A. M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Koch, R.; Lamalle, P. U.

    2009-11-26

    The excitation of resonant modes in the gap between the ITER ICRH antenna plug and the vessel can considerably increase the level of RF currents and voltages on the ITER plug and disturb the radiation characteristic of the array. We report on a study of these modes and a solution to avoid them in the ITER ion cyclotron range of frequencies. From a transmission line approach we show that resonances can be avoided if the distance between the mouth of the line and an added short-circuit is sufficiently small. We therefore propose to position short-circuits at about lm from the antenna mouth, constituted by rows of closely spaced contacts all around the plug. These conclusions are further validated with Microwave Studio simulations. A simplified model of the ITER ICRF array is used for comparing various grounding solutions and it is proved that the solution already inferred from transmission line approximation suppresses the resonances from the frequency domain relevant for ICRH in ITER. The MWS calculations predict that the proposed solution also avoids large RF currents in the blanket modules and in their connectors. Their amplitude barely exceeds 5% of the strap RF currents. This solution avoids perturbation of the antenna array impedance matrix by the coaxial gap.

  4. Reduction of RF-sheaths potentials by compensation or suppression of parallel RF currents on ICRF antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, A.; Colas, L.; Vulliez, K.; Ekedahl, A.; Argouarch, A.; Milanesio, D.

    2010-02-01

    Radio frequency (RF) sheaths are suspected of limiting the performance of present-day ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRFs) antennas over long pulses and should be minimized in future fusion devices. Within the simplest models, RF-sheath effects are quantified by the integral VRF = ∫ Epar · dl where the parallel RF field Epar is linked with the slow wave. On 'long open field lines' with large toroidal extension on both sides of the antenna it was shown that VRF is excited by parallel RF currents jpar flowing on the antenna structure. In this paper, the validity of this simple sheath theory is tested experimentally on the Tore Supra (TS) ITER-like antenna prototype (ILP), together with antenna simulation and post-processing codes developed to compute VRF. The predicted poloidal localization of high-|VRF| zones is confronted to that inferred from experimental data analysis. Surface temperature distribution on ILP front face, as well as ILP-induced modifications of RF coupling and hot spots on a magnetically connected lower hybrid current drive antenna, indicates local maxima of dc plasma potential in both the upper and lower parts of the ILP. This result, qualitatively conforming to VRF simulations, is interpreted in terms of jpar flowing on ILP frame. Once the validation is done, such reliable theoretical models and numerical codes are then employed to provide predictive results. Indeed, we propose two ways to reduce |VRF| by acting on jpar on the antenna front face. The first method, more adapted for protruding antennas, consists of avoiding the jpar circulation on the antenna structure, by slotting the antenna frame on its horizontal edges and by partially cutting the Faraday screen rods. The second method, well suited for recessed antennas, consists of compensating jpar of opposite signs along long flux tubes, with parallelepiped antennas aligned with (tilted) flux tubes. The different concepts are assessed numerically on a two-strap TS antenna phased [0

  5. Brazing of ceramic and graphite to metal in the fabrication of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) antenna and feedthrough components

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Fabrication of some of the more critical components of ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna and feedthrough assemblies has involved the brazing of alumina ceramic and graphite to various metals. Copper end pieces have been successfully brazed to alumina cylinders for use in feedthroughs for TEXTOR and in feedthroughs and capacitors for a Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) antenna. Copper-plated Inconel rods and tubes have been armored with graphite for construction of Faraday shields on antennas for Doublet III-D and TFTR. Details of brazing procedures and test results, including rf performance, mechanical strength, and thermal capabilities, are presented. 14 figs.

  6. ICRF modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.

    1985-12-01

    This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Measurement of fast minority /sub 3/He/sup + +/ energy distribution during ICRF heating

    DOEpatents

    Post, D.E. Jr.; Grisham, L.R.; Medley, S.S.

    A method and means for measuring the fast /sub 3/He/sup + +/ distribution during /sub 3/He/sup + +/ minority Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating is disclosed. The present invention involves the use of 10 to 100 keV beams of neutral helium atoms to neutralize the fast /sub 3/He/sup + +/ ions in a heated plasma by double charge exchange (/sub 3/He/sup + +/ + /sub 4/He/sup 0/ ..-->.. /sub 3/He/sup 0/ + /sub 4/He/sup + +/). The neutralized fast /sub 3/He/sup 0/ atoms then escape from the hot plasma confined by a magnetic field and are detected by conventional neutral particle analyzing means. This technique permits the effectiveness of the coupling of the ion cyclotron waves to the /sub 3/He/sup + +/ minority ions to be accurately measured. The present invention is particularly adapted for use in evaluating the effectiveness of the intermediate coupling between the RF heating and the /sub 3/He/sup + +/ in an energetic toroidal plasma.

  8. Quantitative modeling of ICRF antennas with integrated time domain RF sheath and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Smithe, David N.; D'Ippolito, Daniel A.; Myra, James R.

    2014-02-12

    Significant efforts have been made to quantitatively benchmark the sheath sub-grid model used in our time-domain simulations of plasma-immersed antenna near fields, which includes highly detailed three-dimensional geometry, the presence of the slow wave, and the non-linear evolution of the sheath potential. We present both our quantitative benchmarking strategy, and results for the ITER antenna configuration, including detailed maps of electric field, and sheath potential along the entire antenna structure. Our method is based upon a time-domain linear plasma model, using the finite-difference electromagnetic Vorpal/Vsim software. This model has been augmented with a non-linear rf-sheath sub-grid model, which provides a self-consistent boundary condition for plasma current where it exists in proximity to metallic surfaces. Very early, this algorithm was designed and demonstrated to work on very complicated three-dimensional geometry, derived from CAD or other complex description of actual hardware, including ITER antennas. Initial work with the simulation model has also provided a confirmation of the existence of propagating slow waves in the low density edge region, which can significantly impact the strength of the rf-sheath potential, which is thought to contribute to impurity generation. Our sheath algorithm is based upon per-point lumped-circuit parameters for which we have estimates and general understanding, but which allow for some tuning and fitting. We are now engaged in a careful benchmarking of the algorithm against known analytic models and existing computational techniques to insure that the predictions of rf-sheath voltage are quantitatively consistent and believable, especially where slow waves share in the field with the fast wave. Currently in progress, an addition to the plasma force response accounting for the sheath potential, should enable the modeling of sheath plasma waves, a predicted additional root to the dispersion, existing at the

  9. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials in the SOL of Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Terry, J. L.; Wukitch, S. J.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2014-02-12

    We performed an extensive survey of the plasma potential in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of Ion Cyclotron Range-of Frequencies (ICRF)-heated discharges on Alcator C-Mod. Our results show that plasma potentials are enhanced in the presence of ICRF power and plasma potential values of >100 V are often observed. Such potentials are high enough to induce sputtering of high-Z molybdenum (Mo) plasma facing components by deuterium ions on C-Mod. For comparison, the plasma potential in Ohmic discharges is typically less than 10 V, well below the threshold needed to induce Mo sputtering by deuterium ions. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials are observed in the SOL regions that both magnetically map and do not map to active ICRF antennas. Regions that magnetically map to active ICRF antennas are accessible to slow waves directly launched by the antennas and these regions experience plasma potential enhancement that is partially consistent with the slow wave rectification mechanism. One of the most defining features of the slow wave rectification is a threshold appearance of significant plasma potentials (>100 V) when the dimensionless rectification parameter Λ{sub −o} is above unity and this trend is observed experimentally. We also observe ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials >100 V in regions that do not magnetically map to the active antennas and, hence, are not accessible for slow waves launched directly by the active antennas. However, unabsorbed fast waves can reach these regions. The general trend that we observe in these 'un-mapped' regions is that the plasma potential scales with the strength of the local RF wave fields with the fast wave polarization and the highest plasma potentials are observed in discharges with the highest levels of unabsorbed ICRF power. Similarly, we find that core Mo levels scale with the level of unabsorbed ICRF power suggesting a link between plasma potentials in the SOL and the strength of the impurity source.

  10. 2D modeling of DC potential structures induced by RF sheaths with transverse currents in front of ICRF antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Colas, L.

    2005-09-26

    Understanding DC potential generation in front of ICRF antennas is crucial for long pulse high RF power systems. DC potentials are produced by sheath rectification of these RF potentials. To reach this goal, near RF parallel electric fields have to be computed in 3D and integrated along open magnetic field lines to yield a 2D RF potential map in a transverse plane. DC potentials are produced by sheath rectification of these RF potentials. As RF potentials are spatially inhomogeneous, transverse polarization currents are created, modifying RF and DC maps. Such modifications are quantified on a 'test map' having initially a Gaussian shape and assuming that the map remains Gaussian near its summit,the time behavior of the peak can be estimated analytically in presence of polarization current as a function of its width r0 and amplitude {phi}0 (normalized to a characteristic length for transverse transport and to the local temperature). A 'peaking factor' is built from the DC peak potential normalized to {phi}0, and validated with a 2D fluid code and a 2D PIC code (XOOPIC). In an unexpected way transverse currents can increase this factor. Realistic situations of a Tore Supra antenna are also studied, with self-consistent near fields provided by ICANT code. Basic processes will be detailed and an evaluation of the 'peaking factor' for ITER will be presented for a given configuration.

  11. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Sharapov, S.; Alper, B.; Gondhalekar, A.; McDonald, D. C.

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilization at very high fast-ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density ne decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing ne due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on ne, the threshold in ne corresponds to a threshold in the fast-ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast-ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55 and 65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes (White 1989 Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (Amsterdam: North-Holland)), exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast-ion population.

  12. Measurement of rf voltages on the plasma-touching surfaces of ICRF antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Bell, G.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Goulding, R.H.; Haste, G.R.; Ryan, P.M.; Zhang, H.

    1995-09-01

    Measurements of the rf voltages on Faraday shields and protection bumpers have been made for several loop antennas, including the mock-up antenna and Al for JET, the original antenna for Tore Supra, the present ASDEX-U antenna, and the folded waveguide. The loop antennas show voltages that scale to {approx}12 kV for a maximum input voltage of 30 kV with 0/0 phasing. The voltages are dramatically reduced for 0/{pi} phasing. These voltages are significant in that they can substantially increase the rf sheath potential beyond the levels associated with the simple electromagnetic field linkage from the current straps that results in plasma heating. In this paper, we investigate and measure the source of these voltages, their scaling with antenna impedance, and the differences between the loop arrays.

  13. Radial Broadening of DC potential structures in front of ICRF antennas by transverse exchange of RF currents

    SciTech Connect

    Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.

    2009-11-26

    Measurements show that the vicinity of powered Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) antennae is biased positively with respect to its environment. This is attributed to RF-sheaths. The radial penetration of DC potentials into Tokamak SOL determines the power deposition on the walls and especially on the antenna structure, which is a key point for long time clean discharges. Within independent flux tube models of RF-sheath rectification the radial penetration of DC potentials is determined by the skin depth x{sub 0} = c/{omega}{sub pe} for the slow wave. When self-consistent exchanges of transverse RF currents are allowed between neighboring flux tubes, such a structure can be broadened radially up to a characteristic transverse length L. Broadening arises as soon as L>r{sub 0}. A linear modeling gives a first evaluation of the theoretical length L{approx_equal}(L{sub parallel} {rho}{sub ci}/){sup 1/2}. Within the 'flute assumption' it scales with the length L{sub parallel} of open flux tubes and the ion Larmor radius {rho}{sub ci}. This has been confirmed by the SEM code which takes into account non-linear rectifications. Applying our model to several potential maps generated by an ITER antenna, it comes out that L ranges between 1 and 10 cm depending on local L{sub parallel} and on typical ITER plasma parameters. Langmuir probe measurements on Tore Supra suggest that the broadening is lower than predicted by the code, which supposes that currents do not occur all over the parallel magnetic lines but on a fraction of it.

  14. Antenna-plasma coupling theory for ICRF heating of large tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, A.; Bers, A.

    1982-03-01

    The coupling characteristics of antenna structure are studied by analyzing a model where a thin current sheet is placed between a fully conducting wall and a sheet of anisotropic conductivity representing the screen. The inhomogeneous plasma in the shadow of the limiter is assumed to extend from the screen onwards away from the antenna. The excitation of the fields inside the plasma are found by analyzing the radiation properties of this current sheet antenna. We assume that the current distribution of the antenna is given and that the fields excited inside the plasma are absorbed in a single pass. In all experiments to-date the cross-sectional plasmas are relatively small so that the rf conductor is a half-loop around the plasma in the poloidal direction. However, for reactor size plasmas this cannot be done and the antenna dimensions will be small compared to the plasma cross-sections. We, thus, assume an antenna of finite poloidal and toroidal extent with dimensions small compared to the plasma minor radius. We further approximate the coupling geometry by a slab model. The x-axis is taken to be along the plasma inhomogeneity, the y-axis along the poloidal direction and the x-axis along the toroidal magnetic field.

  15. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Modeling of the ITER ICRF Antenna (External Matching Design)

    SciTech Connect

    Louche, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Dumortier, P.; Messiaen, A.M.

    2005-09-26

    The present work reports on 3D radio-frequency (RF) analysis of a design for the ITER antenna with the CST Microwave Studio registered software. The four-port junctions which connect the straps in triplets have been analyzed. Non-TEM effects do not play any significant role in the relevant frequency domain, and a well-balanced splitting of current between the straps inside a triplet is achieved. The scattering matrix has also been compared with RF measurements on a scaled antenna mockup, and the agreement is very good. Electric field patterns along the system have been obtained, and the RF optimization of the feeding sections is under way.

  16. Coupling and matching study of the ICRF antenna for W7-X

    SciTech Connect

    Messiaen, A.; Krivska, A.; Louche, F.; Ongena, J.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Van Eester, D.; Vervier, M.

    2014-02-12

    A tight antenna plug consisting in a pair of straps with strong pre-matching covers the first selected frequency band (25-38MHz) for W7-X and provides the toroidal phasings for heating, current drive and wall conditioning. Another plug-in with two short strap triplets is devoted for operation around 76MHz. The antenna coupling to a reference plasma profile is first analyzed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II. It shows the radiation power spectra for the different phasing cases and indicates the problem of the edge power deposition through the Alfven resonance occurring when the operating frequency is lower than the majority cyclotron frequency. Matrices provided by the TOPICA code are used for the matching-decoupling study of the first antenna plug. The large mutual coupling between the 2 straps is counterbalanced by the use of a decoupler. Finally the tunable 5-port junction used to feed in parallel each triplet of the second plug-in is analyzed by means of MWS simulation together with its decoupling-matching system.

  17. On resonant ICRF absorption in three-ion component plasmas: a new promising tool for fast ion generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Van Eester, D.; Dumont, R.; Ongena, J.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a very efficient ion-cyclotron-resonance-frequency (ICRF) absorption scheme (Z)-Y-X, which hinges on the presence of three ion species residing in the plasma. A mode conversion (cutoff-resonance) layer is well known to appear in two-ion species plasmas. If the location of the L-cutoff in Y-X plasmas, which can be controlled by varying the Y : X density ratio, almost coincides with the fundamental cyclotron resonance of the third ion species Z (resonant absorber), the latter—albeit present only in trace quantities—is shown to absorb almost all the incoming RF power. A quantitative criterion for the resonant Y : X plasma composition is derived and a few numerical examples are given. Since the absorbed power per resonant particle is much larger than for any other ICRF scheme, the here discussed scenarios are particularly promising for fast particle generation. Their possible application as a source of high-energy ions for the stellarator W7-X and to mimic alpha particles during the non-activated phase of ITER tokamak is briefly discussed.

  18. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials in the SOL of Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Brunner, D.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Myra, J. R.; Terry, J. L.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive experimental survey of plasma potentials induced by ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) heating was carried out in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Enhanced plasma potentials >100 V are observed at locations where local magnetic fields map to active ICRF antennas. In these cases, the enhanced potential appears only when a local plasma density threshold is surpassed—a threshold that is quantitatively consistent with slow wave (SW) RF rectification theory. However, in many cases large potential enhancements are found in locations that do not map along magnetic field lines to active antennas without obstruction, i.e. locations that are inaccessible to SWs launched by the active antennas. Enhanced potentials in these ‘unmapped’ locations are correlated with local plasma parameters, ICRF electromagnetic fields associated with the fast wave (FW) and SW, launched wave spectra, and the boundary surface geometry. It is found that enhanced plasma potentials in unmapped locations correlate with the FW field strength. These observations are qualitatively consistent with a model that accounts for the conversion of FWs to SWs at conducting surfaces oriented at an oblique angle with respect to the magnetic field, with the SW leading to sheath rectification. In addition, enhanced plasma potentials are found far into the shadow of passive limiter structures. These are correlated with the magnitude of the local FW field strength, yet the effect does not follow any present model. Overall, ICRF-induced plasma potentials may appear in regions far removed from the active antennas, yet due to the complex response of the SOL potentials at a variety of boundary surfaces, it remains unclear what part of the plasma-facing wall should be targeted to mitigate ICRF-induced impurities. The results also suggest that operating active ICRF antennas in a high single pass absorption regime is crucial in minimizing the effects of the FW fields on

  19. ICRF wave field measurements in the presence of scrape off layer turbulence on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Suárez López, G.

    2016-11-01

    A new array of B-dot probes was installed on ASDEX Upgrade. The purpose of the new diagnostic is to study Ion Cyclotron Range-off Frequencies (ICRF) wave field distributions in the evanescent scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma region on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. The vacuum measurements (no gas, BT = 0 T) reveal ICRF wave field measurements consistent with the profiles expected from the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antennas outside the antenna box: the shape of the toroidal distribution of both the amplitude and the phase is the same for the case of only the central straps being active, as for the case of only the side straps being active. These profiles become strongly modified during plasma operations. The modifications can be separated into two types: "Inter-edge localized mode (ELM)" and "During-ELM" periods. The phase distribution of the ICRF wave fields remains well-defined during the Inter-ELM period; however, it becomes more spread out over the entire 360° range during ELMs. The observed modulations cannot be explained by the observed changes in the ICRF power, as monitored in the transmission line. However, they are consistent with ICRF coupling changes introduced by plasma filaments: the plasma density perturbations due to the filaments are high enough to change the nature of the fast ICRF wave field from evanescent to propagating. The coverage of the present diagnostic is being expanded to include both the low field side and the high field side probes. Additionally, a manipulator probe head is being developed to measure ICRF wave field radial profiles across the SOL region.

  20. Overview of KSTAR ICRF Experiments in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Jong-Gu; Wang, S. J.; Bae, Y. D.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. K.

    2009-11-26

    KSTAR is a national superconducting tokamak with the aim of a high beta operation based on AT scenarios, and ICRF heating is one of the essential tools to achieve this goal. After 12 years R and D works, ICRF system including the 2 MW transmitter and antenna was installed in 2007 and it was used for KSTAR first plasma events in 2008. In this paper, the installation processes of the ICRF system with an emphasis on the quality assurance procedures of KSTAR, as well as the results from the first RF discharge experiments for a discharge cleaning and FWEH experiments are outlined and future plan is shown.

  1. Use of Fast Ion D-Alpha diagnostics for understanding ICRF effects

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Liu, D.; Luo, Y.; Ruskov, E.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Hosea, J. C.; Medley, S. S.; Burrell, K. H.; Choi, M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Harvey, R. W.

    2009-11-26

    Combined neutral beam injection and fast wave heating at cyclotron harmonics accelerate deuterium fast ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and in the DIII-D tokamak. Acceleration above the injected energy is evident in fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) and volume-average neutron data. The FIDA diagnostic measures spatial profiles of the accelerated fast ions. In DIII-D, the acceleration is at a 4th or 5th cyclotron harmonic; the maximum enhancement in the high-energy FIDA signal is 8-10 cm beyond the resonance layer. In NSTX, acceleration is observed at five harmonics (7-11) simultaneously; overall, the profile of accelerated fast ions is much broader than in DIII-D. The energy distribution predicted by the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code agrees fairly well with measurements in DIII-D. However, the predicted profiles differ from experiment, presumably because the current version of CQL3D uses a zero-banana-width model.

  2. Use of Fast Ion D-Alpha diagnostics for understanding ICRF effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestà, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Liu, D.; Luo, Y.; Ruskov, E.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Hosea, J. C.; Medley, S. S.; Burrell, K. H.; Choi, M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Harvey, R. W.

    2009-11-01

    Combined neutral beam injection and fast wave heating at cyclotron harmonics accelerate deuterium fast ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and in the DIII-D tokamak. Acceleration above the injected energy is evident in fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) and volume-average neutron data. The FIDA diagnostic measures spatial profiles of the accelerated fast ions. In DIII-D, the acceleration is at a 4th or 5th cyclotron harmonic; the maximum enhancement in the high-energy FIDA signal is 8-10 cm beyond the resonance layer. In NSTX, acceleration is observed at five harmonics (7-11) simultaneously; overall, the profile of accelerated fast ions is much broader than in DIII-D. The energy distribution predicted by the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code agrees fairly well with measurements in DIII-D. However, the predicted profiles differ from experiment, presumably because the current version of CQL3D uses a zero-banana-width model.

  3. Global Confinement, Sawtooth Mixing, and Stochastic Diffusion Ripple Loss of Fast ICRF-driven H+ Minority Ions in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.P.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Medley, S.S.; Zweben, S.J., PPPL

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents studies of ICRF-driven H+ minority ions in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reator) deuterium plasmas using primarily passive Ho flux detection in the energy range of 0.2-1.0 MeV with some corroborating active (lithium pellet charge exchange) measurements. It is shown that in the passive mode the main donors for the neutralization of H+ ions in this energy range are C5+ ions. The measured effective H+ tail temperatures range from 0.15 MeV at an ICRF power of 2 MW to 0.35 MeV at 6 MW. Analysis of the ICRF-driven H+ ion energy balance has been performed on the basis of the dependence of effective H+ temperatures on the plasma parameters. The analysis showed that H+ confinement times are comparable with their slowing-down times and tended to decrease with increasing ICRF power. Radial redistribution of ICRF-driven H+ ions was detected when giant sawtooth crashes occurred during the ICRF heating. The redistribution affected ions with energy below 0.7-0.8 MeV. The sawtooth crashes displace H+ ions outward along the plasma major radius into the stochastic ripple diffusion domain were those ions are lost in about 10 milliseconds. These observations are consistent with the model of the redistribution of energetic particles developed previously to explain the results of deuterium-tritium alpha-particle redistribution due to sawteeth observed in TFTR. The experimental data are also consistent with ORBIT code simulations of H+ stochastic ripple diffusion losses.

  4. Use of the TFTR prototype charge exchange neutral analyzer for fast He/sub 3//sup + +/ diagnostics during ICRF heating on PLT

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.

    1981-07-01

    The Charge Exchange Neutral Analyzer (CENA) for TFTR is designed to measure singly charged ion species of atomic mass A = 1, 2, and 3 simultaneously with up to 75 energy channels per mass and an energy range of 0.5 < AE < 600, where AE is in units of AMU.keV. Plans to test the prototype analyzer on PLT prior to installation on TFTR are discussed. The capability of the analyzer to simultaneously measure singly reionized H, D, and He/sub 3/ charge exchange neutrals makes the analyzer of particular interest for recently proposed fast He/sub 3//sup + +/ diagnostics during ICRF heating on PLT.

  5. Fast wave current drive antenna performance on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, M.J.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Chiu, S.C.; Jackson, G.L.; Lippmann, S.I.; Prater, R. ); Porkolab, M. . Plasma Fusion Center); Baity, F.W.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J. )

    1991-10-01

    Fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments at 60 MHz are being performed on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time in high electron temperature, high {beta} target plasmas. A four-element phased-array antenna is used to launch a directional wave spectrum with the peak n{sub {parallel}} value ({approx equal} 7) optimized for strong single-pass electron absorption due to electron Landau damping. For this experiment, high power FW injection (2 MW) must be accomplished without voltage breakdown in the transmission lines or antenna, and without significant impurity influx. In addition, there is the technological challenge of impedance matching a four-element antenna while maintaining equal currents and the correct phasing (90{degree}) in each of the straps for a directional spectrum. In this paper we describe the performance of the DIII-D FWCD antenna during initial FW electron heating and current drive experiments in terms of these requirements.

  6. Fast wave current drive antenna performance on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, M.J.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Chiu, S.C.; Jackson, G.L.; Lippmann, S.I.; Prater, R.; Porkolab, M.; Baity, F.W.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments at 60 MHz are being performed on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time in high electron temperature, high {beta} target plasmas. A four-element phased-array antenna is used to launch a directional wave spectrum with the peak n{sub {parallel}} value ({approx_equal} 7) optimized for strong single-pass electron absorption due to electron Landau damping. For this experiment, high power FW injection (2 MW) must be accomplished without voltage breakdown in the transmission lines or antenna, and without significant impurity influx. In addition, there is the technological challenge of impedance matching a four-element antenna while maintaining equal currents and the correct phasing (90{degree}) in each of the straps for a directional spectrum. In this paper we describe the performance of the DIII-D FWCD antenna during initial FW electron heating and current drive experiments in terms of these requirements.

  7. Modeling of DC potential structures induced by RF sheaths with transverse currents in front of ICRF antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Colas, L.

    2007-09-28

    RF heating is fully dependent on edge plasma conditions and particularly on convection of accelerated particles which can damage ICRH antennas (hot spots and impurity injection). These accelerated particle fluxes born in DC potential structures are induced by sheaths which rectify RF potentials. The potential map in front of antenna is not uniform so that transverse (to magnetic field) RF currents occur and can significantly modify the final DC potential map and thus convective flux distribution. The behavior of rectified potentials is investigated here for f = F{sub ci} and f>F{sub ci}, which was not yet achieved in our last works [1]. Therefore, a 2D fluid modeling including RF sheaths physics (parallel current) coupled with transverse RF currents has been built. The full description of the currents exhibits a maximum for frequencies around Fci, which can be explained by the fact that RF oscillation is capacitive at low frequency and inductive at high frequency. Both effects are present at frequencies around F{sub ci} and the DC peak potential appears for f = F{sub ci}/2. This is due to the rectification of the sinusoidal signal, which doubles the effective RF frequency radiated by the antenna. The theoretical DC peak value is 0.5 time the RF amplitude of the applied potential instead of 1/{pi} without transverse currents. For typical potential structures in front of ICRH antennas (centimetric wide and 1000 Volts peak potential), a factor between 0.4 and 0.45 can be expected according to 2D fiuid code results.

  8. Three dimensional modelling of ICRF launchers for fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Hanson, G. R.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; England, A. C.; Hoffman, D. J.; Murakami, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Wilgen, J. B.; Rogers, J. H.; Wilson, J. R.; Majeski, R.; Schilling, G.

    1996-02-01

    The three dimensional (3-D) nature of antennas for fusion applications in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) requires accurate modelling to design and analyse new antennas. In this article, analysis and design tools for radiofrequency (RF) antennas are successfully benchmarked with experiment, and the 3-D physics of the launched waves is explored. The systematic analysis combines measured density profiles from a reflectometer system, transmission line circuit modelling, detailed 3-D magnetostatics modelling and a new 3-D electromagnetic antenna model including plasma. This analysis gives very good agreement with measured loading data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Bay-M antenna, thus demonstrating the validity of the analysis for the design of new RF antennas. The 3-D modelling is contrasted with 2-D models, and significant deficiencies are found in the latter. The 2-D models are in error by as much as a factor of 2 in real and reactive loading, even after they are corrected for the most obvious 3-D effects. Three dimensional effects play the most significant role at low parallel wavenumbers, where the launched power spectrum can be quite different from the predictions of 2-D models. Three dimensional effects should not be ignored for many RF designs, especially those intended for fast wave current drive

  9. Studies of ICRF Discharge Conditioning (ICRF-DC) on ASDEX Upgrade, JET and TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Lyssoivan, A.; Koch, R.; Eester, D. van; Wassenhove, G. van; Vervier, M.; Weynants, R.; Gauthier, E.; Bobkov, V.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Hartmann, D.A.; Rohde, V.; Suttrop, W.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Monakhov, I.; Walden, A.

    2005-09-26

    The present paper reviews the recent results achieved in the ICRF-DC experiments performed in helium/hydrogen mixtures in the non-circular tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade and JET and first tests of the ICRF discharges in helium/oxygen mixtures in the circular tokamak TEXTOR. Special emphasis was given to study the physics of ICRF discharges. A new recipe for safe and reliable RF plasma production [{approx}(3-5)x1017 m-3, Te{approx}(3-5) eV] with improved antenna coupling efficiency (by 1.5-3 times) and improved radial/poloidal homogeneity was proposed and successfully tested: coupling the RF power in the FW-IBW mode conversion scenario in plasmas with two ion species. The first results on ICRF wall conditioning in helium/hydrogen and in helium/oxygen mixtures are analyzed.

  10. Analysis of ICRF-Accelerated Ions in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2007-09-28

    MHD-induced losses of fast ions with energy in the MeV range have been observed during high-power ICRF heating of hydrogen minority ions in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (R{sub 0}{approx_equal}1.65 m, a{approx_equal}0.5 m). ICRF heating and ICRF-driven fast ions in discharges exhibiting fast ion losses due to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and a new core-localised MHD instability are analysed. It is found that the lost ions are ICRF-accelerated trapped protons with energy in the range of 0.3-1.6 MeV, orbit widths of 20-35 cm, and turning points at r/a>0.5 and at major radii close to the cyclotron resonance {omega} = {omega}{sub cH}(R). The presence of such protons is consistent with ICRF modelling.

  11. Design of long-pulse fast wave current drive antennas for DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity, F. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bills, K. C.; Fogelman, C. H.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ping, J. L.; Riemer, B. W.; Ryan, P. M.; Stallings, D. C.; Taylor, D. J.; Yugo, J. J.

    1994-10-01

    Two new long-pulse fast wave current drive (FWCD) antennas will be installed on DIII-D in early 1994. These antennas will increase the available FWCD power from 2 MW to 6 MW for pulse lengths of up to 2 s, and to 4 MW for up to 10 s. Power for the new antennas is from two ASDEX-type 30- to 120-MHz transmitters. When operated at 90° phasing into a low-density plasma (˜4×1019m-3) with hot electrons (˜10 keV), these two new antennas are predicted to drive approximately 1 MA of plasma current.

  12. Microwave reflectometry for ICRF coupling studies on TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgen, J. B.; Hanson, G. R.; Bigelow, T. S.; Batchelor, D. B.; Collazo, I.; Hoffman, D. J.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Stallings, D. C.; Raftopoulos, S.; Wilson, J. R.

    1994-10-01

    A dual-frequency differential-phase reflectometer has been developed for use in ICRF power coupling studies on TFTR. This system has been optimized for measurements of the electron density profile in the edge-gradient region, where density fluctuations are large. Initial proof-of-principle measurements demonstrate that this is an effective way to measure the electron density profile in the plasma-edge region. A new reflectometer launcher is presently being installed on the center axis of the bay-K ICRF antenna on TFTR, along with the associated waveguide transmission line. This will allow direct measurement of the edge-density profile within the high-power-density environment of the ICRF antenna where density profile modification might be expected.

  13. Direct Electron Heating Observed by Fast Waves in ICRF Range on a Low-Density Low Temperature Tokamak ADITYA

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, K.; Kulkarni, S.; Rathi, D.; Varia, A.; Jadav, H.; Parmar, K.; Kadia, B.; Joshi, R.; Srinivas, Y.; Singh, R.; Kumar, S.; Dani, S.; Gayatri, A.; Yogi, R.; Singh, M.; Joisa, Y.; Rao, C.; Kumar, S.; Jha, R.; Manchanda, R.

    2011-12-23

    Fast wave electron heating experiments are carried out on Aditya tokamak [R = 0.75 m, a = 0.25m,Bt = 0.75T,ne{approx}1-3E13/cc,Te{approx}250eV] with the help of indigenously developed 200 kW, 20-40 MHz RF heating system. Significant direct electron heating is observed by fast waves in hydrogen plasma with prompt rise in electron temperature with application of RF power and it increases linearly with RF power. A corresponding increase in plasma beta and hence increase in stored diamagnetic energy is also observed in presence of RF. We observe an improvement of energy confinement time from 2-4msec during ohmic heating phase to 3-6msec in RF heating phase. This improvement is within the ohmic confinement regime for the present experiments. The impurity radiation and electron density do not escalate significantly with RF power. The direct electron heating by fast wave in Aditya is also predicted by ion cyclotron resonance heating code TORIC.

  14. ICRF stabilization of sawteeth on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.; Stevens, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Bitter, M.; Cheng, C.Z.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Hammett, G.W.; Hill, K.; Hsuan, H.; Jassby, D.; McCune, D.; McGuire, K.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Stratton, B.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.; White, R.; Zweben, S. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Marmar, E.; Snipes, J.; Terry, J.; Bo

    1992-01-01

    Results obtained from experiments utilizing high power ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency) heating to stabilize sawtooth oscillations on TFTR are reviewed. The key observations include existence of a minimum ICRF power required to achieve stabilization, a dependence of the stabilization threshold on the relative size of the ICRF power deposition profile to the q=1 volume, and a peaking of the equilibrium pressure and current profiles during sawtooth-free phases of the discharges. In addition, preliminary measurements of the poloidal magnetic field profile indicate that q on axis decreases to a value of 0.55{plus minus}0.15 after a sawtooth-stabilized period of {approximately}0.5 sec has transpired. The results are discussed in the context of theory, which suggests that the fast ions produced by the ICRF heating suppress sawteeth by stabilizing the m=1 MHD instabilities believed to be the trigger for the sawtooth oscillations. Though qualitative agreement is found between the observations and the theory, further refinement of the theory coupled with more accurate measurements of experimental profiles will be required in order to complete quantitative comparisons.

  15. ICRF stabilization of sawteeth on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.; Stevens, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Bitter, M.; Cheng, C.Z.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Hammett, G.W.; Hill, K.; Hsuan, H.; Jassby, D.; McCune, D.; McGuire, K.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Stratton, B.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.; White, R.; Zweben, S.; Marmar, E.; Snipes, J.; Terry, J.; Boivin, R.; Phillips, M.W.; Hughes, M.; Bush, C.; Goldfinger, R.; Hoffman, D.; Houlberg, W.; Nagayama, Y.; Smithe, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    Results obtained from experiments utilizing high power ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency) heating to stabilize sawtooth oscillations on TFTR are reviewed. The key observations include existence of a minimum ICRF power required to achieve stabilization, a dependence of the stabilization threshold on the relative size of the ICRF power deposition profile to the q=1 volume, and a peaking of the equilibrium pressure and current profiles during sawtooth-free phases of the discharges. In addition, preliminary measurements of the poloidal magnetic field profile indicate that q on axis decreases to a value of 0.55{plus_minus}0.15 after a sawtooth-stabilized period of {approximately}0.5 sec has transpired. The results are discussed in the context of theory, which suggests that the fast ions produced by the ICRF heating suppress sawteeth by stabilizing the m=1 MHD instabilities believed to be the trigger for the sawtooth oscillations. Though qualitative agreement is found between the observations and the theory, further refinement of the theory coupled with more accurate measurements of experimental profiles will be required in order to complete quantitative comparisons.

  16. Computational study of ICRF stabilization of the m = 1 interchange mode in mirror geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Francis, G.L.

    1986-05-01

    A cylindrical plasma model is used to study the stabilizing effect of electromagnetic ICRF waves on the m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode. The fast wave eigenmodes of the column and the near field antenna pattern are calculated numerically for a diffuse plasma profile when w > ..cap omega../sub i/. The resulting ponderomotive force and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions cancel exactly as the conducting wall supporting the fast wave eigenmode moves out to infinity. The near field stabilization effect is related numerically to the driven k/sub parallel/ spectrum of the waves and their radial profiles. The numerical model is employed to calculate threshold ICRF wave amplitudes for the stabilization experiments in the Phaedrus tandem mirror.

  17. Initial operation of high power ICRF system for long pulse in EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, C. M. Zhao, Y. P.; Zhang, X. J.; Wan, B. N.; Gong, X. Z.; Mao, Y. Z.; Yuan, S.; Chen, G.

    2015-12-10

    The ICRF heating system on EAST upgraded by active cooling aims for long pulse operation. In this paper, the main technical features of the ICRF system are described. One of a major challenges for long pulse operation is RF-edge interactions induced impurity production and heat loading. In EAST, ICRF antenna protections and Faraday screen bars damaged due to LH electron beam are found. Preliminary results for the analysis of the interaction between LHCD and ICRF antenna are discussed. Increase of metal impurities in the plasma during RF pulse and in a larger core radiation are also shown. These RF-edge interactions at EAST and some preliminary results for the optimizing RF performance will be presented.

  18. A TEM-horn antenna with dielectric lens for fast impulse response

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    We designed and constructed a pair of TEM-horn antennas specifically for the very fast time-domain boresight response. Two physical topologies were made. A printed-board configuration has much slower transient response, which we think is due to pulse-smearing of the antenna currents in the dielectric substrate of the printed wiring boards. The solid state version has a 20 ps transition duration response in the main beam endfire (boresight) direction, which is the fastest we have seen to date. And since the antenna has a round trip antenna current propagation time of 6 ns, it offers clean radiated electromagnetic field measurement capability with a clear time of several nanoseconds. The printed board version has resistive loading at the aperture end of the conductors, which should offer better low- frequency performance. The dielectric lens certainly does improve the transient performance of the TEM horn, and was simple to design.

  19. On the Use of EBG in ICRF and LH Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadamuz, S.; Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.

    2009-11-01

    High impedance surfaces or electromagnetic band gap (EBG) surfaces have proved themselves to be useful in wireless communications applications due to their unique characteristics such as no propagating surface wave support, no conduction of RF current for a given bandwidth, in-phase electromagnetic reflection and non-inverted image of the electric charge in front of them [1]. These characteristics make possible to design compact antennas achieving better performance in terms of radiation and input impedance. ICRF and LH antennas in plasma experiments can take advantage of using EBG surfaces. One of the main issues in ICRF plasma heating is the low power coupling of the plasma facing antenna. The adoption of EBG surfaces in the ICRF antenna structure and the advantages offered by a predictive designing tool as TOPICA [2] offer the possibility to improve significantly the coupled power to plasma. The adoption of EBG surfaces in the LH waveguides permits to reduce the major dimension of waveguides not affecting drastically the propagation [3]. It is then possible to manufacture more compact LH arrays of waveguides.

  20. ICRF performance with Metallic Plasma Facing Components: Revenge of the Sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukitch, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is expected to provide auxiliary heating for ITER and future fusion reactors where high Z metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) are envisioned. The advantages of ICRF heating is the availability of relatively inexpensive high power sources and it can directly heat ions. For coupling, the antenna needs to be close to the plasma and antenna operation can be limited by compatibility (impurity generation, density production and erosion). Utilizing high Z PFCs, control of ICRF generated impurities becomes more important because the acceptable fractional high Z material concentration in the plasma is of order 1000 times less than low Z materials. In addition, low Z coatings applied in-situ, ie boronization, is often utilized to mitigate the high Z impurities in the plasma. However, erosion of these typically thin, low Z coatings will limit their effective lifetime. In Alcator C-Mod, we have investigated the compatibility of high power ICRF heating with high performance plasmas and high-Z PFCs with and without boronization. With boronization, record C-Mod stored energy and world record plasma pressures were achieved with 5.25 MW of injected ICRF power. However, impurity control through boronization is temporary and boronization appears to erode 3-5 times faster with ICRF compared with Ohmic H-modes. Experimental evidence suggests that RF-enhanced sheaths on open field lines are responsible for enhanced erosion and impurity influx. Utilizing localized boronization, we have determined that the primary impurity source is outside the divertor and we demonstrated that the erosion location is linked to the active antenna. Furthermore, we observed that erosion rate associated with ICRF heating was unaffected by the heating scenario's single pass absorption. Using a 3-D antenna code coupled to a full wave solver we will present the influence antenna geometry has upon sheaths and possible mitigation strategies.

  1. Observation of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) wave-packet propagation in a tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.; Gould, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    Experimental observation of ICRF wave-packet propagation in a tokamak plasma is reported. Studies were carried out in the Caltech Research Tokamak in a pure hydrogen plasma and in a regime where fast-wave damping was sufficiently small to permit multiple toroidal transits of the wave-packet. Waves were launched by exciting a small loop antenna with a short burst of rf current and were detected with shielded magnetic probes. Probe scans revealed a large increase in wave-packet amplitude at smaller minor radii, and the packet velocity was found to be independent of radial position. Measurement of the packet transit time yielded direct information about the wave group velocity. Packet velocity was investigated as a function of the fundamental excitation frequency, plasma density, and toroidal magnetic field. Results are compared with the predictions of a cold plasma model which includes a vacuum layer at the edge. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  2. MW-scale ICRF plasma heating using IGBT switches in a multi-pulse scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Be'ery, I.; Kogan, K.; Seemann, O.

    2015-06-01

    Solid-state silicon switches are cheap and reliable option for 1-10 MHz RF power sources, required for plasma ion cyclotron RF heating (ICRF). The large `on' resistance of MOSFET and similar devices limits their power delivery to a few tens of kW per switch. Low resistivity devices, such as IGBT, suffer from large `off' switching time, which limits their useful frequency range and increases the power dissipated in the switch. Here we demonstrate more than 0.8 MW circulated RF power at 2 MHz using only three high voltage IGBT switches. The circuit uses the fast `on' switching capability of the IGBTs to generate high-Q pulse train. This operation mode also simplifies the measurement of RF coupling between the antenna and the plasma.

  3. Numerical solutions of ICRF fields in axisymmetric mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.W.

    1985-07-01

    The results of a new numerical code called GARFIELD (Grumman Aerospace Rf Field code) that calculates ICRF Fields in axisymmetric mirror geometry (such as the central cell of a tandem mirror or an RF test stand) are presented. The code solves the electromagnetic wave equation using a cold plasma dispersion relation with a small collision frequency to simulate absorption. The purpose of the calculation is to examine how ICRF wave structure and propagation is effected by the axial variation of the magnetic field in a mirror for various antenna designs. In the code the wave equation is solved in flux coordinates using a finite element method. This should allow more complex dielectric tensors to be modeled in the future. The resulting matrix is solved iteratively, to maximize the allowable size of the spatial grid. Results for a typical antenna array in a simple mirror will be shown.

  4. Power Compensation for ICRF Heating in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Chengming; Mao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Yanping; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Xinjun

    2016-08-01

    The source system covering a working frequency range of 24 MHz to 70 MHz with a total maximum output power of 12 MW has already been fabricated for Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating in EAST from 2012. There are two continuous wave (CW) antennas consisting of four launching elements each fed by a separate 1.5 MW transmitter. Due to the strong mutual coupling among the launching elements, the injection power for launching elements should be imbalance to keep the k‖ (parallel wave number) spectrum of the launcher symmetric for ICRF heating. Cross power induced by the mutual coupling will also induce many significant issues, such as an uncontrollable phase of currents in launching elements, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and impedance mismatching. It is necessary to develop a power compensation system for antennas to keep the power balance between the feed points. The power balance system consists of two significant parts: a decoupler and phase control. The decoupler helps to achieve ports isolation to make the differential phase controllable and compensate partly cross power. After that, the differential phase of 0 or π will keep the power balance of two feed points completely. The first power compensation system consisting of four decouplers was assembled and tested for the port B antenna at the working frequency of 35 MHz. With the application of the power compensation system, the power balance, phase feedback control, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) had obviously been improved in the 2015 EAST campaign. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2015GB101001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11575237, 11375235, 11375236)

  5. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor.

    PubMed

    Leipold, F; Furtula, V; Salewski, M; Bindslev, H; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Moseev, D; Nielsen, S K; Stejner, M

    2009-09-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic using gyrotrons operated at 60 GHz will meet the requirements for spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the velocity distributions of confined fast alphas in ITER by evaluating the scattered radiation (CTS signal). While a receiver antenna on the low field side of the tokamak, resolving near perpendicular (to the magnetic field) velocity components, has been enabled, an additional antenna on the high field side (HFS) would enable measurements of near parallel (to the magnetic field) velocity components. A compact design solution for the proposed mirror system on the HFS is presented. The HFS CTS antenna is located behind the blankets and views the plasma through the gap between two blanket modules. The viewing gap has been modified to dimensions 30x500 mm(2) to optimize the CTS signal. A 1:1 mock-up of the HFS mirror system was built. Measurements of the beam characteristics for millimeter-waves at 60 GHz used in the mock-up agree well with the modeling.

  6. ICRF array module development and optimization for high power density

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.M.; Swain, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the analysis and optimization of the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Antenna Array for the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The objectives of this effort were to: (1) minimize the applied radiofrequency rf voltages occurring in vacuum by proper layout and shape of components, limit the component`s surface/volumes where the rf voltage is high; (2) study the effects of magnetic insulation, as applied to the current design; (3) provide electrical characteristics of the antenna for the development and analysis of tuning, arc detection/suppression, and systems for discriminating between arcs and edge-localized modes (ELMs); (4) maintain close interface with mechanical design.

  7. RF-sheath assessment of ICRF Faraday Screens

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.

    2007-09-28

    The line-integrated parallel RF electric field {delta}V{sub RF} is studied on 'long field lines' radially in front of an ICRF antenna closed by a Faraday screen (FS). Several issues are addressed analytically and numerically. To what extent is a FS necessary to shield {delta}V{sub RF} in presence of magnetized plasma, depending on strap phasing? How efficient is it as a function of FS misalignment on tilted magnetic field? Can a FS attenuate {delta}V{sub RF} produced on antenna frame?.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of ICRF discharge initiation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripský, M.; Wauters, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Křivská, A.; Louche, F.; Van Schoor, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    Discharges produced and sustained by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves in absence of plasma current will be used on ITER for (ion cyclotron-) wall conditioning (ICWC). The here presented simulations aim at ensuring that the ITER ICRH&CD system can be safely employed for ICWC and at finding optimal parameters to initiate the plasma. The 1D Monte Carlo code RFdinity1D3V was developed to simulate ICRF discharge initiation. The code traces the electron motion along one toroidal magnetic field line, accelerated by the RF field in front of the ICRF antenna. Electron collisions in the calculations are handled by a Monte Carlo procedure taking into account their energies and the related electron collision cross sections for collisions with H2, H2+ and H+. The code also includes Coulomb collisions between electrons and ions (e - e, e - H2+ , e - H+). We study the electron multiplication rate as a function of the RF discharge parameters (i) antenna input power (0.1-5MW), and (ii) the neutral pressure (H2) for two antenna phasing (monopole [0000]-phasing and small dipole [0π0π]-phasing). Furthermore, we investigate the electron multiplication rate dependency on the distance from the antenna straps. This radial dependency results from the decreasing electric amplitude and field smoothening with increasing distance from the antenna straps. The numerical plasma breakdown definition used in the code corresponds to the moment when a critical electron density nec for the low hybrid resonance (ω = ωLHR) is reached. This numerical definition was previously found in qualitative agreement with experimental breakdown times obtained from the literature and from experiments on the ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR.

  9. Design Concepts For A Long Pulse Upgrade For The DIII-D Fast Wave Antenna Array

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Philip Michael; Baity Jr, F Wallace; Caughman, John B; Goulding, Richard Howell; Hosea, J.; Greenough, Nevell; Nagy, Alex; Pinsker, R.; Rasmussen, David A

    2009-01-01

    A goal in the 5-year plan for the fast wave program on DIII-D is to couple a total of 3.6 MW of RF power into a long pulse, H-mode plasma for central electron heating. The present short-pulse 285/300 antenna array would need to be replaced with one capable of at least 1.2 MW, 10 s operation at 60 MHz into an H-mode (low resistive loading) plasma condition. The primary design under consideration uses a poloidally-segmented strap (3 sections) for reduced strap voltage near the plasma/Faraday screen region. Internal capacitance makes the antenna structure self-resonant at 60 MHz, strongly reducing peak E-fields in the vacuum coax and feed throughs.

  10. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, T. Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G.; Shinya, T.

    2015-12-10

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.

  11. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutoh, T.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; , T., Ii; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G.; Shinya, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 1019 m-3, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 1019 m-3.

  12. Modification of Sawtooth Oscillations with ICRF Waves in the JET Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Alper, B.; Buttery, R.; Howell, D.; Kiptily, V.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Sharapov, S. E.; Coda, S.; Graves, J. P.; Sauter, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Lennholm, M.; Ingesson, L. C.; Nabais, F.; Nave, F.

    2007-09-28

    Methods of modifying sawtooth oscillations using waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) in the JET tokamak are presented. Examples of sawtooth stabilization by ICRF-accelerated high-energy ions are shown, including experiments with ICRF-acceleration of {sup 4}He-beam ions to simulate the effects of fusion born alpha particles. With high power ICRF heating in low-density plasmas, fast ion stabilization of sawteeth is lost and a new type of small-period and small-amplitude sawteeth appears. ICRF-induced radial pinch with toroidally asymmetric waves is found to be useful in affecting the radial profile of the ICRF-driven fast ion populations and thereby their influence on sawteeth. Ion cyclotron current drive (ICCD) applied close to the sawtooth inversion radius is effective in modifying the sawtooth period. The latest achievements include the successful application of ICCD to shorten the fast-ion-induced long-period sawteeth and thereby avoid triggering of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs)

  13. Experimental Study of RF Sheath Formation on a Fast Wave Antenna and Limiter in the LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; van Compernolle, Bart; Carter, Troy

    2015-11-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will be an essential component of heating power in ITER. During ICRH, radio frequency (RF) sheaths may form both at the exciting antenna and further away, e.g. in the divertor region, and may cause wall material sputtering and decreased RF power coupling to the plasma. It is important to do detailed laboratory experiments that fully diagnose the sheaths and wave fields. This is not possible in fusion devices. A new RF system has recently been constructed for performing such studies in the LAPD plasma column (ne ~1012 -1013cm-3 , Te ~ 1 - 10 eV ,B0 ~ 400 - 2000 G , diameter ~ 60cm , length ~ 18 m) . The RF system is capable of pulsing at the 1 Hz rep. rate of the LAPD plasma and operating between 2-6 MHz (1st - 9th harmonic of fci in H) with a power output of 200 kW. First results of this system driving a single-strap fast wave antenna will be presented. Emissive and Langmuir probe measurements in the vicinity of both the antenna and a remote limiter and wave coupling measured by magnetic pickup loops will be presented.

  14. ICRF Specific Plasma Wall Interactions in JET with the ITER-Like Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Bobkov, V.; Arnoux, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Colas, L.; Clever, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Braun, F.; Dux, R.; Huber, Alexander; Lerche, E.; Maggi, C.; Marcotte, F.; Maslov, M.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Meigs, A. G.; Monakhov, I.; Putterich, Th.; Rimini, F.; Rooj, G. Van; Sergienko, G.; Van Eester, D.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of plasma wall interactions (PWIs) during operation of the so-called A2 ICRF antennas is observed in JET with the ITER-like wall. Amongst effects of the PWIs, the W content increase is the most significant, especially at low plasma densities. No increase of W source from the main divertor and entrance of the outer divertor during ICRF compared to NBI phases was found by means of spectroscopic and WI (400.9 nm) imaging diagnostics. In contrary, the W flux there is higher during NBI. Charge exchange neutrals of hydrogen isotopes could be excluded as considerable contributors to the W source. The high W content in ICRF heated limiter discharges suggests the possibility of other W sources than the divertor alone. Dependencies of PWIs to individual ICRF antennas during q95-scans, and intensification of those for the 90 phasing, indicate a link between the PWIs and the antenna near-fields. The PWIs include heat loads and Be sputtering pattern on antenna limiters. Indications of some PWIs at the outer divertor entrance are observed which do not result in higher W flux compared to the NBI phases, but are characterized by small antenna-specific (up to 25% with respect to ohmic phases) bipolar variations of WI emission. The first TOPICA calculations show a particularity of the A2 antennas compared to the ITER antenna, due to the presence of long antenna limiters in the RF image current loop and thus high near-fields across the most part of the JET outer wall.

  15. Modeling and simulation support for ICRF heating of fusion plasmas. Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-15

    Recent experimental, theoretical and computational results have shown the need and usefulness of a combined approach to the design, analysis and evaluation of ICH antenna configurations. The work at the University of Wisconsin (UW) in particular has shown that much needed information on the vacuum operation of ICH antennas can be obtained by a modest experimental and computational effort. These model experiments at UW and SAIC simulations have shown dramatically the potential for positive impact upon the ICRF program. Results of the UW-SAIC joint ICRF antenna analysis effort have been presented at several international meetings and numerous meetings in the United States. The PPPL bay M antenna has been modeled using the ARGUS code. The results of this effort are shown in Appendix C. SAIC has recently begun a collaboration with the ICRF antenna design and analysis group at ORNL. At present there are two separate projects underway. The first is associated with the simulation of and determination of the effect of adding slots in the antenna septum and side walls. The second project concerns the modeling and simulation of the ORNL folded waveguide (FWG) concept.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of initial breakdown phase for magnetised toroidal ICRF discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Tripský, M.; Van Oost, G.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team; TEXTOR Team

    2014-02-12

    The radio-frequency (RF) plasma production technique in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) attracts growing attention among fusion experts because of its high potential for solving several basic problems of reactor-oriented superconducting fusion machines, such as ICRF wall conditioning in tokamaks and stellarators (T{sub e} = 3−5eV, n{sub e}<10{sup 12}cm{sup −3}), ICRF-assisted tokamak start-up and target plasma production (n{sub e} = 10{sup 13}cm{sup −3}) in stellarators. Plasma initiation by ICRF has been studied intensively using single particle descriptions and basic analytic models. To further improve the present understanding on plasma production employing the vacuum RF field of ICRF antennas in toroidal devices in presence of the toroidal magnetic field, and its parametric dependencies a Monte Carlo code has been developed. The 1D code RFdinity1D describes the motion of electrons, accelerated by the RF field in front of the ICRF antenna, along one toroidal magnetic field line. Dependent on their individual energies and the related electron collision cross sections (ionisation, excitation and dissociation) weighted by a Monte Carlo procedure, an electron avalanche may occur. Breakdown conditions are discussed as function of RF discharge parameters (i) RF vacuum electric field strength, (ii) RF frequency and (iii) neutral pressure (H2). The slope of the exponential density increase, taken as measure for the breakdown speed, shows qualitative agreement to experimental breakdown times as found in literature and experimental data of the ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR tokamak, and is interpreted by studying the characteristic electron velocity distribution functions.

  17. Trends of W behavior in ICRF assisted discharges in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Sertoli, M.

    2015-08-01

    During Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) operation with metallic plasma facing components, plasma wall interaction processes are modified, which needs to be understood in order to reduce the ICRF-related rise in impurity concentration and maximize ICRF coupling. This contribution is focused on gathering and analyzing a database on W-behavior during ICRF spanning a multi-parameter space. The gas puff dependence is investigated in selected pulses that feature the injection of deuterium (D2) main gas, with impurity gas nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar) and krypton (Kr). CW was found to decrease with the total gas injection rate, which was also correlated with the changes of electron density in the location of the CW measurements. Although the addition of N2, Ar and Kr impacted on the increase in sputtering, to achieve a similar CW level with mixed puffing, one needs to inject considerably more gas. Moreover, CW is shown to change after implementation of boron coatings on the ICRF antenna limiters.

  18. Characterisation of the Sub-Harmonic Arc Detection System on JET ITER-Like Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, P.; Blackman, T.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nightingale, M.

    2009-11-26

    A Sub-Harmonic Arc Detection (SHAD) system has been installed on the transmission lines feeding the JET ICRF ITER-like-Antenna (ILA). Along with the commissioning of SHAD, extensive measurements of the RF field in the transmission lines were carried-out using fast sampling (125 Mb/s) oscilloscopes. The system is described, and the SHAD ability to detect arcs during ILA operation (in particular on ELMy H modes) is discussed. Overall, SHAD proved to be efficient, and in some conditions it can offer extra protection in complement to other arc detection systems.

  19. Global gyrokinetic particle simulation of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes excited by antenna and fast ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Holod, Ihor; Lin, Zhihong; Xiao, Yong

    2012-02-01

    Linear properties of toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) is studied in global gyrokinetic particle simulations using both fast ion and antenna excitations. A synthetic antenna provides a precise measurement of the Alfvén continuum gap width and the TAE eigenmode frequency, damping rate, and mode structures. The measured gap width exhibits a linear dependence on the aspect ratio, in agreement to a local analytic theory. The TAE frequency and mode structure excited by fast ions show a significant radial symmetry breaking relative to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory due to the non-perturbative contributions from the fast ions. The electromagnetic capability of the global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is verified through these global gyrokinetic simulations of Alfvén eigenmode in cylindrical and toroidal geometries.

  20. Potential Refinement of the ICRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chopo

    The ICRF analysis and data represented the state of the art in global extragalactic X/S band microwave astrometry in 1995. Similar analysis has been used to extend the ICRF with subsequent data consistent with the original catalog. Since 1995 there have been considerable advances in the geodetic/astrometric VLBI data set and analysis that would significantly improve the systematic errors stability and density of the next realization of the ICRS when the decision is made to take this step. In particular data acquired since 1990 including extensive use of the VLBA are of higher quality and astrometric utility because of changes in instrumentation schedule design and networks as well as specifically astrometric intent. The IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry) continues a systematic extension of the astrometric data set. Sufficient data distribution exists to select a better set of defining sources. Improvements in troposphere modeling will minimize known systematic astrometric errors while accurate modeling and estimation of station effects from loading and nonlinear motions should permit the reintegration of the celestial and terrestrial reference frames with Earth orientation parameters though a single VLBI solution. The differences between the current ICRF and the potential second realization will be described

  1. Potential refinement of the ICRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2005-01-01

    The ICRF analysis and data represented the state of the art in global extragalactic X/S band microwave astrometry in 1995. Similar analysis has been used to extend the ICRF with subsequent data consistent with the original catalog. Since 1995 there have been considerable advances in the geodetic/astrometric VLBI data set and analysis that would significantly improve the systematic errors stability and density of the next realization of the ICRS when the decision is made to take this step. In particular data acquired since 1990 including extensive use of the VLBA are of higher quality and astrometric utility because of changes in instrumentation schedule design and networks as well as specifically astrometric intent. The IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry) continues a systematic extension of the astrometric data set. Sufficient data distribution exists to select a better set of defining sources. Improvements in troposphere modeling will minimize known systematic astrometric errors while accurate modeling and estimation of station effects from loading and nonlinear motions should permit the reintegration of the celestial and terrestrial reference frames with Earth orientation parameters though a single VLBI solution. The differences between the current ICRF and the potential second realization will be described.

  2. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract [number sign]DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  3. Fast terahertz optoelectronic amplitude modulator based on plasmonic metamaterial antenna arrays and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessop, David S.; Sol, Christian W. O.; Xiao, Long; Kindness, Stephen J.; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Lin, Hungyen; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Ren, Yuan; Kamboj, Varun S.; Hofmann, Stephan; Zeitler, J. Axel; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    The growing interest in terahertz (THz) technologies in recent years has seen a wide range of demonstrated applications, spanning from security screening, non-destructive testing, gas sensing, to biomedical imaging and communication. Communication with THz radiation offers the advantage of much higher bandwidths than currently available, in an unallocated spectrum. For this to be realized, optoelectronic components capable of manipulating THz radiation at high speeds and high signal-to-noise ratios must be developed. In this work we demonstrate a room temperature frequency dependent optoelectronic amplitude modulator working at around 2 THz, which incorporates graphene as the tuning medium. The architecture of the modulator is an array of plasmonic dipole antennas surrounded by graphene. By electrostatically doping the graphene via a back gate electrode, the reflection characteristics of the modulator are modified. The modulator is electrically characterized to determine the graphene conductivity and optically characterization, by THz time-domain spectroscopy and a single-mode 2 THz quantum cascade laser, to determine the optical modulation depth and cut-off frequency. A maximum optical modulation depth of ~ 30% is estimated and is found to be most (least) sensitive when the electrical modulation is centered at the point of maximum (minimum) differential resistivity of the graphene. A 3 dB cut-off frequency > 5 MHz, limited only by the area of graphene on the device, is reported. The results agree well with theoretical calculations and numerical simulations, and demonstrate the first steps towards ultra-fast, graphene based THz optoelectronic devices.

  4. ICRF Wall Conditioning: Present Status and Developments for Future Superconducting Fusion Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lyssoivan, A.; Koch, R.; Van Eester, D.; Vervier, M.; Louche, F.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.; Paul, M. K.; Van Schoor, M.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Weynants, R.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Esser, H. G.; Laengner, R.; Marchuk, O.; Schmitz, O.; Unterberg, B.; Rohde, V.

    2009-11-26

    ITER and future superconducting fusion machines need efficient wall conditioning techniques for routine operation in between shots in the presence of permanent high magnetic field for wall cleaning, surface isotope exchange and to control the in-vessel long term tritium retention. Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) based on the ICRF discharge is fully compatible and needs the presence of the magnetic field. The present paper focuses on the principal aspects of the ICWC discharge performance in large-size fusion machines: (i) neutral gas RF breakdown with conventional ICRF heating antennas, (ii) antenna coupling with low density ({approx}10{sup 17} m{sup -3}) RF plasmas and (iii) ICWC scenarios with improved RF plasma homogeneity in the radial and poloidal directions. All these factors were identified as crucial to achieve an enhanced conditioning effect (e.g. removal rates of selected 'marker' masses). All the observed effects are analyzed in terms of RF plasma wave excitation/absorption and compared with the predictions from 1-D RF full wave and 0-D RF plasma codes. Numerical modeling and empirical extrapolation from the existing machines give good evidence for the feasibility of using ICWC in ITER with the main ICRF antenna.

  5. Impact of localized gas injection on ICRF coupling and SOL parameters in JET-ILW H-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, E.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, P.; Van Eester, D.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Crombe, K.; Graham, M.; Groth, M.; Monakhov, I.; Mathurin, T.; Matthews, G.; Meneses, L.; Noble, C.; Petrzilka, V.; Rimini, F.; Shaw, A.

    2015-08-01

    Recent JET-ILW [1,2] experiments reiterated the importance of tuning the plasma fuelling in order to optimize ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating in high power H-mode discharges. By fuelling the plasma from gas injection modules (GIMs) located in the mid-plane and on the top of the machine instead of adopting the more standardly used divertor GIMs, a considerable increase of the ICRF antenna coupling resistances was achieved with moderate gas injection rates (<1.5 × 1022 e/s). This effect is explained by an increase of the scrape-off-layer density in front of the antennas when mid-plane and top fuelling is used. By distributing the gas injection to optimize the coupling of all ICRF antenna arrays simultaneously, a substantial increase in the ICRF power capability and reliability was attained. Although similar core/pedestal plasma properties were observed for the different injection cases, the experiments indicate that the RF-induced impurity sources are reduced when switching from divertor to main chamber gas injection.

  6. Progress in controlling ICRF-edge interactions in ASDEX upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bobkov, Vl. Ochoukov, R.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Carralero, D.; Dux, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Lunt, T.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, Th.; Jacquet, Ph.; Monakhov, I.; Zhang, W.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Stepanov, I.; Colas, L.; Meyer, O.; Czarnecka, A.; and others

    2015-12-10

    RF measurements during variation of the strap voltage balance of the original 2-strap ICRF antenna in ASDEX Upgrade at constant power are consistent with electromagnetic calculations by HFSS and TOPICA, more so for the latter. RF image current compensation is observed at the antenna limiters in the experiment at a local strap voltage of about half of the value of the remote strap, albeit with a non-negligible uncertainty in phasing. The RF-specific tungsten (W) source at the broad-limiter 2-strap antenna correlates strongly with the RF voltage at the local strap at the locations not connected to opposite side of the antenna along magnetic field lines. The trends of the observed increase of the RF loading with injection of local gas are well described by a combined EMC3-Eirene – FELICE calculations, with the most efficient improvement confirmed for the outer-midplane valves, but underestimated by about 1/3. The corresponding deuterium density tailoring is also likely responsible for the decrease of local W sources observed in the experiment.

  7. The ICRF-3: Proposed Roadmap to the Next Generation International Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Arias, F.; Boboltz, D.; Boehm, J.; Bolotin, S.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; de Witt, A.; Fey, A.; Gaume, R.; Gordon, D.; Heinkelmann, R.; Lambert, S.; Ma, C.; Malkin, Z.; Nothnagel, A.; Seitz, M.; Skurikhina, E.; Souchay, J.; Titov, O.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a 3rd generation radio-based International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF- 3) to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverages relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames early enough to test the Gaia optical frame during its construction. Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration has been started to improve S/X-band precision of the 2000+ VLBA Calibrator Survey sources which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2. S/X-band southern precision improvements are planned from observations with southern antennas such as the AuScope and HartRAO, S. Africa. We seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka and K- band work. An X/Ka frame of 631 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which should strengthen the southern hemisphere in general. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. On the analysis front, special attention will be given to combination techniques both of VLBI catalogs and of multiple data types (e.g. VLBI+GPS). Finally, work is underway to identify and pinpoint sources bright enough in both radio and optical to allow for a robust frame tie between VLBI and Gaia optical frames.

  8. ICRF heating in a straight, helically symmetric stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, E.F.; Weitzner, H.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1987-07-01

    Experimental observations of direct ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heating at fundamental ion cyclotron resonance on the L-2 stellarator have stimulated interest in the theoretical basis for such heating. In this paper, global solutions for the ICRF wave fields in a helically symmetric, straight stellarator are calculated in the cold plasma limit. The component of the wave electric field parallel to B-vector is assumed zero. Helical symmetry allows Fourier decomposition in the longitudinal (z) direction. The two remaining partial differential equations in tau and phi identical to THETA - hz (h is the helical pitch) are solved by finite differencing. Energy absorption and antenna impedance are calculated from an ad hoc collision model. Results for parameters typical of the L-2 and Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) stellarators show that direct resonant absorption of the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance occurs mainly near the plasma edge. The magnitude of the absorption is about half that for minority heating at the two-ion hybrid resonance.

  9. Traveling wave antenna for fast wave heating and current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Ikezi, H.; Phelps, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The traveling wave antenna for heating and current drive in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is shown theoretically to have loading and wavenumber spectrum which are largely independent of plasma conditions. These characteristics have been demonstrated in low power experiments on the DIII-D tokamak, in which a standard four-strap antenna was converted to a traveling wave antenna through use of external coupling elements. The experiments indicate that the array maintains good impedance matching without dynamic tuning during abrupt changes in the plasma, such as during L- to H-mode transitions, edge localized mode activity, and disruptions. An analytic model was developed which exhibits the features observed in the experiments. Guidelines for the design of traveling wave antennas are derived from the validated model.

  10. Optical counterpart of ICRF: HIPPARCOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegren, L.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    The Hipparcos reference frame is defined by the positions and proper motions of nearly 118,000 stars given in the Hipparcos Catalogue. It is the optical counterpart of the International Celestial Reference Frame defined by the radio positions of extragalactic sources. The presentation gives a summary of the intrinsic properties of the Hipparcos reference frame, while its relation to the ICRF is discussed separately by J.~Kovalevsky. Median standard errors for stars brighter than 9~mag are around 0.8~mas in position at the catalogue epoch (J1991.25) and 0.9~ mas/yr in proper motion. The quality of the optical reference frame depends also on less easily quantified characteristics of the catalogue data, such as the uniformity and consistency of the astrometric data, the existence of temporal and spatial correlations, and the effects of unresolved binaries. The format of the Hipparcos Catalogue and its availability on different media are summarised.

  11. Two frequency ICRF heating of D-T plasmas on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.H.; Majeski, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.; Ho, Y.L.; Raman, S.; Rasmussen, D.A.

    1993-11-01

    Modifications have been made to allow two of the ICRF antennas (bays L and M) on TFTR to operate at either of two frequencies, 43 MHz or 64 MHz. This was accomplished by lengthening the resonant loops feeding the antennas (2{lambda} at 43 MHz, 3{lambda} at 64 MHz) and replacing the conventional quarter wave impedance transformers with a tapered impedance design. The other two antennas (bays K and N) will operate at a fixed frequency, 43 MHz. The two frequency operation allows a combination of {sup 3}He-minority (or T second harmonic) and H-minority heating at full toroidal field on TFIR. Multiple frequency operation may also be useful in direct electron heating and current drive experiments. Other modifications have been made which are expected to permit arbitrary phasing between the current straps on bays M and L. The system design of the antenna, resonant loops and impedance matching system as well as preliminary TFTR results are discussed.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet proximity lithography for fast, flexible and parallel fabrication of infrared antennas.

    PubMed

    Kunkemöller, Georg; Mass, Tobias W W; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Kim, Hyun-Su; Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Taubner, Thomas; Juschkin, Larissa

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for fabrication of large arrays of nano-antennas using extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) illumination. A discharge-produced plasma source generating EUV radiation around 10.88 nm wavelength is used for the illumination of a photoresist via a mask in a proximity printing setup. The method of metallic nanoantennas fabrication utilizes a bilayer photoresist and employs a lift-off process. The impact of Fresnel-diffraction of EUV light in the mask on a shape of the nanostructures has been investigated. It is shown how by the use of the same rectangular apertures in the transmission mask, antennas of various shapes can be fabricated. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectra of antennas reflectivity were measured and compared to FDTD simulations demonstrating good agreement.

  13. Extreme ultraviolet proximity lithography for fast, flexible and parallel fabrication of infrared antennas.

    PubMed

    Kunkemöller, Georg; Mass, Tobias W W; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Kim, Hyun-Su; Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Taubner, Thomas; Juschkin, Larissa

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for fabrication of large arrays of nano-antennas using extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) illumination. A discharge-produced plasma source generating EUV radiation around 10.88 nm wavelength is used for the illumination of a photoresist via a mask in a proximity printing setup. The method of metallic nanoantennas fabrication utilizes a bilayer photoresist and employs a lift-off process. The impact of Fresnel-diffraction of EUV light in the mask on a shape of the nanostructures has been investigated. It is shown how by the use of the same rectangular apertures in the transmission mask, antennas of various shapes can be fabricated. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectra of antennas reflectivity were measured and compared to FDTD simulations demonstrating good agreement. PMID:26480066

  14. Radiation Loss and Impurity Abundance during ICRF Heating in the JIPP T-IIU Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Isamu; Kawahata, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watari, Tetsuo; Noda, Nobuaki; Masai, Kuniaki; Kako, Eiji; Tanahashi, Shyugo; Toi, Kazuo; Fujita, Junji

    1987-02-01

    Spectroscopic and bolometric measurements with spatial and temporal resolution show that large radiation loss brings about the decrease in electron and ion temperature and plasma energy. Regarding emissivity in a core plasma, the result by bolometric measurements well agrees with that estimated from impurity abundance and radiative cooling rates. Carbon limiters have an effect to suppress the radiation loss for Ohmic plasma, but is insufficient for ICRF heated plasma. The main contribution to radiation loss may be attributed to Fe impurity released from the ICRF antennae, the Faraday shield and vacuum vessel. By making carbonization, the Fe impurity is suppressed to a low level (nFe/ne˜0.03%) and the radiation loss is reduced to Prad/(POH+Pfr)˜20%. This clearly supported by the observation of Zeff (3.9→1.2).

  15. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Milanesio, D. Maggiora, R.

    2015-12-10

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.

  16. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.

  17. Extending the ICRF to Higher Radio Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Jones, D. L.; Lanyi, G. E.; Lowe, S. T.; Naudet, C. J.; Resch, G. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Zhang, L. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Taylor, G. B.

    2002-01-01

    The ICRF forms the basis for all astrometry including use as the inertial coordinate system for navigating deep space missions. This frame was defined using S/X-band observations over the past 20+ years. In January 2002, the VLBA approved our proposal for observing time to extend the ICRF to K-band (24 GHz) and Q-band (43 GHz). The first step will be observations at K- and Q-bands on a subset of ICRF sources. Eventually, K- and Q-band multi-epoch observations will be used to estimate positions, flux density and source structure for a large fraction of the current S/X-band ICRF source list. This work will benefit the radio astronomy community by extending the VLBA calibrator list at these bands. In the longer term, we would also like to extend the ICRF to Ka-band (32 GHz). A celestial reference frame will be needed at this frequency to support deep space navigation. A navigation demonstration is being considered for NASA's Mars 2005 mission. The initial K- and Q-band work will serve to identify candidate sources at Ka-band for use with that mission.

  18. Slow Wave Excitation in the ICRF and HHFW Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. K.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Valeo, E. J.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Ryan, P. M.; Smithe, D. N.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical considerations and high spatial resolution numerical simulations of radio frequency (rf) wave heating in tokamaks and in spherical toruses (ST) indicate that fast waves launched into tokamaks in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) or into spherical toruses in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime may excite a short wavelength slow mode inside of the plasma discharge due to the presence of hot electrons that satisfy the condition ω

  19. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling. Progress report, March 15, 1988--May 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract {number_sign}DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  20. Recent Developments in High-Harmonic Fast Wave Physics in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. LeBlanc, R.E. Bell, P. Bonoli, R. Harvey, W.W. Heidbrink, J.C. Hosea, S.M. Kaye, D. Liu, R. Maingi, S.S. Medley, M. Ono, M. Podestà, C.K. Phillips, P.M. Ryan, A.L. Roquemore, G. Taylor, J.R. Wilson and the NSTX Team

    2010-10-06

    Understanding the interaction between ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves and the fast-ions created by neutral beam injection (NBI) is critical for future devices such as ITER, which rely on a combination ICRF and NBI. Experiments in NSTX which use 30 MHz High-Harmonic Fast-Wave (HHFW) ICRF and NBI heating show a competition between electron heating via Landau damping and transit-time magnetic pumping, and radio-frequency wave acceleration of NBI generated fast ions. Understanding and mitigating some of the power loss mechanisms outside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) has resulted in improved HHFW heating inside the LCFS. Nevertheless a significant fraction of the HHFW power is diverted away from the enclosed plasma. Part of this power is observed locally on the divertor. Experimental observations point toward the radio-frequency (RF) excitation of surface waves, which disperse wave power outside the LCFS, as a leading loss mechanism. Lithium coatings lower the density at the antenna, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the antenna and surrounding material surfaces. Visible and infrared imaging reveal flows of RF power along open field lines into the divertor region. In L-mode -- low average NBI power -- conditions, the fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic measures a near doubling and broadening of the density profile of the upper energetic level of the fast ions concurrent with the presence of HHFW power launched with k// =-8m-1. We are able to heat NBI-induced H-mode plasmas with HHFW. The captured power is expected to be split between absorption by the electrons and absorption by the fast ions, based on TORIC calculation. In the case discussed here the Te increases over the whole profile when ~2MW of HHFW power with antenna k// =13m-1 is applied after the H-mode transition.. But somewhat unexpectedly fast-ion diagnostics do not observe a change between the HHFW heated NBI discharge and the

  1. Experimental Investigation of RF Sheath Rectification in ICRF and LH Heated Plasmas on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Faust, I.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Meneghini, O.; Wallace, G.; Wukitch, S.; Myra, J.

    2011-12-23

    Radio frequency (RF) rectification of the plasma sheath is being actively studied on C-Mod as a likely mechanism that leads to prohibitively high molybdenum levels in the plasma core of ion cyclotron RF (ICRF) heated discharges. We installed emissive, ion sensitive, Langmuir, and 3-D B-dot probes to quantify the plasma potentials ({Phi}{sub P}) in ICRF and lower hybrid (LH) heated discharges. Two probe sets were mounted on fixed limiter surfaces and one set of probes was mounted on a reciprocating (along the major radius) probe. Initial results showed that RF rectification is strongly dependent on the local plasma density and not on the local RF fields. The RF sheaths had a threshold-like appearance at the local density of {approx}10{sup 16} m-{sup 3}. Radial probe scans revealed that the RF sheaths peaked in the vicinity of the ICRF limiter surface, agreeing with a recent theory. The highest {Phi}{sub P}'s were observed on magnetic field lines directly mapped to the active ICRF antenna. Measurements in LH heated plasmas showed a strong {Phi}{sub P} dependence on the parallel index of refraction n{sub ||} of the launched LH waves: {Phi}{sub P} is greater at lower n{sub ||}. Little dependence was observed on the local plasma density.

  2. A Fast MoM Solver (GIFFT) for Large Arrays of Microstrip and Cavity-Backed Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B J; Capolino, F; Wilton, D

    2005-02-02

    A straightforward numerical analysis of large arrays of arbitrary contour (and possibly missing elements) requires large memory storage and long computation times. Several techniques are currently under development to reduce this cost. One such technique is the GIFFT (Green's function interpolation and FFT) method discussed here that belongs to the class of fast solvers for large structures. This method uses a modification of the standard AIM approach [1] that takes into account the reusability properties of matrices that arise from identical array elements. If the array consists of planar conducting bodies, the array elements are meshed using standard subdomain basis functions, such as the RWG basis. The Green's function is then projected onto a sparse regular grid of separable interpolating polynomials. This grid can then be used in a 2D or 3D FFT to accelerate the matrix-vector product used in an iterative solver [2]. The method has been proven to greatly reduce solve time by speeding up the matrix-vector product computation. The GIFFT approach also reduces fill time and memory requirements, since only the near element interactions need to be calculated exactly. The present work extends GIFFT to layered material Green's functions and multiregion interactions via slots in ground planes. In addition, a preconditioner is implemented to greatly reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. The general scheme of the GIFFT method is reported in [2]; this contribution is limited to presenting new results for array antennas made of slot-excited patches and cavity-backed patch antennas.

  3. Homogenization in compiling ICRF combined catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, F. J.; Martínez, M. J.; López, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    Context. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) recommendations regarding the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) realizations require the construction of radio sources catalogs obtained using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) methods. The improvement of these catalogs is a necessary procedure for the further densification of the ICRF over the celestial sphere. Aims: The different positions obtained from several catalogs using common sources to the ICRF make it necessary to critically revise the different methods employed in improving the ICRF from several radio sources catalogs. In this sense, a revision of the analytical and the statistical methods is necessary in line with their advantages and disadvantages. We have a double goal: first, we propose an adequate treatment of the residual of several catalogs to obtain a homogeneous catalog; second, we attempt to discern whether a combined catalog is homogeneous. Methods: We define homogeneity as applied to our problem in a dual sense: the first deals with the spatial distribution of the data over the celestial sphere. The second has a statistical meaning, as we consider that homogeneity exists when the residual between a given catalog and the ICRF behaves as a unimodal pure Gaussian. We use a nonparametrical method, which enables us to homogeneously extend the statistical properties of the residual over the entire sphere. This intermediate adjustment allows for subsequent computation of the coefficients for any parametrical adjustment model that has a higher accuracy and greater stability, and it prevents problems related with direct adjustments using the models. On the other hand, the homogeneity of the residuals in a catalog is tested using different weights. Our procedure also serves to propose the most suitable weights to maintain homogeneity in the final results. We perform a test using the ICRF-Ext2, JPL, and USNO quasar catalogs. Results: We show that a combination of catalogs can only

  4. Nuclear analysis for the intor array of loops ICRF launcher module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.

    1985-07-01

    Nuclear analysis for the array of loops ICRF launcher module design of INTOR is presented. The nuclear radiation environment in the different module components is determined. The fast neutron fluence in the BeO radome is 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ after one full power year leading to significant microcracking. Activation calculations for SF/sub 6/ imply a total activity of 5 x 10/sup 4/ Ci at shutdown. Nuclear heating results in a large breakdown rate in SF/sub 6/. A 1.6 m thick nuclear shield is needed to allow for hands-on maintenance one day after shutdown behind the launcher module. The results imply that significant design changes are required for the array of loops ICRF launcher module to stand the severe INTOR nuclear environment.

  5. Fast-wave Power Flow Along SOL Field Lines In NSTX nd The Associated Power Deposition Profile Across The SOL In Front Of The Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Roy

    2013-06-21

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS) as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. Advanced RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER.

  6. Measurement and simulation of ICRF wave intensity with a recalibrated phase contrast imaging diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Edlund, E. M.; Ennever, P. C.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are one of the major tools to heat fusion plasmas. Full-wave simulations are essential to predict the wave propagation and absorption quantitatively, and it is important that these codes be validated against actual experimental measurements. In this work, the absolute intensity of the ICRF waves previously measured with a phase contrast imaging diagnostic was recalibrated and compared once more with full-wave predictions. In the earlier work, significant discrepancies were found between the measured and the simulated mode converted wave intensity [N. Tsujii et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 082508]. With the new calibration of the detector array, the measured mode converted wave intensity is now in much better agreement with the full-wave predictions. The agreement is especially good for comparisons performed close to the antenna.

  7. Measurement and simulation of ICRF wave intensity with a recalibrated phase contrast imaging diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Edlund, E. M.; Ennever, P. C.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2015-12-10

    Waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are one of the major tools to heat fusion plasmas. Full-wave simulations are essential to predict the wave propagation and absorption quantitatively, and it is important that these codes be validated against actual experimental measurements. In this work, the absolute intensity of the ICRF waves previously measured with a phase contrast imaging diagnostic was recalibrated and compared once more with full-wave predictions. In the earlier work, significant discrepancies were found between the measured and the simulated mode converted wave intensity [N. Tsujii et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 082508]. With the new calibration of the detector array, the measured mode converted wave intensity is now in much better agreement with the full-wave predictions. The agreement is especially good for comparisons performed close to the antenna.

  8. Experiments utilizing ICRF heating on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Boivin, R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Greene, G.J.; Hammett, G.W.; Hill, K.W.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Phillips, C.K.; Mansfield, D.K.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Stevens, J.E.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Wong, K.L.; Zarns

    1990-01-01

    A variety of experiments have been performed on the TFTR tokamak utilizing ICFR heating. Of special interest has been the insight into plasma performance gained by utilizing a different heating scheme other than the usual NBI. Utilizing ICRF heating allows control over the power deposition profile independent of the plasma fueling profile. In addition, by varying the minority concentration the power split between ion and electron heating can be varied. Confinement has been examined in high recycling gas fueled discharges, low recycling supershot plasmas, and peaked density pellet fueled discharges. Global confinement is found not to be affected by the method or localization of plasma heating, but the calculated local diffusivities vary with the power deposition profile to yield similar local values. In addition, sawtooth stabilization observed with ICRF heating has been investigated and found to occur in qualitative agreement with theory. ICRF sawtooth stabilized discharges exhibit peaked temperature and density profiles and have a safety factor q which appears to fall well below unity on axis. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Maximization of ICRF power by SOL density tailoring with local gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, P.; Goniche, M.; Bobkov, V.; Lerche, E.; Pinsker, R. I.; Pitts, R. A.; Zhang, W.; Colas, L.; Hosea, J.; Moriyama, S.; Wang, S.-J.; Wukitch, S.; Zhang, X.; Bilato, R.; Bufferand, H.; Guimarais, L.; Faugel, H.; Hanson, G. R.; Kocan, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Petrzilka, V.; Shaw, A.; Stepanov, I.; Sips, A. C. C.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; JET contributors, the; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the DIII-D Team; ITPA ‘Integrated Operation Scenarios' members, the; experts

    2016-04-01

    Experiments have been performed under the coordination of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) on several tokamaks, including ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), JET and DIII-D, to characterize the increased Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna loading achieved by optimizing the position of gas injection relative to the RF antennas. On DIII-D, AUG and JET (with the ITER-Like Wall) a 50% increase in the antenna loading was observed when injecting deuterium in ELMy H-mode plasmas using mid-plane inlets close to the powered antennas instead of divertor injection and, with smaller improvement when using gas inlets located at the top of the machine. The gas injection rate required for such improvements (~0.7  ×  1022 el s-1 in AUG, ~1.0  ×  1022 el s-1 in JET) is compatible with the use of this technique to optimize ICRF heating during the development of plasma scenarios and no degradation of confinement was observed when using the mid-plane or top inlets compared with divertor valves. An increase in the scrape-off layer (SOL) density was measured when switching gas injection from divertor to outer mid-plane or top. On JET and DIII-D, the measured SOL density increase when using main chamber puffing is consistent with the antenna coupling resistance increase provided that the distance between the measurement lines of sight and the injection location is taken into account. Optimized gas injection was also found to be beneficial for reducing tungsten (W) sputtering at the AUG antenna limiters, and also to reduce slightly the W and nickel (Ni) content in JET plasmas. Modeling the specific effects of divertor/top/mid-plane injection on the outer mid-plane density was carried out using both the EDGE2D-EIRENE and EMC3-EIRENE plasma boundary code packages; simulations indeed indicate that outer mid-plane gas injection maximizes the density in the mid-plane close to the injection point with qualitative agreement with the AUG SOL density measurements

  10. Application of Model Based Parameter Estimation for Fast Frequency Response Calculations of Input Characteristics of Cavity-Backed Aperture Antennas Using Hybrid FEM/MoM Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Model Based Parameter Estimation (MBPE) is presented in conjunction with the hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM)/Method of Moments (MoM) technique for fast computation of the input characteristics of cavity-backed aperture antennas over a frequency range. The hybrid FENI/MoM technique is used to form an integro-partial- differential equation to compute the electric field distribution of a cavity-backed aperture antenna. In MBPE, the electric field is expanded in a rational function of two polynomials. The coefficients of the rational function are obtained using the frequency derivatives of the integro-partial-differential equation formed by the hybrid FEM/ MoM technique. Using the rational function approximation, the electric field is obtained over a frequency range. Using the electric field at different frequencies, the input characteristics of the antenna are obtained over a wide frequency range. Numerical results for an open coaxial line, probe-fed coaxial cavity and cavity-backed microstrip patch antennas are presented. Good agreement between MBPE and the solutions over individual frequencies is observed.

  11. Ion cyclotron wave coupling in the magnetized plasma edge of tokamaks: impact of a finite, inhomogeneous density inside the antenna box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Crombé, K.; Van Eester, D.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Heuraux, S.

    2016-05-01

    Most present ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heating codes and antenna codes assume the antenna sitting in a vacuum region and consider the fast wave only, which implicitly performs an abrupt density transition from vacuum to above lower hybrid (LH) resonance. The impact of the appearance of the LH resonance is entirely overlooked in their simulations. We studied the impact of densities that decay continuously inside the antenna box on near field patterns and power coupling. A new full wave code based on the COMSOL Finite Element Solver has been developed to investigate this topic. It is shown that: up to the memory limits of the adopted workstation, the local RF field pattern in low-density regions below the LH resonance changes with the grid size. Interestingly and importantly, however, the total coupled toroidal spectrum is almost independent on the mesh size and is weakly affected by the presence of the density profile inside the antenna box in dipole toroidal strap phasing. This suggests one can drop out this density for coupling studies to speed up the computation. Simulation also shows that varying the density gradient in the fast wave evanescence region has no significant effect on wave coupling.

  12. Active and fast particle driven Alfvén eigenmodes in Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, J. A.; Basse, N.; Boswell, C.; Edlund, E.; Fasoli, A.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Granetz, R. S.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Parker, R.; Porkolab, M.; Sears, J.; Sharapov, S.; Tang, V.; Wukitch, S.

    2005-05-01

    Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) are studied to assess their stability in high density reactor relevant regimes where Ti≈Te and as a diagnostic tool. Stable AEs are excited with active magnetohydrodynamics antennas in the range of the expected AE frequency. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) damping rates between 0.5%<γ/ω<4.5% have been observed in diverted and limited Ohmic plasmas. Unstable AEs are excited with a fast ion tail driven by H minority ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) heating with electron densities in the range of n¯e=0.5-2×1020m-3. Energetic particle modes or TAEs have been observed to decrease in frequency and mode number with time up to a large sawtooth collapse, indicating the role fast particles play in stabilizing sawteeth. In the current rise phase, unstable modes with frequencies that increase rapidly with time are observed with magnetic pick-up coils at the wall and phase contrast imaging density fluctuation measurements in the core. Modeling of these modes constrains the calculated safety factor profile to be very flat or with slightly reversed shear. AEs are found to be more stable for an inboard than for central or outboard ICRF resonances in qualitative agreement with modeling.

  13. Spectral Effects on Fast Wave Core Heating and Current Drive

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. Phillips, R.E. Bell, L.A. Berry, P.T. Bonoli, R.W. Harvey, J.C. Hosea, E.F. Jaeger, B.P. LeBlanc, P.M. Ryan, G. Taylor, E.J. Valeo, J.R. Wilson, J.C. Wright, H. Yuh, and the NSTX Team

    2009-05-11

    Recent results obtained with high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive (CD) on NSTX strongly support the hypothesis that the onset of perpendicular fast wave propagation right at or very near the launcher is a primary cause for a reduction in core heating efficiency at long wavelengths that is also observed in ICRF heating experiments in numerous tokamaks. A dramatic increase in core heating efficiency was first achieved in NSTX L-mode helium majority plasmas when the onset for perpendicular wave propagation was moved away from the antenna and nearby vessel structures. Efficient core heating in deuterium majority L mode and H mode discharges, in which the edge density is typically higher than in comparable helium majority plasmas, was then accomplished by reducing the edge density in front of the launcher with lithium conditioning and avoiding operational points prone to instabilities. These results indicate that careful tailoring of the edge density profiles in ITER should be considered to limit rf power losses to the antenna and plasma facing materials. Finally, in plasmas with reduced rf power losses in the edge regions, the first direct measurements of high harmonic fast wave current drive were obtained with the motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic. The location and radial dependence of HHFW CD measured by MSE are in reasonable agreement with predictions from both full wave and ray tracing simulations.

  14. The ICRF-3: Status, Plans, and Multi-wavelength Progress on the next generation Celestial Reference Frame.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    ICRF-3 seeks to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverage relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames that are ready for comparison with the Gaia optical frame.Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration to improve at S/X-band precision of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey's ~2200 sources, which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2, is bearing fruit and is projected to yield a factor of 3 improvement in precision. S/X-band southern hemisphere precision improvements are underway with observations using southern antennas such as the AuScope, Warkworth, and HartRAO, South Africa.We also seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka-band and K-band work. An X/Ka frame of 660 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which is strengthening the southern hemisphere in general. The X/Ka-band frame's precision is now comparable to the ICRF-2 for the 530 sources in common. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. By the time of this meeting, we expect K-band to complete full sky coverage with south polar cap observations and to improve spatial density north of -30 deg declination with VLBA observations.On the analysis front, special attention is being given to combination techniques both of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) frames and of multiple data types. Consistency of the Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) with the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) and Earth Oreintation Parameters (EOP) is another area of concern. Comparison of celestial frame solutions from various groups is underway in order to identify and correct systematic errors. We will discuss evidence emerging for 100 µas zonal errors in the ICRF2 in the declination range from 0 to -30 deg.Finally, work is underway to identify and

  15. The Second International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2010-01-01

    The ICRF2 catalog was constructed by the IERS/IVS Working Group with oversight by the IAU Working Group. Derived using data from August 1979 through March 2009, it is a great improvement over the original ICRF with 3414 extragalactic radio source positions, a noise floor of 40 microarcsec, and axis stability of 10 microarcsec. Significant refinements were made in the selection of defining sources, modeling, and the integration of CRF, TRF, and EOP. The adoption of the ICRF2 was approved by the IAU in Resolution B3 at the XXVII IAU General Assembly and became effective 1 January 2010.

  16. Simulation of High Power ICRF Wave Heating in the ITER Burning Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Barrett, R. F.; D'Azevedo, E. F.

    2007-11-01

    ITER relies on Ion-cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF) power to heat the plasma to fusion temperatures. To heat effectively, the waves must couple efficiently to the core plasma. Recent simulations using AORSA [1] on the 120 TF Cray XT-4 (Jaguar) at ORNL show that the waves propagate radially inward and are rapidly absorbed with little heating of the plasma edge. AORSA has achieved 87.5 trillion calculations per second (87.5 teraflops) on Jaguar, which is 73 percent of the system's theoretical peak. Three dimensional visualizations show ``hot spots'' near the antenna surface where the wave amplitude is high. AORSA simulations are also being used to study how to best use ICRF to drive plasma currents for optimizing ITER performance and pulse length. Results for Scenario 4 show a maximum current of 0.54 MA for 20 MW of power at 57 MHz. [1] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, E. D'Azevedo, et al., Phys. Plasmas. 8, 1573 (2001).

  17. Hybrid Fast Fourier Transform-plane wave based near-field far-field transformation for “body of revolution” antenna measurement grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. H.; Laitinen, T. A.; Eibert, T. F.

    2011-10-01

    Near-field measurement and transformation techniques are widely applied to characterize radiation patterns of antennas. Spherical and cylindrical near-field measurements have been researched extensively and various techniques with different probe compensation capabilities and complexities exist. Among those techniques applicable for (almost) arbitrary probes, the crucial computational efficiency has been achieved through the use of Fast Fourier Transform based preprocessing of the measurement data. It is shown in this paper that the Fast Fourier Transform based preprocessing can also be utilized in conjunction with the plane wave based fully probe-corrected near-field far-field transformation with low numerical complexity. The collection of probe signals is split into smaller subsets for individual orthogonal azimuthal Fourier modes by an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform. These smaller subsets can be transformed to the far field very efficiently with full probe correction. The technique presented in this paper is applicable for arbitrary "body of revolution" antenna measurement grids, including the important cases of cylindrical and spherical measurement grids. The "body of revolution" grids are rotationally symmetric around the z-axis and the probe signals must be available equidistantly in ϕ.

  18. ICRF sawtooth stabilization: Application on TFTR and CIT

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Stevens, J.E.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Colestock, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hammett, G.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; McGuire, K.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, K.; Park, H.; Schmidt, G.; Stratton, B.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Hoffman, D. )

    1991-03-01

    The use of ICRF heating to stabilize the core plasma sawtooth relaxations has been extended to TFTR where such stabilization has been produced at relatively low power in the L Mode regime at moderate density (P{sub RF} = 4 MW, 2.6 MW in helium and deuterium discharges, respectively, for the minority hydrogen ICRF heating regime with {bar n}{sub e}{approx}2.5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}). These results, as in the case of those obtained on JET, are qualitatively consistent with energetic ion stabilization of the m = 1, n = 1 ideal/resistive kink mode. The relevance of sawtooth stabilization to the primary regimes of interest on TFTR -- the high-Q supershot regime and the high density pellet injection regimes -- and on CIT -- the high density ICRF heated regime -- is considered in the context of the present theory and the projected ICRF power deposition characteristics. 35 refs., 11 figs.

  19. The IAU Division A Working Group on the Third Realization of the ICRF: Background, Goals, Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    The XXVIII General Assembly of the IAU (Beijing, 2012) established the Division A Working Group on the Third Realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The adopted charter of the ICRF3 Working Group includes a commitment to report on the implementation and execution plans for ICRF3 during the XXIX General Assembly of the IAU along with a targeted completion and presentation of ICRF3 in 2018 to the XXX General Assembly for adoption. This talk will discuss the background, purpose, and overall implementation plan for ICRF3, and motivate the concept, currently under consideration by the ICRF3 Working Group, that future realizations of the ICRF be based on multi-frequency astrometric data, starting with ICRF3.

  20. Spectral effects on fast wave core heating and current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. K.; Bell, R. E.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Harvey, R. W.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaeger, E. F.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Ryan, P. M.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilgen, J. B.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J. C.; Yuh, H.; NSTX Team

    2009-07-01

    Recent results obtained with high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive (CD) on NSTX strongly support the hypothesis that the onset of perpendicular fast wave propagation right at or very near the launcher is a primary cause for a reduction in core heating efficiency at long wavelengths that is also observed in ICRF heating experiments in numerous tokamaks. A dramatic increase in core heating efficiency was first achieved in NSTX L-mode helium majority plasmas when the onset for perpendicular wave propagation was moved away from the antenna and nearby vessel structures. Efficient core heating in deuterium majority L-mode and H-mode discharges, in which the edge density is typically higher than in comparable helium majority plasmas, was then accomplished by reducing the edge density in front of the launcher with lithium conditioning and avoiding operational points prone to instabilities. These results indicate that careful tailoring of the edge density profiles in ITER should be considered to limit radio frequency (rf) power losses to the antenna and plasma facing materials. Finally, in plasmas with reduced rf power losses in the edge regions, the first direct measurements of HHFW CD were obtained with the motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic. The location and radial dependence of HHFW CD measured by MSE are in reasonable agreement with predictions from both full wave and ray tracing simulations.

  1. Characterization and performance of a field aligned ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna in Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Garrett, M. L.; Ochoukov, R.; Terry, J. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Reinke, M. L.; Whyte, D.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-05-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is expected to provide auxiliary heating for ITER and future fusion reactors where high Z metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) are being considered. Impurity contamination linked to ICRF antenna operation remains a major challenge particularly for devices with high Z metallic PFCs. Here, we report on an experimental investigation to test whether a field aligned (FA) antenna can reduce impurity contamination and impurity sources. We compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to the total magnetic field while the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E|| (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. A finite element method RF antenna model coupled to a cold plasma model verifies that the integrated E|| should be reduced for all antenna phases. Monopole phasing in particular is expected to have the lowest integrated E||. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20%-30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials (via gas-puff imaging and emissive probes to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing). Moreover, the highest levels of RF-induced plasma potentials are observed using monopole phasing with the FA antenna. Thus, while impurity contamination and sources are indeed

  2. The Position/Structure Stability of Four ICRF2 Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fomalont, Ed; Johnston, Kenneth; Fey, Alan; Boboltz, Dave; Oyama, Tomoaki; Honma, Mareki

    2010-01-01

    Four compact radio sources in the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) catalog were observed using phase referencing with the VLBA at 43, 23, and 8.6-GHz, and with VERA at 23-GHz over a one-year period. The goal was to determine the stability of the radio cores and to assess structure effects associated with positions in the ICRF2. Conclusions are: (1) 43-GHz VLBI high-resolution observations are often needed to determine the location of the radio core. (2) Over the observing period, the relative positions among the four radio cores were constant to 0.02 mas, suggesting that once the true radio core is identified, it remains stationary in the sky to this accuracy. (3) The emission in 0556+238, one of the four sources investigated and one of the 295 ICRF2 defining sources, was dominated by a strong component near the core and moved 0.1 mas during the year. (4) Comparison of the VLBA images at 43, 23, and 8.6-GHz with the ICRF2 positions suggests that the 8-GHz structure is often dominated by a bright non-core component. The measured ICRF2 position can be displaced more than 0.5 mas from the radio core and partake in the motion of the bright jet component.

  3. Correlation between excitation of Alfven modes and degradation of ICRF heating efficiency in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, S.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.

    1997-05-01

    Alfven modes are excited by energetic ions in TFTR during intense minority ICRF heating. There is a clear threshold in rf power above which the modes are destabilized. The net effect of these modes is the increase of the fast ion losses, with an associated saturation of the ion tail energy and of the efficiency of the heating. Typically, several modes are excited with progressive n-numbers, with frequencies in the neighborhood of 200 kHz. Results suggest that Energetic Particle Modes (EPM), mostly unseen by the Mirnov coils, are generated near the center and are responsible for the ion losses. Stronger global TAE modes, which are destabilized by the stream of displaced fast ions, appear responsible only for minor losses.

  4. Benchmarking ICRF Full-wave Solvers for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    R. V. Budny, L. Berry, R. Bilato, P. Bonoli, M. Brambilla, R. J. Dumont, A. Fukuyama, R. Harvey, E. F. Jaeger, K. Indireshkumar, E. Lerche, D. McCune, C. K. Phillips, V. Vdovin, J. Wright, and members of the ITPA-IOS

    2011-01-06

    Abstract Benchmarking of full-wave solvers for ICRF simulations is performed using plasma profiles and equilibria obtained from integrated self-consistent modeling predictions of four ITER plasmas. One is for a high performance baseline (5.3 T, 15 MA) DT H-mode. The others are for half-field, half-current plasmas of interest for the pre-activation phase with bulk plasma ion species being either hydrogen or He4. The predicted profiles are used by six full-wave solver groups to simulate the ICRF electromagnetic fields and heating, and by three of these groups to simulate the current-drive. Approximate agreement is achieved for the predicted heating power for the DT and He4 cases. Factor of two disagreements are found for the cases with second harmonic He3 heating in bulk H cases. Approximate agreement is achieved simulating the ICRF current drive.

  5. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.; Kappatou, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Nocente, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Tardini, G.; Bernert, M.; Dux, R.; Hellsten, T.; Mantica, P.; Maraschek, M.; Nielsen, S. K.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Rasmussen, J.; Ryter, F.; Stejner, M.; Stober, J.; Tardocchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without 3He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with 3He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature Ti from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central 3He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the Ti profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LTi of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the Ti profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the 3He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.

  6. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.; Kappatou, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Odstrčil, T.; Tardini, G.; Bernert, M.; Dux, R.; Maraschek, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Nocente, M.; Hellsten, T.; Mantica, P.; Tardocchi, M.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; and others

    2015-12-10

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without {sup 3}He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with {sup 3}He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature T{sub i} from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central {sup 3}He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the T{sub i} profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LT{sub i} of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the T{sub i} profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the {sup 3}He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.

  7. Initial ICRF heating experiments in the TMX-U central cell

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A.W.; Falabella, S.; Moore, T.

    1983-02-18

    An ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system has been installed in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) central cell. Our initial objective is to heat low density ions in the near field of the antenna. This heating reduces the collisionality of central cell ions, which decreases the filling rate of the thermal barrier by passing ions from the central cell. From power- and particle-balance calculations, we determined that 60 kW of absorbed power is sufficient to heat plasma densities of up to 2 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/. These power requirements are consistent with ion heating results from the Phaedrus tandem mirror. Based on this, we have installed a 200-kW oscillator/power amplifier, tunable to as low as 1.5 MHz. It drives a 110/sup 0/, 9 1/2-turn loop antenna that has a commercially built Faraday shield and matching network. The system has been tuned with plasma and is being used for the initial heating studies at the ion-cyclotron frequency ..omega../sub ci/.

  8. Development of Scientific Simulation 3D Full Wave ICRF Code for Stellarators and Heating/CD Scenarios Development

    SciTech Connect

    Vdovin V.L.

    2005-08-15

    In this report we describe theory and 3D full wave code description for the wave excitation, propagation and absorption in 3-dimensional (3D) stellarator equilibrium high beta plasma in ion cyclotron frequency range (ICRF). This theory forms a basis for a 3D code creation, urgently needed for the ICRF heating scenarios development for the operated LHD, constructed W7-X, NCSX and projected CSX3 stellarators, as well for re evaluation of ICRF scenarios in operated tokamaks and in the ITER . The theory solves the 3D Maxwell-Vlasov antenna-plasma-conducting shell boundary value problem in the non-orthogonal flux coordinates ({Psi}, {theta}, {var_phi}), {Psi} being magnetic flux function, {theta} and {var_phi} being the poloidal and toroidal angles, respectively. All basic physics, like wave refraction, reflection and diffraction are self consistently included, along with the fundamental ion and ion minority cyclotron resonances, two ion hybrid resonance, electron Landau and TTMP absorption. Antenna reactive impedance and loading resistance are also calculated and urgently needed for an antenna -generator matching. This is accomplished in a real confining magnetic field being varying in a plasma major radius direction, in toroidal and poloidal directions, through making use of the hot dense plasma wave induced currents with account to the finite Larmor radius effects. We expand the solution in Fourier series over the toroidal ({var_phi}) and poloidal ({theta}) angles and solve resulting ordinary differential equations in a radial like {Psi}-coordinate by finite difference method. The constructed discretization scheme is divergent-free one, thus retaining the basic properties of original equations. The Fourier expansion over the angle coordinates has given to us the possibility to correctly construct the ''parallel'' wave number k{sub //}, and thereby to correctly describe the ICRF waves absorption by a hot plasma. The toroidal harmonics are tightly coupled with each

  9. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L.; Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P.; Murakami, M.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P{sub rf} {approximately} 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  10. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P. ); Murakami, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P[sub rf] [approximately] 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  11. IVS Observation of ICRF2-Gaia Transfer Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bail, K.; Gipson, J. M.; Gordon, D.; MacMillan, D. S.; Behrend, D.; Thomas, C. C.; Bolotin, S.; Himwich, W. E.; Baver, K. D.; Corey, B. E.; Titus, M.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; Collioud, A.

    2016-03-01

    The second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2), which is the current fundamental celestial reference frame adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is based on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data at radio frequencies in X band and S band. The European Space Agency’s Gaia mission, launched on 2013 December 19, started routine scientific operations in 2014 July. By scanning the whole sky, it is expected to observe ∼500,000 Quasi Stellar Objects in the optical domain an average of 70 times each during the five years of the mission. This means that, in the future, two extragalactic celestial reference frames, at two different frequency domains, will coexist. It will thus be important to align them very accurately. In 2012, the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB) selected 195 sources from ICRF2 that will be observed by Gaia and should be suitable for aligning the radio and optical frames: they are called ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources. The LAB submitted a proposal to the International VLBI Service (IVS) to regularly observe these ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources at the same rate as Gaia observes them in the optical realm, e.g., roughly once a month. We describe our successful effort to implement such a program and report on the results. Most observations of the ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources now occur automatically as part of the IVS source monitoring program, while a subset of 37 sources requires special attention. Beginning in 2013, we scheduled 25 VLBI sessions devoted in whole or in part to measuring these 37 sources. Of the 195 sources, all but one have been successfully observed in the 12 months prior to 2015 September 01. Of the sources, 87 met their observing target of 12 successful sessions per year. The position uncertainties of all of the ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources have improved since the start of this observing program. For a subset of 24 sources whose positions were very poorly known, the uncertainty

  12. Measurements of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) loading with a ridged waveguide coupler on PLT

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Colestock, P.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Hosea, J.C.; Hwang, D.Q.; Nagy, A.

    1987-11-01

    An ICRF ridged waveguide coupler has been installed on PLT for measurements of plasma loading. The coupler was partially filled with TiO/sub 2/ dielectric in order to sufficiently lower the cutoff frequency and utilized a tapered ridge for improved matching. Vacuum field measurements indicated a single propagating mode in the coupler and emphasized the importance of considering the fringing fields at the mouth of the waveguide. Low power experiments were carried out at 72.6 and 95.0 MHz without any external impedance matching network. Plasma loading increased rapidly as the face of the coupler approached the plasma, and, at fixed position, increased with line-averaged plasma density. At the lower frequency, the reflection coefficient exhibited a minimum (<8%) at a particular coupler position. At both frequencies, measurements indicated efficient power coupling to the plasma. Magnetic probe signals showed evidence of dense eigenmodes suggesting excitation of the fast wave. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Use of .sup.3 He.sup.30 + ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating

    DOEpatents

    Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Hwang, David Q.; Hovey, Jane

    1986-04-22

    Neutron activation due to high levels of neutron production in a first heated deuterium-tritium plasma is substantially reduced by using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating of energetic .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions in a second deuterium-.sup.3 He.sup.++ plasma which exhibit an energy distribution and density similar to that of alpha particles in fusion reactor experiments to simulate fusion alpha particle heating in the first plasma. The majority of the fast .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions and their slowing down spectrum can be studied using either a modulated hydrogen beam source for producing excited states of He.sup.+ in combination with spectrometers or double charge exchange with a high energy neutral lithium beam and charged particle detectors at the plasma edge. The maintenance problems thus associated with neutron activation are substantially reduced permitting energetic alpha particle behavior to be studied in near term large fusion experiments.

  14. Revisiting the VLBA Calibrator Surveys for ICRF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, David; Ma, Chopo; Jacobs, Christopher; Fey, Alan; Gaume, Ralph; Beasley, Anthony; Peck, Alison; Boboltz, David; Titov, Oleg; Charlot, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The original VLBA Calibrator (VCS) surveys were a set of 24 24-hr VLBA sessions between 1994 and 2007 in which ~2600 compact radio sources were observed in X/S bands to obtain precise positions and snapsot images. Most were observed in only one session but they vastly expanded the pool of calibrator sources available for phase-referencing VLBI. These sources were later incorporated into ICRF2, but within ICRF2 they became a second class compared to the other ICRF2 sources observed in regular Mark3/Mark4/RDV VLBI geodesy and astrometry sessions over nearly 30 years. The VCS sources represented 2/3 of ICRF2, but they had formal errors approximately 5 times greater, on average, than the other 1/3. In order to reduce this 2 class distinction, the VCS-II team was formed to re-observe these sources for ICRF3 and improve their usefulness as phase-referencing calibrators. We report here on the re-observations of 2400 of these sources in 8 VLBA sessions in 2014 and 2015. The new observations were made at 2 GBits/sec versus the 128 MBits/sec of the original VCS sessions, and thus are considerably more sensitive. Some 2000 'old' VCS sources have been re-observed and their formal position errors have improved by an average factor of 3.6 in RA and Dec. And ~300 'new' sources (not detected in the original VCS analysis) have also now been detected. Mapping of these sources is also being performed and we anticipate being able to compute structure indices for them as well.

  15. Theoretical analysis of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna with variational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Qin, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Zhao; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A variational principle code which can calculate self-consistently currents on the conductors is used to assess the coupling characteristic of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna. Taking into account two layers of antenna conductors without lateral frame but with slab geometry, the antenna impedances as a function of frequency and the structure of RF field excited inside the plasma in various phasing cases are discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant No. 2015GB101001) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375236 and 11375235).

  16. Theoretical analysis of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna with variational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Qin, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Zhao; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A variational principle code which can calculate self-consistently currents on the conductors is used to assess the coupling characteristic of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna. Taking into account two layers of antenna conductors without lateral frame but with slab geometry, the antenna impedances as a function of frequency and the structure of RF field excited inside the plasma in various phasing cases are discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant No. 2015GB101001) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375236 and 11375235).

  17. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Lunt, T.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Brida, D.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Jacquet, P.; Feng, Y.

    2015-12-10

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 10{sup 22} electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  18. Ion radial transport induced by ICRF waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Vaclavik, J.; Hammett, G.W.

    1987-05-01

    The wave-induced fluxes of energetic-trapped ions during ICRF heating of tokamak plasmas are calculated using quasilinear equations. A simple single particle model of this transport mechanism is also given. Both a convective flux proportional to k/sub phi/vertical bar E/sub +/vertical bar/sup 2/ and a diffusive flux proportional to k/sub phi//sup 2/vertical bar E/sub +/vertical bar/sup 2/ are found. Here, k/sub phi/ is the toroidal wave number and E/sub +/ is the left-hand polarized wave field. The convective flux may become significant for large k/sub phi/ if the wave spectrum is asymmetric in k/sub phi/. But for the conditions of most previous experiments, these calculations indicate that radial transport driven directly by the ICRF wave is unimportant.

  19. Intricacies of the estimation of the ICRF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, David; Böhm, Johannes; Krasna, Hana

    2016-04-01

    The current realisation of the celestial reference frame, the ICRF2, was published 2009. Since then the VLBI technique evolved. New stations were implemented and the amount of data from the Southern Hemisphere increased dramatically. The demands on accuracy of the celestial reference frame are higher than ever, with the GAIA mission providing a catalogue in the visible spectrum with comparable accuracy. These advances in the VLBI technique and new demands on accuracy entail the necessity of a new version of the celestial reference frame which will be called ICRF3. We will report on the progress and plans of the Vienna group to estimate such a reference frame. Furthermore, we will discuss issues which arise during the estimation process such as a declination bias.

  20. Study of Liquid Phase Shifter for ICRF on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Yanping; Mao, Yuzhou; Qin, Chengming

    2006-07-01

    A method of current drive with Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak (EAST) is described. A variety of liquid silicon oil heights in the phase shifter will bring the phase difference to the current drive. It is found that the current drive can be achieved by using the phase shifter. The liquid phase shifter is one of the impedance matching systems too.

  1. Observation of Central Toroidal Rotation Induced by ICRF on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiayun; Wang, Fudi; Zhang, Xinjun; Lyu, Bo; Chen, Jun; Li, Yingying; Fu, Jia; Shi, Yuejiang; Yu, Yi; Ye, Minyou; Wan, Baonian

    2016-02-01

    Core plasma rotation of both L-mode and H-mode discharges with ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) minority heating (MH) scheme was measured with a tangential X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak). Co-current central impurity toroidal rotation change was observed in ICRF-heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Rotation increment as high as 30 km/s was generated at ∼1.7 MW ICRF power. Scaling results showed similar trend as the Rice scaling but with significant scattering, especially in L-mode plasmas. We varied the plasma current, toroidal field and magnetic configuration individually to study their effect on L-mode plasma rotation, while keeping the other major plasma parameters and heating unchanged during the scanning. It was found that larger plasma current could induce plasma rotation more efficiently. A scan of the toroidal magnetic field indicated that the largest rotation was obtained for on-axis ICRF heating. A comparison between lower-single-null (LSN) and double-null (DN) configurations showed that LSN discharges rendered a larger rotation change for the same power input and plasma parameters. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB112004 and 2015GB103002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175208, 11305212, 11375235, 11405212 and 11261140328), the Innovative Program of Development Foundation of Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology (2014FXCX003) and Brain Korea 21 Program for Leading Universities & Students (BK21 PLUS)

  2. High-power ICRF and LHCD experiments on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Saoutic, B.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bizarro, J.P.; Fraboulet, D.; Garbet, X.; Goniche, M.; Guiziou, L.; Hoang, G.T.; Hutter, T.; Joffrin, E.; Kuus, H.; Litaudon, X.; Mollard, P.; Moreau, D.; Nguyen, F.; Pecquet, A.L.; Peysson, Y.; Rey, G.; van Houtte, D.; Zabiego, M. )

    1994-10-15

    For a given ICRF power, the sawtooth-free period duration increases with plama density. This trend, correlated with an increasing soft X-ray inversion radius, clearly shows a better stabilization by hot ions at higher density. A tentative explanation is given through a full modeling of the hot ion anisotropy using a Fokker Planck code coupled with a 1/2 D power balance code simulating experimental data. A linear stability analysis of the kink/tearing m=1 mode, in terms of a MHD kinetic functional, shows that the anisotropy of the distribution function may amplify the effect of the hot ion pressure gradient. A two-fold lengthening of the sawtooth-free period is obtained when applying LHCD to ICRF heated plasmas. Analysis of polarimetric data shows that, instead of the continuous decrease of the central safety factor observed when using ICRF alone, the q value freezes'' when LHCD power exceeds 3 MW. This demonstrates a current profile control effect opening the way towards steady-state stabilization. Working with both ICRH and LHCD on the same target plasma allows thorough comparisons of transport with different power deposition profiles and coupling mechanisms. The energy stored in electrons is the same although the electronic temperature gradients are quite different. Nevertheless, due to better ion heating, the energy life time (discarding hot ions contribution) is always higher with ICRH. Local transport analyses allow comparisons between both heating schemes for different confinement situations.

  3. ICRF Mode Conversion Studies with Phase Contrast Imaging and Comparisons with Full-Wave Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Porkolab, M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Harvey, R. W.

    2011-12-23

    Waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat toka-mak plasmas. In a multi-ion-species plasma, the FW converts to ion cyclotron waves (ICW) and ion Bernstein waves (IBW) around the ion-ion hybrid resonance (mode conversion). The mode converted wave is of interest as an actuator to optimise plasma performance through flow drive and current drive. Numerical simulations are essential to describe these processes accurately, and it is important that these simulation codes be validated. On Alcator C-Mod, direct measurements of the mode converted waves have been performed using Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI), which measures the line-integrated electron density fluctuations. The results were compared to full-wave simulations AORSA and TORIC. AORSA is coupled to a Fokker-Planck code CQL3D for self-consistent simulation of the wave electric field and the minority distribution function. The simulation results are compared to PCI measurements using synthetic diagnostic. The experiments were performed in D-H and D-{sup 3}He plasmas over a wide range of ion species concentrations. The simulations agreed well with the measurements in the strong absorption regime. However, the measured fluctuation intensity was smaller by 1-2 orders of magnitudes in the weakly abosorbing regime, and a realistic description of the plasma edge including dissipation and antenna geometry may be required in these cases.

  4. Deployable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A deployable antenna and method for using wherein the deployable antenna comprises a collapsible membrane having at least one radiating element for transmitting electromagnetic waves, receiving electromagnetic waves, or both.

  5. The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and the Relationship Between Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2000-01-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), a catalog of VLBI source positions, is now the basis for astrometry and geodesy. Its construction and extension/maintenance will be discussed as well as the relationship of the ICRF, ITRF, and EOP/nutation.

  6. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  7. ICRF heating in reactor grade plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquinot, J.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Bures, M.; Cottrell, G.A.; Eriksson, L.G.; Sack, C.H.; Start, D.F.H.; Taroni, A. ); Hellsten, T. ); Koch, R. ); Moreau, D. )

    1990-01-01

    Impurity influxes in JET discharges due to ICRH have been reduced to insignificant levels. This has allowed high quality H-modes to be produced with ICRH alone and has enhanced the density limit which is now the same as the NBI limit. Improvement in the deuterium fuel fraction has led to the generation of 100kW of non thermal {sup 3}He-D fusion power. Alpha-particle simulations using MeV ions created by ICRH show classical energy loss and suggest that {alpha}-heating in a reactor will be highly efficient. A clear demonstration of TTMP damping of the fast wave in high beta plasmas has been achieved. A broadband ICRH system is proposed for NET/ITER which will allow fast wave current drive and central ion heating for burn control and ignition. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Reconfigurable antenna pattern verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor); Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of verifying programmable antenna configurations is disclosed. The method comprises selecting a desired antenna configuration from a plurality of antenna configuration patterns, with the selected antenna configuration forming at least one reconfigurable antenna from reconfigurable antenna array elements. The method validates the formation of the selected antenna configuration to determine antenna performance of the at least one reconfigurable antenna.

  9. Plasma-Surface Interactions and RF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Thomas; Smithe, D. N.; Beckwith, K.; Davidson, B. D.; Kruger, S. E.; Pankin, A. Y.; Roark, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Implementation of recently developed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling techniques on high-performance computing platforms allows RF power flow, and antenna near- and far-field behavior, to be studied in realistic experimental ion-cyclotron resonance heating scenarios at previously inaccessible levels of resolution. We present results and 3D animations of high-performance (10k-100k core) FDTD simulations of Alcator C-Mod's field-aligned ICRF antenna on the Titan supercomputer, considering (a) the physics of slow wave excitation in the immediate vicinity of the antenna hardware and in the scrape-off layer for various edge densities, and (b) sputtering and impurity production, as driven by self-consistent sheath potentials at antenna surfaces. Related research efforts in low-temperature plasma modeling, including the use of proper orthogonal decomposition methods for PIC/fluid modeling and the development of plasma chemistry tools (e.g. a robust and flexible reaction database, principal path reduction analysis capabilities, and improved visualization options), will also be summarized. Supported by U.S. DoE SBIR Phase I/II Award DE-SC0009501 and ALCC/OLCF.

  10. An algorithm for the calculation of 3-D ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) fields in tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smithe, D.N.; Colestock, P.L.; Kashuba, R.J.; Kammash, T.

    1987-04-01

    A computational scheme is developed which permits tractable calculation of three-dimensional full-wave solutions to the Maxwell-Vlasov equations under typical Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) experimental conditions. The method is unique in that power deposition to the plasma is determined via the anti-Hermitian part of a truncated warm-plasma dielectric operator, rather than as the result of an assumed phenomenological collision frequency. The resulting computer code allows arbitrary variation of density, temperature, magnetic field, and minority concentration in the poloidal plane by performing a convolution of poloidal modes to produce a coupled system of differential equations in the radial variable. By assuming no inhomogeneity along the toroidal axis, an inverse transform over k/sub parallel/ is performed to yield the full three-dimensional field solutions. The application of the code to TFTR-like plasmas shows a mild resonance structure in antenna loading related to the changing number of wavelengths between antenna and the resonance layer. 48 figs.

  11. SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions - Iterated Finite-Orbit Monte Carlo Simulations with Full-Wave Fields for Modeling Tokamak ICRF Wave Heating Experiments - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Myunghee; Chan, Vincent S.

    2014-02-28

    This final report describes the work performed under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-08ER54954 for the period April 1, 2011 through March 31, 2013. The goal of this project was to perform iterated finite-orbit Monte Carlo simulations with full-wall fields for modeling tokamak ICRF wave heating experiments. In year 1, the finite-orbit Monte-Carlo code ORBIT-RF and its iteration algorithms with the full-wave code AORSA were improved to enable systematical study of the factors responsible for the discrepancy in the simulated and the measured fast-ion FIDA signals in the DIII-D and NSTX ICRF fast-wave (FW) experiments. In year 2, ORBIT-RF was coupled to the TORIC full-wave code for a comparative study of ORBIT-RF/TORIC and ORBIT-RF/AORSA results in FW experiments.

  12. LHCD and ICRF heating experiments in H-mode plasmas on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, B. J.; Xu, G. S.; Gong, X. Z.; Li, J. G.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S.; Taylor, G.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Braun, F.; Magne, R.; Litaudon, X.; Kumazawa, R.; Kasahara, H.; Collaboration: EAST Team

    2014-02-12

    An ICRF system with power up to 6.0 MW and a LHCD system up to 4MW have been applied for heating and current drive experiments on EAST. Intensive lithium wall coating was intensively used to reduce particle recycling and Hydrogen concentration in Deuterium plasma, which is needed for effective ICRF and LHCD power absorption in high density plasmas. Significant progress has been made with ICRF heating and LHW current drive for realizing the H-mode plasma operation in EAST. In 2010, H-mode was generated and sustained by LHCD alone, where lithium coating and gas puffing launcher mouth were applied to improve the LHCD power coupling and penetration into the core plasmas at high density of H-modes. During the last two experimental campaigns, ICRF Heating experiments were carried out at the fixed frequency of 27MHz, achieving effective ions and electrons heating with the H Minority Heating (H-MH) mode, where electrons are predominantly heated by collisions with high energy minority ions. The H-MH mode gave the best plasma performance, and realized H-mode alone in 2012. Combination of ICRF and LHW power injection generated the H-mode plasmas with various ELMy characteristics. The first successful application of the ICRF Heating in the D (He3) plasma was also achieved. The progress on ICRF heating, LHCD experiments and their application in achieving H-mode operation from last two years will be discussed in this report.

  13. International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.

    A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al International Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.

  14. Operational Experience with the Scattering Matrix Arc Detection System on the JET ITER-Like Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Vrancken, M.; Lerche, E.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Evrard, M.; Huygen, S.; Ongena, J.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Weynants, R.

    2009-11-26

    The Scattering Matrix Arc Detection System (SMAD) has been fully deployed on all 4 sets of Resonant Double Loop (RDL), Vacuum Transmission Line (VTL) and Antenna Pressurised Transmission Lines (APTL) of the JET ICRF ITER-Like Antenna (ILA) and this has been indispensable for operating at low (real) T-point impedance values to investigate ELM tolerance. This paper describes the necessity of the SMAD vs VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) protection system, SMAD commissioning, problems and a number of typical events detected by the SMAD system during operation on plasma.

  15. A Complete Bank of Optical Images of the ICRF QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Taris, Francois; Anton, Sonia; Bourda, Geraldine; Damljanovic, Goran; Souchay, Jean; Vieira Martins, Roberto; Pursimo, Tapio; Barache, Christophe; Nepomuceno da Silva Neto, Dario; Fernandes Coelho, Bruno David

    2015-08-01

    We have been developing a systematic effort to collect good quality images of the optical counterpart of ICRF sources, in particular for those that have been regularly radio surveyed either for future implementation at high frequencies and/or those that will be the link sources between the ICRF and the Gaia CRF. Observations have been taken at the LNA/Brazil, CASLEO/Argentina, NOT/Spain, LFOA/Austria, Rozhen/Bulgária, and ASV/Serbia. In complement images were collected from the SDSS. As a step to implement such image data bank and make it publicly available through the IERS service we present its description, that comprises for each source the number of measurements, filter, pixel scale, size of field, and seeing at each observation. The photometry analysis is centered on the morphology, since there remain still cases in which the host galaxy is overwhelming, and many cases in which the host asks for a non-stellar PSF modeling. On basis of the neighbor stars we assign magnitudes and variability whenever possible. Finally, assisted by previous literature, the redshift and luminosity are used to derive astrophysical quantities, in special the absolute magnitude, SED and spectral index. Moreover, since Gaia will not obtain direct images of the observed sources, the morphology and magnitude becomes useful as templates onto which assembling and interpreting the one-dimensional and uncontinuous line spread function samplings that will be delivered by Gaia for each QSO.

  16. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications. PMID:27328022

  17. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications.

  18. Active antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, John F.

    1994-05-01

    An antenna, which may be a search coil, is connected to an operational amplifier circuit which provides negative impedances, each of which is in the order of magnitude of the positive impedances which characterize the antenna. The antenna is connected to the inverting input of the operational amplifier; a resistor is connected between the inverting input and the output of the operational amplifier; a capacitor-resistor network, in parallel, is connected between the output and the noninverting input of the operational amplifier; and a resistor is connected from the noninverting input and the circuit common. While this circuit provides a negative resistance and a negative inductance, in series, which appear, looking into the noninverting input of the operational amplifier, in parallel with the antenna, these negative impedances appear in a series loop with the antenna positive impedances, so as to algebraically add. This circuit is tuned by varying the various circuit components so that the negative impedances are very close, but somewhat less, in magnitude, to the antenna impedances. The result is to increase the sensitivity of the antenna by lowering its effective impedance. This, in turn, increases the effective area of the antenna, which may be broadband.

  19. Active antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An antenna, which may be a search coil, is connected to an operational amplifier circuit which provides negative impedances, each of which is in the order of magnitude of the positive impedances which characterize the antenna. The antenna is connected to the inverting input of the operational amplifier; a resistor is connected between the inverting input and the output of the operational amplifier; a capacitor-resistor network, in parallel, is connected between the output and the noninverting input of the operational amplifier; and a resistor is connected from the noninverting input and the circuit common. While this circuit provides a negative resistance and a negative inductance, in series, which appear, looking into the noninverting input of the operational amplifier, in parallel with the antenna, these negative impedances appear in a series loop with the antenna positive impedances, so as to algebraically add. This circuit is tuned by varying the various circuit components so that the negative impedances are very close, but somewhat less, in magnitude, to the antenna impedances. The result is to increase the sensitivity of the antenna by lowering its effective impedance. This, in turn, increases the effective area of the antenna, which may be broadband.

  20. Thermo-structural development of the ITER ICRF strap housing module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, K.; Shannon, M.; Lockley, D.

    2014-02-01

    Since March 2010 the preliminary design of the ITER ICRF Antennas have been developed by CYCLE, a consortium consisting of IPP (Garching), CCFE (Culham), CEA (Cadarache), Politecnico di Torino (Torino) and LPPERM/KMS (Brussels). This paper describes the steps taken to develop the present geometry of the triplet pair Strap Housing Module from a thermal and structural perspective, and shows the critical areas of the structure. Key issues are the manufacturability, (achieved by HIPing - Hot Isostatic Pressing), the ability to handle the radiating plasma thermal flux of 0.35 MW/m2, the RF losses and the neutronic radiation. HIPing is necessary to achieve the complicated system of cooling channels inside the structure, which divides the coolant equally in order to supply each strap in the triplet with 1 l/s of water. The components have also to withstand the strong mechanical forces generated by plasma disruptions affecting all internal structures and the elevated design cooling water pressure of 5MPa. In order to maximise reliability, joints between different materials in the cooling water system have been kept to a minimum. Therefore, in the interests of fabricability and availability, the whole structure is manufactured out of stainless steel (316L(N)IG). The low conductivity of 316L(N)IG demands small wall thicknesses to avoid hot spots; however this reduces the mechanical strength. Consequently an in depth FEM analysis is presented, which was used to find and to improve the critical aspects of this important component and was the best means of finding the optimum between thermal and mechanical performance.

  1. Modelling of ICRF heating in DEMO with special emphasis on bulk ion heating

    SciTech Connect

    Gallart, Dani; Mantsinen, Mervi; Kazakov, Yevgen

    2015-12-10

    Ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating is one of the auxiliary heating schemes presently envisaged for ITER and DEMO. In this paper we analyse the potential of ICRF waves to heat the fuel ions in DEMO. Our analysis is carried out for the DEMO1 Reference Scenario from October 2013 (B = 6.8 T, I = 18.6 MA, R = 9.25 m, a = 2.64 m) optimized for a maximum pulse length of 2.3 hrs using the ICRF modelling codes PION and TORIC. We focus on second harmonic heating of tritium and fundamental minority heating of {sup 3}He ions (with a few percent of {sup 3}He) in a 50%:50% D-T plasma. The dependence of the ICRF characteristics and the ICRF-accelerated ions on the ICRF and plasma parameters is investigated, giving special attention to the DEMO design point at a core plasma temperature of 30 keV and an electron density of 1.2·10{sup 20} m{sup −3}.

  2. Study of the effects of corrugated wall structures due to blanket modules around ICRH antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumortier, Pierre; Louche, Fabrice; Messiaen, André; Vervier, Michel

    2014-02-12

    In future fusion reactors, and in ITER, the first wall will be covered by blanket modules. These blanket modules, whose dimensions are of the order of the ICRF wavelengths, together with the clearance gaps between them will constitute a corrugated structure which will interact with the electromagnetic waves launched by ICRF antennas. The conditions in which the grooves constituted by the clearance gaps between the blanket modules can become resonant are studied. Simple analytical models and numerical simulations show that mushroom type structures (with larger gaps at the back than at the front) can bring down the resonance frequencies, which could lead to large voltages in the gaps between the blanket modules and perturb the RF properties of the antenna if they are in the ICRF operating range. The effect on the wave propagation along the wall structure, which is acting as a spatially periodic (toroidally and poloidally) corrugated structure, and hence constitutes a slow wave structure modifying the wall boundary condition, is examined.

  3. Notch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    2004-01-01

    Notch antennas, also known as the tapered slot antenna (TSA), have been the topics of research for decades. TSA has demonstrated multi-octave bandwidth, moderate gain (7 to 10 dB), and symmetric E- and H- plane beam patterns and can be used for many different applications. This chapter summarizes the research activities on notch antennas over the past decade with emphasis on their most recent advances and applications. This chapter begins with some discussions on the designs of single TSA; then follows with detailed discussions of issues associated with TSA designs and performance characteristics. To conclude the chapter, some recent developments in TSA arrays and their applications are highlighted.

  4. The mutagenic activity of razoxane (ICRF 159): an anticancer agent.

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, R.; Watkins, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of razoxane (ICRF 159) was studied using the Salmonella/microsome assay and rodent bone-marrow micronucleus and metaphase assays. Razoxane (up to 5000 micrograms/plate) did not cause an increase in the mutation frequency in the Salmonella/microsome assay. In the mouse micronucleus assay razoxane (200 and 400 mg kg-1 i.p.) was cytotoxic to the bone marrow cells (which limited the analysis) but an increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed in razoxane dosed animals (5-fold compared to control value). In the Chinese hamster metaphase assay razoxane (up to 500 mg kg-1 orally) induced abnormal chromosome condensation and an increase in structural chromosome aberrations (7 fold compared to control value) as well as an increase in the number of polypoid cells (8-fold compared to control value). The mutagenic effect of razoxane was restricted to eukaryotic organisms and was associated with specific chromosomal changes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3904803

  5. A predictive transport modeling code for ICRF-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Hwang, D.Q.; Houlberg, W.; Attenberger, S.; Tolliver, J.; Hively, L.

    1992-02-01

    In this report, a detailed description of the physic included in the WHIST/RAZE package as well as a few illustrative examples of the capabilities of the package will be presented. An in depth analysis of ICRF heating experiments using WHIST/RAZE will be discussed in a forthcoming report. A general overview of philosophy behind the structure of the WHIST/RAZE package, a summary of the features of the WHIST code, and a description of the interface to the RAZE subroutines are presented in section 2 of this report. Details of the physics contained in the RAZE code are examined in section 3. Sample results from the package follow in section 4, with concluding remarks and a discussion of possible improvements to the package discussed in section 5.

  6. Spacecraft Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Manshadi, Farzin; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Some of the various categories of issues that must be considered in the selection and design of spacecraft antennas for a Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) are addressed, and parametric studies for some of the antenna concepts to help the system designer in making the most appropriate antenna choice with regards to weight, size, and complexity, etc. are provided. The question of appropriate polarization for the spacecraft as well as for the User Terminal Antenna required particular attention and was studied in some depth. Circular polarization seems to be the favored outcome of this study. Another problem that has generally been a complicating factor in designing the multiple beam reflector antennas, is the type of feeds (single vs. multiple element and overlapping vs. non-overlapping clusters) needed for generating the beams. This choice is dependent on certain system design factors, such as the required frequency reuse, acceptable interbeam isolation, antenna efficiency, number of beams scanned, and beam-forming network (BFN) complexity. This issue is partially addressed, but is not completely resolved. Indications are that it may be possible to use relatively simple non-overlapping clusters of only a few elements, unless a large frequency reuse and very stringent isolation levels are required.

  7. Structural Analysis of the JET TAE Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, P.H.; Snipes, J.; Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Walton, B.

    2005-05-15

    In this paper the mechanical design of the new active MHD antennas for JET is described and the structural/mechanical analysis for the antennas is presented. These new antennas replace the existing n = 1 or 2 saddle coils with a set of eight smaller antennas designed to excite Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE's) with high toroidal mode number (n {approx} 10) in the frequency range of 30 kHz-500 kHz. TAE's with these higher mode numbers are expected in ITER and could enhance the loss of fast alpha particles in a burning plasma regime. By studying the properties of stable TAE's excited actively by these antennas, high performance regimes of operation avoiding unstable fast particle driven modes can be found. A more complete overview of the experiment may be found in Reference 1. Two antenna assemblies will be installed at toroidally opposite positions. Antenna wires are protected from the plasma heat flux by CFC tiles mounted on mini-limiters, located between the individual windings. The main structural element is a box section. The support scheme utilizes cantilevered brackets that connect to the saddle coils, and 'wing' brackets which add support to the top of the frame. Conservative estimates of the disruption currents in the MHD antennas and frame were used to calculate loading and resulting stress in the antenna structure. Fields, field transients, and halo current specifications were provided by JET. The frame originally was designed as a continuous loop, and was converted to an open structure to break eddy current loops. Antenna eddy currents were computed assuming the antenna is shorted. In the final design, frame forces primarily result from halo currents entering around the mini limiters that now protect the antenna windings. Accelerations due to the vessel disruption dynamic response were included in the loading. The antenna mechanical design has been shown to perform adequately for all identified disruption loading.

  8. The effect of ICRF and LHCD waveguide and launcher location on tritium breeding ratio and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierchio, J. M.; Whyte, D. G.; Wallace, G. M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    In most tokamak fusion reactor designs, ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) and lower hybrid (LH) waves used to heat the plasma and drive current are launched from the low magnetic field side where there is more access space. It has been recently proposed to launch these waves from the high-field side, which increases efficiency, allows for better wave penetration, and has favorable scrape-off-layer characteristics [Wallace RFPPC (2015)]. We investigate whether there are added benefits to high-field side launch compared with low-field side launch, including a smaller reduction in the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and less radiation damage as measured by displacements per atom (DPA) and He retention. We present results obtained with MCNP for TBR, DPA, and He retention for several geometries including two liquid immersion blanket designs and two solid blanket designs, while varying the location of a generic waveguide and antenna. Supported by USDoE award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  9. Field antenna handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuch, J. A.

    1984-06-01

    This handbook presents basic propagation theory, the fundamentals concerning antennas, and the design and use of tactical high frequency and very high frequency antennas. It is a field reference for basic antenna facts and a usage guide for antennas.

  10. Fast ion JET diagnostics: confinement and losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Sharapov, S. E.; Syme, D. B.; Cecconello, M.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Yavorskij, V.; Johnson, T.; Murari, A.; Reich, M.; Gorini, G.; Zoita, V.

    2008-03-12

    A study of magnetically confined fast ions in tokamaks plays an important role in burning plasma research. To reach ignition and steady burning of a reactor plasma an adequate confinement of energetic ions produced by NBI heating, accelerated with ICRF and born in fusion reactions is essential to provide efficient heating of the bulk plasma. Thus, investigation of the fast ion behaviour is an immediate task for present-day large machines, such as JET, in order to understand the main mechanisms of slowing down, redistribution and losses, and to develop optimal plasma scenarios. Today's JET has an enhanced suite of fast ion diagnostics both of confined and lost ions that enable to significantly contribute to this important area of research. Fast ion populations of p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, made with ICRF, NBI, and fusion reactions have been investigated in experiments on JET with sophisticated diagnostics in conventional and shear-reversed plasmas, exploring a wide range of effects. This paper will introduce to the JET fast-ion diagnostic techniques and will give an overview of recent observations. A synergy of the unique diagnostic set was utilised in JET, and studies of the response of fast ions to MHD modes (e.g. tornado modes, sawtooth crashes), fast {sup 3}He-ions behaviour in shear-reversed plasmas are impressive examples of that. Some results on fast ion losses in JET experiments with various levels of the toroidal field ripple will be demonstrated.

  11. Design, performance, and grounding aspects of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Durodié, F. Dumortier, P.; Vrancken, M.; Messiaen, A.; Huygen, S.; Louche, F.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Winkler, K.

    2014-06-15

    ITER's Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) system [Lamalle et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 88, 517–520 (2013)] comprises two antenna launchers designed by CYCLE (a consortium of European associations listed in the author affiliations above) on behalf of ITER Organisation (IO), each inserted as a Port Plug (PP) into one of ITER's Vacuum Vessel (VV) ports. Each launcher is an array of 4 toroidal by 6 poloidal RF current straps specified to couple up to 20 MW in total to the plasma in the frequency range of 40 to 55 MHz but limited to a maximum system voltage of 45 kV and limits on RF electric fields depending on their location and direction with respect to, respectively, the torus vacuum and the toroidal magnetic field. A crucial aspect of coupling ICRF power to plasmas is the knowledge of the plasma density profiles in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) and the location of the RF current straps with respect to the SOL. The launcher layout and details were optimized and its performance estimated for a worst case SOL provided by the IO. The paper summarizes the estimated performance obtained within the operational parameter space specified by IO. Aspects of the RF grounding of the whole antenna PP to the VV port and the effect of the voids between the PP and the Blanket Shielding Modules (BSM) surrounding the antenna front are discussed. These blanket modules, whose dimensions are of the order of the ICRF wavelengths, together with the clearance gaps between them will constitute a corrugated structure which will interact with the electromagnetic waves launched by ICRF antennas. The conditions in which the grooves constituted by the clearance gaps between the blanket modules can become resonant are studied. Simple analytical models and numerical simulations show that mushroom type structures (with larger gaps at the back than at the front) can bring down the resonance frequencies, which could lead to large voltages in the gaps between the blanket modules and perturb the

  12. Design, performance, and grounding aspects of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durodié, F.; Dumortier, P.; Vrancken, M.; Messiaen, A.; Bamber, R.; Hancock, D.; Huygen, S.; Lockley, D.; Louche, F.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Nightingale, M. P. S.; Shannon, M.; Tigwell, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Wilson, D.; Winkler, K.

    2014-06-01

    ITER's Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) system [Lamalle et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 88, 517-520 (2013)] comprises two antenna launchers designed by CYCLE (a consortium of European associations listed in the author affiliations above) on behalf of ITER Organisation (IO), each inserted as a Port Plug (PP) into one of ITER's Vacuum Vessel (VV) ports. Each launcher is an array of 4 toroidal by 6 poloidal RF current straps specified to couple up to 20 MW in total to the plasma in the frequency range of 40 to 55 MHz but limited to a maximum system voltage of 45 kV and limits on RF electric fields depending on their location and direction with respect to, respectively, the torus vacuum and the toroidal magnetic field. A crucial aspect of coupling ICRF power to plasmas is the knowledge of the plasma density profiles in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) and the location of the RF current straps with respect to the SOL. The launcher layout and details were optimized and its performance estimated for a worst case SOL provided by the IO. The paper summarizes the estimated performance obtained within the operational parameter space specified by IO. Aspects of the RF grounding of the whole antenna PP to the VV port and the effect of the voids between the PP and the Blanket Shielding Modules (BSM) surrounding the antenna front are discussed. These blanket modules, whose dimensions are of the order of the ICRF wavelengths, together with the clearance gaps between them will constitute a corrugated structure which will interact with the electromagnetic waves launched by ICRF antennas. The conditions in which the grooves constituted by the clearance gaps between the blanket modules can become resonant are studied. Simple analytical models and numerical simulations show that mushroom type structures (with larger gaps at the back than at the front) can bring down the resonance frequencies, which could lead to large voltages in the gaps between the blanket modules and perturb the RF

  13. Advances in High-Harmonic Fast Wave Physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Gary

    2009-11-01

    Improved core high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating, particularly at longer wavelengths and during low-density start-up and current ramp-up, has now been obtained by lowering the edge density with lithium conditioning, thereby moving the propagation onset away from the vessel wall. Significant core electron heating of deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) fuelled H-modes has been observed for the first time over a range of launched wavelengths. The observed broadening of the electron heating profile in H-mode relative to L-mode plasmas is consistent with simulations obtained with ray tracing and full wave models. Newly taken camera images indicate that fast wave interactions can deposit considerable RF energy on the outboard divertor plate, especially at longer wavelengths that begin to propagate closer to the vessel walls. Edge power loss can also arise from HHFW-generated parametric decay instabilities that drive ions in the edge onto direct loss orbits that intersect the wall, and may be the cause for an observed drag on edge toroidal rotation in combined HHFW and NBI discharges. Fast-Ion D-alpha emission clearly shows fast-ion profile broadening in the plasma core that is much greater than predicted by Fokker-Planck modeling when HHFW power is applied to NBI-fuelled plasmas, pointing to the need for a full-orbit treatment in the simulation. Large ELMs have been observed immediately following the termination of RF power, whether the power turn off is programmed or due to antenna arcing. RF power has been successfully applied during large ELMs by setting the source reflection coefficient trip levels to relatively high values -- an approach potentially important for ITER ICRF heating. Plans for an HHFW ELM-resilience upgrade will be presented.

  14. High-performance finite-difference time-domain simulations of C-Mod and ITER RF antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G. Smithe, David N.

    2015-12-10

    Finite-difference time-domain methods have, in recent years, developed powerful capabilities for modeling realistic ICRF behavior in fusion plasmas [1, 2, 3, 4]. When coupled with the power of modern high-performance computing platforms, such techniques allow the behavior of antenna near and far fields, and the flow of RF power, to be studied in realistic experimental scenarios at previously inaccessible levels of resolution. In this talk, we present results and 3D animations from high-performance FDTD simulations on the Titan Cray XK7 supercomputer, modeling both Alcator C-Mod’s field-aligned ICRF antenna and the ITER antenna module. Much of this work focuses on scans over edge density, and tailored edge density profiles, to study dispersion and the physics of slow wave excitation in the immediate vicinity of the antenna hardware and SOL. An understanding of the role of the lower-hybrid resonance in low-density scenarios is emerging, and possible implications of this for the NSTX launcher and power balance are also discussed. In addition, we discuss ongoing work centered on using these simulations to estimate sputtering and impurity production, as driven by the self-consistent sheath potentials at antenna surfaces.

  15. High-performance finite-difference time-domain simulations of C-Mod and ITER RF antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Smithe, David N.

    2015-12-01

    Finite-difference time-domain methods have, in recent years, developed powerful capabilities for modeling realistic ICRF behavior in fusion plasmas [1, 2, 3, 4]. When coupled with the power of modern high-performance computing platforms, such techniques allow the behavior of antenna near and far fields, and the flow of RF power, to be studied in realistic experimental scenarios at previously inaccessible levels of resolution. In this talk, we present results and 3D animations from high-performance FDTD simulations on the Titan Cray XK7 supercomputer, modeling both Alcator C-Mod's field-aligned ICRF antenna and the ITER antenna module. Much of this work focuses on scans over edge density, and tailored edge density profiles, to study dispersion and the physics of slow wave excitation in the immediate vicinity of the antenna hardware and SOL. An understanding of the role of the lower-hybrid resonance in low-density scenarios is emerging, and possible implications of this for the NSTX launcher and power balance are also discussed. In addition, we discuss ongoing work centered on using these simulations to estimate sputtering and impurity production, as driven by the self-consistent sheath potentials at antenna surfaces.

  16. Microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. Q.

    1973-01-01

    It is possible to design and construct simple, efficient microwave antenna, either linearly or circularly polarized, which should be useful in phased arrays. Mounted on thin dielectric substrate, it extends slightly above ground plane. Space behind ground plane is required for feed line and mounting hardware.

  17. DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Bittner, B.J.

    1958-05-20

    A high-frequency directional antenna of the 360 d scaring type is described. The antenna has for its desirable features the reduction in both size and complexity of the mechanism for rotating the antenna through its scanning movement. These advantages result from the rotation of only the driven element, the reflector remaining stationary. The particular antenna structure comprises a refiector formed by a plurality of metallic slats arranged in the configuration of an annular cage having the shape of a zone of revolution. The slats are parallel to each other and are disposed at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage. A directional radiator is disposed inside the cage at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage in the same direction as the reflecting slats which it faces. As the radiator is rotated, the electromagnetic wave is reflected from the slats facing the radiator and thereafter passes through the cage on the opposite side, since these slats are not parallel with the E vector of the wave.

  18. Nonlinear Effects in Single-Pass ICRF Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefiev, A. V.; Breizman, B. N.

    1999-01-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) concept employs Ion Cyclotron Resonant Frequency (ICRF) heating as the main power deposition mechanism. Since the ions accelerate to the full energy in a single pass through the cyclotron resonance, their response to the RF-field will be essentially nonlinear - hence the motivation to amend the commonly used linear approach to the problem. In a collisionless plasma, the energy gain of an accelerated ion is limited by the time the particle spends at the resonance. This time is affected by: (1) incident flow velocity, (2) longitudinal grad B force, (3) ambipolar electric field, and (4) ponderomotive force of the RF-field. Our analysis shows that the grad B force is the dominant factor at low to moderate levels of RF-power. We present nonlinear scaling for the energy gain and the absorption efficiency with RF-power and plasma parameters. We also demonstrate that the nonlinear regime exhibits a steep decrease in the plasma density at the resonance.

  19. An algorithm for the analysis of inductive antennas of arbitrary cross-section for heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrman, I.S.; Colestock, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    The application of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating to near ignited plasmas will require launching structures that will be capable of withstanding the harsh plasma environment. The recessed antenna configuration is expected to provide sufficient protection for the structure, but to date no analysis has been done to determine if adequate coupling can be achieved in such a configuration. In this work we present a method for determining the current distribution for the antenna in the direction transverse to current flow and predict antenna loading in the presence of plasma. Antennas of arbitrary cross section are analyzed above ground planes of arbitrary shape. Results from ANDES, the ANtenna DESign code, are presented and compared to experimental results.

  20. Breadboard Signal Processor for Arraying DSN Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Chandra, Kumar; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; Navarro, Robert; Rogstad, Stephen; Goodhart, Charles; Proctor, Robert; Jourdan, Michael; Rayhrer, Benno

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed breadboard version of an advanced signal processor for arraying many antennas in NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) can accept inputs in a 500-MHz-wide frequency band from six antennas. The next breadboard version is expected to accept inputs from 16 antennas, and a following developed version is expected to be designed according to an architecture that will be scalable to accept inputs from as many as 400 antennas. These and similar signal processors could also be used for combining multiple wide-band signals in non-DSN applications, including very-long-baseline interferometry and telecommunications. This signal processor performs functions of a wide-band FX correlator and a beam-forming signal combiner. [The term "FX" signifies that the digital samples of two given signals are fast Fourier transformed (F), then the fast Fourier transforms of the two signals are multiplied (X) prior to accumulation.] In this processor, the signals from the various antennas are broken up into channels in the frequency domain (see figure). In each frequency channel, the data from each antenna are correlated against the data from each other antenna; this is done for all antenna baselines (that is, for all antenna pairs). The results of the correlations are used to obtain calibration data to align the antenna signals in both phase and delay. Data from the various antenna frequency channels are also combined and calibration corrections are applied. The frequency-domain data thus combined are then synthesized back to the time domain for passing on to a telemetry receiver

  1. High frequency fast wave current drive for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Nightingale, M.

    2011-12-01

    A steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR) requires a high efficiency current drive system, from plug to driven mega-amps. RF systems working in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) have high efficiency from plug to antenna but a limited current drive (CD) efficiency and centrally peaked CD profiles. The latter feature is not adequate for a SSTR where the current should be sufficiently broad to keep the central safety factor (possibly significantly) above 1. In addition, the fact that the fast wave (FW) is evanescent at the edge limits coupling, requiring high voltage operation, which makes the system dependent on plasma edge properties and prone to arcing, reducing its reliability. A possible way to overcome these weaknesses is to operate at higher frequency (10 times or more the cyclotron frequency). The advantages are: (1) The coupling can be much better (waves propagate in vacuum) if the parallel refractive index n∥ is kept below one, (2) The FW group velocity tends to align to the magnetic field, so the power circumnavigates the magnetic axis and can drive off-axis current, (3) Due to the latter property, n∥ can be upshifted along the wave propagation path, allowing low n∥ launch (hence good coupling, large CD efficiency) with ultimately good electron absorption (which requires higher n∥). Note however that the n∥ upshift is a self-organized feature, that electron absorption is in competition with α-particle absorption and that uncoupling of the FW from the lower hybrid resonance at the edge requires n∥ slightly above one. The latter possibly counterproductive features might complicate the picture. The different aspects of this potentially attractive off-axis FWCD scheme are discussed.

  2. The behavior of neutron emissions during ICRF minority heating of plasma at EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Guoqiang; Cao, Hongrui; Hu, Liqun; Zhou, Ruijie; Xiao, Min; Li, Kai; Pu, Neng; Huang, Juan; Liu, Guangzhu; Lin, Shiyao; Lyu, Bo; Liu, Haiqing; Zhang, Xinjun; EAST Team

    2016-07-01

    Ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) wave heating is a primary method to heat ions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Through neutron diagnostics, effective ion heating was observed in hydrogenminority heating (MH) scenarios. At present, investigation of deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion neutrons is mostly based on time-resolved flux monitor and spectrometer measurements. When the ICRF was applied, the neutron intensity became one order higher. The H/H  +  D ratio was in the range of 5-10%, corresponding to the hydrogen MH dominated scenario, and a strong high energy tail was not displayed on the neutron spectrum that was measured by a liquid scintillator. Moreover, ion temperature in the plasma center (T i) was inversely calculated by the use of neutron source strength (S n) and the plasma density based on classical fusion reaction equations. This result indicates that T i increases by approximately 30% in L-mode plasma, and by more than 50% in H-mode plasma during ICRF heating, which shows good agreement with x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) diagnostics. Finally, the DD neutron source strength scaling law, with regard to plasma current (I P) and ICRF coupling power (P RF) on the typical minority heating condition, was obtained by statistical analysis.

  3. Optical positions of ICRF sources from CTIO 1.0m data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, M. I.; Berghea, C.; Dieck, C.; Dudik, R.; Hennessy, G.; Veillette, D.; Zacharias, N.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the USNO radio-optical reference frame link project, data were taken with the CTIO 1.0 m telescope in 2009. First position results of 5 ICRF sources are presented as part of this primarily photometric investigation of optical counterparts.

  4. The behavior of neutron emissions during ICRF minority heating of plasma at EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Guoqiang; Cao, Hongrui; Hu, Liqun; Zhou, Ruijie; Xiao, Min; Li, Kai; Pu, Neng; Huang, Juan; Liu, Guangzhu; Lin, Shiyao; Lyu, Bo; Liu, Haiqing; Zhang, Xinjun; EAST Team

    2016-07-01

    Ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) wave heating is a primary method to heat ions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Through neutron diagnostics, effective ion heating was observed in hydrogenminority heating (MH) scenarios. At present, investigation of deuterium–deuterium (DD) fusion neutrons is mostly based on time-resolved flux monitor and spectrometer measurements. When the ICRF was applied, the neutron intensity became one order higher. The H/H  +  D ratio was in the range of 5–10%, corresponding to the hydrogen MH dominated scenario, and a strong high energy tail was not displayed on the neutron spectrum that was measured by a liquid scintillator. Moreover, ion temperature in the plasma center (T i) was inversely calculated by the use of neutron source strength (S n) and the plasma density based on classical fusion reaction equations. This result indicates that T i increases by approximately 30% in L-mode plasma, and by more than 50% in H-mode plasma during ICRF heating, which shows good agreement with x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) diagnostics. Finally, the DD neutron source strength scaling law, with regard to plasma current (I P) and ICRF coupling power (P RF) on the typical minority heating condition, was obtained by statistical analysis.

  5. ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

  6. DSS 13 Microprocessor Antenna Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosline, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor based antenna controller system developed as part of the unattended station project for DSS 13 is described. Both the hardware and software top level designs are presented and the major problems encounted are discussed. Developments useful to related projects include a JPL standard 15 line interface using a single board computer, a general purpose parser, a fast floating point to ASCII conversion technique, and experience gained in using off board floating point processors with the 8080 CPU.

  7. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  8. Spectral analysis of ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) wave field measurements in the Tara Central Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Golovato, S.N.; Horne, S.F.

    1987-12-01

    A simple spectral analysis technique has been developed to analyse the digital signals from an array of magnetic probes for ICRF field measurements in the Tara Tandem Mirror central cell. The wave dispersion relations of both the applied ICRF and the Alfven Ion Cyclotron Instability have been studied and the waves have been identified as slow in cyclotron waves. The radial profiles of field amplitude and wave vectors were also generated. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Co-counter asymmetry in fast wave heating and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, E.F.; Carter, M.D.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; Forest, C.B.; Weitzner, H.

    1997-04-01

    Full wave ICRF coupling models show differences in plasma response when antenna arrays are phase to drive currents and counter to the plasma current. The source of this difference lies in the natural up- sown asymmetry of the antenna`s radiated power spectrum. This asymmetry is due to Hall terms in the wave equation, and occurs even without a poloidal magnetic field. When a poloidal field is included, the up-down asymmetry acquires a toroidal component. The result is that plasma absorption (i.e. antenna loading) is shifted or skewed toward the co-current drive direction, independent of the direction of the magnetic field. When wave are launched to drive current counter the plasma current , electron heating an current profiles are more peaked on axis, and this peaking becomes more pronounce a lower toroidal magnetic fields.

  10. Cell cycle-dependent DNA damage signaling induced by ICRF-193 involves ATM, ATR, CHK2, and BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Iha; Avraham, Hava Karsenty . E-mail: havraham@bidmc.harvard.edu

    2006-07-01

    Topoisomerase II is essential for cell proliferation and survival and has been a target of various anticancer drugs. ICRF-193 has long been used as a catalytic inhibitor to study the function of topoisomerase II. Here, we show that ICRF-193 treatment induces DNA damage signaling. Treatment with ICRF-193 induced G2 arrest and DNA damage signaling involving {gamma}-H2AX foci formation and CHK2 phosphorylation. DNA damage by ICRF-193 was further demonstrated by formation of the nuclear foci of 53BP1, NBS1, BRCA1, MDC1, and FANCD2 and increased comet tail moment. The DNA damage signaling induced by ICRF-193 was mediated by ATM and ATR and was restricted to cells in specific cell cycle stages such as S, G2, and mitosis including late and early G1 phases. Downstream signaling of ATM and ATR involved the phosphorylation of CHK2 and BRCA1. Altogether, our results demonstrate that ICRF-193 induces DNA damage signaling in a cell cycle-dependent manner and suggest that topoisomerase II might be essential for the progression of the cell cycle at several stages including DNA decondensation.

  11. Computer controlled antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raumann, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of small computers using digital techniques for operating the servo and control system of large antennas is discussed. The advantages of the system are described. The techniques were evaluated with a forty foot antenna and the Sigma V computer. Programs have been completed which drive the antenna directly without the need for a servo amplifier, antenna position programmer or a scan generator.

  12. Impulse Testing of Corporate-Fed Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel method for detecting faults in antenna arrays. The method, termed Impulse Testing, was developed for corporate-fed patch arrays where the element is fed by a probe and is shorted at its center. Impulse Testing was devised to supplement conventional microwave measurements in order to quickly verify antenna integrity. The technique relies on exciting each antenna element in turn with a fast pulse (or impulse) that propagates through the feed network to the output port of the antenna. The resulting impulse response is characteristic of the path through the feed network. Using an oscilloscope, a simple amplitude measurement can be made to detect faults. A circuit model of the antenna elements and feed network was constructed to assess various fault scenarios and determine fault-detection thresholds. The experimental setup and impulse measurements for two patch array antennas are presented. Advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed along with applications to other antenna array topologies

  13. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  14. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  15. Planar Microstrip Yagi Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1990-01-01

    Developmental class of antennas based on combination of microstrip-patch and Yagi-array concepts. Mutual coupling between microstrip elements, ordinarily considered nuisance, used to advantage. Applicable to both linearly and circularly polarized antennas. Use of fewer driven elements results in less complexity and reduced loss of power in associated transmission lines and other coupling and power-distributing circuitry. Applications include antennas on land vehicles, television receiving antennas, and conformal antennas on aircraft.

  16. Extending the ICRF to Higher Radio Frequencies: Imaging and Source Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boboltz, David A.; Fey, Alan L.; Charlot, Patrick; Fomalont, Edward B.; Lanyi, Gabor E.; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2004-01-01

    We present imaging results and source structure analysis of extragalactic radio sources observed using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 24 GHz and 43 GHz as part of an ongoing NASA, USNO, NRAO and Bordeaux Observatory collaboration to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to higher radio frequencies. The K/Q-band image database now includes images of 108 sources at 43 GHz (Q-braid) and images of 230 sources at 24 GHz (K-band). Preliminary analysis of the observations taken to date shows that the sources are generally more compact as one goes from the ICRF frequency of 8.4 GHz to 24 GHz. This result is consistent with the standard theory of compact extragalactic radio sources and suggests that reference frames defined at these higher radio frequencies will be less susceptible to the effects of intrinsic source structure than those defined at lower frequencies.

  17. Extending the ICRF to Higher Radio Frequencies: 24 and 43 GHz Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Charlot, Patrick; Fomalont, Ed B.; Gordon, David; Lanyi, Gabor E.; Ma, Chopo; Naudet, Charles J.; Sovers, Ojars J.; Zhang, Li-Wei D.

    2004-01-01

    We present imaging results and source structure analysis of extragalactic radio sources observed using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 24 GHz and 43 GHz as part of an ongoing NASA, USNO, NRAO and Bordeaux Observatory collaboration to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to higher radio frequencies. The K/Q-band image database now includes images of 108 sources at 43 GHz (Q-band) and images of 230 sources at 24 GHz (K-band). Preliminary analysis of the observations taken to date shows that the sources are generally more compact as one goes from the ICRF frequency of 8.4 GHz to 24 GHz. This result is consistent with the standard theory of compact extragalactic radio sources and suggests that reference frames defined at these higher radio frequencies will be less susceptible to the effects of intrinsic source structure than those defined at lower frequencies.

  18. Study of frame tie between planetary ephemerids and ICRF with millisecond and young pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Hobbs, George; Coles, William

    2016-07-01

    The positions of pulsar can be measured by pulsar timing technology and VLBI astrometry with high precision. They can be used to tie between referece frame based on solar system ephemerids and distant quasars with high accuracy. In this paper, we have collect the pulsar positions with VLBI measurement and obtain the pulsar timing position form Nanshan and Parkes data archive. We derive the rotation matrix between JPL DE and ICRF reference frame.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ICRF2 sources of the Rio survey (Assafin+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assafin, M.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Andrei, A. H.; Camargo, J. I. B.; da Silva Neto, D. N.

    2014-04-01

    In our observations, we used two non-dedicated instruments, shared by the Brazilian astronomical community: the 0.6m diameter Bollen & Chivens Cassegrain telescope (F/13.5, f=8.1m) and the 1.6m diameter Perkin-Elmer Cassegrain telescope (F/10, f=16m), located at the LNA observing site, the Observatorio do Pico dos Dias, Brasopolis, Brazil (OPD/LNA) (IAU code 874; λ=+45:34:57, φ=-22:32:04, h=1870m). We added sources for observation later on, with the outcome of the ICRF-ext1 (Ma, 2001, 15th Working Meeting on European VLBI for Geodesy and Astrometry) and of the ICRF-ext2 (Fey et al., 2008, Cat. J/AJ/127/3587). Naturally, not all sources could be observed, due to prohibitive telescope time consuming. When the ICRF2 was finally released in 2009, the program at OPD/LNA had already finished. (1 data file).

  20. On the nonlinear couplings among ICRF waves observed in GAMMA 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Okada, T.; Hirata, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sumida, S.; Takeyama, K.; Jang, S.; Oi, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; GAMMA 10 Team

    2014-10-01

    Effective ICRF heating creates high ion-temperature plasma of several kiloelectronvolts and the ion-temperature anisotropy exceeds 10 near the midplane of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. In such environment, left-hand polarized Alfven wave becomes unstable overcoming ion-cyclotron damping and so-called Alfven-ion-cyclotron (AIC) wave is spontaneously excited. Density fluctuations associated with AIC waves and ICRF waves for heating have been recently measured by using reflectometers on GAMMA 10. The measured fluctuations show fruitful wave-wave couplings more clearly than magnetic fluctuations measured by pick-up coils at the plasma periphery. The signals showing the axially transported energetic-ion flux and the diamagnetism display apparent effects of such nonlinear couplings on the global energy confinement of GAMMA 10. Bispectral analysis is applied to the density fluctuations and the detailed characteristics of the nonlinear couplings occurring among the AIC waves and ICRF waves for heating in GAMMA 10 are presented. This work is partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from JSPS, Japan (No. 25400531) and by the bidirectional collaborative research programme of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan (NIFS14KUGM097).

  1. The interaction of the near-field plasma with antennas used in magnetic fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, John

    2015-09-01

    Plasma heating and current drive using antennas in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are important elements for the success of magnetic fusion. The antennas must operate in a harsh environment, where local plasma densities can be >1018/m3, magnetic fields can range from 0.2-5 Tesla, and antenna operating voltages can be >40 kV. This environment creates operational issues due to the interaction of the near-field of the antenna with the local plasma. In addition to parasitic losses in this plasma region, voltage and current distributions on the antenna structure lead to the formation of high electric fields and RF plasma sheaths, which can lead to enhanced particle and energy fluxes on the antenna and on surfaces intersected by magnetic field lines connected to or passing near the antenna. These issues are being studied using a simple electrode structure and a single-strap antenna on the Prototype Materials Plasma EXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at ORNL, which is a linear plasma device that uses an electron Bernstein wave heated helicon plasma source to create a high-density plasma suitable for use in a plasma-material interaction test stand. Several diagnostics are being used to characterize the near-field interactions, including double-Langmuir probes, a retarding field energy analyzer, and optical emission spectroscopy. The RF electric field is being studied utilizing Dynamic Stark Effect spectroscopy and Doppler-Free Saturation Spectroscopy. Recent experimental results and future plans will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  2. Effects of Radial Electric Fields on ICRF Waves

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. Phillips; J.C. Hosea; M. Ono; J.R. Wilson

    2001-06-18

    Equilibrium considerations infer that large localized radial electric fields are associated with internal transport barrier structures in tokamaks and other toroidal magnetic confinement configurations. In this paper, the effects of an equilibrium electric field on fast magnetosonic wave propagation are considered in the context of a cold plasma model.

  3. On the Nature of Monster Sawteeth during ICRF Heating

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. Phillips; E.D. Fredrickson; G. Schilling; J.C. Hosea; J.R. Wilson; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Budny; R. Majeski; S. Bernabei

    1999-05-01

    A correlation between the presence of Energetic Particle Modes and long period sawteeth is explored. The crash of monster sawteeth is explained in terms of the loss of the stabilizing fast particles due to the EPM. High qa discharges, which never develop long period sawteeth, are explained in terms of ion loss due to Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE).

  4. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  5. Coherently combining antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  6. Antenna performance and resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of the antenna throughout SL-2, SL-3, and SL-4 was investigated along with the antenna resolution of brightness temperature during flight. The target area selected for the test flights was the Gulf of California, as it offered land/water interface. The coordinate transformations and antenna orientation, flight path simulation, and integration over the radiometric target are discussed.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio fluxes of 195 ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources (Le Bail+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bail, K.; Gipson, J. M.; Gordon, D.; MacMillan, D. S.; Behrend, D.; Thomas, C. C.; Bolotin, S.; Himwich, W. E.; Baver, K. D.; Corey, B. E.; Titus, M.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; Collioud, A.

    2016-07-01

    The second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) is based on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data at radio frequencies in X band and S band. The European Space Agency's Gaia mission, launched on 2013 December 19, started routine scientific operations in 2014 July. By scanning the whole sky, it is expected to observe ~500000 Quasi Stellar Objects in the optical domain. This means that, in the future, two extragalactic celestial reference frames, at two different frequency domains, will coexist. It will thus be important to align them very accurately. In 2012, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB) selected 195 sources from ICRF2 that will be observed by Gaia and should be suitable for aligning the radio and optical frames: they are called ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources. The LAB submitted a proposal to the International VLBI Service (IVS) to regularly observe these ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources at the same rate as Gaia observes them in the optical realm, e.g., roughly once a month. Of the 195 sources, all but one have been successfully observed in the 12 months prior to 2015 September 01. Table1 lists the 195 ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources. Beginning in 2003 June, the Goddard VLBI group developed a program to purposefully monitor when sources were observed and to increase the observations of "under-observed" sources. In 2013 March, we added all 195 ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources to the IVS source monitoring program with an observation target of 12 successful sessions per year. (1 data file).

  8. The ALMA antenna procurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, S.; Zivick, Jeff; Inatani, Junji

    2009-10-01

    Visitors who come to the OSF at regular intervals find a growing population of antennas at various stages of assembly and testing. The long path from the start of the definition of antenna specifications to the start of science operations with the antennas was and still is a formidable endeavor. When completed, ALMA will comprise a 12-meter diameter antennas array, the bilateral interferometer array, of a minimum of fifty antennas and in addition, the ACA (Atacama Compact Array), composed of four 12-meter diameter antennas and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas. Out of the fifty antennas of the bilateral interferometer array, one-half are provided by the North American partners of ALMA, the other half by the European partners. The sixteen antennas that will comprise the ACA are provided by the East Asian Partners of ALMA. Here we review some key points of this challenging process and we provide a brief history and status of the ALMA antennas. Because of the length of the description, we will present this in a series of two articles. In this first part we concentrate mostly on the bilateral antenna procurement. A detailed description of the ACA will be presented in the next newsletter.

  9. JPL antenna technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1981-02-01

    Plans for evaluating, designing, fabricating, transporting and deploying cost effective and STS compatible offset wrap rib antennas up to 300 meters in diameter for mobile communications, Earth resources observation, and for the orbiting VLBI are reviewed. The JPL surface measurement system, intended for large mesh deployable antenna applications will be demonstrated and validated as part of the antenna ground based demonstration program. Results of the offset wrap rib deployable antenna technology development will include: (1) high confidence structural designs for antennas up to 100 meters in diameter; (2) high confidence estimates of functional performance and fabrication cost for a wide range of antenna sizes (up to 300 meters in diameter); (3) risk assessment for fabricating the large size antennas; and (4) 55 meter diameter flight quality hardware that can be cost effectively completed toto accommodate a flight experiment and/or application.

  10. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; Wert, Michael; Leung, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  11. FORTE antenna element and release mechanism design

    SciTech Connect

    Rohweller, D.J.; Butler, T.Af.

    1995-02-01

    The Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite being built by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has as its most prominent feature a large deployable (11 m by 5 m) log periodic antenna to monitor emissions from electrical storms on the Earth. This paper describes the antenna and the design for the long elements and explains the dynamics of their deployment and the damping system employed. It also describes the unique paraffin-actuated reusable tie-down and release mechanism employed in the system.

  12. FORTE antenna element and release mechanism design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohweller, David J.; Butler, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    The Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite being built by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has as its most prominent feature a large deployable (11 m by 5 m) log periodic antenna to monitor emissions from electrical storms on the Earth. This paper describes the antenna and the design for the long elements and explains the dynamics of their deployment and the damping system employed. It also describes the unique paraffin-actuated reusable tie-down and release mechanism employed in the system.

  13. The impact of the New IAU Resolutions on ICRF Definition and Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.

    2013-03-01

    Following the adoption of the International Celestial Reference System and Frame (ICRS and ICRF) by the IAU in 1997, several resolutions on reference systems have been passed by the IAU in 2000 and 2006 and endorsed by the IUGG in 2003 and 2007, respectively. These resolutions concern especially the transformation between the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and the Geocentric Celestial Reference system (GCRS) that is essential for realizing the ICRS from directions of extragalactic radio sources observed from the Earth by VLBI. First, the IAU 2000 resolutions have refined the concepts and definition of the astronomical reference systems and parameters for Earth's rotation, and adopted the IAU 2000 precession-nutation. Then, the IAU 2006 resolutions have adopted a new precession model that is consistent with dynamical theories and have addressed definition, terminology or orientation issues relative to reference systems and time scales that needed to be specified after the adoption of the IAU 2000 resolutions. These in particular provide a refined definition of the pole and the origin on the equator as well as a rigorous definition of sidereal rotation of the Earth. These also allow an accurate realization of the celestial intermediate system that replaces the classical celestial system based on the true equator and equinox of date. There was an additional IUGG 2007 resolution for the terrestrial reference system. Finally, the IAU 2009 resolutions have adopted a new system of astronomical constants - including conventional values of the IAU 2000/2006 resolutions - and adopted the Second Realization, ICRF2, of the International Celestial Reference Frame. This paper recalls the main aspects of these recent IAU resolutions as well as their consequences on the concepts, definitions, nomenclature and models that are suitable for modern realizations of reference systems. The impact of these resolutions on the definition and realization of the

  14. Study of ICRF wave propagation and plasma coupling efficiency in a linear magnetic mirror device

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.Y.

    1991-07-01

    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) wave propagation in an inhomogeneous axial magnetic field in a cylindrical plasma-vacuum system has historically been inadequately modelled. Previous works either sacrifice the cylindrical geometry in favor of a simpler slab geometry, concentrate on the resonance region, use a single mode to represent the entire field structure, or examine only radial propagation. This thesis performs both analytical and computational studies to model the ICRF wave-plasma coupling and propagation problem. Experimental analysis is also conducted to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Both theoretical as well as experimental analysis are undertaken as part of the thesis. The theoretical studies simulate the propagation of ICRF waves in an axially inhomogeneous magnetic field and in cylindrical geometry. Two theoretical analysis are undertaken - an analytical study and a computational study. The analytical study treats the inhomogeneous magnetic field by transforming the (r,z) coordinate into another coordinate system ({rho},{xi}) that allows the solution of the fields with much simpler boundaries. The plasma fields are then Fourier transformed into two coupled convolution-integral equations which are then differenced and solved for both the perpendicular mode number {alpha} as well as the complete EM fields. The computational study involves a multiple eigenmode computational analysis of the fields that exist within the plasma-vacuum system. The inhomogeneous axial field is treated by dividing the geometry into a series of transverse axial slices and using a constant dielectric tensor in each individual slice. The slices are then connected by longitudinal boundary conditions.

  15. Automated Antenna Design with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Derek; Hornby, Greg; Lohn, Jason; Globus, Al; Krishunkumor, K.

    2006-01-01

    Current methods of designing and optimizing antennas by hand are time and labor intensive, and limit complexity. Evolutionary design techniques can overcome these limitations by searching the design space and automatically finding effective solutions. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms have shown great promise in finding practical solutions in large, poorly understood design spaces. In particular, spacecraft antenna design has proven tractable to evolutionary design techniques. Researchers have been investigating evolutionary antenna design and optimization since the early 1990s, and the field has grown in recent years as computer speed has increased and electromagnetic simulators have improved. Two requirements-compliant antennas, one for ST5 and another for TDRS-C, have been automatically designed by evolutionary algorithms. The ST5 antenna is slated to fly this year, and a TDRS-C phased array element has been fabricated and tested. Such automated evolutionary design is enabled by medium-to-high quality simulators and fast modern computers to evaluate computer-generated designs. Evolutionary algorithms automate cut-and-try engineering, substituting automated search though millions of potential designs for intelligent search by engineers through a much smaller number of designs. For evolutionary design, the engineer chooses the evolutionary technique, parameters and the basic form of the antenna, e.g., single wire for ST5 and crossed-element Yagi for TDRS-C. Evolutionary algorithms then search for optimal configurations in the space defined by the engineer. NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission will launch three small spacecraft to test innovative concepts and technologies. Advanced evolutionary algorithms were used to automatically design antennas for ST5. The combination of wide beamwidth for a circularly-polarized wave and wide impedance bandwidth made for a challenging antenna design problem. From past experience in designing wire antennas, we chose to

  16. A True Metasurface Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Badawe, Mohamed El; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately. PMID:26759177

  17. Conical-reflector antennas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical advantages of a singly curved conical reflector are demonstrated by the experimental test of a furlable 1.83 m conical-Gregorian antenna at 16.33 GHz. The measured gain of 47.5 dB corresponds to a net efficiency of over 57%. A ray-optics analysis of conical-reflector antennas is presented, and data useful in the design of conical antennas are given. The conical-Gregorian antenna, in which a subreflector is used in conjunction with a conventional horn feed, is considered in detail. A physical-optics analysis of the conical-Gregorian antenna is used to investigate diffraction and other effects, and to analytically confirm the high performance of the antenna.

  18. Focusing the parabolic antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. K.; Moore, R. K.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The focused parabolic antenna has far field pattern characteristics in the radiating near field region. Therefore, it can provide fine resolutions in the across range dimensions. The technique of focusing the parabolic antenna is discussed and applied to a 2-1/2 foot parabolic antenna at X-band. The results of the pattern measurements at various ranges from 2.8 m to 5 m are provided.

  19. ICRF wall conditioning at TEXTOR-94 in the presence of a 2.25 T magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, H. G.; Lyssoivan, A.; Freisinger, M.; Koch, R.; van Oost, G.; Weschenfelder, F.; Winter, J.; Textor-Icrh-Team

    1997-02-01

    To investigate alternative conditioning concepts for future fusion devices with permanent magnetic fields, plasmas produced by the coupling of ICRF power to He and gas mixtures of Helium + silane, have been analyzed in the presence of a 2.25 T toroidal magnetic field at TEXTOR-94. Their qualification for wall conditioning has been investigated for different He-pressures, PHe (1 × 10 -3 < PHe ( Pa) < 1 × 10 -1) and ICRF power, PICRF (100 < PICRF ( kW) < 800). Electron densities n e averaged along different radial lines of sight across the vacuum vessel from the top to the bottom have been obtained in the range 5 × 10 10 < ne ( cm-3) < 3 × 10 12. To study quantitatively the efficiency of hydrogen desorption from the first wall at different ICRF plasma conditions in a reproducible way, the first wall was presaturated by RG-glow discharges in H 2. The amount and the evolution of the H 2 desorption from rf discharge to rf discharge was determined by ion gauge measurements combined with mass spectrometry. To demonstrate the capability of the new method for plasma assisted thin film deposition, different amounts of silane (<50%) were added to the He gas. During the ICRF pulses, the silane molecules were dissociated in the plasma and the Si atoms stick to the wall. A good balance of the amount of Si disappearing from the gas phase and that measured by post mortem surface analyses of collector probes at the wall position was found.

  20. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  1. MSU Antenna Pattern Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan; Kleespies, Thomas J.; Green, J. Philip

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) antenna pattern data for nine MSU Flight Models (FMs) have been successfully rescued from 22-year old 7-track and 9-track magnetic tapes and cartridges. These antenna pattern data were unpacked into user-friendly ASCII format, and are potentially useful for making antenna pattern corrections to MSU antenna temperatures in retrieving the true brightness temperatures. We also properly interpreted the contents of the data and show how to convert the measured antenna signal amplitude in volts into relative antenna power in dB with proper normalization. It is found that the data are of high quality with a 60-dB drop in the co-polarized antenna patterns from the central peak value to its side-lobe regions at scan angles beyond 30 deg. The unpacked antenna pattern data produced in this study provide a useful database for data users to correct the antenna side-lobe contribution to MSU measurements. All of the data are available to the scientific community on a single CD-ROM.

  2. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  3. Recent results for plasma antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeff, Igor; Anderson, Ted; Farshi, Esmaeil; Karnam, Naresh; Pulasani, Nanditha Reddy

    2008-05-15

    Plasma antennas are just as effective as metal antennas. They can transmit, receive, and reflect radio waves just as well as metal antennas. In addition, plasma generated noise does not appear to be a problem.

  4. Toroidal Flow Generation by the ICRF Minority Heating and RF Wave Field Profile Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, S.; Itoh, K.; Zheng, L. J.; Van Dam, J. W.; Fukuyama, A.

    2011-12-01

    The toroidal flow generation by the ICRF minority heating is investigated in the Alcator C-Mod like tokamak plasma applying GNET code, in which the drift kinetic equation is solved in 5D phase-space. An asymmetry of velocity distribution function in the parallel direction is found and two kinds of toroidal flows are observed. One is the sheared flow near the RF power absorption region depending on the sign of k∥ and the other is the toroidal flow, which is larger than the previous one, independent of the sign of k∥. It is found that the k∥ sign dependent flow would be related to the mechanism proposed by Ohkawa et al. [Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 094506.] and that the k∥ sign independent toroidal flow is generated by the net toroidal motion of energetic tail ions. We also investigate the effect of RF wave field profile on the toroidal flow generation comparing the local and broad heating cases. A broader toroidal flow is obtained and about 5 times of ICRF heating power is necessary for generating the similar amplitude of toroidal flow in the broad heating case.

  5. Experimental Results of Schlicher's Thrusting Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the claims by Rex L. Schlicher, et al., (Patent 5,142,86 1) that a certain antenna geometry produces thrust greatly exceeding radiation reaction, when driven by repetitive, fast rise, and relatively slower decay current pulses. In order to test this hypothesis, the antenna was suspended by strings as a 3 in pendulum. Current pulses were fed to the antenna along the suspension path by a very flexible coaxial line constructed from loudspeaker cable and copper braid sheath. When driving the antenna via this cabling, our pulser was capable of sustaining 1200 A pulses at a rate of 30 per second up to a minute. In this way, bursts of pulses could be delivered in synch with the pendulum period in order to build up any motion. However, when using a laser beam passing through a lens attached to the antenna to amplify linear displacement by a factor of at least 25, no correlated motion of the beam spot could be detected on a distant wall. We conclude, in agreement with the momentum theorem of classical electromagnetic theory, that any thrust produced is far below practically useful levels. Hence, within classical electrodynamics, there is little hope of detecting any low level motion that cannot be explained by interactions with surrounding structural steel and the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. Scattering and radiation from cylindrically conformal antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempel, Leo Charles

    Microstrip patch antennas offer considerable advantages in terms of weight, aerodynamic drag, cost, flexibility, and observability over more conventional protruding antennas. Two hybrid finite element methods are presented and are used to examine the scattering and radiation behavior of cylindrically conformal patches. In conjunction with a new divergence-free cylindrical shell element, the finite element-boundary integral method is shown to have low computational and memory requirements when compared with competing approaches. This method uses an efficient creeping wave series for the computation of the dyadic Green's function and a uniform surface mesh so that a fast Fourier transform may be used to reduce the computational and memory burden of the method. An alternative finite element-absorbing boundary condition approach incorporates a new conformal vector condition which minimizes the computational domain. The latter method is more flexible than the former because it can incorporate surface coatings and protruding antennas. Guidelines are established for minimal ABC displacement from the aperture. These two hybrid finite element methods are used to study the scattering, radiation, and input impedance of typical conformal antenna arrays. In particular, the effect of curvature and cavity size is examined for both discrete and wraparound antenna arrays.

  7. Milestones in Broadcasting: Antennas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media in Education and Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes the development of antennas in the prebroadcast era (elevated antenna, selectivity to prevent interference between stations, birth of diplex, directional properties, support structures), as well as technological developments used in long-, medium-, and short-wave broadcasting, VHF/FM and television broadcasting, and satellite…

  8. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  9. mm-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, H. P.

    1985-07-01

    The present low profile seeker front end's slotted waveguide antenna was primarily developed to investigate the feasibility of the application of standard manufacturing techniques to mm-wave hardware. A dual plane monopulse comparator was constructed to mate with the antenna via integrated packaging techniques. The comparator was fabricated by CAD/CAM milling operations.

  10. Space base antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerkoski, L. F.

    1971-01-01

    The field of view required of the space base antenna is defined for both the tracking and data relay satellite link and detached module links. The gain requirements are established and the feasibility of alternative antenna configurations using phased arrays and reflectors are considered. One recommended and one alternative configuration are presented for each of the required links.

  11. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagherian, A. B.; Mielke, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Use of calculation program START and modeling program P 3D to produce radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a space station is discussed. Basic components of two space stations in the early design stage are simulated and radiation patterns for antennas mounted on the modules are presented.

  12. Aircraft radar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, Helmut E.

    1987-04-01

    Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

  13. Investigating antennas as ignition aid for automotive HID lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, A.; Engelhardt, M.; Bienholz, S.; Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Groeger, S.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ignition of mercury-free high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps for car headlights. Due to safety reasons, these lamps need to have a fast run-up phase which is ensured, amongst other things, by a high Xe pressure of roughly 15 bar (cold) in the discharge vessel. The high Xe pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with former mercury-containing automotive HID lamps or low-pressure lamps used for general-lighting applications. The increase in ignition voltage can be limited if the electric field in front of the electrodes is raised by an uplifting of the electrical conductivity along the outer wall of the inner bulb either by a conductive layer on its surface or by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) within the outer bulb. This paper considers on the one hand conventional antennas deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) and on the other hand a combination of these antennas with a DBD within the outer-bulb operated in 100 mbar Ar as ignition aids. In both cases the antenna potential and antenna width are varied. Additionally, the effects of antenna thickness and antenna material are investigated. The ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission during ignition are measured on a nanosecond timescale. Furthermore, for the very first time, the ignition process is recorded in four consecutive intensified charge-coupled device images using a high-speed camera system with a time resolution in the range of nanoseconds. It was found that antennas strongly reduce the ignition voltage of automotive HID lamps. Active antennas reduce the ignition voltage significantly more than passive antennas, proportional to the conductance of the antenna. Combining conventional antennas with an outer-bulb discharge reduces the ignition voltage from 19 kV without any ignition aid to the intrinsic ignition voltage of the lamp below 10 kV, in the best case.

  14. ORNL compact loop antenna design for TFTR and Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Bryan, W.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; McIlwain, R.L. ); Ray, J.M. )

    1987-01-01

    The goal supplemental ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of fusion plasma is to deliver power at high efficiencies deep within the plasma. The technology for fast-wave ICRH has reached the point of requiring proof-of-performance'' demonstration of specific antenna configurations of specific antenna configurations and their mechanical adequacy for operating in a fusion environment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the compact loop antenna concept based on a resonant double loop (RDL) configuration for use in both Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Tore Supra ICRH programs. A description and a comparison of the technologies developed in the two designs are presented. The electrical circuit and the mechanical philosophy employed are the same for both antennas, but different operating environments result in substantial differences in the design of specific components. The ORNL TFTR antenna is designed to deliver 4 MW over a 2-s pulse, and the ORNL Tore Supra antenna is designed for 4 MW and essentially steady-state conditions. The TFTR design embodies the first operations compact RDL antenna, and the Tore Supra antenna extends the technology to an operational duty cycle consistent with reactor-relevant applications. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. ICRF-193, an anticancer topoisomerase II inhibitor, induces arched telophase spindles that snap, leading to a ploidy increase in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Norihiko; Mehrotra, Rajesh; Arakawa, Orie; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    ICRF-193 [meso-4,4-(2,3-butanediyl)-bis(2,6-piperazinedione)] is a complex-stabilizing inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) that is used as an effective anticancer drug. ICRF-193 inhibits topo II catalytic activity in vitro and blocks nuclear division in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of ICRF-193 treatment on chromatin behavior and spindle dynamics using detailed live mitotic cell analysis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Time-lapse movie analysis showed that ICRF-193 treatment leads to an elongation of presumed chromatin fibers connected to kinetochores during mid-mitosis. Anaphase spindles begin to arch, and eventually spindle poles come together abruptly, as if the spindle snapped at the point of spindle microtubule overlap in telophase. Segregating chromosomes appeared as elastic clumps and subsequently pulled back and merged. The snapped spindle phenotype was abolished by microtubule destabilization after thiabendazole treatment, accompanied by unequal chromosome segregation or severe defects in spindle extension. Thus, we conclude that ICRF-193-treated, unseparated sister chromatids pulling toward opposite spindle poles produce the arched and snapped telophase spindle. ICRF-193 treatment increased DNA content, suggesting that the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly in anaphase, causes the spindle to break in telophase, resulting in polyploidization. PMID:27458047

  16. ICRF-193, an anticancer topoisomerase II inhibitor, induces arched telophase spindles that snap, leading to a ploidy increase in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Norihiko; Mehrotra, Rajesh; Arakawa, Orie; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    ICRF-193 [meso-4,4-(2,3-butanediyl)-bis(2,6-piperazinedione)] is a complex-stabilizing inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) that is used as an effective anticancer drug. ICRF-193 inhibits topo II catalytic activity in vitro and blocks nuclear division in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of ICRF-193 treatment on chromatin behavior and spindle dynamics using detailed live mitotic cell analysis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Time-lapse movie analysis showed that ICRF-193 treatment leads to an elongation of presumed chromatin fibers connected to kinetochores during mid-mitosis. Anaphase spindles begin to arch, and eventually spindle poles come together abruptly, as if the spindle snapped at the point of spindle microtubule overlap in telophase. Segregating chromosomes appeared as elastic clumps and subsequently pulled back and merged. The snapped spindle phenotype was abolished by microtubule destabilization after thiabendazole treatment, accompanied by unequal chromosome segregation or severe defects in spindle extension. Thus, we conclude that ICRF-193-treated, unseparated sister chromatids pulling toward opposite spindle poles produce the arched and snapped telophase spindle. ICRF-193 treatment increased DNA content, suggesting that the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly in anaphase, causes the spindle to break in telophase, resulting in polyploidization.

  17. Antenna Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix

    2007-01-01

    This presentation addresses the efforts being performed at GRC to develop antenna technology in support of NASA s Exploration Vision. In particular, the presentation discusses the communications architecture asset-specific data services, as well as wide area coverage, high gain, low mass deployable antennas. Phased array antennas as well as electrically small, lightweight, low power, multifunctional antennas will be also discussed.

  18. Antenna Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation addresses the efforts being performed at GRC to develop antenna technology in support of NASA s Exploration Vision. In particular, the presentation discusses the communications architecture asset-specific data services, as well as wide area coverage, high gain, low mass deployable antennas. Phased array antennas as well as electrically small, lightweight, low power, multifunctional antennas will be also discussed.

  19. RF MEMS Based Reconfigurable Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will first of all address the advantages of RF MEMS circuit in antenna applications and also the need for electronically reconfigurable antennas. Next, discuss some of the recent examples of RF MEMS based reconfigurable microstrip antennas. Finally, conclude the talk with a summary of MEMS antenna performance.

  20. Autonomous omnidirectional spacecraft antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a low gain Electronically Switchable Spherical Array Antenna is discussed. This antenna provides roughly 7 dBic gain for receive/transmit operation between user satellites and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. When used as a pair, the antenna provides spherical coverage. The antenna was tested in its primary operating modes: directed beam, retrodirective, and Omnidirectional.

  1. Velocity-Space Diffusion Coefficients Due to Full-Wave ICRF Fields in Toroidal Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.W.; Jaeger, F.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; D'Azevedo, E.; Carter, M.D.; Ershov, N.M.; Smirnov, A.P.; Bonoli, P.; Wright, J.C.; Smithe, D.N.

    2005-09-26

    Jaeger et al. have calculated bounce-averaged QL diffusion coefficients from AORSA full-wave fields, based on non-Maxwellian distributions from CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. A zero banana-width approximation is employed. Complementing this calculation, a fully numerical calculation of ion velocity diffusion coefficients using the full-wave fields in numerical tokamak equilibria has been implemented to determine the finite orbit width effects. The un-approximated Lorentz equation of motion is integrated to obtain the change in velocity after one complete poloidal transit of the tokamak. Averaging velocity changes over initial starting gyro-phase and toroidal angle gives bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. The coefficients from the full-wave and Lorentz orbit methods are compared for an ITER DT second harmonic tritium ICRF heating case: the diffusion coefficients are similar in magnitude but reveal substantial finite orbit effects.

  2. Observation of Electron Energy Pinch in HT-7 ICRF Heated Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Siye; Wan, Baonian; Wang, Lu; Ti, Ang; Zhang, Xinjun; Liu, Zixi; Qian, Jinping; Zhong, Guoqiang; Duan, Yanmin

    2014-09-01

    Inward energy transport (pinch phenomenon) in the electron channel is observed in HT-7 plasmas using off-axis ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating. Experimental results and power balance transport analysis by TRANSP code are presented in this article. With the aids of GLF23 and Chang-Hinton transport models, which predict energy diffusivity in experimental conditions, the estimated electron pinch velocity is obtained by experimental data and is found reasonably comparable to the results in the previous study, such as Song on Tore Supra. Density scanning shows that the energy convective velocity in the electron channel has a close relation to density scale length, which is qualitatively in agreement with Wang's theoretical prediction. The parametric dependence of electron energy convective velocity on plasma current is still ambiguous and is worthy of future research on EAST.

  3. Investigating ICRF Core Physics with a Hybrid Method using δf Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, T. M.; Smithe, D. N.

    2011-12-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations of ICRF core physics yield a significant amount of noise that can overwhelm the low amplitude signals associated with ICRH. To overcome this noise, we employ a hybrid approach that uses a fluid model for electrons and the delta-f particle-in-cell (DFPIC) method for ions. Noise is reduced to a level well below the amplitude of the signal and time steps are permitted to go beyond the electron time scales. With this formulation we have explored minority heating scenarios in Alcator C-Mod and high harmonic heating scenarios in NSTX. We can also employ the fluid model for both electrons and ions to investigate cold plasma scenarios. Here we examine ion test particles with particular attention paid to particle paths near resonance layers. We present our technique for investigating full particle orbits from a single toroidal mode expansion.

  4. Measurements of ICRF wave-induced density fluctuations in LHD by a microwave reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, A.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujii, N.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H.; Kamio, S.; Seki, R.; Mutoh, T.; Yamada, I.; Takase, Y.

    2015-12-01

    An O-mode microwave reflectometer has been developed to measure ICRF wave induced electron density fluctuations in LHD plasmas. The system has two probing frequencies (28.8 and 30.1 GHz) to measure two spatial points simultaneously. The rms density fluctuation levels are typically 0.01%. The linearity between the measured density fluctuation amplitude and the square root of the RF power is discussed. The decay length of the RF field was estimated to be 1 to 7 m under the operational condition investigated. A typical spatial distance between the two measurement points corresponding to the two probing frequencies is a few centimeters, and the fluctuation amplitudes at the two points are similar in amplitude. The phase difference between the two fluctuations show in-phase relationship on average. Out-of phase relationships, which implies a standing wave structure, are often observed when the wave absorption is expected to be poor.

  5. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  6. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  7. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Pursimo, T.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.; Boldycheva, A.

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy & Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  8. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Pursimo, T.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  9. SIDON: A simulator of radio-frequency networks. Application to WEST ICRF launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helou, Walid; Dumortier, Pierre; Durodié, Frédéric; Goniche, Marc; Hillairet, Julien; Mollard, Patrick; Berger-By, Gilles; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Colas, Laurent; Lombard, Gilles; Maggiora, Riccardo; Magne, Roland; Milanesio, Daniele; Moreau, Didier

    2015-12-01

    SIDON (SImulator of raDiO-frequency Networks) is an in-house developed Radio-Frequency (RF) network solver that has been implemented to cross-validate the design of WEST ICRF launchers and simulate their impedance matching algorithm while considering all mutual couplings and asymmetries. In this paper, the authors illustrate the theory of SIDON as well as results of its calculations. The authors have built time-varying plasma scenarios (a sequence of launchers front-faces L-mode and H-mode Z-matrices), where at each time step (1 millisecond here), SIDON solves the RF network. At the same time, when activated, the impedance matching algorithm controls the matching elements (vacuum capacitors) and thus their corresponding S-matrices. Typically a 1-second pulse requires around 10 seconds of computational time on a desktop computer. These tasks can be hardly handled by commercial RF software. This innovative work allows identifying strategies for the launchers future operation while insuring the limitations on the currents, voltages and electric fields, matching and Load-Resilience, as well as the required straps voltage amplitude/phase balance. In this paper, a particular attention is paid to the simulation of the launchers behavior when arcs appear at several locations of their circuits using SIDON calculator. This latter work shall confirm or identify strategies for the arc detection using various RF electrical signals. One shall note that the use of such solvers in not limited to ICRF launchers simulations but can be employed, in principle, to any linear or linearized RF problem.

  10. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some leading concepts for deployable antennas are described and an assessment of the state of the art in deployable antennas is presented. The advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) antenna, the wrap rib antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna are covered. In addition, a discussion on the technology development program for two deployable antenna concepts that are responsive to the antenna mission requirements as defined in the NASA mission model is presented.

  11. Electromagnetic characterization of conformal antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.; Kempel, Leo C.; Alexanian, Angelos; Jin, J. M.; Yu, C. L.; Woo, Alex C.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this project is to develop a new technique which permits an accurate simulation of microstrip patch antennas or arrays with various feed, superstrate and/or substrate configurations residing in a recessed cavity whose aperture is planar, cylindrical or otherwise conformed to the substructure. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods to formulate a system suitable for solution via the conjugate gradient method in conjunction with the fast Fourier transform. The final code is intended to compute both scattering and radiation patterns of the structure with an affordable memory demand. With upgraded capabilities, the four included papers examined the radar cross section (RCS), input impedance, gain, and resonant frequency of several rectangular configurations using different loading and substrate/superstrate configurations.

  12. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.

  13. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  14. Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 3, Auxiliary radiofrequency heating of tokamaks. Annual report, November 16, 1991--November 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Scharer, J.E.

    1992-12-31

    The research performed under this grant during the past year has been concentrated on the following several key tokamak ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) coupling, heating and current drive issues: Efficient coupling during the L- to H- mode transition by analysis and computer simulation of ICRF antennas; analysis of ICRF cavity-backed coil antenna coupling to plasma edge profiles including fast and ion Bernstein wave coupling for heating and current drive; benchmarking the codes to compare with current JET, D-IIID and ASDEX experimental results and predictions for advanced tokamaks such as BPX and SSAT (Steady-State Advanced Tokamak); ICRF full-wave field solutions, power conservation, heating analyses and minority ion current drive; and the effects of fusion alpha particle or ion tail populations on the ICRF absorption. Research progress, publications, and conference and workshop presentations are summarized in this report.

  15. Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 3, Auxiliary radiofrequency heating of tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Scharer, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed under this grant during the past year has been concentrated on the following several key tokamak ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) coupling, heating and current drive issues: Efficient coupling during the L- to H- mode transition by analysis and computer simulation of ICRF antennas; analysis of ICRF cavity-backed coil antenna coupling to plasma edge profiles including fast and ion Bernstein wave coupling for heating and current drive; benchmarking the codes to compare with current JET, D-IIID and ASDEX experimental results and predictions for advanced tokamaks such as BPX and SSAT (Steady-State Advanced Tokamak); ICRF full-wave field solutions, power conservation, heating analyses and minority ion current drive; and the effects of fusion alpha particle or ion tail populations on the ICRF absorption. Research progress, publications, and conference and workshop presentations are summarized in this report.

  16. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  17. Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

  18. Intelsat VI antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, M. F.; Lane, S. O.; Taormina, F. A.

    The antenna system design of a series of five new communications satellites known as Intelsat VI is described in detail. Each satellite will utilize 50 transponders operating in the C and K band portions of the frequency spectrum. The transponders are interconnectible using either static switch matrices or a network which provides satellite switched time division multiple access capability. The antenna coverages, characteristics, and special design features are shown and discussed.

  19. Physics Basis for NSTX Antenna Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P. M.; Strickler, D. J.; Majeski, R.

    1997-11-01

    The PICES(E.F. Jaeger, D.B. Batchelor, D.C. Stallings, Nucl. Fus. 33)(1993) 179 and RANT3D(M.D. Carter et.al., Nucl. Fus. 36) (1996) 209 codes have been used to study a phased array antenna system using 30 MHz fast waves for current drive in NSTX. Accurate finite β equilibria, such as provided by EQDSK, were needed in PICES to accurately calculate the RF current drive efficiency; a Solov'ev model gave significantly different results. The PICES code was modified to use pressure profiles consistent with the EQDSK magnetic input. Reasonable RF modes for various plasma scenarios were found to range from n_φ=3--10 for EQDSK equilibria with β=25%--5%. Substantially different total current profiles could be generated using different combinations of RF, bootstrap, and ohmic currents, with possible application for transport experiments. The RANT3D code was used to determine the RF near fields of the antenna for a boundary condition in the PICES code. Individual strap loading information required to design stable phase control for the antenna is presented. RF near fields from RANT3D provide an indicator of RF edge phenomena that may affect the antenna performance.

  20. Antenna study for 60 GHz intersatellite link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    1989-04-01

    This report describes a detailed study of the antenna design and operation for the 60 GHz intersatellite cross links to a geostationary relay satellite. Intersatellite links will be used extensively in the future to achieve global connectivity of satellite constellations. Scenarios for inter-orbital linkages were examined with respect to the following antenna characteristics: inter-orbital link parameters, pointing and tracking requirements, radio frequency (RF) design encompassing transmission and receiving links, tracking and anti-jamming measures, mechanical and thermal design, positioner mechanism, mounting and deployment, and signal routing. A comparative study of the options is given wherever appropriate, to highlight the key features. The key features of the proposed antenna system are: (1) a rotating reflector design to allow tracking with a fast moving satellite; (2) a beam waveguide arrangement which allows the transmitter and receiver equipment to be entirely located in a controlled environment; (3) a multi-function feed system (transmit receive, beacon) inside the antenna boom ensures a reliable and compact feed network; and (4) positional mechanisms for azimuth and elevation tracking that allow unconstrained RF signal routing through beam waveguides.

  1. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  2. Final tests and performances verification of the European ALMA antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is under erection in Northern Chile. The array consists of a large number (up to 64) of 12 m diameter antennas and a number of smaller antennas, to be operated on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. The antennas will operate up to 950 GHz so that their mechanical performances, in terms of surface accuracy, pointing precision and dimensional stability, are very tight. The AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics is assembling and testing the 25 antennas. As of today, the first set of antennas have been delivered to ALMA for science. During the test phase with ESO and ALMA, the European antennas have shown excellent performances ensuring the specification requirements widely. The purpose of this paper is to present the different results obtained during the test campaign: surface accuracy, pointing error, fast motion capability and residual delay. Very important was also the test phases that led to the validation of the FE model showing that the antenna is working with a good margin than predicted at design level thanks also to the assembly and integration techniques.

  3. Multibeam antenna study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellamy, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A multibeam antenna concept was developed for providing spot beam coverage of the contiguous 48 states. The selection of a suitable antenna concept for the multibeam application and an experimental evaluation of the antenna concept selected are described. The final analysis indicates that the preferred concept is a dual-antenna, circular artificial dielectric lens. A description of the analytical methods is provided, as well as a discussion of the absolute requirements placed on the antenna concepts. Finally, a comparative analysis of reflector antenna off-axis beam performance is presented.

  4. Highly sensitive antenna using inkjet overprinting with particle-free conductive inks.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Natsuki; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Otsuka, Kanji

    2012-11-01

    Printed antennas with low signal losses and fast response in high-frequency bands have been required. Here we reported on highly sensitive antennas using additive patterning of particle-free metallo-organic decomposition silver inks. Inkjet overprinting of metallo-organic decomposition inks onto copper foil and silver nanowire line produced antenna with mirror surfaces. As a result, the overprinted antennas decreased their return losses at 0.5-4.0 GHz and increased the speed of data communication in WiFi network. PMID:23075475

  5. Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking west. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking southeast. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. Satellite dual antenna pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keigler, John E. (Inventor); Hartshorne, Frank A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A satellite antenna pointing system for separately pointing separated transmit and receive high gain antenna systems includes means for separately and sequentially applying a beacon signal to the transmit and receive antenna systems and a broad beam width antenna which has a coverage area greater than the overall coverage region of the spot beam antenna systems. The system includes ground stations located at or near the periphery of the overall coverage region adapted to receive these beacon signals. At a central control station these beacon signals are compared to provide first signals proportional to the ratio of said beacon signals received from said transmit antenna system and said broad beam width antenna and second signals proportional to the ratio of said beacon signals received from said satellite receive antenna system and said broad beam width antenna. The central station generates from said first signals transmit antenna control signals which are sent to the satellite to control the orientation of said transmit antenna system. Likewise, the central control station generates from the second signals receiver antenna control signals which are applied to the satellite to control the orientation of the satellite receive antenna system.

  10. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  11. View of antenna tunnel end. Right to Antenna Silo #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of antenna tunnel end. Right to Antenna Silo #1, left to Antenna Silo #2 - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. View north of the antenna array, note the communications antenna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the antenna array, note the communications antenna in the middleground - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Four Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  13. Dielectric covered microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lisa M.

    1988-11-01

    Microstrip antennas have many properties that make them suitable for airborne and satellite communications systems. These antennas are low in cost and lightweight. For these reasons, Rome Air Development Center is interested in verifying and augmenting existing design models for these antennas. The theory and results are presented for modeling microstrip antennas that are covered with a sheet of dielectric material. There are several reasons for designing a microstrip antenna covered with a dielectric material. This configuration would allow the modeling of antennas with an integrated radome. A cover layer could possibly be used to support a polarizer; to mount additional antenna elements on top of the cover layer to provide bandwidth enhancements; or to be used as a dual frequency antenna.

  14. PASS spacecraft antenna technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose was to generate estimates of mechanical performance for the classes of spacecraft antenna under construction for application to the Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). These performance data are needed for the support of trade studies involving antenna system development. The classes of antenna considered included: (1) rigid non-deployable antenna structures; (2) mechanical deployable antenna concepts; (3) inflatable deployable antenna concepts; and (4) mesh deployable antenna concepts. The estimates of mechanical performance are presented in terms of structural weight and cost as a function of the reflector size. Estimates of aperture surface precision are presented for a few discrete antenna sizes. The range of reflector size is 1 to 4 meters for non-deployable structures and 2 to 8 meters for deployable structures. The range of reflector surface precision is lambda/30 to lambda/50 for 20 and 30 GHz, respectively.

  15. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  16. Compact form fitting small antennas using three-dimensional rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Bryan Jon

    Three-dimensional (3D) rapid prototyping holds significant promise for future antenna designs. Many complex designs that would be unmanufacturable or costly are realizable on a 3D printing machine. The ability to create 3D designs of virtually any configuration makes it possible to build compact antennas that can form fit to any space. These antennas build on the concept that small antennas can best reach the ideal operating limit when utilizing the entire 3D space in a sphere surrounding the antenna. Antennas require a combination of dielectric and conductive materials. 3D rapid prototyping is already well advanced for plastics and dielectric materials (with more options coming online). Prototyping with conductive materials has lagged behind; due mainly to their higher melting points, but this is advancing as well. This dissertation focuses on 3D rapid prototyping for antenna design. A 3D antenna made from small cubical cells is optimized for 2.4--3GHz using a genetic algorithm (GA). The antennas are built using 3D printing of plastic covered by conductive paint. The effects of the conductivity of the paint and number of layers on the resonance and gain of the antenna are evaluated. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using 3D rapid prototyping for antenna design. A 3D dipole is also optimized using a GA to function from 510--910MHz. The antenna was built using 3D rapid prototyping from plastic. The 3D antenna was covered with a conductive coating and measured, showing good agreement with simulation. The 3D GA is used to design 3D antennas of random shape to fit inside the empty space in a cell phone case and optimized for cell phone bands 800--900MHz and 1.6--3.7GHz. The research also evaluates methods and materials that can be used to produce 3D antennas. In addition to the flexibility that 3D prototyping brings to antenna design, this paper describes how this new and emerging method for building antennas can provide fast and affordable antennas for

  17. Cassegrain-Antenna Gain Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, V.; Cha, A. G.; Mittra, R.

    1986-01-01

    Modified antenna feed with dual-shaped subreflectors yields 10-to20-percent improvement in efficiency of existing large-aperture paraboloidal or Cassegrainian antennas. Such offset dual-shaped subreflector (DSS) feed brings gain of existing paraboloid or Cassegrain antennas up to that of reflector antennas of more recent design at cost considerably lower than for reshaping existing reflecting surfaces. Mathematical procedures developed for synthesizing nearly optimum shapes for DSS elements of new feeds.

  18. Ionospheric effects to antenna impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The reciprocity between high power satellite antennas and the surrounding plasma are examined. The relevant plasma states for antenna impedance calculations are presented and plasma models, and hydrodynamic and kinetic theory, are discussed. A theory from which a variation in antenna impedance with regard to the radiated power can be calculated for a frequency range well above the plasma resonance frequency is give. The theory can include photo and secondary emission effects in antenna impedance calculations.

  19. Simulation Results for the New NSTX HHFW Antenna Straps Design by Using Microwave Studio

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, C C; Brunkhorst, C; Greenough, N; Fredd, E; Castano, A; Miller, D; D'Amico, G; Yager, R; Hosea, J; Wilson, J R; Ryan, P

    2009-05-26

    Experimental results have shown that the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) at 30 MHz can provide substantial plasma heating and current drive for the NSTX spherical tokamak operation. However, the present antenna strap design rarely achieves the design goal of delivering the full transmitter capability of 6 MW to the plasma. In order to deliver more power to the plasma, a new antenna strap design and the associated coaxial line feeds are being constructed. This new antenna strap design features two feedthroughs to replace the old single feed-through design. In the design process, CST Microwave Studio has been used to simulate the entire new antenna strap structure including the enclosure and the Faraday shield. In this paper, the antenna strap model and the simulation results will be discussed in detail. The test results from the new antenna straps with their associated resonant loops will be presented as well.

  20. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  1. Square-Spiral Microstrip Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.

    1994-01-01

    Square-spiral microstrip antennas for wideband reception at frequencies of several gigahertz proposed. These could be made to conform to surfaces of aircraft and other vehicles. Offers advantage of thinness. Square shapes of spirals in these spiral microstrip antennas offers advantage over curved shapes of spirals of other spiral microstrip antennas in that square shapes simplifies fabrication.

  2. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  3. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  4. Furlable spacecraft antenna development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, R. E.; Wilson, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development of large furlable spacecraft antennas using conical main reflectors is described. Two basic antenna configurations which utilize conical main reflectors have been conceived and are under development. In the conical-Gregorian configuration each ray experiences two reflections in traveling from the feed center to the aperture plane. In the Quadreflex (four reflection) configuration, each ray experiences four reflections, one at each of two subreflector surfaces and two at the main conical reflector surface. The RF gain measurements obtained from 6-ft and 30-in. models of the conical-Gregorian and Quadreflex concepts respectively were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further development of the concepts.

  5. A Global Astrometric Solution for Pan-STARRS Referenced to ICRF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Makarov, V. V.; Frouard, J.; Hennessy, G. S.; Dorland, B. N.; Veillette, D. R.; Dudik, R. P.; Magnier, E. A.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Sesar, B.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the development and application of a Global Astrometric Solution (GAS) to the problem of Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) astrometry. Current PS1 astrometry is based on differential astrometric measurements using 2MASS reference stars, and thus PS1 astrometry inherits the errors of the 2MASS catalog. The GAS, based on a single, least-squares adjustment to approximately 750 k “grid stars” using over 3000 extragalactic objects as reference objects, avoids this catalog-to-catalog propagation of errors to a great extent. The GAS uses a relatively small number of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs, or distant active galactic nuclei) with very accurate (<1 mas) radio positions, referenced to the ICRF2. These QSOs provide a hard constraint in the global least-squares adjustment. Solving such a system provides absolute astrometry for all of the stars simultaneously. The concept is much cleaner than conventional astrometry but is not easy to perform for large catalogs. In this paper, we describe our method and its application to Pan-STARRS1 data. We show that large-scale systematic errors are easily corrected but our solution residuals for position (˜60 mas) are still larger than expected based on simulations (˜10 mas). We provide a likely explanation for the reason the small-scale residual errors are not corrected in our solution as would be expected.

  6. Effect of collisional heat transfer in ICRF power modulation experiment on ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; D'Inca, R.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, Vl. V.; Brambilla, M.; Schneider, P.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-12

    ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating experiments were performed in D-H plasmas at various H concentrations on ASDEX Upgrade. The rf power was modulated to measure the electron power deposition profile from electron temperature modulation. To minimize the contribution from indirect collisional heating and the effect of radial transport, the rf power was modulated at 50 Hz. However, peaking of electron temperature modulation was still observed around the hydrogen cyclotron resonance indicating collisional heating contribution. Time dependent simulation of the hydrogen distribution function was performed for the discharges, using the full-wave code AORSA (E.F. Jaeger, et al., Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 8, page 1573 (2001)) coupled to the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D (R.W. Harvey, et al., Proc. IAEA (1992)). In the present experimental conditions, it was found that modulation of the collisional heating was comparable to that of direct wave damping. Impact of radial transport was also analyzed and found to appreciably smear out the modulation profile and reduce the phase delay.

  7. Simulation Study of Toroidal Flow Generation of Minority Ions by Local ICRF Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka; Zheng, Linjin; Van Dam, James W.; Fukuyama, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    The toroidal flow generation of minority ions by the local ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating is investigated in a tokamak plasma by applying the GNET code, which can solve the drift kinetic equation in the 5-D phase space. An asymmetry of velocity distribution function in the parallel direction is found and two types of toroidal averaged flow of minority ions are observed. One is the sheared flow near the RF power absorption region depending on the sign of k||, and the other is the toroidal flow, which is larger than the previous one, independent of the sign of k||. It is found that the k||-sign-independent toroidal flow is generated by the net toroidal motion of energetic tail ions and that the k||-sign-dependent flow is related to the mechanism proposed by Ohkawa [Phys. Plasmas 12, 094506 (2005)].

  8. Comparison of ICRF-Induced Ion Diffusion Coefficients Calculated with the DC and AORSA Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.

    2009-11-26

    The DC (Diffusion Coefficient) code obtains RF diffusion coefficients by direct numerical integration of the Lorentz force equation for ion motion in the combined equilibrium fields and the RF full wave EM fields from the AORSA full-wave code. Suitable averaging over initial gyro- and toroidal-angle of coordinate 'kicks' after a bounce-period, gives noise-free bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. For direct comparison with zero-banana-width coefficients from AORSA, perpendicular-drift terms in the Lorentz equation are subtracted off the integration. The DC code has been coupled to the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. For a C-Mod minority ion ICRF heating test case, the total power absorption using the diffusion coefficients agree well, and the profiles are similarly close. This supports the DC calculation and the Kennel-Engelmann-based, no-correlations, coefficient calculation in AORSA. However, resonance correlations cause large differences in the pitch angle variations of the diffusion coefficients, and in the resulting evolution of the ion distribution functions.

  9. Comparison of ICRF-Induced Ion Diffusion Coefficients Calculated with the DC and AORSA Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.

    2009-11-01

    The DC (Diffusion Coefficient) code obtains RF diffusion coefficients by direct numerical integration of the Lorentz force equation for ion motion in the combined equilibrium fields and the RF full wave EM fields from the AORSA full-wave code. Suitable averaging over initial gyro- and toroidal-angle of coordinate "kicks" after a bounce-period, gives noise-free bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. For direct comparison with zero-banana-width coefficients from AORSA, perpendicular-drift terms in the Lorentz equation are subtracted off the integration. The DC code has been coupled to the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. For a C-Mod minority ion ICRF heating test case, the total power absorption using the diffusion coefficients agree well, and the profiles are similarly close. This supports the DC calculation and the Kennel-Engelmann-based, no-correlations, coefficient calculation in AORSA. However, resonance correlations cause large differences in the pitch angle variations of the diffusion coefficients, and in the resulting evolution of the ion distribution functions.

  10. A Simple Coaxial Ceramic Based Vacuum Window for Vacuum Transmission Line of ICRF System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, D.; Mishra, K.; Goerge, S.; Varia, A.; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    We present here a simple coaxial RF vacuum window designed for 200 kW power without any design complicacy and is simple to fabricate. It is achieved by sandwiching a UHV grade ceramic disk in between inner and outer straight conductors. The window has been designed and fabricated for use in the VTL section of ICRF system on ADITYA tokamak. The window has been modeled with CST Microwave Studio and transient analysis has been done for different scattering parameters. The window is found to be an excellent leak tight with leak rate better than 1.0×10-9 mbarl/s. Pressure test on window up to a 3 bar atmospheric pressure shows that it can also be used as a gas barrier in transmission lines. Low power VNA test shows a pleasing VSWR and insertion loss less than 1.07 and 0.05 dB respectively in the frequency range of 20-100MHz. Special care has been taken to minimize sharp edges to avoid pre-breakdown phenomena. Partial discharge tests at 50Hz shows an excellent result up to 24 kV peak and the observed discharge magnitude was less than 20 pC. The window shows the ultra high vacuum compatibility and it tested for high RF power at 29 MHz up to 80kW of power. This paper presents the design detail, tests conducted and the results obtained for the vacuum window.

  11. Effect of collisional heat transfer in ICRF power modulation experiment on ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, N.; D'Inca, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, Vl. V.; Brambilla, M.; van Eester, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, E. F.; Lerche, E. A.; Schneider, P.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating experiments were performed in D-H plasmas at various H concentrations on ASDEX Upgrade. The rf power was modulated to measure the electron power deposition profile from electron temperature modulation. To minimize the contribution from indirect collisional heating and the effect of radial transport, the rf power was modulated at 50 Hz. However, peaking of electron temperature modulation was still observed around the hydrogen cyclotron resonance indicating collisional heating contribution. Time dependent simulation of the hydrogen distribution function was performed for the discharges, using the full-wave code AORSA (E.F. Jaeger, et al., Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 8, page 1573 (2001)) coupled to the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D (R.W. Harvey, et al., Proc. IAEA (1992)). In the present experimental conditions, it was found that modulation of the collisional heating was comparable to that of direct wave damping. Impact of radial transport was also analyzed and found to appreciably smear out the modulation profile and reduce the phase delay.

  12. Gyrokinetic simulations of momentum transport and fluctuation spectra for ICRF-heated L-Mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierchio, J. M.; White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Sung, C.; Ennever, P.; Porkolab, M.; Candy, J.

    2014-10-01

    We examine ICRF-heated L-mode plasmas in Alcator C-Mod, with differing momentum transport (hollow vs. peaked radial profiles of intrinsic toroidal rotation) but similar heat and particle transport. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of heat and particle transport with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] have previously been compared with these experiments [White et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056106 (2013); Howard et al. PPCF submitted (2014)] as part of an effort to validate the gyrokinetic model for core turbulent transport in C-Mod plasmas. To further test the model for these plasmas, predicted core turbulence characteristics such as fluctuation spectra will be compared with experiment. Using synthetic diagnostics for the CECE, reflectometry, and PCI systems at C-Mod, synthetic spectra and, when applicable, fluctuation amplitudes, are generated. We compare these generated results with fluctuation measurements from the experiment. We also report the momentum transport results from simulations of these plasmas and compare them to experiment. Supported by USDoE award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  13. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  14. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  15. Variable-beamwidth antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    Two effective designs have been developed for Cassegrain and Gregorian antenna configurations. Each provides for both high-gain and low-gain operations. Cassegrain system sacrifices some efficiency due to small amount of increased spillover loss. Gregorian system provides for independent spillover control with two feeds.

  16. Direct spatial antenna modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Brecken H.

    This body of work seeks to define Direct Spatial Antenna Modulation (DSAM) as a new and unique approach to data symbol modulation and phased array control by comparing and contrasting the technique to conventional approaches. A rigorous development of the theoretical and practical implications of the DSAM technique as a general approach are presented. The theoretical development of several DSAM examples are included. Implementation and measurement results for several prototypes based on DSAM principles are analyzed. The work concludes with a summary of the impact of the present DSAM developments and a proposal for additional investigation. Results are included that show equivalent measured bit error rate performance for DSAM as compared to conventional modulation for both two-state and four-state phase modulation. Measured beam control accuracy of a DSAM phased array is included, along with several other example DSAM phased array analyses. Supported by an analysis linking a DSAM technique with complete complex-plane modulation control, the DSAM concept is applied to a commercial antenna and an experiment demonstrates wideband phase control. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate joint beamforming and modulation in a DSAM array. Several implications of the results of the investigation are important to consider: 1. The DSAM approach represents a new way to treat the conventional relationship between modulation and antennas, and has been demonstrated through a significant number and variety of analyses, simulations, and experiments. 2. The DSAM approach takes direct advantage of inherent antenna radiating properties to perform conventionally non-antenna functions; the approach is in this way both enabled and limited. 3. The DSAM approach has been shown in several examples to offer beneficial engineering performance trade-offs with respect to architecture options, as well as important performance parameters such as power consumption, breadth of frequency

  17. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Ochoukov, R; Bobkov, V; Faugel, H; Fünfgelder, H; Noterdaeme, J-M

    2015-11-01

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k(//)) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (k(tor)). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k(//) as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the k(tor) trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k(//), as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas' operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue.

  18. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-11-01

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k//) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (ktor). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k// as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the ktor trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k//, as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas' operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue.

  19. Mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using an L-band low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters is described. The objective is to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a geosynchronous satellite. To ensure that all the antenna options are being considered, the steerable high gain reflector and medium gain array antennas as well as LGA are studied and compared in an exhaustive survey. The high gain reflector antenna in L-band is usually very large in size and heavy in weight. In addition, a bulky and expensive tracking system is needed to steer the antenna beam to the satellite direction. The medium gain antennas (including mechanically and electronically steered arrays) are also more expensive and less reliable than an LGA due to the addition of a beam steering system to track the satellite. The omni-directional LGA is simple, reliable, and inexpensive. It is typically ten times smaller than the medium gain antenna. This makes the position, selection, and mounting on the helicopter relatively easier. Therefore, the LGA is selected as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters. Among the many LGA's (cross-dipole, helix, spiral, and slot antennas), the helix antenna is the most inexpensive. One can also change the size, shape, or pitch angle of the helix to optimize the gain in the desired direction. Therefore, the helix antenna is selected for further study. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied theoretically and experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter body and the blades. The multipath, Doppler, and Doppler rate issues as well as the periodic fading effects caused by the helicopter rotor blades will be briefly discussed in the paper.

  20. Metastases and the Normalization of Tumour Blood Vessels by ICRF 159: A New Type of Drug Action

    PubMed Central

    Le Serve, A. W.; Hellmann, K.

    1972-01-01

    Profound modification of the structure and arrangement of the blood vessels has been shown in tumours after treatment with ICRF 159. X-ray angiography, carbon black (Pelikan ink) labelling, and intravital staining with lissamine green were used to demonstrate the changes. Alteration of the morphology of the blood vessels at the edge of a tumour may affect the escape of malignant cells and the rate of blood flow (and thus the concentration of anticancer drugs) through the tumour. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4111169

  1. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  2. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  3. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  4. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  5. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  6. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  7. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  8. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  9. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  10. JPL Large Advanced Antenna Station Array Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with study requirements, two antennas are described: a 30 meter standard antenna and a 34 meter modified antenna, along with a candidate array configuration for each. Modified antenna trade analyses are summarized, risks analyzed, costs presented, and a final antenna array configuration recommendation made.

  11. Fast wave density and species mix diagnostic (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, G. W.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Ikezi, H.; Pinsker, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Since fast Alfven waves propagate across a plasma at the Alfven speed, the plasma mass density can be determined through interferometry. In previous measurements on the DIII-D tokamak,1 fast waves ({approx}100 MHz, {approx}5 W) were launched from an antenna at the outer midplane, but detection of the signal was hampered by poor sensitivity of the receiving antenna, which was mounted behind protective graphite tiles on the inner wall. We modified several graphite tiles to act as more sensitive receiving antennas. At lower frequencies ({approx}25 MHz), fast waves can reflect from the ion--ion hybrid cutoff layer. The position of this layer is sensitive to the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium in the plasma. Receiving antennas on the outer wall will measure the hydrogen concentration through reflectometry. Launching other frequencies may yield impurity density ratios as well. These techniques may be useful for measuring relative densities if D, T, and {alpha} particles in burning plasmas.

  12. Circularly polarized microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Y. T.; Engst, B.; Lee, R. Q. H.

    1985-01-01

    A simple microstrip antenna can be made to radiate EM waves of any polarization, in particular, the circular polarization (CP) without any phasing network and power divider. A simple and accurate theory for this family of antennas was developed. However, the CP bandwidth, (CPBW) the bandwidth in which the axial ratio (AR) is less than a certain specified value, is very small. Most of the experimental designs were made for a feed placed along the diagonal of the patch. It is shown that there are practically infinitely many possible designs with different feed location. The speculation that other designs might give a wider bandwidth is clarified and an effective method for broadening the bandwidth is shown.

  13. Stacked optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Dieter W.; Rodrigo, Sergio G.; Novotny, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    We propose and analyze a stacked optical antenna (SOA). It is characterized by a stacked structure of its arms at the center, and an interstitial gap layer (IGL) in between, which plays the role of the feed gap. Because of its in-plane arrangement, the IGL can be fabricated by standard planar deposition techniques providing high accuracy and control. A SOA can be an enabling element for several technologies, in particular for optical detection, communication, and encryption besides applications in microscopy.

  14. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 introduces several new technologies including a multibeam antenna (MBA) operating at Ka-band. The satellite is introduced briefly, and then the MBA, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz received and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems utilizing orthogonal linear polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 deg beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz high mobility electron transmitter (HEMT) low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  15. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  16. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  17. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  18. A Mars Riometer: Antenna Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Craig D.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on NASA Grant NAG5-9706. This project explored riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) antenna designs that would be practical for a Mars surface or balloon mission. The riometer is an important radio science instrument for terrestrial aeronomy investigations. The riometer measures absorption of cosmic radio waves by the overhead ionosphere. Studies have shown the instrument should work well on Mars, which has an appreciable daytime ionosphere. There has been concern that the required radio receiver antenna (with possibly a 10 meter scale size) would be too large or too difficult to deploy on Mars. This study addresses those concerns and presents several antenna designs and deployment options. It is found that a Mars balloon would provide an excellent platform for the riometer antenna. The antenna can be incorporated into the envelope design, allowing self-deployment of the antenna as the balloon inflates.

  19. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  20. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  1. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  2. Secondary pattern computation of an offset reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Reflector antennas are widely used in communications satellite systems because they provide high gain at low cost. In analyzing reflector antennas the computation of the secondary pattern is the main concern. A computer program for calculating the secondary pattern of an offset reflector has been developed and implemented at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The theoretical foundation for this program is based on the use of geometrical optics to describe the fields from the feed to the reflector surface and to the aperture plane. The resulting aperture field distribution is then transformed to the far-field zone by the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Comparing this technique with other well-known techniques (the geometrical theory of diffraction, physical optics (Jacobi-Bessel), etc.) shows good agreement for large (diameter of 100 lambda or greater) reflector antennas.

  3. Analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of microstrip antennas covered by a dielectric substrate is formulated in terms of coupled integro-differential equations with the current distribution on the conducting patch as an unknown quantity. The Galerkin method is used to solve for the unknown patch current. Using the present formulation, the radiation pattern, the resonant frequency, and the bandwidth of a rectangular microstrip antenna are computed. Design data for a rectangular microstrip antenna are also presented.

  4. Deployable antenna phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, J.; Bernstein, J.; Fischer, G.; Jacobson, G.; Kadar, I.; Marshall, R.; Pflugel, G.; Valentine, J.

    1979-01-01

    Applications for large deployable antennas were re-examined, flight demonstration objectives were defined, the flight article (antenna) was preliminarily designed, and the flight program and ground development program, including the support equipment, were defined for a proposed space transportation system flight experiment to demonstrate a large (50 to 200 meter) deployable antenna system. Tasks described include: (1) performance requirements analysis; (2) system design and definition; (3) orbital operations analysis; and (4) programmatic analysis.

  5. A distributed array antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R.; Kovitz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station communication system will use microwave frequency radio links to carry digitized information from sender to receiver. The ability of the antenna system to meet stringent requirements on coverage zones, multiple users, and reliability will play an important part in the overall multiple access communication system. This paper will describe the configuration of a multibeam conformal phased array antenna and the individual microwave integrated components incoporated into this antenna system.

  6. Coupling of ICRF waves and axial transport of high-energy ions owing to spontaneously excited waves in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Hirata, M.; Iwai, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Ugajin, Y.; Sato, T.; Iimura, T.; Saito, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Imai, T.

    2013-07-01

    Plasmas with high ion temperature of several kiloelectronvolts and a strong temperature anisotropy of greater than 10 were produced by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. In such high-performance plasmas with strong anisotropy, high-frequency fluctuations, so-called Alfvén-ion-cyclotron (AIC) waves, are excited spontaneously. These AIC waves have several discrete peaks in the frequency spectrum. Coupling of the ICRF heating waves and the excited AIC waves was clearly observed in the density fluctuations measured with a newly developed reflectometer. Parametric decay from the heating ICRF waves to the AIC waves and low-frequency waves was also indicated. Alfvén waves with difference frequencies between the discrete peaks of the AIC waves were detected in a signal that measured the number of axially transported high-energy ions (over 6 keV) at the machine end, indicating pitch-angle scattering caused by the low-frequency waves. Energy transport along the magnetic field line is an important consideration when ICRF power is injected in the perpendicular direction to a magnetic field line. The importance of the spontaneously excited AIC waves for axial confinement of a tandem mirror through wave-wave couplings was demonstrated.

  7. Spiral Microstrip Antenna with Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spiral microstrip antenna having resistor elements embedded in each of the spiral arms is provided. The antenna is constructed using a conductive back plane as a base. The back plane supports a dielectric slab having a thickness between one-sixteenth and one-quarter of an inch. A square spiral, having either two or four arms, is attached to the dielectric slab. Each arm of the spiral has resistor elements thereby dissipating an excess energy not already emitted through radiation. The entire configuration provides a thin, flat, high gain, wide bandwidth antenna which requires no underlying cavity. The configuration allows the antenna to be mounted conformably on an aircraft surface.

  8. Electronic switching spherical array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockton, R.

    1978-01-01

    This work was conducted to demonstrate the performance levels attainable with an ESSA (Electronic Switching Spherical Array) antenna by designing and testing an engineering model. The antenna was designed to satisfy general spacecraft environmental requirements and built to provide electronically commandable beam pointing capability throughout a hemisphere. Constant gain and beam shape throughout large volumetric coverage regions are the principle characteristics. The model is intended to be a prototype of a standard communications and data handling antenna for user scientific spacecraft with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Some additional testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of an integrated TDRSS and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna system.

  9. Large Space Antenna Systems Technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, W. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Mission applications for large space antenna systems; large space antenna structural systems; materials and structures technology; structural dynamics and control technology, electromagnetics technology, large space antenna systems and the Space Station; and flight test and evaluation were examined.

  10. Microelectromechanical Systems Actuator Based Reconfigurable Printed Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A polarization reconfigurable patch antenna is disclosed. The antenna includes a feed element, a patch antenna element electrically connected to the feed element, and at least one microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator, with a partial connection to the patch antenna element along an edge of the patch antenna element. The polarization of the antenna can be switched between circular polarization and linear polarization through action of the at least one MEMS actuator.

  11. Design aspects of commercial satellite antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, K. C.; Taormina, F. A.

    General design considerations for commercial satellite antennas are reviewed, and design factors of shaped beam reflector antennas are described, including shaped beam efficiency, flat-topping and boundary matching, and analysis by Fourier transforms. Attention is then given to the design of the Telesat Anik 17/Westar/Palapa communications antenna, the Comstar I communications antenna, the SBS communications antenna, and Intelsat IV A communications antenna.

  12. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Orientation Target #2 in background. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. Orientation Target #1 in background. Image looking northwest - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. On-Wafer Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Antennas for Wireless Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1998-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a de-embedding technique and a direct on-substrate measurement technique for fast and inexpensive characterization of miniature antennas for wireless applications at millimeter-wave frequencies. The technique is demonstrated by measurements on a tapered slot antenna (TSA). The measured results at Ka-Band frequencies include input impedance, mutual coupling between two TSAs and absolute gain of TSA.

  15. Design characterization of an electronic steerable Ka-band antenna using liquid crystal phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, A.; Hager, P. B.; Harder, J. T.

    Modern high data rate satellite communication systems increasingly utilize the Ka-band due to its ability to support higher bandwidth. Prior research work presented a copper-galvanically produced Ka-band horn array antenna and associated waveguide distribution network, mounted on a two axes mechanical steerable mechanism (LISAMS) for use aboard fast, low earth orbiting satellites. The current project, LISAES, investigates the feasibility of a similar horn array antenna, but fitted with liquid crystal phase shifters in the transmission path of each horn, which now allow steering of the antenna boresight through beam forming without the use of mechanically moving parts.

  16. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y. Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  17. Positioning Fixture For Survey Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinardo, Steven J.; Smith, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Improved positioning fixture designed to simplify and accelerate accurate alignment of antenna for use in land survey aided by satellites of Global Positioning System. Holds antenna at fixed height and orientation over station monument so survey measurements made with accuracy and precision.

  18. Antenna configurations provide polarization diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, C. N.

    1966-01-01

    Compact back-to-back trapezoidal tooth log-periodic /TTLP/ antenna with frequency-independent characteristics is formed by reducing the angle between the two elements of a basic TTLP to zero. The back-to-back antenna, arranged in various configurations, provides monopulse operations in one or two planes and in various polarizations.

  19. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  20. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35× corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼115×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼2,500× spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, Io = qω|xo|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|xo| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency. PMID:25624503

  1. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Wang, S. J.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2013-11-01

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  2. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.; Wang, S. J.

    2013-11-15

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  3. Graphene-antenna sandwich photodetector.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheyu; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Yumin; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2012-07-11

    Nanoscale antennas sandwiched between two graphene monolayers yield a photodetector that efficiently converts visible and near-infrared photons into electrons with an 800% enhancement of the photocurrent relative to the antennaless graphene device. The antenna contributes to the photocurrent in two ways: by the transfer of hot electrons generated in the antenna structure upon plasmon decay, as well as by direct plasmon-enhanced excitation of intrinsic graphene electrons due to the antenna near field. This results in a graphene-based photodetector achieving up to 20% internal quantum efficiency in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. This device can serve as a model for merging the light-harvesting characteristics of optical frequency antennas with the highly attractive transport properties of graphene in new optoelectronic devices. PMID:22703522

  4. Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators.

    PubMed

    Agio, Mario

    2012-02-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled us to fabricate sub-wavelength architectures that function as antennas for improving the exchange of optical energy with nanoscale matter. We describe the main features of optical antennas for enhancing quantum emitters and review the designs that increase the spontaneous emission rate by orders of magnitude from the ultraviolet up to the near-infrared spectral range. To further explore how optical antennas may lead to unprecedented regimes of light-matter interactions, we draw a relationship between metal nanoparticles, radio-wave antennas and optical resonators. Our analysis points out how optical antennas may function as nanoscale resonators and how these may offer unique opportunities with respect to state-of-the-art microcavities.

  5. Using dynamic interferometric synthetic aperature radar (InSAR) to image fast-moving surface waves

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Paul

    2005-06-28

    A new differential technique and system for imaging dynamic (fast moving) surface waves using Dynamic Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is introduced. This differential technique and system can sample the fast-moving surface displacement waves from a plurality of moving platform positions in either a repeat-pass single-antenna or a single-pass mode having a single-antenna dual-phase receiver or having dual physically separate antennas, and reconstruct a plurality of phase differentials from a plurality of platform positions to produce a series of desired interferometric images of the fast moving waves.

  6. Soret Fishnet Metalens Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Orazbayev, Bakhtiyar; Beruete, Miguel; Pacheco-Peña, Víctor; Crespo, Gonzalo; Teniente, Jorge; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    At the expense of frequency narrowing, binary amplitude-only diffractive optical elements emulate refractive lenses without the need of large profiles. Unfortunately, they also present larger Fresnel reflection loss than conventional lenses. This is usually tackled by implementing unattractive cumbersome designs. Here we demonstrate that simplicity is not at odds with performance and we show how the fishnet metamaterial can improve the radiation pattern of a Soret lens. The building block of this advanced Soret lens is the fishnet metamaterial operating in the near-zero refractive index regime with one of the edge layers designed with alternating opaque and transparent concentric rings made of subwavelength holes. The hybrid Soret fishnet metalens retains all the merits of classical Soret lenses such as low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. It is designed for the W-band of the millimeter-waves range with a subwavelength focal length FL = 1.58 mm (0.5λ0) aiming at a compact antenna or radar systems. The focal properties of the lens along with its radiation characteristics in a lens antenna configuration have been studied numerically and confirmed experimentally, showing a gain improvement of ~2 dB with respect to a fishnet Soret lens without the fishnet metamaterial. PMID:25950243

  7. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  8. Soret fishnet metalens antenna.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, Bakhtiyar; Beruete, Miguel; Pacheco-Peña, Víctor; Crespo, Gonzalo; Teniente, Jorge; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    At the expense of frequency narrowing, binary amplitude-only diffractive optical elements emulate refractive lenses without the need of large profiles. Unfortunately, they also present larger Fresnel reflection loss than conventional lenses. This is usually tackled by implementing unattractive cumbersome designs. Here we demonstrate that simplicity is not at odds with performance and we show how the fishnet metamaterial can improve the radiation pattern of a Soret lens. The building block of this advanced Soret lens is the fishnet metamaterial operating in the near-zero refractive index regime with one of the edge layers designed with alternating opaque and transparent concentric rings made of subwavelength holes. The hybrid Soret fishnet metalens retains all the merits of classical Soret lenses such as low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. It is designed for the W-band of the millimeter-waves range with a subwavelength focal length FL = 1.58 mm (0.5λ0) aiming at a compact antenna or radar systems. The focal properties of the lens along with its radiation characteristics in a lens antenna configuration have been studied numerically and confirmed experimentally, showing a gain improvement of ~2 dB with respect to a fishnet Soret lens without the fishnet metamaterial. PMID:25950243

  9. Implantable multilayer microstrip antenna for retinal prosthesis: antenna testing.

    PubMed

    Permana, Hans; Fang, Qiang; Rowe, Wayne S T

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prosthesis has come to a more mature stage and become a very strategic answer to Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) diseases. In a retinal prosthesis system, wireless link holds a great importance for the continuity of the system. In this paper, an implantable multilayer microstrip antenna was proposed for the retinal prosthesis system. Simulations were performed in High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) with the surrounding material of air and Vitreous Humor fluid. The fabricated antenna was measured for characteristic validation in free space. The results showed that the real antenna possessed similar return loss and radiation pattern, while there was discrepancy with the gain values. PMID:23366231

  10. Allowing for Slow Evolution of Background Plasma in the 3D FDTD Plasma, Sheath, and Antenna Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithe, David; Jenkins, Thomas; King, Jake

    2015-11-01

    We are working to include a slow-time evolution capability for what has previously been the static background plasma parameters, in the 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) plasma and sheath model used to model ICRF antennas in fusion plasmas. A key aspect of this is SOL-density time-evolution driven by ponderomotive rarefaction from the strong fields in the vicinity of the antenna. We demonstrate and benchmark a Scalar Ponderomotive Potential method, based on local field amplitudes, which is included in the 3D simulation. And present a more advanced Tensor Ponderomotive Potential approach, which we hope to employ in the future, which should improve the physical fidelity in the highly anisotropic environment of the SOL. Finally, we demonstrate and benchmark slow time (non-linear) evolution of the RF sheath, and include realistic collisional effects from the neutral gas. Support from US DOE Grants DE-FC02-08ER54953, DE-FG02-09ER55006.

  11. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  12. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  14. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In addition, any MedRadio antenna used...

  15. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  17. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  18. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  19. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  20. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  1. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  2. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas...

  3. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  5. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In addition, any MedRadio antenna used...

  7. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  8. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas...

  9. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  10. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  11. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  12. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  13. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas...

  14. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  15. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  17. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas...

  18. STADAN antenna gain calibration using radio stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    An antenna gain measurement method was developed which utilizes a signal emitted from a radio star to determine absolute antenna gain at 136 MHz and 400 MHz for antennas in the STADAN network. An error analysis of the radio star method shows that the overall standard deviation uncertainty in antenna gain is + or - 0.6 db (1 sigma).

  19. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  20. Microstrip antennas for SAR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Current and future microstrip antenna technology development for Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) are summarized. Some of the electrical and mechanical characteristics of previously and presently developed microstrip SAR antennas are shown. The SEASAT, the SIR-A and presently the SIR-B antennas are all designed for operation at L-band with approximately 22 MHz of bandwidth. The antennas have linear polarization with minimum of 20 dB of polarization purity. Both the SEASAT and SIR-A antennas were designed for a fixed pointing angle of 20.5 deg and 47 deg, respectively. However, the SIR-B has the added feature of mechanical beam steering in elevation (range). With the exception of different mechanical characteristics, it is concluded that present spaceborne SAR antennas have only single frequency and single polarization performance. The lack of large spaceborne antennas operating at the higher degree of fabrication tolerance required for a given performance; and larger feed and radiating element losses.

  1. Performance of Beverage antennas at low angles

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G.J.; King, R.J.; Lytle, R.J.; Miller, E.K.

    1983-11-01

    Numerical modeling of Beverage and monopole antennas shows the fields of both antennas to have a similar dependence on range and height above ground, with the Beverage antenna having slightly greater gain in the forward direction due to its directivity. The use of multiple Beverage antennas closely spaced was found to increase the efficiency and gain in the forward direction for short Beverage antennas. For the longer antenna considered for the HF bistatic radar, the decrease in directivity for two closely spaced antennas reduced the forward gain.

  2. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  3. Hollow plasmonic antennas for broadband SERS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Messina, Gabriele C; Malerba, Mario; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Miele, Ermanno; Dipalo, Michele; Ferrara, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The chemical environment of cells is an extremely complex and multifaceted system that includes many types of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and various other components. With the final aim of studying these components in detail, we have developed multiband plasmonic antennas, which are suitable for highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and are activated by a wide range of excitation wavelengths. The three-dimensional hollow nanoantennas were produced on an optical resist by a secondary electron lithography approach, generated by fast ion-beam milling on the polymer and then covered with silver in order to obtain plasmonic functionalities. The optical properties of these structures have been studied through finite element analysis simulations that demonstrated the presence of broadband absorption and multiband enhancement due to the unusual geometry of the antennas. The enhancement was confirmed by SERS measurements, which showed a large enhancement of the vibrational features both in the case of resonant excitation and out-of-resonance excitation. Such characteristics indicate that these structures are potential candidates for plasmonic enhancers in multifunctional opto-electronic biosensors.

  4. Smart antennas based on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrigo, Martino; Dragoman, Mircea; Dragoman, Daniela

    2014-09-21

    We report two configurations of smart graphene antennas, in which either the radiation pattern of the antenna or the backscattering of the periodic metallic arrays is controlled by DC biases that induce metal-insulator reversible transitions of graphene monolayers. Such a transition from a high surface resistance (no bias) to a low surface resistance state (finite bias voltage) causes the radiation pattern of metallic antennas backed with graphene to change dramatically, from omnidirectional to broadside. Moreover, reflectarrays enhance the backscattered field due to the same metal-dielectric transition.

  5. Designing Rectangular RHCP Microstrip Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Shayla E.

    1987-01-01

    RHCP, Right-Handed, Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna program, aids in design of rectangular microstrip-antenna element, given desired frequency of operation and characteristics of substrate. Begins design calculations on basis of square element with linear polarization. Effective dielectric constant and changes in electrical length due to fringing at edges of radiating element taken into account. Coaxial feed inset with 50 ohms input impedance. Placement of feed such that two orthonormal modes produced in antenna cavity, right- or left-handed circular polarization obtained. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Moths smell with their antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  7. Composite antenna feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakstys, V. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A composite antenna feed subsystem concentrated in a small area at the prime focus of the parabola of a satellite parabolic reflector accomodates a plurality of frequency bands. The arrays comprising the subsystem are mounted on the top cover of a communication module. A multimode horn is arranged at the center of the subsystem axis which functions at X- And C-band frequencies, and a cross array consisting of individual elements form the S-band feed, with one arm of the S-band array containing an element mutually shared with the L-band array. Provision is also made for UHF frequencies, and a dipole arrangement for VHF frequencies is arranged around the S-band arms.

  8. EHF SATCOM monopulse antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D.

    The author describes a coaxial dual-band monopulse feed design specifically tailored to the EHF (extremely high-frequency/SATCOM frequency bands. The device utilizes low-loss waveguide circuits throughout and employs a corrugated feed horn that provides symmetrical primary patterns with steeply tapered skirts. The dimensions in the horn throat/coaxial section were empirically adjusted for good primary patterns in the 45-GHz band. Fortuitously, this also provided good primary performance in the 21-GHz band. In the autotrack mode, the phase and amplitude of the error channel are compared with those of the data channel to obtain tracking error magnitude and sense. The feed and test antenna geometries are described. Measured performance demonstrating nominal efficiencies in the 55 percent-60 percent range, along with good pattern, phase, and impedance match, is presented.

  9. Metal Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  10. Antenna sunshield membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogorad, Alexander (Inventor); Bowman, Jr., Charles K. (Inventor); Meder, Martin G. (Inventor); Dottore, Frank A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An RF-transparent sunshield membrane covers an antenna reflector such as a parabolic dish. The blanket includes a single dielectric sheet of polyimide film 1/2-mil thick. The surface of the film facing away from the reflector is coated with a transparent electrically conductive coating such as vapor-deposited indium-tin oxide. The surface of the film facing the reflector is reinforced by an adhesively attached polyester or glass mesh, which in turn is coated with a white paint. In a particular embodiment of the invention, polyurethane paint is used. In another embodiment of the invention, a layer of paint primer is applied to the mesh under a silicone paint, and the silicone paint is cured after application for several days at room temperature to enhance adhesion to the primer.

  11. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  12. Measurements of AAFE RADSCAT antenna characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Jones, W. L., Jr.; Jones, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Antenna characteristics (active and passive) for a modified AAFE-RADSCAT parabolic dish antenna are documented for a variety of antenna configurations. The modified antenna was a replacement for the original unit which was damaged in January 1975. Pattern measurements made at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center are presented, with an analysis of the results. Antenna loss measurements are also presented and summarized.

  13. Development of an antenna structure for a deployable offset antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, H.; Tauber, W.; Vorbrugg, H.

    1986-02-01

    An unfurlable spacecraft antenna is described. The antenna consists of a central hub, ribs being radially arranged around the hub, and a mesh which produces the parabolic reflector surface shape. The hub and the ribs are made of CFRP. For the stowed and deployed reflector configuration the CFRP-components were analyzed and optimized under dynamical and dimensional stability aspects. The analytical results and the development of the CFRP components are presented.

  14. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  15. Dual-frequency microwave antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathker, D. A.; Brunstein, S. A.; Ludwig, A. C.; Potter, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    Single antenna using two feed horns (one for receiving and radiation X-band signals, and one for S-band signals), in conjunction with ellipsoid reflector and dichronic plate, can accommodate two different frequencies simultaneously.

  16. NASA Antenna Gets its Bearings

    NASA Video Gallery

    The historic "Mars antenna" at NASA's Deep Space Network site in Goldstone, Calif. has finished a major, delicate surgery that lasted seven months. The operation on the giant, 70-meter-wide (230-fo...

  17. The new 34-meter antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    The new 34-m high efficiency Azimuth - Elevation antenna configuration, including its features, dynamic characteristics and performance at 8.4-GHz frequencies is described. The current-technology features of this antenna produce a highly reliable configuration by incorporation of a main wheel and track azimuth support, central pintle pivot bearing, close tolerance surface panels and all-welded construction. Also described are basic drive controls that, as slaved to three automatic microprocessors, provide accurate and safe control of the antenna's steering tasks. At this time antenna installations are completed at Goldstone and Canberra and have operationally supported the Voyager - Uranus encounter. A third installation is being constructed currently in Madrid and is scheduled for completion in late 1986.

  18. Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.

  19. Planar microstrip YAGI antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A directional microstrip antenna includes a driven patch surrounded by an isolated reflector and one or more coplanar directors, all separated from a ground plane on the order of 0.1 wavelength or less to provide end fire beam directivity without requiring power dividers or phase shifters. The antenna may be driven at a feed point a distance from the center of the driven patch in accordance with conventional microstrip antenna design practices for H-plane coupled or horizontally polarized signals. The feed point for E-plane coupled or vertically polarized signals is at a greater distance from the center than the first distance. This feed point is also used for one of the feed signals for circularly polarized signals. The phase shift between signals applied to feed points for circularly polarized signals must be greater than the conventionally required 90 degrees and depends upon the antenna configuration.

  20. Fast wave current drive modeling using the combined RANT3D and PICES Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Murakami, M.; Stallings, D. C.; Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Galambos, J. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Baity, F. W.; Bell, G. L.; Wilgen, J. B.; Chiu, S. C.; DeGrassie, J. S.; Forest, C. B.; Kupfer, K.; Petty, C. C.; Pinsker, R. T.; Prater, R.; Lohr, J.; Lee, K. M.

    1996-02-01

    Two numerical codes are combined to give a theoretical estimate of the current drive and direct electron heating by fast waves launched from phased antenna arrays on the DIII-D tokamak. Results are compared with experiment.

  1. Stabilization of sawteeth with third harmonic deuterium ICRF-accelerated beam in JET plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardo, Jean-Baptiste; Sharapov, Sergei; Boom, Jurrian; Dumont, Rémi; Eriksson, Jacob; Fitzgerald, Michael; Garbet, Xavier; Hawkes, Nick; Kiptily, Vasily; Lupelli, Ivan; Mantsinen, Mervi; Sarazin, Yanick; Schneider, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth stabilisation by fast ions is investigated in deuterium (D) and D-helium 3 (He3) plasmas of JET heated by deuterium Neutral Beam Injection combined in synergy with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) applied on-axis at 3rd beam cyclotron harmonic. A very significant increase in the sawtooth period is observed, caused by the ICRH-acceleration of the beam ions born at 100 keV to the MeV energy range. Four representative sawteeth from four different discharges are compared with Porcelli's model. In two discharges, the sawtooth crash appears to be triggered by core-localized Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes inside the q = 1 surface (also called "tornado" modes) which expel the fast ions from within the q = 1 surface, over time scales comparable with the sawtooth period. Two other discharges did not exhibit fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core, and no degradation of fast ion confinement was found in both modelling and direct measurements of fast ion profile with the neutron camera. The developed sawtooth scenario without fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core is of high interest for the burning plasmas. Possible causes of the sawtooth crashes on JET are discussed.

  2. Input impedance of microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Using Richmond's reaction integral equation, an expression is derived for the input impedance of microstrip patch antennas excited by either a microstrip line or a coaxial probe. The effects of the finite substrate thickness, a dielectric protective cover, and associated surface waves are properly included by the use of the exact dyadic Green's function. Using the present formulation the input impedance of a rectangular microstrip antenna is determined and compared with experimental and earlier calculated results.

  3. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOEpatents

    Reindel, John

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  4. Box truss antenna technology status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.; Bachtell, E. E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent technology development activities for box truss structures and box truss antennas are summarized. Three primary activities are discussed: the development of an integrated analysis system for box truss mesh antennae; dynamic testing to characterize the effect of joint free play on the dynamic behavior of box truss structures; and fabrication of a 4.5 meter diameter offset fed mesh reflector integrated to an all graphite epoxy box truss cube.

  5. Heat loads from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL: characterization on JET and implications for the ITER-Like Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Arnoux, G.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, Ph.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Brix, M.; Fursdon, M.; Graham, M.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Sirinelli, A.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.; Petrzilka, V.

    2011-12-23

    Heat loads from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL are characterized on JET from the de-convolution of surface temperatures measured by infrared thermography. The spatial localization, quantitative estimates, parametric dependence and physical origin of the observed heat fluxes are documented. Implications of these observations are discussed for the operation of JET with an ITER-Like Wall, featuring Beryllium tiles with reduced power handling capability.

  6. Antennas for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1991-01-01

    A NASA sponsored program, called the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, has prompted the development of several innovative antennas at L-band frequencies. In the space segment of the MSAT system, an efficient, light weight, circularly polarized microstrip array that uses linearly polarized elements was developed as a multiple beam reflector feed system. In the ground segment, a low-cost, low-profile, and very efficient microstrip Yagi array was developed as a medium-gain mechanically steered vehicle antenna. Circularly shaped microstrip patches excited at higher-order modes were also developed as low-gain vehicle antennas. A more recent effort called for the development of a 20/30 GHz mobile terminal antenna for future-generation mobile satellite communications. To combat the high insertion loss encountered at 20/30 GHz, series-fed Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) microstrip array antennas are currently being developed. These MMIC arrays may lead to the development of several small but high-gain Ka-band antennas for the Personal Access Satellite Service planned for the 2000s.

  7. Fast wave current drive system design for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    deGrassie, J.S.; Callis, R.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Moeller, C..; Petty, C.C.; Phelps, D.R.; Pinsker, R.I.; Remsen, D.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Taylor, D.J.; Arnold, W.; Martin, S.

    1992-09-01

    DIII-D has a major effort underway to develop the physics and technology of fast wave electron heating and current drive in conjunction with electron cyclotron heating. The present system consists of a four strap antenna driven by one 2 MW transmitter in the 32--60 MHz band. Experiments have been successful in demonstrating the physics of heating and current drive. In order to validate fast wave current drive for future machines a greater power capability is necessary to drive all of the plasma current. Advanced tokamak modeling for DIII-D has indicated that this goal can be met for plasma configurations of interest (i.e. high {beta} VH-mode discharges) with 8 MW of transmitter fast wave capability. It is proposed that four transmitters drive fast wave antennas at three locations in DIII-D to provide the power for current drive and current profile modification. As the next step in acquiring this capability, two modular four strap antennas are in design and the procurement of a high power transmitter in the 30--120 MHz range is in progress. Additionally, innovations in the technology are being investigated, such as the use of a coupled combine antenna to reduce the number of required feedthroughs and to provide for parallel phase velocity variation with a relatively small change in frequency, and the use of fast ferrite tuners to provide millisecond timescale impedance matching. A successful test of a low power fast ferrite prototype was conducted on DIII-D.

  8. Fast wave current drive system design for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    deGrassie, J.S.; Callis, R.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Moeller, C..; Petty, C.C.; Phelps, D.R.; Pinsker, R.I.; Remsen, D. ); Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Taylor, D.J. ); Arnold, W.; Martin, S. )

    1992-09-01

    DIII-D has a major effort underway to develop the physics and technology of fast wave electron heating and current drive in conjunction with electron cyclotron heating. The present system consists of a four strap antenna driven by one 2 MW transmitter in the 32--60 MHz band. Experiments have been successful in demonstrating the physics of heating and current drive. In order to validate fast wave current drive for future machines a greater power capability is necessary to drive all of the plasma current. Advanced tokamak modeling for DIII-D has indicated that this goal can be met for plasma configurations of interest (i.e. high [beta] VH-mode discharges) with 8 MW of transmitter fast wave capability. It is proposed that four transmitters drive fast wave antennas at three locations in DIII-D to provide the power for current drive and current profile modification. As the next step in acquiring this capability, two modular four strap antennas are in design and the procurement of a high power transmitter in the 30--120 MHz range is in progress. Additionally, innovations in the technology are being investigated, such as the use of a coupled combine antenna to reduce the number of required feedthroughs and to provide for parallel phase velocity variation with a relatively small change in frequency, and the use of fast ferrite tuners to provide millisecond timescale impedance matching. A successful test of a low power fast ferrite prototype was conducted on DIII-D.

  9. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed by NASA in conjunction with industry for potential large, deployable space antennas with applications in communication, radio astronomy and earth observation is reviewed. Concepts for deployable antennas that have been developed to the point of detail design are summarized, including the advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna, the maypole (hoop/column) antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna. The assessment of state-of-the-art deployable antenna technology is discussed, and the approach taken by the NASA Large Space Systems Technology (LSST) Program to the development of technology for large space antenna systems is outlined. Finally, the further development of the wrap-rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) concept, which meet mission model requirements, to satisfy LSST size and frequency requirements is discussed.

  10. E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

  11. Low-Cost Phased Array Antenna for Sounding Rockets, Missiles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullinix, Daniel; Hall, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Corbin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost beamformer phased array antenna has been developed for expendable launch vehicles, rockets, and missiles. It utilizes a conformal array antenna of ring or individual radiators (design varies depending on application) that is designed to be fed by the recently developed hybrid electrical/mechanical (vendor-supplied) phased array beamformer. The combination of these new array antennas and the hybrid beamformer results in a conformal phased array antenna that has significantly higher gain than traditional omni antennas, and costs an order of magnitude or more less than traditional phased array designs. Existing omnidirectional antennas for sounding rockets, missiles, and expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) do not have sufficient gain to support the required communication data rates via the space network. Missiles and smaller ELVs are often stabilized in flight by a fast (i.e. 4 Hz) roll rate. This fast roll rate, combined with vehicle attitude changes, greatly increases the complexity of the high-gain antenna beam-tracking problem. Phased arrays for larger ELVs with roll control are prohibitively expensive. Prior techniques involved a traditional fully electronic phased array solution, combined with highly complex and very fast inertial measurement unit phased array beamformers. The functional operation of this phased array is substantially different from traditional phased arrays in that it uses a hybrid electrical/mechanical beamformer that creates the relative time delays for steering the antenna beam via a small physical movement of variable delay lines. This movement is controlled via an innovative antenna control unit that accesses an internal measurement unit for vehicle attitude information, computes a beam-pointing angle to the target, then points the beam via a stepper motor controller. The stepper motor on the beamformer controls the beamformer variable delay lines that apply the appropriate time delays to the individual array elements to properly

  12. A Description of the Full Particle Orbit Following SPIRAL Code for Simulating Fast-ion Experiments in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.J.; Budny, R.V.; Bortolon, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2012-07-27

    The numerical methods used in the full particle-orbit following SPIRAL code are described and a number of physics studies performed with the code are presented to illustrate its capabilities. The SPIRAL code is a test-particle code and is a powerful numerical tool to interpret and plan fast-ion experiments in Tokamaks. Gyro-orbit effects are important for fast ions in low-field machines such as NSTX and to a lesser extent in DIII-D. A number of physics studies are interlaced between the description of the code to illustrate its capabilities. Results on heat loads generated by a localized error-field on the DIII-D wall are compared to measurements. The enhanced Triton losses caused by the same localized error-field are calculated and compared to measured neutron signals. MHD activity such as tearing modes and Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) have a profound effect on the fast-ion content of Tokamak plasmas and SPIRAL can calculate the effects of MHD activity on the confined and lost fast-ion population as illustrated for a burst of TAE activity in NSTX. The interaction between Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating and fast ions depends solely on the gyro-motion of the fast ions and is captured exactly in the SPIRAL code. A calculation of ICRF absorption on beam ions in ITER is presented. The effects of high harmonic fast wave heating on the beam-ion slowing-down distribution in NSTX is also studied.

  13. A description of the full-particle-orbit-following SPIRAL code for simulating fast-ion experiments in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Budny, R. V.; Bortolon, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    The numerical methods used in the full particle-orbit following SPIRAL code are described and a number of physics studies performed with the code are presented to illustrate its capabilities. The SPIRAL code is a test-particle code and is a powerful numerical tool to interpret and plan fast-ion experiments in tokamaks. Gyro-orbit effects are important for fast ions in low-field machines such as NSTX and to a lesser extent in DIII-D. A number of physics studies are interlaced between the description of the code to illustrate its capabilities. Results on heat loads generated by a localized error-field on the DIII-D wall are compared with measurements. The enhanced Triton losses caused by the same localized error-field are calculated and compared with measured neutron signals. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity such as tearing modes and toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have a profound effect on the fast-ion content of tokamak plasmas and SPIRAL can calculate the effects of MHD activity on the confined and lost fast-ion population as illustrated for a burst of TAE activity in NSTX. The interaction between ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating and fast ions depends solely on the gyro-motion of the fast ions and is captured exactly in the SPIRAL code. A calculation of ICRF absorption on beam ions in ITER is presented. The effects of high harmonic fast wave heating on the beam-ion slowing-down distribution in NSTX is also studied.

  14. Close-Packed Silicon Lens Antennas for Millimeter-Wave MKID Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Tom; Karatsu, Kenichi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Naruse, Masato; Sekine, Masakazu; Sekiguchi, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Takashi; Mitsui, Kenji; Okada, Norio; Seta, Masumichi; Nakai, Naomasa

    2014-09-01

    We have been developing a large-format millimeter-wave camera based on lens-antenna-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) for a planned telescope at Dome Fuji (3810 m a.s.l.), Antarctica. Optical coupling to the MKID incorporates double-slot antennas and a silicon lens array. To realize a large-format camera (10,000 pixels), a highly integrated small-diameter lens array and fast optics are required. Lens diameters of 1.2, 2, and 3 times the target wavelength are investigated for the main beam symmetry, side-lobe level, cross-polarization level, and bandwidth, considering the effects of the surrounding lenses. In this study, we present the simulated beam pattern profiles of close-packed lens antenna and the effect of misalignment between the silicon lens and double-slot antenna. We also show the evaluations of the developed 721-pixel close-packed silicon lens array.

  15. Analysis of ICRH antenna loading data in TEXTOR obtained during gas injection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, I.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.; Vervier, M.

    2011-12-23

    The possibility of increasing the coupling of ICRH power to plasmas on TEXTOR by gas injection was investigated, for a given voltage applied at the input of an antenna pair. The antenna pair was operated in the conjugated T mode, D(H) heating was used. Modeling of the antenna by transmission line theory shows that load resilience is maintained in a broad range of independent resistance variation for each strap. It is found that the absolute value of the reflection coefficient can be maintained below 0.2 for typical values of resistance measured in plasma shots (2-10 {Omega}/m) in good matching conditions. During gas injection, the loading resistance showed a clear increase with increasing line average electron density measured close to the plasma edge. Evidence of fast wave eigenmodes was also found, as characteristic resonant behavior of loading resistance and antenna self-inductance, due to poor absorption in the plasma caused by high H minority concentration.

  16. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  17. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-15

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog{sub 2}N rather than N{sup 2}) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  18. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  19. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  20. ITER equilibrium with bootstrap currents, lower hybrid current drive and fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.

    1989-03-01

    A current drive system is proposed for the technology phase of ITER which relies on rf power and bootstrap currents. The rf/bootstrap system permits operation at high safety factor, and we consider the axial value to be q/sub a/ approx. = 1.9, which minimizes the need for seed current near the magnetic axis. Lower hybrid power (/approximately/30 MW) provides current density near the surface, ICRF (/approximately/65 MHz, /approximately/30 MW) fast waves generate current near the axis, and high frequency fast waves (/approximately/250 MHz, /approximately/74 MW) supply the remaining current density. The system is not yet optimized but appears to offer great flexibility (ion heating for ignition, current rampup, etc.) with relatively inexpensive and well developed technology. 29 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Satellite Communications with NRAO Green Bank Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson; Watts, Galen

    2014-11-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Green Bank facility has several medium and large antennas that are available for satellite communications. The 100 meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), the largest and most sensitive antenna on site, is capable of receiving signals at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. In addition to the GBT are the fully operational 43 meter, 20 meter, and 13.7 meter antennas, and three mothballed 26 meter antennas. A transmitter could be fitted to any of these antennas for spacecraft uplinks. We discuss the characteristics of these antennas and possible operational models for future planetary science mission support.

  2. Systems analysis for DSN microwave antenna holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed systems for Deep Space Network (DSN) microwave antenna holography are analyzed. Microwave holography, as applied to antennas, is a technique which utilizes the Fourier Transform relation between the complex far-field radiation pattern of an antenna and the complex aperture field distribution to provide a methodology for the analysis and evaluation of antenna performance. Resulting aperture phase and amplitude distribution data are used to precisely characterize various crucial performance parameters, including panel alignment, subreflector position, antenna aperture illumination, directivity at various frequencies, and gravity deformation. Microwave holographic analysis provides diagnostic capacity as well as being a powerful tool for evaluating antenna design specifications and their corresponding theoretical models.

  3. Antennas in matter: Fundamentals, theory, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W. P.; Smith, G. S.; Owens, M.; Wu, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The volume provides an introduction to antennas and probes embedded within or near material bodies such as the earth, the ocean, or a living organism. After a fundamental analysis of insulated and bare antennas, an advanced treatment of antennas in various media is presented, including a detailed study of the electromagnetic equations in homogeneous isotropic media, the complete theory of the bare dipole in a general medium, and a rigorous analysis of the insulated antenna as well as bare and insulated loop antennas. Finally, experimental models and measuring techniques related to antennas and probes in a general dissipative or dielectric medium are examined.

  4. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2014-12-15

    The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a “whistler waveguide” mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.

  5. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  6. Selective detection of bacterial layers with terahertz plasmonic antennas

    PubMed Central

    Berrier, Audrey; Schaafsma, Martijn C.; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Bergquist, Jonas; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Current detection and identification of micro-organisms is based on either rather unspecific rapid microscopy or on more accurate but complex and time-consuming procedures. In a medical context, the determination of the bacteria Gram type is of significant interest. The diagnostic of microbial infection often requires the identification of the microbiological agent responsible for the infection, or at least the identification of its family (Gram type), in a matter of minutes. In this work, we propose to use terahertz frequency range antennas for the enhanced selective detection of bacteria types. Several microorganisms are investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: a fast, contactless and damage-free investigation method to gain information on the presence and the nature of the microorganisms. We demonstrate that plasmonic antennas enhance the detection sensitivity for bacterial layers and allow the selective recognition of the Gram type of the bacteria. PMID:23162730

  7. Comparison of evolutionary algorithms for LPDA antenna optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridis, Pavlos I.; Tziris, Emmanouil N.; Zaharis, Zaharias D.; Xenos, Thomas D.; Cosmas, John P.; Gallion, Philippe B.; Holmes, Violeta; Glover, Ian A.

    2016-08-01

    A novel approach to broadband log-periodic antenna design is presented, where some of the most powerful evolutionary algorithms are applied and compared for the optimal design of wire log-periodic dipole arrays (LPDA) using Numerical Electromagnetics Code. The target is to achieve an optimal antenna design with respect to maximum gain, gain flatness, front-to-rear ratio (F/R) and standing wave ratio. The parameters of the LPDA optimized are the dipole lengths, the spacing between the dipoles, and the dipole wire diameters. The evolutionary algorithms compared are the Differential Evolution (DE), Particle Swarm (PSO), Taguchi, Invasive Weed (IWO), and Adaptive Invasive Weed Optimization (ADIWO). Superior performance is achieved by the IWO (best results) and PSO (fast convergence) algorithms.

  8. Selective detection of bacterial layers with terahertz plasmonic antennas.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Audrey; Schaafsma, Martijn C; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Bergquist, Jonas; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2012-11-01

    Current detection and identification of micro-organisms is based on either rather unspecific rapid microscopy or on more accurate but complex and time-consuming procedures. In a medical context, the determination of the bacteria Gram type is of significant interest. The diagnostic of microbial infection often requires the identification of the microbiological agent responsible for the infection, or at least the identification of its family (Gram type), in a matter of minutes. In this work, we propose to use terahertz frequency range antennas for the enhanced selective detection of bacteria types. Several microorganisms are investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: a fast, contactless and damage-free investigation method to gain information on the presence and the nature of the microorganisms. We demonstrate that plasmonic antennas enhance the detection sensitivity for bacterial layers and allow the selective recognition of the Gram type of the bacteria.

  9. Radiation and scattering from printed antennas on cylindrically conformal platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.; Bindiganavale, Sunil

    1994-01-01

    The goal was to develop suitable methods and software for the analysis of antennas on cylindrical coated and uncoated platforms. Specifically, the finite element boundary integral and finite element ABC methods were employed successfully and associated software were developed for the analysis and design of wraparound and discrete cavity-backed arrays situated on cylindrical platforms. This work led to the successful implementation of analysis software for such antennas. Developments which played a role in this respect are the efficient implementation of the 3D Green's function for a metallic cylinder, the incorporation of the fast Fourier transform in computing the matrix-vector products executed in the solver of the finite element-boundary integral system, and the development of a new absorbing boundary condition for terminating the finite element mesh on cylindrical surfaces.

  10. Selective detection of bacterial layers with terahertz plasmonic antennas.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Audrey; Schaafsma, Martijn C; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Bergquist, Jonas; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2012-11-01

    Current detection and identification of micro-organisms is based on either rather unspecific rapid microscopy or on more accurate but complex and time-consuming procedures. In a medical context, the determination of the bacteria Gram type is of significant interest. The diagnostic of microbial infection often requires the identification of the microbiological agent responsible for the infection, or at least the identification of its family (Gram type), in a matter of minutes. In this work, we propose to use terahertz frequency range antennas for the enhanced selective detection of bacteria types. Several microorganisms are investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: a fast, contactless and damage-free investigation method to gain information on the presence and the nature of the microorganisms. We demonstrate that plasmonic antennas enhance the detection sensitivity for bacterial layers and allow the selective recognition of the Gram type of the bacteria. PMID:23162730

  11. Simulation of Conformal Spiral Slot Antennas on Composite Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, J. L.; Nurnberger, M. W.; Ozdemir,T.

    1998-01-01

    During the course of the grant, we wrote and distributed about 12 reports and an equal number of journal papers supported fully or in part by this grant. The list of reports (title & abstract) and papers are given in Appendices A and B. This grant has indeed been instrumental in developing a robust hybrid finite element method for the analysis of complex broadband antennas on doubly curved platforms. Previous to the grant, our capability was limited to simple printed patch antennas on mostly planar platforms. More specifically: (1) mixed element formulations were developed and new edge-based prisms were introduced; (2) these elements were important in permitting flexibility in geometry gridding for most antennas of interest; (3) new perfectly matched absorbers were introduced for mesh truncations associated with highly curved surfaces; (4) fast integral algorithms were introduced for boundary integral truncations reducing CPU time from O(N-2) down to O(N-1.5) or less; (5) frequency extrapolation schemes were developed for efficient broadband performance evaluations. This activity has been successfully continued by NASA researchers; (6) computer codes were developed and extensively tested for several broadband configurations. These include FEMA-CYL, FEMA-PRISM and FEMA-TETRA written by L. Kempel, T. Ozdemir and J. Gong, respectively; (7) a new infinite balun feed was designed nearly constant impedance over the 800-3000 MHz operational band; (8) a complete slot spiral antenna was developed, fabricated and tested at NASA Langley. This new design is a culmination of the projects goals and integrates the computational and experimental efforts. this antenna design resulted in a U.S. patent and was revised three times to achieve the desired bandwidth and gain requirements from 800-3000 MHz.

  12. Multiband small zeroth-order metamaterial antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakhli, Nabil; Choubani, Fethi; David, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A novel resonant metamaterial antenna based on the Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) model is presented. The proposed small antenna is designed to operate simultaneously over multiple wireless services (UMTS-WLAN-WIMAX)

  13. Integrated resonant tunneling diode based antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Tiggers, Chris P.; Plut, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An antenna comprising a plurality of negative resistance devices and a method for making same comprising employing a removable standoff layer to form the gap between the microstrip antenna metal and the bottom contact layer.

  14. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or with the minimum antenna gain requirement; and (B) With the minimum radiation suppression to angle... degrees) Minimum antenna gain (dbi) Minimum radiation suppression to angle in degrees from centerline...

  15. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasack, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  16. Large reflector antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, C. G.

    1986-01-01

    In some applications, the wires used to construct the grids are plated over with highly conducting materials such as gold or silver. In those cases, depending on the frequency of operation, the coating may not be thick enough to prevent currents from flowing in the substrate. The conjugate gradient method, in conjunction with the fast Fourier transform is employed to solve the problem of scattering from such rectangular grids. An internal impedance is utilized to account for the effects of the substrate conductivity on the induced current densities. Calculated values of the reflection coefficient and induced currents from different coating thicknesses, angles of incidence and polarizations are presented and discussed.

  17. Compact Low Frequency Radio Antenna

    DOEpatents

    Punnoose, Ratish J.

    2008-11-11

    An antenna is disclosed that comprises a pair of conductive, orthogonal arches and a pair of conductive annular sector plates, wherein adjacent legs of each arch are fastened to one of the annular sector plates and the opposite adjacent pair of legs is fastened to the remaining annular sector plate. The entire antenna structure is spaced apart from a conductive ground plane by a thin dielectric medium. The antenna is driven by a feed conduit passing through the conductive ground plane and dielectric medium and attached to one of the annular sector plates, wherein the two orthogonal arched act as a pair of crossed dipole elements. This arrangement of elements provides a radiation pattern that is largely omni-directional above the horizon.

  18. Antenna Technology Shuttle Experiment (ATSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Miller, L. J.; Rahmet-Samii, Y.; Weber, W. J., III

    1987-01-01

    Numerous space applications of the future will require mesh deployable antennas of 15 m in diameter or greater for frequencies up to 20 GHz. These applications include mobile communications satellites, orbiting very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrophysics missions, and Earth remote sensing missions. A Lockheed wrap rip antennas was used as the test article. The experiments covered a broad range of structural, control, and RF discipline objectives, which is fulfilled in total, would greatly reduce the risk of employing these antenna systems in future space applications. It was concluded that a flight experiment of a relatively large mesh deployable reflector is achievable with no major technological or cost drivers. The test articles and the instrumentation are all within the state of the art and in most cases rely on proven flight hardware. Every effort was made to design the experiments for low cost.

  19. Offset unfurlable antenna, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    The configuration, technology requirements, development aspects, and experimental activities for satellite reflectors for fixed and mobile communications and television broadcasting are outlined. A 4.5 m antenna for 4 GHz, and an 8 m antenna for 1.6 GHz were studied, assuming an L-Sat type satellite. A radial rib concept with auxiliary adjustment ribs, and a three dimensional scissors concept (spatial framework) with mesh adjustment elements were compared concerning mass, stowage, volume, development risk, and reliability. For antennas of diameter from 3.6 to 12 m (12 GHz to 800 MHz) the radial rib reflector is preferred. Main advantages (with rib folding for larger reflector diameters) are: lower costs; less critical technology problems; lower development risks; high deployment reliability; lightweight intermediate ribs can adapt surface accuracy to higher frequency requirements (high application flexibility); and folded main ribs provide high package capability at larger diameters. The scissors concept is advantageous for applications requiring reflectors from 12 m diameter onwards.

  20. Antenna Technology Shuttle Experiment (ATSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Miller, L. J.; Rahmet-Samii, Y.; Weber, W. J., III

    1987-06-01

    Numerous space applications of the future will require mesh deployable antennas of 15 m in diameter or greater for frequencies up to 20 GHz. These applications include mobile communications satellites, orbiting very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrophysics missions, and Earth remote sensing missions. A Lockheed wrap rip antennas was used as the test article. The experiments covered a broad range of structural, control, and RF discipline objectives, which is fulfilled in total, would greatly reduce the risk of employing these antenna systems in future space applications. It was concluded that a flight experiment of a relatively large mesh deployable reflector is achievable with no major technological or cost drivers. The test articles and the instrumentation are all within the state of the art and in most cases rely on proven flight hardware. Every effort was made to design the experiments for low cost.

  1. Large Space Antenna Systems Technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, W. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers are presented which provide a comprehensive review of space missions requiring large antenna systems and of the status of key technologies required to enable these missions. Topic areas include mission applications for large space antenna systems, large space antenna structural systems, materials and structures technology, structural dynamics and control technology, electromagnetics technology, large space antenna systems and the space station, and flight test and evaluation.

  2. Bandwidth characteristics of monopulse slotted waveguide antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derneryd, A.; Peterson, R.

    Slotted waveguide antennas are of resonant and nonresonant type; the former generate a beam normal to the aperture, rendering them suitable for monopulse antenna applications. Attention is presently given to the improvement of resonant antenna impedance matching through a process of waveguide overloading. The combination of an overloaded waveguide and a transformer will generally have a broader impedance match than the antenna matched by itself; this phenomenon is discussed from both impedance-match and sidelobe level viewpoints.

  3. The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

  4. Superiority of half-wavelength helicon antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porte, L.; Yun, S. M.; Arnush, D.; Chen, F. F.

    2003-05-01

    Plasma densities produced by half- and full-wavelength (HW and FW) helical antennae in helicon discharges are compared. It is found that HW antennae are more efficient than FW ones in producing plasma downstream from the antenna. The measured wave amplitudes and the apparent importance of downstream ionization do not agree with computations.

  5. Small X-Band Oscillator Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix A.; Clark, Eric B.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    A small, segmented microstrip patch antenna integrated with an X-band feedback oscillator on a high-permittivity substrate has been built and tested. This oscillator antenna is a prototype for demonstrating the feasibility of such devices as compact, low-power-consumption building blocks of advanced, lightweight, phased antenna arrays that would generate steerable beams for communication and remotesensing applications.

  6. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  7. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area....

  8. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  9. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  10. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area....

  11. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Except for the 2390-2400 MHz band, no antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use....

  12. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  13. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations...

  14. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service....

  15. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  16. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  17. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  18. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 73.69 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have...

  19. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  20. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  1. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed...

  2. Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…

  3. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  4. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  5. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Except for the 2390-2400 MHz band, no antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use....

  7. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed...

  8. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area....

  9. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  10. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 73.69 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have...

  11. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  12. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  13. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  15. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  16. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations...

  17. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 55733, Sept. 11, 2012. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  20. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...