Science.gov

Sample records for fast rise time

  1. Fast rise-time, fiber optic pin

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, F

    1998-05-12

    A reliable, simple fast-rise-time diagnostic has been developed for measuring the breakout time of the detonation wave in a detonating high explosive. The intrinsic rise time of the signals generated is less than one nanosecond. The technique, called FAT (Fiber Arrival Time), consists of an optical fiber with one end coated with ~1500 Å Aluminum. The coated end is placed in intimate contact with the surface of the explosive. The detonation wave interacting with the Al surface causes a prompt flash of light which is recorded at the output end of the fiber. The active area of the FAT probe end is 100 µm in diameter and centered to within ±10 µm also giving excellent spatial precision. When used in this mode, FAT overcomes difficulties of electronic and past fiber optic pins. When looking at a flyer plate arrival the time response appears to be a function of the metal plate velocity.

  2. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%.

  3. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  4. Fast rise time IR detectors for lepton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, A.; Bini, S.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostics is a fundamental issue for accelerators whose demands are continuously increasing. In particular bunch-by-bunch diagnostics is a key challenge for the latest generation of lepton colliders and storage rings. The Frascati Φ-factory, DAΦNE, colliding at 1.02 GeV in the centre of mass, hosts in the main rings few synchrotron radiation beamlines and two of them collect the synchrotron radiation infrared emission: SINBAD from the electron ring and 3+L from the positron ring. At DAΦNE each bucket is 2.7 ns long and particles are gathered in bunches emitting pulsed IR radiation, whose intensity in the long wavelength regime is directly proportional to the accumulated particles. Compact uncooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been tested in both beamlines using dedicated optical layouts. Actually, the fast rise time of HgCdTe semiconductors give us the chance to test bunch-by-bunch devices for both longitudinal and transverse diagnostics. For the longitudinal case, single pixel detectors have been used, while for the transverse diagnostics, multi-pixel array detectors, with special custom design, are under test. This contribution will briefly describe the status of the research on fast IR detectors at DAΦNE, the results obtained and possible foreseen developments.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF A FAST RISE TIME POWER SUPPLY FOR A PULSED PLASMA REACTOR FOR CHEMICAL VAPOR DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rotating spark gap devices for switching high-voltage direct current (dc) into a corona plasma reactor can achieve pulse rise times in the range of tens of nanoseconds. The fast rise times lead to vigorous plasma generation without sparking at instantaneous applied voltages highe...

  6. High-Voltage Power Supply With Fast Rise and Fall Times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Acker, Richard M.; Kapuslka, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose high-voltage power supply can be electronically switched on and off with fast rise and fall times, respectively. The output potential is programmable from 20 to 1,250 V. An output current of 50 A can be sustained at 1,250 V. The power supply was designed specifically for electronically shuttering a microchannel plate in an x-ray detector that must operate with exposure times as short as 1 ms. The basic design of the power supply is also adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for rapid slewing of high voltages. The power-supply circuitry (see figure) includes a preregulator, which is used to program the output at 1/30 of the desired output potential. After the desired voltage has been set, the outputs of a pulse width modulator (PWM) are enabled and used to amplify the preregulator output potential by 30. The amplification is achieved by use of two voltage doublers with a transformer that has two primary and two secondary windings. A resistor is used to limit the current by controlling the drive voltage of two field-effect transistors (FETs) during turn-on of the PWM. A pulse transformer is used to turn on four FETs to short-circuit four output capacitors when the outputs of the PWM have been disabled. The most notable aspects of the performance of the power supply are a rise time of only 80 s and a fall time of only 60 s at a load current of 50 A or less. Another notable aspect is that the application of a 0-to-5-V square wave to a shutdown pin of the PWM causes the production of a 0-to-1,250-V square wave at the output terminals.

  7. A 200 kV fast rise time, low jitter, trigger system with magnetic pulse sharpener

    SciTech Connect

    Jaitly, N.C.; Coleman, M.D.; Ramrus, A.; Earley, L.M.; Downing, J.N.; Reisch, H.H.; Caudill, L.D.; Eversol, S.A.

    1992-09-01

    The DARHT Facility is being designed at Los Alamos national Laboratory to produce high resolution flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIA), each in the range of 16 to 20 MeV, will be used to produce intense bremsstrahlung X-ray pulses of short duration (60 ns flat top). Each LIA will produce a 3 kA, high brightness, electron beam using a 4 MeV injector and a series of 250 kV induction cells. Technology demonstration of key accelerator subsystems is under progress at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand (ITS). The eight inductions cells present in the ITS are driven by a Maxwell prototype Induction Cell Pulsed Power supply (ICPPS) which provides 250 kV, 70 ns pulses via four Blumieins. Each Blumiein drives two cells and is triggered using independently controlled trigger units. This turnkey DARHT Trigger System, consisting of four separate trigger units, provides 200 kV trigger pulses with low jitter and fast rise time to each of the four Blumiein coaxial spark gaps. Details of the trigger system design and results obtained during extensive testing at Maxwell are described.

  8. Fast Rise Time and High Voltage Nanosecond Pulses at High Pulse Repetition Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth E.; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Picard, Julian; Hashim, Akel

    2015-09-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is conducting research to decrease the rise time and increase the output voltage of the EHT Nanosecond Pulser product line, which allows for independently, user-adjustable output voltage (0 - 20 kV), pulse width (20 - 500 ns), and pulse repetition frequency (0 - 100 kHz). The goals are to develop higher voltage pulses (50 - 60 kV), decrease the rise time from 20 to below 10 ns, and maintain the high pulse repetition capabilities. These new capabilities have applications to pseudospark generation, corona production, liquid discharges, and nonlinear transmission line driving for microwave production. This work is supported in part by the US Navy SBIR program.

  9. Modification of water in a nanosecond diffuse discharge with fast electron preionization at a short voltage rise time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlovskii, Victor M.; Panarin, Victor A.; Shulepov, Mikhail A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper studies the dynamics of a nanosecond diffuse discharge with no additional preionization at a voltage rise time of less than 1 ns and its effect on drinking and distilled water. It is shown that the diffuse discharge is formed due to avalanche charge multiplication initiated by fast electrons and is sustained by secondary breakdown waves through ionized gas channels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that repeated exposure to the discharge changes the absorption spectra of drinking and distilled water such that the stretching vibration band of OH groups broadens and lacks clearly defined peaks. The water conductivity after irradiation increases. Probably, this is due to cluster rearrangement of water molecules.

  10. From RISING to the DESPEC fast-timing project within NUSTAR at FAIR: sub-nanosecond nuclear timing spectroscopy with LaBr3 scintillators.

    PubMed

    Regan, P H

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarises a presentation given at the IRRMA8 conference in June 2011 which reviewed briefly the topic of current research studies in the evolution of nuclear structure with changing proton and neutron numbers. A short review of relevant contemporary spectroscopic studies of the structure of nuclei with highly exotic N/Z ratios using projectile fragmentation and fission reactions is given, together with an overview of some of the physics research aims to be attacked using the proposed Decay Spectroscopy (DESPEC) LaBr3 Fast-Timing gamma-ray array for the NUSTAR project at the upcoming Facility for Anti-Proton and Ion Research (FAIR). Examples of recent results using both 'isomer' and β--delayed gamma-ray decay measurements with the Stopped RISING hyper-pure germanium array at GSI are summarised and used to highlight some of the fundamental physics studies which are expected to become available in this area of research in the coming decade. Examples of the performance of cerium-doped LaBr3 detectors from 'in-beam' test experiments are presented together with initial plans for the geometry of the planned multi-detector LaBr3(Ce) array for DESPEC. PMID:22285659

  11. Amplitude- and rise-time-compensated filters

    DOEpatents

    Nowlin, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    An amplitude-compensated rise-time-compensated filter for a pulse time-of-occurrence (TOOC) measurement system is disclosed. The filter converts an input pulse, having the characteristics of random amplitudes and random, non-zero rise times, to a bipolar output pulse wherein the output pulse has a zero-crossing time that is independent of the rise time and amplitude of the input pulse. The filter differentiates the input pulse, along the linear leading edge of the input pulse, and subtracts therefrom a pulse fractionally proportional to the input pulse. The filter of the present invention can use discrete circuit components and avoids the use of delay lines.

  12. Slow-rise and Fast-rise Phases of an Erupting Solar Filament and Flare Emission Onset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    We observe the eruption of an active-region solar filament of 1998 July 11 using high time cadence and high spatial resolution EUV observations from the TRACE satellite, along with soft X-ray images from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on the Yohkoh satellite, hard X-ray fluxes from the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satellite and from the hard X-ray telescope (HXT) on Yohkoh, and ground-based magnetograms. We concentrate on the initiation of the eruption in an effort to understand the eruption mechanism. Prior to eruption the filament undergoes slow upward movement in a "slow rise" phase with an approximately constant velocity of about 15 km/s that lasts about 10 min. It then erupts in a "fast-rise" phase, accelerating to a velocity of about 200 km/s in about 5 min, and then decelerating to approximately 150 km/s over the next 5 min. EUV brightenings begin about concurrent with the start of the filament's slow rise, and remain immediately beneath the rising filament during the slow rise; initial soft X-ray brightenings occur at about the same time and location. Strong hard X-ray emission begins after the onset of the fast rise, and does not peak until the filament has traveled to a substantial altitude (to a height about equal to the initial length of the erupting filament) beyond its initial location. Additional information is available in the original extended abstract.

  13. Response of surge protection devices to fast rising pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindel, I. N.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of lightning protection modules incorporating leadless (pill type) Zener like devices were evaluated with regard to their ability to suppress EMP induced transients. Two series of tests were performed to evaluate the ability of these modules to react to fast rate of rise ( 1Kv/ns) transients, and the attenuation introduced and the ability to limit damped sinusoid pulses which may be induced due to an EMP resulting from a nuclear detonation.

  14. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOEpatents

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  15. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOEpatents

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  16. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  17. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  18. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  19. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  20. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunova, G. V.; Malanchev, K. L.

    2016-10-01

    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.

  1. Superconducting, fast rise-time voltage source

    SciTech Connect

    Lumley, R.M.

    1983-01-25

    A pulse generator comprises a toroid of a superconducting material such as niobium on a glass or ceramic substrate. A cryogenic source such as liquid helium cools the toroid to within a few degrees of absolute zero and a perpetually circulatory current is set up in the toroid. A laser beam is fired at the toroid to cause localized heating and the resultant current drop due to the material resistance causes an output pulse to be induced in an adjacent current winding.

  2. Diffusion of fast rising strong magnetic fields into conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labetskaya, N. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Kuskova, N. I.; Rud, A. D.

    2014-11-01

    The basic processes occurring in a conductor exploding in a current skinning mode are the propagation of a nonlinear magnetic diffusion wave in the conductor and the formation of low-temperature plasma at its surface. An experimental study of the phenomenon of nonlinear magnetic diffusion into conductors in magnetic fields of induction rising at a rate up to 3·109 T/s was carried out on the MIG generator capable of producing a peak current up to 2.5 MA within a rise time of 100 ns. It has been found experimentally that the average velocity of a nonlinear magnetic diffusion wave in an aluminum conductor placed in a strong magnetic field (up to 300 T) rising at a high rate (on average, 3·109 T/s) is (2.7÷3.3)·105 cm/s. This is comparable to the velocity of sound in aluminum under normal conditions and reasonably agrees with predictions of numerical simulations.

  3. Climate change. How fast are sea levels rising?

    PubMed

    Church, J A

    2001-10-26

    Sea levels are rising as a result of global warming, but assessing the rate of the rise is proving difficult. In his Perspective, Church highlights the report by Cabanes et al., who have reassessed observational data and find that it is closer to model estimates than previously found. However, observational data are still limited and models disagree in their regional projections. With present data and models, regional sea-level changes cannot be predicted with confidence.

  4. Dependence of current rise time on laser-triggered discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soowon; Kamohara, Takashi; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Katsuki, Sunao

    2016-07-01

    A powerful, stable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source is the most important component for EUV lithography and EUV mask inspection. Here, we investigate the characteristics of laser-triggered discharge plasma at three different current rise times, fast, middle and slow. A height-adjustable coaxial birdcage was used to change circuit inductance. The rise time was varied between 30 ns-55 ns with peak current of 10 kA. The time-integrated EUV (at 13.5 nm in 2% bandwidth) intensity for the fast rise time was found to be 55% stronger than that of the slow rise time despite its lower energy. A high-speed Mach-Zehnder interferogram and visible imaging of the pinch plasma were employed to discuss plasma compression processes qualitatively and quantitatively. Also discharge produced debris was investigated using a silicon-crystal witness plate. The fast rise current was found to have advantages such as lower debris, higher EUV intensity, and possibility of suppressing instability in comparison with the slow rise time. As expected, total debris amounts lessened proportionally to the primary charged energy, as found from a comparison of fast and slow rise currents.

  5. Dependence of current rise time on laser-triggered discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soowon; Kamohara, Takashi; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Katsuki, Sunao

    2016-07-01

    A powerful, stable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source is the most important component for EUV lithography and EUV mask inspection. Here, we investigate the characteristics of laser-triggered discharge plasma at three different current rise times, fast, middle and slow. A height-adjustable coaxial birdcage was used to change circuit inductance. The rise time was varied between 30 ns–55 ns with peak current of 10 kA. The time-integrated EUV (at 13.5 nm in 2% bandwidth) intensity for the fast rise time was found to be 55% stronger than that of the slow rise time despite its lower energy. A high-speed Mach–Zehnder interferogram and visible imaging of the pinch plasma were employed to discuss plasma compression processes qualitatively and quantitatively. Also discharge produced debris was investigated using a silicon-crystal witness plate. The fast rise current was found to have advantages such as lower debris, higher EUV intensity, and possibility of suppressing instability in comparison with the slow rise time. As expected, total debris amounts lessened proportionally to the primary charged energy, as found from a comparison of fast and slow rise currents.

  6. Mapping Rise Time Information with Down-Shift Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T. W., Machorro, E. A., Diaz, A. B.

    2011-11-01

    These viewgraphs summarize the application of recent developments in digital down-shift (DDS) analysis of up converted PDV data to map out how well the PDV diagnostic would capture rise time information (mid point and rise time) in short rise time (<1 ns) shock events. The mapping supports a PDV vs VISAR challenge. The analysis concepts are new (~September FY 2011), simple, and run quickly, which makes them good tools to map out (with ~1 million Monte Carlo simulations) how well PDV captures rise time information as function of baseline velocity, rise time, velocity jump, and signal-to-noise ratios.

  7. Initiation of the Slow-Rise and Fast-Rise Phases of an Erupting Solar Filament by Localized Emerging Magnetic Field via Microflaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.; Harra, L. K.

    2006-01-01

    EUV data from EIT show that a filament of 2001 February 28 underwent a slow-rise phase lasting about 6 hrs, before rapidly erupting in a fast-rise phase. Concurrent images in soft X-rays (SXRs) from Yohkoh/SXT show that a series of three microflares, prominent in SXT images but weak in EIT approx.195 Ang EUV images, occurred near one end of the filament. The first and last microflares occurred respectively in conjunction with the start of the slow-rise phase and the start of the fast-rise phase, and the second microflare corresponded to a kink in the filament trajectory. Beginning within 10 hours of the start of the slow rise, new magnetic flux emerged at the location of the microflaring. This localized new flux emergence and the resulting microflares, consistent with reconnection between the emerging field and the sheared sigmoid core magnetic field holding the filament, apparently caused the slow rise of this field and the transition to explosive eruption. For the first time in such detail, the observations show this direct action of localized emerging flux in the progressive destabilization of a sheared core field in the onset of a coronal mass ejection (CME). Similar processes may have occurred in other recently-studied events, NASA supported this work through NASA SR&T and SEC GI grants.

  8. Flare Emission Onset in the Slow-Rise and Fast-Rise Phases of an Erupting Solar Filament Observed with TRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    We observe the eruption of an active-region solar filament of 1998 July 11 using high time cadence and high spatial resolution EUV observations from the TRACE sareiii'ce, along with soft X-ray images from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on the Yohkoh satellite, hard X-ray fluxes from the BATSE instrument on the (CGRO) satellite and from the hard X-ray telescope (HXT) on Yohkoh, and ground-based magnetograms. We concentrate on the initiation of the eruption in an effort to understand the eruption mechanism. First the filament undergoes slow upward movement in a "slow rise" phase with an approximately constant velocity of approximately 15 km/s that lasts about 10-min, and then it erupts in a "fast-rise" phase, reaching a velocity of about 200 km/s in about 5-min, followed by a period of deceleration. EUV brightenings begin just before the start of the filament's slow rise, and remain immediately beneath the rising filament during the slow rise; initial soft X-ray brightenings occur at about the same time and location. Strong hard X-ray emission begins after the onset of the fast rise, and does not peak until the filament has traveled a substantial altitude (to a height about equal to the initial length of the erupting filament) beyond its initial location. Our observations are consistent with the slow-rise phase of the eruption resulting from the onset of "tether cutting" reconnection between magnetic fields beneath the filament, and the fast rise resulting from an explosive increase in the reconnection rate or by catastrophic destabilization of the overlying filament-carrying fields. About two days prior to the event new flux emerged near the location of the initial brightenings, and this recently- emerged flux could have been a catalyst for initiating the tether-cutting reconnection. With the exception of the initial slow rise, our findings qualitatively agree with the prediction for erupting-flux-rope height as a function of time in a model discussed by Chen

  9. Detection of Sound Rise Time by Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamalainen, J.; Leppanen, P.H.T.; Torppa, M.; Muller, K.; Lyytinen, H.

    2005-01-01

    Low sensitivity to amplitude modulated (AM) sounds is reported to be associated with dyslexia. An important aspect of amplitude modulation cycles are the rise and fall times within the sound. In this study, simplified stimuli equivalent to just one cycle were used and sensitivity to varying rise times was explored. Adult participants with dyslexia…

  10. An evaluation of rise time characterization and prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Leick D.

    1994-01-01

    One common method of extrapolating sonic boom waveforms from aircraft to ground is to calculate the nonlinear distortion, and then add a rise time to each shock by a simple empirical rule. One common rule is the '3 over P' rule which calculates the rise time in milliseconds as three divided by the shock amplitude in psf. This rule was compared with the results of ZEPHYRUS, a comprehensive algorithm which calculates sonic boom propagation and extrapolation with the combined effects of nonlinearity, attenuation, dispersion, geometric spreading, and refraction in a stratified atmosphere. It is shown there that the simple empirical rule considerably overestimates the rise time estimate. In addition, the empirical rule does not account for variations in the rise time due to humidity variation or propagation history. It is also demonstrated that the rise time is only an approximate indicator of perceived loudness. Three waveforms with identical characteristics (shock placement, amplitude, and rise time), but with different shock shapes, are shown to give different calculated loudness. This paper is based in part on work performed at the Applied Research Laboratories, the University of Texas at Austin, and supported by NASA Langley.

  11. The Rise Time of Normal and Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Conley, A.; Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Fourmanoit, N.; Graham, M. L.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02+0.18 - 0.28 (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s <= 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57+0.47 - 0.50 (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s <= 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03+0.81 - 1.37 (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M ⊙ of 56Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada

  12. SNLS: Supernova Rise Times from the SNLS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Howes, A.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Lusset, V.; Ripoche, P.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Tao, C.

    2005-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide the most direct evidence for the acceleration of the Universe. This evidence relies on a comparison between the luminosities of distant and nearby SNe Ia, and hence is potentially sensitive to any evolution in the mean lightcurve properties between these two samples. One method for testing for the presence of such effects is to measure and compare the rise time, which is the time between explosion and maximum luminosity, of the two samples. The Supernova Legacy Survey provides an excellent data sample for the analysis of this issue, since it's 'rolling search' nature yields lightcurves which are well sampled prior to maximum light. Here we discuss measurements of the rise time from SNLS data and what they can tell us about evolutionary effects.

  13. A note on some statistical properties of rise time parameters used in muon arrival time measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwalt, D. J.; Devilliers, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most investigations of the muon arrival time distribution in EAS during the past decade made use of parameters which can collectively be called rise time parameters. The rise time parameter T sub A/B is defined as the time taken for the integrated pulse from a detector to rise from A% to B% of its full amplitude. The use of these parameters are usually restricted to the determination of the radial dependence thereof. This radial dependence of the rise time parameters are usually taken as a signature of the particle interaction characteristics in the shower. As these parameters have a stochastic nature, it seems reasonable that one should also take notice of this aspect of the rise time parameters. A statistical approach to rise time parameters is presented.

  14. Neural processing of amplitude and formant rise time in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peter, Varghese; Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate how children with dyslexia weight amplitude rise time (ART) and formant rise time (FRT) cues in phonetic discrimination. Passive mismatch responses (MMR) were recorded for a/ba/-/wa/contrast in a multiple deviant odd-ball paradigm to identify the neural response to cue weighting in 17 children with dyslexia and 17 age-matched control children. The deviant stimuli had either partial or full ART or FRT cues. The results showed that ART did not generate an MMR in either group, whereas both partial and full FRT cues generated MMR in control children while only full FRT cues generated MMR in children with dyslexia. These findings suggest that children, both controls and those with dyslexia, discriminate speech based on FRT cues and not ART cues. However, control children have greater sensitivity to FRT cues in speech compared to children with dyslexia.

  15. A Luminous, Fast Rising UV-transient Discovered by ROTSE: A Tidal Disruption Event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinkó, J.; Yuan, F.; Quimby, R. M.; Wheeler, J. C.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Guillochon, J.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Marion, G. H.; Akerlof, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present follow-up observations of an optical transient (OT) discovered by ROTSE on 2009 January 21. Photometric monitoring was carried out with ROTSE-IIIb in the optical and Swift in the UV up to +70 days after discovery. The light curve showed a fast rise time of ~10 days followed by a steep decline over the next 60 days, which was much faster than that implied by 56Ni—56Co radioactive decay. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 database contains a faint, red object at the position of the OT, which appears slightly extended. This and other lines of evidence suggest that the OT is of extragalactic origin, and this faint object is likely the host galaxy. A sequence of optical spectra obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope between +8 and +45 days after discovery revealed a hot, blue continuum with no visible spectral features. A few weak features that appeared after +30 days probably originated from the underlying host. Fitting synthetic templates to the observed spectrum of the host galaxy revealed a redshift of z = 0.19. At this redshift, the peak magnitude of the OT is close to -22.5, similar to the brightest super-luminous supernovae; however, the lack of identifiable spectral features makes the massive stellar death hypothesis less likely. A more plausible explanation appears to be the tidal disruption of a Sun-like star by the central supermassive black hole. We argue that this transient likely belongs to a class of super-Eddington tidal disruption events.

  16. A LUMINOUS, FAST RISING UV-TRANSIENT DISCOVERED BY ROTSE: A TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Vinkó, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Marion, G. H.; Yuan, F.; Akerlof, C.; Quimby, R. M.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Guillochon, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present follow-up observations of an optical transient (OT) discovered by ROTSE on 2009 January 21. Photometric monitoring was carried out with ROTSE-IIIb in the optical and Swift in the UV up to +70 days after discovery. The light curve showed a fast rise time of ∼10 days followed by a steep decline over the next 60 days, which was much faster than that implied by {sup 56}Ni—{sup 56}Co radioactive decay. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 database contains a faint, red object at the position of the OT, which appears slightly extended. This and other lines of evidence suggest that the OT is of extragalactic origin, and this faint object is likely the host galaxy. A sequence of optical spectra obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope between +8 and +45 days after discovery revealed a hot, blue continuum with no visible spectral features. A few weak features that appeared after +30 days probably originated from the underlying host. Fitting synthetic templates to the observed spectrum of the host galaxy revealed a redshift of z = 0.19. At this redshift, the peak magnitude of the OT is close to –22.5, similar to the brightest super-luminous supernovae; however, the lack of identifiable spectral features makes the massive stellar death hypothesis less likely. A more plausible explanation appears to be the tidal disruption of a Sun-like star by the central supermassive black hole. We argue that this transient likely belongs to a class of super-Eddington tidal disruption events.

  17. Research on fast rise time EMP radiating-wave simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lisi; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Yun

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an antenna of High altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiating-wave simulator which expands the testing zone larger than the traditional transmission line simulator. The numerical results show that traverse electramagnetic (TEM) antenna can be used to radiate HEMP simulation radiating wave, but in low frequency band the emissive capability is poor. The experiment proves the numerical model is valid. The results of this paper show that TEM antenna can be used to HEMP radiating-wave simulator, and can prove the low frequency radiation capability through resistance loaded method.

  18. Rise-Time Distortion of Signal without Carrying Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhman, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    The article deals with one-dimensional problem of rise-time distortion signal without carrying signal, that appears in the starting point intermittently, that is signal distortion at front edge or one of its derivative. The authors show that front edge of signal isn't distorted in case of propagation in unrestricted (including absorbing) area (amplitude of starting signal step or of one of its derivatives doesn't change) and move with the accuracy of vacuum light speed. The paper proves that it is the time interval shortage that causes signal loss with the route extension, but not the reduction of its starting amplitude, during which front edge of signal retains its starting value. The research presents new values for this time interval.

  19. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, H.

    1984-10-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

  20. Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, H.

    1982-03-01

    The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

  1. DOI Determination by Rise Time Discrimination in Single-Ended Readout for TOF PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R.I.; Surti, S.; Karp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical TOF PET systems achieve detection efficiency using thick crystals, typically of thickness 2–3cm. The resulting dispersion in interaction depths degrades spatial resolution for increasing radial positions due to parallax error. Furthermore, interaction depth dispersion results in time pickoff dispersion and thus in degraded timing resolution, and is therefore of added concern in TOF scanners. Using fast signal digitization, we characterize the timing performance, pulse shape and light output of LaBr3:Ce, CeBr3 and LYSO. Coincidence timing resolution is shown to degrade by ~50ps/cm for scintillator pixels of constant cross section and increasing length. By controlling irradiation depth in a scintillator pixel, we show that DOI-dependence of time pickoff is a significant factor in the loss of timing performance in thick detectors. Using the correlated DOI-dependence of time pickoff and charge collection, we apply a charge-based correction to the time pickoff, obtaining improved coincidence timing resolution of <200ps for a uniform 4×4×30mm3 LaBr3 pixel. In order to obtain both DOI identification and improved timing resolution, we design a two layer LaBr3[5%Ce]/LaBr3[30%Ce] detector of total size 4×4×30mm3, exploiting the dependence of scintillator rise time on [Ce] in LaBr3:Ce. Using signal rise time to determine interaction layer, excellent interaction layer discrimination is achieved, while maintaining coincidence timing resolution of <250ps and energy resolution <7% using a R4998 PMT. Excellent layer separation and timing performance is measured with several other commercially-available TOF photodetectors, demonstrating the practicality of this design. These results indicate the feasibility of rise time discrimination as a technique for measuring event DOI while maintaining sensitivity, timing and energy performance, in a well-known detector architecture. PMID:24403611

  2. Optical visualization and electrical characterization of fast-rising pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for airflow control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, Nicolas; Zouzou, Nourredine; Claverie, Alain; Sotton, Julien; Moreau, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Flow control consists of manipulating flows in an effective and robust manner to improve the global performances of transport systems or industrial processes. Plasma technologies, and particularly surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), can be a good candidate for such purpose. The present experimental study focuses on optical and electrical characterization of plasma sheet formed by applying a pulse of voltage with rising and falling periods of 50 ns for a typical surface DBD geometry. Positive and negative polarities are compared in terms of current behavior, deposited energy, fast-imaging of the plasma propagation, and resulting modifications of the surrounding medium by using shadowgraphy acquisitions. Positive and negative pulses of voltage produce streamers and corona type plasma, respectively. Both of them result in the production of a localized pressure wave propagating in the air with a speed maintained at 343 m/s (measurements at room temperature of 20 °C). This suggests that the produced pressure wave can be considered as a propagating sound wave. The intensity of the pressure wave is directly connected to the dissipated energy at the dielectric wall with a linear increase with the applied voltage amplitude and a strong dependence toward the rising time. At constant voltage amplitude, the pressure wave is reinforced by using a positive pulse. The present investigation also reveals that rising and decaying periods of a single pulse of voltage result in two distinct pressure waves. As a result, superposition or successive pressure wave can be produced by adjusting the width of the pulse.

  3. Rise Times of Solar Energetic Particle Events and Speeds of CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S.; Reames, D.

    2002-12-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are assumed to be produced in coronal and interplanetary shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These fast CMEs are decelerated as they move through the slower ambient solar wind. However, the Alfven speed is decreasing with increasing distance. Faster CMEs may therefore continue to drive strong shocks for longer characteristic times than do the slower CMEs, such that shock production and injection of SEPs of a given energy will also continue longer with the faster CMEs. We test this proposition observationally by comparing the times to maxima of 20 MeV SEP events with the observed speeds of associated CMEs. The SEP/CME events are sorted by solar longitude to factor out the longitudinal dependence of the SEP rise times. A preliminary analysis comparing 20 MeV protons from the GSFC EPACT detector on the Wind satellite with CMEs observed by the LASCO coronagraph on the SOHO spacecraft showed a correlation between SEP rise times and CME speeds. We expand the database to include the 1996-2001 period for a more definitive test of the correlation. The implications of the results will be discussed.

  4. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOEpatents

    Christie, David J.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  5. IODP Expedition 345: Geochemical Characteristics of Fast Spread Lower East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R.; Godard, M.; Saha, A.; Gillis, K. M.; Snow, J. E.; Klaus, A.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) at the Hess Deep Rift recovered young (ca. 1Ma) primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise. Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant rock types recovered at Site U1415, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbro, and gabbronorite.Two rock series were identified, a layered series with simple layers to diffuse bands of gabbroic rock types and a troctolite series. Olivine gabbros, gabbros and gabbronorites from the layered series have high Mg-numbers (Mg/Mg+Fe) = 79-87), high Ni (130-570 ppm), and low TiO2 (0.1-0.3 wt.%)and incompatible element (e.g., Y <11 ppm) contents. The troctolite series overlaps the gabbroic compositions but are, on average, more primitive with high Mg-numbers (81-89), Ni (260-1500 ppm),and Cr (365-1100 ppm) concentrations,and low TiO2 (<0.1 wt.%)and incompatible element (e.g., Y <3 ppm) contents. The most primitive troctolites sampled have compositions overlapping the field of impregnated mantle peridotites, including those from the Hess Deep Rift. However, these samples are low in Ni relative to their high Mg-number, indicating formation by a dominantly cumulate process. The gabbroic rocks at Site U1415 are far more primitive than the shallow-level gabbros at the Hess Deep Rift and are similar in bulk composition to gabbros from the shallow gabbros from Pito Deep where fast-spreading EPR crust is exposed (Perk et al., 2007). These primitive rock types fall within the range of primitive oceanic gabbros from fast-spreading crust.The preliminary geochemical data are consistent with a petrogenesis as a cumulate sequence from parental mid-ocean ridge basaltic (MORB) melt. However, the occurrence of orthopyroxene in highly primitive rocks challenges current models for melt extraction and MORB crystallization, where orthopyroxene is believed to be only stable within a more evolved MORB

  6. Strapping field profile to reproduce transition from slow rise to fast eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Bao Nguyen Quoc; Bellan, Paul

    2009-11-01

    In solar coronal loop experiments at Caltech, the hoop force causes plasma loops to expand unless additional forces are applied. By applying a strapping magnetic field of proper polarity, Hansen and Bellan [1] slowed and even inhibited this expansion. Kliem and Torok [2] predicted that a transition from slow rise to fast eruption occurs if the magnetic field's rate of decay with increasing altitude meets an instability criterion. If the restoring force due to the strapping field decays faster than the hoop force, then the plasma will move from a region where its expansion is decelerated to one where its expansion is accelerated. We have calculated magnetic profiles which attain the instability criterion within the length scale of the Caltech experiment and are constructing an auxiliary coil with independent power supply designed to match the calculated profiles. [4pt] [1] J. F. Hansen and P. M. Bellan, Astrophys. J. Lett. 563, L183 (2001)[0pt] [2] B. Kleim and T. Torok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 255002 (2006)

  7. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Current fast-time wake models are reviewed and three basic types are defined. Predictions from several of the fast-time models are compared. Previous statistical evaluations of the APA-Sarpkaya and D2P fast-time models are discussed. Root Mean Square errors between fast-time model predictions and Lidar wake measurements are examined for a 24 hr period at Denver International Airport. Shortcomings in current methodology for evaluating wake errors are also discussed.

  8. Skin explosion of double-layer conductors in fast-rising high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chaikovsky, S. A. Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.

    2014-04-15

    An experiment has been performed to study the electrical explosion of thick cylindrical conductors using the MIG pulsed power generator capable of producing a peak current of 2.5 MA within 100 ns rise time. The experimental goal was to compare the skin explosion of a solid conductor with that of a double-layer conductor whose outer layer had a lower conductivity than the inner one. It has been shown that in magnetic fields of peak induction up to 300 T and average induction rise rate 3 × 10{sup 9} T/s, the double-layer structure of a conductor makes it possible to achieve higher magnetic induction at the conductor surface before it explodes. This can be accounted for, in particular, by the reduction of the ratio of the Joule heat density to the energy density of the magnetic field at the surface of a double-layer conductor due to redistribution of the current density over the conductor cross section.

  9. A compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, high voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jiubing; Wang, Xin; Tang, Dan; Lv, Huayi; Li, Chengxin; Shao, Yanhua; Qin, Lan

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, command triggered, high peak power, gas-switch pulse generator system is developed for high energy physics experiment. The main components of the system are a high voltage capacitor, the spark gap switch and R = 50 Ω load resistance built into a structure to obtain a fast high power pulse. The pulse drive unit, comprised of a vacuum planar triode and a stack of avalanche transistors, is command triggered by a single or multiple TTL (transistor-transistor logic) level pulses generated by a trigger pulse control unit implemented using the 555 timer circuit. The control unit also accepts user input TTL trigger signal. The vacuum planar triode in the pulse driving unit that close the first stage switches is applied to drive the spark gap reducing jitter. By adjusting the charge voltage of a high voltage capacitor charging power supply, the pulse amplitude varies from 5 kV to 10 kV, with a rise time of <3 ns and the maximum peak current up to 200 A (into 50 Ω). The jitter of the pulse generator system is less than 1 ns. The maximum pulse repetition rate is set at 10 Hz that limited only by the gas-switch and available capacitor recovery time.

  10. A compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, high voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jiubing; Wang, Xin; Tang, Dan; Lv, Huayi; Li, Chengxin; Shao, Yanhua; Qin, Lan

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, command triggered, high peak power, gas-switch pulse generator system is developed for high energy physics experiment. The main components of the system are a high voltage capacitor, the spark gap switch and R = 50 Ω load resistance built into a structure to obtain a fast high power pulse. The pulse drive unit, comprised of a vacuum planar triode and a stack of avalanche transistors, is command triggered by a single or multiple TTL (transistor-transistor logic) level pulses generated by a trigger pulse control unit implemented using the 555 timer circuit. The control unit also accepts user input TTL trigger signal. The vacuum planar triode in the pulse driving unit that close the first stage switches is applied to drive the spark gap reducing jitter. By adjusting the charge voltage of a high voltage capacitor charging power supply, the pulse amplitude varies from 5 kV to 10 kV, with a rise time of <3 ns and the maximum peak current up to 200 A (into 50 Ω). The jitter of the pulse generator system is less than 1 ns. The maximum pulse repetition rate is set at 10 Hz that limited only by the gas-switch and available capacitor recovery time.

  11. A compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, high voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jiubing; Wang, Xin; Tang, Dan; Lv, Huayi; Li, Chengxin; Shao, Yanhua; Qin, Lan

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, command triggered, high peak power, gas-switch pulse generator system is developed for high energy physics experiment. The main components of the system are a high voltage capacitor, the spark gap switch and R = 50 Ω load resistance built into a structure to obtain a fast high power pulse. The pulse drive unit, comprised of a vacuum planar triode and a stack of avalanche transistors, is command triggered by a single or multiple TTL (transistor-transistor logic) level pulses generated by a trigger pulse control unit implemented using the 555 timer circuit. The control unit also accepts user input TTL trigger signal. The vacuum planar triode in the pulse driving unit that close the first stage switches is applied to drive the spark gap reducing jitter. By adjusting the charge voltage of a high voltage capacitor charging power supply, the pulse amplitude varies from 5 kV to 10 kV, with a rise time of <3 ns and the maximum peak current up to 200 A (into 50 Ω). The jitter of the pulse generator system is less than 1 ns. The maximum pulse repetition rate is set at 10 Hz that limited only by the gas-switch and available capacitor recovery time. PMID:22852729

  12. Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Durmus U; Harrison, Jeffrey S; Glaz, Micah S; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S

    2016-05-01

    The ability to measure microsecond- and nanosecond-scale local dynamics below the diffraction limit with widely available atomic force microscopy hardware would enable new scientific studies in fields ranging from biology to semiconductor physics. However, commercially available scanning-probe instruments typically offer the ability to measure dynamics only on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. Here, we describe in detail the implementation of fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy using an oscillating cantilever as a means to measure fast local dynamics following a perturbation to a sample. We show how the phase of the oscillating cantilever relative to the perturbation event is critical to achieving reliable sub-cycle time resolution. We explore how noise affects the achievable time resolution and present empirical guidelines for reducing noise and optimizing experimental parameters. Specifically, we show that reducing the noise on the cantilever by using photothermal excitation instead of piezoacoustic excitation further improves time resolution. We demonstrate the discrimination of signal rise times with time constants as fast as 10 ns, and simultaneous data acquisition and analysis for dramatically improved image acquisition times. PMID:27250430

  13. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Loebner, Keith T K; Underwood, Thomas C; Cappelli, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated. PMID:26133835

  14. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Loebner, Keith T K; Underwood, Thomas C; Cappelli, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  15. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  16. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Loebner, Keith T. K. Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-15

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  17. Temporal and spatial variations in seismicity of fast-slipping oceanic transform faults at the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Lin, J.; Zheng, T.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed hydro-acoustically recorded seismicity data from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to investigate the temporal and spatial variations in seismicity of fast-slipping oceanic transform faults. The hydrophones in the Pacific ocean have recorded earthquakes along the EPR from May 1996 to April 2002. Our investigation focused on four transform faults: Wilkes, Siqueiros, Gofar and Clipperton. Our analysis revealed that all of the four transform faults are associated with numerous foreshocks or/and aftershocks of mainshocks with magnitude M ~ 5 or greater. And the seismicity on the fault present segmented state on the fault or on the hook between transform fault and the ridge. First we fit the aftershocks time durations of more than 100 mainshocks with magnitude M > 4.5. Results of the analyses revealed the following: (1) The aftershock duration ta of the investigated mainshocks ranges from about 5.5 days to about 3.1 years。The seismicity rate immediately following a mainshock event, R0, varies from about 10 to 511, corresponding to average error of 10.7 % and the maximum error of 33.3 %, respectively. In addition, we calculate the rate between background seismicity, r, at each fault segment. Results revealed that the logarithm of R0/r correlate with logarithm time duration of aftershocks but with almost no relation to the mainshock magnitude. We also calculated the energy accumulation of earthquakes on each segment of the transform faults. The cumulated energy differed from each other: Earthquake energy released in the last 6 years (from 1996 to 2002) are valuated at from 1.7×1019 N•m/km on the Siqueiros Transform Fault, to 2.2×1017 N•m/km on the Clipperton. Segments on each fault are calculated to have similar energy release. Together these investigations helped to advance our understanding of the earthquake mechanism and geodynamics of fast-slipping oceanic transform faults.

  18. RISE/FALL TIME ENHANCEMENT OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC LEBT CHOPPER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Peplov, Vladimir V; Saethre, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Linac Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) chopper system provides fast chopping of the H- ion beam in the LEBT structure. Four identical pulsed power supplies (pulsers) create a series of 2.5 kV pulses to the four deflection electrodes floating on the focusing voltage of -50 kV. Each pulser is connected to the electrode through the network which consists of high voltage (HV) cables, a blocking capacitor, HV feed-through connectors, current-limiting resistors and transient voltage suppressors. Effective beam chopping requires minimal rise/fall time of the rectangular HV pulses on the load. In the present configuration these values are approximately 100 ns. Methods of reducing rise/fall time on the LEBT electrodes are discussed. Results of simulation and comparative measurements of the original and upgraded system on the test stand are presented. Furthermore, the effect of these changes on reliability degradation caused by arcing in the LEBT structure is discussed.

  19. Abrupt rise of new machine ecology beyond human response time

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Neil; Zhao, Guannan; Hunsader, Eric; Qi, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas; Meng, Jing; Tivnan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Society's techno-social systems are becoming ever faster and more computer-orientated. However, far from simply generating faster versions of existing behaviour, we show that this speed-up can generate a new behavioural regime as humans lose the ability to intervene in real time. Analyzing millisecond-scale data for the world's largest and most powerful techno-social system, the global financial market, we uncover an abrupt transition to a new all-machine phase characterized by large numbers of subsecond extreme events. The proliferation of these subsecond events shows an intriguing correlation with the onset of the system-wide financial collapse in 2008. Our findings are consistent with an emerging ecology of competitive machines featuring ‘crowds' of predatory algorithms, and highlight the need for a new scientific theory of subsecond financial phenomena. PMID:24022120

  20. U.S. Premature Births Rise for 1st Time in 8 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... 161792.html U.S. Premature Births Rise for 1st Time in 8 Years March of Dimes' report finds ... United States increased in 2015 for the first time in eight years, and rates are especially high ...

  1. Coefficient of restitution dependence of intruder rise time in two-dimensional Brazil-nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesuma, T.; Aji, D. P. Purwa; Viridi, S.; Suprijadi

    2016-04-01

    Brazil-Nut Effect (BNE) is a granular material phenomenon, where larger grains (usually known as intruder) rise to the top when the granular system vibrated. We observe a single intruder rise time of BNE phenomenon in a two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of hard spheres collision scheme. Some experiments have shown that some granular properties, such as size and density ratio, play an important role to determine the rise time. However, other property, such as coefficients of restitution, is considered not to have a measurable impact. We explore the intruder inelasticity dependence of the rise time by varying its coefficient of restitution. We found that the intruder rise time tends to be flat for relatively high coefficient of restitution and increases exponentially below a certain deflecting point for low coefficient of restitution. This holds for specific mass ratio.

  2. Note: A timing micro-channel plate detector with backside fast preamplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Yu, Deyang Lu, Rongchun; Liu, Junliang; Cai, Xiaohong

    2014-03-15

    A timing micro-channel plate detector with a backside double-channel fast preamplifier was developed to avoid distortion during signal propagation from the anode to the preamplifier. The mechanical and electronic structure is described. The detector including its backside preamplifier is tested by a {sup 241}Am α-source and a rise time of ∼2 ns with an output background noise of 4 mV{sub rms} was achieved.

  3. Electrical explosion of metals in fast-rising megagauss magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Kablambaev, B. A.; Mesyats, G. A.

    2009-04-15

    A criterion for the surface explosion of metal conductors in strong magnetic fields with the magnetic induction rising at rates over 4x10{sup 13} G/s has been obtained for a current skinning mode: the explosion occurs as the magnetic energy density at the metal surface becomes as high as a factor of 1.5-2 of the sublimation energy density for the metal under normal conditions.

  4. Note: A rectangular pulse generator for 50 kV voltage, 0.8 ns rise time, and 10 ns pulse width based on polymer-film switch.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanyu; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Zeng, Zhengzhong; Cong, Peitian; Zhang, Shaoguo

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we describe a rectangular pulse generator, consisting of a polymer-film switch, a tri-plate transmission line, and parallel post-shaped ceramic resistor load, for 50-kV voltage, 0.8-ns rise time, and 10-ns width. The switch and resistors are arranged in atmospheric air and the transmission line can work in atmospheric air or in transformer oil to change the pulse width from 6.7 ns to 10 ns. The fast switching and low-inductance characteristics of the polymer-film switch ensure the fast rising wavefront of <1 ns. This generator can be applied in the calibration of nanosecond voltage dividers and used for electromagnetic pulse tests as a fast-rising current injection source. PMID:26521006

  5. Influence of voltage rise time on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua

    2015-10-15

    In relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), although the slow wave structure (SWS) and electron beam determine the main characteristics of beam-wave interaction, many other factors can also significantly affect the microwave generation process. This paper investigates the influence of voltage rise time on beam-wave interaction in RBWOs. Preliminary analysis and PIC simulations demonstrate if the voltage rise time is moderately long, the microwave frequency will gradually increase during the startup process until the voltage reaches its amplitude, which can be explained by the dispersion relation. However, if the voltage rise time is long enough, the longitudinal resonance of the finitely-long SWS will force the RBWO to work with unwanted longitudinal modes for a while and then gradually hop to the wanted longitudinal mode, and this will lead to an impure microwave frequency spectrum. Besides, a longer voltage rise time will delay the startup process and thus lead to a longer microwave saturation time. And if unwanted longitudinal modes are excited due to long voltage rise time, the microwave saturation time will be further lengthened. Therefore, the voltage rise time of accelerators adopted in high power microwave technology should not be too long in case unwanted longitudinal modes are excited.

  6. The risk of shorter fasting time for pediatric deep sedation

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Mathew; Birisci, Esma; Anderson, Jordan E.; Anliker, Christina M.; Bryant, Micheal A.; Downs, Craig; Dalabih, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics calls for prolonged fasting times before performing pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). PSA is increasingly provided to children outside of the operating theater by sedation trained pediatric providers and does not require airway manipulation. We investigated the safety of a shorter fasting time compared to a longer and guideline compliant fasting time. We tried to identify the association between fasting time and sedation-related complications. Methods: This is a prospective observational study that included children 2 months to 18 years of age and had an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of I or II, who underwent deep sedation for elective procedures, performed by pediatric critical care providers. Procedures included radiologic imaging studies, electroencephalograms, auditory brainstem response, echocardiograms, Botox injections, and other minor surgical procedures. Subjects were divided into two groups depending on the length of their fasting time (4–6 h and >6 h). Complication rates were calculated and compared between the three groups. Results: In the studied group of 2487 subjects, 1007 (40.5%) had fasting time of 4–6 h and the remaining 1480 (59.5%) subjects had fasted for >6 h. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the studied complications between the two groups. Conclusions: This study found no difference in complication rate in regard to the fasting time among our subjects cohort, which included only healthy children receiving elective procedures performed by sedation trained pediatric critical care providers. This suggests that using shorter fasting time may be safe for procedures performed outside of the operating theater that does not involve high-risk patients or airway manipulation. PMID:27746560

  7. Strapping field profile to reproduce transition from slow rise to fast eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Bao; Bellan, Paul

    2010-11-01

    The hoop force causes arched, current-carrying plasma loops to expand unless additional forces are applied. This expansion was slowed and even inhibited by a magnetic field of proper polarity in previous solar coronal loop experiments [1] but there was no attempt to reproduce the slow expansion to fast eruption behavior often exhibited by solar loops. Kleim and Torok [2] predicted that a transition from a slow expansion to a fast eruption occurs if the magnetic field's rate of decay with increasing altitude meets an instability criterion. We have calculated the magnetic profiles which attain the instability criterion within the length scale of the Caltech experiment and are constructing an auxiliary coil designed to provide the required magnetic profile. We plan to image the plasma loop behavior under the influence of these coils. [4pt] [1] J. F. Hansen and P. M. Bellan, Astrophys. J. Lett. 563, L183 (2001)[0pt] [2] B. Kleim and T. Torok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 255002 (2006)

  8. Tectonic, magmatic, and hydrothermal processes imaged by high-resolution seismicity beneath the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Tolstoy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cross-correlation and double-difference earthquake relocation methods have produced hypocenter locations with unprecedented resolution at many different scales and locations. The new locations typically image fine-scale seismogenic structures that help address important seismological and plate tectonic questions. In this paper we present results from a worldwide unique data set of more than 300,000 micro-earthquakes recorded at a dense OBS array (4x4 km) located on the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise at 9°50’ N. The array captured the build up of seismicity leading to a sea floor eruption in January 2006. We focus on improved relocations of ~16,000 earthquakes recorded during the first deployment between October 2003 and April 2004. An initial double-difference analysis using only analyst picks revealed the general structure of an along-axis oriented hydrothermal circulation cell, with an inferred down-flow zone near a 4th-order axial discontinuity and a cracking front overlying the axial magma chamber (AMC). To gain further insight into the detailed structure and kinematics of this divergent plate boundary we have increased the precision in event location by including cross-correlation delay times and improving relocation procedures that harness the high event density. We find that the majority of events within the down flow pipe represent frictional slip on short faults caused by regional tectonic stresses and thermal contraction as the cold sea water enters the hot crust. Along the eastern side of the ridge axis, just above the AMC at ~1.4 km depth, we observe repeated shear failure along well defined steeply east dipping structures. Composite first motion focal mechanisms for these strongly correlated events indicate reverse motion, suggesting that slip on these faults is caused by AMC inflation and associated injection of magma into a narrow sill. A broader sill appears to have formed at the bottom of the upflow zone beneath the active hydrothermal vents

  9. Responses of inferior collicular neurones of bats to tone bursts with different rise times

    PubMed Central

    Suga, N.

    1971-01-01

    1. A study was made of the responses of single neurones in the inferior colliculus of bats to tone bursts with different rise times (or with different rates of amplitude increase) in order to determine whether the neurones were specialized for analysis of amplitude-modulated sound, especially the rising phase in amplitude. 2. The response patterns of neurones which showed phasic on-responses usually did not change with rise time, although the response patterns of some neurones changed from phasic on-responses to inhibitory responses. 3. The thresholds of responses to tone bursts increased when the rise time was lengthened. The amount of increase greatly differed from neurone to neurone. For the excitation of neurones which showed a large increase in threshold, the stimulus amplitude should quickly increase in amplitude. For tone bursts with a short rise time, some neurones showed an upper-threshold above which the sounds failed to excite them. The upper-threshold usually disappeared when the rise time was lengthened. For the excitation of neurones which showed an upper-threshold, the rate of amplitude increase and its extent were very important parameters. 4. Lengthening the rise time of a tone burst from 0·5 to 98 msec caused various types of change in the excitatory area. In some cases, there was a diminution of the area and, in others, there was an expansion of the area. Neurones showing these changes may be considered to be specialized for responding to tone bursts with either a rapid or slow increase in amplitude. 5. Changes with rise time occurred not only in the excitatory area, but also in the inhibitory area. The change in the inhibitory area of a given neurone, however, was not necessarily the same as that in the excitatory area. 6. The latency of response usually changed as a function of stimulus amplitude and rise time. In 26% of the neurones studied, however, the latency was relatively constant regardless of stimulus amplitude and rise time. Some of

  10. CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE THROUGH RISE TIMES AND PEAK LUMINOSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Maeda, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energies of Type IIn supernovae need to vary by factors of 0.2-5 from the average if their ejecta masses are similar. The diversity in the observed rise times indicates that their wind densities vary by factors of 0.2-2 from the average. We show that Type IIn superluminous supernovae should have not only large wind density but also large ejecta energy and/or small ejecta mass to explain their large luminosities and the rise times at the same time. We also note that shock breakout does not necessarily occur in the wind even if it is optically thick, except for the case of superluminous supernovae, and we analyze the observational data both with and without assuming that the shock breakout occurs in the dense wind of Type IIn supernovae.

  11. Prelude to Cycle 23: The Case for a Fast-Rising, Large Amplitude Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1996-01-01

    For the common data-available interval of cycles 12 to 22, we show that annual averages of sunspot number for minimum years (R(min)) and maximum years (R(max)) and of the minimum value of the aa geomagnetic index in the vicinity of sunspot minimum (aa(min)) are consistent with the notion that each has embedded within its respective record a long-term, linear, secular increase. Extrapolating each of these fits to cycle 23, we infer that it will have R(min) = 12.7 +/- 5.7, R(max) = 176.7 +/- 61.8, and aa(min) = 21.0 +/- 5.0 (at the 95-percent level of confidence), suggesting that cycle 23 will have R(min) greater than 7.0, R(max) greater than 114.9, and aa(min) greater than 16.0 (at the 97.5-percent level of confidence). Such values imply that cycle 23 will be larger than average in size and, consequently (by the Waidmeier effect), will be a fast riser. We also infer from the R(max) and aa(min) records the existence of an even- odd cycle effect, one in which the odd-following cycle is numerically larger in value than the even-leading cycle. For cycle 23, the even-odd cycle effect suggests that R(max) greater than 157.6 and aa(min) greater than 19.0, values that were recorded for cycle 22, the even-leading cycle of the current even-odd cycle pair (cycles 22 and 23). For 1995, the annual average of the aa index measured about 22, while for sunspot number, it was about 18. Because aa(min) usually lags R(min) by 1 year (true for 8 of 11 cycles) and 1996 seems destined to be the year of R(min) for cycle 23, it may be that aa(min) will occur in 1997, although it could occur in 1996 in conjunction with R(min) (true for 3 of 11 cycles). Because of this ambiguity in determining aa(min), no formal prediction based on the correlation of R(max) against aa(min), having r = 0.90, or of R(max) against the combined effects of R(min) and aa(min)-the bivariate technique-having r = 0.99, is possible until 1997, at the earliest.

  12. Rise Time of the Simulated VERITAS 12 m Davies-Cotton Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    White, Richard J.

    2005-02-21

    The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) will utilise Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) based on a Davies-Cotton design with f-number f/1.0 to detect cosmic gamma-rays. Unlike a parabolic reflector, light from the Davies-Cotton does not arrive isochronously at the camera. Here the effect of the telescope geometry on signal rise-time is examined. An almost square-pulse arrival time profile with a rise time of 1.7 ns is found analytically and confirmed through simulation.

  13. Distinct Effect of Impact Rise Times on Immediate and Early Neuropathology After Brain Injury in Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Archana; Pfister, Bryan J.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur from physical trauma from a wide spectrum of insults ranging from explosions to falls. The biomechanics of the trauma can vary in key features, including the rate and magnitude of the insult. Although the effect of peak injury pressure on neurological outcome has been examined in the fluid percussion injury (FPI) model, it is unknown whether differences in rate of rise of the injury waveform modify cellular and physiological changes after TBI. Using a programmable FPI device, we examined juvenile rats subjected to a constant peak pressure at two rates of injury: a standard FPI rate of rise and a faster rate of rise to the same peak pressure. Immediate postinjury assessment identified fewer seizures and relatively brief loss of consciousness after fast-rise injuries than after standard-rise injuries at similar peak pressures. Compared with rats injured at standard rise, fewer silver-stained injured neuronal profiles and degenerating hilar neurons were observed 4-6 hr after fast-rise FPI. However, 1 week postinjury, both fast- and standard-rise FPI resulted in hilar cell loss and enhanced perforant path-evoked granule cell field excitability compared with sham controls. Notably, the extent of neuronal loss and increase in dentate excitability were not different between rats injured at fast and standard rates of rise to peak pressure. Our data indicate that reduced cellular damage and improved immediate neurological outcome after fast rising primary concussive injuries mask the severity of the subsequent cellular and neurophysiological pathology and may be unreliable as a predictor of prognosis. PMID:24799156

  14. Rise Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    The rise time test (along with the settleometer procedure) is used to monitor sludge behavior in the secondary clarifier of an activated sludge system. The test monitors the effect of the nitrification/denitrification process and aids the operator in determining optimum clarifier sludge detention time and, to some extent, optimum degree of…

  15. Transistorized Marx bank pulse circuit provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, E. A.; Lewis, R. N.

    1968-01-01

    Base-triggered avalanche transistor circuit used in a Marx bank pulser configuration provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time. The avalanche-mode transistors replace conventional spark gaps in the Marx bank. The delay time from an input signal to the output signal to the output is typically 6 nanoseconds.

  16. Very fast doped LaBr.sub.3 scintillators and time-of-flight PET

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2006-10-31

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section. In one embodiment, the scintillator material comprises LaBr.sub.3 doped with cerium. Particular attention is drawn to LaBr.sub.3 doped with a quantity of Ce that is chosen for improving the timing properties, in particular the rise time and resultant timing resolution of the scintillator, and locational capabilities of the scintillator.

  17. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalps of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time), inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes were analyzed. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise time but was unaffected by changes in fall time. Increases in stimulus duration, and therefore in loudness, resulted in a systematic increase in latency. This was probably due to response recovery processes, since the effect was eliminated with increases in stimulus off-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise and fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It was concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  18. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  19. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 μs rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 μs achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 μs rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  20. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) evoked responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalp of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time) inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes are reported and evaluated. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise-time but was unaffected by changes in fall-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise-and-fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It is concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  1. Rise Time Perception in Children with Reading and Combined Reading and Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Using a non-speech-specific measure of prosody, rise time perception, Goswami and her colleagues have found that individuals with dyslexia perform significantly worse than nonimpaired readers. Studies have also found that children and adults with specific language impairment were impaired on these tasks. Despite the high comorbidity of these…

  2. Rise Time Perception and Detection of Syllable Stress in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Victoria; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perception of syllable stress has not been widely studied in developmental dyslexia, despite strong evidence for auditory rhythmic perceptual difficulties. Here we investigate the hypothesis that perception of sound rise time is related to the perception of syllable stress in adults with developmental dyslexia. Methods: A…

  3. Fast Neutron Detection with the Double Chooz Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulai, Marjon

    2014-03-01

    The Double Chooz Time Projection Chamber (DCTPC) is a directional fast neutron detector that measures background neutron production at the Double Chooz reactor-based neutrino oscillation experiment's near (120 mwe) and far (300 mwe) halls. DCTPC will provide data at modest depths, tying near-surface measurements to those from deep underground laboratories. DCTPC will be used to search for a correlation between fast neutron production and rainfall and will provide valuable neutron measurements as a function of depth, direction, and energy. Calibration data will be presented, as well as preliminary findings from operation at Double Chooz.

  4. Manifestations of hydrothermal discharge from young abyssal hills on the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise flank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymon, Rachel M.; MacDonald, Ken C.; Benjamin, Sara B.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.

    2005-02-01

    Spectacular black smokers along the mid-ocean-ridge crest represent a small fraction of total hydrothermal heat loss from ocean lithosphere. Previous models of measured heat flow suggest that 40% 50% of oceanic hydrothermal heat and fluid flux is from young seafloor (0.1 5 Ma) on mid-ocean-ridge flanks. Despite evidence that ridge-flank hydrothermal flux affects crustal properties, ocean chemistry, and the deep-sea biosphere, few ridge-flank vent sites have been discovered. We describe the first known seafloor expressions of hydrothermal discharge from tectonically formed abyssal hills flanking a fast-spreading ridge. Seafloor manifestations of fluid venting from two young East Pacific Rise abyssal hills (0.1 Ma at 10°20‧N, 103°33.2‧W; 0.5 Ma at 9°27‧N, 104°32.3‧W) include fault-scarp hydrothermal mineralization and macrofauna; fault-scarp flocculations containing hyperthermophilic microbes; and hilltop sediment mounds and craters possibly created by fluid expulsion. These visible features can be exploited for hydrothermal exploration of the vast abyssal hill terrain flanking the mid-ocean ridge and for access to the subseafloor biosphere. Petrologic evidence suggests that abyssal hills undergo repeated episodes of transitory fluid discharge, possibly linked to seismic events, and that fluid exit temperatures can be briefly high enough to transport copper (≥250 °C).

  5. Timing of follicular phase events and the postovulatory progesterone rise following synchronisation of oestrus in cows.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, G R; Gutierrez, C G; Peters, A R; Mann, G E

    2006-07-01

    In cows the timing of both ovulation and the subsequent postovulatory progesterone rise are critical to successful fertilisation and early embryo development. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of variability in the timing of ovulation relative to other follicular phase events and to determine how variations in the timing of follicular phase events contribute to the timing of the postovulatory progesterone rise. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol and luteinising hormone (LH) and the timing of oestrus and ovulation were determined following induction of luteolysis were determined in 18 mature, non-lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four cows were excluded on the basis of abnormal reproductive function. In the remaining 14 cows oestrus occurred at 57.4+/-4.3h and the LH surge at 54.6+/-4.0h following luteolysis (progesterone <1ngmL(-1)) followed by a fall in circulating oestradiol concentration at 64.6+/-4.4h. Cows ovulated at 88.0+/-4.7h with the postovulatory progesterone rise (to >1ngmL(-1)) occurring 159+/-7.2h after luteolysis. There was considerable variation in the timing of ovulation following luteolysis (range 64-136h) onset of oestrus (range 24-40h) and onset of the LH surge (range 24-44h). Cows were then split on the basis of interval from progesterone fall to progesterone rise giving groups (n=7 per group) with intervals of 180.6+/-6.7 and 138.3+/-5.7h (P<0.001). Between groups, both the intervals from luteolysis to ovulation (98.3+/-6.9 vs 77.7+/-3.4h; P<0.05) and ovulation to progesterone rise (82.3+/-4.2 vs. 60.6+/-5.5h; P<0.01) were longer in late rise cows. There was no difference between groups in the interval from oestrus or LH surge to ovulation. In conclusion the results of this study further highlight the high variability that exists in the timing and interrelationships of follicular phase events in the modern dairy cow, reemphasising the challenges that exist in optimising mating strategies. However, the data do

  6. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-08-25

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% {at} 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency.

  7. NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Wake Prediction Models: User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing and testing fast-time wake transport and decay models to safely enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). The fast-time wake models are empirical algorithms used for real-time predictions of wake transport and decay based on aircraft parameters and ambient weather conditions. The aircraft dependent parameters include the initial vortex descent velocity and the vortex pair separation distance. The atmospheric initial conditions include vertical profiles of temperature or potential temperature, eddy dissipation rate, and crosswind. The current distribution includes the latest versions of the APA (3.4) and the TDP (2.1) models. This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and the model output. An example of a model run and a brief description of the Memphis 1995 Wake Vortex Dataset is also provided.

  8. Effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra measured by proportional gas counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, T.; Tanaka, M.; Isozumi, S.; Isozumi, Y.; Tosaki, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    Air exerts a negative effect on radiation detection using a gas counter because oxygen contained in air has a high electron attachment coefficient and can trap electrons from electron-ion pairs created by ionization from incident radiation in counting gas. This reduces radiation counts. The present study examined the influence of air on energy and rise-time spectra measurements using a proportional gas counter. In addition, a decompression procedure method was proposed to reduce the influence of air and its effectiveness was investigated. For the decompression procedure, the counting gas inside the gas counter was decompressed below atmospheric pressure before radiation detection. For the spectrum measurement, methane as well as various methane and air mixtures were used as the counting gas to determine the effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra. Results showed that the decompression procedure was effective for reducing or eliminating the influence of air on spectra measurement using a proportional gas counter. (authors)

  9. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, K. V.; Divochiy, A. V.; Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Sidorova, M. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V.; Seleznev, V. A.; Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector Rn, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance Lk and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  10. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE PAGES

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 μs rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 μs achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore » rate, the 50 μs rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  11. Realization of planar silicon sensors for fast timing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Colin James

    We propose a new silicon sensor design capable of ultra fast (10's of ps) detection for experi- ments measuring time of flight (ToF) signals. The new design will couple fast readout with the current precise spatial resolution (10's of microm) of silicon pixels. Charge multiplication via impact ionization is exploited to mitigate the loss of signal from the new detectors, which are necessarily thin to shorten carrier collection times. A study of charge multiplication in 300 microm pad diodes manufactured at CNM Barcelona is presented and results are compared with simulations from a commercial TCAD software package. Observed gain factors are measured to be between 3 and 5, demonstrating proof of principle for charge multiplication in planar silicon sensors.

  12. Response time characterization of fast responding pressure-sensitive paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    Response time characterization of a fast responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is important information in measuring an unsteady flow field. PSP is an optical pressure sensor. The luminescent image from the PSP is related to a pressure map. In the previous works, a time delay from a step change of pressure is generally used to characterize the response time. The thickness of the PSP as well as the PSP binding material greatly influences the response time. Because the temperature influences the diffusion or permeation of a PSP binder, it is also an important parameter to influence the response time. We build a shock tube to create a step change of pressure for response time characterization. This can control the temperature of the PSP. We discuss the PSP response times related to the temperature of the binder as well as the binding materials.

  13. Attractors of relaxation discrete-time systems with chaotic dynamics on a fast time scale.

    PubMed

    Maslennikov, Oleg V; Nekorkin, Vladimir I

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a new type of relaxation systems is considered. Their prominent feature is that they comprise two distinct epochs, one is slow regular motion and another is fast chaotic motion. Unlike traditionally studied slow-fast systems that have smooth manifolds of slow motions in the phase space and fast trajectories between them, in this new type one observes, apart the same geometric objects, areas of transient chaos. Alternating periods of slow regular motions and fast chaotic ones as well as transitions between them result in a specific chaotic attractor with chaos on a fast time scale. We formulate basic properties of such attractors in the framework of discrete-time systems and consider several examples. Finally, we provide an important application of such systems, the neuronal electrical activity in the form of chaotic spike-burst oscillations.

  14. A CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit for fast scintillation counters

    SciTech Connect

    Jochmann, M.W.

    1998-06-01

    Based on a zero-crossing discriminator using a CR differentiation network for pulse shaping, a new CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit is proposed for fast (t{sub r} {ge} 2 ns) scintillation counters at the cooler synchrotron COSY-Juelich. By eliminating the input signal`s amplitude information by means of an analog continuous-time divider, a normalized pulse shape at the zero-crossing point is gained over a wide dynamic input amplitude range. In combination with an arming comparator and a monostable multivibrator this yields in a highly precise timing discriminator circuit, that is expected to be useful in different time measurement applications. First measurement results of a CMOS integrated logarithmic amplifier, which is part of the analog continuous-time divider, agree well with the corresponding simulations. Moreover, SPICE simulations of the integrated discriminator circuit promise a time walk well below 200 ps (FWHM) over a 40 dB input amplitude dynamic range.

  15. Fast timing and trigger Cherenkov detector for collider experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Karavicheva, T. L.; Konevskikh, A. S.; Kurepin, A. B.; Loginov, V. A.; Melikyan, Yu A.; Morozov, I. V.; Reshetin, A. I.; Serebryakov, D. V.; Shabanov, A. I.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tykmanov, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of fast timing and trigger Cherenkov detector's design for its use in collider experiments is presented. Several specific requirements are taken into account - necessity of the radiator's placement as close to the beam pipe as possible along with the requirement of gapless (solid) radiator's design. Characteristics of the Cherenkov detector's laboratory prototype obtained using a pion beam at the CERN Proton Synchrotron are also presented, showing the possibility of obtaining sufficiently high geometrical efficiency along with good enough time resolution (50 ps sigma).

  16. Fast fall-time ion beam in neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Q.; Kwan, J.; Regis, M.; Wu, Y.; Wilde, S.B.; Wallig, J.

    2008-08-10

    Ion beam with a fast fall time is useful in building neutron generators for the application of detecting hidden, gamma-shielded SNM using differential die-away (DDA) technique. Typically a fall time of less than 1 {micro}s can't be achieved by just turning off the power to the ion source due to the slow decay of plasma density (partly determined by the fall time of the RF power in the circuit). In this paper, we discuss the method of using an array of mini-apertures (instead of one large aperture beam) such that gating the beamlets can be done with low voltage and a small gap. This geometry minimizes the problem of voltage breakdown as well as reducing the time of flight to produce fast gating. We have designed and fabricated an array of 16 apertures (4 x 4) for a beam extraction experiment. Using a gating voltage of 1400 V and a gap distance of 1 mm, the fall time of extracted ion beam pulses is less than 1 {micro}s at various beam energies ranging between 400 eV to 800 eV. Usually merging an array of beamlets suffers the loss of beam brightness, i.e., emittance growth, but that is not an important issue for neutron source applications.

  17. Effect of stratification and geometrical spreading on sonic boom rise time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Robin O.; Hamilton, Mark F.; Blackstock, David T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation is to determine the effect of unsteadiness (not associated with turbulence) on rise time. The unsteadiness considered here is due to (1) geometrical spreading, (2) stratification, which includes variation in density, temperature, and relative humidity, and (3) N shaped waveform. A very general Burgers equation, which includes all these effects, is the propagation model for our study. The equation is solved by a new computational algorithm in which all the calculations are done in the time domain. The present paper is a progress report in which some of the factors contributing to unsteadiness are studied, namely geometrical spreading and variation in relative humidity. The work of Pierce and Kang, which motivated our study, is first reviewed. We proceed with a discussion of the Burgers equation model and the algorithm for solving the equation. Some comparison tests to establish the validity of the algorithm are presented. The algorithm is then used to determine the distance required for a steady-state shock, on encountering an abrupt change in relative humidity, to reach a new steady state based on the new humidity. It is found that the transition distance for plane shocks of amplitude 70 Pa is about 4 km when the change in relative humidity is 10 percent. Shocks of amplitude 140 Pa require less distance. The effect of spherical and cylindrical spreading is also considered. We demonstrate that a spreading shock wave never reaches steady state and that its rise time will be less than the equivalent steady state shock. Finally we show that an N wave has a slightly shorter rise time than a step shock of the same amplitude.

  18. Subjective response to sonic booms having different shapes, rise times, and durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the subjective response of people to simulated outdoor sonic booms having different pressure signatures. The specific objectives of the experiments were to compare subjective response to sonic booms when described in terms of 'loudness' and 'annoyance'; to determine the ability of various noise metrics to predict subjective response to sonic booms; to determine the effects on subjective response of rise time, duration, and level; and to compare the subjective response to 'N-wave' sonic boom signatures with the subjective response to 'minimized' sonic boom signatures. The experiments were conducted in a computer-controlled, man-rated sonic boom simulator capable of reproducing user-specified pressure signatures for a wide range of sonic boom parameters. One hundred and fifty sonic booms representing different combinations of two wave shapes, four rise times, seven durations, and three peak overpressures were presented to 36 test subjects in each experiment. The test subjects in the first experiment made judgments of 'loudness' while the test subjects in the second experiment judged 'annoyance.' Subjective response to sonic booms was the same whether expressed in terms of loudness or in terms of annoyance. Analyses of several different noise metrics indicated that A-weighted sound exposure level and Perceived Level were the best predictors of subjective response. Further analyses indicated that, of these two noise metrics, only Perceived Level completely accounted for the effects of wave shape, rise time, and peak overpressure. Neither metric fully accounted for the effect of duration. However, the magnitude of the duration effect was small over the very wide range of durations considered.

  19. Rise time in 20-32 keV impulsive X-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorpahl, J. A.; Takakura, T.

    1974-01-01

    A new property of the X-ray impulsive component observed in solar flares is discussed, giving attention to the relation between the slope of the electron power spectrum and the rise time in the 20-32 keV X-ray spike. This particular energy range was chosen because it offered the greatest number of impulsive events while being sufficiently high to avoid contamination by soft X radiation. It is found for the thin-target model that the electron spectrum tends to be softer when the acceleration rate is smaller.

  20. Rise time of inverted triangular prism intruder in vibrating granular bed: Experiments and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, N.; Adriani, I. K.; Baladram, M. S.; Viridi, S.

    2012-05-01

    Experiment results and a qualitative model of the phenomenon called Brazil nut effect (BNE) with inverted triangular prism are reported in this work. The model is constructed by considering some forces (earth gravitational force, buoyant force, and fluid viscous force) and using Newton's second law of motion. The rise time of BNE T is defined as time needed for the intruder to be on granular surface with all of his parts (no part is still immersed in the granular bed). One side of the triangular base of the intruder l is varied from 1.5 to 5 cm with other two sides are kept in constant values (1 and 3 cm). It has been observed in experiment that l with value 3-4 cm gives the smaller rise time. Plot of T versus l has the form of concave up parabolic curve with minimum lies at l between 3-4 cm. This observation has been confirmed by the proposed model with the same order of magnitude and similar curve trend.

  1. Real Time Fast Ultrasound Imaging Technology and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruza, J. F.; Perez, M.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

    In this work, a novel hardware architecture for fast ultrasound imaging based on FPGA devices is proposed. A key difference over other approaches is the unlimited scalability in terms of active channels without performance losses. Acquisition and processing tasks share the same hardware, eliminating communication bottlenecks with smaller size and power losses. These features make this system suitable to implement the most demanding imaging applications, like 3D Phased Array, Total Focusing Method, Vector Doppler, Image Compounding, High Speed Part Scanning and advanced elastographic techniques. A single medium sized FPGA allows beamforming up to 200 scan lines simultaneously, which is enough to perform most of the above mentioned applications in strict real time.

  2. Rise time and response measurements on a LiSOCl2 cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Caroline; Lecomte, Eric J.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic impedance tests were performed on a 180 Ah LiSOCl2 cell in the frame of a short term work contract awarded by Aerospatiale as part of the Hermes Space Plane development work. These tests consisted of rise time and response measurements. The rise time test was performed to show the ability to deliver 4 KW, in the nominal voltage range (75-115 V), within less than 100 microseconds, and after a period at rest of 13 days. The response measurements test consisted of step response and frequency response tests. The frequency response test was performed to characterize the response of the LiSOCl2 cell to a positive or negative load step of 10 A starting from various currents. The test was performed for various depths of discharge and various temperatures. The test results were used to build a mathematical, electrical model of the LiSOCl2 cell which are also presented. The test description, test results, electrical modelization description, and conclusions are presented.

  3. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino fluxes and their detectability

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Tina; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Lunardini, Cecilia; Raffelt, Georg

    2010-09-15

    In the delayed explosion scenario of core-collapse supernovae, the accretion phase shows pronounced convective overturns and a low-multipole hydrodynamic instability, the standing accretion shock instability. These effects imprint detectable fast time variations on the emerging neutrino flux. Among existing detectors, IceCube is best suited to this task, providing an event rate of {approx}1000 ms{sup -1} during the accretion phase for a fiducial SN distance of 10 kpc, comparable to what could be achieved with a megaton water Cherenkov detector. If the standing accretion shock instability activity lasts for several hundred ms, a Fourier component with an amplitude of 1% of the average signal clearly sticks out from the shot noise. We analyze in detail the output of axially symmetric hydrodynamical simulations that predict much larger amplitudes up to frequencies of a few hundred Hz. If these models are roughly representative for realistic SNe, fast time variations of the neutrino signal are easily detectable in IceCube or future megaton-class instruments. We also discuss the information that could be deduced from such a measurement about the physics in the SN core and the explosion mechanism of the SN.

  4. Individual differences in processing pitch contour and rise time in adults: A behavioral and electrophysiological study of Cantonese tone merging.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po

    2016-06-01

    One way to understand the relationship between speech perception and production is to examine cases where the two dissociate. This study investigates the hypothesis that perceptual acuity reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) to rise time of sound amplitude envelope and pitch contour [reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN)] may associate with individual differences in production among speakers with otherwise comparable perceptual abilities. To test this hypothesis, advantage was taken of an on-going sound change-tone merging in Cantonese, and compared the ERPs between two groups of typically developed native speakers who could discriminate the high rising and low rising tones with equivalent accuracy but differed in the distinctiveness of their production of these tones. Using a passive oddball paradigm, early positive-going EEG components to rise time and MMN to pitch contour were elicited during perception of the two tones. Significant group differences were found in neural responses to rise time rather than pitch contour. More importantly, individual differences in efficiency of tone discrimination in response latency and magnitude of neural responses to rise time were correlated with acoustic measures of F0 offset and rise time differences in productions of the two rising tones.

  5. Individual differences in processing pitch contour and rise time in adults: A behavioral and electrophysiological study of Cantonese tone merging.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po

    2016-06-01

    One way to understand the relationship between speech perception and production is to examine cases where the two dissociate. This study investigates the hypothesis that perceptual acuity reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) to rise time of sound amplitude envelope and pitch contour [reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN)] may associate with individual differences in production among speakers with otherwise comparable perceptual abilities. To test this hypothesis, advantage was taken of an on-going sound change-tone merging in Cantonese, and compared the ERPs between two groups of typically developed native speakers who could discriminate the high rising and low rising tones with equivalent accuracy but differed in the distinctiveness of their production of these tones. Using a passive oddball paradigm, early positive-going EEG components to rise time and MMN to pitch contour were elicited during perception of the two tones. Significant group differences were found in neural responses to rise time rather than pitch contour. More importantly, individual differences in efficiency of tone discrimination in response latency and magnitude of neural responses to rise time were correlated with acoustic measures of F0 offset and rise time differences in productions of the two rising tones. PMID:27369146

  6. Fast Nonparametric Clustering of Structured Time-Series.

    PubMed

    Hensman, James; Rattray, Magnus; Lawrence, Neil D

    2015-02-01

    In this publication, we combine two Bayesian nonparametric models: the Gaussian Process (GP) and the Dirichlet Process (DP). Our innovation in the GP model is to introduce a variation on the GP prior which enables us to model structured time-series data, i.e., data containing groups where we wish to model inter- and intra-group variability. Our innovation in the DP model is an implementation of a new fast collapsed variational inference procedure which enables us to optimize our variational approximation significantly faster than standard VB approaches. In a biological time series application we show how our model better captures salient features of the data, leading to better consistency with existing biological classifications, while the associated inference algorithm provides a significant speed-up over EM-based variational inference. PMID:26353249

  7. The Rise Time of Type Ia Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Howes, A.; Sullivan, M.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aubourg, E.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Filiol, M.; Le Borgne, D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.

    2006-10-01

    We compare the rise times of nearby and distant Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as a test for evolution using 73 high-redshift spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia from the first 2 years of the 5 year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) and published observations of nearby SNe. Because of the ``rolling'' search nature of the SNLS, our measurement is approximately 6 times more precise than previous studies, allowing for a more sensitive test of evolution between nearby and distant SNe. Adopting a simple t2 early-time model (as in previous studies), we find that the rest-frame B rise times for a fiducial SN Ia at high and low redshift are consistent, with values 19.10+0.18-0.17(stat)+/-0.2(syst) and 19.58+0.22-0.19 days, respectively; the statistical significance of this difference is only 1.4 σ. The errors represent the uncertainty in the mean rather than any variation between individual SNe. We also compare subsets of our high-redshift data set based on decline rate, host galaxy star formation rate, and redshift, finding no substantive evidence for any subsample dependence. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the CFHT Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  8. Fast-track for fast times: catching and keeping generation Y in the nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kim

    2007-04-01

    There is little doubt we find ourselves in challenging times as never before has there been such generational diversity in the nursing workforce. Currently, nurses from four distinct (and now well recognised and discussed) generational groups jostle for primacy of recognition and reward. Equally significant is the acute realisation that our ageing profession must find ways to sustain itself in the wake of huge attrition as the 'baby boomer' nurses start retiring over the next ten to fifteen years. These realities impel us to become ever more strategic in our thinking about how best to manage the workforce of the future. This paper presents two exciting and original innovations currently in train at one of Australia's leading Catholic health care providers: firstly, a new fast-track bachelor of nursing program for fee-paying domestic students. This is a collaborative venture between St Vincent's and Mater Health, Sydney (SV&MHS) and the University of Tasmania (UTas); as far as we know, it is unprecedented in Australia. As well, the two private facilities of SV&MHS, St Vincent's Private (SVPH) and the Mater Hospitals, have developed and implemented a unique 'accelerated progression pathway' (APP) to enable registered nurses with talent and ambition to fast track their career through a competency and merit based system of performance management and reward. Both these initiatives are aimed squarely at the gen Y demographic and provide potential to significantly augment our capacity to recruit and retain quality people well into the future.

  9. Moon Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station in May 2012, Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit opened the shutters covering the cupola observation windows in time to watch the moon rise. The time-lapse sce...

  10. Temporal features of spectral integration in the inferior colliculus: effects of stimulus duration and rise time.

    PubMed

    Gans, Donald; Sheykholeslami, Kianoush; Peterson, Diana Coomes; Wenstrup, Jeffrey

    2009-07-01

    This report examines temporal features of facilitation and suppression that underlie spectrally integrative responses to complex vocal signals. Auditory responses were recorded from 160 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of awake mustached bats. Sixty-two neurons showed combination-sensitive facilitation: responses to best frequency (BF) signals were facilitated by well-timed signals at least an octave lower in frequency, in the range 16-31 kHz. Temporal features and strength of facilitation were generally unaffected by changes in duration of facilitating signals from 4 to 31 ms. Changes in stimulus rise time from 0.5 to 5.0 ms had little effect on facilitatory strength. These results suggest that low frequency facilitating inputs to high BF neurons have phasic-on temporal patterns and are responsive to stimulus rise times over the tested range. We also recorded from 98 neurons showing low-frequency (11-32 kHz) suppression of higher BF responses. Effects of changing duration were related to the frequency of suppressive signals. Signals<23 kHz usually evoked suppression sustained throughout signal duration. This and other features of such suppression are consistent with a cochlear origin that results in masking of responses to higher, near-BF signal frequencies. Signals in the 23- to 30-kHz range-frequencies in the first sonar harmonic-generally evoked phasic suppression of BF responses. This may result from neural inhibitory interactions within and below IC. In many neurons, we observed two or more forms of the spectral interactions described here. Thus IC neurons display temporally and spectrally complex responses to sound that result from multiple spectral interactions at different levels of the ascending auditory pathway.

  11. Experimental control of a fast chaotic time-delay opto-electronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan Neal

    2003-10-01

    The focus of this thesis is the experimental investigation of the dynamics and control of a new type of fast chaotic opto-electronic device: an active interferometer with electronic bandpass filtered delayed feedback displaying chaotic oscillations with a fundamental frequency as high as 100 MHz. To stabilize the system, I introduce a new form of delayed feedback control suitable for fast time-delay systems. The method provides a new tool for the fundamental study of fast dynamical systems as well as for technological exploitation of chaos. The new opto-electronic device consists of a semiconductor laser, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and an electronic feedback loop. The device offers a high degree of design flexibility at a much lower cost than other known sources of fast optical chaos. Both the nonlinearity and the timescale of the oscillations are easily manipulated experimentally. To characterize the dynamics of the system, I observe experimentally its behavior in the time and frequency domains as the feedback-loop gain is varied. The system displays a route to chaos that begins with a Hopf bifurcation from a steady state to a periodic oscillation at the so-called fundamental frequency. Further bifurcations give rise to a chaotic regime with a broad, flattened power spectrum. I develop a mathematical model of the device that shows very good agreement with the observed dynamics. To control chaos in the device, I introduce a new control method suitable for fast time-delay systems, in particular. The method is a modification of a well known control approach called time-delay autosynchronization (TDAS) in which the control perturbation is formed by comparing the current value of a system variable to its value at a time in the past equal to the period of the orbit to be stabilized. The current state of a time-delay dynamical system retains a memory of the state of the system one feedback delay time in the past. As a result, the past state of the system can be used

  12. Laser pumping of thyristors for fast high current rise-times

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2013-06-11

    An optically triggered semiconductor switch includes an anode metallization layer; a cathode metallization layer; a semiconductor between the anode metallization layer and the cathode metallization layer and a photon source. The semiconductor includes at least four layers of alternating doping in the form P-N-P-N, in which an outer layer adjacent to the anode metallization layer forms an anode and an outer layer adjacent the cathode metallization layer forms a cathode and in which the anode metallization layer has a window pattern of optically transparent material exposing the anode layer to light. The photon source emits light having a wavelength, with the light from the photon source being configured to match the window pattern of the anode metallization layer.

  13. Low Power, High Voltage Power Supply with Fast Rise/Fall Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearden, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A low power, high voltage power supply system includes a high voltage power supply stage and a preregulator for programming the power supply stage so as to produce an output voltage which is a predetermined fraction of a desired voltage level. The power supply stage includes a high voltage, voltage doubler stage connected to receive the output voltage from the preregulator and for, when activated, providing amplification of the output voltage to the desired voltage level. A first feedback loop is connected between the output of the preregulator and an input of the preregulator while a second feedback loop is connected between the output of the power supply stage and the input of the preregulator.

  14. Low power, high voltage power supply with fast rise/fall time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearden, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A low power, high voltage power supply system includes a high voltage power supply stage and a preregulator for programming the power supply stage so as to produce an output voltage which is a predetermined fraction of a desired voltage level. The power supply stage includes a high voltage, voltage doubler stage connected to receive the output voltage from the preregulator and for, when activated, providing amplification of the output voltage to the desired voltage level. A first feedback loop is connected between the output of the preregulator and an input of the preregulator while a second feedback loop is connected between the output of the power supply stage and the input of the preregulator.

  15. Digital Rise-Time Discrimination of Pulses from the Tigress Integrated Plunger Silicon PIN Diode Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, P.; Henderson, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Chester, A.; Cross, D. S.; Drake, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Ketelhut, S.; Krücken, R.; Miller, D.; Rajabali, M. M.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E.; Unsworth, C.; Wang, Z.-M.

    Electromagnetic transition rate measurements play an important role in characterizing the evolution of nuclear structure with increasing proton-neutron asymmetry. At TRIUMF, the TIGRESS Integrated Plunger device and its suite of ancillary detector systems have been implemented for charged-particle tagging and light-ion identification in coincidence with gamma-ray spectroscopy for Doppler-shift lifetime studies and low-energy Coulomb excitation measurements. Digital pulse-shape analysis of signals from these ancillary detectors for particle identification improves the signal-to-noise ratio of gamma-ray energy spectra. Here, we illustrate the reaction-channel selectivity achieved by utilizing digital rise-time discrimination of waveforms from alpha particles and carbon ions detected with silicon PIN diodes, thereby enhancing gamma-ray line-shape signatures for precision lifetime studies.

  16. Fast-timing lifetime measurement of 152Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, J.; Kern, R.; Lizarazo, C.; Pietralla, N.; Werner, V.; Jolos, R. V.; Bucurescu, D.; Florea, N.; Ghita, D.; Glodariu, T.; Lica, R.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mihai, R.; Mitu, I. O.; Negret, A.; Nita, C.; Olacel, A.; Pascu, S.; Stroe, L.; Toma, S.; Turturica, A.

    2016-10-01

    The lifetime τ (02+) of 152Gd has been measured using fast electronic scintillation timing (FEST) with an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) and cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detectors. 152Gd was produced via an (α ,n ) reaction on a gold backed 149Sm target. The measured lifetime of τ (02+) =96 (6 ) ps corresponds to a reduced transition strength of B (E 2 ;02+→21+) =111 (7 ) W.u. and an E 0 transition strength of ρ2(E 0 ) =39 (3 ) ×10-3 to the ground state. This result provides experimental support for the validity of a correlation that would be a novel indicator for a quantum phase transition (QPT).

  17. Fast Context Switching in Real-Time Propositional Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    The trend to increasingly capable and affordable control processors has generated an explosion of embedded real-time gadgets that serve almost every function imaginable. The daunting task of programming these gadgets is greatly alleviated with real-time deductive engines that perform all execution and monitoring functions from a single core model, Fast response times are achieved using an incremental propositional deductive database (an LTMS). Ideally the cost of an LTMS's incremental update should be linear in the number of labels that change between successive contexts. Unfortunately an LTMS can expend a significant percentage of its time working on labels that remain constant between contexts. This is caused by the LTMS's conservative approach: a context switch first removes all consequences of deleted clauses, whether or not those consequences hold in the new context. This paper presents a more aggressive incremental TMS, called the ITMS, that avoids processing a significant number of these consequences that are unchanged. Our empirical evaluation for spacecraft control shows that the overhead of processing unchanged consequences can be reduced by a factor of seven.

  18. Distinguishing Fast and Slow Processes in Accuracy - Response Time Data.

    PubMed

    Coomans, Frederik; Hofman, Abe; Brinkhuis, Matthieu; van der Maas, Han L J; Maris, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration. We carry out a survey over a large number of such item pairs and compare three types of psychometric accuracy-response time models present in the literature: two 'one-process' models, the first of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally independent and the second of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally dependent, and a 'two-process' model which models accuracy contingent on response time. We find that the data clearly violates the restrictions imposed by both one-process models and requires additional complexity which is parsimoniously provided by the two-process model. We supplement our survey with an analysis of the erroneous responses for an example item pair and demonstrate that there are very significant differences between the types of errors in fast and slow responses. PMID:27167518

  19. Men's career development and marriage timing during a period of rising inequality.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, V K; Kalmijn, M; Lim, N

    1997-08-01

    Based on data from 1979-1990 NLSY interviews, we investigate the implications of rising economic inequality for young men's marriage timing. Our approach is to relate marriage formation to the ease or difficulty of the career-entry process and to show that large race/schooling differences in career development lead to substantial variations in marriage timing. We develop measures of current career "maturity" and of long-term labor-market position. Employing discrete-time event-history methods, we show that these variables have a substantial impact on marriage formation for both blacks and whites. Applying our regression results to models based on observed race/schooling patterns of career development, we then estimate cumulative proportions ever married in a difficult versus an easy career-entry process. We find major differences in the pace of marriage formation, depending on the difficulty of the career transition. We also find considerable differences in these marriage timing patterns across race/schooling groups corresponding to the large observed differences in the speed and difficulty of career transition between and within these groups. PMID:9275242

  20. A hybrid model for simulation of secondary electron emission in plasma immersion ion implantation under different pulse rise time

    SciTech Connect

    Navab Safa, N. Ghomi, H.

    2015-02-15

    A hybrid fluid Particle in Cell–Monte Carlo Collision (PiC–MCC) model is presented to study the effect of secondary electron emission on the plasma immersion ion implantation process under different pulse rise time. The model describes the temporal evolution of various parameters of plasma such as ion density, ion velocity, secondary electron density, and secondary electron current for different rise times. A 3D–3 V PiC–MCC model is developed to simulate the secondary electrons which are emitted from the sample surface while the plasma ions and electrons are treated using a 1D fluid model. The simulation results indicate that the secondary electron density and secondary electron current increase as the rise time decreases. The main differences between the results for different rise times are found during the initial phase of the pulse. The results are explained through studying the fundamental parameters of plasma.

  1. Fast-Response-Time Shape-Memory-Effect Foam Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Bulk shape memory alloys, such as Nitinol or CuAlZn, display strong recovery forces undergoing a phase transformation after being strained in their martensitic state. These recovery forces are used for actuation. As the phase transformation is thermally driven, the response time of the actuation can be slow, as the heat must be passively inserted or removed from the alloy. Shape memory alloy TiNi torque tubes have been investigated for at least 20 years and have demonstrated high actuation forces [3,000 in.-lb (approximately equal to 340 N-m) torques] and are very lightweight. However, they are not easy to attach to existing structures. Adhesives will fail in shear at low-torque loads and the TiNi is not weldable, so that mechanical crimp fits have been generally used. These are not reliable, especially in vibratory environments. The TiNi is also slow to heat up, as it can only be heated indirectly using heater and cooling must be done passively. This has restricted their use to on-off actuators where cycle times of approximately one minute is acceptable. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used in the past to make porous TiNi metal foams. Shape Change Technologies has been able to train SHS derived TiNi to exhibit the shape memory effect. As it is an open-celled material, fast response times were observed when the material was heated using hot and cold fluids. A methodology was developed to make the open-celled porous TiNi foams as a tube with integrated hexagonal ends, which then becomes a torsional actuator with fast response times. Under processing developed independently, researchers were able to verify torques of 84 in.-lb (approximately equal to 9.5 Nm) using an actuator weighing 1.3 oz (approximately equal to 37 g) with very fast (less than 1/16th of a second) initial response times when hot and cold fluids were used to facilitate heat transfer. Integrated structural connections were added as part of the net shape process, eliminating

  2. Correlated helium, neon, and melt production on the super-fast spreading East Pacific Rise near 17°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Mark D.; Moreira, Manuel; Curtice, Joshua; Lott, Dempsey E.; Mahoney, John J.; Sinton, John M.

    2005-03-01

    We report new helium and neon isotopic compositions in dredged basalt glasses from the superfast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 13° and 23°S. The 3He/ 4He ratios vary from 8.0 to 11.0 times the atmospheric value (Ra) [ 4He/ 3He between 65,700 and 90,300], with the least radiogenic values in samples from near 16.75°S. Atmospheric contamination corrections on neon isotopes are made using step heating and extrapolated 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios (to a solar 20Ne/ 22Ne value of 13.8). The lowest corrected 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios are found near 16.75°S, and are consistent with the helium isotopes in suggesting a less degassed mantle source. The EPR at 17°S is unusual in displaying such isotopic anomalies in the absence of any known hotspot. The minima in 4He/ 3He and 21Ne/ 22Ne correspond to extremes in Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, but the length scale of the helium and neon anomalies are shorter along-axis than the peaks for the other isotopic ratios. The minimum in 4He/ 3He is observed from 16° to 18°S (a distance of ˜220 km), whereas the elevated Sr and Pb values, and lower 143Nd/ 144Nd, are observed between 16° and 20.7°S (a distance of ˜500 km); neon isotope anomalies are observed on an intermediate length scale along-axis. Unradiogenic helium and neon values correlate with low mantle Bouguer anomalies, and maxima in the axial cross-sectional area, all of which are attributed to higher melt production near 17°S. A conceptual model that fits the observations includes melting of an entrained heterogeneity beneath the EPR at 17 °S. The relationship between helium and neon isotopes and along-axis geophysical characteristics (and by inference melt distribution) is probably related to the extreme incompatibility of helium and neon. High concentrations of 3He and 21Ne (extrap) are found in the glasses near 17°S, which is consistent with higher noble gas concentrations in the anomalous mantle.

  3. Rapid rise time pulsed magnetic field circuit for pump-probe field effect studies.

    PubMed

    Salaoru, T A; Woodward, Jonathan R

    2007-03-01

    Here we describe an electronic circuit capable of producing rapidly switched dc magnetic fields of up to 20 mT with a rise time of 10 ns and a pulse length variable from 50 ns to more than 10 micros, suitable for use in the study of magnetic field effects on radical pair (RP) reactions. This corresponds to switching the field on a time scale short relative to the lifetime of typical RPs and maintaining it well beyond their lifetimes. Previous experiments have involved discharging a capacitor through a low inductance coil for a limited time using a switching circuit. These suffer from decaying field strength over the duration of the pulse given primarily by the ratio of the pulse width to the RC constant of the circuit. We describe here a simple yet elegant solution that completely eliminates this difficulty by employing a feedback loop. This allows a constant field to be maintained over the entire length of the pulse. PMID:17411229

  4. Is Fasting Duration Important in Post Adenotonsillectomy Feeding Time?

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari Moghaddam, Yalda; Seyedhejazi, Mahin; NaderPour, Mosoud; Yaghooblua, Yoosef; Golzari, Samad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adenotonsillectomy is a common otolaryngology surgery. Nausea and vomiting are the most common complications of this procedure with a prevalence ranging from 49% to 73 %. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effects of short time fasting protocol on decreasing postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, and initiation of oral feeding after adenotonsillectomy. Patients and Methods: 120 children aged 4 to 14 years candidates for adenotonsillectomy were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 120, 60 in each group). Each patient of the intervention group was given oral dextrose 10% as much volume as he could consume at 3 and 6 hours prior to the operation. All the data including pain severity, nausea and vomiting of the patients, the time of oral feeding initiation etc. were gathered in checklists after the operation. Statistical analyses were then performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16. Descriptive statistical methods and mean difference test for independent groups and chi square test or Fisher exact test, and if regression needed model test were applied. A P value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results: The amount of Acetaminophen administered for the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group, and also the time of oral feeding initiation was significantly shorter in the intervention group than the control group (P < 0.005). Pain severity at all occasions following surgery was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (P < 0.001). Although frequency of nausea at recovery time was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (P < 0.002), there were no significant differences in frequency of nausea between the two groups at other postoperative occasions. Postoperative vomiting frequency was not significant between the two groups at any occasions. Conclusions: The findings of this survey

  5. FTSPlot: fast time series visualization for large datasets.

    PubMed

    Riss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of electrophysiological recordings often involves visual inspection of time series data to locate specific experiment epochs, mask artifacts, and verify the results of signal processing steps, such as filtering or spike detection. Long-term experiments with continuous data acquisition generate large amounts of data. Rapid browsing through these massive datasets poses a challenge to conventional data plotting software because the plotting time increases proportionately to the increase in the volume of data. This paper presents FTSPlot, which is a visualization concept for large-scale time series datasets using techniques from the field of high performance computer graphics, such as hierarchic level of detail and out-of-core data handling. In a preprocessing step, time series data, event, and interval annotations are converted into an optimized data format, which then permits fast, interactive visualization. The preprocessing step has a computational complexity of O(n x log(N)); the visualization itself can be done with a complexity of O(1) and is therefore independent of the amount of data. A demonstration prototype has been implemented and benchmarks show that the technology is capable of displaying large amounts of time series data, event, and interval annotations lag-free with < 20 ms ms. The current 64-bit implementation theoretically supports datasets with up to 2(64) bytes, on the x86_64 architecture currently up to 2(48) bytes are supported, and benchmarks have been conducted with 2(40) bytes/1 TiB or 1.3 x 10(11) double precision samples. The presented software is freely available and can be included as a Qt GUI component in future software projects, providing a standard visualization method for long-term electrophysiological experiments.

  6. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  7. FTSPlot: Fast Time Series Visualization for Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Riss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of electrophysiological recordings often involves visual inspection of time series data to locate specific experiment epochs, mask artifacts, and verify the results of signal processing steps, such as filtering or spike detection. Long-term experiments with continuous data acquisition generate large amounts of data. Rapid browsing through these massive datasets poses a challenge to conventional data plotting software because the plotting time increases proportionately to the increase in the volume of data. This paper presents FTSPlot, which is a visualization concept for large-scale time series datasets using techniques from the field of high performance computer graphics, such as hierarchic level of detail and out-of-core data handling. In a preprocessing step, time series data, event, and interval annotations are converted into an optimized data format, which then permits fast, interactive visualization. The preprocessing step has a computational complexity of ; the visualization itself can be done with a complexity of and is therefore independent of the amount of data. A demonstration prototype has been implemented and benchmarks show that the technology is capable of displaying large amounts of time series data, event, and interval annotations lag-free with ms. The current 64-bit implementation theoretically supports datasets with up to bytes, on the x86_64 architecture currently up to bytes are supported, and benchmarks have been conducted with bytes/1 TiB or double precision samples. The presented software is freely available and can be included as a Qt GUI component in future software projects, providing a standard visualization method for long-term electrophysiological experiments. PMID:24732865

  8. Measurement of intrinsic rise times for various L(Y)SO and LuAG scintillators with a general study of prompt photons to achieve 10 ps in TOF-PET.

    PubMed

    Gundacker, Stefan; Auffray, Etiennette; Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of scintillator based detectors commonly used in positron emission tomography is well known to be dependent on the scintillation decay time (τd) and the number of photons detected (n'), i.e. CTR proportional variant √τd/n'. However, it is still an open question to what extent the scintillation rise time (τr) and other fast or prompt photons, e.g. Cherenkov photons, at the beginning of the scintillation process influence the CTR. This paper presents measurements of the scintillation emission rate for different LSO type crystals, i.e. LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce codoped Ca and LGSO:Ce. For the various LSO-type samples measured we find an average value of 70 ps for the scintillation rise time, although some crystals like LSO:Ce codoped Ca seem to have a much faster rise time in the order of 20 ps. Additional measurements for LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr show a rise time of 535 ps and 251 ps, respectively. For these crystals, prompt photons (Cherenkov) can be observed at the beginning of the scintillation event. Furthermore a significantly lower rise time value is observed when codoping with calcium. To quantitatively investigate the influence of the rise time to the time resolution we measured the CTR with the same L(Y)SO samples and compared the values to Monte Carlo simulations. Using the measured relative light yields, rise- and decay times of the scintillators we are able to quantitatively understand the measured CTRs in our simulations. Although the rise time is important to fully explain the CTR variation for the different samples tested we determined its influence on the CTR to be in the order of a few percent only. This result is surprising because, if only photonstatistics of the scintillation process is considered, the CTR would be proportional to the square root of the rise time. The unexpected small rise time influence on the CTR can be explained by the convolution of the scintillation rate with the single photon time

  9. Measurement of intrinsic rise times for various L(Y)SO and LuAG scintillators with a general study of prompt photons to achieve 10 ps in TOF-PET.

    PubMed

    Gundacker, Stefan; Auffray, Etiennette; Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of scintillator based detectors commonly used in positron emission tomography is well known to be dependent on the scintillation decay time (τd) and the number of photons detected (n'), i.e. CTR proportional variant √τd/n'. However, it is still an open question to what extent the scintillation rise time (τr) and other fast or prompt photons, e.g. Cherenkov photons, at the beginning of the scintillation process influence the CTR. This paper presents measurements of the scintillation emission rate for different LSO type crystals, i.e. LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce codoped Ca and LGSO:Ce. For the various LSO-type samples measured we find an average value of 70 ps for the scintillation rise time, although some crystals like LSO:Ce codoped Ca seem to have a much faster rise time in the order of 20 ps. Additional measurements for LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr show a rise time of 535 ps and 251 ps, respectively. For these crystals, prompt photons (Cherenkov) can be observed at the beginning of the scintillation event. Furthermore a significantly lower rise time value is observed when codoping with calcium. To quantitatively investigate the influence of the rise time to the time resolution we measured the CTR with the same L(Y)SO samples and compared the values to Monte Carlo simulations. Using the measured relative light yields, rise- and decay times of the scintillators we are able to quantitatively understand the measured CTRs in our simulations. Although the rise time is important to fully explain the CTR variation for the different samples tested we determined its influence on the CTR to be in the order of a few percent only. This result is surprising because, if only photonstatistics of the scintillation process is considered, the CTR would be proportional to the square root of the rise time. The unexpected small rise time influence on the CTR can be explained by the convolution of the scintillation rate with the single photon time

  10. Real-time lucky imaging in FastCam project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Oscoz, A.; Rebolo, R.

    2008-07-01

    Lucky imaging techniques implemented by the FastCam group (see http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam/) at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias have demonstrated its ability to obtain spectacular diffraction limited images in telescopes ranging from 1 to 4.2 m in visible wavelengths (mainly in the I band), at the expense of using only a small percentage of the available images. This work presents the development of a real-time processor, FPGA-based, capable of performing all the required processing involved in the lucky imaging technique: Bias and flat-field correction, quality evaluation of images, quality threshold for image selection, image recentering and accumulation, and finally sending through Gigabit Ethernet both raw and processed images to a PC computer. Furthermore, a real time display is generated directly from FPGA showing both types of images, plus a histogram of the computed quality values and the threshold used. All processes can co-exist physically located in separated places inside the FPGA, using its natural parallel approach, and can easily handle the 512x512 pixels at 30 fps found at the sensor camera output (an Andor Ixon+ DU-897ECSO EMCCD). Flexibility and parallel processing features of the reconfigurable logic have been used to implement a novel imaging strategy for segmented-mirror telescopes, allowing separate evaluation of every segment and posterior accumulation to achieve the resolution limit of a single segment with the integration capability of the full primary mirror.

  11. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  12. Lifetime measurements in transitional nuclei by fast electronic scintillation timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, M. A.; Zamfir, N. V.; Casten, R. F.; Amro, H.; Barton, C. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Cooper, J. R.; Gürdal, G.; Hecht, A. A.; Hutter, C.; Krücken, R.; McCutchan, E. A.; Meyer, D. A.; Novak, J. R.; Pietralla, N.; Ressler, J. J.; Berant, Z.; Brenner, D. S.; Gill, R. L.; Regan, P. H.

    2002-10-01

    A new generation of experiments studying nuclei in spherical-deformed transition regions has been motivated by the introduction of innovative theoretical approaches to the treatment of these nuclei. The important structural signatures in the transition regions, beyond the basic yrast level properties, involve γ-ray transitions between low-spin, non-yrast levels, and so information on γ-ray branching ratios and absolute matrix elements (or level lifetimes) for these transitions is crucial. A fast electronic scintillation timing (FEST) system [H. Mach, R. L. Gill, and M. Moszyński, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 280, 49 (1989)], making use of BaF2 and plastic scintillation detectors, has been implemented at the Yale Moving Tape Collector for the measurement of lifetimes of states populated in β^ decay. Experiments in the A100 (Pd, Ru) and A150 (Dy, Yb) regions have been carried out, and a few examples will be presented. Supported by the US DOE under grants and contracts DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-88ER-40417, and DE-AC02-98CH10886 and by the German DFG under grant Pi 393/1.

  13. Magnitude and timing of episodic sea-level rise during the last deglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.; Tedesco, L.P.; Shinn, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    A succession of elevated ridge deposits on the south Florida margin was mapped using high-resolution seismic and side-scan sonar imaging in water depths ranging from 50 to 124 m. The ridges are interpreted to be subtidal shoal complexes and paleoshorelines (eolian dune or beach) formed during the last sea-level transgression. Oolitic and skeletal grainstones and mixed skeletal-peloidal-ooid packstones were recovered using a research submersible. All of the grains are of shallow-water or intertidal origin, and both marine and nonmarine cements were identified. Formation and preservation of these features are attributed to episodic and rapid changes in the rate of the deglacial sea-level rise at the onset of the termination 1A ??18O excursion. This high-resolution record of sea-level change appears to be related to deglacial processes operating on submillennial time scales and supports increasing evidence of rapid episodic fluctuations in ice volume, climate, and ocean-circulation patterns during glacialinterglacial transitions.

  14. Parallel Configuration For Fast Superconducting Strip Line Detectors With Very Large Area In Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Suzuki, K.; Ohkubo, M.; Ejrnaes, M.; Cristiano, R.; Pagano, S.

    2009-12-16

    We realized a very fast and large Superconducting Strip Line Detector based on a parallel configuration of nanowires. The detector with size 200x200 {mu}m{sup 2} recorded a sub-nanosecond pulse width of 700 ps in FWHM (400 ps rise time and 530 ps relaxation time) for lysozyme monomers/multimers molecules accelerated at 175 keV in a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer. This record is the best in the class of superconducting detectors and comparable with the fastest NbN superconducting single photon detector of 10x10 {mu}m{sup 2}. We succeeded in acquiring mass spectra as the first step for a scale-up to {approx}mm pixel size for high throughput MS analysis, while keeping a fast response.

  15. Diversity of Decline-Rate-Corrected Type 1a Supernova Rise times:One Mode or Two?

    SciTech Connect

    Strovink, Mark

    2007-05-01

    B-band light-curve rise times for eight unusually well-observed nearby Type Ia supernova (SNe) are fitted by a newly developed template-building algorithm, using light-curve functions that are smooth, flexible, and free of potential bias from externally derived templates and other prior assumptions. From the available literature, photometric BVRI data collected over many months, including the earliest points, are reconciled, combined, and fitted to a unique time of explosion for each SN. On average, after they are corrected for light-curve decline rate, three SNe rise in 18.81 {+-} 0.36 days, while five SNe rise in 16.64 {+-} 0.21 days. If all eight SNe are sampled from a single parent population (a hypothesis not favored by statistical tests), the rms intrinsic scatter of the decline-rate-corrected SN rise time is 0.96{sub -0.25}{sup +0.52} days--a first measurement of this dispersion. The corresponding global mean rise time is 17.44 {+-} 0.39 days, where the uncertainty is dominated by intrinsic variance. This value is {approx}2 days shorter than two published averages that nominally are twice as precise, though also based on small samples. When comparing high-z to low-z SN luminosities for determining cosmological parameters, bias can be introduced by use of a light-curve template with an unrealistic rise time. If the period over which light curves are sampled depends on z in a manner typical of current search and measurement strategies, a two-day discrepancy in template rise time can bias the luminosity comparison by {approx}0.03 magnitudes.

  16. Synchronous timing of multi-energy fast beam extraction during a single AGS cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Gabusi, J.; Naase, S.

    1985-01-01

    Synchronous triggering of fast beams is required because the field of Kicker Magnets must rise within the open space between one beam bunch and the next. Within the Brookhaven AGS, Fast Extracted Beam (FEB) triggering combines nominal timing, based on beam energy with bunch-to-bunch synchronization, based on the accelerating rf waveform. During beam acceleration, a single bunch is extracted at 22 GeV/c and within the same AGS cycle, the remaining eleven bunches are extracted at 28.4 GeV/c. When the single bunch is extracted, a ''hole'', which is left in the remaining circulating beam, can appear in random locations within the second extraction during successive AGS cycles. To overcome this problem, a synchronous rf/12 counting scheme and logic circuitry are used to keep track of the bunch positions relative to each other, and to place the ''hole'' in any desired location within the second extraction. The rf/12 signal is used also to synchronize experimenters triggers.

  17. Lava Morphology Classification of a Fast-Spreading Ridge Using Deep-Towed Sonar Data: East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; White, S.

    2005-05-01

    Classification of lava morphology on a regional scale contributes to the understanding of the distribution and extent of lava flows at a mid-ocean ridge. Seafloor classification is essential to understand the regional undersea environment at midocean ridges. In this study, the development of a classification scheme is found to identify and extract textural patterns of different lava morphologies along the East Pacific Rise using DSL-120 side-scan and ARGO camera imagery. Application of an accurate image classification technique to side-scan sonar allows us to expand upon the locally available visual ground reference data to make the first comprehensive regional maps of small-scale lava morphology present at a mid-ocean ridge. The submarine lava morphologies focused upon in this study; sheet flows, lobate flows, and pillow flows; have unique textures. Several algorithms were applied to the sonar backscatter intensity images to produce multiple textural image layers useful in distinguishing the different lava morphologies. The intensity and spatially enhanced images were then combined and applied to a hybrid classification technique. The hybrid classification involves two integrated classifiers, a rule-based expert system classifier and a machine learning classifier. The complementary capabilities of the two integrated classifiers provided a higher accuracy of regional seafloor classification compared to using either classifier alone. Once trained, the hybrid classifier can then be applied to classify neighboring images with relative ease. This classification technique has been used to map the lava morphology distribution and infer spatial variability of lava effusion rates along two segments of the East Pacific Rise, 17 deg S and 9 deg N. Future use of this technique may also be useful for attaining temporal information. Repeated documentation of morphology classification in this dynamic environment can be compared to detect regional seafloor change.

  18. EARLY-PHASE PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITIONAL TYPE Ia SN 2012ht: DIRECT CONSTRAINT ON THE RISE TIME

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Nogami, Daisaku; Maeda, Keiichi; Kawabata, Miho; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura; Tanaka, Masaomi; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Ueno, Issei; Itoh, Ryosuke; Kawabata, Koji S.; Moritani, Yuki; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Arai, Akira; Honda, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Koichi; Kabashima, Fujio

    2014-02-20

    We report photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) 2012ht from –15.8 days to +49.1 days after B-band maximum. The decline rate of the light curve is Δm {sub 15}(B) = 1.39 ± 0.05 mag, which is intermediate between normal and subluminous SNe Ia, and similar to that of the ''transitional'' Type Ia SN 2004eo. The spectral line profiles also closely resemble those of SN 2004eo. We were able to observe SN 2012ht at a very early phase, when it was still rising and was about three magnitudes fainter than at the peak. The rise time to the B-band maximum is estimated to be 17.6 ± 0.5 days and the time of the explosion is MJD 56277.98 ± 0.13. SN 2012ht is the first transitional SN Ia whose rise time is directly measured without using light curve templates, and the fifth SN Ia overall. This rise time is consistent with those of the other four SNe within the measurement error, even including the extremely early detection of SN 2013dy. The rising part of the light curve can be fitted by a quadratic function, and shows no sign of a shock-heating component due to the interaction of the ejecta with a companion star. The rise time is significantly longer than that inferred for subluminous SNe such as SN 1991bg, which suggests that a progenitor and/or explosion mechanism of transitional SNe Ia are more similar to normal SNe Ia rather than to subluminous SNe Ia.

  19. MOSFET solid state switching circuit improves the 0 to 99% rise time for framing camera deflection electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.T.; Thomas, S.

    1996-09-01

    We have improved the 0 to 99% rise time voltage on our 2 frame deflection plates from 160 to 65 nS with the addition of a peaking circuit that works in conjunction with our primary 2 frame deflection circuitry. Our peaking technique has applications to other HV pulsers including those which must drive 51 ohm loads. Generally, rise time voltages are measured between 10 and 90%. To minimize the camera image blur resulting from the dynamic influence of deflection plate potentials acting on photocathode electrons, it was necessary to design a circuit that would rise from 0 to the 99% voltage level in under 100nS. Once this voltage was reached, it was necessary to stay within 1% of the attained voltage level for a duration of 1 uS. This was accomplished with the use of MOSFET solid state switching.

  20. Fasting, Circadian Rhythms, and Time-Restricted Feeding in Healthy Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-06-14

    Most animals alternate periods of feeding with periods of fasting often coinciding with sleep. Upon >24 hr of fasting, humans, rodents, and other mammals enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from the prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which food consumption is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 hr, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMDs, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into feasible, effective, and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan. PMID:27304506

  1. Fasting, Circadian Rhythms, and Time-Restricted Feeding in Healthy Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-06-14

    Most animals alternate periods of feeding with periods of fasting often coinciding with sleep. Upon >24 hr of fasting, humans, rodents, and other mammals enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from the prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which food consumption is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 hr, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMDs, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into feasible, effective, and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan.

  2. Turbulence Scales, Rise Times, Caustics, and the Simulation of Sonic Boom Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Allan D.

    1996-01-01

    The general topic of atmospheric turbulence effects on sonic boom propagation is addressed with especial emphasis on taking proper and efficient account of the contributions of the portion oi the turbulence that is associated with extremely high wavenumber components. The recent work reported by Bart Lipkens in his doctoral thesis is reexamined to determine whether the good agreement between his measured rise times with the 1971 theory of the author is fortuitous. It is argued that Lipken's estimate of the distance to the first caustic was a gross overestimate because of the use of a sound speed correlation function shaped like a gaussian curve. In particular, it is argued that the expected distance to the first caustic varies with the kinematic viscosity nu and the energy epsilon dissipated per unit mass per unit time, and the sound speed c as : d(sub first caustic) = nu(exp 7/12) c(exp 2/3)/ epsilon(exp 5/12)(nu x epsilon/c(exp 4))(exp a), where the exponent a is greater than -7/12 and can be argued to be either O or 1/24. In any event, the surprising aspect of the relationship is that it actually goes to zero as the viscosity goes to zero with s held constant. It is argued that the apparent overabundance of caustics can be grossly reduced by a general computational and analytical perspective that partitions the turbulence into two parts, divided by a wavenumber k(sub c). Wavenumbers higher than kc correspond to small-scale turbulence, and the associated turbulence can be taken into account by a renormalization of the ambient sound speed so that the result has a small frequency dependence that results from a spatial averaging over of the smaller-scale turbulent fluctuations. Selection of k(sub c). can be made so large that only a very small number of caustics are encountered if one adopts the premise that the frequency dispersion of pulses is caused by that part of the turbulence spectrum which lies in the inertial range originally predicted by Kolmogoroff. The

  3. Preoperative fasting times in elective surgical patients at a referral Hospital in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Worknehe Agegnehu; Rukewe, Ambrose; Bekele, Negussie Alula; Stoffel, Moeng; Dichabeng, Mompelegi Nicoh; Shifa, Jemal Zeberga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adults and children are required to fast before anaesthesia to reduce the risk of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. However, prolonged periods of fasting are unnecessary and may cause complications. This study was conducted to evaluate preoperative fasting period in our centre and compare it with the ASA recommendations and factors that influence fasting periods. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of preoperative fasting times among elective surgical patients. A total numbers of 260 patients were interviewed as they arrived at the reception area of operating theatre using questionnaire. Results Majority of patients (98.1%) were instructed to fast from midnight. Fifteen patients (5.8%) reported that they were told the importance of preoperative fasting. The mean fasting period were 15.9±2.5 h (range 12.0-25.3 h) for solids and 15.3±2.3 h (range 12.0-22.0 h) for liquids. The mean duration of fasting was significantly longer for patients operated after midday compared to those operated before midday, p<0.001. Conclusion The mean fasting periods were 7.65 times longer for clear liquid and 2.5 times for solids than the ASA guidelines. It is imperative that the Hospital should establish Preoperative fasting policies and teach the staff who should ensure compliance with guidelines. PMID:27222691

  4. Implementation of pipelined FastICA on FPGA for real-time blind source separation.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Lee, Ming-Huan; Wu, Yu-Te; Lee, Po-Lei

    2008-06-01

    Fast independent component analysis (FastICA) algorithm separates the independent sources from their mixtures by measuring non-Gaussian. FastICA is a common offline method to identify artifact and interference from their mixtures such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Therefore, it is valuable to implement FastICA for real-time signal processing. In this paper, the FastICA algorithm is implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), with the ability of real-time sequential mixed signals processing by the proposed pipelined FastICA architecture. Moreover, in order to increase the numbers precision, the hardware floating-point (FP) arithmetic units had been carried out in the hardware FastICA. In addition, the proposed pipeline FastICA provides the high sampling rate (192 kHz) capability by hand coding the hardware FastICA in hardware description language (HDL). To verify the features of the proposed hardware FastICA, simulations are first performed, then real-time signal processing experimental results are presented using the fabricated platform. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented hardware FastICA as expected.

  5. Learning Novel Phonological Representations in Developmental Dyslexia: Associations with Basic Auditory Processing of Rise Time and Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Goswami, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological…

  6. Sol-to-Gel Transition in Fast Evaporating Systems Observed by in Situ Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Plinio; Malfatti, Luca; Carboni, Davide; Takahashi, Masahide

    2015-06-22

    The in situ observation of a sol-to-gel transition in fast evaporating systems is a challenging task and the lack of a suitable experimental design, which includes the chemistry and the analytical method, has limited the observations. We synthesise an acidic sol, employing only tetraethylorthosilicate, SiCl4 as catalyst and deuterated water; the absence of water added to the sol allows us to follow the absorption from the external environment and the evaporation of deuterated water. The time-resolved data, obtained by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy on an evaporating droplet, enables us to identify four different stages during evaporation. They are linked to specific hydrolysis and condensation rates that affect the uptake of water from external environment. The second stage is characterized by a decrease in hydroxyl content, a fast rise of condensation rate and an almost stationary absorption of water. This stage has been associated with the sol-to-gel transition.

  7. A new dual threshold time-over-threshold circuit for fast timing in PET.

    PubMed

    Grant, Alexander M; Levin, Craig S

    2014-07-01

    Time-over-threshold (ToT) is attractive as a method of combined timing and energy encoding in positron emission tomography (PET) due to its simplicity in implementation and readout. However, conventional single threshold ToT has a nonlinear response and generally suffers from a tradeoff between timing and energy resolution. The resulting poor performance is not fit for applications requiring fast timing, such as time-of-flight (ToF) PET. In this work it is shown experimentally that by replacing single threshold ToT with a dual threshold method in a new compact circuit, excellent time resolution can be achieved (154 ps FWHM for 3 × 3 × 5 mm(3) LYSO crystals), suitable for ToF. Dual threshold ToT timing results have been compared to a similar single threshold design, demonstrating that dual threshold ToT performance is far superior to that of single threshold ToT (154 ps versus 418 ps coincidence time resolution for the dual and single threshold cases, respectively). A method of correcting for nonlinearity in dual threshold ToT energy spectra is also demonstrated.

  8. Crustal thickness from 3D MCS data collected over the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise at 9°50'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaei, O.; Nedimović, M. R.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    We compute, analyze and present crustal thickness variations for a section of the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR). The area of 3D coverage is between 9°38'N and 9°58' N (~1000 km2), where the documented eruptions of 1990-91 and 2005-06 occurred. The crustal thickness is computed by depth converting the two-way reflection travel times from the seafloor to the Moho. The seafloor and Moho reflections are picked on the migrated stack volume produced from the 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data collected on R/V Marcus G. Langseth in summer of 2008 during cruise MGL0812. The crustal velocities used for depth conversion were computed by Canales et al. (2003; 2011) by simultaneous inversion of seismic refractions and wide-angle Moho reflection traveltimes from four ridge-parallel and one ridge-perpendicular ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) profile for which data were collected during the 1998 UNDERSHOOT experiment. The MCS data analysis included 1D and 2D filtering, offset-dependent spherical divergence correction, surface-consistent amplitude correction, common midpoint (CMP) sort with flex binning, velocity analysis, normal moveout, and CMP stretch mute. The poststack processing includes seafloor multiple mute and 3D Kirchhoff poststack time migration. Here we use the crustal thickness and Moho seismic signature variations to detail their relationship with ridge segmentation, crustal age, bathymetry, and on- and off-axis magmatism. On the western flank (Pacific plate) from 9°41' to 9°48', the Moho reflection is strong. From 9°48' to 9°52', the Moho reflection varies from moderate to weak and disappears from ~3 km to ~9 km from the ridge axis. On the eastern flank (Cocos plate) from 9°41' to 9°51', the Moho reflection varies from strong to moderate. From 9°51' to 9°54' the Moho reflection varies from moderate to weak and disappears beneath a region ~3 km to ~9 km from the axis. On the Cocos plate, across-axis crustal thickness variations (5.5-6.2 km) show a

  9. Fast Turn-Off Times Observed in Experimental 4H SiC Thyristors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature measurements of the turn-off time (t(sub q)) are reported for several packaged, npnp developmental power thyristors based on 4H-type SiC and rated 400 V, 2 A. Turn-off is effected by a 50 V pulse of applied reverse voltage, from a state of a steady 1 A forward current. Plots of t(sub q) against the ramp rate (dV(sub AK)/dt) of reapplied forward voltage are presented for preset values of limiting anode-to-cathode voltage (V(sub AK,max)). The lowest t(sub q) measured was about 180 ns. A rapid rise of these t(sub q) curves was observed for values of V(sub AK,max) that are only about a fifth of the rated voltage, whereas comparative t(sub q) plots for a commercial, fast turn-off, Si-based thyristor at a proportionately reduced V(sub AK,max) showed no such behavior. Hence these SiC thyristors may have problems arising from material defects or surface passivation. The influence the R-C-D gate bypass circuit that was used is briefly discussed.

  10. Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Tal, David; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi; De Cia, Annalisa; Yaron, Ofer; Sullivan, Mark; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Bersier, David; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Quimby, Robert

    2014-06-20

    Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ∼10{sup 4} km s{sup –1}). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.

  11. Early to Rise? The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Finley

    2012-01-01

    Local school districts often stagger daily start times for their schools in order to reduce busing costs. This paper uses data on all middle school students in Wake County, NC from 1999 to 2006 to identify the causal effect of daily start times on academic performance. Using variation in start times within schools over time, the effect is a two…

  12. Spark-Timing Control Based on Correlation of Maximum-Economy Spark Timing, Flame-front Travel, and Cylinder-Pressure Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Harvey A; Heinicke, Orville H; Haynie, William H

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a full-scale air-cooled cylinder in order to establish an effective means of maintaining maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. Variable fuel-air-ratio runs were conducted in which relations were determined between the spark travel, and cylinder-pressure rise. An instrument for controlling spark timing was developed that automatically maintained maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. The instrument also indicated the occurrence of preignition.

  13. Latency of tone-burst-evoked auditory brain stem responses and otoacoustic emissions: Level, frequency, and rise-time effects

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Argenyi, Michael; Neely, Stephen T.; Kopun, Judy G.; Gorga, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of auditory brain stem response (ABR) and otoacoustic emission (OAE) delays may provide insights into effects of level, frequency, and stimulus rise-time on cochlear delay. Tone-burst-evoked ABRs and OAEs (TBOAEs) were measured simultaneously in normal-hearing human subjects. Stimuli included a wide range of frequencies (0.5–8 kHz), levels (20–90 dB SPL), and tone-burst rise times. ABR latencies have orderly dependence on these three parameters, similar to previously reported data by Gorga et al. [J. Speech Hear. Res. 31, 87–97 (1988)]. Level dependence of ABR and TBOAE latencies was similar across a wide range of stimulus conditions. At mid-frequencies, frequency dependence of ABR and TBOAE latencies were similar. The dependence of ABR latency on both rise time and level was significant; however, the interaction was not significant, suggesting independent effects. Comparison between ABR and TBOAE latencies reveals that the ratio of TBOAE latency to ABR forward latency (the level-dependent component of ABR total latency) is close to one below 1.5 kHz, but greater than two above 1.5 kHz. Despite the fact that the current experiment was designed to test compatibility with models of reverse-wave propagation, existing models do not completely explain the current data. PMID:23654387

  14. Timing of volcanism along the northern East Pacific Rise based on paleointensity experiments on basaltic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlut, J.; Cormier, M.-H.; Kent, D. V.; Donnelly, K. E.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2004-04-01

    Samples from two adjacent and contrasting ridge segments along the East Pacific Rise were measured for their magnetic paleointensity in order to further explore the possibilities of dating very young volcanic samples using secular variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The ridge segment north of the Orozco transform fault (15°22'-16°20'N) is the shallowest and broadest along more than 5000 km of the East Pacific Rise, whereas the adjacent segment to the north (16°16'-18°N) has a "typical" morphology for its intermediate spreading rate. Both ridge segments were densely sampled during the PANR01MV cruise and 36 samples of axial lava flows, consisting mainly of glasses from the rims of the flows and some fragments of lobate basalts, were selected from this collection for paleointensity experiments. The Coe version of the Thellier double-heating procedure (in air) was used. Twenty-seven units provide internally consistent paleointensity estimates leading to precise estimates of the paleofield, which range between 8 μT and 57 μT. Comparisons with reference paleointensity curves compiled from subaerial flows, archeomagnetic data and sedimentary records projected to the sampling site coordinates show that the measured values can be used to constrain the volcanic history of the ridge segments over the past few thousand years. A good agreement was found between apparent "freshness" of the glasses, the geochemistry of the lavas, and their magnetic paleointensity values. The inflated southern segment seems characterized by recent activities as indicated by numerous flows with paleointensities clustering around today's value (39 μT) or around the high values typical of 2000-3000 years ago (˜55 μT). We interpret this distribution to indicate the flooding by effusive lava flows of the entire axial plateau some 2000-3000 years ago, followed by a volcanic phase producing smaller volume lava flows confined to the innermost 200 m of the ridge axis. The northern ridge

  15. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 232+/- 2 ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A 4× 4 array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of 278+/- 7 ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  16. Fast underdetermined BSS architecture design methodology for real time applications.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Suresh; Reddy, P Sreenivasa; Acharyya, Amit; Naik, Ganesh R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a high speed architecture design methodology for the Under-determined Blind Source Separation (UBSS) algorithm using our recently proposed high speed Discrete Hilbert Transform (DHT) targeting real time applications. In UBSS algorithm, unlike the typical BSS, the number of sensors are less than the number of the sources, which is of more interest in the real time applications. The DHT architecture has been implemented based on sub matrix multiplication method to compute M point DHT, which uses N point architecture recursively and where M is an integer multiples of N. The DHT architecture and state of the art architecture are coded in VHDL for 16 bit word length and ASIC implementation is carried out using UMC 90 - nm technology @V DD = 1V and @ 1MHZ clock frequency. The proposed architecture implementation and experimental comparison results show that the DHT design is two times faster than state of the art architecture. PMID:26737514

  17. A fast, time-accurate unsteady full potential scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, V.; Ide, H.; Gorski, J.; Osher, S.

    1985-01-01

    The unsteady form of the full potential equation is solved in conservation form by an implicit method based on approximate factorization. At each time level, internal Newton iterations are performed to achieve time accuracy and computational efficiency. A local time linearization procedure is introduced to provide a good initial guess for the Newton iteration. A novel flux-biasing technique is applied to generate proper forms of the artificial viscosity to treat hyperbolic regions with shocks and sonic lines present. The wake is properly modeled by accounting not only for jumps in phi, but also for jumps in higher derivatives of phi, obtained by imposing the density to be continuous across the wake. The far field is modeled using the Riemann invariants to simulate nonreflecting boundary conditions. The resulting unsteady method performs well which, even at low reduced frequency levels of 0.1 or less, requires fewer than 100 time steps per cycle at transonic Mach numbers. The code is fully vectorized for the CRAY-XMP and the VPS-32 computers.

  18. The Fall and Rise of the Faculty: Product Development in Lean Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Arthur E.; Horton, Marshall J.

    1997-01-01

    Part-time faculty are critical in providing a sense of the marketplace to guide curriculum improvement. If adjuncts are not given a greater role, market forces will dictate curriculum change, albeit slowly and inefficiently. (SK)

  19. U-Series Disequilibria From the East Pacific Rise (9N, 10N and 11N): evidence for off-axis magmatism along fast spreading ridges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, C.; Turner, S.; Niu, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Lavas erupted along Mid-Ocean Ridges provide important information on melt formation and movement beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Despite the fact that the majority of lavas are erupted along the spreading axis itself, it has been proposed that a small quantity of lavas are erupted off-axis at distances >5 km [1]. The East Pacific Rise has a fast (5.5 cm/yr) half spreading rate and so the age of lavas sampled off-axis are well constrained assuming an on-axis origin. Zou et al. [2] tested this assumption by comparing U-series disequilibria in lavas sampled away from the ridge with that observed at the present day axis. They found larger U-Th disequilibria than predicted by decay of the ridge signal in a number of lavas and interpreted this to indicate that these lavas were erupted off-axis. These are important results and so we have analysed U-Th disequilibria in lavas from three traverses along the East Pacific Rise (9°3 N, 10°4N and 11°5N) extending to a maximum distance of 31 km East and West from the ridge axis (corresponding to an age ≤550 ka), including reanalysing the critical samples analysed by Zou et al. [2]. Our analyses of four samples analysed by Zou et al. [2] confirm greater U-Th disequilibria than predicted by decay of the axis signal. However, we could not reproduce the U-excesses in two lavas. Relative to a calculated decay curve assuming an initial (230Th/238U) of 1.23 at the ridge, all of our analyses from 9°3N have greater Th excesses (2-6%) than predicted. Similarly, the lavas from the traverse at 10°4N have (230Th/238U) ratios up to 1.067 (6% Th excess) some 13 km from the ridge axis which is comparable to ratios of 1.042 (4% Th excess) 23 km distant from the ridge at 9°3N. Thus, lavas in a zone 13-30 km off- axis to both sides of the axis have greater Th excess than predicted by decay from the ridge. In contrast, we have found U excesses in lavas from the traverse at 11°5N. 226Ra data will be presented for those samples with

  20. Fast SIFT design for real-time visual feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Liang-Chi; Chang, Tian-Sheuan; Chen, Jiun-Yen; Chang, Nelson Yen-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Visual feature extraction with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is widely used for object recognition. However, its real-time implementation suffers from long latency, heavy computation, and high memory storage because of its frame level computation with iterated Gaussian blur operations. Thus, this paper proposes a layer parallel SIFT (LPSIFT) with integral image, and its parallel hardware design with an on-the-fly feature extraction flow for real-time application needs. Compared with the original SIFT algorithm, the proposed approach reduces the computational amount by 90% and memory usage by 95%. The final implementation uses 580-K gate count with 90-nm CMOS technology, and offers 6000 feature points/frame for VGA images at 30 frames/s and ∼ 2000 feature points/frame for 1920 × 1080 images at 30 frames/s at the clock rate of 100 MHz. PMID:23743775

  1. Fast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Oza, Nikunj C.; Zhu, Qiang; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical monitoring, and financial systems. Domain experts are often interested in searching for interesting multivariate patterns from these MTS databases which often contain several gigabytes of data. Surprisingly, research on MTS search is very limited. Most of the existing work only supports queries with the same length of data, or queries on a fixed set of variables. In this paper, we propose an efficient and flexible subsequence search framework for massive MTS databases, that, for the first time, enables querying on any subset of variables with arbitrary time delays between them. We propose two algorithms to solve this problem (1) a List Based Search (LBS) algorithm which uses sorted lists for indexing, and (2) a R*-tree Based Search (RBS) which uses Minimum Bounding Rectangles (MBR) to organize the subsequences. Both algorithms guarantee that all matching patterns within the specified thresholds will be returned (no false dismissals). The very few false alarms can be removed by a post-processing step. Since our framework is also capable of Univariate Time-Series (UTS) subsequence search, we first demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms on several UTS datasets previously used in the literature. We follow this up with experiments using two large MTS databases from the aviation domain, each containing several millions of observations. Both these tests show that our algorithms have very high prune rates (>99%) thus needing actual disk access for only less than 1% of the observations. To the best of our knowledge, MTS subsequence search has never been attempted on datasets of the size we have used in this paper.

  2. Extracting Short Rise-Time Velocity Profiles with Digital Down-Shift Analysis of Optically Up-Converted PDV Data

    SciTech Connect

    Abel Diaz, Nathan Riley, Cenobio Gallegos, Matthew Teel, Michael Berninger, Thomas W. Tunnell

    2010-09-08

    This work describes the digital down-shift (DDS) technique, a new method of extracting short rise-time velocity profiles in the analysis of optically up-converted PDV data. The DDS technique manipulates the PDV data by subtracting a constant velocity (i.e., the DDS velocity νDDS) from the velocity profile. DDS exploits the simple fact that the optically up-converted data ride on top of a base velocity (ν0, the apparent velocity at no motion) with a rapid rise to a high velocity (νf) of a few km/s or more. Consequently, the frequency content of the signal must describe a velocity profile that increases from ν0 to ν0 + νf. The DDS technique produces velocity reversals in the processed data before shock breakout when ν0 < νDDS < ν0 + νf. The DDS analysis process strategically selects specific DDS velocities (velocity at which the user down shifts the data) that produce anomalous reversals (maxima and/or minima), which are predictable and easy to identify in the mid-range of the data. Additional analysis determines when these maxima and minima occur. By successive application of the DDS technique and iterative analysis, velocity profiles are extracted as time as a function of velocity rather than as a function of time as it would be in a conventional velocity profile. Presented results include a description of DDS, velocity profiles extracted from laser-driven shock data with rise times of 200 ps or less, and a comparison with other techniques.

  3. Fast time-domain balanced homodyne detection of light.

    PubMed

    Haderka, Ondrej; Michálek, Václav; Urbásek, Vladimir; Jezek, Miroslav

    2009-05-20

    A balanced homodyne detection scheme with nanosecond time resolution and sub-shot-noise sensitivity has been developed and successfully tested yielding an efficient detection scheme for high-speed quantum-optical measurements and communication protocols, for example, quantum cryptography. The parameters of the detector and its precise balancing allow complete characterization of quantum states created by femtosecond light pulses that include the measurement of photon number, optical phase, and statistical properties with a high signal-to-noise ratio for the whole bandwidth from DC to several tens of megahertz. The electronic part of the detector is based on a commercially available amplifier that provides ease of construction and use while yielding good performance. PMID:19458739

  4. Geochemistry of Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust: Results from Drilling at the Hess Deep Rift (ODP Leg 147 and IODP Expedition 345; East Pacific Rise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Falloon, T.; Gillis, K. M.; Akizawa, N.; de Brito Adriao, A.; Koepke, J.; Marks, N.; Meyer, R.; Saha, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Hess Deep Rift, where the Cocos Nazca Ridge propagates into the young, fast-spread East Pacific Rise crust, exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete, lower crustal section. The extensive exposures of the plutonic crust were drilled at 3 sites during ODP Leg 147 (Nov. 1992-Jan. 1993) and IODP Expedition 345 (Dec. 2012-Feb. 2013). We report preliminary results of a bulk rock geochemical study (major and trace elements) carried out on 109 samples representative of the different drilled lithologies. The shallowest gabbroic rocks were sampled at ODP Site 894. They comprise gabbronorite, gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbronorite. They have evolved compositions with Mg# 39-55, Yb 4-8 x chondrite and Eu/Eu* 1-1.6. Olivine gabbro and troctolite were dominant at IODP Site U1415, with minor gabbro, gabbronorite and clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite and gabbro. All U1415 gabbroic rocks have primitive compositions except for one gabbronorite rubble that is similar in composition to the shallow gabbros. Olivine gabbro, gabbro and gabbronorite overlap in composition: they have high Mg# (79-87) and Ni (130-570 ppm), low TiO2 (0.1-0.3 wt.%) and Yb (1.3-2.3 x chondrite) and positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=1.9-2.7). Troctolite has high Mg# (81-89), Ni (260-1500 ppm) and low TiO2 (<0.1 wt.%) and Yb (~0.5xchondrite) and large Eu/Eu* (>4). ODP Site 895 recovered sequences of highly depleted harzburgite, dunite and troctolite (Yb down to <0.1xchondrite) that are interpreted as a mantle-crust transition zone. Basalts were recovered at Sites 894 and U1415: they have low Yb (0.5-0.9xN6MORB) and are depleted in the most incompatible elements (Ce/Yb=0.6-0.9xN-MORB). The main geochemical characteristics of Site U1415 and 894 gabbroic rocks are consistent with formation as a cumulate sequence from a common parental MORB melt; troctolites are the most primitive end-member of this sequence. They overlap in composition with the most primitive of slow and fast spread crust gabbroic rocks.

  5. A Fast-Time Simulation Tool for Analysis of Airport Arrival Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Meyn, Larry A.; Neuman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The basic objective of arrival sequencing in air traffic control automation is to match traffic demand and airport capacity while minimizing delays. The performance of an automated arrival scheduling system, such as the Traffic Management Advisor developed by NASA for the FAA, can be studied by a fast-time simulation that does not involve running expensive and time-consuming real-time simulations. The fast-time simulation models runway configurations, the characteristics of arrival traffic, deviations from predicted arrival times, as well as the arrival sequencing and scheduling algorithm. This report reviews the development of the fast-time simulation method used originally by NASA in the design of the sequencing and scheduling algorithm for the Traffic Management Advisor. The utility of this method of simulation is demonstrated by examining the effect on delays of altering arrival schedules at a hub airport.

  6. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public.

  7. Simple scaling laws for influenza A rise time, duration, and severity.

    PubMed

    Chang, David B; Young, Carl S

    2007-06-21

    Simple scaling laws are developed for the severity and characteristic time scales of influenza A infection in man. The scaling laws are based on a model of the infection described by six coupled ordinary differential equations that describe the time courses of the numbers of infectious viral particles, activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, interferon molecules, infected cells, uninfected cells, and the subset of uninfected cells that are protected by interferon from viral infection. Computer simulations show that the disease can be regarded approximately as a two-stage process. In the first stage, the growth in the number of infected cells is determined primarily by the interferon-enhanced limitation in the available number of target cells. In the second stage, the bulk of the duration of the infection is determined mainly by the destruction of the infected cells by the cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. The severity and characteristic times of the infection are found to depend simply on the logarithm of the initial number of viruses. PMID:17379249

  8. Rise-time response of nickel-foil-on-Kapton-substrate, hot-film, shear-stress sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.

    1991-01-01

    An existing nickel-foil-on-Kapton-substrate sensor design was modified by including two heated elements in an attempt to minimize or reduce substrate conduction effects. The rise-time responses of the original and modified sensors were then investigated in unsteady flows of 0.5-1-s duration, consistent with flows encountered in wind-energy applications. The results obtained indicate a measurable degradation in transient performance due to the activation of the dynamic guard heater. Transient heat conduction within the substrate remains the limiting factor in such applications.

  9. Temperature Rise Induced by Light Curing Unit Can Shorten Enamel Acid-Etching Time

    PubMed Central

    Najafi Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Panahandeh, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro study was to assess the thermal effect of light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit on the enamel etching time. Materials and Methods: Three treatment groups with 15 enamel specimens each were used in this study: G1: Fifteen seconds of etching, G2: Five seconds of etching, G3: Five seconds of etching plus LED light irradiation (simultaneously). The micro shear bond strength (μSBS) of composite resin to enamel was measured. Results: The mean μSBS values ± standard deviation were 51.28±2.35, 40.47±2.75 and 50.00±2.59 MPa in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.013) and between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.032) in this respect, while there was no difference between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.932). Conclusion: Simultaneous application of phosphoric acid gel over enamel surface and light irradiation using a LED light curing unit decreased enamel etching time to five seconds without compromising the μSBS. PMID:27559352

  10. A metacalibrated time-tree documents the early rise of flowering plant phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Magallón, Susana; Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Sánchez-Reyes, Luna L; Hernández-Hernández, Tania

    2015-07-01

    The establishment of modern terrestrial life is indissociable from angiosperm evolution. While available molecular clock estimates of angiosperm age range from the Paleozoic to the Late Cretaceous, the fossil record is consistent with angiosperm diversification in the Early Cretaceous. The time-frame of angiosperm evolution is here estimated using a sample representing 87% of families and sequences of five plastid and nuclear markers, implementing penalized likelihood and Bayesian relaxed clocks. A literature-based review of the palaeontological record yielded calibrations for 137 phylogenetic nodes. The angiosperm crown age was bound within a confidence interval calculated with a method that considers the fossil record of the group. An Early Cretaceous crown angiosperm age was estimated with high confidence. Magnoliidae, Monocotyledoneae and Eudicotyledoneae diversified synchronously 135-130 million yr ago (Ma); Pentapetalae is 126-121 Ma; and Rosidae (123-115 Ma) preceded Asteridae (119-110 Ma). Family stem ages are continuously distributed between c. 140 and 20 Ma. This time-frame documents an early phylogenetic proliferation that led to the establishment of major angiosperm lineages, and the origin of over half of extant families, in the Cretaceous. While substantial amounts of angiosperm morphological and functional diversity have deep evolutionary roots, extant species richness was probably acquired later. PMID:25615647

  11. Composition and timing of carbonate vein precipitation within the igneous basement of the Early Cretaceous Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldmacher, J.; Li, S.; Hauff, F. F.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.; Yu, S.; Zhao, S.; Rausch, S.

    2013-12-01

    Shatsky Rise is an Early Cretaceous large igneous province located in the NW Pacific ca. 1500 km east of Japan and is the third-largest oceanic plateau on Earth (after Ontong Java and Kerguelen). Numerous calcium carbonate veins were recovered from the igneous basement of Shatsky Rise during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 324 (Sager et al., 2010). The chemical (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, δ18O, δ13C) compositions of these veins were determined to constrain the timing of vein formation and to provide valuable data for the reconstruction of past seawater composition. A dominant control of seawater chemistry on calcite composition is evident for most investigated vein samples with varying compositional contribution from the basaltic basement. The Sr/Ca ratio of the vein calcite is positively correlated with Mg/Ca and with δ18O, indicating warmer/colder precipitation temperatures with decreasing/increasing Sr/Ca (and Mg/Ca) ratios, respectively. Distinctly higher formation temperatures (as inferred from oxygen isotope ratios) indicative of hydrothermal vein formation are only observed at one site (Site U1350, drilled into the central part of Shatsky Rise). The highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (least basement influence) of vein samples at each drill site range form 0.707264 to 0.707550 and are believed to best reflect contemporaneous Early Cretaceous seawater composition. In principle, age information can be deduced by correlating these ratios with the global seawater Sr isotope evolution. Since the Sr isotopic composition of seawater has fluctuated three times between the early and mid Cretaceous (McArthur et al., 2001) no unambiguous precipitation ages can be constrained by this method and vein precipitation could have occurred at any time between ˜80 and 140 Ma. However, based on combined chemical and isotopic data and correlations of vein composition with formation depth and inferred temperature, we argue for a rather early

  12. TIME EVOLUTION OF PLASMA PARAMETERS DURING THE RISE OF A SOLAR PROMINENCE INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Díaz, A. J.

    2014-04-10

    We present high-spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a quiescent hedgerow prominence taken in the He I 1083.0 nm triplet. The observation consisted of a time series in sit-and-stare mode of ∼36 minutes duration. The spectrograph's slit crossed the prominence body and we recorded the time evolution of individual vertical threads. Eventually, we observed the development of a dark Rayleigh-Taylor plume that propagated upward with a velocity, projected onto the plane of the sky, of 17 km s{sup –1}. Interestingly, the plume apex collided with the prominence threads pushing them aside. We inferred Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, and magnetic field strength variations by interpreting the He I Stokes profiles with the HAZEL code. The Doppler shifts show that clusters of threads move coherently while individual threads have oscillatory patterns. Regarding the plume we found strong redshifts (∼9-12 km s{sup –1}) and large Doppler widths (∼10 km s{sup –1}) at the plume apex when it passed through the prominence body and before it disintegrated. We associate the redshifts with perspective effects while the Doppler widths are more likely due to an increase in the local temperature. No local variations of the magnetic field strength associated with the passage of the plume were found; this leads us to conclude that the plumes are no more magnetized than the surroundings. Finally, we found that some of the threads' oscillations are locally damped, what allowed us to apply prominence seismology techniques to infer additional prominence physical parameters.

  13. Characterizing and minimizing the effects of noise in tide gauge time series: relative and geocentric sea level rise around Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgette, Reed J.; Watson, Christopher S.; Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Tregoning, Paul; Coleman, Richard

    2013-08-01

    We quantify the rate of sea level rise around the Australian continent from an analysis of tide gauge and Global Positioning System (GPS) data sets. To estimate the underlying linear rates of sea level change in the presence of significant interannual and decadal variability (treated here as noise), we adopt and extend a novel network adjustment approach. We simultaneously estimate time-correlated noise as well as linear model parameters and realistic uncertainties from sea level time series at individual gauges, as well as from time-series differences computed between pairs of gauges. The noise content at individual gauges is consistent with a combination of white and time-correlated noise. We find that the noise in time series from the western coast of Australia is best described by a first-order Gauss-Markov model, whereas east coast stations generally exhibit lower levels of time-correlated noise that is better described by a power-law process. These findings suggest several decades of monthly tide gauge data are needed to reduce rate uncertainties to <0.5 mm yr-1 for undifferenced single site time series with typical noise characteristics. Our subsequent adjustment strategy exploits the more precise differential rates estimated from differenced time series from pairs of tide gauges to estimate rates among the network of 43 tide gauges that passed a stability analysis. We estimate relative sea level rates over three temporal windows (1900-2011, 1966-2011 and 1993-2011), accounting for covariance between time series. The resultant adjustment reduces the rate uncertainty across individual gauges, and partially mitigates the need for century-scale time series at all sites in the network. Our adjustment reveals a spatially coherent pattern of sea level rise around the coastline, with the highest rates in northern Australia. Over the time periods beginning in 1900, 1966 and 1993, we find weighted average rates of sea level rise of 1.4 ± 0.6, 1.7 ± 0.6 and 4.6 ± 0

  14. Electrophysiological aspects of the middle ear muscle reflex in the rat: latency, rise time and effect on sound transmission.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, H; Kingma, H; Kluge, C; Marres, E H

    1990-10-01

    The latency, the rise time and the influence of the acoustic reflex on sound transmission were investigated in the adult rat during ketamin anesthesia. This was done by recordings of the cochlear microphonics (CM) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the reflex responses of the tensor tympani muscle. The acoustic reflex was elicited by contralateral acoustic stimuli of which the intensity and frequency was varied. Ipsilaterally, the effect on sound transmission was determined by estimating the change in amplitude of the CM's of ipsilateral administered subliminal stimuli. It was shown that both the tensor tympani muscle and the stapedius muscle contribute in the reflex. The latency as well as the rise time of the reflex determined by CM recordings showed to be short (minimal values: 12 and 7 ms respectively). The mean latency of the tensor tympani muscle reflex, measured by EMG, was about 7 ms. The attenuation of 0.25-8 kHz tone bursts upto 115 dB SPL is limited to a mean maximum of 15 dB SPL. The maximal attenuation was shown to occur at 1 kHz. Frequencies above 2 kHz appeared to be the best elicitor of the middle ear muscle reflex.

  15. Fast Time and Space Parallel Algorithms for Solution of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, fast time- and Space -Parallel agorithms for solution of linear parabolic PDEs are developed. It is shown that the seemingly strictly serial iterations of the time-stepping procedure for solution of the problem can be completed decoupled.

  16. Time variant cross correlation to assess residence time of water and implication for hydraulics of a sink-rise karst system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly-Comte, V.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Screaton, E. J.

    2011-05-01

    Transport rates and residence time in the subsurface are critical parameters for understanding water-rock interactions for efficient contaminant remediation. This paper presents a methodology for assessing flow and transit time of water through hydrological systems, with specific applications to karst systems and implication for hydraulics of a conduit system surrounded by a porous and permeable intergranular matrix. A time variant cross-correlation function analysis is applied to bivariate time series that characterize mass transfer, assuming a stationary system using sliding windows of various sizes. We apply the method to 1 year long temperature records in the Santa Fe River (north central Florida) measured at (1) the River Sink, where all the incoming surface water drains into a sinkhole, (2) Sweetwater Lake, where the river resurges into a 500 m long karst window, and (3) the River Rise, where the water discharges from a first-magnitude karst spring. Results are compared with those obtained using specific conductivity. Estimated residence time ranges from less than 1 day during floods to more than 15 days during base flow within the 8000 m flow path between the River Sink and the River Rise. Results are used to characterize geometric, hydraulic, and hydrodynamic properties of this sink-rise system with strong matrix-conduit interactions. These properties are critical to the chemical and physical behavior of surface water-groundwater mixing. Our results also have direct implications for sampling strategies and hydrograph separation of many karst systems with different degrees and types of matrix porosity and permeability.

  17. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  18. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  19. Investigation on F layer height rise and equatorial spread F onset time: Signature of standing large-scale wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Lalit Mohan; Balwada, S.; Pant, T. K.; Sumod, S. G.

    2015-04-01

    Equatorial spread F observations have been categorized into three categories based on ionograms recorded over Sriharikota. First category comprised cases where the onset of equatorial spread F (ESF) was concurrent with the peak h'F time. Second and third categories comprised cases where the onset of ESF happened with a delay of 30 min and more than 30 min, respectively, with reference to the peak h'F time. Average peak h'F in the first category was more than 35 km higher than that in the second and third categories. Also, the peak vertical (upward) plasma drift was higher in the first category. Assuming the genesis of F region irregularity to have happened at or before the time of F layer attaining the peak height, late onset of ESF indicates the genesis of irregularities to have happened westward of Sriharikota. The fact that the peak h'F values were remarkably different in the three categories indicates a zonal variation of eastward electric field and postsunset height rise of F layer. The relative magnitude of the F layer height rise in the three different categories over Sriharikota has also been found to be significantly different than that over Thumba, an equatorial (magnetic) station located ~360 km westward of Sriharikota longitude. This scenario points toward the existence of a large-scale zonal standing wave in the F layer and its important role in F region instability process. Results presented in the manuscript have been discussed in the light of current understanding on the large-scale wave structure.

  20. Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits From a Young (0.1Ma) Abyssal Hill on the Flank of the Fast-Spreading East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, S. B.; Haymon, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    It has been estimated from heat flow measurements that at least 40% of the total hydrothermal heat lost from oceanic lithosphere is removed from 0.1-5 Ma abyssal hill terrain on mid-ocean ridge flanks. Despite the large magnitude of estimated hydrothermal heat loss from young abyssal hills, little is known about characteristics of hydrothermal vents and mineral deposits in this setting. This study describes the first abyssal hill hydrothermal samples to be collected on the flank of a fast-spreading ridge. The mineral deposits were discovered at "Tevnia Site" on the axis-facing fault scarp of an abyssal hill, located on ˜0.1 Ma lithosphere ˜5 km east of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis at 10\\deg 20'N. Observations of Galatheid crabs, "dandelion" siphonophores, and colonies of dead, yet still intact, Tevnia worm tubes at this site during Alvin dives in 1994 suggests relatively recent hydrothermal activity. The deposits are friable hydrothermal precipitates incorporating volcanic clasts brecciated at both the micro and macro scales. The petrographic sequence of brecciation, alteration, and cementation exhibited by the samples suggests that they formed from many pulses of hydrothermal venting interspersed with, and perhaps triggered by, repeated tectonic events as the abyssal hill was uplifted and moved off-axis (see also Haymon et al., this session). Observed minerals include x-ray amorphous opaline silica and Fe-oxide phases, crystalline Mn-oxides (birnessite and todorokite), an irregularly stratified mixed layer nontronite-celadonite, and residual calcite in sediment-derived microfossils incorporated into the breccia matrix. This mineral assemblage suggests that the deposits precipitated from moderately low-temperature (<140\\deg C) fluids, enriched in K, Fe, Si, and Mn, with a near-neutral pH. The presence of tubeworm casings at the site is evidence that the hydrothermal fluids carried H2S, however no metal sulfide phases were identified in the samples. Although

  1. High-voltage isolation transformer for sub-nanosecond rise time pulses constructed with annular parallel-strip transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Homma, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A novel annular parallel-strip transmission line was devised to construct high-voltage high-speed pulse isolation transformers. The transmission lines can easily realize stable high-voltage operation and good impedance matching between primary and secondary circuits. The time constant for the step response of the transformer was calculated by introducing a simple low-frequency equivalent circuit model. Results show that the relation between the time constant and low-cut-off frequency of the transformer conforms to the theory of the general first-order linear time-invariant system. Results also show that the test transformer composed of the new transmission lines can transmit about 600 ps rise time pulses across the dc potential difference of more than 150 kV with insertion loss of -2.5 dB. The measured effective time constant of 12 ns agreed exactly with the theoretically predicted value. For practical applications involving the delivery of synchronized trigger signals to a dc high-voltage electron gun station, the transformer described in this paper exhibited advantages over methods using fiber optic cables for the signal transfer system. This transformer has no jitter or breakdown problems that invariably occur in active circuit components.

  2. Mesoscale Simulation Data for Initializing Fast-Time Wake Transport and Decay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Mathew J.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    The fast-time wake transport and decay models require vertical profiles of crosswinds, potential temperature and the eddy dissipation rate as initial conditions. These inputs are normally obtained from various field sensors. In case of data-denied scenarios or operational use, these initial conditions can be provided by mesoscale model simulations. In this study, the vertical profiles of potential temperature from a mesoscale model were used as initial conditions for the fast-time wake models. The mesoscale model simulations were compared against available observations and the wake model predictions were compared with the Lidar measurements from three wake vortex field experiments.

  3. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, H.; Yoshida, K.; Tsuji, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Kagoshima, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  4. A signal distribution board for the timing and fast control master of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meder, L.; Dreschmann, M.; Sander, O.; Becker, J.

    2016-02-01

    For the CBM experiment a Timing and Fast-Control (TFC) system is being developed. In the detector readout, FPGA-based data processing boards (DPB) are organized in a large number of computing crates. At the crate level, the TFC master is connected to one TFC slave per crate, whereas the DPB AMCs are interconnected by the crates' infrastructure. In this article, an FMC-based signal distribution board is proposed allowing the transmission of a high-quality clock and timing and fast-control data from and to connected TFC slaves at distances of about 30 meters using twisted-pair cables.

  5. Development of a novel voltage divider for measurement of sub-nanosecond rise time high voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Ranjeet; Sharma, Archana

    2016-02-01

    This paper is about the development of a copper sulphate based aqueous-electrolytic voltage divider for the measurement of high voltage pulses, 100 kV, with pulse widths of 1-2 ns and rise time <1 ns. Novel features are incorporated in the design of the divider, to meet the performance requirements for the application. Analytical calculations to justify design are described. Structural simulation of the divider is carried out using field wave simulation software to verify the effectiveness. A calibration procedure has been developed to calibrate the divider. Results obtained during calibration are subjected to statistical analysis to determine the confidence of measurement. Details of design, analysis, and simulation are described in this paper.

  6. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Levin, C S

    2015-05-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog 'electro-optial' method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.

  7. A TRANSIT TIMING ANALYSIS OF NINE RISE LIGHT CURVES OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEM TrES-3

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, N. P.; Pollacco, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Barros, S.; Joshi, Y. C.; Todd, I.; Keenan, F. P.; Skillen, I.; Benn, C.; Christian, D.; Hrudkova, M.; Steele, I. A.

    2009-08-01

    We present nine newly observed transits of TrES-3, taken as part of a transit timing program using the RISE instrument on the Liverpool Telescope. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the planet-star radius ratio and inclination of the system, which were found to be R{sub p} /R {sub *} = 0.1664{sup +0.0011} {sub -0.0018} and i = 81.73{sup +0.13} {sub -0.04}, respectively, consistent with previous results. The central transit times and uncertainties were also calculated, using a residual-permutation algorithm as an independent check on the errors. A re-analysis of eight previously published TrES-3 light curves was conducted to determine the transit times and uncertainties using consistent techniques. Whilst the transit times were not found to be in agreement with a linear ephemeris, giving {chi}{sup 2} = 35.07 for 15 degrees of freedom, we interpret this to be the result of systematics in the light curves rather than a real transit timing variation. This is because the light curves that show the largest deviation from a constant period either have relatively little out-of-transit coverage or have clear systematics. A new ephemeris was calculated using the transit times and was found to be T{sub c} (0) = 2454632.62610 {+-} 0.00006 HJD and P = 1.3061864 {+-} 0.0000005 days. The transit times were then used to place upper mass limits as a function of the period ratio of a potential perturbing planet, showing that our data are sufficiently sensitive to have probed sub-Earth mass planets in both interior and exterior 2:1 resonances, assuming that the additional planet is in an initially circular orbit.

  8. Natural fast speech is perceived as faster than linearly time-compressed speech.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Listeners compensate for variation in speaking rate: In a fast context, a given sound is interpreted as longer than in a slow context. Experimental rate manipulations have been achieved either through linear compression or by using natural fast speech. However, in natural fast speech, segments are subject to processes such as reduction or deletion. If speaking rate is then defined as the number of segments per unit time, the question arises as to what impact such processes have on listeners' normalization for speaking rate. The present study tested the effect of sentence duration and fast-speech processes on rate normalization for a German vowel duration contrast. Results showed that a naturally produced short sentence containing segmental reductions and deletions led to the most "long" vowel responses whereas the long sentence with clearly articulated segments led to the fewest. This suggests that speaking rate is not merely calculated as the number of segments realized per unit time. Rather, listeners associate properties of natural fast speech with a higher speaking rate. This contrasts with earlier results and a second experiment in which perceived speaking rate was measured in an explicit task. Models of speech comprehension are evaluated with regard to the present findings. PMID:26860711

  9. Fast computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields for unsteady flows.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Steven L; Rowley, Clarence W

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents new efficient methods for computing finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields in unsteady flows. The methods approximate the particle flow map, eliminating redundant particle integrations in neighboring flow map calculations. Two classes of flow map approximations are investigated based on composition of intermediate flow maps; unidirectional approximation constructs a time-T map by composing a number of smaller time-h maps, while bidirectional approximation constructs a flow map by composing both positive- and negative-time maps. The unidirectional method is shown to be fast and accurate, although it is memory intensive. The bidirectional method is also fast and uses significantly less memory; however, it is prone to error which is large in regions where the opposite-time FTLE field is large, rendering it unusable. The algorithms are implemented and compared on three example fluid flows: a double gyre, a low Reynolds number pitching flat plate, and an unsteady ABC flow.

  10. Demonstration of two-dimensional time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons

    DOE PAGES

    Brennan, J.; Brubaker, E.; Gerling, M.; Marleau, P.; McMillan, K.; Nowack, A.; Galloudec, N. Renard-Le; Sweany, M.

    2015-09-09

    Here, we present a neutron detector system based on time-encoded imaging, and demonstrate its applicability toward the spatial mapping of special nuclear material. We also demonstrate that two-dimensional fast-neutron imaging with 2° resolution at 2 m stand-off is feasible with only two instrumented detectors.

  11. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Isobe, M; Ogawa, K; Miyake, H; Hayashi, H; Kobuchi, T; Nakano, Y; Watanabe, K; Uritani, A; Misawa, T; Nishitani, T; Tomitaka, M; Kumagai, T; Mashiyama, Y; Ito, D; Kono, S; Yamauchi, M; Takeiri, Y

    2014-11-01

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ∼5 × 10(9) counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 10(16) n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design.

  12. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, M. Takeiri, Y.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Hayashi, H.; Kobuchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A.; Misawa, T.; Nishitani, T.; Tomitaka, M.; Kumagai, T.; Mashiyama, Y.; Ito, D.; Kono, S.; Yamauchi, M.

    2014-11-15

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ∼5 × 10{sup 9} counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 10{sup 16} n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design.

  13. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Devicea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Hayashi, H.; Kobuchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A.; Misawa, T.; Nishitani, T.; Tomitaka, M.; Kumagai, T.; Mashiyama, Y.; Ito, D.; Kono, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Takeiri, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ˜5 × 109 counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 1016 n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design.

  14. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  15. The reality of the surgical fasting time in the era of the ERAS protocol.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Talita; Madalozzo Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana; Thieme, Rubia Daniela; Neto Cardoso, João; Ligocki Campos, Antônio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal protocols to optimize perioperative care and to accelerate postoperative recovery include abbreviated pre-and postoperative fasting. The aim of this study was to investigate the pre and postoperative fasting period and the factors that influence it in patients who underwent elective operations. We included patients who underwent surgery of the digestive tract and abdominal wall. Data were collected from the patients and from their personal health records. We included 135 patients between 19 and 89 years old. Most were adults (75.55%), female (60.74%) and the most common procedures were hernioplasty (42.96%) and cholecystectomy (34.81%). The preoperative fasting periods for solids and liquids were similar, median 16.50 (5.50-56.92) and 15.75 (2.50- 56.92) hours, respectively. The preoperative fasting period was influenced by the instruction received and surgery time. Postoperative fasting period was 15.67 (1.67-90.42) hours and was influenced by type of surgery and lack of synchrony between the clinical meeting and the nutrition and dietetics service schedules. PMID:24528365

  16. The reality of the surgical fasting time in the era of the ERAS protocol.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Talita; Madalozzo Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana; Thieme, Rubia Daniela; Neto Cardoso, João; Ligocki Campos, Antônio Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Multimodal protocols to optimize perioperative care and to accelerate postoperative recovery include abbreviated pre-and postoperative fasting. The aim of this study was to investigate the pre and postoperative fasting period and the factors that influence it in patients who underwent elective operations. We included patients who underwent surgery of the digestive tract and abdominal wall. Data were collected from the patients and from their personal health records. We included 135 patients between 19 and 89 years old. Most were adults (75.55%), female (60.74%) and the most common procedures were hernioplasty (42.96%) and cholecystectomy (34.81%). The preoperative fasting periods for solids and liquids were similar, median 16.50 (5.50-56.92) and 15.75 (2.50- 56.92) hours, respectively. The preoperative fasting period was influenced by the instruction received and surgery time. Postoperative fasting period was 15.67 (1.67-90.42) hours and was influenced by type of surgery and lack of synchrony between the clinical meeting and the nutrition and dietetics service schedules.

  17. Copernicus Rising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Michael A.

    2007-08-01

    Copernicus Rising began as a historical biography when it was first conceived, but as the writing progressed it quickly became a rather absurd play that took historical research and twisted it through the lens of my own wit, philosophy and personal affection for the characters. When working with historical figures--characters who existed in a very tangible way in our own history--the playwriting process opens a dialogue between different points in time and space. The difficulty lies in finding a unique and clear voice amongst the discordant personalities involved in this time and space overlap, both in the writing and production processes, in order to get to the heart of what the play is really all about. This thesis follows the journey of the play from its historical roots through the creation of an absurd journey both insides and outside time, space and the human mind. The first part of the thesis explains the beginnings of the concept and outlines much of the research and development that went into the play. The next part outlines the process of production and integrating the world on paper with that of moving bodies on stage. In the final part, post-production discussions and audience feedback sessions shape the play into the draft included in this thesis.

  18. Fast-ball sports experts depend on an inhibitory strategy to reprogram their movement timing.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ikudome, Sachi; Yotani, Kengo; Maruyama, Atsuo; Mori, Shiro

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify whether an inhibitory strategy is used for reprogramming of movement timing by experts in fast-ball sports when they correct their movement timing due to unexpected environmental changes. We evaluated the influence of disruption of inhibitory function of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on reprogramming of movement timing of experts and non-experts in fast-ball sports. The task was to manually press a button to coincide with the arrival of a moving target. The target moved at a constant velocity, and its velocity was suddenly either increased or decreased in some trials. The task was performed either with or without transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which was delivered to the region of the rIFG. Under velocity change conditions without TMS, the experts showed significantly smaller timing errors and a higher rate of reprogramming of movement timing than the non-experts. Moreover, TMS application during the task significantly diminished the expert group's performance, but not the control group, particularly in the condition where the target velocity decreases. These results suggest that experts use an inhibitory strategy for reprogramming of movement timing. In addition, the rIFG inhibitory function contributes to the superior movement correction of experts in fast-ball sports. PMID:23660742

  19. Fast-ball sports experts depend on an inhibitory strategy to reprogram their movement timing.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ikudome, Sachi; Yotani, Kengo; Maruyama, Atsuo; Mori, Shiro

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify whether an inhibitory strategy is used for reprogramming of movement timing by experts in fast-ball sports when they correct their movement timing due to unexpected environmental changes. We evaluated the influence of disruption of inhibitory function of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on reprogramming of movement timing of experts and non-experts in fast-ball sports. The task was to manually press a button to coincide with the arrival of a moving target. The target moved at a constant velocity, and its velocity was suddenly either increased or decreased in some trials. The task was performed either with or without transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which was delivered to the region of the rIFG. Under velocity change conditions without TMS, the experts showed significantly smaller timing errors and a higher rate of reprogramming of movement timing than the non-experts. Moreover, TMS application during the task significantly diminished the expert group's performance, but not the control group, particularly in the condition where the target velocity decreases. These results suggest that experts use an inhibitory strategy for reprogramming of movement timing. In addition, the rIFG inhibitory function contributes to the superior movement correction of experts in fast-ball sports.

  20. Fast time-reversible algorithms for molecular dynamics of rigid-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajima, Yasuhiro; Hiyama, Miyabi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present time-reversible simulation algorithms for rigid bodies in the quaternion representation. By advancing a time-reversible algorithm [Y. Kajima, M. Hiyama, S. Ogata, and T. Tamura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80, 114002 (2011), 10.1143/JPSJ.80.114002] that requires iterations in calculating the angular velocity at each time step, we propose two kinds of iteration-free fast time-reversible algorithms. They are easily implemented in codes. The codes are compared with that of existing algorithms through demonstrative simulation of a nanometer-sized water droplet to find their stability of the total energy and computation speeds.

  1. Fast time-reversible algorithms for molecular dynamics of rigid-body systems.

    PubMed

    Kajima, Yasuhiro; Hiyama, Miyabi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-21

    In this paper, we present time-reversible simulation algorithms for rigid bodies in the quaternion representation. By advancing a time-reversible algorithm [Y. Kajima, M. Hiyama, S. Ogata, and T. Tamura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80, 114002 (2011)] that requires iterations in calculating the angular velocity at each time step, we propose two kinds of iteration-free fast time-reversible algorithms. They are easily implemented in codes. The codes are compared with that of existing algorithms through demonstrative simulation of a nanometer-sized water droplet to find their stability of the total energy and computation speeds. PMID:22779579

  2. The Commensal Real-Time ASKAP Fast-Transients (CRAFT) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bower, G. C.; Bunton, J. D.; Chatterjee, S.; Colegate, T.; Cordes, J. M.; D'Addario, L.; Deller, A.; Dodson, R.; Fender, R.; Haines, K.; Halll, P.; Harris, C.; Hotan, A.; Johnston, S.; Jones, D. L.; Keith, M.; Koay, J. Y.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Majid, W.; Murphy, T.; Navarro, R.; Phillips, C.; Quinn, P.; Preston, R. A.; Stansby, B.; Stairs, I.; Stappers, B.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Tingay, S.; Thompson, D.; van Straten, W.; Wagstaff, K.; Warren, M.; Wayth, R.; Wen, L.; CRAFT Collaboration

    2010-06-01

    We are developing a purely commensal survey experiment for fast (<5 s) transient radio sources. Short-timescale transients are associated with the most energetic and brightest single events in the Universe. Our objective is to cover the enormous volume of transients parameter space made available by ASKAP, with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and field of view. Fast timescale transients open new vistas on the physics of high brightness temperature emission,extreme states of matter and the physics of strong gravitational fields. In addition, the detection of extragalactic objects affords us an entirely new and extremely sensitive probe on the huge reservoir of baryons present in the IGM. We outline here our approach to the considerable challenge involved in detecting fast transients, particularly the development of hardware fast enough to dedisperse and search the ASKAP data stream at or near real-time rates. Through CRAFT, ASKAP will provide the testbed of many of the key technologies and survey modes proposed for high time resolution science with the SKA.

  3. Apparent time interval of visual stimuli is compressed during fast hand movement.

    PubMed

    Yokosaka, Takumi; Kuroki, Scinob; Nishida, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Junji

    2015-01-01

    The influence of body movements on visual time perception is receiving increased attention. Past studies showed apparent expansion of visual time before and after the execution of hand movements and apparent compression of visual time during the execution of eye movements. Here we examined whether the estimation of sub-second time intervals between visual events is expanded, compressed, or unaffected during the execution of hand movements. The results show that hand movements, at least the fast ones, reduced the apparent time interval between visual events. A control experiment indicated that the apparent time compression was not produced by the participants' involuntary eye movements during the hand movements. These results, together with earlier findings, suggest hand movement can change apparent visual time either in a compressive way or in an expansive way, depending on the relative timing between the hand movement and visual stimulus. PMID:25853892

  4. New Evidence for the Role of Emerging Flux in a Solar Filament's Slow Rise Preceding its CME-Producing Fast Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Harra, Louis K.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    We observe the eruption of a large-scale (approx.300,000 km) quiet-region solar filament, leading to an Earth-directed "halo" coronal mass ejection (CME). We use coronal imaging data in EUV from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, and in soft X-rays (SXRs) from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on the Yohkoh satellite. We also use spectroscopic data from the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS), magnetic data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and white-light coronal data from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO), all on SOHO. Initially the filament shows a slow (approx.1 km/s projected against the solar disk) and approximately constant-velocity rise for about 6 hours, before erupting rapidly, reaching a velocity of approx. 8 km/s over the next approx. 25 min. CDS Doppler data show Earth-directed filament velocities ranging from < 20 km/s (the noise limit) during the slow-rise phase, to approx. 100 km/s-1 early in the eruption. Beginning within 10 hours prior to the start of the slow rise, localized new magnetic flux emerged near one end of the filament. Near the start of and during the slow-rise phase, SXR microflaring occurred repeatedly at the flux-emergence site, in conjunction with the development of a fan of SXR illumination of the magnetic arcade over the filament. The SXR microflares, development of the SXR fan, and motion of the slow-rising filament are all consistent with "tether-weakening" reconnection occurring between the newly-emerging flux and the overlying arcade field containing the filament field. The microflares and fan structure are not prominent in EUV, and would not have been detected without the SXR data. Standard "twin dimmings" occur near the location of the filament, and "remote dimmings" and "brightenings" occur further removed from the filament.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFR’s transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFR’s fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

  6. "Fast" Is Not "Real-Time": Designing Effective Real-Time AI Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Cindy A.; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1985-04-01

    Realistic practical problem domains (such as robotics, process control, and certain kinds of signal processing) stand to benefit greatly from the application of artificial intelligence techniques. These problem domains are of special interest because they are typified by complex dynamic environments in which the ability to select and initiate a proper response to environmental events in real time is a strict prerequisite to effective environmental interaction. Artificial intelligence systems developed to date have been sheltered from this real-time requirement, however, largely by virtue of their use of simplified problem domains or problem representations. The plethora of colloquial and (in general) mutually inconsistent interpretations of the term "real-time" employed by workers in each of these domains further exacerbates the difficul-ties in effectively applying state-of-the-art problem solving tech-niques to time-critical problems. Indeed, the intellectual waters are by now sufficiently muddied that the pursuit of a rigorous treatment of intelligent real-time performance mandates the redevelopment of proper problem perspective on what "real-time" means, starting from first principles. We present a simple but nonetheless formal definition of real-time performance. We then undertake an analysis of both conventional techniques and AI technology with respect to their ability to meet substantive real-time performance criteria. This analysis provides a basis for specification of problem-independent design requirements for systems that would claim real-time performance. Finally, we discuss the application of these design principles to a pragmatic problem in real-time signal understanding.

  7. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC waveform digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, D.; De Cacqueray, V.; Delagnes, E.; Grabas, H.; Maalmi, J.; Minafra, N.; Royon, C.; Saimpert, M.

    2016-11-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to improve time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using pulses generated by a signal generator or by a silicon detector illuminated by a pulsed infrared laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 ps with synthesized signals and 40 ps with silicon detector signals.

  8. A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting/Timing drift chambers on a FPGA board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, L.; Creti, P.; Grancagnolo, F.; Pepino, A.; Tassielli, G.

    2013-08-01

    A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting and Timing purposes has been implemented and tested on a Virtex 6 core FPGA board. The algorithm analyses and stores data coming from a Helium based drift tube instrumented by 1 GSPS fADC and represents the outcome of balancing between cluster identification efficiency and high speed performance. The algorithm can be implemented in electronics boards serving multiple fADC channels as an online preprocessing stage for drift chamber signals.

  9. In-beam fast-timing measurements in {sup 103,105,107}Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Kisyov, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Radulov, D.; Zhekova, M.; Marginean, N.; Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Cata-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D.; Ghita, D.; Glodariu, T.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Suliman, G.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2011-07-15

    Fast-timing measurements were performed in the region of the medium-mass {sup 103,105,107}Cd isotopes, produced in fusion evaporation reactions. Results on new and reevaluated half-lives are analyzed within a systematic study of transition rates. The 7/2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 103,105,107}Cd are interpreted as arising from a single-particle excitation. The 9/2{sup +} states configuration assignment is based on the observed decay branches.

  10. Impact of Miscanthus x giganteus senescence times on fast pyrolysis bio-oil quality.

    PubMed

    Mos, M; Banks, S W; Nowakowski, D J; Robson, P R H; Bridgwater, A V; Donnison, I S

    2013-02-01

    In this study the impact of senescence and harvest time in Miscanthus on the quality of fast pyrolysis liquid (bio-oil) was investigated. Bio-oil was produced using a 1 kg h(-1) fast pyrolysis reactor to obtain a quantity of bio-oil comparable with existing industrial reactors. Bio-oil stability was measured using viscosity, water content, pH and heating value changes under specific conditions. Plant developmental characteristics were significantly different (P≤0.05) between all harvest points. The stage of crop senescence was correlated with nutrient remobilisation (N, P, K; r2=0.9043, r2=0.9920, r2=0.9977 respectively) and affected bio-oil quality. Harvest time and senescence impacted bio-oil quality and stability. For fast pyrolysis processing of Miscanthus, the harvest time of Miscanthus can be extended to cover a wider harvest window whilst still maintaining bio-oil quality but this may impact mineral depletion in, and long term sustainability of, the crop unless these minerals can be recycled. PMID:23262009

  11. Slow-time-scale magnetic fields driven by fast-time-scale waves in an underdense relativistic Vlasov plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shao-ping; He, X. T.; Zheng, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Slow-time-scale magnetic fields driven by fast-time-scale electromagnetic waves or plasma waves are examined from the perspective of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations for a relativistic Vlasov plasma. An equation for slow-time-scale magnetic field is obtained. The field proposed in the present paper is a result of wave-wave beating which drives a solenoidal current. The magnitude of the slow-time-scale magnetic field proposed here can be as high as 20 MG at the critical surface for a laser intensity I=1018W/cm2 at wavelength λ0=1.05 μm. The predicted magnetic field is observed in two-dimensional particle simulations presented here.

  12. Fast single photon avalanche photodiode-based time-resolved diffuse optical tomography scanner

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Ying; Niedre, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Resolution in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a persistent problem and is primarily limited by high degree of light scatter in biological tissue. We showed previously that the reduction in photon scatter between a source and detector pair at early time points following a laser pulse in time-resolved DOT is highly dependent on the temporal response of the instrument. To this end, we developed a new single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) based time-resolved DOT scanner. This instrument uses an array of fast SPADs, a femto-second Titanium Sapphire laser and single photon counting electronics. In combination, the overall instrument temporal impulse response function width was 59 ps. In this paper, we report the design of this instrument and validate its operation in symmetrical and irregularly shaped optical phantoms of approximately small animal size. We were able to accurately reconstruct the size and position of up to 4 absorbing inclusions, with increasing image quality at earlier time windows. We attribute these results primarily to the rapid response time of our instrument. These data illustrate the potential utility of fast SPAD detectors in time-resolved DOT. PMID:26417526

  13. Fast single photon avalanche photodiode-based time-resolved diffuse optical tomography scanner.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ying; Niedre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Resolution in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a persistent problem and is primarily limited by high degree of light scatter in biological tissue. We showed previously that the reduction in photon scatter between a source and detector pair at early time points following a laser pulse in time-resolved DOT is highly dependent on the temporal response of the instrument. To this end, we developed a new single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) based time-resolved DOT scanner. This instrument uses an array of fast SPADs, a femto-second Titanium Sapphire laser and single photon counting electronics. In combination, the overall instrument temporal impulse response function width was 59 ps. In this paper, we report the design of this instrument and validate its operation in symmetrical and irregularly shaped optical phantoms of approximately small animal size. We were able to accurately reconstruct the size and position of up to 4 absorbing inclusions, with increasing image quality at earlier time windows. We attribute these results primarily to the rapid response time of our instrument. These data illustrate the potential utility of fast SPAD detectors in time-resolved DOT.

  14. Time-resolved spectroscopy using a chopper wheel as a fast shutter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E; Boffard, John B; Lin, Chun C

    2015-01-01

    Widely available, small form-factor, fiber-coupled spectrometers typically have a minimum exposure time measured in milliseconds, and thus cannot be used directly for time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Spectroscopy at these faster time scales is typically done with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) system where the image intensifier acts as a "fast" electronic shutter for the slower CCD array. In this paper, we describe simple modifications to a commercially available chopper wheel system to allow it to be used as a "fast" mechanical shutter for gating a fiber-coupled spectrometer to achieve microsecond-scale time-resolved optical measurements of a periodically pulsed light source. With the chopper wheel synchronized to the pulsing of the light source, the time resolution can be set to a small fraction of the pulse period by using a chopper wheel with narrow slots separated by wide spokes. Different methods of synchronizing the chopper wheel and pulsing of the light sources are explored. The capability of the chopper wheel system is illustrated with time-resolved measurements of pulsed plasmas.

  15. Optical delay encoding for fast timing and detector signal multiplexing in PET

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Alexander M.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The large number of detector channels in modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners poses a challenge in terms of readout electronics complexity. Multiplexing schemes are typically implemented to reduce the number of physical readout channels, but often result in performance degradation. Novel methods of multiplexing in PET must be developed to avoid this data degradation. The preservation of fast timing information is especially important for time-of-flight PET. Methods: A new multiplexing scheme based on encoding detector interaction events with a series of extremely fast overlapping optical pulses with precise delays is demonstrated in this work. Encoding events in this way potentially allows many detector channels to be simultaneously encoded onto a single optical fiber that is then read out by a single digitizer. A two channel silicon photomultiplier-based prototype utilizing this optical delay encoding technique along with dual threshold time-over-threshold is demonstrated. Results: The optical encoding and multiplexing prototype achieves a coincidence time resolution of 160 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) and an energy resolution of 13.1% FWHM at 511 keV with 3 × 3 × 5 mm3 LYSO crystals. All interaction information for both detectors, including timing, energy, and channel identification, is encoded onto a single optical fiber with little degradation. Conclusions: Optical delay encoding and multiplexing technology could lead to time-of-flight PET scanners with fewer readout channels and simplified data acquisition systems. PMID:26233181

  16. Fast Time-Varying Volume Rendering Using Time-Space Partition (TSP) Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Chiang, Ling-Jen; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1999-01-01

    We present a new, algorithm for rapid rendering of time-varying volumes. A new hierarchical data structure that is capable of capturing both the temporal and the spatial coherence is proposed. Conventional hierarchical data structures such as octrees are effective in characterizing the homogeneity of the field values existing in the spatial domain. However, when treating time merely as another dimension for a time-varying field, difficulties frequently arise due to the discrepancy between the field's spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition, treating spatial and temporal dimensions equally often prevents the possibility of detecting the coherence that is unique in the temporal domain. Using the proposed data structure, our algorithm can meet the following goals. First, both spatial and temporal coherence are identified and exploited for accelerating the rendering process. Second, our algorithm allows the user to supply the desired error tolerances at run time for the purpose of image-quality/rendering-speed trade-off. Third, the amount of data that are required to be loaded into main memory is reduced, and thus the I/O overhead is minimized. This low I/O overhead makes our algorithm suitable for out-of-core applications.

  17. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert; Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin; Lane, Stephen

    2011-12-13

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at {approx}10-50 Hz and emits {approx}10{sup 6}n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45{+-}0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of {approx}25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm{sup 3} in volume.

  18. Fast Chebyshev-polynomial method for simulating the time evolution of linear dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Loh, Y L; Taraskin, S N; Elliott, S R

    2001-05-01

    We present a fast method for simulating the time evolution of any linear dynamical system possessing eigenmodes. This method does not require an explicit calculation of the eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies, and is based on a Chebyshev polynomial expansion of the formal operator matrix solution in the eigenfrequency domain. It does not suffer from the limitations of ordinary time-integration methods, and can be made accurate to almost machine precision. Among its possible applications are harmonic classical mechanical systems, quantum diffusion, and stochastic transport theory. An example of its use is given for the problem of vibrational wave-packet propagation in a disordered lattice. PMID:11415044

  19. Sparse temporal sampling for fast time-domain wide-field fluorescence molecular tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ruoyang; Zhao, Lingling; Intes, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) is a powerful optical imaging tool for preclinical research. Especially, its implementation with time-domain (TD) techniques allows lifetime multiplexing for simultaneously imaging multiple biomarkers and provides enhanced data sets for improved resolution and quantification compared to continuous wave (CW) and frequency domain (FD) methodologies. When performing time-domain reconstructions, one important aspect is the selection of a temporal sub-data set. Typically, such selection is performed a posteriori after dense temporal sampling during the acquisition. In this work, we investigate the potential to collect a priori sparse data sets for fast experimental acquisition without compromising FMT performances.

  20. Development of a low-cost fast-timing microchannel plate photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junqi; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; May, Edward; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Wang, Jingbo; Xia, Lei; Zhao, Huyue

    2016-07-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of a prototype 6 × 6cm2 microchannel plate photodetector with precise fast-timing measurement capability. The whole assembly is made of low cost glass materials with a bialkali photocathode top window. All components are hermetically sealed in vacuum. The prototype photodetector exhibits time resolution of 65 ps and 16 ps at single-photoelectron and multi-photoelectron levels, respectively. The spatial resolution reaches 0.54 mm for multi-photoelectron measurements. The bialkali photocathode exhibits a maximum quantum efficiency exceeding 20% with a uniformity of ± 40 %.

  1. Fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse shape discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Zubarev, P. V.; Ivanenko, S. V.; Khilchenko, A. D.; Kotelnikov, A. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Puryga, E. A.; Shvyrev, V. G.; Sulyaev, Yu. S.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of subthermonuclear plasma confinement and heating in magnetic fusion devices such as GOL-3 and GDT at the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk, Russia) requires sophisticated equipment for neutron-, gamma- diagnostics and upgrading data acquisition systems with online data processing. Measurement of fast neutron flux with stilbene scintillation detectors raised the problem of discrimination of the neutrons (n) from background cosmic particles (muons) and neutron-induced gamma rays (γ). This paper describes a fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse-shape discrimination (DPSD) algorithm FPGA-implemented for the GOL-3 and GDT devices. This analyzer was tested and calibrated with the help of 137Cs and 252Cf radiation sources. The Figures of Merit (FOM) calculated for different energy cuts are presented.

  2. A novel WV film for fast-response-time OCB-LCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Ryota; Ito, Yoji; Nakamura, Shun; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mihayashi, Keiji

    2006-02-01

    We have successfully developed and commercialized an optical compensation film for OCB-LCD mode (OCB-WV film). OCB-LCD mode is known to have a very fast optical response time and makes next-generation fast-response LCD-TVs possible and free from image blurring. The OCB-WV film, which has a structure composed with TAC (triacetyl cellulose) film and PDM (polymerized discotic material) layer, can realize the wide viewing angle of OCB-cell. In order to provide the best performance of OCB-cell, we optimized an optical parameter of not only WV film but also OCB cell by a numerical simulation. In this paper, we will discuss a concept of its optimization, which provide excellent results of a numerical simulation.

  3. FASTING IN ELECTIVE SURGICAL PATIENTS: COMPARISON AMONG THE TIME PRESCRIBED, PERFORMED AND RECOMMENDED ON PERIOPERATIVE CARE PROTOCOLS

    PubMed Central

    FRANCISCO, Saionara Cristina; BATISTA, Sandra Teixeira; PENA, Geórgia das Graças

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prolonged preoperative fasting may impair nutritional status of the patient and their recovery. In contrast, some studies show that fasting abbreviation can improve the response to trauma and decrease the length of hospital stay. Aim: Investigate whether the prescribed perioperative fasting time and practiced by patients is in compliance with current multimodal protocols and identify the main factors associated. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 65 patients undergoing elective surgery of the digestive tract or abdominal wall. We investigated the fasting time in the perioperative period, hunger and thirst reports, physical status, diabetes diagnosis, type of surgery and anesthesia. Results: The patients were between 19 and 87 years, mostly female (73.8%). The most performed procedure was cholecystectomy (47.69%) and general anesthesia the most used (89.23%). The most common approach was to start fasting from midnight for liquids and solids, and most of the patients received grade II (64.6%) to the physical state. The real fasting average time was 16 h (9.5-41.58) was higher than prescribed (11 h, 6.58 -26.75). The patients submitted to surgery in the afternoon were in more fasting time than those who did in the morning (p<0.001). The intensity of hunger and thirst increased in postoperative fasting period (p=0.010 and 0.027). The average period of postoperative fasting was 18.25 h (3.33-91.83) and only 23.07% restarted feeding on the same day. Conclusion: Patients were fasted for prolonged time, higher even than the prescribed time and intensity of the signs of discomfort such as hunger and thirst increased over time. To better recovery and the patient's well-being, it is necessary to establish a preoperative fasting abbreviation protocol. PMID:26734794

  4. Time dependence of fast electron beam divergence in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Akli, K U; Storm, M J; McMahon, M; Jiang, S; Ovchinnikov, V; Schumacher, D W; Freeman, R R; Dyer, G; Ditmire, T

    2012-08-01

    We report on the measurement and computer simulation of the divergence of fast electrons generated in an ultraintense laser-plasma interaction (LPI) and the subsequent propagation in a nonrefluxing target. We show that, at Iλ(2) of 10(20) Wcm(-2)μm(2), the time-integrated electron beam full divergence angle is (60±5)°. However, our time-resolved 2D particle-in-cell simulations show the initial beam divergence to be much smaller (≤30°). Our simulations show the divergence to monotonically increase with time, reaching a final value of (68±7)° after the passage of the laser pulse, consistent with the experimental time-integrated measurements. By revealing the time-dependent nature of the LPI, we find that a substantial fraction of the laser energy (~7%) is transported up to 100 μm with a divergence of 32°.

  5. Fast silicon photomultiplier improves signal harvesting and reduces complexity in time-domain diffuse optics.

    PubMed

    Mora, Alberto Dalla; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Contini, Davide; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Durduran, Turgut; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We present a proof of concept prototype of a time-domain diffuse optics probe exploiting a fast Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM), featuring a timing resolution better than 80 ps, a fast tail with just 90 ps decay time-constant and a wide active area of 1 mm2. The detector is hosted into the probe and used in direct contact with the sample under investigation, thus providing high harvesting efficiency by exploiting the whole SiPM numerical aperture and also reducing complexity by avoiding the use of cumbersome fiber bundles. Our tests also demonstrate high accuracy and linearity in retrieving the optical properties and suitable contrast and depth sensitivity for detecting localized inhomogeneities. In addition to a strong improvement in both instrumentation cost and size with respect to legacy solutions, the setup performances are comparable to those of state-of-the-art time-domain instrumentation, thus opening a new way to compact, low-cost and high-performance time-resolved devices for diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy. PMID:26072763

  6. Characterizing a fast-response, low-afterglow liquid scintillator for neutron time-of-flight diagnostics in fast ignition experiments.

    PubMed

    Abe, Y; Hosoda, H; Arikawa, Y; Nagai, T; Kojima, S; Sakata, S; Inoue, H; Iwasa, Y; Iwano, K; Yamanoi, K; Fujioka, S; Nakai, M; Sarukura, N; Shiraga, H; Norimatsu, T; Azechi, H

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of oxygen-enriched liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are investigated and optimized for application to a single-hit neutron spectrometer for fast ignition experiments. It is found that 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene has better characteristics as a liquid scintillator solvent than the conventional solvent, p-xylene. In addition, a benzophenon-doped BBQ liquid scintillator is shown to demonstrate very rapid time response, and therefore has potential for further use in neutron diagnostics with fast time resolution. PMID:25430305

  7. Characterizing a fast-response, low-afterglow liquid scintillator for neutron time-of-flight diagnostics in fast ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Y. Hosoda, H.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Sakata, S.; Inoue, H.; Iwasa, Y.; Iwano, K.; Yamanoi, K.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Sarukura, N.; Shiraga, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.

    2014-11-15

    The characteristics of oxygen-enriched liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are investigated and optimized for application to a single-hit neutron spectrometer for fast ignition experiments. It is found that 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene has better characteristics as a liquid scintillator solvent than the conventional solvent, p-xylene. In addition, a benzophenon-doped BBQ liquid scintillator is shown to demonstrate very rapid time response, and therefore has potential for further use in neutron diagnostics with fast time resolution.

  8. Green`s function for a switched plasma medium and a perturbation technique for the study of wave propagation in a transient plasma with a small rise time

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    The main effect of switching a medium (creating a temporal discontinuity in the properties of a medium) is the splitting of the source (incident) wave into new waves whose frequencies are different. Lightning induced effects in the ionosphere cause a temporary enhancement of ionization. Such transient plasmas have a time-varying plasma frequency {omega}{sub p} (t) with a rise time T{sub r}. If the period t{sub 0} of a source wave existing before the transient effect begins is much larger than the rise time, the ionization change may be idealized as a sudden switching of the medium. The solution to this initial value problem with a step-change in the electron density profile is known and this profile will be considered as a reference profile. The topic of this paper is the solution of the initial value problem when t{sub 0} is comparable to the rise time T{sub r}. The initial motivation for investigating the problem is given below. There is considerable interest in the ionospheric physics community to investigate the recently discovered Sprites phenomenon which are red emissions in the lower D region induced by the lightning discharges from a cloud to the ground. The preliminary indications are that the Sprite is a plasma with electron density enhanced by about 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 3}/cc in a rise time of about 100 {micro}s.

  9. Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  10. Ultra-Fast Timing and the Application of High Energy Physics Technologies to Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Kao, Chien-Min; Xie, Quigguo; Frisch, Henry; Heinz, Mary; Sanders, Harold; Tang, Fukung; Anderson, John; Byrum, Karen; Drake, Gary; Heartly, Camden; Le Dû, Patrick; Royon, Christophe; Genat, Jean François; Va'Vra, Jerry

    2008-06-01

    We propose to apply the ultra fast Time Of Flight technique (TOF) developed for High Energy Physics (HEP) particle detectors to biomedical imaging. The similarity of the problem in the two fields as well as the remarkable opportunities in biomedical imaging to use technologies developed in HEP have the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We will describe and present some preliminary results of the development of a new complete read-out chain able to manage signals from various types of modern photo detectors (MCP, APD, SiPM). This innovative architecture is made of a fast front-end electronics ASIC with novel Digital Signal Processing (DSP) concepts able to reach the Pico-second timing resolution, a time-to-digital converter, a pipelined digital readout and an integrated trigger/filter with real-time data treatment and display. In parallel with the hardware development, we have begun a systematic program to simulate system characteristics from the initial particle interaction to the final digital data, including a bit-by-bit mapping of the front end/data acquisition system. The introduction of these techniques and tools, common in HEP, has the potential to make improvement to biomedical imaging systems.

  11. Wavelet-based fast time-resolved magnetic sensing with electronic spins in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nanyang; Jiang, Fengjian; Tian, Yu; Ye, Jianfeng; Shi, Fazhan; Lv, Haijiang; Wang, Ya; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved magnetic sensing is of great importance from fundamental studies to applications in physical and biological sciences. Recently, the nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond has been developed as a promising sensor of magnetic fields under ambient conditions. However, methods to reconstruct time-resolved magnetic fields with high sensitivity are not yet fully developed. Here, we propose and demonstrate a sensing method based on spin echo and Haar wavelet transformation. Our method is exponentially faster in reconstructing time-resolved magnetic fields with comparable sensitivity than existing methods. It is also easier to implement in experiments. Furthermore, the wavelet's unique features enable our method to extract information from the whole signal with only part of the measuring sequences. We then explore this feature for a fast detection of simulated nerve impulses. These results will be useful to time-resolved magnetic sensing with quantum probes at nanoscale.

  12. A Unified Constitutive Relationship for the Time-dependent Behavior of Fast Breeder Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    Constitutive equations based on classical concepts of creep and plasticity generally rest on the assumption that the inelastic strain can be decomposed into two distinct and additive contributions, one time dependent (creep) and the other time dependent (plastic). It is suggested that an approach is to adopt a unified representation in which creep and plasticity are characterized as occurring simultaneously and interactively and time is an essential ingredient throughout. Examples of the inherent time dependency exhibited by some fast breeder alloys at elevated temperature are rate dependency under monotonic and cyclic straining, thermal recovery and strong creep-elasticity interaction. The stron influence of the recent history of plastic straining on stress relaxation is shown.

  13. A fast-saliency method for real-time infrared small target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shengxiang; Xu, Guojing; Mou, Zhiying; Huang, Dayu; Zheng, Xueli

    2016-07-01

    Infrared small target detection plays an important role in applications including military reconnaissance, early warning and terminal guidance. In this paper, we present a fast method, called fast-saliency, with very low computational complexity, for real-time small target detection in single image frame under various complex backgrounds. Different from traditional algorithms, the proposed method is inspired by a recent research on visual saliency detection indicating that small salient signals could be well detected by a gradient enhancement operation combined with Gaussian smoothing, which is able to delineate regions of small targets in infrared images. Concisely, there are only four simple steps contained in fast-saliency. In order, they are gradient operation, square computation, Gaussian smoothing and automatic thresholding, representing the four procedures as highpass filtering, target enhancement, noise suppression and target segmentation, respectively. Especially, for the most crucial step, gradient operation, we innovatively propose a 5 × 5 facet kernel operator that holds the key for separating the small targets from backgrounds. To verify the effectiveness of our proposed method, a set of real infrared images covering typical backgrounds with sea, sky and ground clutters are tested in experiments. The results demonstrate that it outperforms the state-of-the-art methods not only in detection accuracy, but also in computation efficiency.

  14. SeptiFast real-time PCR for detection of bloodborne pathogens in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

    PubMed

    Markota, Andrej; Seme, Katja; Golle, Andrej; Poljak, Mario; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have been performed investigating the role of a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay LightCycler SeptiFast with inconsistent results. In prospective evaluation of adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock SeptiFast assay and blood culture results were compared regarding concordance, the impact of SeptiFast assay on antimicrobial therapy adjustment, time to results and the role of SeptiFast assay as a marker of disease severity. 63 blood sample sets were collected from 57 patients. 51 (80.9%) results were concordant negative and 7 (11.1%) concordant posi- tive. In one (1.6%) sample set blood culture was positive and SeptiFast assay negative, in three (4.8%) sample sets with negative blood cultures pathogens were detected by SeptiFast assay and in one (1.6%)patient an additional pathogen was detected by SeptiFast assay. If blood culture is considered as "gold standard", 1 (1.6%) SeptiFast false negative and 4 (6.3%) false positive results were identified (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 92.6%, negative predictive value 97.8%). Antibiotic treatment was adjusted according to SeptiFast assay in 4 (6.3%) cases. Time to final results was significantly shorter with SeptiFast assay (32 +/- 23 h vs. 97 +/- 28 h, p < 0.0001). Positive SeptiFast assay was not associated with higher mortality, C-reactive protein orprocalcitonin (p = 0.74, p = 0.44 and p = 0.12, respectively). According to our results SeptiFast assay can be used as a valuable add-on to blood culture in diagnostic workup ofpatients with severe sepsis and septic shock but it cannot replace the blood culture.

  15. Fast ground-state cooling of mechanical resonators with time-dependent optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wu, Lian-Ao; Wang, Z. D.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a feasible scheme to cool down a mechanical resonator (MR) in a three-mirror cavity optomechanical system with controllable external optical driving fields. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the whole dynamics of the mechanical resonator and cavities is reduced to that of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator, whose effective frequency can be controlled through the optical driving fields. The fast cooling of the MR can be realized by controlling the amplitude of the optical driving fields. Significantly, we further show that the ground-state cooling may be achieved via the three-mirror cavity optomechanical system without the resolved sideband condition.

  16. Fast real-time PCR for the detection of crustacean allergen in foods.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-02-29

    Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; there are various regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers. In the present work a fast real-time PCR, by a LNA probe, was developed. This allows the detection of crustaceans in all kinds of products, including processed products in which very aggressive treatments of temperature and pressure during the manufacturing process are used. This methodology provides greater sensitivity and specificity and reduces the analysis time of real-time PCR to 40 min. This methodology was further validated by means of simulating products likely to contain this allergen. For this, products present on the market were spiked with crustacean cooking water. The assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food security to protect the allergic consumer.

  17. Using Graphs for Fast Error Term Approximation of Time-varying Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Nuber, C; LaMar, E C; Pascucci, V; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2003-02-27

    We present a method for the efficient computation and storage of approximations of error tables used for error estimation of a region between different time steps in time-varying datasets. The error between two time steps is defined as the distance between the data of these time steps. Error tables are used to look up the error between different time steps of a time-varying dataset, especially when run time error computation is expensive. However, even the generation of error tables itself can be expensive. For n time steps, the exact error look-up table (which stores the error values for all pairs of time steps in a matrix) has a memory complexity and pre-processing time complexity of O(n2), and O(1) for error retrieval. Our approximate error look-up table approach uses trees, where the leaf nodes represent original time steps, and interior nodes contain an average (or best-representative) of the children nodes. The error computed on an edge of a tree describes the distance between the two nodes on that edge. Evaluating the error between two different time steps requires traversing a path between the two leaf nodes, and accumulating the errors on the traversed edges. For n time steps, this scheme has a memory complexity and pre-processing time complexity of O(nlog(n)), a significant improvement over the exact scheme; the error retrieval complexity is O(log(n)). As we do not need to calculate all possible n2 error terms, our approach is a fast way to generate the approximation.

  18. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S.; Marcu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence

  19. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Yankelevich, Diego R; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S; Marcu, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8-7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime

  20. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence

  1. Time-Space Decoupled Explicit Method for Fast Numerical Simulation of Tsunami Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Anxin; Xiao, Shengchao; Li, Hui

    2015-02-01

    This study presents a novel explicit numerical scheme for simulating tsunami propagation using the exact solution of the wave equations. The objective of this study is to develop a fast and stable numerical scheme by decoupling the wave equation in both the time and space domains. First, the finite difference scheme of the shallow-water equations for tsunami simulation are briefly introduced. The time-space decoupled explicit method based on the exact solution of the wave equation is given for the simulation of tsunami propagation without including frequency dispersive effects. Then, to consider wave dispersion, the second-order accurate numerical scheme to solve the shallow-water equations, which mimics the physical frequency dispersion with numerical dispersion, is derived. Lastly, the computation efficiency and the accuracy of the two types of numerical schemes are investigated by the 2004 Indonesia tsunami and the solution of the Boussinesq equation for a tsunami with Gaussian hump over both uniform and varying water depths. The simulation results indicate that the proposed numerical scheme can achieve a fast and stable tsunami propagation simulation while maintaining computation accuracy.

  2. Fast Real-Time PCR assay for detection of Tetramicra brevifilum in cultured turbot.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mercedes; Lago, Fátima C; Gómez-Reino, María; Fernández, Jacobo; Martín, Iris; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2013-03-01

    Global aquaculture production of turbot has rapidly increased worldwide in the last decade and it is expected to have even bigger growth in the next years due to new farms operating. The losses caused by pathogen infections have grown at the same time as the production of this species. Parasitological infections are among the main relevant pathologies associated with its culture and produce serious losses in aquaculture, reduce the growth rate in fish and may lead to unmarketable fish due to skeletal muscle abnormalities in cases with high intensity of infection. The microsporidian parasite Tetramicra brevifilum causes severe infections and generates major losses in farmed turbot. Infections are difficult to control due to spore longevity and its direct transmission. To facilitate the infection management, an effective tool for fast detection and identification of T. brevifilum is needed. This study provides a molecular methodology of fast Real-Time PCR for T. brevifilum detection to the aquaculture industry, useful for routine control of T. brevifilum at turbot farms. The method is characterized by its high specificity and sensitivity, and it can be applied to cultured turbot for parasite detection regardless of the life-cycle stage of the pathogen or the infection intensity.

  3. Fast neutron tomography with real-time pulse-shape discrimination in organic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Malcolm J.; Agar, Stewart; Aspinall, Michael D.; Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Colley, Edmund; Colling, Miriam; Dykes, Joseph; Kardasopoulos, Phoevos; Mitton, Katie

    2016-10-01

    A fast neutron tomography system based on the use of real-time pulse-shape discrimination in 7 organic liquid scintillation detectors is described. The system has been tested with a californium-252 source of dose rate 163 μSv/h at 1 m and neutron emission rate of 1.5×107 per second into 4π and a maximum acquisition time of 2 h, to characterize two 100×100×100 mm3 concrete samples. The first of these was a solid sample and the second has a vertical, cylindrical void. The experimental data, supported by simulations with both Monte Carlo methods and MATLAB®, indicate that the presence of the internal cylindrical void, corners and inhomogeneities in the samples can be discerned. The potential for fast neutron assay of this type with the capability to probe hydrogenous features in large low-Z samples is discussed. Neutron tomography of bulk porous samples is achieved that combines effective penetration not possible with thermal neutrons in the absence of beam hardening.

  4. Real-Time Robust Tracking for Motion Blur and Fast Motion via Correlation Filters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyun; Luo, Haibo; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Visual tracking has extensive applications in intelligent monitoring and guidance systems. Among state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, Correlation Filter methods perform favorably in robustness, accuracy and speed. However, it also has shortcomings when dealing with pervasive target scale variation, motion blur and fast motion. In this paper we proposed a new real-time robust scheme based on Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) to significantly improve performance on motion blur and fast motion. By fusing KCF and STC trackers, our algorithm also solve the estimation of scale variation in many scenarios. We theoretically analyze the problem for CFs towards motions and utilize the point sharpness function of the target patch to evaluate the motion state of target. Then we set up an efficient scheme to handle the motion and scale variation without much time consuming. Our algorithm preserves the properties of KCF besides the ability to handle special scenarios. In the end extensive experimental results on benchmark of VOT datasets show our algorithm performs advantageously competed with the top-rank trackers. PMID:27618046

  5. Real-Time Robust Tracking for Motion Blur and Fast Motion via Correlation Filters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyun; Luo, Haibo; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Visual tracking has extensive applications in intelligent monitoring and guidance systems. Among state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, Correlation Filter methods perform favorably in robustness, accuracy and speed. However, it also has shortcomings when dealing with pervasive target scale variation, motion blur and fast motion. In this paper we proposed a new real-time robust scheme based on Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) to significantly improve performance on motion blur and fast motion. By fusing KCF and STC trackers, our algorithm also solve the estimation of scale variation in many scenarios. We theoretically analyze the problem for CFs towards motions and utilize the point sharpness function of the target patch to evaluate the motion state of target. Then we set up an efficient scheme to handle the motion and scale variation without much time consuming. Our algorithm preserves the properties of KCF besides the ability to handle special scenarios. In the end extensive experimental results on benchmark of VOT datasets show our algorithm performs advantageously competed with the top-rank trackers. PMID:27618046

  6. Paving the seafloor: Volcanic emplacement processes during the 2005-2006 eruptions at the fast spreading East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fundis, A. T.; Soule, S. A.; Fornari, D. J.; Perfit, M. R.

    2010-08-01

    The 2005-2006 eruptions near 9°50'N at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) marked the first observed repeat eruption at a mid-ocean ridge and provided a unique opportunity to deduce the emplacement dynamics of submarine lava flows. Since these new flows were documented in April 2006, a total of 40 deep-towed imaging surveys have been conducted with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's (WHOI) TowCam system. More than 60,000 digital color images and high-resolution bathymetric profiles of the 2005-2006 flows from the TowCam surveys were analyzed for lava flow morphology and for the presence of kipukas, collapse features, faults and fissures. We use these data to quantify the spatial distributions of lava flow surface morphologies and to investigate how they relate to the physical characteristics of the ridge crest, such as seafloor slope, and inferred dynamics of flow emplacement. We conclude that lava effusion rate was the dominant factor controlling the observed morphological variations in the 2005-2006 flows. We also show that effusion rates were higher than in previously studied eruptions at this site and varied systematically along the length of the eruptive fissure. This is the first well-documented study in which variations in seafloor lava morphology can be directly related to a well documented ridge-crest eruption where effusion rate varied significantly.

  7. Who Gets a Mentor? A Longitudinal Assessment of the Rising Star Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Romila; Ragins, Belle Rose; Tharenou, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the rising star hypothesis, which proposes that individuals who are on the fast track to career success are more likely to gain mentors than others. The study used a sample of employees who had never been mentored and examined the relationship between rising star attributes measured at Time 1 and the attainment of a mentor a…

  8. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  9. Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

  10. Hydrothermal mineral deposits and fossil biota from a young (0.1 Ma) abyssal hill on the flank of the fast spreading East Pacific Rise: Evidence for pulsed hydrothermal flow and tectonic tapping of axial heat and fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Sara B.; Haymon, Rachel M.

    2006-05-01

    Heat flow data indicate that most hydrothermal heat loss from ocean lithosphere occurs on the flanks of the mid-ocean ridge, but few ridge flank hydrothermal sites are known. We describe the first nonseamount, abyssal hill hydrothermal mineral deposits to be recovered from the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) flanks. Deposits were sampled at two sites on an abyssal hill ˜5 km east of the EPR axis, just north of Clipperton Fracture Zone at 10°20'N, on ˜0.1 Ma lithosphere. "Tevnia Site" is on the axis-facing fault scarp of the hill, and "Ochre Site" is located ˜950 m farther east near the base of the outward-facing slope. Clusters of fragile, biodegradable Tevnia worm tubes at both sites indicate that hydrothermal fluids carried sufficient H2S to sustain Tevnia worms, and that fluid flow waned too recently to allow time for tube destruction. Presence of microbial mats and other biota also are consistent with recent waning of flow. The deposits are mineralogically zoned, from nontronite-celadonite to hydrous Fe-oxide+opaline silica to Mn-oxide (birnessite and todorokite). This places them into a distinctive class of Fe-Si-Mn hydrothermal deposits found along tectonic cracks and faults in young oceanic crust, and suggests that (1) deposits precipitated along an O2 gradient between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid; (2) fluid temperatures were <150°C and (3) undiluted fluids were Mg-depleted, and Fe-, K-, Si- and Mn-enriched. These fluids may derive from high temperature seawater-basalt interaction ± phase separation proximal to the axial melt zone, and lose Cu and Zn before venting due to conductive cooling and/or pH increase. Ochre Site samples are purely hydrothermal; however, Tevnia Site samples incorporate volcanic, sedimentary, and fossil components, and exhibit at least three generations of fracturing and hydrothermal cementation. The Tevnia Site breccias accumulated on the exposed fault scarp, possibly during multiple slip events and

  11. A laser diode based system for calibration of fast time-of-flight detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; de Bari, A.; Rossella, M.

    2016-05-01

    A system based on commercially available items, such as a laser diode, emitting in the visible range ~ 400 nm, and multimode fiber patches, fused fiber splitters and optical switches may be assembled, for time calibration of multi-channels time-of-flight (TOF) detectors with photomultipliers' (PMTs') readout. As available laser diode sources have unfortunately limited peak power, the main experimental problem is the tight light power budget of such a system. In addition, while the technology for fused fiber splitters is common in the Telecom wavelength range (λ ~ 850, 1300-1500 nm), it is not easily available in the visible one. Therefore, extensive laboratory tests had to be done on purpose, to qualify the used optical components, and a full scale timing calibration prototype was built. Obtained results show that with such a system, a calibration resolution (σ) in the range 20-30 ps may be within reach. Therefore, fast multi-channels TOF detectors, with timing resolutions in the range 50-100 ps, may be easily calibrated in time. Results on tested optical components may be of interest also for time calibration of different light detection systems based on PMTs, as the ones used for detection of the vacuum ultraviolet scintillation light emitted by ionizing particles in large LAr TPCs.

  12. A laser diode based system for calibration of fast time-of-flight detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; de Bari, A.; Rossella, M.

    2016-05-01

    A system based on commercially available items, such as a laser diode, emitting in the visible range ~ 400 nm, and multimode fiber patches, fused fiber splitters and optical switches may be assembled, for time calibration of multi-channels time-of-flight (TOF) detectors with photomultipliers' (PMTs') readout. As available laser diode sources have unfortunately limited peak power, the main experimental problem is the tight light power budget of such a system. In addition, while the technology for fused fiber splitters is common in the Telecom wavelength range (λ ~ 850, 1300–1500 nm), it is not easily available in the visible one. Therefore, extensive laboratory tests had to be done on purpose, to qualify the used optical components, and a full scale timing calibration prototype was built. Obtained results show that with such a system, a calibration resolution (σ) in the range 20–30 ps may be within reach. Therefore, fast multi-channels TOF detectors, with timing resolutions in the range 50–100 ps, may be easily calibrated in time. Results on tested optical components may be of interest also for time calibration of different light detection systems based on PMTs, as the ones used for detection of the vacuum ultraviolet scintillation light emitted by ionizing particles in large LAr TPCs.

  13. Differential time course of liver and kidney glucose-6 phosphatase activity during long-term fasting in rat correlates with differential time course of messenger RNA level.

    PubMed

    Minassian, C; Zitoun, C; Mithieux, G

    1996-02-01

    We have studied the role of Glc6Pase mRNA abundance in the time course of Glc6Pase activity in liver and kidney during long-term fasting in rat. Refered to the mRNA level in the fed state, Glc6Pase mRNA abundance was increased by 3.5 +/- 0.5 and 3.7 +/- 0.5 times (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 5) in the 24 h and 48 h-fasted liver, respectively. Then, the liver Glc6Pase mRNA was decreased to the level of the fed liver after 72 and 96 h of fasting (1.0 +/- 0.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.3). In the kidney, Glc6Pase mRNA abundance was increased by 2.7 +/- 1.0 and 5 +/- 1.2 times at 24 and 48 h of fasting, respectively. Then, it plateaued at the level of the 48 h fasted kidney after 72 h and 96 h of fasting (4.5 +/- 1.0 and 4.3 +/- 1.0). After 24 and 48 h-refeeding, the abundance of Glc6Pase mRNA in 48 h-fasted rats was decreased to the level found in the liver and kidney of fed rats. The time course of the activity of Glc6Pase catalytic subunit during fasting and refeeding was strikingly parallel to the time course of Glc6Pase mRNA level in respective tissues. These data strongly suggest that the differential expression of Glc6Pase activity in liver and kidney in the course of fasting may be accounted for by the respective time course of mRNA abundance in both organs. PMID:8717437

  14. Effects of Ramadan on physical capacities of North African boys fasting for the first time

    PubMed Central

    Fenneni, Mohamed A.; Latiri, Imed; Aloui, Asma; Rouatbi, Sonia; Saafi, Mohamed A.; Bougmiza, Iheb; Chamari, Karim; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most of the literature related to the effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance has focused on adults, and only three studies have examined its impact on children’s physical performance. Aims To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on first-time fasting boys’ performance in short-term explosive exercises [vertical and horizontal jump tests (VJT and HJT), 20-m and 30-m sprints and medicine-ball throw (MBT)], as well as in sub-maximal endurance [6-min walking distance (6MWD) measured during the 6-min walk test (6MWT)]. Methods Eighteen Tunisian boys [mean±standard deviation (SD) of age and body mass (BM): 11.9±0.8 y and 55.4±18.2 kg, respectively] were included. The experimental design comprised four testing phases: 2-weeks before Ramadan (BR), the end of the second week (R2) and the fourth week (R4) of Ramadan, and 10–12 days after the end of Ramadan (AR). At each phase, boys performed two test sessions in the afternoon (15:00–17:00 h) interrupted by 48 h of recovery (first test session: BM, VJT, HJT, and 20-m and 30-m sprint tests; second session: MBT and 6MWT). The study was conducted during the summer of 2012 from July 5 to August 29. Results 6MWDs (m) were significantly shorter during R2 (652±101) and R4 (595±123) compared to BR (697±86) and came back to baseline values AR. BM (kg) mean±SD did not significantly change during R2 (52±15) and during R4 (53±15) compared to BR (55±17), and short-term explosive performances were unchanged throughout the study. Conclusion In non-athletic children, first-ever Ramadan fasting impairs sub-maximal aerobic capacity but has no effect on BM or short-term explosive performance. PMID:25261691

  15. Temporal Gillespie Algorithm: Fast Simulation of Contagion Processes on Time-Varying Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Christian L.; Génois, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic simulations are one of the cornerstones of the analysis of dynamical processes on complex networks, and are often the only accessible way to explore their behavior. The development of fast algorithms is paramount to allow large-scale simulations. The Gillespie algorithm can be used for fast simulation of stochastic processes, and variants of it have been applied to simulate dynamical processes on static networks. However, its adaptation to temporal networks remains non-trivial. We here present a temporal Gillespie algorithm that solves this problem. Our method is applicable to general Poisson (constant-rate) processes on temporal networks, stochastically exact, and up to multiple orders of magnitude faster than traditional simulation schemes based on rejection sampling. We also show how it can be extended to simulate non-Markovian processes. The algorithm is easily applicable in practice, and as an illustration we detail how to simulate both Poissonian and non-Markovian models of epidemic spreading. Namely, we provide pseudocode and its implementation in C++ for simulating the paradigmatic Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered models and a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model with non-constant recovery rates. For empirical networks, the temporal Gillespie algorithm is here typically from 10 to 100 times faster than rejection sampling. PMID:26517860

  16. A fast density-based clustering algorithm for real-time Internet of Things stream.

    PubMed

    Amini, Amineh; Saboohi, Hadi; Wah, Teh Ying; Herawan, Tutut

    2014-01-01

    Data streams are continuously generated over time from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The faster all of this data is analyzed, its hidden trends and patterns discovered, and new strategies created, the faster action can be taken, creating greater value for organizations. Density-based method is a prominent class in clustering data streams. It has the ability to detect arbitrary shape clusters, to handle outlier, and it does not need the number of clusters in advance. Therefore, density-based clustering algorithm is a proper choice for clustering IoT streams. Recently, several density-based algorithms have been proposed for clustering data streams. However, density-based clustering in limited time is still a challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a density-based clustering algorithm for IoT streams. The method has fast processing time to be applicable in real-time application of IoT devices. Experimental results show that the proposed approach obtains high quality results with low computation time on real and synthetic datasets.

  17. A Fast Density-Based Clustering Algorithm for Real-Time Internet of Things Stream

    PubMed Central

    Ying Wah, Teh

    2014-01-01

    Data streams are continuously generated over time from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The faster all of this data is analyzed, its hidden trends and patterns discovered, and new strategies created, the faster action can be taken, creating greater value for organizations. Density-based method is a prominent class in clustering data streams. It has the ability to detect arbitrary shape clusters, to handle outlier, and it does not need the number of clusters in advance. Therefore, density-based clustering algorithm is a proper choice for clustering IoT streams. Recently, several density-based algorithms have been proposed for clustering data streams. However, density-based clustering in limited time is still a challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a density-based clustering algorithm for IoT streams. The method has fast processing time to be applicable in real-time application of IoT devices. Experimental results show that the proposed approach obtains high quality results with low computation time on real and synthetic datasets. PMID:25110753

  18. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    Wide-band signals play important roles in the most exciting areas of science, engineering, and medicine. To keep up with the demands of exploding internet traffic, modern data centers and communication networks are employing increasingly faster data rates. Wide-band techniques such as pulsed radar jamming and spread spectrum frequency hopping are used on the battlefield to wrestle control of the electromagnetic spectrum. Neurons communicate with each other using transient action potentials that last for only milliseconds at a time. And in the search for rare cells, biologists flow large populations of cells single file down microfluidic channels, interrogating them one-by-one, tens of thousands of times per second. Studying and enabling such high-speed phenomena pose enormous technical challenges. For one, parasitic capacitance inherent in analog electrical components limits their response time. Additionally, converting these fast analog signals to the digital domain requires enormous sampling speeds, which can lead to significant jitter and distortion. State-of-the-art imaging technologies, essential for studying biological dynamics and cells in flow, are limited in speed and sensitivity by finite charge transfer and read rates, and by the small numbers of photo-electrons accumulated in short integration times. And finally, ultra-high throughput real-time digital processing is required at the backend to analyze the streaming data. In this thesis, I discuss my work in developing real-time instruments, employing ultrafast optical techniques, which overcome some of these obstacles. In particular, I use broadband dispersive optics to slow down fast signals to speeds accessible to high-bit depth digitizers and signal processors. I also apply telecommunication multiplexing techniques to boost the speeds of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The photonic time stretcher (TiSER) uses dispersive Fourier transformation to slow down analog signals before digitization and

  19. Ciguatera Incidence in the US Virgin Islands Has Not Increased over a 30-Year Time Period Despite Rising Seawater Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Cook, Robert L.; Smith, Tyler B.; Anderson, Donald M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature. PMID:23400575

  20. [Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time in cavity ring-down spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Ren-Zhi; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Ling, Liu-Yi; Duan, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Research is conducted to accurate and efficient algorithms for extracting ring-down time (r) in cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) which is used to measure NO3 radical in the atmosphere. Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time guarantees more precise and higher speed of measurement. In this research, five kinds of commonly used algorithms are selected to extract ring-down time which respectively are fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm, linear regression of the sum (LRS) algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and least squares (LS) algorithm. Simulated ring-down signals with various amplitude levels of white noises are fitted by using five kinds of the above-mentioned algorithms, and comparison and analysis is conducted to the fitting results of five kinds of algorithms from four respects: the vulnerability to noises, the accuracy and precision of the fitting, the speed of the fitting and preferable fitting ring-down signal waveform length The research results show that Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and linear regression of the sum algorithm are able to provide more precise results and prove to have higher noises immunity, and by comparison, the fitting speed of Leven- berg-Marquardt algorithm turns out to be slower. In addition, by analysis of simulated ring-down signals, five to ten times of ring-down time is selected to be the best fitting waveform length because in this case, standard deviation of fitting results of five kinds of algorithms proves to be the minimum. External modulation diode laser and cavity which consists of two high reflectivity mirrors are used to construct a cavity ring-down spectroscopy detection system. According to our experimental conditions, in which the noise level is 0.2%, linear regression of the sum algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm are selected to process experimental data. The experimental results show that the accuracy and precision of linear regression of

  1. Program for the analysis of time series. [by means of fast Fourier transform algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. J.; Brown, C. G.; Hardin, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer program for the Fourier analysis of discrete time data is described. The program was designed to handle multiple channels of digitized data on general purpose computer systems. It is written, primarily, in a version of FORTRAN 2 currently in use on CDC 6000 series computers. Some small portions are written in CDC COMPASS, an assembler level code. However, functional descriptions of these portions are provided so that the program may be adapted for use on any facility possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random-access capability. Properly formatted digital data are windowed and analyzed by means of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to generate the following functions: (1) auto and/or cross power spectra, (2) autocorrelations and/or cross correlations, (3) Fourier coefficients, (4) coherence functions, (5) transfer functions, and (6) histograms.

  2. Implementation of a fast time-domain processor for FMCW Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frioud, Max; Wellig, Peter; Stanko, Stephan; Meier, Erich

    2015-10-01

    For the purpose of getting sensitive information relevant to civil or military security, high-resolution airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides the possibility to organize missions at short notice regardless of the daylight and of the weather conditions. The use of compact millimeter-wave FMCW SAR systems allows reaching these goals more safely and at lower cost using unmanned lightweight platforms. As a counterpart these platforms are relatively unstable, making the data-processing more difficult. In order to reach optimum focusing quality also in unfavorable flight conditions or for highly non-linear tracks we developed a fast Time-Domain Processor that relies on parallelization using the GPU resources. A production areal processing rate as high as 6 km2/h using 20 cm ground pixel spacing on a single PC station was achieved. The processing quality and efficiency is demonstrated using real data from the MIRANDA35 Ka-band SAR system.

  3. Fast state estimation subject to random data loss in discrete-time nonlinear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi Alavi, S. M.; Saif, Mehrdad

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on the design of the standard observer in discrete-time nonlinear stochastic systems subject to random data loss. By the assumption that the system response is incrementally bounded, two sufficient conditions are subsequently derived that guarantee exponential mean-square stability and fast convergence of the estimation error for the problem at hand. An efficient algorithm is also presented to obtain the observer gain. Finally, the proposed methodology is employed for monitoring the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) via a wireless communication network. The effectiveness of the designed observer is extensively assessed by using an experimental tested-bed that has been fabricated for performance evaluation of the over wireless-network estimation techniques under realistic radio channel conditions.

  4. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Models Using Denver 2006 Field Experiment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nash’at N.; Pruis, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of wake vortex field experiments at Denver in 2003, 2005, and 2006. This paper describes the lidar wake vortex measurements and associated meteorological data collected during the 2006 deployment, and includes results of recent reprocessing of the lidar data using a new wake vortex algorithm and estimates of the atmospheric turbulence using a new algorithm to estimate eddy dissipation rate from the lidar data. The configuration and set-up of the 2006 field experiment allowed out-of-ground effect vortices to be tracked in lateral transport further than any previous campaign and thereby provides an opportunity to study long-lived wake vortices in moderate to low crosswinds. An evaluation of NASA's fast-time wake vortex transport and decay models using the dataset shows similar performance as previous studies using other field data.

  5. 7Li-induced reactions for fast-timing with LaBr3:Ce detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P. J. R.; Podolyàk, Zs.; Mǎrginean, N.; Regan, P. H.; Alexander, T.; Algora, A.; Alharbi, T.; Bowry, M.; Britton, R.; Bucurescu, D.; Bruce, A. M.; Bunce, M.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Cǎta-Danil, I.; Cooper, N.; Deleanu, D.; Delion, D.; Filipescu, D.; Gelletly, W.; Glodariu, T.; Gheorghe, I.; Ghiťǎ, D.; Ilie, G.; Ivanova, D.; Kisyov, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Lica, R.; Liddick, S. N.; Mǎrginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mulholland, K.; Negret, A.; Nita, C. R.; Rice, S.; Roberts, O. J.; Sava, T.; Smith, J. F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stevenson, P. D.; Stroe, L.; Toma, S.; Townsley, C.; Werner, V.; Wilson, E.; Wood, R. T.; Zamfir, N. V.; Zhekova, M.

    2012-10-01

    7Li induced-reactions have been used with a 186W target to populate nuclei around A˜180-190 at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest, Romania. An array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) and cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) detectors have been used to measure sub-nanosecond half-lives with fast-timing techniques. The yrast 2+ state in 190Os was measured to be t1/2 = 375(20)ps, in excellent agreement with the literature value. The previously unreported half-life of the 564-keV state in 189Ir has also been measured and a value of t1/2 = 540(100)ps ps obtained.

  6. High rate, fast timing Glass RPC for the high η CMS muon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagarde, F.; Gouzevitch, M.; Laktineh, I.; Buridon, V.; Chen, X.; Combaret, C.; Eynard, A.; Germani, L.; Grenier, G.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Wang, Y.; Gong, A.; Moreau, N.; de la Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Rios, A. A. O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Van Doninck, W.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kumari, R.; Mehta, A.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, H. M. I.; Awan, I. M.; Hoorani, R.; Muhammad, S.; Shahzad, H.; Shah, M. A.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S. Y.; Hong, B.; Kang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lim, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Kim, M. S.; Carpinteyro Bernardino, S.; Pedraza, I.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pant, L. M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Lanza, G.; Orso, I.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bagaturia, I.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J. C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.

    2016-09-01

    The HL-LHC phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. To achieve this goal in a reasonable time scale the instantaneous luminosity would also increase by an order of magnitude up to 6 · 1034 cm‑2s‑1. The region of the forward muon spectrometer (|η| > 1.6) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles flux up to 2 kHz/cm2 (including a safety factor 3) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The current CMS RPC technology cannot sustain the expected background level. The new technology that will be chosen should have a high rate capability and provide a good spatial and timing resolution. A new generation of Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low-resistivity glass is proposed to equip at least the two most far away of the four high η muon stations of CMS. First the design of small size prototypes and studies of their performance in high-rate particles flux are presented. Then the proposed designs for large size chambers and their fast-timing electronic readout are examined and preliminary results are provided.

  7. High rate, fast timing Glass RPC for the high η CMS muon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagarde, F.; Gouzevitch, M.; Laktineh, I.; Buridon, V.; Chen, X.; Combaret, C.; Eynard, A.; Germani, L.; Grenier, G.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Wang, Y.; Gong, A.; Moreau, N.; de la Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Rios, A. A. O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Van Doninck, W.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kumari, R.; Mehta, A.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, H. M. I.; Awan, I. M.; Hoorani, R.; Muhammad, S.; Shahzad, H.; Shah, M. A.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S. Y.; Hong, B.; Kang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lim, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Kim, M. S.; Carpinteyro Bernardino, S.; Pedraza, I.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pant, L. M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Lanza, G.; Orso, I.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bagaturia, I.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J. C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.

    2016-09-01

    The HL-LHC phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. To achieve this goal in a reasonable time scale the instantaneous luminosity would also increase by an order of magnitude up to 6 · 1034 cm-2s-1. The region of the forward muon spectrometer (|η| > 1.6) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles flux up to 2 kHz/cm2 (including a safety factor 3) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The current CMS RPC technology cannot sustain the expected background level. The new technology that will be chosen should have a high rate capability and provide a good spatial and timing resolution. A new generation of Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low-resistivity glass is proposed to equip at least the two most far away of the four high η muon stations of CMS. First the design of small size prototypes and studies of their performance in high-rate particles flux are presented. Then the proposed designs for large size chambers and their fast-timing electronic readout are examined and preliminary results are provided.

  8. A Fast-Time Study of Aircraft Reordering in Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Neuman, Frank; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    on estimated times of arrival, it does not take into account individual airline priorities among incoming flights. NASA is exploring the possibility of allowing airlines to express relative arrival priorities to air traffic management through the development of new CTAS scheduling algorithms which take into consideration airline arrival preferences. The accommodation of airline priorities in arrival sequencing and scheduling would under most circumstances result in a deviation from a "natural" or FCFS arrival order. As a First step toward developing airline influenced sequencing algorithms, an investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of reordering arrival traffic from a strict FCFS sequence. A fast-time simulation has been developed which allows statistical evaluation of sequencing and scheduling algorithms for arrival traffic at the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. In contrast to real-time simulation or field tests, which would require on the order of ninety minutes to examine a single traffic rush period, the fast-time simulation allows examination of multiple rush periods in a matter of seconds.

  9. High time resolution electron measurement by Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer (FESA)

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Shinohara, Iku; Tsuda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Shintaro; Kojima, Hirotsugu

    2009-06-16

    We have newly developed an electron energy analyzer FESA (Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer) for a future magnetospheric satellite mission SCOPE. The SCOPE mission is designed in order that observational studies from the cross-scale coupling viewpoint are enabled. One of the key observations necessary for the SCOPE mission is high-time resolution electron measurement. Eight FESAs on a spinning spacecraft are capable of measuring three dimensional electron distribution function with time resolution of 8 msec. FESA consists of two electrostatic analyzers that are composed of three nested hemispherical deflectors. Single FESA functions as four top-hat type electrostatic analyzers that can measure electrons with four different energies simultaneously. By measuring the characteristics of the test model FESA, we proved the validity of the design concept of FESA. Based on the measured characteristics, we designed FESA optimized for the SCOPE mission. This optimized analyzer has good enough performance to measure three dimensional electron distribution functions around the magnetic reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail.

  10. Computationally Efficient Partial Crosstalk Cancellation in Fast Time-Varying DSL Crosstalk Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forouzan, Amir R.; Garth, Lee M.

    2007-12-01

    Line selection (LS), tone selection (TS), and joint tone-line selection (JTLS) partial crosstalk cancellers have been proposed to reduce the online computational complexity of far-end crosstalk (FEXT) cancellers in digital subscriber lines (DSL). However, when the crosstalk profile changes rapidly over time, there is an additional requirement that the partial crosstalk cancellers, particularly the LS and JTLS schemes, should also provide a low preprocessing complexity. This is in contrast to the case for perfect crosstalk cancellers. In this paper, we propose two novel channel matrix inversion methods, the approximate inverse (AI) and reduced inverse (RI) schemes, which reduce the recurrent complexity of the LS and JTLS schemes. Moreover, we propose two new classes of JTLS algorithms, the subsort and Lagrange JTLS algorithms, with significantly lower computational complexity than the recently proposed optimal greedy JTLS scheme. The computational complexity analysis of our algorithms shows that they provide much lower recurrent complexities than the greedy JTLS algorithm, allowing them to work efficiently in very fast time-varying crosstalk environments. Moreover, the analytical and simulation results demonstrate that our techniques are close to the optimal solution from the crosstalk cancellation point of view. The results also reveal that partial crosstalk cancellation is more beneficial in upstream DSL, particularly for short loops.

  11. Circinus X-1 revisited: Fast-timing properties in relation to spectral state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oosterbroek, T.; Van Der Klis, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray spectral and fast-timing variations of Cir X-1 by performing a homogenous analysis of all EXOSAT ME data on this source using X-ray hardness-intensity diagrams (HIDs), color-color diagrams (CDs), and power spectra. Cir X-1 exhibits a wide range of power spectral shapes and a large variety in X-ray spectral shapes. At different epochs the power spectra variously resemble those of an atoll source, a Z source, a black-hole candidate, or are unlike any of these. At some epochs one-dimensional connected-branch patterns are seen in HID and CD, and at other times more complex structures are found. We interpret the complex behavior of Cir X-1 in terms of a model where accretion rate, orbital phase and epoch are the main determinants of the source behavior, and where the unique properties of the source are due to two special circumstances: (1) the source is the only known atoll source (accreting neutron star with a very low magnetic field) that can reach the Eddington critical accretion rate, and (2) it has a unique, highly eccentric and probably precessing orbit. Property (1) makes Cir X-1 a very important source for our understanding of the similarities in the observable properties of neutron stars and black holes as it allows to separate out black hole signatures from properties that are merely due to the presence of accretion compact with a low magnetic field.

  12. Time-efficient fast spin echo imaging at 4.7 T with low refocusing angles.

    PubMed

    Lebel, R Marc; Wilman, Alan H

    2009-07-01

    An implementation of fast spin echo at 4.7 T designed for versatile and time-efficient T(2)-weighted imaging of the human brain is presented. Reduced refocusing angles (alpha < 180 degrees) were employed to overcome specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints and their effects on image quality assessed. Image intensity and tissue contrast variations from heterogeneous RF transmit fields and incidental magnetization transfer effects were investigated at reduced refocusing angles. We found that intraslice signal variations are minimized with refocusing angles near 180 degrees, but apparent gray/white matter contrast is independent of refocusing angle. Incidental magnetization transfer effects from multislice acquisitions were shown to attenuate white matter intensity by 25% and gray matter intensity by 15% at 180 degrees; less than 5% attenuation was seen in all tissues at flip angles below 60 degrees. We present multislice images acquired without excess delay time for SAR mitigation using a variety of protocols. Subsecond half Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images were obtained with a novel variable refocusing angle echo train (20 degrees < alpha < 58 degrees) and high-resolution scans with a voxel volume of 0.18 mm(3) were acquired in 6.5 min with refocusing angles of 100 degrees.

  13. A real-time fast radio burst: polarization detection and multiwavelength follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, E.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Barsdell, B. R.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bian, F.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Champion, D.; Chandra, P.; Da Costa, G.; Delvaux, C.; Flynn, C.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Keane, E. F.; Keller, S.; Kocz, J.; Kramer, M.; Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Ng, C.; Ofek, E. O.; Perley, D. A.; Possenti, A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Shen, Yue; Stappers, B.; Tisserand, P.; van Straten, W.; Wolf, C.

    2015-02-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are one of the most tantalizing mysteries of the radio sky; their progenitors and origins remain unknown and until now no rapid multiwavelength follow-up of an FRB has been possible. New instrumentation has decreased the time between observation and discovery from years to seconds, and enables polarimetry to be performed on FRBs for the first time. We have discovered an FRB (FRB 140514) in real-time on 2014 May 14 at 17:14:11.06 UTC at the Parkes radio telescope and triggered follow-up at other wavelengths within hours of the event. FRB 140514 was found with a dispersion measure (DM) of 562.7(6) cm-3 pc, giving an upper limit on source redshift of z ≲ 0.5. FRB 140514 was found to be 21 ± 7 per cent (3σ) circularly polarized on the leading edge with a 1σ upper limit on linear polarization <10 per cent. We conclude that this polarization is intrinsic to the FRB. If there was any intrinsic linear polarization, as might be expected from coherent emission, then it may have been depolarized by Faraday rotation caused by passing through strong magnetic fields and/or high-density environments. FRB 140514 was discovered during a campaign to re-observe known FRB fields, and lies close to a previous discovery, FRB 110220; based on the difference in DMs of these bursts and time-on-sky arguments, we attribute the proximity to sampling bias and conclude that they are distinct objects. Follow-up conducted by 12 telescopes observing from X-ray to radio wavelengths was unable to identify a variable multiwavelength counterpart, allowing us to rule out models in which FRBs originate from nearby (z < 0.3) supernovae and long duration gamma-ray bursts.

  14. Radiative tearing - Magnetic reconnection on a fast thermal-instability time scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Van Hoven, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two energy modification mechanisms which are known to occur in sheared magnetic fields are the tearing and thermal instabilities. These processes can be studied separately with formalisms incorporating just the effective driving mechanism of interest (finite resistivity for the tearing mode and unstable radiation for the thermal mode). A model which includes both effects, and a temperature-dependent resistivity, indicates that modified forms of these two instabilities may coexist for identical physical conditions. When they are isolated computationally, one can show that their limiting growth rates are approximately those of the uncoupled instabilities. The spatial structure and energy content of these two new hybrid processes are then individually examined and are found to differ considerably from those obtained from separate treatments of the driving mechanisms. The faster radiative instability, which has a hydromagnetically scaled growth rate like the condensation mode of the thermal instability, is shown to involve a substantial amount of magnetic field reconnection. This can be partially explained by a large temperature drop (or resistivity rise) at the X-point. The island width of the Coulomb-coupled radiative mode is 30 percent of that produced by a comparable level of the slower tearing instability. In addition, the perturbed magnetic energy in the radiative instability is 5 times that of the perturbed thermal energy, indicating an appreciable modification of the initial magnetic structure.

  15. Objective assessment of drowsiness and reaction time during intermittent Ramadan fasting in young men: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ramadan fasting and its attendant lifestyle changes induce changes in the circadian rhythm and in associated physiological and metabolic functions. Previous studies that have assessed psychomotor performance during Ramadan fasting have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of intermittent fasting during and outside Ramadan (to control for lifestyle changes) on drowsiness, blink total duration and mean reaction time (MRT) test while controlling for potential confounders. Methods Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.3 ± 2.9 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2 reported to the sleep laboratory on four occasions for polysomnography (PSG) and drowsiness and psychomotor assessments as follows: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing the Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan). OPTALERT™ was used to objectively assess daytime drowsiness using the Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS), and blink total duration and a visual reaction time test were used to assess MRT. Results Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly lower at BLF (17.7 ± 8.1%) and at Ramadan (18.6 ± 10.7%) compared with BL (25.6 ± 4.8%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between JDS scores and blink total duration during the two test periods in BL, BLF and Ramadan. There were no significant changes in MRT during BL, BLF and Ramadan. Conclusions Under controlled conditions of fixed light/dark exposure, caloric intake, sleep/wake schedule and sleep quality, the Islamic intermittent fasting has no impact on drowsiness and vigilance as measured by the JDS, total blink duration and MRT. PMID:23937904

  16. Real-time 3D medical structure segmentation using fast evolving active contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Wang, Qiang; Hao, Zhihui; Xu, Kuanhong; Guo, Ping; Ren, Haibing; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Jung-bae

    2014-03-01

    Segmentation of 3D medical structures in real-time is an important as well as intractable problem for clinical applications due to the high computation and memory cost. We propose a novel fast evolving active contour model in this paper to reduce the requirements of computation and memory. The basic idea is to evolve the brief represented dynamic contour interface as far as possible per iteration. Our method encodes zero level set via a single unordered list, and evolves the list recursively by adding activated adjacent neighbors to its end, resulting in active parts of the zero level set moves far enough per iteration along with list scanning. To guarantee the robustness of this process, a new approximation of curvature for integer valued level set is proposed as the internal force to penalize the list smoothness and restrain the list continual growth. Besides, list scanning times are also used as an upper hard constraint to control the list growing. Together with the internal force, efficient regional and constrained external forces, whose computations are only performed along the unordered list, are also provided to attract the list toward object boundaries. Specially, our model calculates regional force only in a narrowband outside the zero level set and can efficiently segment multiple regions simultaneously as well as handle the background with multiple components. Compared with state-of-the-art algorithms, our algorithm is one-order of magnitude faster with similar segmentation accuracy and can achieve real-time performance for the segmentation of 3D medical structures on a standard PC.

  17. Limits on fast radio bursts at 145 MHz with ARTEMIS, a real-time software backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karastergiou, A.; Chennamangalam, J.; Armour, W.; Williams, C.; Mort, B.; Dulwich, F.; Salvini, S.; Magro, A.; Roberts, S.; Serylak, M.; Doo, A.; Bilous, A. V.; Breton, R. P.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Keane, E. F.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.

    2015-09-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 h survey for FRBs at 145 MHz, covering a total of 4193 deg2 on the sky. We used the UK station of the low frequency array (LOFAR) radio telescope - the Rawlings Array - accompanied for a majority of the time by the LOFAR station at Nançay, observing the same fields at the same frequency. Our real-time search backend, Advanced Radio Transient Event Monitor and Identification System - ARTEMIS, utilizes graphics processing units to search for pulses with dispersion measures up to 320 cm-3 pc. Previous derived FRB rates from surveys around 1.4 GHz, and favoured FRB interpretations, motivated this survey, despite all previous detections occurring at higher dispersion measures. We detected no new FRBs above a signal-to-noise threshold of 10, leading to the most stringent upper limit yet on the FRB event rate at these frequencies: 29 sky-1 d-1 for five ms-duration pulses above 62 Jy. The non-detection could be due to scatter-broadening, limitations on the volume and time searched, or the shape of FRB flux density spectra. Assuming the latter and that FRBs are standard candles, the non-detection is compatible with the published FRB sky rate, if their spectra follow a power law with frequency (∝ να), with α ≳ +0.1, demonstrating a marked difference from pulsar spectra. Our results suggest that surveys at higher frequencies, including the low frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array, will have better chances to detect, estimate rates and understand the origin and properties of FRBs.

  18. "Their Rising Voices": A Study of Civil Rights, Social Movements, and Advertising in the "New York Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan Dente

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on social movements, the strategic use of advertising, and journalism by documenting strategic use of advertising in the "New York Times" by the civil rights movement between 1955 and 1961. Finds that the ads framed the civil rights movement to prime the audience to receive radical messages from marginalized speakers.…

  19. Extended Time as a Testing Accommodation for Students with Reading Disabilities: Does a Rising Tide Lift All Ships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    Testing accommodations have become a common component of services for students with disabilities at all levels of education. This study examined the effect of a common testing accommodation--extended time--on the reading comprehension test performance of high school students. Sixty-four students, half of whom had learning disabilities (LDs) in the…

  20. Sampling frequency, response times and embedded signal filtration in fast, high efficiency liquid chromatography: A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Wahab, M Farooq; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kadjo, Akinde F; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-02-11

    With increasingly efficient columns, eluite peaks are increasingly narrower. To take full advantage of this, choice of the detector response time and the data acquisition rate a.k.a. detector sampling frequency, have become increasingly important. In this work, we revisit the concept of data sampling from the theorem variously attributed to Whittaker, Nyquist, Kotelnikov, and Shannon. Focusing on time scales relevant to the current practice of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and optical absorbance detection (the most commonly used method), even for very narrow simulated peaks Fourier transformation shows that theoretical minimum sampling frequency is still relatively low (<10 Hz). However, this consideration alone may not be adequate for real chromatograms when an appreciable amount of noise is present. Further, depending on the instrument, the manufacturer's choice of a particular data bunching/integration/response time condition may be integrally coupled to the sampling frequency. In any case, the exact nature of signal filtration often occurs in a manner neither transparent to nor controllable by the user. Using fast chromatography on a state-of-the-art column (38,000 plates), we evaluate the responses produced by different present generation instruments, each with their unique black box digital filters. We show that the common wisdom of sampling 20 points per peak can be inadequate for high efficiency columns and that the sampling frequency and response choices do affect the peak shape. If the sampling frequency is too low or response time is too large, the observed peak shapes will not remain as narrow as they really are - this is especially true for high efficiency and high speed separations. It is shown that both sampling frequency and digital filtering affect the retention time, noise amplitude, peak shape and width in a complex fashion. We show how a square-wave driven light emitting diode source can reveal the nature of the embedded filter

  1. Sampling frequency, response times and embedded signal filtration in fast, high efficiency liquid chromatography: A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Wahab, M Farooq; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kadjo, Akinde F; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-02-11

    With increasingly efficient columns, eluite peaks are increasingly narrower. To take full advantage of this, choice of the detector response time and the data acquisition rate a.k.a. detector sampling frequency, have become increasingly important. In this work, we revisit the concept of data sampling from the theorem variously attributed to Whittaker, Nyquist, Kotelnikov, and Shannon. Focusing on time scales relevant to the current practice of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and optical absorbance detection (the most commonly used method), even for very narrow simulated peaks Fourier transformation shows that theoretical minimum sampling frequency is still relatively low (<10 Hz). However, this consideration alone may not be adequate for real chromatograms when an appreciable amount of noise is present. Further, depending on the instrument, the manufacturer's choice of a particular data bunching/integration/response time condition may be integrally coupled to the sampling frequency. In any case, the exact nature of signal filtration often occurs in a manner neither transparent to nor controllable by the user. Using fast chromatography on a state-of-the-art column (38,000 plates), we evaluate the responses produced by different present generation instruments, each with their unique black box digital filters. We show that the common wisdom of sampling 20 points per peak can be inadequate for high efficiency columns and that the sampling frequency and response choices do affect the peak shape. If the sampling frequency is too low or response time is too large, the observed peak shapes will not remain as narrow as they really are - this is especially true for high efficiency and high speed separations. It is shown that both sampling frequency and digital filtering affect the retention time, noise amplitude, peak shape and width in a complex fashion. We show how a square-wave driven light emitting diode source can reveal the nature of the embedded filter

  2. Fast-Time Evaluations of Airborne Merging and Spacing in Terminal Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Barmore, Bryan; Bussink, Frank; Weitz, Lesley; Dahlene, Laura

    2005-01-01

    NASA researchers are developing new airborne technologies and procedures to increase runway throughput at capacity-constrained airports by improving the precision of inter-arrival spacing at the runway threshold. In this new operational concept, pilots of equipped aircraft are cleared to adjust aircraft speed to achieve a designated spacing interval at the runway threshold, relative to a designated lead aircraft. A new airborne toolset, prototypes of which are being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, assists pilots in achieving this objective. The current prototype allows precision spacing operations to commence even when the aircraft and its lead are not yet in-trail, but are on merging arrival routes to the runway. A series of fast-time evaluations of the new toolset were conducted at the Langley Research Center during the summer of 2004. The study assessed toolset performance in a mixed fleet of aircraft on three merging arrival streams under a range of operating conditions. The results of the study indicate that the prototype possesses a high degree of robustness to moderate variations in operating conditions.

  3. Fast segmentation of stained nuclei in terabyte-scale, time resolved 3D microscopy image stacks.

    PubMed

    Stegmaier, Johannes; Otte, Jens C; Kobitski, Andrei; Bartschat, Andreas; Garcia, Ariel; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Strähle, Uwe; Mikut, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Automated analysis of multi-dimensional microscopy images has become an integral part of modern research in life science. Most available algorithms that provide sufficient segmentation quality, however, are infeasible for a large amount of data due to their high complexity. In this contribution we present a fast parallelized segmentation method that is especially suited for the extraction of stained nuclei from microscopy images, e.g., of developing zebrafish embryos. The idea is to transform the input image based on gradient and normal directions in the proximity of detected seed points such that it can be handled by straightforward global thresholding like Otsu's method. We evaluate the quality of the obtained segmentation results on a set of real and simulated benchmark images in 2D and 3D and show the algorithm's superior performance compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms. We achieve an up to ten-fold decrease in processing times, allowing us to process large data sets while still providing reasonable segmentation results.

  4. Fast and Robust Real-Time Estimation of Respiratory Rate from Photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hodam; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is a useful vital sign that can not only provide auxiliary information on physiological changes within the human body, but also indicate early symptoms of various diseases. Recently, methods for the estimation of RR from photoplethysmography (PPG) have attracted increased interest, because PPG can be readily recorded using wearable sensors such as smart watches and smart bands. In the present study, we propose a new method for the fast and robust real-time estimation of RR using an adaptive infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter, which has not yet been applied to the PPG-based estimation of RR. In our offline simulation study, the performance of the proposed method was compared to that of recently developed RR estimation methods called an adaptive lattice-type RR estimator and a Smart Fusion. The results of the simulation study show that the proposed method could not only estimate RR more quickly and more accurately than the conventional methods, but also is most suitable for online RR monitoring systems, as it does not use any overlapping moving windows that require increased computational costs. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed method, an online RR estimation system was implemented. PMID:27649182

  5. Fast and Robust Real-Time Estimation of Respiratory Rate from Photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hodam; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is a useful vital sign that can not only provide auxiliary information on physiological changes within the human body, but also indicate early symptoms of various diseases. Recently, methods for the estimation of RR from photoplethysmography (PPG) have attracted increased interest, because PPG can be readily recorded using wearable sensors such as smart watches and smart bands. In the present study, we propose a new method for the fast and robust real-time estimation of RR using an adaptive infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter, which has not yet been applied to the PPG-based estimation of RR. In our offline simulation study, the performance of the proposed method was compared to that of recently developed RR estimation methods called an adaptive lattice-type RR estimator and a Smart Fusion. The results of the simulation study show that the proposed method could not only estimate RR more quickly and more accurately than the conventional methods, but also is most suitable for online RR monitoring systems, as it does not use any overlapping moving windows that require increased computational costs. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed method, an online RR estimation system was implemented. PMID:27649182

  6. Fast radio-frequency enforced steady state (FRESS) spin echo MRI for quantitative T2 mapping: minimizing the apparent repetition time (TR) dependence for fast T2 measurement.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jerry S; Wang, Enfeng; Zhang, XiaoAn; Mandeville, Emiri; Lo, Eng H; Sorensen, A Gregory; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2012-02-01

    Transverse relaxation time (T(2)) is a basic but very informative MRI parameter, widely used in imaging to examine a host of diseases, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, and tumor. However, short repetition time (TR) is often used to minimize scan time, which may introduce non-negligible errors in T(2) measurement. Specifically, due to the use of refocusing pulse, the steady state magnetization depends not only on TR but also on the TE. Hence, if the TE dependence is not properly accounted for, it may be mistaken as T(2)-induced signal attenuation, leading to non-negligible T(2) underestimation. Our study proposed a fast radio-frequency enforced steady state (FRESS) spin echo (SE) MRI sequence, which saturates the magnetization after the echo and ensures a TE-independent steady state. The proposed FRESS-SE MRI was evaluated with numerical simulation, implemented with echo planar imaging readout, and validated by both phantom and in vivo experiments. In summary, FRESS-SE T(2) MRI technique was developed for fast and accurate T(2) imaging, suitable for in vivo applications.

  7. Creating fast flow channels in paper fluidic devices to control timing of sequential reactions.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi-Anbuhi, Sana; Chavan, Puneet; Sicard, Clémence; Leung, Vincent; Hossain, S M Zakir; Pelton, Robert; Brennan, John D; Filipe, Carlos D M

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the development of a method to control the flow rate of fluids within paper-based microfluidic analytical devices. We demonstrate that by simply sandwiching paper channels between two flexible films, it is possible to accelerate the flow of water through paper by over 10-fold. The dynamics of this process are such that the height of the liquid is dependent on time to the power of 1/3. This dependence was validated using three different flexible films (with markedly different contact angles) and three different fluids (water and two silicon oils with different viscosities). These covered channels provide a low-cost method for controlling the flow rate of fluid in paper channels, and can be added following printing of reagents to control fluid flow in selected fluidic channels. Using this method, we redesigned a previously published bidirectional lateral flow pesticide sensor to allow more rapid detection of pesticides while eliminating the need to run the assay in two stages. The sensor is fabricated with sol-gel entrapped reagents (indoxyl acetate in a substrate zone and acetylcholinesterase, AChE, in a sensing zone) present in an uncovered "slow" flow channel, with a second, covered "fast" channel used to transport pesticide samples to the sensing region through a simple paper-flap valve. In this manner, pesticides reach the sensing region first to allow preincubation, followed by delivery of the substrate to generate a colorimetric signal. This format results in a uni-directional device that detects the presence of pesticides two times faster than the original bidirectional sensors.

  8. Fast real-time moment-ratio analysis of multibreath nitrogen washout in children.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R; Meister, B

    1985-10-01

    To apply real-time moment-ratio analysis to multibreath N2-washout curves (MBNW) from children, a new processor-controlled device was constructed. Flow and fractional N2 concentration (FN2) were each sampled by 200 Hz. An electromagnetic triple-valve system, with an instrumental dead space of 36 ml and a valve resistance of 0.3 cmH2O . l-1 . s, was connected in series with a pneumotachograph and an N2 analyzer (Ohio 720) placed next to the mouthpiece. A FORTRAN/MACRO program on a PDP 11/23 computer enabled measurement of inspiratory and expiratory flow and FN2 sampling by a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. The fast real-time digital processing of the N2 and flow signals incorporated filtering, delay compensation, and corrections for the effects of changes in gas composition and temperature. MBNW dynamics of the lungs were studied in 17 healthy and 28 asthmatic children and in 16 patients with cystic fibrosis, evaluating the moment ratios of the washout curves as indices of the ventilation characteristics. Intrasubject variability of the moment ratios (m1/m0, m2/m0) and determination of functional residual capacity (FRC) varied between 6.3 and 14.7% (depending on which parameter is considered) and was comparatively lower than other indices previously investigated in adults. In addition, the sensitivity of the moment ratios for discriminating different stages of ventilation inhomogeneity was superior to other indices. m2/m0 is closely related to the simultaneously measured airway resistance, and the ratio between cumulative expired volume and FRC is correlated with the ratio between residual volume and total lung capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Low temperature fiber optic pyrometer for fast time resolved temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Gaenshirt, D.; Kaiser, J.; Villnow, M.; Banda, M.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature Pyrometry at temperatures beyond 150°C is limited in the measurement speed due to slow pyroelectric detectors. To detect the circumferential temperature distribution of fast rotating machines a novel Fiber Optical Pyrometer Type is presented here.

  10. IODP Expedition 345: Slow cooling of the lowermost gabbroic crust from the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise determined from Mg-in-Pl and Ca-in-Ol geospeedometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faak, K.; Gillis, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Models of crustal accretion along fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges differ in the proportion of crystallization at different depths within the lower oceanic crust. Therefore, these models predict different thermal evolution, and most significantly, different depths to which hydrothermal fluids circulate in the oceanic crust. As a consequence, this implies different rates of cooling as a function of depth. ';Gabbro glacier' type models require most of the latent heat of crystallization to be removed by hydrothermal circulation at the top of the axial magma chamber, leading to fast cooling rates in the upper gabbros. With increasing depth, heat conduction becomes the dominant process of heat removal. Since heat conduction is a less efficient mechanism of heat removal than hydrothermal circulation, it is expected that cooling rates decrease with increasing depth. In contrast, in ';sheeted sill' type models, the mechanism for heat removal (hydrothermal circulation) is the same over the entire depth of the gabbroic crust and, therefore, cooling rates are not expected to change as a function of depth. The determination of cooling rates of rocks from different depths within the oceanic crust therefore provides insights in the processes involved in its formation. IODP Expedition 345 recovered primitive layered gabbroic rocks that originated in the lower half to two thirds of the plutonic crust at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise and exposed at the Hess Deep Rift (HDR). The freshest gabbroic rock samples from Site U1415 were chosen to obtain subsolidus cooling rates using the recently developed Mg-in-Plagioclase geospeedometer and the well-established Ca-in-Olivine geospeedometer. Geospeedometers make use of the temperature dependence of the diffusive exchange of elements between different phases and thus allow the determination of cooling rates from diffusion modeling. Both methods were carried out in the same samples and yield results that are in very good agreement

  11. Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families…

  12. A Fast Topological Trigger for Real Time Analysis of Nanosecond Phenomena; Opening the Gamma Ray Window to Our Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krennrich, Frank

    2013-09-24

    This work was to enable the development of a proof-of-principle nanosecond trigger system that is designed to perform a real time analysis of fast Cherenkov light flashes from air showers. The basic building blocks of the trigger system have been designed and constructed, and a real world system is now operating in the VERITAS experiment.

  13. The time-course of single-word reading: evidence from fast behavioral and brain responses.

    PubMed

    Hauk, O; Coutout, C; Holden, A; Chen, Y

    2012-04-01

    We usually feel that we understand a familiar word "immediately". However, even basic aspects of the time-line of word recognition are still controversial. Different domains of research have still not converged on a coherent account. An integration of multiple sources of information would lead to more strongly constrained theoretical models, and help finding optimal measures when monitoring specific aspects of word recognition impairments in patient groups. In our multimodal approach--combining fast behavioral measures, ERPs and EEG/MEG source estimation--we provide converging evidence for the latencies of earliest lexical and semantic information retrieval in visual word recognition. Participants performed lexical and semantic decisions (LD, SD) in a Go/NoGo paradigm. We introduced eye-blink latencies as a dependent variable, in order to measure behavioral responses that are faster and less variable than traditional button presses. We found that the earliest behavioral responses distinguishing stimulus categories can occur around 310 ms. Ex-Gaussian analysis of behavioral responses did not reveal reliable differences between LD and SD. The earliest ERP differences between Go and NoGo conditions occurred around 160 ms for both LD and SD. Distributed source analysis of combined EEG/MEG data estimated neuronal generators for the lexicality effect around 200 ms in the left anterior middle temporal lobe. Thus, behavior and brain responses provide coherent evidence that the brain starts retrieving lexical and semantic information near-simultaneously within 200 ms of word onset. Our results support models of word recognition that assume a continuous accumulation of task-related information from the stimulus, which might be described by Bayesian principles.

  14. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  15. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Metaxas, Peter J.; Chanthbouala, Andre; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-12-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 107 A/cm2. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  16. Ultra-fast consensus of discrete-time multi-agent systems with multi-step predictive output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenle; Liu, Jianchang

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the ultra-fast consensus problem of high-order discrete-time multi-agent systems based on a unified consensus framework. A novel multi-step predictive output mechanism is proposed under a directed communication topology containing a spanning tree. By predicting the outputs of a network several steps ahead and adding this information into the consensus protocol, it is shown that the asymptotic convergence factor is improved by a power of q + 1 compared to the routine consensus. The difficult problem of selecting the optimal control gain is solved well by introducing a variable called convergence step. In addition, the ultra-fast formation achievement is studied on the basis of this new consensus protocol. Finally, the ultra-fast consensus with respect to a reference model and robust consensus is discussed. Some simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  17. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  18. Fast time resolution measurements of high concentrations of iodine above a Laminaria Digitata seaweed bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Stephen; Adams, Thomas; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    -distant seaweeds whose emissions are better-mixed into the atmosphere. The peak I2 concentrations observed here are three to five times greater than the maximum amounts recorded above/closeby laminaria beds in previous studies: 350 pptv max in O Grove, Galicia, Spain (Mahajan et al., ACP, 11, 2545, 2011), and 302 and 547 pptv max at Mweenish Bay, near Mace Head, County Galway, Ireland (Huang et al., GRL, 37, L03803, 2010; ACPD, 12, 25915, 2012). In part, the larger peak concentrations seen here are a consequence of deploying a fast response instrument very close to the source, enabling the emission's high temporal variability to be captured with fewer averaging effects. Nevertheless, the I2 concentrations averaged over the 30 minute period around the tidal minimum were still typically 750 pptv, suggesting laminaria beds are even stronger emitters of I2 into coastal atmospheres than previously thought. Some implications for such high concentrations of iodine for the local atmospheric chemistry are considered. We acknowledge support from the European Community FP7 project "ASSEMBLE", grant 227799.

  19. SOA Does Not Reveal the Absolute Time Course of Cognitive Processing in Fast Priming Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Boaz; Frost, Ram

    2007-01-01

    Applying Bloch's law to visual word recognition research, both exposure duration of the prime and its luminance determine the prime's overall energy, and consequently determine the size of the priming effect. Nevertheless, experimenters using fast-priming paradigms traditionally focus only on the SOA between prime and target to reflect the…

  20. Fault plane orientations of small earthquakes of the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) seismic sequence from P-wave polarities and rise times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippucci, Marilena; de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Boschi, Enzo

    2006-07-01

    A two-step technique has been developed with the aim of retrieving the fault plane orientation of a small-magnitude earthquake. The technique uses a set of non-linear equations, which relate the rise times of first P waves to source parameters (source dimension L, dip δ and strike φ of the fault) and intrinsic Qp. At the first step of the technique, the inversion of P polarities provides two fault plane orientations for each focal mechanism solution. At the second step, the inversion of rise times is carried out to retrieve L and Qp by fixing δ and φ to the values of the fault plane orientation inferred at the first step. A robust analysis, based on the random deviates technique, allows us to evaluate if one fault plane exists which systematically better fits data and can be considered the `true' fault plane. A parameter is introduced to quantify the level of resolution of the `true' fault plane. A probabilistic approach, based on the assumption that errors on data are Gaussian distributed, allows us to a posteriori validate or reject the `true' fault plane. The technique has been applied to 47 small earthquakes (1.3 < ML < 3.9) occurred below the town of Sellano, during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) seismic crisis. The strike of the inferred fault planes is generally along the Apennine direction. Fault plane solutions can be mainly subdivided into two groups: a first group of SW-dipping faults and a second group of NE-dipping faults. These results agree with the present day knowledge of the fault systems in the area. An average Qp equal to 354 +/- 63 has been estimated, in agreement with previous attenuation studies.

  1. Real-time fMRI data analysis using region of interest selection based on fast ICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Baoquan; Ma, Xinyue; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2011-03-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is a new technique which can present (feedback) brain activity during scanning. Through fast acquisition and online analysis of BOLD signal, fMRI data are processed within one TR. Current rtfMRI provides an activation map under specific task mainly through the GLM analysis to select region of interest (ROI). This study was based on independent component analysis (ICA) and used the result of fast ICA analysis to select the node of the functional network as the ROI. Real-time brain activity within the ROI was presented to the subject who needed to find strategies to control his brain activity. The whole real-time processes involved three parts: pre-processing (including head motion correction and smoothing), fast ICA analysis and feedback. In addition, the result of fast head motion correction was also presented to the experimenter in a curve diagram. Based on the above analysis processes, a real time feedback experiment with a motor imagery task was performed. An overt finger movement task as localizer session was adopted for ICA analysis to get the motor network. Supplementary motor area (SMA) in such network was selected as the ROI. During the feedback session, the average of BOLD signals within ROI was presented to the subjects for self-regulation under a motor imagery task. In this experiment, TR was 1.5 seconds, and the whole time of processing and presentation was within 1 second. Experimental results not only showed that the SMA was controllable, but also proved that the analysis method was effective.

  2. Bayesian meta-analysis of the effect of fasting, transport and lairage times on four attributes of pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Salmi, B; Trefan, L; Bünger, L; Doeschl-Wilson, A; Bidanel, J P; Terlouw, C; Larzul, C

    2012-03-01

    Technological meat quality is a significant economic factor in pork production, and numerous publications have shown that it is strongly influenced both by genetic status and by rearing and slaughter conditions. The quality of meat is often described by meat pH at different times postmortem, as well as by color and drip loss. A meta-analysis based on a database built from 27 studies corresponding to a total of 6526 animals classified was carried out. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the effect of fasting, lairage and transport durations on four main attributes of the technological pork meat quality. A Bayesian hierarchical meta-regression approach was adopted. The results of our meta-analysis showed that fasting time had a significant effect on pH measured 24h post-mortem (pHu) and drip loss (DL) measured in longissimus muscle. While, lairage affected only the pHu in semimembranosus muscle. Interestingly, we found that DL was the lone attribute that was affected by transport time and its interaction with fasting time.

  3. Demanding response time requirements on coherent receivers due to fast polarization rotations caused by lightning events.

    PubMed

    Krummrich, Peter M; Ronnenberg, David; Schairer, Wolfgang; Wienold, Daniel; Jenau, Frank; Herrmann, Maximilian

    2016-05-30

    Lightning events can cause fast polarization rotations and phase changes in optical transmission fibers due to strong electrical currents and magnetic fields. Whereas these are unlikely to affect legacy transmission systems with direct detection, different mechanisms have to be considered in systems with local oscillator based coherent receivers and digital signal processing. A theoretical analysis reveals that lightning events can result in polarization rotations with speeds as fast as a few hundred kRad/s. We discuss possible mechanisms how such lightning events can affect coherent receivers with digital signal processing. In experimental investigations with a high current pulse generator and transponder prototypes, we observed post FEC errors after polarization rotation events which can be expected from lightning strikes. PMID:27410158

  4. Demanding response time requirements on coherent receivers due to fast polarization rotations caused by lightning events.

    PubMed

    Krummrich, Peter M; Ronnenberg, David; Schairer, Wolfgang; Wienold, Daniel; Jenau, Frank; Herrmann, Maximilian

    2016-05-30

    Lightning events can cause fast polarization rotations and phase changes in optical transmission fibers due to strong electrical currents and magnetic fields. Whereas these are unlikely to affect legacy transmission systems with direct detection, different mechanisms have to be considered in systems with local oscillator based coherent receivers and digital signal processing. A theoretical analysis reveals that lightning events can result in polarization rotations with speeds as fast as a few hundred kRad/s. We discuss possible mechanisms how such lightning events can affect coherent receivers with digital signal processing. In experimental investigations with a high current pulse generator and transponder prototypes, we observed post FEC errors after polarization rotation events which can be expected from lightning strikes.

  5. Development of the N1–P2 auditory evoked response to amplitude rise time and rate of formant transition of speech sounds

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Allen L.; Shahin, Antoine J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the development of weighting strategies for acoustic cues by examining the morphology of the N1–P2 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to changes in amplitude rise time (ART) and rate of formant transition (RFT) of consonant–vowel (CV) pairsin4–6-year olds and adults. In the AEP session, individuals listened passively to the CVs /ba/, /wa/, and a /ba/ with a superimposed slower-rising /wa/ envelope (/ba/wa). In the behavioral session, individuals listened to the same stimuli and judged whether they heard a /ba/ or /wa/. We hypothesized that a developmental shift in weighting strategies should be reflected in a change in the morphology of the N1–P2 AEP. In 6-year olds and adults, the N1–P2 amplitude at the vertex reflected a change in RFT but not in ART. In contrast, in the 4–5-year olds, the vertex N1–P2 did not show specificity to changes in ART or RFT. In all groups, the N1–P2 amplitude at channel C4 (right hemisphere) reflected a change in ART but not in RFT. Behaviorally, 6-year olds and adults predominately utilized RFT cues (classified /ba/wa as /ba/) during phonetic judgments, as opposed to 4–5-year olds which utilized both cues equally. Our findings suggest that both ART and RFT are encoded in the auditory cortex, but an N1–P2 shift toward the vertex following age 4–5 indicates a shift toward an adult-like weighting strategy, such that, to utilize RFT to a greater extent. PMID:23570734

  6. Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state.

    PubMed

    Lane, Stephen C; Bird, Stephen R; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2013-02-01

    It is presently unclear whether the reported ergogenic effect of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on cycling time-trial performance is affected by the acute nutritional status of an individual. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a CHO mouth rinse on a 60-min simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state. Twelve competitive male cyclists each completed 4 experimental trials using a double-blinded Latin square design. Two trials were commenced 2 h after a meal that contained 2.5 g·kg(-1) body mass of CHO (FED) and 2 after an overnight fast (FST). Prior to and after every 12.5% of total time during a performance ride, either a 10% maltodextrin (CHO) or a taste-matched placebo (PLB) solution was mouth rinsed for 10 s then immediately expectorated. There were significant main effects for both pre-ride nutritional status (FED vs. FST; p < 0.01) and CHO mouth rinse (CHO vs. PLB; p < 0.01) on power output with an interaction evident between the interventions (p < 0.05). The CHO mouth rinse improved mean power to a greater extent after an overnight fast (282 vs. 273 W, 3.4%; p < 0.01) compared with a fed state (286 vs. 281 W, 1.8%; p < 0.05). We concluded that a CHO mouth rinse improved performance to a greater extent in a fasted compared with a fed state; however, optimal performance was achieved in a fed state with the addition of a CHO mouth rinse.

  7. Fast time resolution charge-exchange measurements during the fishbone instability in the poloidal divertor experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Kaita, R.; Goldston, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of fast ion losses due to the fishbone instability during high ..beta../sub T/q neutral beam heated discharges in the Poloidal Divertor Experiment have been made using two new vertical-viewing charge-exchange analyzers. The measurements show that the instability has an n=1 toroidal mode number, and that it ejects beam ions in a toroidally rotating beacon directed outward along a major radius. Observations of ejected ions with energies up to twice the beam injection energy at R approx. = R/sub 0/ + a indicate the presence of a non-..mu..-conserving acceleration mechanism.

  8. Real-time video transmission over a fast packet-switched network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Robert J.; Ma, Joong S.; Gonzales, Cesar A.

    1989-04-01

    Realtime transmission of packetized video is a relatively new but important area of research since tomorrow's networks will likely be based on a common fast packet-switching technology, replacing today's heterogeneous networks which are mixtures of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks dedicated for synchronous and asynchronous applications respectively. Unlike fixed bandwidth transmission channels, packet-switched networks can accommodate the bursty and highly variable rate of compressed motion video yet keep a constant level of image quality. Potential applications include motion video databases, video teleconferencing, and broadcasting over private networks. Unfortunately, traditional video-compression techniques which are applicable to synchronous, fixed bandwidth channels--cannot be applied in this new environment without substantial revisions that take into account the statistical nature of packet data transmission. Independent of their topology, fast packet-switched networks present unique challenges to the coding of motion video; one cannot simply divorce the coding of the source from the characteristics of the channel. The potential for loss of data integrity due to packet losses and transmission errors must be taken into account. The problem of re-synchronization must also be addressed since packet-switched networks are asynchronous by nature. In this paper, we evaluate image coding techniques for motion video in view of the constraints imposed by the packetized medium.

  9. Melting Ice, Rising Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  10. Early stage time evolution of a dense nanosecond microdischarge used in fast optical switching applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2015-12-15

    The mechanism of high-voltage nanosecond microdischarges is studied by the self-consistent two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions model. These microdischarges were recently proposed for use as fast switches of visible light in Bataller et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 223501 (2014)]. The microdischarge is found to develop in two stages. The first stage is associated with the electrons initially seeded in the cathode-anode gap. These electrons lead to the formation of a cathode-directed streamer. The second stage starts when the secondary electron emission from the cathode begins. In this stage, a rather dense plasma (∼10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) is generated which results in the narrow cathode sheath. The electric field in this sheath exceeds the critical electric field which is necessary for the runaway electrons generation. We have found that the presence of these energetic electrons is crucial for the discharge maintenance.

  11. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    Objective Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC) among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI) z-score). Setting Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China). Subjects The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively). Results FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months) has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6–18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13–17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75). Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004–2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity. PMID:26974536

  12. Sonic-boom measurements in the focus region during the ascent of Apollo 17. [maximum positive overpressure, positive impulse, signature duration, and bow-shock rise time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, H. R.; Hilton, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sonic-boom pressure signatures recorded during the ascent phase of Apollo 17 are presented. The measurements were obtained onboard six U.S. Navy ships positioned along the ground track of the spacecraft vehicle in the area of expected focus resulting from the flight path and acceleration of the vehicle. Tracings of the measured signatures are presented along with values of the maximum positive overpressure, positive impulse, signature duration, and bowshock rise time. Also included are brief descriptions of the ships and their location, the deployment of the sonic-boom instrumentation, flight profiles and operating conditions for the launch vehicle and spacecraft, surface-weather and sea-state information at the measuring sites, and high-altitude weather information for the general measurement areas. Comparisons of the measured and predicted sonic-boom overpressures for the Apollo 17 mission are presented. The measured data are also compared with data from the Apollo 15 and 16 missions and data from flight test programs of various aircraft.

  13. Optimal battery charging, Part I: Minimizing time-to-charge, energy loss, and temperature rise for OCV-resistance battery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, A.; Han, X.; Avvari, G. V.; Raghunathan, N.; Balasingam, B.; Pattipati, K. R.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a closed-form solution to the problem of optimally charging a Li-ion battery. A combination of three cost functions is considered as the objective function: time-to-charge (TTC), energy losses (EL), and a temperature rise index (TRI). First, we consider the cost function of the optimization problem as a weighted sum of TTC and EL. We show that the optimal charging strategy in this case is the well-known Constant Current-Constant Voltage (CC-CV) policy with the value of the current in the CC stage being a function of the ratio of weighting on TTC and EL and of the resistance of the battery. Then, we extend the cost function to a weighted sum of TTC, EL and TRI and derive an analytical solution for the problem. It is shown that the analytical solution can be approximated by a CC-CV with the value of current in the CC stage being a function of ratio of weighting on TTC and EL, resistance of the battery and the effective thermal resistance.

  14. Interlaboratory Validation for a Real-Time PCR Salmonella Detection Method Using the ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Doran, Tara; Lin, Wen; Chen, Kai-Shun; Williams-Hill, Donna; Pamboukian, Ruiqing

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen FERN (Food Emergency Response Network) member laboratories collaborated in this study to verify extension of the real-time PCR Salmonella detection method originally designed for the single-tube Cepheid SmartCycler II and validated against the Salmonella method of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR system multiwell plate platform. Four foods were selected for this study: chili powder, soft cheese, fish, and tomatoes; these foods represent products that are commonly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella for regulatory purposes. Each food consisted of six uninoculated control samples, six samples inoculated with low Salmonella levels (target 1 to 5 CFU/25 g), and six samples inoculated with high levels (target 10 to 50 CFU/25 g). All samples were tested for Salmonella using the 24-h quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for detecting Salmonella, which utilizes modified buffered peptone water as the sole enrichment medium and an internal control for the qPCR. Each of these 18 samples was individually analyzed for Salmonella by the collaborating laboratories using both the ABI 7500 FAST system (alternative method) and the SmartCycler II system (reference method). Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between these two qPCR platforms except for the chili powder samples. The differences noted with chili powder (P = 0.0455) were attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the ABI 7500 FAST system compared with the SmartCycler II system. The detection limit of both qPCR methods was 0.02 to 0.15 CFU/g. These results provide a solid basis for extending the 24-h qPCR Salmonella method to the ABI 7500 FAST system for high-throughput detection of Salmonella in foods. PMID:26038901

  15. Controlling chaos in a fast diode resonator using extended time-delay autosynchronization: Experimental observations and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukow, David W.; Bleich, Michael E.; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.

    1997-12-01

    We stabilize unstable periodic orbits of a fast diode resonator driven at 10.1 MHz (corresponding to a drive period under 100 ns) using extended time-delay autosynchronization. Stabilization is achieved by feedback of an error signal that is proportional to the difference between the value of a state variable and an infinite series of values of the state variable delayed in time by integral multiples of the period of the orbit. The technique is easy to implement electronically and it has an all-optical counterpart that may be useful for stabilizing the dynamics of fast chaotic lasers. We show that increasing the weights given to temporally distant states enlarges the domain of control and reduces the sensitivity of the domain of control on the propagation delays in the feedback loop. We determine the average time to obtain control as a function of the feedback gain and identify the mechanisms that destabilize the system at the boundaries of the domain of control. A theoretical stability analysis of a model of the diode resonator in the presence of time-delay feedback is in good agreement with the experimental results for the size and shape of the domain of control. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779682

  16. Prior exercise reduces fast-start duration and end-spurt magnitude during cycling time-trial.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, A E; Correia-Oliveira, C R; Tenorio, L; Melo, A A; Bertuzzi, R; Bishop, D

    2013-08-01

    We examined the pacing strategy and the magnitude of the end spurt during a 200-kJ cycling time trial performed 12-14 h after an exercise protocol designed to reduce muscle glycogen content. 9 physically-active men performed 5 familiarization sessions and 2 experimental 200-kJ time trials in either a control condition (CON) or after an exercise protocol performed the previous evening that was designed to induce muscle glycogen depletion (EP). Mean total time was faster and power output was higher in the CON than in the EP (P<0.01). A fast-start was maintained until the 50-kJ section in CON, but only the 25-kJ section for EP (P<0.05). The power outputs during the 50-, 150- and 200-kJ sections, and the magnitude of the end-spurt, were significantly higher for the CON than for the EP condition (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rating of perceived exertion (overall feeling and feeling in legs) between conditions. In conclusion, a protocol designed to decrease muscle glycogen stores reduced the duration of the fast-start and the magnitude of the end spurt during a 200-kJ cycling time trial, impairing the overall performance.

  17. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  18. Modeling fast electron dynamics with real-time time-dependent density functional theory: application to small molecules and chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Lopata, Kenneth A.; Govind, Niranjan

    2011-05-10

    The response of matter to external fields forms the basis for a vast wealth of fundamental physical processes ranging from light harvesting to nanoscale electron transport. Accurately modeling ultrafast electron dynamics in excited systems thus o_ers unparalleled insight, but requires an inherently non-linear time-resolved approach. To this end, an e_cient and massively parallel real-time real-space time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) implementation in NWChem is presented. The implementation is first validated against linearresponse TDDFT and experimental results for a series of molecules subjected to small electric field perturbations. Second, non-linear excitation of green fluorescent protein is studied, which shows a blue-shift in the spectrum with increasing perturbation, as well as a saturation in absorption. Next, the charge dynamics of optically excited zinc porphyrin is presented in real-time and real-space, with relevance to charge injection in photovoltaic devices. Finally, intermolecular excitation in an adenine-thymine base pair is studied using the BNL range separated functional [Baer, R.; Neuhauser, D. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 94, 043002], demonstrating the utility of a real-time approach in capturing charge transfer processes.

  19. A "package solution" fast track program can reduce the diagnostic waiting time in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Gano, Lars; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Andersen, Peter Bøgeskov; Thomassen, Anders; Godballe, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, a fast track program for patients with suspicion of head and neck cancer (HNC) was introduced in Denmark to reduce unnecessary waiting time. The program was based on so called "package solutions" including pre-booked slots for outpatient evaluation, imaging, and diagnostic surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to present a model for fast track handling of patients suspicious of cancer in the head and neck region and to evaluate the effect of implementation on the diagnostic work up time. Patients with suspicion of HNC referred to the same university department of ENT Head and Neck Surgery during three comparable time intervals 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2011-2012 (groups 1-3) were investigated. We recorded the time from patient referral, to first consultation and final diagnosis. The first interval was before initiation of the "package solution", the second just after the introduction, and the third interval represents the current situation. The median time from referral to first consultation was reduced from eight calendar days in group 1 to only one day in groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001). The combined median time from referral to the final cancer diagnosis decreased from 24 calendar days in group 1 to 7 and 10 days in groups 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005). The hit rate of finding malignancy was 41% in group 1, 49% in group 2, and 43% in group 3 with no difference among the groups (p = 0.13). The frequency of newly diagnosed HNC was 19% in group 1, 21% in group 2, and 17% in group 3 (p = 0.52). A "package solution" including pre-booked slots for diagnostic procedures is feasible and can significantly reduce the waiting time for patients with suspicion of HNC. PMID:23775302

  20. Application of the differential decay-curve method to γ-γ fast-timing lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, P.; Régis, J.-M.; Dewald, A.; Kisyov, S.

    2016-10-01

    A new procedure for the analysis of delayed-coincidence lifetime experiments focused on the Fast-timing case is proposed following the approach of the Differential decay-curve method. Examples of application of the procedure on experimental data reveal its reliability for lifetimes even in the sub-nanosecond range. The procedure is expected to improve both precision/reliability and treatment of systematic errors and scarce data as well as to provide an option for cross-check with the results obtained by means of other analyzing methods.

  1. Real-time 2D floating-point fast Fourier transforms for seeker simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Richard; Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.

    2002-07-01

    The floating point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the most useful basic functions available to the image and signal processing engineer allowing many complex and detailed special functions to be implemented more simply in the frequency domain. In the Hardware-in-the-Loop field an image transformed using FFT would allow the designer to think about accurate frequency based simulation of seeker lens effects, motion blur, detector transfer functions and much more. Unfortunately, the transform requires many hundreds of thousands or millions of floating point operations on a single modest sized image making it impractical for realtime Hardware-in-the-Loop systems. .until now. This paper outlines the development, by Nallatech, of an FPGA based IEEE floating point core. It traces the subsequent use of this core to develop a full 256 X 256 FFT and filter process implemented on COTS hardware at frame rates up to 150Hz. This transform can be demonstrated to model optical transfer functions at a far greater accuracy than the current spatial models. Other applications and extensions of this technique will be discussed such as filtering for image tracking algorithms and in the simulation of radar processing in the frequency domain.

  2. Fast Diffusion to Self-Similarity: Complete Spectrum, Long-Time Asymptotics, and Numerology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzler, Jochen; McCann, Robert J.

    2005-03-01

    The complete spectrum is determined for the operator on the Sobolev space W1,2ρ(Rn) formed by closing the smooth functions of compact support with respect to the norm Here the Barenblatt profile ρ is the stationary attractor of the rescaled diffusion equation in the fast, supercritical regime m the same diffusion dynamics represent the steepest descent down an entropy E(u) on probability measures with respect to the Wasserstein distance d2. Formally, the operator H=HessρE is the Hessian of this entropy at its minimum ρ, so the spectral gap H≧α:=2-n(1-m) found below suggests the sharp rate of asymptotic convergence: from any centered initial data 0≦u(0,x) ∈ L1(Rn) with second moments. This bound improves various results in the literature, and suggests the conjecture that the self-similar solution u(t,x)=R(t)-nρ(x/R(t)) is always slowest to converge. The higher eigenfunctions which are polynomials with hypergeometric radial parts and the presence of continuous spectrum yield additional insight into the relations between symmetries of Rn and the flow. Thus the rate of convergence can be improved if we are willing to replace the distance to ρ with the distance to its nearest mass-preserving dilation (or still better, affine image). The strange numerology of the spectrum is explained in terms of the number of moments of ρ.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral aqueduct. Signal intensity time curves demonstrated by fast acquisition with multiple excitation (FAME).

    PubMed

    van den Hout, J H; Bakker, C J; Mali, W P; van Dijk, P; Faber, J A; Feldberg, M A; Gooskens, R H; Witkamp, T D

    1989-11-01

    Using cardiac-gated fast acquisition with multiple excitation (FAME), time curves of the cerebral aqueduct signals were derived in 19 healthy volunteers and 14 patients. A mean curve of the normal subjects was determined during systole. A relatively stable point of time was found at 270 msec after the R-wave supposed to be the reversal of the flow of cerebral-spinal fluid in the aqueduct. Different curves were noticed in complete aqueductal obstruction (n = 2); in other pathologic states, such as cerebral tumor (n = 3), normal pressure hydrocephalus (n = 3), and brain atrophy (n = 1), no different signal time curves were observed. Parameters such as aqueduct diameter, cerebro-spinal fluid volume and brain compliance are probably other important factors in aqueduct liquor flow.

  4. Recent progress in fast timing with CsF scintillators in application to time-of-flight positron tomography in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moszyński, M.; Allemand, R.; Laval, M.; Odru, R.; Vacher, J.

    1983-01-01

    An extensive study of the timing properties of a number of CsF scintillators 2.3 cm in diameter and 4 cm in height and of 2.4 cm diameter fast photomultipliers was undertaken in order to optimize scintillation counters for 511 keV annihilation quanta fast timing applied to the time-of-flight positron tomography system. Three types of photomultipliers, PM 1992, PM 2972 and R 1398, were tested in comparison to an XP 2020 photomultiplier. The photoelectron number for the CsF crystals was measured and discussed in terms of photocathode sensitivity and the efficiency of the photoelectron collection. A time resolution study was carried out for timing both with the anode pulse and with the dynode signal. It suggested that the Hammamatsu R 1398 photomultipliers are superior in terms of photoelectron yield and time resolution. The best time resolution, equal to 390 ps, was obtained for 511 keV γ-rays with the energy thrreshold set at 150 keV, in timing with the signal taken from the last dynode. For 10 CsF scintillators the time resolution and the light yield expressed by the photoelectron number were measured with the XP 2020 and the R 1398 photomultipliers. Because of the large spread in timing properties observed for different crystals, and in particular a significant discrepancy between the measured time resolution and the photoelectron number, a study of the light pulse shape from some CsF scintillators was carried out using the single photon method. It showed that the decay time constant of the light pulse varies between 2 ns and 3 ns, whilst the fwhm varied between 1.5 ns and 3.8 ns, which suggests that CsF scintillator production technology needs perfecting. Compared to our previous study a marked improvement in the quality of the CsF scintillators was noted, which was reflected in better energy resolution, below 20% for 662 keV γ-rays, and in a light yield at least 1.5 times higher, close, at present, to 10% of that obtained with NaI(Tl) crystals. The time

  5. Finite bandwidth effects in time-domain measurements of fast electronic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaman, Ofer; Aumentado, José

    2006-03-01

    Using rf reflectometry, we have observed individual quasiparticle tunneling events in a superconducting single- charge transistor. These events follow a Poisson process on microsecond time scales. We show that when the measurement is done with a finite bandwidth receiver, the experimentally observed process is no longer Poissonian, and the measured transition rates always underestimate those in the underlying system. We will present a model that accounts for bandwidth effects in these time-domain measurements, and show how to obtain the underlying rates from their measured values. We compare the results of our model to simulated and experimental data. We argue that these effects, which are significant even if the receiver is 10 times faster than the process, are a general feature in time domain experiments.

  6. Time-resolved spectroscopy using a chopper wheel as a fast shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2015-01-15

    Widely available, small form-factor, fiber-coupled spectrometers typically have a minimum exposure time measured in milliseconds, and thus cannot be used directly for time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Spectroscopy at these faster time scales is typically done with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) system where the image intensifier acts as a “fast” electronic shutter for the slower CCD array. In this paper, we describe simple modifications to a commercially available chopper wheel system to allow it to be used as a “fast” mechanical shutter for gating a fiber-coupled spectrometer to achieve microsecond-scale time-resolved optical measurements of a periodically pulsed light source. With the chopper wheel synchronized to the pulsing of the light source, the time resolution can be set to a small fraction of the pulse period by using a chopper wheel with narrow slots separated by wide spokes. Different methods of synchronizing the chopper wheel and pulsing of the light sources are explored. The capability of the chopper wheel system is illustrated with time-resolved measurements of pulsed plasmas.

  7. A fast least-squares arrival time estimator for scintillation pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, N.; Hero, A.O. III; Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L. )

    1994-08-01

    The true weighted least-squares (WLS) arrival time estimator for scintillation pulse detection was previously found to out-perform conventional arrival time estimators such as leading-edge and constant-fraction timers, but has limited applications because of its complexity. A new diagonalized version of the weighted least-squares (DWLS) estimator has been developed which, like the true WLS, incorporates the statistical properties of the scintillation detector. The new DWLS reduces estimator complexity at the expense of fundamental timing resolution. The advantage of the DWLS implementation is that only scalar multiplications and additions are needed instead of the matrix operations used in the true WLS. It also preserves the true WLS's ability to effectively separate piled-up pulses. The DWLS estimator has been applied to pulses which approximate the response of BGO and NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The timing resolution obtained with the DWLS estimator is then compared to conventional analog timers along with the Cramer-Rao lower bound on achievable timing error. The DWLS out-performs the conventional arrival time estimators but does not provide optimal performance compared to the lower bound; however, it is more robust than the true WLS estimator.

  8. Characterization of compounds by time-of-flight measurement utilizing random fast ions

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, R.J.

    1989-04-04

    An apparatus is described for characterizing the mass of sample and daughter particles, comprising a source for providing sample ions; a fragmentation region wherein a fraction of the sample ions may fragment to produce daughter ion particles; an electrostatic field region held at a voltage level sufficient to effect ion-neutral separation and ion-ion separation of fragments from the same sample ion and to separate ions of different kinetic energy; a detector system for measuring the relative arrival times of particles; and processing means operatively connected to the detector system to receive and store the relative arrival times and operable to compare the arrival times with times detected at the detector when the electrostatic field region is held at a different voltage level and to thereafter characterize the particles. Sample and daughter particles are characterized with respect to mass and other characteristics by detecting at a particle detector the relative time of arrival for fragments of a sample ion at two different electrostatic voltage levels. The two sets of particle arrival times are used in conjunction with the known altered voltage levels to mathematically characterize the sample and daughter fragments. In an alternative embodiment the present invention may be used as a detector for a conventional mass spectrometer. In this embodiment, conventional mass spectrometry analysis is enhanced due to further mass resolving of the detected ions. 8 figs.

  9. Characterization of compounds by time-of-flight measurement utilizing random fast ions

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for characterizing the mass of sample and daughter particles, comprising a source for providing sample ions; a fragmentation region wherein a fraction of the sample ions may fragment to produce daughter ion particles; an electrostatic field region held at a voltage level sufficient to effect ion-neutral separation and ion-ion separation of fragments from the same sample ion and to separate ions of different kinetic energy; a detector system for measuring the relative arrival times of particles; and processing means operatively connected to the detector system to receive and store the relative arrival times and operable to compare the arrival times with times detected at the detector when the electrostatic field region is held at a different voltage level and to thereafter characterize the particles. Sample and daughter particles are characterized with respect to mass and other characteristics by detecting at a particle detector the relative time of arrival for fragments of a sample ion at two different electrostatic voltage levels. The two sets of particle arrival times are used in conjunction with the known altered voltage levels to mathematically characterize the sample and daughter fragments. In an alternative embodiment the present invention may be used as a detector for a conventional mass spectrometer. In this embodiment, conventional mass spectrometry analysis is enhanced due to further mass resolving of the detected ions.

  10. Fast interactive real-time volume rendering of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: an implementation for low-end computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saracino, G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Shiota, T.; Corsi, C.; Lamberti, C.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is an innovative cardiac imaging modality. However, partly due to lack of user-friendly software, RT3DE has not been widely accepted as a clinical tool. The object of this study was to develop and implement a fast and interactive volume renderer of RT3DE datasets designed for a clinical environment where speed and simplicity are not secondary to accuracy. Thirty-six patients (20 regurgitation, 8 normal, 8 cardiomyopathy) were imaged using RT3DE. Using our newly developed software, all 3D data sets were rendered in real-time throughout the cardiac cycle and assessment of cardiac function and pathology was performed for each case. The real-time interactive volume visualization system is user friendly and instantly provides consistent and reliable 3D images without expensive workstations or dedicated hardware. We believe that this novel tool can be used clinically for dynamic visualization of cardiac anatomy.

  11. Method of signal detection from silicon photomultipliers using fully differential Charge to Time Converter and fast shaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents an implementation of fully differential readout method for Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). Front-end electronics consists of a fast and slow path. The former creates the trigger signal while the latter produces a pulse of width proportional to the input charge. The fast shaper generates unipolar pulse and utilizes the pole-zero cancelation circuit. The peaking time for single photoelectron is equal to 3.6 ns and the FWHM is 3.8 ns. The pulse width of the Charge to Time Converter (QTC) depends on the number of photons entering the SiPM at the moment of measurement. The QTC response is nonlinear but it allows us to work with signals in a wide dynamic range. The proposed readout method is effective in measurements of random signals where frequent events tend to pile-up. Thermal generation and afterpulses have a strong influence on the width of pulses from QTC. The proposed method enables us to distinguish those overlapping signals and get the reliable information on the number of detected photons.

  12. Fast mapping of the T2 relaxation time of cerebral metabolites using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Otazo, Ricardo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2007-05-01

    Metabolite T2 is necessary for accurate quantification of the absolute concentration of metabolites using long-echo-time (TE) acquisition schemes. However, lengthy data acquisition times pose a major challenge to mapping metabolite T2. In this study we used proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T to obtain fast T2 maps of three major cerebral metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho). We showed that PEPSI spectra matched T2 values obtained using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Data acquisition for 2D metabolite maps with a voxel volume of 0.95 ml (32 x 32 image matrix) can be completed in 25 min using five TEs and eight averages. A sufficient spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for T2 estimation was validated by high Pearson's correlation coefficients between logarithmic MR signals and TEs (R2 = 0.98, 0.97, and 0.95 for NAA, Cre, and Cho, respectively). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the T2 values of NAA, but not Cre and Cho, were significantly different between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM; P < 0.001). The difference between the T2 estimates of the PEPSI and SVS scans was less than 9%. Consistent spatial distributions of T2 were found in six healthy subjects, and disagreement among subjects was less than 10%. In summary, the PEPSI technique is a robust method to obtain fast mapping of metabolite T2.

  13. Fast mapping of the T2 relaxation time of cerebral metabolites using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Otazo, Ricardo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2007-05-01

    Metabolite T2 is necessary for accurate quantification of the absolute concentration of metabolites using long-echo-time (TE) acquisition schemes. However, lengthy data acquisition times pose a major challenge to mapping metabolite T2. In this study we used proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T to obtain fast T2 maps of three major cerebral metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho). We showed that PEPSI spectra matched T2 values obtained using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Data acquisition for 2D metabolite maps with a voxel volume of 0.95 ml (32 x 32 image matrix) can be completed in 25 min using five TEs and eight averages. A sufficient spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for T2 estimation was validated by high Pearson's correlation coefficients between logarithmic MR signals and TEs (R2 = 0.98, 0.97, and 0.95 for NAA, Cre, and Cho, respectively). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the T2 values of NAA, but not Cre and Cho, were significantly different between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM; P < 0.001). The difference between the T2 estimates of the PEPSI and SVS scans was less than 9%. Consistent spatial distributions of T2 were found in six healthy subjects, and disagreement among subjects was less than 10%. In summary, the PEPSI technique is a robust method to obtain fast mapping of metabolite T2. PMID:17457864

  14. Monoterpene separation by coupling proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with fastGC.

    PubMed

    Materić, Dušan; Lanza, Matteo; Sulzer, Philipp; Herbig, Jens; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a well-established technique for real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Although it is extremely sensitive (with sensitivities of up to 4500 cps/ppbv, limits of detection <1 pptv and the response times of approximately 100 ms), the selectivity of PTR-MS is still somewhat limited, as isomers cannot be separated. Recently, selectivity-enhancing measures, such as manipulation of drift tube parameters (reduced electric field strength) and using primary ions other than H3O(+), such as NO(+) and O2 (+), have been introduced. However, monoterpenes, which belong to the most important plant VOCs, still cannot be distinguished so more traditional technologies, such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), have to be utilised. GC-MS is very time consuming (up to 1 h) and cannot be used for real-time analysis. Here, we introduce a sensitive, near-to-real-time method for plant monoterpene research-PTR-MS coupled with fastGC. We successfully separated and identified six of the most abundant monoterpenes in plant studies (α- and β-pinenes, limonene, 3-carene, camphene and myrcene) in less than 80 s, using both standards and conifer branch enclosures (Norway spruce, Scots pine and black pine). Five monoterpenes usually present in Norway spruce samples with a high abundance were separated even when the compound concentrations were diluted to 20 ppbv. Thus, fastGC-PTR-ToF-MS was shown to be an adequate one-instrument solution for plant monoterpene research. PMID:26253230

  15. CauseMap: fast inference of causality from complex time series.

    PubMed

    Maher, M Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Establishing health-related causal relationships is a central pursuit in biomedical research. Yet, the interdependent non-linearity of biological systems renders causal dynamics laborious and at times impractical to disentangle. This pursuit is further impeded by the dearth of time series that are sufficiently long to observe and understand recurrent patterns of flux. However, as data generation costs plummet and technologies like wearable devices democratize data collection, we anticipate a coming surge in the availability of biomedically-relevant time series data. Given the life-saving potential of these burgeoning resources, it is critical to invest in the development of open source software tools that are capable of drawing meaningful insight from vast amounts of time series data. Results. Here we present CauseMap, the first open source implementation of convergent cross mapping (CCM), a method for establishing causality from long time series data (≳25 observations). Compared to existing time series methods, CCM has the advantage of being model-free and robust to unmeasured confounding that could otherwise induce spurious associations. CCM builds on Takens' Theorem, a well-established result from dynamical systems theory that requires only mild assumptions. This theorem allows us to reconstruct high dimensional system dynamics using a time series of only a single variable. These reconstructions can be thought of as shadows of the true causal system. If reconstructed shadows can predict points from opposing time series, we can infer that the corresponding variables are providing views of the same causal system, and so are causally related. Unlike traditional metrics, this test can establish the directionality of causation, even in the presence of feedback loops. Furthermore, since CCM can extract causal relationships from times series of, e.g., a single individual, it may be a valuable tool to personalized medicine. We implement CCM in Julia, a

  16. CauseMap: fast inference of causality from complex time series.

    PubMed

    Maher, M Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Establishing health-related causal relationships is a central pursuit in biomedical research. Yet, the interdependent non-linearity of biological systems renders causal dynamics laborious and at times impractical to disentangle. This pursuit is further impeded by the dearth of time series that are sufficiently long to observe and understand recurrent patterns of flux. However, as data generation costs plummet and technologies like wearable devices democratize data collection, we anticipate a coming surge in the availability of biomedically-relevant time series data. Given the life-saving potential of these burgeoning resources, it is critical to invest in the development of open source software tools that are capable of drawing meaningful insight from vast amounts of time series data. Results. Here we present CauseMap, the first open source implementation of convergent cross mapping (CCM), a method for establishing causality from long time series data (≳25 observations). Compared to existing time series methods, CCM has the advantage of being model-free and robust to unmeasured confounding that could otherwise induce spurious associations. CCM builds on Takens' Theorem, a well-established result from dynamical systems theory that requires only mild assumptions. This theorem allows us to reconstruct high dimensional system dynamics using a time series of only a single variable. These reconstructions can be thought of as shadows of the true causal system. If reconstructed shadows can predict points from opposing time series, we can infer that the corresponding variables are providing views of the same causal system, and so are causally related. Unlike traditional metrics, this test can establish the directionality of causation, even in the presence of feedback loops. Furthermore, since CCM can extract causal relationships from times series of, e.g., a single individual, it may be a valuable tool to personalized medicine. We implement CCM in Julia, a

  17. A modified infrared spectrometer with high time resolution and its application for investigating fast conformational changes of the GTPase Ras.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of proteins and protein interactions. The investigation of many biological processes is possible by means of caged compounds, which set free biologically active substances upon light activation. Some caged compounds could provide sub-nanosecond time resolution, e.g., para-hydroxyphenacyl-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) forms GTP in picoseconds. However, the time resolution in single shot experiments with rapid-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers is limited to about 10 ms. Here we use an infrared diode laser instead of the conventional globar and achieve a time resolution of 100 ns. This allows for the time-resolved measurement of the fast Ras(off) to Ras(on) conformational change at room temperature. We quantified the activation parameters for this reaction and found that the free energy of activation for this reaction is mainly enthalpic. Investigation of the same reaction in the presence of the Ras binding domain of the effector Raf (RafRBD) reveals a four orders of magnitude faster reaction, indicating that Ras·RafRBD complex formation directly induces the conformational change. Recent developments of broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers will further improve time resolution and usability of the setup. The reported 100 ns time resolution is the best achieved for a non-repetitive experiment so far.

  18. Stroke fast track reduces time delay to neuroimaging and increases use of thrombolysis in an academic medical center in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ratanakorn, Disya; Keandoungchun, Jesada; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares; Laothamatas, Jiraporn; Tegeler, Charles H

    2012-01-01

    Delays between hospital arrival and neuroimaging prevented patients from receiving thrombolysis. We report impact of Stroke Fast Track (SFT) on time to imaging, and rates of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in eligible patients. Characteristics, time intervals, and rates of rt-PA were evaluated in 464 patients with suspected acute stroke within 7 days (2005-2006). Complete time intervals were available on 380. Median times between emergency room arrival, brain computerized tomography (CT), and CT results were 25 and 45 minutes, respectively, for patients arriving <3 hours from onset, 40, and 65 minutes for those arriving >3 hours, and 35 and 60 minutes for all patients, which is significantly shorter than 2.5 hours to CT in 2004, prior to SFT (P < .0001). Although not different in time to first physician, patients arriving >3 hours had longer times to CT and CT results (P < .001). Overall, 5.5% of ischemic stroke patients received intravenous rt-PA, including 27.1% of those arriving within 3 hours, which represented 100% of all eligible patients, compared with 0% in 2004. SFT reduced time delay in neuroimaging and increased use of rt-PA in Thailand. Continuous quality improvement is needed to achieve best results in each setting, and to insure optimal care for acute stroke patients.

  19. Real-Time linux dynamic clamp: a fast and flexible way to construct virtual ion channels in living cells.

    PubMed

    Dorval, A D; Christini, D J; White, J A

    2001-10-01

    We describe a system for real-time control of biological and other experiments. This device, based around the Real-Time Linux operating system, was tested specifically in the context of dynamic clamping, a demanding real-time task in which a computational system mimics the effects of nonlinear membrane conductances in living cells. The system is fast enough to represent dozens of nonlinear conductances in real time at clock rates well above 10 kHz. Conductances can be represented in deterministic form, or more accurately as discrete collections of stochastically gating ion channels. Tests were performed using a variety of complex models of nonlinear membrane mechanisms in excitable cells, including simulations of spatially extended excitable structures, and multiple interacting cells. Only in extreme cases does the computational load interfere with high-speed "hard" real-time processing (i.e., real-time processing that never falters). Freely available on the worldwide web, this experimental control system combines good performance. immense flexibility, low cost, and reasonable ease of use. It is easily adapted to any task involving real-time control, and excels in particular for applications requiring complex control algorithms that must operate at speeds over 1 kHz.

  20. Effect of Current Rise-time on the Formation of Precursor Structures and Mass Ablation Rate in Cylindrical Wire Array Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, S. C.; Eshaq, Y.; Ueda, U.; Haas, D. M.; Beg, F. N.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B.; Greenly, J.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Douglass, J. D.; Bell, K.; Knapp, P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki, F. A.

    2009-01-21

    We present the first study to directly compare the mass ablation rates of cylindrical wire arrays as a function of the current rise-rate. Formation of the precursor column is investigated on both the MAPGIE (1 MA, 250 ns) and COBRA (1 MA, 100 ns) generators, and results are used to infer the change in the mass ablation rate induced by the rise-rate of the drive current. Laser shadowography, gated XUV imaging and x-ray diodes are used to compare the dynamical behavior both generators, and x-pinch radiography and XUV spectroscopy and provide density evolution and temperature measurements respectively. Results are compared to predictions from an analytical scaling model based on a fixed ablation rate, and the close correlation achieved suggests that the effective ablation velocity is not a strong function of the current rise rate.

  1. A New Characteristic Function for Fast Time-Reverse Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriyana, Andri; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael; Jaya, Makky; Muksin, Muksin

    2015-04-01

    Microseismicity produced by natural activities is usually characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio and huge amount of data as recording is conducted for a long period of time. Locating microseismic events is preferably carried out using migration-based methods such as time-reverse modeling (TRM). The original TRM is based on backpropagating the wavefield from the receiver down to the source location. Alternatively, we are using a characteristic function (CF) derived from the measured wavefield as input for the TRM. The motivation for such a strategy is to avoid undesired contributions from secondary arrivals which may generate artifacts in the final images. In this presentation, we introduce a new CF as input for TRM method. To obtain this CF, initially we apply kurtosis-based automatic onset detection and convolution with a given wavelet. The convolution with low frequency wavelets allows us to conduct time-reverse modeling using coarser sampling hence it will reduce computing time. We apply the method to locate seismic events measured along an active part of the Sumatra Fault around the Tarutung pull-apart basin (North Sumatra, Indonesia). The results show that seismic events are well-determined since they are concentrated along the Sumatran fault. Internal details of the Tarutung basin structure could be derived. Our results are consistent with those obtained from inversion of manually picked travel time data.

  2. A fast and Robust Algorithm for general inequality/equality constrained minimum time problems

    SciTech Connect

    Briessen, B.; Sadegh, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for solving general inequality/equality constrained minimum time problems. The algorithm`s solution time is linear in the number of Runge-Kutta steps and the number of parameters used to discretize the control input history. The method is being applied to a three link redundant robotic arm with torque bounds, joint angle bounds, and a specified tip path. It solves case after case within a graphical user interface in which the user chooses the initial joint angles and the tip path with a mouse. Solve times are from 30 to 120 seconds on a Hewlett Packard workstation. A zero torque history is always used in the initial guess, and the algorithm has never crashed, indicating its robustness. The algorithm solves for a feasible solution for large trajectory execution time t{sub f} and then reduces t{sub f} and then reduces t{sub f} by a small amount and re-solves. The fixed time re- solve uses a new method of finding a near-minimum-2-norm solution to a set of linear equations and inequalities that achieves quadratic convegence to a feasible solution of the full nonlinear problem.

  3. Measuring fast gene dynamics in single cells with time-lapse luminescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mazo-Vargas, Anyimilehidi; Park, Heungwon; Aydin, Mert; Buchler, Nicolas E.

    2014-01-01

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is an important tool for measuring in vivo gene dynamics in single cells. However, fluorescent proteins are limited by slow chromophore maturation times and the cellular autofluorescence or phototoxicity that arises from light excitation. An alternative is luciferase, an enzyme that emits photons and is active upon folding. The photon flux per luciferase is significantly lower than that for fluorescent proteins. Thus time-lapse luminescence microscopy has been successfully used to track gene dynamics only in larger organisms and for slower processes, for which more total photons can be collected in one exposure. Here we tested green, yellow, and red beetle luciferases and optimized substrate conditions for in vivo luminescence. By combining time-lapse luminescence microscopy with a microfluidic device, we tracked the dynamics of cell cycle genes in single yeast with subminute exposure times over many generations. Our method was faster and in cells with much smaller volumes than previous work. Fluorescence of an optimized reporter (Venus) lagged luminescence by 15–20 min, which is consistent with its known rate of chromophore maturation in yeast. Our work demonstrates that luciferases are better than fluorescent proteins at faithfully tracking the underlying gene expression. PMID:25232010

  4. Short time Fourier analysis of the electromyogram - Fast movements and constant contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaford, Blake; Lehman, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Short-time Fourier analysis was applied to surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded during rapid movements, and during isometric contractions at constant forces. A portion of the data to be transformed by multiplying the signal by a Hamming window was selected, and then the discrete Fourier transform was computed. Shifting the window along the data record, a new spectrum was computed each 10 ms. The transformed data were displayed in spectograms or 'voiceprints'. This short-time technique made it possible to see time-dependencies in the EMG that are normally averaged in the Fourier analysis of these signals. Spectra of EMGs during isometric contractions at constant force vary in the short (10-20 ms) term. Short-time spectra from EMGs recorded during rapid movements were much less variable. The windowing technique picked out the typical 'three-burst pattern' in EMG's from both wrist and head movements. Spectra during the bursts were more consistent than those during isometric contractions. Furthermore, there was a consistent shift in spectral statistics in the course of the three bursts. Both the center frequency and the variance of the spectral energy distribution grew from the first burst to the second burst in the same muscle. The analogy between EMGs and speech signals is extended to argue for future applicability of short-time spectral analysis of EMG.

  5. Enabling fast, stable and accurate peridynamic computations using multi-time-step integration

    DOE PAGES

    Lindsay, P.; Parks, M. L.; Prakash, A.

    2016-04-13

    Peridynamics is a nonlocal extension of classical continuum mechanics that is well-suited for solving problems with discontinuities such as cracks. This paper extends the peridynamic formulation to decompose a problem domain into a number of smaller overlapping subdomains and to enable the use of different time steps in different subdomains. This approach allows regions of interest to be isolated and solved at a small time step for increased accuracy while the rest of the problem domain can be solved at a larger time step for greater computational efficiency. Lastly, performance of the proposed method in terms of stability, accuracy, andmore » computational cost is examined and several numerical examples are presented to corroborate the findings.« less

  6. Fast time-correlated multi-element photon detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Carl C.; Chandler, David W.; Luong, A. Khai

    2007-12-18

    Photons emitted from a sample responsive to being excited by laser pulses are directed through a prism onto a photomultiplier tube having several spaced-apart anodes. The prism alters the path of each photon as a function of its wavelength so that the wavelength determines the anode to which the photon is directed. Taps of first and second delay lines that are coupled to respective alternating anodes. When an anode receives the photon, it generates a pulse that propagates through the delay line in opposite directions from its associated tap. A timer determines first and second times from the laser pulse to the pulse reaching the first and second ends of the delay line. The difference between the first and second times corresponds to the wavelength of the emitted photon and the sum of the first and second times corresponds to the emission delay of the emitted photon.

  7. Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time.

    PubMed

    Wajcman, Judy

    2008-03-01

    Assumptions about the pace of life speeding up abound in contemporary social theory. While many factors are contributing to this phenomenon, information and communication technologies are seen as the main drivers. This article considers the way social theorists analyse the concepts of time and speed and then examines how these claims might be assessed in the light of empirical research. Such research shows that time compression has multiple dimensions, and that the effect of digital devices like the mobile phone is not simply one of acceleration. In particular, I suggest that the social studies of technology offers a richer analysis of the reciprocal relationship between technological innovation and changing time practices. My argument is that while the hitherto neglected temporal dimension in sociological theory is now being addressed, there is an urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies. Without this, we will continue to have difficulty distinguishing social science from science fiction.

  8. TIME-DEPENDENT PERPENDICULAR TRANSPORT OF FAST CHARGED PARTICLES IN A TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Fraschetti, F.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2011-06-20

    We present an analytic derivation of the temporal dependence of the perpendicular transport coefficient of charged particles in magnetostatic turbulence, for times smaller than the time needed for charged particles to travel the turbulence correlation length. This time window is left unexplored in most transport models. In our analysis all magnetic scales are taken to be much larger than the particle gyroradius, so that perpendicular transport is assumed to be dominated by the guiding center motion. Particle drift from the local magnetic field lines (MFLs) and magnetic field line random walk are evaluated separately for slab and three-dimensional (3D) isotropic turbulence. Contributions of wavelength scales shorter and longer than the turbulence coherence length are compared. In contrast to the slab case, particles in 3D isotropic turbulence unexpectedly diffuse from local MFLs; this result questions the common assumption that particle magnetization is independent of turbulence geometry. Extensions of this model will allow for a study of solar wind anisotropies.

  9. Practical and fast quantum random number generation based on photon arrival time relative to external reference

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2014-02-03

    We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.

  10. Fast Identification of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine Using Direct Analysis in Real Time-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been found in preworkout products and dietary supplements. A fast direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time of flight-MS method was used for identification of DMAA in dietary supplements and to determine if this compound is present in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plants or oil. This method involved the use of [M+H]+ ions in the positive mode based on the exact mass of DMAA. The results of this investigation showed that DMAA was not detected from authentic samples of P. graveolens plant material or pelargonium oil or in multiple samples of commercially available pelargonium oil. DMAA was detected in three samples of dietary supplements. The LOD of DMAA was found to be 10 ng/mL.

  11. Real-time processing of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) data using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

    PubMed

    Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Covey, Daniel P; Heidenreich, Byron A; Garris, Paul A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the hardware implementation of a digital signal processing (DSP) unit for real-time processing of data obtained by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM), an electrochemical transduction technique for high-resolution monitoring of brain neurochemistry. Implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), the DSP unit comprises a decimation filter and an embedded processor to process the oversampled FSCV data and obtain in real time a temporal profile of concentration variation along with a chemical signature to identify the target neurotransmitter. Interfaced with an integrated, FSCV-sensing front-end, the DSP unit can successfully process FSCV data obtained by bolus injection of dopamine in a flow cell as well as electrically evoked, transient dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of an anesthetized rat. PMID:25570384

  12. Dynamic visual acuity and coincidence-anticipation timing by experienced and inexperienced women players of fast pitch softball.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, D G

    2000-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between dynamic visual acuity and coincidence-anticipation timing in 16 inexperienced and 16 experienced women's fast pitch softball players. Pearson-product correlations indicated a low relationship between dynamic visual acuity and coincidence-anticipation timing. The correlations for dynamic visual acuity and coincidence anticipation between experienced and inexperienced dynamic visual acuity were not significant. A significant difference was found between the mean dynamic visual acuity of the two groups, i.e., experienced players had better dynamic visual acuity than inexperienced players. Analysis of variance of constant errors, variable errors, and absolute errors of coincidence anticipation indicated no significant differences between groups or across the three accuracy scores. The interaction between experience and accuracy was not significant.

  13. Real-time processing of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) data using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

    PubMed

    Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Covey, Daniel P; Heidenreich, Byron A; Garris, Paul A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the hardware implementation of a digital signal processing (DSP) unit for real-time processing of data obtained by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM), an electrochemical transduction technique for high-resolution monitoring of brain neurochemistry. Implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), the DSP unit comprises a decimation filter and an embedded processor to process the oversampled FSCV data and obtain in real time a temporal profile of concentration variation along with a chemical signature to identify the target neurotransmitter. Interfaced with an integrated, FSCV-sensing front-end, the DSP unit can successfully process FSCV data obtained by bolus injection of dopamine in a flow cell as well as electrically evoked, transient dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of an anesthetized rat.

  14. Fast Identification of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine Using Direct Analysis in Real Time-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been found in preworkout products and dietary supplements. A fast direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time of flight-MS method was used for identification of DMAA in dietary supplements and to determine if this compound is present in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plants or oil. This method involved the use of [M+H]+ ions in the positive mode based on the exact mass of DMAA. The results of this investigation showed that DMAA was not detected from authentic samples of P. graveolens plant material or pelargonium oil or in multiple samples of commercially available pelargonium oil. DMAA was detected in three samples of dietary supplements. The LOD of DMAA was found to be 10 ng/mL. PMID:26086254

  15. Antiferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors with High Energy-Storage Densities, Low Energy Losses, and Fast Discharge Times.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Won; Amarsanaa, Gantsooj; Won, Sung Sik; Chae, Song A; Lee, Dae Su; Kim, Ill Won

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a capacitor with high energy densities, low energy losses, fast discharge times, and high temperature stabilities, based on Pb(0.97)Y(0.02)[(Zr(0.6)Sn(0.4))(0.925)Ti(0.075)]O3 (PYZST) antiferroelectric thin-films. PYZST thin-films exhibited a high recoverable energy density of U(reco) = 21.0 J/cm(3) with a high energy-storage efficiency of η = 91.9% under an electric field of 1300 kV/cm, providing faster microsecond discharge times than those of commercial polypropylene capacitors. Moreover, PYZST thin-films exhibited high temperature stabilities with regard to their energy-storage properties over temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C and also exhibited strong charge-discharge fatigue endurance up to 1 × 10(7) cycles. PMID:26606502

  16. Antiferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors with High Energy-Storage Densities, Low Energy Losses, and Fast Discharge Times.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Won; Amarsanaa, Gantsooj; Won, Sung Sik; Chae, Song A; Lee, Dae Su; Kim, Ill Won

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a capacitor with high energy densities, low energy losses, fast discharge times, and high temperature stabilities, based on Pb(0.97)Y(0.02)[(Zr(0.6)Sn(0.4))(0.925)Ti(0.075)]O3 (PYZST) antiferroelectric thin-films. PYZST thin-films exhibited a high recoverable energy density of U(reco) = 21.0 J/cm(3) with a high energy-storage efficiency of η = 91.9% under an electric field of 1300 kV/cm, providing faster microsecond discharge times than those of commercial polypropylene capacitors. Moreover, PYZST thin-films exhibited high temperature stabilities with regard to their energy-storage properties over temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C and also exhibited strong charge-discharge fatigue endurance up to 1 × 10(7) cycles.

  17. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Time-dependent exact solutions of the nonlinear Kompaneets equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, N. H.

    2010-12-01

    Time-dependent exact solutions of the Kompaneets photon diffusion equation are obtained for several approximations of this equation. One of the approximations describes the case when the induced scattering is dominant. In this case, the Kompaneets equation has an additional symmetry which is used for constructing some exact solutions as group invariant solutions.

  18. Experts in Fast-Ball Sports Reduce Anticipation Timing Cost by Developing Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n = 7) and…

  19. Time-resolved photo and radio-luminescence studies demonstrate the possibility of using InGaN/GaN quantum wells as fast scintillators.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, G

    2015-03-01

    In the recent publication by Hospodková et al, the authors investigate III-N quantum well structures as potential fast scintillators (Hospodková et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 455501). The InGaN/GaN quantum well structures are grown using metal organic vapour phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate and the fast carrier decay times are characterized by time resolved photo and radioluminescence. PMID:25670071

  20. Scintillating fibres coupled to silicon photomultiplier prototypes for fast beam monitoring and thin timing detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, A.; Kettle, P.-R.; Ripiccini, E.; Rutar, G.

    2016-07-01

    Several scintillating fibre prototypes (single- and double-layers) made of 250 μm multi-clad square fibres coupled to silicon photomultiplier have been studied using electrons, positrons and muons at different energies. Current measurements show promising results: already for a single fibre layer and minimum ionizing particles we obtain a detection efficiency ≥ 95 % (mean collected light/fibre ≈ 8 phe), a timing resolution of 550 ps/fibre and a foreseen spatial resolution < 100 μm, based on the achieved negligible optical cross-talk between fibres (< 1 %). We will also discuss the performances of a double-layer staggered prototype configuration, for which a full detection efficiency (≥ 99 %) has been measured together with a timing resolution of ≈ 400 ps for double hit events.

  1. Analysis of UAS DAA Surveillance in Fast-Time Simulations without DAA Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David P.; Santiago, Confesor; Isaacson, David R.; Lee, Seung Man; Refai, Mohamad Said; Snow, James William

    2015-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA surveillance system performance. A recent study conducted using NASA's ACES (Airspace Concept Evaluation System) simulation capability begins to address questions surrounding the development of draft MOPS for DAA surveillance systems. ACES simulations were conducted to study the performance of sensor systems proposed by the SC-228 DAA Surveillance sub-group. Analysis included but was not limited to: 1) number of intruders (both IFR and VFR) detected by all sensors as a function of UAS flight time, 2) number of intruders (both IFR and VFR) detected by radar alone as a function of UAS flight time, and 3) number of VFR intruders detected by all sensors as a function of UAS flight time. The results will be used by SC-228 to inform decisions about the surveillance standards of UAS DAA systems and future requirements development and validation efforts.

  2. Fast and accurate numerical method for predicting gas chromatography retention time.

    PubMed

    Claumann, Carlos Alberto; Wüst Zibetti, André; Bolzan, Ariovaldo; Machado, Ricardo A F; Pinto, Leonel Teixeira

    2015-08-01

    Predictive modeling for gas chromatography compound retention depends on the retention factor (ki) and on the flow of the mobile phase. Thus, different approaches for determining an analyte ki in column chromatography have been developed. The main one is based on the thermodynamic properties of the component and on the characteristics of the stationary phase. These models can be used to estimate the parameters and to optimize the programming of temperatures, in gas chromatography, for the separation of compounds. Different authors have proposed the use of numerical methods for solving these models, but these methods demand greater computational time. Hence, a new method for solving the predictive modeling of analyte retention time is presented. This algorithm is an alternative to traditional methods because it transforms its attainments into root determination problems within defined intervals. The proposed approach allows for tr calculation, with accuracy determined by the user of the methods, and significant reductions in computational time; it can also be used to evaluate the performance of other prediction methods.

  3. Experts in fast-ball sports reduce anticipation timing cost by developing inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n=7) and novices (n=7) while they completed a predictive task. The task was to manually press a button to coincide with the arrival of a moving target. The target moved at a constant velocity, and its velocity was suddenly decreased in some trials. Under changed velocity conditions, the baseball experts showed significantly smaller timing errors and a higher rate of timing reprogramming than the novices. Moreover, ERPs in baseball experts revealed faster central negative deflection and augmented frontal positive deflection at 200ms (N200) and 300ms (Pd300) after target deceleration, respectively. Following this, peak latency of the next positive component in the central region (P300b) was delayed. The negative deflection at 200ms, augmented frontal positive deflection, and late positive deflection at 300ms have been interpreted as reflecting stimulus detection, motor inhibition, and stimulus-response translation processes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the experts have developed movement reprogramming to avoid anticipation cost, and this is characterized by quick detection of target velocity change, stronger inhibition of the planned, incorrect response, and update of the stimulus-response relationship in the changed environment. PMID:22626919

  4. Fast reducers, slow augmenters: a psychophysiological analysis of temperament-related differences in reaction time.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Getzmann, Stephan; Baltissen, Rüdiger

    2004-05-01

    Augmenting-reducing theory describes temperament-related differences in the modulation of stimulation. Reducers are supposed to need more stimulation than augmenters because of a cortical attenuation of incoming stimuli. The study investigated differences between augmenters and reducers (classified by questionnaire) in performance and information processing strategies in a simple reaction time task. Fifty-two subjects (27 augmenters, 25 reducers) took part in a visual reaction time task with go- and catch-trials (30%). Reaction times, commission errors, and psychophysiological indicators of information processing (N1, P300, EMG) were recorded. Reducers were faster and exhibited more commission errors than augmenters. Moreover, reducers exhibited higher N1-amplitudes, faster EMG-onsets and higher EMG-amplitudes than augmenters. An additional pain tolerance test revealed that male reducers were more pain tolerant than the other participants. These results are consistent with the proposition that reducers have a higher need for stimulation than augmenters. Probably, they utilize locomotor activity in order to compensate for their attenuated arousal.

  5. Experts in fast-ball sports reduce anticipation timing cost by developing inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n=7) and novices (n=7) while they completed a predictive task. The task was to manually press a button to coincide with the arrival of a moving target. The target moved at a constant velocity, and its velocity was suddenly decreased in some trials. Under changed velocity conditions, the baseball experts showed significantly smaller timing errors and a higher rate of timing reprogramming than the novices. Moreover, ERPs in baseball experts revealed faster central negative deflection and augmented frontal positive deflection at 200ms (N200) and 300ms (Pd300) after target deceleration, respectively. Following this, peak latency of the next positive component in the central region (P300b) was delayed. The negative deflection at 200ms, augmented frontal positive deflection, and late positive deflection at 300ms have been interpreted as reflecting stimulus detection, motor inhibition, and stimulus-response translation processes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the experts have developed movement reprogramming to avoid anticipation cost, and this is characterized by quick detection of target velocity change, stronger inhibition of the planned, incorrect response, and update of the stimulus-response relationship in the changed environment.

  6. A fast 1-D detector for imaging and time resolved SAXS experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menk, R. H.; Arfelli, F.; Bernstorff, S.; Pontoni, D.; Sarvestani, A.; Besch, H. J.; Walenta, A. H.

    1999-02-01

    A one-dimensional test detector on the principle of a highly segmented ionization chamber with shielding grid (Frisch grid) was developed to evaluate if this kind of detector is suitable for advanced small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. At present it consists of 128 pixels which can be read out within 0.2 ms with a noise floor of 2000 e-ENC. A quantum efficiency of 80% for a photon energy of 8 keV was achieved. This leads to DQE values of 80% for photon fluxes above 1000 photons/pixel and integration time. The shielding grid is based on the principles of the recently invented MCAT structure and the GEM structure which also allows electron amplification in the gas. In the case of the MCAT structure, an energy resolution of 20% at 5.9 keV was observed. The gas amplification mode enables imaging with this integrating detector on a subphoton noise level with respect to the integration time. Preliminary experiments of saturation behavior show that this kind of detector digests a photon flux density up to 10 12 photons/mm 2 s and operates linearly. A spatial resolution of at least three line pairs/mm was obtained. All these features show that this type of detector is well suited for time-resolved SAXS experiments as well as high flux imaging applications.

  7. Ultra fast miniaturized real-time PCR: 40 cycles in less than six minutes

    PubMed Central

    Neuzil, Pavel; Zhang, Chunyan; Pipper, Juergen; Oh, Sharon; Zhuo, Lang

    2006-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and tested a real-time PCR chip capable of conducting one thermal cycle in 8.5 s. This corresponds to 40 cycles of PCR in 5 min and 40 s. The PCR system was made of silicon micromachined into the shape of a cantilever terminated with a disc. The thin film heater and a temperature sensor were placed on the disc perimeter. Due to the system's thermal constant of 0.27 s, we have achieved a heating rate of 175°C s−1 and a cooling rate of −125°C s−1. A PCR sample encapsulated with mineral oil was dispensed onto a glass cover slip placed on the silicon disc. The PCR cycle time was then determined by heat transfer through the glass, which took only 0.5 s. A real-time PCR sample with a volume of 100 nl was tested using a FAM probe. As the single PCR device occupied an area of only a few square millimeters, devices could be combined into a parallel system to increase throughput. PMID:16807313

  8. Hydrological Characteristics of Recurrent Slope Lineae on Mars Based on Time-Resolved HiRISE Analyses and Comparisons with Fluid Flow Through an Antarctic Terrestrial Analog Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.; Fountain, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    We test the "wet" (brine-related) RSL formation mechanism by using repeat HiRISE images to determine whether a simple Darcy flow model can explain the spatial pattern of RSL darkening. This remote hydrogeological tool is verified in Antarctic soil.

  9. Structural Theories and Race-Specific Drug Arrests: What Structural Factors Account for the Rise in Race-Specific Drug Arrests over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Karen F.; Maggard, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    Studies examining the structural correlates of urban crime have generated a large body of research; however, few studies have linked the structural conditions to race-specific drug arrests. In this study, the authors examine the impact of urban disadvantage, social disorganization, and racial threat indicators on the rise in race-specific drug…

  10. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees < 30 cm in diameter. For three out of five species, a juvenile selection effect was found in rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  11. The effect of age and microstructural white matter integrity on lap time variation and fast-paced walking speed.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Shardell, Michelle D; Landman, Bennett A; Venkatraman, Vijay K; Gonzalez, Christopher E; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2016-09-01

    Macrostructural white matter damage (WMD) is associated with less uniform and slower walking in older adults. The effect of age and subclinical microstructural WM degeneration (a potentially earlier phase of WM ischemic damage) on walking patterns and speed is less clear. This study examines the effect of age on the associations of regional microstructural WM integrity with walking variability and speed, independent of macrostructural WMD. This study involved 493 participants (n = 51 young; n = 209 young-old; n = 233 old-old) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. All completed a 400-meter walk test and underwent a concurrent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging. Microstructural WM integrity was measured as fractional anisotropy (FA). Walking variability was measured as trend-adjusted variation in time over ten 40-meter laps (lap time variation, LTV). Fast-paced walking speed was assessed as mean lap time (MLT). Multiple linear regression models of FA predicting LTV and MLT were adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and WM hyperintensities. Independent of WM hyperintensities, lower FA in the body of the corpus callosum was associated with higher LTV and longer MLT only in the young-old. Lower FA in superior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital, and uncinate fasciculi, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the anterior corona radiate was associated with longer MLT only in the young-old. While macrostructural WMD is known to predict more variable and slower walking in older adults, microstructural WM disruption is independently associated with more variable and slower fast-paced walking only in the young-old. Disrupted regional WM integrity may be a subclinical contributor to abnormal walking at an earlier phase of aging.

  12. Paleoposition of the northern margin of Armorica in Late Devonian times: Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Frankenstein Intrusive Complex (Mid-German Crystalline Rise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwing, Alexander; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2000-09-01

    A detailed rockmagnetic and paleomagnetic study of the Frankenstein Intrusive Complex (FIC, 363±7 Ma in age), southwestern Germany, has been carried out in order to test whether the paleomagnetic declinations within the internal parts of the European Variscides follow a common trend controlled by the structural grain of the orogen or whether the distribution of declinations follows a random pattern. In addition, new paleomagnetic data will contribute to further refine the drift history of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage during late Paleozoic times. The unmetamorphosed Frankenstein Igneous Complex forms part of the Mid-German Crystalline Rise within the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, amalgamated to Avalonia and Baltica during the Variscan orogeny, Stepwise thermal and alternating field (AF) demagnetization experiments identify four components (A, B, Cn, and Cr) of magnetization. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the present-day geomagnetic field. The high unblocking temperatures of A in some samples can be explained by the presence of multidomain magnetite. Component B is carried by hematite and is considered to be a late Carboniferous remagnetization. Components Cr and Cn, found in 110 samples from 20 sites, are antiparallel and pass a class C reversal test. Their primary origin is further supported by a contact test. Cr and Cn have maximum unblocking temperatures of up to 580°C and occasionally above over 600°C, indicating magnetite and hematite to carry the characteristic remanent magnetization. Ore microscopy revealed that primary hematite lamellae in ilmenite carry Cr and Cn and that a secondary generation of hematite is the carrier of B. The overall site mean direction of Cr and Cn (20 sites) based on endpoints and remagnetization circle analysis of 198°/40° (declination/inclination) with a 95% confidence limit (α95) of 4.9° and a precision parameter (k) of 45.0 defines a paleopole at 15°S, 9°W. When comparing to the apparent

  13. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: A trivial observation on time reversal in random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, L.; Leyvraz, F.; Pineda, C.; Seligman, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    It is commonly thought that a state-dependent quantity, after being averaged over a classical ensemble of random Hamiltonians, will always become independent of the state. We point out that this is in general incorrect: if the ensemble of Hamiltonians is time-reversal invariant, and the quantity involves the state in higher than bilinear order, then we show that the quantity is only a constant over the orbits of the invariance group on the Hilbert space. Examples include fidelity and decoherence in appropriate models.

  15. Calculating singlet excited states: Comparison with fast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of coumarins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Wriglesworth, Alisdair; Uroos, Maliha; Calladine, James A.; Murphy, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Michelle; Clark, Ian P.; Towrie, Michael; Dowden, James; Besley, Nicholas A.; George, Michael W.

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to the ground state, the calculation of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy of molecular singlet excited states represents a substantial challenge. Here, we use the structural IR fingerprint of the singlet excited states of a range of coumarin dyes to assess the accuracy of density functional theory based methods for the calculation of excited state IR spectroscopy. It is shown that excited state Kohn-Sham density functional theory provides a high level of accuracy and represents an alternative approach to time-dependent density functional theory for simulating the IR spectroscopy of singlet excited states.

  16. Fast time-series prediction using high-dimensional data: Evaluating confidence interval credibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Yoshito

    2014-05-01

    I propose an index for evaluating the credibility of confidence intervals for future observables predicted from high-dimensional time-series data. The index evaluates the distance from the current state to the data manifold. I demonstrate the index with artificial datasets generated from the Lorenz'96 II model [Lorenz, in Proceedings of the Seminar on Predictability, Vol. 1 (ECMWF, Reading, UK, 1996), p. 1], the Lorenz'96 I model [Hansen and Smith, J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 2859 (2000), 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2859:TROOCI>2.0.CO;2], and the coupled map lattice, and a real dataset for the solar irradiation around Japan.

  17. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Late-time tails in the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleiser, Reinaldo J.; Price, Richard H.; Pullin, Jorge

    2008-04-01

    Outside a black hole, perturbation fields die off in time as 1/tn. For spherical holes n = 2ell + 3 where ell is the multipole index. In the nonspherical Kerr spacetime there is no coordinate-independent meaning of 'multipole', and a common sense viewpoint is to set ell to the lowest radiatiable index, although theoretical studies have led to very different claims. Numerical results, to date, have been controversial. Here we show that expansion for small Kerr spin parameter a leads to very definite numerical results confirming previous theoretical predictions.

  18. Calculating singlet excited states: Comparison with fast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of coumarins.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Wriglesworth, Alisdair; Uroos, Maliha; Calladine, James A; Murphy, Thomas S; Hamilton, Michelle; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; Dowden, James; Besley, Nicholas A; George, Michael W

    2015-04-21

    In contrast to the ground state, the calculation of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy of molecular singlet excited states represents a substantial challenge. Here, we use the structural IR fingerprint of the singlet excited states of a range of coumarin dyes to assess the accuracy of density functional theory based methods for the calculation of excited state IR spectroscopy. It is shown that excited state Kohn-Sham density functional theory provides a high level of accuracy and represents an alternative approach to time-dependent density functional theory for simulating the IR spectroscopy of singlet excited states.

  19. Wide-field time-gated photoluminescence microscopy for fast ultrahigh-sensitivity imaging of photoluminescent probes.

    PubMed

    Razali, Wan A W; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Bradac, Carlo; Connor, Mark; Goldys, Ewa M; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2016-08-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a fundamental technique for the life sciences, where biocompatible and photostable photoluminescence probes in combination with fast and sensitive imaging systems are continually transforming this field. A wide-field time-gated photoluminescence microscopy system customised for ultrasensitive imaging of unique nanoruby probes with long photoluminescence lifetime is described. The detection sensitivity derived from the long photoluminescence lifetime of the nanoruby makes it possible to discriminate signals from unwanted autofluorescence background and laser backscatter by employing a time-gated image acquisition mode. This mode enabled several-fold improvement of the photoluminescence imaging contrast of discrete nanorubies dispersed on a coverslip. It enabled recovery of the photoluminescence signal emanating from discrete nanorubies when covered by a layer of an organic fluorescent dye, which were otherwise invisible without the use of spectral filtering approaches. Time-gated imaging also facilitated high sensitivity detection of nanorubies in a biological environment of cultured cells. Finally, we monitor the binding kinetics of nanorubies to a functionalised substrate, which exemplified a real-time assay in biological fluids. 3D-pseudo colour images of nanorubies immersed in a highly fluorescent dye solution. Nanoruby photoluminescence is subdued by that of the dye in continuous excitation/imaging (left), however it can be recovered by time-gated imaging (right). At the bottom is schematic diagram of nanoruby assay in a biological fluid. PMID:27264934

  20. Fast analysis of wide-band scattering from electrically large targets with time-domain parabolic equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zi; Chen, Ru-Shan

    2016-03-01

    An efficient three-dimensional time domain parabolic equation (TDPE) method is proposed to fast analyze the narrow-angle wideband EM scattering properties of electrically large targets. The finite difference (FD) of Crank-Nicolson (CN) scheme is used as the traditional tool to solve the time-domain parabolic equation. However, a huge computational resource is required when the meshes become dense. Therefore, the alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme is introduced to discretize the time-domain parabolic equation. In this way, the reduced transient scattered fields can be calculated line by line in each transverse plane for any time step with unconditional stability. As a result, less computational resources are required for the proposed ADI-based TDPE method when compared with both the traditional CN-based TDPE method and the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. By employing the rotating TDPE method, the complete bistatic RCS can be obtained with encouraging accuracy for any observed angle. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Rising Sea Levels: Truth or Scare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Alan

    2007-01-01

    When "ITV News" ran an item that shocked the author, about rising sea levels that will have caused the entire evacuation of the islands by the end of this year, he began to wonder whether the Pacific Ocean is really rising as fast as this. The media reporting of such things can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it brought to the author's…

  2. Fast but not intuitive, slow but not reflective: Decision conflict drives reaction times in social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anthony M; Dillon, Kyle D; Rand, David G

    2015-10-01

    When people have the chance to help others at a cost to themselves, are cooperative decisions driven by intuition or reflection? To answer this question, recent studies have tested the relationship between reaction times (RTs) and cooperation, reporting both positive and negative correlations. To reconcile this apparent contradiction, we argue that decision conflict (rather than the use of intuition vs. reflection) drives response times, leading to an inverted-U shaped relationship between RT and cooperation. Studies 1 through 3 show that intermediate decisions take longer than both extremely selfish and extremely cooperative decisions. Studies 4 and 5 find that the conflict between self-interested and cooperative motives explains individual differences in RTs. Manipulating conflictedness causes longer RTs and more intermediate decisions, and RTs mediate the relationship between conflict and intermediate decisions. Finally, Studies 6 and 7 demonstrate that conflict is distinct from reflection by manipulating the use of intuition (vs. reflection). Experimentally promoting reliance on intuition increases cooperation, but has no effects on decision extremity or feelings of conflictedness. In sum, we provide evidence that RTs should not be interpreted as a direct proxy for the use of intuitive or reflective processes, and dissociate the effects of conflict and reflection in social decision making. PMID:26413891

  3. Slow Cholinergic Modulation of Spike Probability in Ultra-Fast Time-Coding Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, David; Kurth, Stefanie; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sensory processing in the lower auditory pathway is generally considered to be rigid and thus less subject to modulation than central processing. However, in addition to the powerful bottom-up excitation by auditory nerve fibers, the ventral cochlear nucleus also receives efferent cholinergic innervation from both auditory and nonauditory top–down sources. We thus tested the influence of cholinergic modulation on highly precise time-coding neurons in the cochlear nucleus of the Mongolian gerbil. By combining electrophysiological recordings with pharmacological application in vitro and in vivo, we found 55–72% of spherical bushy cells (SBCs) to be depolarized by carbachol on two time scales, ranging from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes. These effects were mediated by nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively. Pharmacological block of muscarinic receptors hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, suggesting a novel mechanism of setting the resting membrane potential for SBC. The cholinergic depolarization led to an increase of spike probability in SBCs without compromising the temporal precision of the SBC output in vitro. In vivo, iontophoretic application of carbachol resulted in an increase in spontaneous SBC activity. The inclusion of cholinergic modulation in an SBC model predicted an expansion of the dynamic range of sound responses and increased temporal acuity. Our results thus suggest of a top–down modulatory system mediated by acetylcholine which influences temporally precise information processing in the lower auditory pathway. PMID:27699207

  4. Fast and sensitive detection of mycotoxins in wheat using microfluidics based Real-time Electrochemical Profiling.

    PubMed

    Olcer, Zehra; Esen, Elif; Muhammad, Turghun; Ersoy, Aylin; Budak, Sinan; Uludag, Yıldız

    2014-12-15

    The objective of the study has been the development of a new sensing platform, called Real-time Electrochemical Profiling (REP) that relies on real-time electrochemical immunoassay detection. The proposed REP platform consists of new electrode arrays that are easy to fabricate, has a small imprint allowing microfluidic system integration, enables multiplexed amperometric measurements and performs well in terms of electrochemical immunoassay detection as shown through the deoxynivalenol detection assays. The deoxynivalenol detection has been conducted according to an optimised REP assay protocol using deoxynivalenol standards at varying concentrations and a standard curve was obtained (y=-20.33ln(x)+124.06; R(2)=0.97) with a limit of detection of 6.25 ng/ml. As both ELISA and REP detection methods use horse radish peroxidase as the label and 3.3',5.5'-Tetramethylbenzidine as the substrate, the performance of the REP platform as an ELISA reader has also been investigated and a perfect correlation between the deoxynivalenol concentration and the current response was obtained (y=-14.56ln(x)+101.02; R(2)=0.99). The calibration curves of both assays have been compared to conventional ELISA tests for confirmation. After assay optimisation using toxin spiked buffer, the deoxynivalenol detection assay has also been performed to detect toxins in wheat grain.

  5. The High Time Resolution Universe surveys for pulsars and fast transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Michael J.

    2013-03-01

    The High Time Resolution Universe survey for pulsars and transients is the first truly all-sky pulsar survey, taking place at the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany. Utilising multibeam receivers with custom built all-digital recorders the survey targets the fastest millisecond pulsars and radio transients on timescales of 64 μs to a few seconds. The new multibeam digital filter-bank system at has a factor of eight improvement in frequency resolution over previous Parkes multibeam surveys, allowing us to probe further into the Galactic plane for short duration signals. The survey is split into low, mid and high Galactic latitude regions. The mid-latitude portion of the southern hemisphere survey is now completed, discovering 107 previously unknown pulsars, including 26 millisecond pulsars. To date, the total number of discoveries in the combined survey is 135 and 29 MSPs These discoveries include the first magnetar to be discovered by it's radio emission, unusual low-mass binaries, gamma-ray pulsars and pulsars suitable for pulsar timing array experiments.

  6. Slow Cholinergic Modulation of Spike Probability in Ultra-Fast Time-Coding Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, David; Kurth, Stefanie; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sensory processing in the lower auditory pathway is generally considered to be rigid and thus less subject to modulation than central processing. However, in addition to the powerful bottom-up excitation by auditory nerve fibers, the ventral cochlear nucleus also receives efferent cholinergic innervation from both auditory and nonauditory top–down sources. We thus tested the influence of cholinergic modulation on highly precise time-coding neurons in the cochlear nucleus of the Mongolian gerbil. By combining electrophysiological recordings with pharmacological application in vitro and in vivo, we found 55–72% of spherical bushy cells (SBCs) to be depolarized by carbachol on two time scales, ranging from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes. These effects were mediated by nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively. Pharmacological block of muscarinic receptors hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, suggesting a novel mechanism of setting the resting membrane potential for SBC. The cholinergic depolarization led to an increase of spike probability in SBCs without compromising the temporal precision of the SBC output in vitro. In vivo, iontophoretic application of carbachol resulted in an increase in spontaneous SBC activity. The inclusion of cholinergic modulation in an SBC model predicted an expansion of the dynamic range of sound responses and increased temporal acuity. Our results thus suggest of a top–down modulatory system mediated by acetylcholine which influences temporally precise information processing in the lower auditory pathway.

  7. Fast but not intuitive, slow but not reflective: Decision conflict drives reaction times in social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anthony M; Dillon, Kyle D; Rand, David G

    2015-10-01

    When people have the chance to help others at a cost to themselves, are cooperative decisions driven by intuition or reflection? To answer this question, recent studies have tested the relationship between reaction times (RTs) and cooperation, reporting both positive and negative correlations. To reconcile this apparent contradiction, we argue that decision conflict (rather than the use of intuition vs. reflection) drives response times, leading to an inverted-U shaped relationship between RT and cooperation. Studies 1 through 3 show that intermediate decisions take longer than both extremely selfish and extremely cooperative decisions. Studies 4 and 5 find that the conflict between self-interested and cooperative motives explains individual differences in RTs. Manipulating conflictedness causes longer RTs and more intermediate decisions, and RTs mediate the relationship between conflict and intermediate decisions. Finally, Studies 6 and 7 demonstrate that conflict is distinct from reflection by manipulating the use of intuition (vs. reflection). Experimentally promoting reliance on intuition increases cooperation, but has no effects on decision extremity or feelings of conflictedness. In sum, we provide evidence that RTs should not be interpreted as a direct proxy for the use of intuitive or reflective processes, and dissociate the effects of conflict and reflection in social decision making.

  8. Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube thermocycler for fast DNA amplification and real-time optical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, Ryan J.; Whitney, Scott E.; Sarkar, Amitabha; Nelson, Michael; Padhye, Nisha V.; Gogos, George; Viljoen, Hendrik J.

    2004-12-01

    An innovative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocycler capable of performing real-time optical detection is described below. This device utilizes the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube in a system to efficiently and rapidly cycle three 20 μL samples between the denaturation, annealing, and elongation temperatures. The reaction progress is displayed real-time by measuring the size of a fluorescent signal emitted by SYBR green/double-stranded DNA complexes. This device can produce significant reaction yields with very small amounts of initial DNA, for example, it can amplify 0.25 fg (˜5 copies) of a 96 bp bacteriophage λ-DNA fragment 2.7×1011-fold by performing 45 cycles in less than 12 min. The optical threshold (150% of the baseline intensity) was passed 8 min into the reaction at cycle 34. Besides direct applications, the speed and sensitivity of this device enables it to be used as a scientific instrument for basic studies such as PCR assembly and polymerase kinetics.

  9. Fast and sensitive detection of mycotoxins in wheat using microfluidics based Real-time Electrochemical Profiling.

    PubMed

    Olcer, Zehra; Esen, Elif; Muhammad, Turghun; Ersoy, Aylin; Budak, Sinan; Uludag, Yıldız

    2014-12-15

    The objective of the study has been the development of a new sensing platform, called Real-time Electrochemical Profiling (REP) that relies on real-time electrochemical immunoassay detection. The proposed REP platform consists of new electrode arrays that are easy to fabricate, has a small imprint allowing microfluidic system integration, enables multiplexed amperometric measurements and performs well in terms of electrochemical immunoassay detection as shown through the deoxynivalenol detection assays. The deoxynivalenol detection has been conducted according to an optimised REP assay protocol using deoxynivalenol standards at varying concentrations and a standard curve was obtained (y=-20.33ln(x)+124.06; R(2)=0.97) with a limit of detection of 6.25 ng/ml. As both ELISA and REP detection methods use horse radish peroxidase as the label and 3.3',5.5'-Tetramethylbenzidine as the substrate, the performance of the REP platform as an ELISA reader has also been investigated and a perfect correlation between the deoxynivalenol concentration and the current response was obtained (y=-14.56ln(x)+101.02; R(2)=0.99). The calibration curves of both assays have been compared to conventional ELISA tests for confirmation. After assay optimisation using toxin spiked buffer, the deoxynivalenol detection assay has also been performed to detect toxins in wheat grain. PMID:24998314

  10. A fast algorithm to compute precise type-2 centroids for real-time control applications.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sumantra; Konar, Amit; Ralescu, Anca; Pal, Nikhil R

    2015-02-01

    An interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2 FS) is characterized by its upper and lower membership functions containing all possible embedded fuzzy sets, which together is referred to as the footprint of uncertainty (FOU). The FOU results in a span of uncertainty measured in the defuzzified space and is determined by the positional difference of the centroids of all the embedded fuzzy sets taken together. This paper provides a closed-form formula to evaluate the span of uncertainty of an IT2 FS. The closed-form formula offers a precise measurement of the degree of uncertainty in an IT2 FS with a runtime complexity less than that of the classical iterative Karnik-Mendel algorithm and other formulations employing the iterative Newton-Raphson algorithm. This paper also demonstrates a real-time control application using the proposed closed-form formula of centroids with reduced root mean square error and computational overhead than those of the existing methods. Computer simulations for this real-time control application indicate that parallel realization of the IT2 defuzzification outperforms its competitors with respect to maximum overshoot even at high sampling rates. Furthermore, in the presence of measurement noise in system (plant) states, the proposed IT2 FS based scheme outperforms its type-1 counterpart with respect to peak overshoot and root mean square error in plant response.

  11. An instrument for time resolved monitoring of fast chemical transitions: Application to the kinetics of refolding of a globular protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, Vladimir; Haas, Elisha

    1998-05-01

    The dynamics of kinetic intermediates of protein folding can be studied by time resolved measurements of nonradiative excitation energy transfer, in site-specific labeled protein derivatives, combined with fast mixing experiments. A new device based on the single pulse approach was developed. This experiment is performed over two time scales: the "chemical time scale" of the conformational changes (milliseconds), defined by the rates of changes of conformations in the sample, and the "spectroscopic time scale" (nanoseconds) defined by the lifetimes of the excited states of the fluorescent probes. The chemical process was synchronized by means of a fast mixing stopped flow device. The low cost laser used here is suitable for use with dyes with excitation wavelengths of 337 nm and higher. Up to 20 fluorescence decay curves per second, can be measured within a single stopped flow run. Each fluorescence decay curve is recorded within 250 ns or more. The time resolution (of the spectroscopic time scale) was 0.5 ns. The noise level is low enough to estimate distance distributions from energy transfer experiments, provided that the shortest changeable lifetime component of the fluorescence decay of the donor probes would not be lower than ˜4 ns. The amount of double labeled protein which should be used for each experiment in order to obtain a full data set, with time resolution of 10 ms during protein transition, is only fourfold more than the amount needed for a stopped flow study with steady state fluorescence monitoring. The results obtained for refolding of α-lactalbumin in the presence of 1,8-anilino-naphthalene sulfonic acid from the GuHCl induced denatured state, support the model in which the probe has two states. The first state, is characterized by a fluorescence lifetime of 14.2±0.5 ns and the second by a fluorescence lifetime of 0.5±0.4 ns or less. During refolding the dye is transferred from the first state to the second, at a rate that coincides with the

  12. Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ji-Liang; Ni, Shui-Bin; Ping Chen, Chao; Lu, Jian-Gang Su, Yikai; Wu, Dong-Qing; Song, Xiao-Long; Chen, Chao-Yuan; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2014-03-03

    A fluid self-assembly sphere phase (SP) of liquid crystal induced by chiral dopant is observed in a narrow temperature range between isotropic and blue phase or between isotropic and chiral nematic phase. The SP consists of three-dimensional twist spheres (3-DTSs) and disclinations among 3-DTSs. The temperature range of the SP has been broadened to more than 85 °C by stabilizing the disclinations with amorphous polymer chains. The electro-optical switching time of the polymer-stabilized SP is demonstrated in sub-millisecond with a low switching electric field of 4.4 V μm{sup −1}, which is of promising applications in displays, 3-D tunable photonic crystals, and phase modulators.

  13. An implicit fast Fourier transform method for integration of the time dependent Schrodinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.E.; Ritchie, A.B.

    1997-12-31

    One finds that the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure is subject to difficulties when solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Coulombic systems. By rearranging the kinetic and potential energy terms in the temporal propagator of the finite difference equations, one can find a propagation algorithm for three dimensions that looks much like the Crank-Nicholson and alternating direction implicit methods for one- and two-space-dimensional partial differential equations. The authors report investigations of this novel implicit split operator procedure. The results look promising for a purely numerical approach to certain electron quantum mechanical problems. A charge exchange calculation is presented as an example of the power of the method.

  14. Fast time-of-flight camera based surface registration for radiotherapy patient positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Placht, Simon; Stancanello, Joseph; Schaller, Christian; Balda, Michael; Angelopoulou, Elli

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: This work introduces a rigid registration framework for patient positioning in radiotherapy, based on real-time surface acquisition by a time-of-flight (ToF) camera. Dynamic properties of the system are also investigated for future gating/tracking strategies. Methods: A novel preregistration algorithm, based on translation and rotation-invariant features representing surface structures, was developed. Using these features, corresponding three-dimensional points were computed in order to determine initial registration parameters. These parameters became a robust input to an accelerated version of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm for the fine-tuning of the registration result. Distance calibration and Kalman filtering were used to compensate for ToF-camera dependent noise. Additionally, the advantage of using the feature based preregistration over an ''ICP only'' strategy was evaluated, as well as the robustness of the rigid-transformation-based method to deformation. Results: The proposed surface registration method was validated using phantom data. A mean target registration error (TRE) for translations and rotations of 1.62 {+-} 1.08 mm and 0.07 deg. {+-} 0.05 deg., respectively, was achieved. There was a temporal delay of about 65 ms in the registration output, which can be seen as negligible considering the dynamics of biological systems. Feature based preregistration allowed for accurate and robust registrations even at very large initial displacements. Deformations affected the accuracy of the results, necessitating particular care in cases of deformed surfaces. Conclusions: The proposed solution is able to solve surface registration problems with an accuracy suitable for radiotherapy cases where external surfaces offer primary or complementary information to patient positioning. The system shows promising dynamic properties for its use in gating/tracking applications. The overall system is competitive with commonly-used surface

  15. Positive Contrast with Alternating Repetition Time SSFP (PARTS): A Fast Imaging Technique for SPIO-Labeled Cells

    PubMed Central

    Çukur, Tolga; Yamada, Mayumi; Overall, William R.; Yang, Phillip; Nishimura, Dwight G.

    2011-01-01

    There has been recent interest in positive-contrast MRI methods for noninvasive tracking of cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. Low-tip-angle balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequences have been used for fast, high-resolution, and flow-insensitive positive-contrast imaging; however, the contrast can be compromised by the limited suppression of the on-resonant and fat signals. In this work, a new technique that produces positive contrast with alternating repetition time SSFP (PARTS) is proposed to achieve robust background suppression for a broad range of tissue parameters. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate the reliability of the generated positive contrast. The results indicate that PARTS can enhance the suppression level by up to 18 dB compared with conventional bSSFP. PMID:20099331

  16. Half-life of the Iπ = 4- Intruder State in 34P Using LaBr3:Ce Fast Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P. J. R.; Alharbi, T.; Regan, P. H.; Mǎrginean, N.; Podolyàk, Zs; Alkhomashi, N.; Bender, P. C.; Bowry, M.; Bostan, M.; Bucurescu, D.; Bruce, A. M.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Cǎta-Danil, I.; Chakrabarti, R.; Deleanu, D.; Detistov, P.; Erduran, M. N.; Filipescu, D.; Garg, U.; Glodariu, T.; Ghiţǎ, D.; Ghugre, S. S.; Kusoglu, A.; Mǎrginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Nakhostin, M.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Rodríguez Triguero, C.; Sava, T.; Simpson, E. C.; Sinha, A. K.; Stroe, L.; Suliman, G.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2012-09-01

    The half-life of the Iπ = 4- intruder state at 2305 keV in 3415P19 has been measured using γ-ray coincident fast timing with LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors. Excited states in 34P were populated in the 18O(18O,pn)34P reaction at a beam energy of 36 MeV at the Tandem Laboratory at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania. A half-life of t1/2 ~ 2 ns was obtained for the 4- state, giving an M2 reduced transition probability consistent with similar transitions in this mass region and confirming the intruder-parity nature of the state.

  17. Real-time dedispersion for fast radio transient surveys, using auto tuning on many-core accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sclocco, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Bal, H. E.; van Nieuwpoort, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dedispersion, the removal of deleterious smearing of impulsive signals by the interstellar matter, is one of the most intensive processing steps in any radio survey for pulsars and fast transients. We here present a study of the parallelization of this algorithm on many-core accelerators, including GPUs from AMD and NVIDIA, and the Intel Xeon Phi. We find that dedispersion is inherently memory-bound. Even in a perfect scenario, hardware limitations keep the arithmetic intensity low, thus limiting performance. We next exploit auto-tuning to adapt dedispersion to different accelerators, observations, and even telescopes. We demonstrate that the optimal settings differ between observational setups, and that auto-tuning significantly improves performance. This impacts time-domain surveys from Apertif to SKA.

  18. Fast time-lens-based line-scan single-pixel camera with multi-wavelength source

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiang; Chen, Hongwei; Weng, Zhiliang; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-01-01

    A fast time-lens-based line-scan single-pixel camera with multi-wavelength source is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. A multi-wavelength laser instead of a mode-locked laser is used as the optical source. With a diffraction grating and dispersion compensating fibers, the spatial information of an object is converted into temporal waveforms which are then randomly encoded, temporally compressed and captured by a single-pixel photodetector. Two algorithms (the dictionary learning algorithm and the discrete cosine transform-based algorithm) for image reconstruction are employed, respectively. Results show that the dictionary learning algorithm has greater capability to reduce the number of compressive measurements than the DCT-based algorithm. The effective imaging frame rate increases from 200 kHz to 1 MHz, which shows a significant improvement in imaging speed over conventional single-pixel cameras. PMID:26417527

  19. Fast history matching of time-lapse seismic and production data for high resolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Arismendi, Eduardo Antonio

    Integrated reservoir modeling has become an important part of day-to-day decision analysis in oil and gas management practices. A very attractive and promising technology is the use of time-lapse or 4D seismic as an essential component in subsurface modeling. Today, 4D seismic is enabling oil companies to optimize production and increase recovery through monitoring fluid movements throughout the reservoir. 4D seismic advances are also being driven by an increased need by the petroleum engineering community to become more quantitative and accurate in our ability to monitor reservoir processes. Qualitative interpretations of time-lapse anomalies are being replaced by quantitative inversions of 4D seismic data to produce accurate maps of fluid saturations, pore pressure, temperature, among others. Within all steps involved in this subsurface modeling process, the most demanding one is integrating the geologic model with dynamic field data, including 4Dseismic when available. The validation of the geologic model with observed dynamic data is accomplished through a "history matching" (HM) process typically carried out with well-based measurements. Due to low resolution of production data, the validation process is severely limited in its reservoir areal coverage, compromising the quality of the model and any subsequent predictive exercise. This research will aim to provide a novel history matching approach that can use information from high-resolution seismic data to supplement the areally sparse production data. The proposed approach will utilize streamline-derived sensitivities as means of relating the forward model performance with the prior geologic model. The essential ideas underlying this approach are similar to those used for high-frequency approximations in seismic wave propagation. In both cases, this leads to solutions that are defined along "streamlines" (fluid flow), or "rays" (seismic wave propagation). Synthetic and field data examples will be used

  20. Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the least-action/least-time dynamical path based on fast marching method.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bijoy K; Janicki, Marek R; Ayers, Paul W

    2004-10-01

    Classical dynamics can be described with Newton's equation of motion or, totally equivalently, using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Here, the possibility of using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation to describe chemical reaction dynamics is explored. This requires an efficient computational approach for constructing the physically and chemically relevant solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation; here we solve Hamilton-Jacobi equations on a Cartesian grid using Sethian's fast marching method. Using this method, we can--starting from an arbitrary initial conformation--find reaction paths that minimize the action or the time. The method is demonstrated by computing the mechanism for two different systems: a model system with four different stationary configurations and the H+H(2)-->H(2)+H reaction. Least-time paths (termed brachistochrones in classical mechanics) seem to be a suitable chioce for the reaction coordinate, allowing one to determine the key intermediates and final product of a chemical reaction. For conservative systems the Hamilton-Jacobi equation does not depend on the time, so this approach may be useful for simulating systems where important motions occur on a variety of different time scales.

  1. Rethinking fast and slow based on a critique of reaction-time reverse inference

    PubMed Central

    Krajbich, Ian; Bartling, Björn; Hare, Todd; Fehr, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Do people intuitively favour certain actions over others? In some dual-process research, reaction-time (RT) data have been used to infer that certain choices are intuitive. However, the use of behavioural or biological measures to infer mental function, popularly known as ‘reverse inference', is problematic because it does not take into account other sources of variability in the data, such as discriminability of the choice options. Here we use two example data sets obtained from value-based choice experiments to demonstrate that, after controlling for discriminability (that is, strength-of-preference), there is no evidence that one type of choice is systematically faster than the other. Moreover, using specific variations of a prominent value-based choice experiment, we are able to predictably replicate, eliminate or reverse previously reported correlations between RT and selfishness. Thus, our findings shed crucial light on the use of RT in inferring mental processes and strongly caution against using RT differences as evidence favouring dual-process accounts. PMID:26135809

  2. Analysis of UAS DAA Alerting in Fast-Time Simulations without DAA Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David P.; Santiago, Confesor; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Refai, Mohamad Said; Snow, James

    2015-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA alerting system performance. A recent study conducted using NASA's ACES (Airspace Concept Evaluation System) simulation capability begins to address questions surrounding the development of draft MOPS for DAA alerting systems. ACES simulations were conducted to study the performance of alerting systems proposed by the SC-228 DAA Alerting sub-group. Analysis included but was not limited to: 1) correct alert (and timeliness), 2) false alert (and severity and duration), 3) missed alert, and 4) probability of an alert type at the time of loss of well clear. The performance of DAA alerting systems when using intent vs. dead-reckoning for UAS ownship trajectories was also compared. The results will be used by SC-228 to inform decisions about the surveillance standards of UAS DAA systems and future requirements development and validation efforts.

  3. Dynamic time warping in phoneme modeling for fast pronunciation error detection.

    PubMed

    Miodonska, Zuzanna; Bugdol, Marcin D; Krecichwost, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The presented paper describes a novel approach to the detection of pronunciation errors. It makes use of the modeling of well-pronounced and mispronounced phonemes by means of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm. Four approaches that make use of the DTW phoneme modeling were developed to detect pronunciation errors: Variations of the Word Structure (VoWS), Normalized Phoneme Distances Thresholding (NPDT), Furthest Segment Search (FSS) and Normalized Furthest Segment Search (NFSS). The performance evaluation of each module was carried out using a speech database of correctly and incorrectly pronounced words in the Polish language, with up to 10 patterns of every trained word from a set of 12 words having different phonetic structures. The performance of DTW modeling was compared to Hidden Markov Models (HMM) that were used for the same four approaches (VoWS, NPDT, FSS, NFSS). The average error rate (AER) was the lowest for DTW with NPDT (AER=0.287) and scored better than HMM with FSS (AER=0.473), which was the best result for HMM. The DTW modeling was faster than HMM for all four approaches. This technique can be used for computer-assisted pronunciation training systems that can work with a relatively small training speech corpus (less than 20 patterns per word) to support speech therapy at home.

  4. Dynamic time warping in phoneme modeling for fast pronunciation error detection.

    PubMed

    Miodonska, Zuzanna; Bugdol, Marcin D; Krecichwost, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The presented paper describes a novel approach to the detection of pronunciation errors. It makes use of the modeling of well-pronounced and mispronounced phonemes by means of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm. Four approaches that make use of the DTW phoneme modeling were developed to detect pronunciation errors: Variations of the Word Structure (VoWS), Normalized Phoneme Distances Thresholding (NPDT), Furthest Segment Search (FSS) and Normalized Furthest Segment Search (NFSS). The performance evaluation of each module was carried out using a speech database of correctly and incorrectly pronounced words in the Polish language, with up to 10 patterns of every trained word from a set of 12 words having different phonetic structures. The performance of DTW modeling was compared to Hidden Markov Models (HMM) that were used for the same four approaches (VoWS, NPDT, FSS, NFSS). The average error rate (AER) was the lowest for DTW with NPDT (AER=0.287) and scored better than HMM with FSS (AER=0.473), which was the best result for HMM. The DTW modeling was faster than HMM for all four approaches. This technique can be used for computer-assisted pronunciation training systems that can work with a relatively small training speech corpus (less than 20 patterns per word) to support speech therapy at home. PMID:26739104

  5. Fast rise of 'Neptune-size' planets (4-8 R {sub ⊕}) from P ∼ 10 to ∼250 days—statistics of Kepler planet candidates up to ∼0.75 au

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2013-11-20

    We infer the period (P) and size (R{sub p} ) distribution of Kepler transiting planet candidates with R{sub p} ≥ 1 R {sub ⊕} and P < 250 days hosted by solar-type stars. The planet detection efficiency is computed by using measured noise and the observed time spans of the light curves for ∼120,000 Kepler target stars. We focus on deriving the shape of planet periods and radius distribution functions. We find that for orbital periods P > 10 days, the planet frequency dN{sub p} /dlog P for 'Neptune-size' planets (R{sub p} = 4-8 R {sub ⊕}) increases with period as ∝P {sup 0.7±0.1}. In contrast, dN{sub p} /dlog P for 'super-Earth-size' (2-4 R {sub ⊕}) as well as 'Earth-size' (1-2 R {sub ⊕}) planets are consistent with a nearly flat distribution as a function of period (∝P {sup 0.11±0.05} and ∝P {sup –0.10±0.12}, respectively), and the normalizations are remarkably similar (within a factor of ∼1.5 at 50 days). Planet size distribution evolves with period, and generally the relative fractions for big planets (∼3-10 R {sub ⊕}) increase with period. The shape of the distribution function is not sensitive to changes in the selection criteria of the sample. The implied nearly flat or rising planet frequency at long periods appears to be in disagreement with the sharp decline at ∼100 days in planet frequency for low-mass planets (planet mass m{sub p} < 30 M {sub ⊕}) recently suggested by the HARPS survey. Within 250 days, the cumulative frequencies for Earth-size and super-Earth-size planets are remarkably similar (∼28% and 25%), while Neptune-size and Jupiter-size planets are ∼7% and ∼3%, respectively. A major potential uncertainty arises from the unphysical impact parameter distribution of the candidates.

  6. Quantum correlations in Newtonian space and time: arbitrarily fast communication or nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Experimental violations of Bell inequalities using space-like separated measurements precludes the explanation of quantum correlations through causal influences propagating at subluminal speed. Yet, ``everything looks as if the two parties somehow communicate behind the scene.'' We investigate the assumption that they do so at a speed faster than light, though finite. Such an assumption doesn't respect the spirit of Einstein relativity. However, it is not crystal clear that such ``communication behind the scene'' would contradict relativity. Indeed, one could imagine that this communication remains for ever hidden to humans, i.e. that it could not be controlled by humans, only Nature exploits it to produce correlations that can't be explained by usual common causes. To define faster than light hidden communication requires a universal privileged reference frame in which this faster than light speed is defined. Again, such a universal privileged frame is not in the spirit of relativity, but it is also clearly not in contradiction: for example the reference frame in which the cosmic microwave background radiation is isotropic defines such a privileged frame. Hence, a priori, a hidden communication explanation is not more surprising than nonlocality. We prove that for any finite speed, such models predict correlations that can be exploited for faster-than-light communication. This superluminal communication doesn't require access to any hidden physical quantities, but only the manipulation of measurement devices at the level of our present-day description of quantum experiments. Consequently, all possible explanations of quantum correlations that satisfy the principle of continuity, which states that everything propagates gradually and continuously through space and time, or in other words, all combination of local common causes and direct causes that reproduce quantum correlations, lead to faster than light communication. Accordingly, either there is superluminal

  7. Fast and slow readers and the effectiveness of the spatial frequency content of text: Evidence from reading times and eye movements.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Dixon, Jasmine; McGowan, Victoria A; Kurtev, Stoyan; Paterson, Kevin B

    2016-08-01

    Text contains a range of different spatial frequencies but the effectiveness of spatial frequencies for normal variations in skilled adult reading ability is unknown. Accordingly, young skilled adult readers showing fast or slow reading ability read sentences displayed as normal or filtered to contain only very low, low, medium, high, or very high spatial frequencies. Reading times and eye movement measures of fixations and saccades assessed the effectiveness of these displays for reading. Reading times showed that, for each reading ability, medium, high, and very high spatial frequencies were all more effective than lower spatial frequencies. Indeed, for each reading ability, reading times for normal text were maintained when text contained only medium, high, or very high spatial frequencies. However, reading times for normal text and for each spatial frequency were all substantially shorter for fast readers than for slow readers, and this advantage for fast readers was similar for normal, medium, high, and very high spatial frequencies but much larger for low and very low spatial frequencies. In addition, fast readers made fewer and shorter fixations, fewer and shorter regressions, and longer forward saccades, than slow readers, and these differences were generally similar in size for normal, medium, high, and very high spatial frequencies, but larger when spatial frequencies were lower. These findings suggest that fast and slow adult readers can each use a range of different spatial frequencies for reading but fast readers make more effective use of these spatial frequencies and especially those that are lower. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123680

  8. Ground potential rise monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Zachery W.; Zevenbergen, Gary A.

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  9. Probing the Time Scale of FPOP (Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins): Radical Reactions Extend Over Tens of Milliseconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidi, Siavash; Konermann, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxyl radical (ṡOH) labeling with mass spectrometry detection reports on protein conformations and interactions. Fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) involves ṡOH production via H2O2 photolysis by UV laser pulses inside a flow tube. The experiments are conducted in the presence of a scavenger (usually glutamine) that shortens the ṡOH lifetime. The literature claims that FPOP takes place within 1 μs. This ultrafast time scale implies that FPOP should be immune to labeling-induced artifacts that may be encountered with other techniques. Surprisingly, the FPOP time scale has never been validated in direct kinetic measurements. Here we employ flash photolysis for probing oxidation processes under typical FPOP conditions. Bleaching of the reporter dye cyanine-5 (Cy5) served as readout of the time-dependent radical milieu. Surprisingly, Cy5 oxidation extends over tens of milliseconds. This time range is four orders of magnitude longer than expected from the FPOP literature. We demonstrate that the glutamine scavenger generates metastable secondary radicals in the FPOP solution, and that these radicals lengthen the time frame of Cy5 oxidation. Cy5 and similar dyes are widely used for monitoring the radical dose experienced by proteins in solution. The measured Cy5 kinetics thus strongly suggest that protein oxidation in FPOP extends over a much longer time window than previously thought (i.e., many milliseconds instead of one microsecond). The optical approach developed here should be suitable for assessing the performance of future FPOP-like techniques with improved temporal labeling characteristics.

  10. Probing the Time Scale of FPOP (Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins): Radical Reactions Extend Over Tens of Milliseconds.

    PubMed

    Vahidi, Siavash; Konermann, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxyl radical (⋅OH) labeling with mass spectrometry detection reports on protein conformations and interactions. Fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) involves ⋅OH production via H2O2 photolysis by UV laser pulses inside a flow tube. The experiments are conducted in the presence of a scavenger (usually glutamine) that shortens the ⋅OH lifetime. The literature claims that FPOP takes place within 1 μs. This ultrafast time scale implies that FPOP should be immune to labeling-induced artifacts that may be encountered with other techniques. Surprisingly, the FPOP time scale has never been validated in direct kinetic measurements. Here we employ flash photolysis for probing oxidation processes under typical FPOP conditions. Bleaching of the reporter dye cyanine-5 (Cy5) served as readout of the time-dependent radical milieu. Surprisingly, Cy5 oxidation extends over tens of milliseconds. This time range is four orders of magnitude longer than expected from the FPOP literature. We demonstrate that the glutamine scavenger generates metastable secondary radicals in the FPOP solution, and that these radicals lengthen the time frame of Cy5 oxidation. Cy5 and similar dyes are widely used for monitoring the radical dose experienced by proteins in solution. The measured Cy5 kinetics thus strongly suggest that protein oxidation in FPOP extends over a much longer time window than previously thought (i.e., many milliseconds instead of one microsecond). The optical approach developed here should be suitable for assessing the performance of future FPOP-like techniques with improved temporal labeling characteristics. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27067899

  11. Medical applications of fast 3D cameras in real-time image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shidong; Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Dynamic volumetric medical imaging (4DMI) has reduced motion artifacts, increased early diagnosis of small mobile tumors, and improved target definition for treatment planning. High speed cameras for video, X-ray, or other forms of sequential imaging allow a live tracking of external or internal movement useful for real-time image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). However, none of 4DMI can track real-time organ motion and no camera has correlated with 4DMI to show volumetric changes. With a brief review of various IGRT techniques, we propose a fast 3D camera for live-video stereovision, an automatic surface-motion identifier to classify body or respiratory motion, a mechanical model for synchronizing the external surface movement with the internal target displacement by combination use of the real-time stereovision and pre-treatment 4DMI, and dynamic multi-leaf collimation for adaptive aiming the moving target. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the technique is feasible and efficient in IGRT of mobile targets. A clinical trial has been initiated for validation of its spatial and temporal accuracies and dosimetric impact for intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of any mobile tumors. The technique can be extended for surface-guided stereotactic needle insertion in biopsy of small lung nodules.

  12. Measurement of back-bombardment temperature rise in microwave thermionic electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M. D.; Hadmack, Michael R.; Madey, John M. J.

    2013-08-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the back-bombardment heating temperature rise as a function of time in pulsed microwave thermionic guns using a fast rise-time InGaAs detector and optical pyrometer. Gaining knowledge of the nature of that temperature rise and the corresponding current out of the gun are the first steps in devising a scheme to counteract the back-bombardment heating which lengthens the micropulses, limits the macropulse length, and increases the energy spread of the emitted electron beam. We measured a temperature rise of 59 K in our LaB6 cathode which delivered a peak of 600 mA over a 5 μs RF pulse in our 0.33 MV/cm peak field, 2.856 GHz thermionic electron gun.

  13. Measurement of back-bombardment temperature rise in microwave thermionic electron guns.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D; Hadmack, Michael R; Madey, John M J

    2013-08-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the back-bombardment heating temperature rise as a function of time in pulsed microwave thermionic guns using a fast rise-time InGaAs detector and optical pyrometer. Gaining knowledge of the nature of that temperature rise and the corresponding current out of the gun are the first steps in devising a scheme to counteract the back-bombardment heating which lengthens the micropulses, limits the macropulse length, and increases the energy spread of the emitted electron beam. We measured a temperature rise of 59 K in our LaB6 cathode which delivered a peak of 600 mA over a 5 μs RF pulse in our 0.33 MV/cm peak field, 2.856 GHz thermionic electron gun.

  14. Measurement of back-bombardment temperature rise in microwave thermionic electron guns.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D; Hadmack, Michael R; Madey, John M J

    2013-08-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the back-bombardment heating temperature rise as a function of time in pulsed microwave thermionic guns using a fast rise-time InGaAs detector and optical pyrometer. Gaining knowledge of the nature of that temperature rise and the corresponding current out of the gun are the first steps in devising a scheme to counteract the back-bombardment heating which lengthens the micropulses, limits the macropulse length, and increases the energy spread of the emitted electron beam. We measured a temperature rise of 59 K in our LaB6 cathode which delivered a peak of 600 mA over a 5 μs RF pulse in our 0.33 MV/cm peak field, 2.856 GHz thermionic electron gun. PMID:24007094

  15. The rising risks of rising tides

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.; Lindh, G.

    1996-12-31

    The erosion of beaches, flooding of agricultural land, and intrusion of saltwater into coastal streams could become a reality if temperatures climb. Over the past century, sea levels have risen 4 to 6 inches. Now, the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that sea levels will rise between 8 and 28 inches by 2070, say Hans Hanson, associate professor emeritus in the Department of Water Resources Engineering at the University of Lund in Sweden. Coastal communities, which harbor more than half the world`s population, are poorly equipped to combat the threat of encroaching waters. {open_quotes}Few public officials have developed comprehensive strategies to address the potential consequences of sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors say. In response to the lack of long-term strategies to address the potential consequences of sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors say. In response to the lack of long-term strategies, the IPCC has recommended that coastal nations implement coastal-zone management plans by 2000. {open_quotes}Low-lying islands and high-use, developed coastal areas... face an urgent need to develop strategies for coping with sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors conclude.

  16. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Bento, A. C.

    2013-11-01

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (˜7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (˜12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10-3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water).

  17. Attributes from NMIS Time Coincidence, Fast-Neutron Imaging, Fission Mapping, And Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Alicia L; Grogan, Brandon R; Mullens, James Allen; Hayward, J P; Mihalczo, John T

    2012-01-01

    This work tests a systematic procedure for analyzing data acquired by the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with fast-neutron imaging and high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry capabilities. NMIS has been under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification since the mid-1990s, and prior to that by the National Nuclear Security Administration Y-12 National Security Complex, with NMIS having been used at Y-12 for template matching to confirm inventory and receipts. In this present work, a complete set of NMIS time coincidence, fast-neutron imaging, fission mapping, and HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry data was obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for a configuration of fissile and nonfissile materials. The data were then presented for analysis to someone who had no prior knowledge of the unknown object to accurately determine the description of the object by applying the previously-mentioned procedure to the simulated data. The best approximation indicated that the unknown object was composed of concentric cylinders: a void inside highly enriched uranium (HEU) (84.7 {+-} 1.9 wt % {sup 235}U), surrounded by depleted uranium, surrounded by polyethylene. The final estimation of the unknown object had the correct materials and geometry, with error in the radius estimates of material regions varying from 1.58% at best and 4.25% at worst; error in the height estimates varied from 2% to 12%. The error in the HEU enrichment estimate was 5.9 wt % (within 2.5{sigma} of the true value). The accuracies of the determinations could be adequate for arms control applications. Future work will apply this iterative reconstructive procedure to other unknown objects to further test and refine it.

  18. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    SciTech Connect

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.

    2013-11-21

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  19. Radiometric Calibration of Mars HiRISE High Resolution Imagery Based on Fpga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yifan; Geng, Xun; Xing, Shuai; Tang, Yonghe; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA) is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  20. Experimental demonstration of a real-time high-throughput digital DC blocker for compensating ADC imperfections in optical fast-OFDM receivers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Xing; Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jian

    2016-06-27

    Performance degradation induced by the DC components at the output of real-time analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is experimentally investigated for optical fast-OFDM receiver. To compensate this degradation, register transfer level (RTL) circuits for real-time digital DC blocker with 20GS/s throughput are proposed and implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA). The performance of the proposed real-time digital DC blocker is experimentally investigated in a 15Gb/s optical fast-OFDM system with intensity modulation and direct detection over 40 km standard single-mode fibre. The results show that the fixed-point DC blocker has negligible performance penalty compared to the offline floating point one, and can overcome the error floor of the fast OFDM receiver caused by the DC components from the real-time ADC output. PMID:27410579

  1. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  2. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.

    2014-10-30

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  3. Fast pulse nonthermal plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2005-06-14

    A fast pulsed nonthermal plasma reactor includes a discharge cell and a charging assembly electrically connected thereto. The charging assembly provides plural high voltage pulses to the discharge cell. Each pulse has a rise time between one and ten nanoseconds and a duration of three to twenty nanoseconds. The pulses create nonthermal plasma discharge within the discharge cell. Accordingly, the nonthermal plasma discharge can be used to remove pollutants from gases or break the gases into smaller molecules so that they can be more efficiently combusted.

  4. Systematic investigation of effects of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering on photoluminescence rise times of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-07

    We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.

  5. Mixed-element Octree: a meshing technique toward fast and real-time simulations in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Claudio; González, Eugenio

    2015-12-01

    This article introduces a meshing technique focused on fast and real-time simulation in a biomedical context. We describe in details our algorithm, which starts from a basic Octree regarding the constraints imposed by the simulation, and then, mixed-element patterns are applied over transitions between coarse and fine regions. The use of surface patterns, also composed by mixed elements, allows us to better represent curved domains decreasing the odds of creating invalid elements by adding as few nodes as possible. In contrast with other meshing techniques, we let the user define regions of greater refinement, and as a consequence of that refinement, we add as few nodes as possible to produce a mesh that is topologically correct. Therefore, our meshing technique gives more control on the number of nodes of the final mesh. We show several examples where the quality of the final mesh is acceptable, even without using quality filters. We believe that this new meshing technique is in the correct direction toward real-time simulation in the biomedical field.

  6. Polarization independent Fabry-Pérot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Han; Wang, Chun-Ta; Yu, Chin-Ping; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2011-12-01

    This work demonstrates a polarization-independent electrically tunable Fabry-Pérot (FP) filter that is based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals (PSBPLCs). An external vertical electric field can be applied to modulate the effective refractive index of the PSBPLCs along the optical axis. Therefore, the wavelength-tuning property of the FP filter is completely independent of the polarization state of the incident light. The change in the birefringence in PSBPLCs is governed by Kerr effect-induced isotropic-to-anisotropic transition, and so the PSBPLCs based FP filter has a short response time. The measured tunability and free spectral range of the FP filter are 0.092 nm/ V and 16nm in the visible region, and 0.12nm/ V and 97nm in the NIR region, respectively, and the response time is in sub-millisecond range. The fast-responding polarization-independent electrically tunable FP filter has substantial potential for practical applications.

  7. SeaMon-HC Buoy. A specific real-time-lightweight-moored platform as a tool for fast hydrocarbon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, C.; Rueda, M. J.; Moran, R.; Llerandi, C.; Llinas, O.

    2009-04-01

    The present paper-work describes the design, last development stages and the derived results from a specific buoy platform for fast hydrocarbon detection in seawater. Under the name of SeaMon-HC, (Patent No. P200302219/8) the buoy represents a very chief tool for coastal monitoring, mainly surrounding areas with a high oil-spill risk level, like harbours, off-shore fish farming, beaches and so on. Nowadays, the Macaronesian area has nine units working in real-time, under the frame of the Red ACOMAR Network. The main innovative aspect from this buoy is the detection system. It's based in polymer technology, working as a resistance, who increase its value when the pollutant on water surface is detected. The response time from the sensor is a direct function of the hydrocarbon volatility level. For hydrocarbons with high volatility levels (like petrol), the sensor needs less time (around 3 minutes) than others with less volatility such as oils. SeaMon-HC is an autonomous, modular, reusable and a very low-cost development integrated by four subsystems (SS): SS-Flotation (different materials and shapes available); SS-Sensors (hydrocarbon detector and additional sensors -up to 15-, to solve specific sensor configuration requirements); SS-Power Supply (equipped in its basic configuration with a couple of solar modules and two 12V batteries) and the SS-Communication (based on a RF or GSM/GPRS modem technology, with a selectable communication frequency). All SeaMon-HC units, as well the rest of the ODAS buoys who joint together the Red ACOMAR Network, works in real-time, sending the collected information to the control centre that manages the communications, providing data, in a useful form (as a web site), to diverse socio-economic important sectors which make an exhaustive use of the littoral in the Macaronesian region. The access to the information by the users is done through a specific GIS software application.

  8. Acronical Risings and Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept found in historical primary sources, and useful in contemporary historiography, is the acronical rising and setting of stars (or planets). Topocentric terms, they provide information about a star's relationship to the Sun and thus its visibility in the sky. Yet there remains ambiguity as to what these two phrases actually mean. "Acronical” is said to have come from the Greek akros ("point,” "summit,” or "extremity") and nux ("night"). While all sources agree that the word is originally Greek, there are alternate etymologies for it. A more serious difficulty with acronical rising and setting is that there are two competing definitions. One I call the Poetical Definition. Acronical rising (or setting) is one of the three Poetical Risings (or Settings) known to classicists. (The other two are cosmical rising/setting, discussed below, and the more familiar helical rising/setting.) The term "poetical" refers to these words use in classical poetry, e. g., that of Columella, Hesiod, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, and Virgil. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” usually is meant in this context. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun sets, it sets acronically. In contrast with the Poetical Definition, there also is what I call the Astronomical Definition. The Astronomical Definition is somewhat more likely to appear in astronomical, mathematical, or navigational works. When the Astronomical Definition is recorded in dictionaries, it is often with the protasis "In astronomy, . . . ." The Astronomical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun rises, it sets acronically. I will attempt to sort this all out in my talk.

  9. The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Gimeno, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic product, urbanization, trade openness, lifestyle indicators and other covariates. The possible mediating effect of annual per capita intake of soft drinks, animal fats and total calories on the association between fast food consumption and BMI was also analysed. Two-stage least squares regression models were conducted, using economic freedom as an instrumental variable, to study the causal effect of fast food consumption on BMI. Findings After adjustment for covariates, each 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita was associated with an increase of 0.033 kg/m2 in age-standardized BMI (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.013–0.052). Only the intake of soft drinks – not animal fat or total calories – mediated the observed association (β: 0.030; 95% CI: 0.010–0.050). Economic freedom was an independent predictor of fast food consumption (β: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.16–0.37). When economic freedom was used as an instrumental variable, the association between fast food and BMI weakened but remained significant (β: 0.023; 95% CI: 0.001–0.045). Conclusion Fast food consumption is an independent predictor of mean BMI in high-income countries. Market deregulation policies may contribute to the obesity epidemic by facilitating the spread of fast food. PMID:24623903

  10. Very high pressure liquid chromatography using fully porous particles: quantitative analysis of fast gradient separations without post-run times.

    PubMed

    Stankovich, Joseph J; Gritti, Fabrice; Stevenson, Paul G; Beaver, Lois Ann; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-01-10

    Using a column packed with fully porous particles, four methods for controlling the flow rates at which gradient elution runs are conducted in very high pressure liquid chromatography (VHPLC) were tested to determine whether reproducible thermal conditions could be achieved, such that subsequent analyses would proceed at nearly the same initial temperature. In VHPLC high flow rates are achieved, producing fast analyses but requiring high inlet pressures. The combination of high flow rates and high inlet pressures generates local heat, leading to temperature changes in the column. Usually in this case a post-run time is input into the analytical method to allow the return of the column temperature to its initial state. An alternative strategy involves operating the column without a post-run equilibration period and maintaining constant temperature variations for subsequent analysis after conducting one or a few separations to bring the column to a reproducible starting temperature. A liquid chromatography instrument equipped with a pressure controller was used to perform constant pressure and constant flow rate VHPLC separations. Six replicate gradient separations of a nine component mixture consisting of acetophenone, propiophenone, butyrophenone, valerophenone, hexanophenone, heptanophenone, octanophenone, benzophenone, and acetanilide dissolved in water/acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) were performed under various experimental conditions: constant flow rate, two sets of constant pressure, and constant pressure operation with a programmed flow rate. The relative standard deviations of the response factors for all the analytes are lower than 5% across the methods. Programming the flow rate to maintain a fairly constant pressure instead of using instrument controlled constant pressure improves the reproducibility of the retention times by a factor of 5, when plotting the chromatograms in time.

  11. Very high pressure liquid chromatography using fully porous particles: quantitative analysis of fast gradient separations without post-run times.

    PubMed

    Stankovich, Joseph J; Gritti, Fabrice; Stevenson, Paul G; Beaver, Lois Ann; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-01-10

    Using a column packed with fully porous particles, four methods for controlling the flow rates at which gradient elution runs are conducted in very high pressure liquid chromatography (VHPLC) were tested to determine whether reproducible thermal conditions could be achieved, such that subsequent analyses would proceed at nearly the same initial temperature. In VHPLC high flow rates are achieved, producing fast analyses but requiring high inlet pressures. The combination of high flow rates and high inlet pressures generates local heat, leading to temperature changes in the column. Usually in this case a post-run time is input into the analytical method to allow the return of the column temperature to its initial state. An alternative strategy involves operating the column without a post-run equilibration period and maintaining constant temperature variations for subsequent analysis after conducting one or a few separations to bring the column to a reproducible starting temperature. A liquid chromatography instrument equipped with a pressure controller was used to perform constant pressure and constant flow rate VHPLC separations. Six replicate gradient separations of a nine component mixture consisting of acetophenone, propiophenone, butyrophenone, valerophenone, hexanophenone, heptanophenone, octanophenone, benzophenone, and acetanilide dissolved in water/acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) were performed under various experimental conditions: constant flow rate, two sets of constant pressure, and constant pressure operation with a programmed flow rate. The relative standard deviations of the response factors for all the analytes are lower than 5% across the methods. Programming the flow rate to maintain a fairly constant pressure instead of using instrument controlled constant pressure improves the reproducibility of the retention times by a factor of 5, when plotting the chromatograms in time. PMID:24296292

  12. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-08-26

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high

  13. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  14. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  15. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-08-26

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amountsmore » of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high

  16. Real-time fast inverse dose optimization for image guided adaptive radiation therapy-Enhancements to fast inverse dose optimization (FIDO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, S. P.; Turnbull, D.; Johnson, C.; Chen, J. Z.; Battista, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    A fast, accurate and stable optimization algorithm is very important for inverse planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and for implementing dose-adaptive radiotherapy in the future. Conventional numerical search algorithms with positive beam weight constraints generally require numerous iterations and may produce suboptimal dose results due to trapping in local minima regions of the objective function landscape. A direct solution of the inverse problem using conventional quadratic objective functions without positive beam constraints is more efficient but it will result in unrealistic negative beam weights. We review here a direct solution of the inverse problem that is efficient and does not yield unphysical negative beam weights. In fast inverse dose optimization (FIDO) method the objective function for the optimization of a large number of beamlets is reformulated such that the optimization problem is reducible to a linear set of equations. The optimal set of intensities is then found through a matrix inversion, and negative beamlet intensities are avoided without the need for externally imposed ad hoc conditions. In its original version [S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, in Proceedings of the XIVth International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy, 2004, pp. 112-115; S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, Med. Phys. 32, 3007 (2005)], FIDO was tested on single two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) slices with sharp KERMA beams without scatter, in order to establish a proof of concept which demonstrated that FIDO could be a viable method for the optimization of cancer treatment plans. In this paper we introduce the latest advancements in FIDO that now include not only its application to three-dimensional volumes irradiated by beams with full scatter but include as well a complete implementation of clinical dose-volume constraints including maximum and minimum dose as well as equivalent uniform dose

  17. Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Linyue Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong; Ouyang, Xiaoping Zhang, Jianfu

    2014-01-15

    Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

  18. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McKiernan, G.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Pérez, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Shvydky, A.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm -2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.

  19. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion.

    PubMed

    Theobald, W; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Anderson, K S; Beg, F N; Epstein, R; Fiksel, G; Giraldez, E M; Glebov, V Yu; Habara, H; Ivancic, S; Jarrott, L C; Marshall, F J; McKiernan, G; McLean, H S; Mileham, C; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Pérez, F; Sangster, T C; Santos, J J; Sawada, H; Shvydky, A; Stephens, R B; Wei, M S

    2014-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm(-2) with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse--the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma. PMID:25503788

  20. Travel time calculation in regular 3D grid in local and regional scale using fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Local and regional 3D seismic velocity models of crust and sediments are very important for numerous technics like mantle and core tomography, localization of local and regional events and others. Most of those techniques require calculation of wave travel time through the 3D model. This can be achieved using multiple approaches from simple ray tracing to advanced full waveform calculation. In this study simple and efficient implementation of fast marching method is presented. This method provides more information than ray tracing and is much less complicated than methods like full waveform being the perfect compromise. Presented code is written in C++, well commented and is easy to modify for different types of studies. Additionally performance is widely discussed including possibilities of multithreading and massive parallelism like GPU. Source code will be published in 2016 as it is part of the PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  1. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, N. Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Kato, S.

    2014-04-15

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  2. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  3. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; et al

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achievemore » areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm -2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.« less

  4. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, N.; Kato, S.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  5. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Rath, N; Kato, S; Levesque, J P; Mauel, M E; Navratil, G A; Peng, Q

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  6. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  7. First-time Sliding Failure in Weak Sandstones and Subsequent Evolution in a Fast-moving Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, A.; Berti, M.; Bayer, B.; Bertello, L.; Franceschini, S.; Morandi, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following intense rainfalls, during spring 2013 a first-time sliding failure developed over a gentle cultivated slope in Northern Apennines. The slope is made of weakly cemented layered sandstones and subordinate siltstones and mudstones of Eocene age. The morphology is fairly regular with an average angle of 15° that increases up to 25° in the lower part of the slope where the pelitic fraction is no longer present in the bedrock succession. Bedding generally dips into the slope though the presence of faults locally complicate the setting. The sliding interested the upper, more gentle part of the slope with a maximum depth of 10 to 15 meters. Morphological evidences indicate a rotational component of movement and rocks outcropping along the scarp show a moderate degree of weathering. The main landslide body maintained its coherence and only a minor part of the toe mobilized as a fast-moving flow. No building nor infrastructure was affected by the movement but a railway viaduct is present in the lower part of the slope. Following the 2013 failure, movements and pore pressures were monitored in the landslide deposit to control the evolution of the phenomena. During the following winter, the abundant precipitation caused a reactivation of the movement that led to a much larger fast-moving flow. In this work, we document the sequence of events that has interested the slope during the years 2013-2014. Subsequent ground-based and aerial topographic surveys allow to estimate the volumes involved in the different phases of movement. Field evidences and investigations are used to interpret the geotechnical model of the slope and constrain the range of resistances mobilized at failure. The deformations preceding the 2014 reactivation are analyzed together with post-failure landslide deceleration. It is shown that displacements proceeded maintaining sustained moderate velocities for days before the catastrophic reactivation, making difficult to anticipate the acceleration

  8. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Morita, Shigeru; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Dong, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongmin; Huang, Xianli; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang

    2015-12-01

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm2 and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm2/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ0 = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ0 is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  9. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Morita, Shigeru; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Dong, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongmin; Huang, Xianli; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang

    2015-12-01

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm(2) and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm(2)/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ0 = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ0 is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification. PMID:26724029

  10. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang; Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Dong, Chunfeng; and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  11. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Morita, Shigeru; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Dong, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongmin; Huang, Xianli; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang

    2015-12-01

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm(2) and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm(2)/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ0 = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ0 is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  12. Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: a two-time points experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Hwa; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Jui-Chen; Tang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chien, Li-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study determined the in-use effects of dry-fast and traditional hand-washing surgical scrubs among operating room staff members. This is a static group comparison study with purposive sampling. A total of 156 staff members were recruited in an operating room in a medical center located in southern Taiwan. The participants were divided into traditional and dry-fast hand-washing groups. Microbial counts were measured right after the two groups finished surgical scrubbing and at the completion of surgery. The results showed that the use of dry-fast antisepsis has a better persistent effect (P = 0.001), more nurses chose dry-fast antisepsis than surgeons (P = 0.012), and the post-operation number of colonies for nurses was significantly higher than that for surgeons (P = 0.003). Operating room nurses are long-term and frequent users of antibacterial agents, and their requirement of skin protection is higher. The dry-fast technique has the advantage of being less irritating to the skin and less time consuming; therefore, brush-free and dry-fast antisepsis is recommended. PMID:23992610

  13. Tharsis Rise Graben

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 22 May 2002) The Science This image is located in the northwestern portion of the Tharsis Rise at about 12 N and 125 W (235 E). What is immediately noticeable in this image is the series of linear features that are called graben. These features are associated with crustal extension which results in a series of up and down blocks of crust that run perpendicular to the direction of the extension. Images of Mars have shown a large number of these tectonic features concentrated on or near the Tharsis region. The Tharsis region is an enormous bulge that causes major tectonic disruptions across the planet when it tries to settle down from its height and reach equilibrium with the rest of the planet. The graben in this image display a number of preferential directions indicating that the crustal stresses that caused the graben have changed over time. By examining the cross-cutting relationships between the features, it is possible to reassemble the history of the area. The Story Now, if you thought that Mars was almost perfectly round, think again! The red planet has a large bulge sticking out from it called Tharsis. Almost 3,000 miles across, this enormous region rises almost four miles above the average radius of the planet. That's quite a bulge! Since Tharsis the land of the largest volcanoes in the solar system, it may have been formed by both the uplift of land from tectonic action and the build-up of lava flows. Tharsis can cause some pretty major tectonic disruptions across the planet when it tries to settle down from its height and reach a better equilibrium with the rest of the planet. In this image, located in the northwestern portion of the Tharsis Rise, a whole lot of lowered features stripe the landscape. They are called grabens, and formed when the crust of the planet was stretched tectonically. This kind of crustal extension (or stretching) tends to form a series of up-and-down blocks of crust that run perpendicular to the direction of the crustal

  14. Antarctic ice rise formation, evolution, and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Antarctic ice rises originate from the contact between ice shelves and one of the numerous topographic highs emerging from the edge of the continental shelf. While investigations of the Raymond effect indicate their millennial-scale stability, little is known about their formation and their role in ice shelf stability. Here we present for the first time the simulation of an ice rise using the BISICLES model. The numerical results successfully reproduce several field-observable features, such as the substantial thinning downstream of the ice rise and the successive formation of a promontory and ice rise with stable radial ice flow center, showing that ice rises are formed during the ice sheet deglaciation. We quantify the ice rise buttressing effect, found to be mostly transient, delaying grounding line retreat significantly but resulting in comparable steady state positions. We demonstrate that ice rises are key in controlling simulations of Antarctic deglaciation.

  15. Perceptual Temporal Asymmetry Associated with Distinct ON and OFF Responses to Time-Varying Sounds with Rising versus Falling Intensity: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Cheng, Bing; Koerner, Tess K; Schlauch, Robert S; Tanaka, Keita; Kawakatsu, Masaki; Nemoto, Iku; Imada, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    This magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigated evoked ON and OFF responses to ramped and damped sounds in normal-hearing human adults. Two pairs of stimuli that differed in spectral complexity were used in a passive listening task; each pair contained identical acoustical properties except for the intensity envelope. Behavioral duration judgment was conducted in separate sessions, which replicated the perceptual bias in favour of the ramped sounds and the effect of spectral complexity on perceived duration asymmetry. MEG results showed similar cortical sites for the ON and OFF responses. There was a dominant ON response with stronger phase-locking factor (PLF) in the alpha (8-14 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) bands for the damped sounds. In contrast, the OFF response for sounds with rising intensity was associated with stronger PLF in the gamma band (30-70 Hz). Exploratory correlation analysis showed that the OFF response in the left auditory cortex was a good predictor of the perceived temporal asymmetry for the spectrally simpler pair. The results indicate distinct asymmetry in ON and OFF responses and neural oscillation patterns associated with the dynamic intensity changes, which provides important preliminary data for future studies to examine how the auditory system develops such an asymmetry as a function of age and learning experience and whether the absence of asymmetry or abnormal ON and OFF responses can be taken as a biomarker for certain neurological conditions associated with auditory processing deficits. PMID:27527227

  16. Perceptual Temporal Asymmetry Associated with Distinct ON and OFF Responses to Time-Varying Sounds with Rising versus Falling Intensity: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Cheng, Bing; Koerner, Tess K; Schlauch, Robert S; Tanaka, Keita; Kawakatsu, Masaki; Nemoto, Iku; Imada, Toshiaki

    2016-08-05

    This magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigated evoked ON and OFF responses to ramped and damped sounds in normal-hearing human adults. Two pairs of stimuli that differed in spectral complexity were used in a passive listening task; each pair contained identical acoustical properties except for the intensity envelope. Behavioral duration judgment was conducted in separate sessions, which replicated the perceptual bias in favour of the ramped sounds and the effect of spectral complexity on perceived duration asymmetry. MEG results showed similar cortical sites for the ON and OFF responses. There was a dominant ON response with stronger phase-locking factor (PLF) in the alpha (8-14 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) bands for the damped sounds. In contrast, the OFF response for sounds with rising intensity was associated with stronger PLF in the gamma band (30-70 Hz). Exploratory correlation analysis showed that the OFF response in the left auditory cortex was a good predictor of the perceived temporal asymmetry for the spectrally simpler pair. The results indicate distinct asymmetry in ON and OFF responses and neural oscillation patterns associated with the dynamic intensity changes, which provides important preliminary data for future studies to examine how the auditory system develops such an asymmetry as a function of age and learning experience and whether the absence of asymmetry or abnormal ON and OFF responses can be taken as a biomarker for certain neurological conditions associated with auditory processing deficits.

  17. Perceptual Temporal Asymmetry Associated with Distinct ON and OFF Responses to Time-Varying Sounds with Rising versus Falling Intensity: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Cheng, Bing; Koerner, Tess K.; Schlauch, Robert S.; Tanaka, Keita; Kawakatsu, Masaki; Nemoto, Iku; Imada, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    This magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigated evoked ON and OFF responses to ramped and damped sounds in normal-hearing human adults. Two pairs of stimuli that differed in spectral complexity were used in a passive listening task; each pair contained identical acoustical properties except for the intensity envelope. Behavioral duration judgment was conducted in separate sessions, which replicated the perceptual bias in favour of the ramped sounds and the effect of spectral complexity on perceived duration asymmetry. MEG results showed similar cortical sites for the ON and OFF responses. There was a dominant ON response with stronger phase-locking factor (PLF) in the alpha (8–14 Hz) and theta (4–8 Hz) bands for the damped sounds. In contrast, the OFF response for sounds with rising intensity was associated with stronger PLF in the gamma band (30–70 Hz). Exploratory correlation analysis showed that the OFF response in the left auditory cortex was a good predictor of the perceived temporal asymmetry for the spectrally simpler pair. The results indicate distinct asymmetry in ON and OFF responses and neural oscillation patterns associated with the dynamic intensity changes, which provides important preliminary data for future studies to examine how the auditory system develops such an asymmetry as a function of age and learning experience and whether the absence of asymmetry or abnormal ON and OFF responses can be taken as a biomarker for certain neurological conditions associated with auditory processing deficits. PMID:27527227

  18. Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time analyses (GWTT-94)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.W.; Altman, S.J.; Robey, T.H.

    1995-08-01

    Evaluation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) is required as part of the investigation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s GWTT regulation is considered to be a measure of the intrinsic ability of the site to contain radionuclide releases from the repository. The work reported here is the first step in a program to provide an estimate of GWTT at the Yucca Mountain site in support of the DOE`s Technical Site Suitability and as a component of a license application. Preliminary estimation of the GWTT distribution in the unsaturated zone was accomplished using a numerical model of the physical processes of groundwater flow in the fractured, porous medium of the bedrock. Based on prior investigations of groundwater flow at the site, fractures are thought to provide the fastest paths for groundwater flow; conditions that lead to flow in fractures were investigated and simulated. Uncertainty in the geologic interpretation of Yucca Mountain was incorporated through the use of geostatistical simulations, while variability of hydrogeologic parameters within each unit was accounted for by the random sampling of parameter probability density functions. The composite-porosity formulation of groundwater flow was employed to simulate flow in both the matrix and fracture domains. In this conceptualization, the occurrence of locally saturated conditions within the unsaturated zone is responsible for the initiation of fast-path flow through fractures. The results of the GWTT-94 study show that heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties of the model domain is an important factor in simulating local regions of high groundwater saturation. Capillary-pressure conditions at the surface boundary influence the extent of the local saturation simulated.

  19. A Search for Fast Radio Bursts at Low Frequencies with Murchison Widefield Array High Time Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Wayth, R. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Murphy, T.; Oberoi, D.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a pilot study search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at low frequencies (139-170 MHz). We utilized MWA data obtained in a routine imaging mode from observations where the primary target was a field being studied for Epoch of Reionization detection. We formed images with 2 s time resolution and 1.28 MHz frequency resolution for 10.5 hr of observations, over 400 square degrees of the sky. We de-dispersed the dynamic spectrum in each of 372,100 resolution elements of 2 × 2 arcmin2, between dispersion measures of 170 and 675 pc cm-3. Based on the event rate calculations in Trott et al., which assume a standard candle luminosity of 8 × 1037 Js-1, we predict that with this choice of observational parameters, the MWA should detect (˜10, ˜2, ˜0) FRBs with spectral indices corresponding to (-2, -1, 0), based on a 7σ detection threshold. We find no FRB candidates above this threshold from our search, placing an event rate limit of \\lt 700 above 700 Jy ms per day per sky and providing evidence against spectral indices α \\lt -1.2 (S\\propto {ν }α ). We compare our event rate and spectral index limits with others from the literature. We briefly discuss these limits in light of recent suggestions that supergiant pulses from young neutron stars could explain FRBs. We find that such supergiant pulses would have to have much flatter spectra between 150 and 1400 MHz than have been observed from Crab giant pulses to be consistent with the FRB spectral index limit we derive.

  20. Fast and reliable titration of recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Ulrich-Peter; Wulf, Marc-Andre; Stahn, Susanne; Steidl, Ulrich; Haas, Rainer; Kronenwett, Ralf

    2002-10-01

    In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was developed to determine genomic rAAV-2 titers using the Light-Cycler technology. Since the CMV promoter is the most commonly used promoter in gene therapeutic approaches, primers were designed which hybridize with the human CMV promoter sequence. PCR products were detected by the addition of SYBR green. qPCR of a 5 log spanning serial dilution of the vector plasmid containing one CMV promoter per plasmid molecule yielded a high amplification efficiency of 1.99 per cycle. To quantify the copy number of viral genomes, the qPCR curves of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) samples were related to a standard curve assessed by the 5 log spanning serial vector plasmid dilution (0.01-100 pg DNA). For validation of the method, rAAV-2 preparations were analyzed by a standard method and qPCR in parallel. As standard method, flow cytometry was used for titration of infectious viral particles on HeLa cells using the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein as a marker. A significant correlation was found between the results obtained by flow cytometry and the results from the qPCR over a 5 log range (r=0.85, P<0.0001). The mean ratio between infectious rAAV-2 particles titrated via flow cytometry and genomic copies of rAAV-2 measured by qPCR of the same sample was 1:253. The higher titers found by qPCR might be due to multiple transduction of a single cell or to non-infectious particles generated during rAAV-2 preparation. In conclusion, qPCR is a fast and reliable method for determination of rAAV-2 titers and might be a powerful tool for standardization of rAAV-2 preparations particularly in the context of clinical studies.

  1. Synopsis of a computer program designed to interface a personal computer with the fast data acquisition system of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. D.; Mateos, M. A.; Lincoln, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly described are the essential features of a computer program designed to interface a personal computer with the fast, digital data acquisition system of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The instrumentation was developed to provide a time-resolved analysis of individual vapor pulses produced by the incidence of a pulsed laser beam on an ablative material. The high repetition rate spectrometer coupled to a fast transient recorder captures complete mass spectra every 20 to 35 microsecs, thereby providing the time resolution needed for the study of this sort of transient event. The program enables the computer to record the large amount of data generated by the system in short time intervals, and it provides the operator the immediate option of presenting the spectral data in several different formats. Furthermore, the system does this with a high degree of automation, including the tasks of mass labeling the spectra and logging pertinent instrumental parameters.

  2. A fast direct method for block triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal block systems from time-fractional partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Rihuan; Ng, Michael K.; Sun, Hai-Wei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the block lower triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal blocks system which arises from the time-fractional partial differential equation. Existing fast numerical solver (e.g., fast approximate inversion method) cannot handle such linear system as the main diagonal blocks are different. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a fast direct method for solving this linear system, and to illustrate that the proposed method is much faster than the classical block forward substitution method for solving this linear system. Our idea is based on the divide-and-conquer strategy and together with the fast Fourier transforms for calculating Toeplitz matrix-vector multiplication. The complexity needs O (MNlog2 ⁡ M) arithmetic operations, where M is the number of blocks (the number of time steps) in the system and N is the size (number of spatial grid points) of each block. Numerical examples from the finite difference discretization of time-fractional partial differential equations are also given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. A Sucrose Mouth Rinse Does Not Improve 1-hr Cycle Time Trial Performance When Performed in the Fasted or Fed State.

    PubMed

    Trommelen, Jorn; Beelen, Milou; Mullers, Marjan; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C; Cermak, Naomi M

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrate mouth rinsing during exercise has been suggested to enhance performance of short (45-60 min) bouts of high-intensity (>75% VO2peak) exercise. Recent studies indicate that this performance enhancing effect may be dependent on the prandial state of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on ~1-hr time trial performance in both the fasted and fed states. Using a double-blind, crossover design, 14 trained male cyclists (27 ± 6 years; 5.0 ± 0.5 W · kg(-1)) were selected to perform 4 time trials of ~1 hr (1,032 ± 127 kJ) on a cycle ergometer while rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% sucrose solution (SUC) or a noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) for 5 s at the start and at every 12.5% of their set amount of work completed. Two trials were performed in an overnight fasted state and two trials were performed 2 h after consuming a standardized breakfast. Performance time did not differ between any of the trials (fasted-PLA: 68.6 ± 7.2; fasted-SUC: 69.6 ± 7.5; fed-PLA: 67.6 ± 6.6; and fed-SUC: 69.0 ± 6.3 min; Prandial State × Mouth Rinse Solution p = .839; main effect prandial state p = .095; main effect mouth rinse solution p = .277). In line, mean power output and heart rate during exercise did not differ between trials. In conclusion, a sucrose mouth rinse does not improve ~1-hr time trial performance in well-trained cyclists when performed in either the fasted or the fed state.

  4. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  5. High speed electrostatic photomultiplier tube for the 1.06 micrometer wavelength. Cup and slat dynode chain combined with flat cathode and coax output produces 0.25 nsec rise time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Varian cup and slat dynode chain was modified to have a flat cathode. These modifications were incorporated in an all-electrostatic photomultiplier tube having a rise time of 0.25 n sec. The tube delivered under the contract had a flat S-20 opaque cathode with a useful diameter of 5 mm. The design of the tube is such that a III to V cathode support is mounted in place of the existing cathode substrate. This cathode support is designed to accept a transferred III to V cathode and maintain the cathode surface in the same position as the S-20 photocathode.

  6. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  7. Structure of A Equals 76 Nuclei and Fast-Timing Studies of the Rare-Earth Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Nathan Michael

    produce useful results. Such cases include estimation of total -gamma-decay widths of neutron resonances and -gamma-ray spectra following nuclear reactions. Of particular interest in modern research are so-called pygmy resonances which may be due, for example, to a neutron skin resonance or other exotic modes of excitation. Another topic of continued interest is that of double-beta decay and in particular the search for neutrinoless double-beta (0vbeta) decay. Conclusive observation of 0 vbeta decay would show that the neutrino is its own anti-particle, and evaluation of the neutrino mass could be performed if the matrix element of the decay were known. Constraining parameters of theoretical models using experimental data is of the utmost importance to these calculations. In this dissertation, the structure of A = 76 nuclei near stability, candidates for involvement in the hypothetical 0vbeta decay of 76Ge, is explored though seven experiments performed at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Source, the High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source, and at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory. Of particular concern is the analysis and interpretation of nuclear resonance fluorescence data on 76Se, 76Ge, and nuclei in general. Details and results of experiments performed using fast-timing electronics to study structure of low-lying states of 174W and 176Hf at WNSL are additionally presented as an appendix.

  8. Reduced γ-γ time walk to below 50 ps using the multiplexed-start and multiplexed-stop fast-timing technique with LaBr3(Ce) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régis, J.-M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Rudigier, M.; Ansari, S.; Dannhoff, M.; Esmaylzadeh, A.; Fransen, C.; Gerst, R.-B.; Jolie, J.; Karayonchev, V.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Stegemann, S.

    2016-07-01

    The electronic γ-γ fast-timing technique using arrays consisting of many LaBr3(Ce) detectors is a powerful method to determine lifetimes of nuclear excited states with a lower limit of about 5 ps. This method requires the determination of the energy-dependent time walk of the zero time which is represented by the centroid of a prompt γ-γ time distribution. The full-energy peak versus full-energy peak prompt response difference which represents the linearly combined mean γ-γ time walk of a fast-timing array consisting of 8 LaBr3(Ce) detectors was measured using a standard 152Eu γ-ray source for the energy region of 40-1408 keV. The data were acquired using a "multiplexed-start and multiplexed-stop" analogue electronics circuitry and analysed by employing the generalized centroid difference method. Concerning the cylindrical 1.5 in.×1.5 in. LaBr3(Ce) crystals which are coupled to the Hamamatsu R9779 photomultiplier tubes, the best fast-timing array time resolution of 202(3) ps is obtained for the two prompt γ lines of 60Co by using the leading-edge timing principle. When using the zero-crossover timing principle the time resolution is degraded by up to 30%, dependent on the energy and the shaping delay time of the constant fraction discriminator model Ortec 935. The smallest γ-γ time walk to below 50 ps is obtained by using a shaping delay time of about 17 ns and an optimum "time-walk adjustment" needed for detector output pulses with amplitudes smaller than 400 mV.

  9. Comparison of fast electric field changes from subsequent return strokes of natural and triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Willett, J.

    1988-01-01

    Fast electric field changes from subsequent return strokes of natural and triggered lightning with propagation paths almost entirely over water are compared. Data were collected at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Comparisons have been made of the average shape, the rise time and the spectrum of the electric field changes. The electric field changes from the triggered flashes tend to rise to peak faster and decay faster than do their counterparts in natural cloud-to-ground flashes.

  10. The impact of religious fasting on human health.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a rise in the number of investigations examining the health-related effects of religiously motivated fasts. Islamic Ramadan is a 28 - 30 day fast in which food and drink are prohibited during the daylight hours. The majority of health-specific findings related to Ramadan fasting are mixed. The likely causes for these heterogeneous findings are the differences between studies in the following: 1) the amount of daily fasting time; 2) the percentage of subjects who smoke, take oral medications, and/or receive intravenous fluids; and 3) the subjects' typical food choices and eating habits. Greek Orthodox Christians fast for a total of 180 - 200 days each year, and their main fasting periods are the Nativity Fast (40 days prior to Christmas), Lent (48 days prior to Easter), and the Assumption (15 days in August). The fasting periods are more similar than dissimilar, and they can each be described as a variant of vegetarianism. Some of the more favorable effects of these fasts include the lowering of body mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. The Biblical-based Daniel Fast prohibits the consumption of animal products, refined carbohydrates, food additives, preservatives, sweeteners, flavorings, caffeine, and alcohol. It is most commonly partaken for 21 days, although fasts of 10 and 40 days have been observed. Our initial investigation of the Daniel Fast noted favorable effects on several health-related outcomes, including: blood pressure, blood lipids, insulin sensitivity, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the health-specific effects of these fasts and provides suggestions for future research.

  11. Comparison of the conventional multiplex RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR and Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay for the detection of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manohar L; Anand, Siddharth P; Tikhe, Shamal A; Walimbe, Atul M; Potdar, Varsha A; Chadha, Mandeep S; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2016-01-01

    Detection of respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive, specific and cost effective, having huge potential for patient management. In this study, the performance of an in-house developed conventional multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR), real time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) and Luminex xTAG(®) RVP fast assay (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) for the detection of respiratory viruses was compared. A total 310 respiratory clinical specimens predominantly from pediatric patients, referred for diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 from August 2009 to March 2011 were tested to determine performance characteristic of the three methods. A total 193 (62.2%) samples were detected positive for one or more viruses by mRT-PCR, 175 (56.4%) samples by real time monoplex RT-PCR, and 138 (44.5%) samples by xTAG(®) RVP fast assay. The overall sensitivity of mRT-PCR was 96.9% (95% CI: 93.5, 98.8), rtRT-PCR 87.9% (95% CI: 82.5, 92.1) and xTAG(®) RVP fast was 68.3% (95% CI: 61.4, 74.6). Rhinovirus was detected most commonly followed by respiratory syncytial virus group B and influenza A/H1N1pdm09. The monoplex real time RT-PCR and in-house developed mRT-PCR are more sensitive, specific and cost effective than the xTAG(®) RVP fast assay.

  12. Simple approximations for estimating quickly the motion and timing of salt diapir rise, overhang development, and associated thermal anomalies using present-day observations: Case history from the Gulf of Mexico and Danish North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I. ); Thomsen, R.O. )

    1993-09-01

    Estimates of the upward motion of salt, due solely to buoyancy forces, through deposited and depositing sedimentary cover can be split into several parts: the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary to cause an underlying salt to become buoyant; the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary for a salt diapir to reach the sediment mudline in the absence of an impeding pressure of competent sediments opposing salt rise and in the absence of significant overpressure (both differential impedance and differential overpressure will slow the rise of the salt to the mudline); the effective speed of motion of the salt through the nonimpeding sediments during the salt's buoyant-ascent phase; current observed salt-top depth below mudline versus nonimpeded predicted salt-top depth leading to (a) minimum estimate of mechanical strength of competent resistive layers, and (b) an approximate estimate of buoyancy pressure of salt attempting to penetrate the resistive cover layer; uplift estimate of the overlying competent sediments because of the buoyancy pressure, in relation to observed uplift, leading to an estimate of salt-diapir rise speed since reaching the impeding formation; timing estimates of [open quotes]mushroom cap[close quotes] development of salt since emplacement of the resistive overlying layer and an estimate of the lateral competence of sedimentary beds ahead of the mushroom-salt sheet cap as a consequence of the observed mushroom extent; an estimate of evolving thermal anomalies around the dynamic salt/sediment system as a consequence of high-salt thermal conductivity. Such simple rough estimation methods are important in assessing the local and regional factors influencing the dynamic, thermal, and hydrocarbon retention factors in basinal sediments influenced by salt. Examples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Danish North Sea illustrate how to use both seismic and/or downhole data to perform the simple estimates.

  13. Real-time monitoring of electrically evoked catecholamine signals in the songbird striatum using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda R.; Garris, Paul A.; Casto, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a powerful technique for monitoring rapid changes in extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the brain. In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry has been used extensively in mammalian models to characterize dopamine signals in both anesthetized and awake preparations, but has yet to be applied to a non-mammalian vertebrate. The goal of this study was to establish in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a songbird, the European starling, to facilitate real-time measurements of extracellular catecholamine levels in the avian striatum. In urethane-anesthetized starlings, changes in catecholamine levels were evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and measured at carbon-fiber microelectrodes positioned in the medial and lateral striata. Catecholamines were elicited by different stimulations, including trains related to phasic dopamine signaling in the rat, and were analyzed to quantify presynaptic mechanisms governing exocytotic release and neuronal uptake. Evoked extracellular catecholamine dynamics, maximal amplitude of the evoked catecholamine signal, and parameters for catecholamine release and uptake did not differ between striatal regions and were similar to those determined for dopamine in the rat dorsomedial striatum under similar conditions. Chemical identification of measured catecholamine by its voltammogram was consistent with the presence of both dopamine and norepinephrine in striatal tissue content. However, the high ratio of dopamine to norepinephrine in tissue content and the greater sensitivity of the carbon-fiber microelectrode to dopamine compared to norepinephrine favored the measurement of dopamine. Thus, converging evidence suggests that dopamine was the predominate analyte of the electrically evoked catecholamine signal measured in the striatum by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Overall, comparisons between the characteristics of these evoked signals suggested a similar presynaptic regulation of

  14. Development and demonstration of table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system by single-shot scan photo detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, Atsushi; Kao, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast dynamics is generally studied by pump-probe method with laser pulse, which scans optical delay by motorized stage step by step. Using ultrashort laser pulse shorter than typical molecular vibration periods, the pump-probe measurement can study both of electronic dynamics and vibration dynamics simultaneously. The probe wavelength dependence of the ultrafast electronic and vibration dynamics (UEVD) helps us to distinguish the signal contributions from the dynamics of the electronic ground state and that of the electronic excited states, which elucidates primary reaction mechanism after photoexcitation. Meanwhile, the measurement time of UEVD spectroscopy takes too long time to be used in realistic application. In our previous work, we have developed multi-channel lock-in amplifying (MLA) detectors to study UEVD at all probe wavelengths simultaneously, and synchronized it with laser and fast-scan delay stage to scan the data in five seconds. It enabled us to study UEVD spectroscopy even for photo-fragile materials. However, the home-made MLA detectors required for the measurement is expensive and massive in size and weight, thus not suitable for general researchers in the field of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. In the present work, we have developed a table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system using single shot scan line CCD. This system measures time-resolved trace at all probe wavelengths simultaneously in five seconds. The CCD-based fast-scan time-resolved spectroscopy system enables us to study ultrafast dynamics of various materials even biomaterials, which have been thought to be hard or even impossible to be studied in previous methods.

  15. Time-resolved measurement of photon emission during fast crack propagation in three-point bending fracture of silica glass and soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Tadashi Sato, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Kouichi

    2014-03-10

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of photon emission (PE) and fast crack propagation upon bending fracture were conducted in silica glass and soda lime glass. Observation of fracture surfaces revealed that macroscopic crack propagation behavior was similar between the silica glass and soda lime glass when fracture loads for these specimens were comparable and cracks propagated without branching. However, a large difference in the PE characteristics was found between the two glasses. In silica glass, PE (645–655 nm) was observed during the entire crack propagation process, whereas intense PE (430–490 nm and 500–600 nm) was observed during the initial stages of propagation. In contrast, only weak PE was detected in soda lime glass. These results show that there is a large difference in the atomic processes involved in fast crack propagation between these glasses, and that PE can be used to study brittle fracture on the atomic scale.

  16. Reaction time performance in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence of inconsistency in the fast and slow portions of the RT distribution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Benjamin R; Strauss, Esther H; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Tannock, Rosemary

    2007-04-01

    Inconsistency across trials of 2-choice reaction time (RT) data was analyzed in 72 adolescents (age 12-17 years) within 4 groups differentiated by the presence or absence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading difficulties (RD). ADHD participants were more inconsistent (across all trials, and in the slow portion of the RT distribution) than controls, but only when RD was present. Within the fast portion of the RT distribution, ADHD participants were more inconsistent than controls regardless of RD. The results highlight the importance of fluctuations in cognitive performance in ADHD and suggest that there may be independent sources of variation in inconsistency affecting the fast and slow portions of the RT distribution.

  17. Design concepts for a pulse power test facility to simulate EMP surges in overhead power lines. Part I. Fast pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Ramrus, A.

    1986-02-01

    Objective of the study was to create conceptual designs of high voltage pulsers capable of simulating two types of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) caused by a high-altitude nuclear burst; the slow rise time magnetohydrodynamic (MHD-EMP) and the fast rise time high-altitude EMP (HEMP). The pulser design was directed towards facilities capable of performing EMP vulnerability testing of components used in the national electric power system.

  18. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  19. Fast food: friendly?

    PubMed

    Rice, S; McAllister, E J; Dhurandhar, N V

    2007-06-01

    Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast food, we examined the possibility of imaginative selection of fast food, which would attenuate the potentially unfavorable nutrient composition. We present a sample menu to demonstrate that it is possible to design a fast food menu that provides reasonable level of essential nutrients without exceeding the caloric recommendations. We would like to alert health-care professionals that fast food need not be forbidden under all circumstances, and that a fresh look at the role of fast food may enable its inclusion in meal planning for those who depend on it out of necessity, while adding flexibility.

  20. Matched elastic constants for a perfect helical planar state and a fast switching time in chiral nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meina; Zhou, Xiaochen; Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Huai; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2016-05-11

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals possess a self-assembled helical structure and exhibit unique selective reflection in visible and infrared light regions. Their optical properties can be electrically tuned. The tuning involves the unwinding and restoring of the helical structure. We carried out an experimental study on the mechanism of the restoration of the helical structure. We constructed chiral nematic liquid crystals with variable elastic constants by doping bent-dimers and studied their impact on the restoration. With matched twist and bend elastic constants, the helical structure can be restored dramatically fast from the field-induced homeotropic state. Furthermore, defects can be eliminated to produce a perfect planar state which exhibits high selective reflection.

  1. Germanium-gated γ-γ fast timing of excited states in fission fragments using the EXILL&FATIMA spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régis, J.-M.; Simpson, G. S.; Blanc, A.; de France, G.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Paziy, V.; Saed-Samii, N.; Soldner, T.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Bruce, A. M.; Drouet, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Ilieva, S.; Jolie, J.; Korten, W.; Kröll, T.; Lalkovski, S.; Mach, H.; Mărginean, N.; Pascovici, G.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Roberts, O. J.; Smith, J. F.; Townsley, C.; Vancraeyenest, A.; Warr, N.

    2014-11-01

    A high-granularity mixed spectrometer consisting of high-resolution Ge and very fast LaBr3(Ce)-scintillator detectors has been installed around a fission target at the cold-neutron guide PF1B of the high-flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Lifetimes of excited states in the range of 10 ps to 10 ns can be measured in around 100 exotic neutron-rich fission fragments using Ge-gated LaBr3(Ce)-LaBr3(Ce) or Ge-Ge-LaBr3(Ce)-LaBr3(Ce) coincidences. We report on various characteristics of the EXILL&FATIMA spectrometer for the energy range of 40 keV up to 6.8 MeV and present results of ps-lifetime test measurements in a fission fragment. The results are discussed with respect to possible systematic errors induced by background contributions.

  2. Nothing But MORB at Shatsky Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natland, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    were similar; conditions of differentiation in the shallow crust were similar; and the types of magma mixing were similar. This is the principal petrologic outcome of drilling at Shatsky Rise. Since magnetic anomalies across Shatsky Rise indicate that it formed along a migrating triple junction at a fast spreading ridge, the reason for its unusually thick and shallow crust remains speculative, except that it cannot have been produced at the head of a deeply sourced hot mantle plume. The migrating triple junction may simply have encountered a shallow welt in the depleted mantle, or pushed it ahead of itself, and then overran it, to produce the unusual volume of depleted basalt. Sano, T., et al (2012) G-Cubed doi:10.1029/2012GC004235 Gale, A., et al (2013) G-Cubed doi:10.1029/2012GC004334

  3. Assessment of visual quality and spatial accuracy of fast anisotropic diffusion and scan conversion algorithms for real-time three-dimensional spherical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Laine, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound machines based on matrix phased-array transducers are gaining predominance for real-time dynamic screening in cardiac and obstetric practice. These transducers array acquire three-dimensional data in spherical coordinates along lines tiled in azimuth and elevation angles at incremental depth. This study aims at evaluating fast filtering and scan conversion algorithms applied in the spherical domain prior to visualization into Cartesian coordinates for visual quality and spatial measurement accuracy. Fast 3d scan conversion algorithms were implemented and with different order interpolation kernels. Downsizing and smoothing of sampling artifacts were integrated in the scan conversion process. In addition, a denoising scheme for spherical coordinate data with 3d anisotropic diffusion was implemented and applied prior to scan conversion to improve image quality. Reconstruction results under different parameter settings, such as different interpolation kernels, scaling factor, smoothing options, and denoising, are reported. Image quality was evaluated on several data sets via visual inspections and measurements of cylinder objects dimensions. Error measurements of the cylinder's radius, reported in this paper, show that the proposed fast scan conversion algorithm can correctly reconstruct three-dimensional ultrasound in Cartesian coordinates under tuned parameter settings. Denoising via three-dimensional anisotropic diffusion was able to greatly improve the quality of resampled data without affecting the accuracy of spatial information after the modification of the introduction of a variable gradient threshold parameter.

  4. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  5. Four-dimensional visualization of rising microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Jung Ho; Jung, Ji Won; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lim, Jae-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Four-dimensional imaging, which indicates imaging in three spatial dimensions as a function of time, provides useful evidence to investigate the interactions of rising bubbles. However, this has been largely unexplored for microbubbles, mostly due to problems associated with strong light scattering and shallow depth of field in optical imaging. Here, we developed tracking x-ray microtomography that is capable of visualizing rising microbubbles in four dimensions. Bubbles are tracked by moving the in-situ cell to account for their rise velocity. The sizes, shapes, time-dependent positions, and velocities of individual rising microbubbles are clearly identified, despite substantial overlaps between bubbles in the field of view. Our tracking x-ray microtomography affords opportunities for understanding bubble-bubble (or particle) interactions at microscales - important in various fields such as microfluidics, biomechanics, and floatation.

  6. A real-time framework for fast data retrieval in an image database of volcano activity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliotta, Marco Antonio; Cannata, Andrea; Cassisi, Carmelo; Ciancitto, Francesco; Montalto, Placido; Prestifilippo, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Explosive Activity at Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands) is continuously monitored by INGV-OE in order to analyze its eruptive dynamics and specific scenarios. In particular, the images acquired from thermal cameras represent a big collection of data. In order to extract useful information from thermal image sequences, we need an efficient way to explore and retrieve information from a huge amount of data. In this work, a novel framework capable of fast data retrieval, using the "metric space" concept, is shown. In the light of it, we implemented an indexing algorithm related to similarity laws. The focal point is finding objects of a set that are "close" in relation to a given query, according to a similarity criterion. In order to perform this task, we performed morphological image processing techniques to each video frame, in order to map the shape area of each explosion into a closed curve, representing the explosion contour itself. In order to constitute a metric space, we chose a certain number of features obtained from parameters related to this closed curve and used them as objects of this metric space where similarity can be evaluated, using an appropriate "metric" function to calculate the distances. Unfortunately, this approach has to deal with an intrinsic issue involving the complexity and the number of distance functions to be calculated on a large amount of data. To overcome this drawback, we used a novel abstract data structure called "K-Pole Tree", having the property of minimizing the number of distances to be calculated among objects. Our method allows for fast retrieval of similar objects using an euclidean distance function among the features of the metric space. Thus, we can cluster explosions related to different kinds of volcanic activity, using "pivot" items. For example, given a known image sequence related to a particular type of explosion, it is possible to quickly and easily find all the image sequences that contain only similar

  7. Effects of hydraulic retention time on aerobic granulation and granule growth kinetics at steady state with a fast start-up strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 6, and 8 h was employed, respectively, in three reactors to study the effects of HRT on granulation with a newly developed fast granulation strategy, i.e., a strategy by combining strong hydraulic selection pressure with high organic loading rate (OLR). Granules with clear boundary appeared within 24 h after reactor start-up and all reactors reached a pseudo steady state after 6-day operation. A 4-h HRT resulted in a relatively higher increasing rate in terms of granule size during granule development period, i.e., 208 μm day(-1), and the bigger granule size and the higher sludge volume index at the pseudo steady state. For HRT of 6 or 8 h, no obvious difference was observed. However, it was found that HRT influenced sludge retention time (SRT) and kinetics significantly. A HRT changing from 4 to 8 h led to an increased SRT from 3 to 21 days, a decreased observed specific biomass growth rate (μ obs) and an decreased observed biomass yield (Y obs) of stable granules from 0.37 to 0.062 days(-1), and 0.177 to 0.055 g MLVSS g(-1) COD, respectively. Both μ obs and Y obs had a linear relationship with the reciprocal of HRT. In addition, the great difference of microbial community between seed sludge, sludge retained in the reactors, and sludge washed out indicated a strong microbial selection for fast granulation within 24 h. However, during the granule development period from day 1 to 6, no more microbial selection was observed except an adjustment of microbial community. Little influence of HRT on microbial population in granular sludge indicated a minor role of HRT played for granulation with the fast start-up strategy adopted in this study. The results demonstrated that hydraulic selection pressure for granulation was mainly from short settling time, which led to strong microbial selection during the granulation period. Meanwhile, although HRT did not affect granulation with the fast start-up strategy, it played an

  8. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  9. Capillary rise of superspreaders.

    PubMed

    Radulovic, Jovana; Sefiane, Khellil; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2011-09-15

    Trisiloxane surfactants, known as 'superspreaders', are commonly employed in numerous applications where enhanced wetting is of the utmost importance. The underlying mechanisms of superspreader wetting have been a focus of scientific interest for ca. 2 decades, and a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unique trisiloxane dynamics. We have studied trisiloxane behaviour in thin capillaries to get further insight into their interfacial activity. Additionally, our knowledge of the capillary rise of superspreaders is surprisingly limited, and the effect of this extraordinary group of surfactants on capillary phenomena has been largely overlooked. Diffusion was confirmed to be the limiting factor of trisiloxane behaviour. A tentative theoretical explanation for the phenomenon studied and an appropriate mathematical model are presented. It is concluded that the enhancement of wetting due to surfactant addition is also a function of geometry: the effect is clear for a sessile drop, but more complex and less beneficial in a capillary.

  10. The TOF-ACC flight electronics for the fast trigger and time of flight of the AMS-02 cosmic ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basili, A.; Bindi, V.; Casadei, D.; Castellini, G.; Contin, A.; Kounine, A.; Lolli, M.; Palmonari, F.; Quadrani, L.

    2013-04-01

    The AMS-02 experiment has been installed in May 2011 on the international space station (ISS) where it will measure, with an unprecedented accuracy, cosmic rays up to the TeV energy region for several years. The AMS-02 time of flight (TOF) and the anti-coincide counters (ACC) sub-detectors provide respectively the fast trigger and the veto for the data taking to the experiment. The TOF measures the particle crossing time and the absolute charge with very high precision and provides the fast trigger to AMS-02, whereas the ACC detects and vetoes particles which enter the AMS-02 volume from outside of the main detector acceptance. The electronics of the AMS-02 TOF and ACC sub-detectors have been designed to operate in space for a very long time, in extreme conditions and without any human intervention. In this paper the main design concepts of the TOF-ACC electronics, the space qualification tests and the performance are presented.

  11. The Rise and Fall of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, Brian T.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Kasen, Daniel; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 {+-} 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink (2007) from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t{sub r} - t{sub f} {approx}< 2 days and t{sub r} - t{sub f} > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble residuals in our

  12. Safety Rises to New Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafo, Joseph; Robillard, Marc

    2001-01-01

    Explains how high-rise residence halls can provide high-level safety and security at colleges and universities. Boston University is used to illustrate high-rise security and fire protection issues. (GR)

  13. Breakdown in helium in high-voltage open discharge with subnanosecond current front rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Alexandrov, A. L.; Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevskiy, Dm. E.

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of high-voltage open discharge in helium have shown a possibility of generation of current pulses with subnanosecond front rise, due to ultra-fast breakdown development. The open discharge is ignited between two planar cathodes with mesh anode in the middle between them. For gas pressure 6 Torr and 20 kV applied voltage, the rate of current rise reaches 500 A/(cm2 ns) for current density 200 A/cm2 and more. The time of breakdown development was measured for different helium pressures and a kinetic model of breakdown in open discharge is presented, based on elementary reactions for electrons, ions and fast atoms. The model also includes various cathode emission processes due to cathode bombardment by ions, fast atoms, electrons and photons of resonant radiation with Doppler shift of frequency. It is shown, that the dominating emission processes depend on the evolution of the discharge voltage during the breakdown. In the simulations, two cases of voltage behavior were considered: (i) the voltage is kept constant during the breakdown; (ii) the voltage is reduced with the growth of current. For the first case, the exponentially growing current is maintained due to photoemission by the resonant photons with Doppler-shifted frequency. For the second case, the dominating factor of current growth is the secondary electron emission. In both cases, the subnanosecond rise of discharge current was obtained. Also the effect of gas pressure on breakdown development was considered. It was found that for 20 Torr gas pressure the time of current rise decreases to 0.1 ns, which is in agreement with experimental data.

  14. Fast robust correlation.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Alistair J; Kadyrov, Alexander; Christmas, William J; Kittler, Josef

    2005-08-01

    A new, fast, statistically robust, exhaustive, translational image-matching technique is presented: fast robust correlation. Existing methods are either slow or non-robust, or rely on optimization. Fast robust correlation works by expressing a robust matching surface as a series of correlations. Speed is obtained by computing correlations in the frequency domain. Computational cost is analyzed and the method is shown to be fast. Speed is comparable to conventional correlation and, for large images, thousands of times faster than direct robust matching. Three experiments demonstrate the advantage of the technique over standard correlation.

  15. pySeismicFMM: Python based travel time calculation in regular 2D and 3D grids in Cartesian and geographic coordinates using Fast Marching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  16. A fast, robust, and simple implicit method for adaptive time-stepping on adaptive mesh-refinement grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commerçon, B.; Debout, V.; Teyssier, R.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Implicit solvers present strong limitations when used on supercomputing facilities and in particular for adaptive mesh-refinement codes. Aims: We present a new method for implicit adaptive time-stepping on adaptive mesh-refinement grids. We implement it in the radiation-hydrodynamics solver we designed for the RAMSES code for astrophysical purposes and, more particularly, for protostellar collapse. Methods: We briefly recall the radiation-hydrodynamics equations and the adaptive time-stepping methodology used for hydrodynamical solvers. We then introduce the different types of boundary conditions (Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin) that are used at the interface between levels and present our implementation of the new method in the RAMSES code. The method is tested against classical diffusion and radiation-hydrodynamics tests, after which we present an application for protostellar collapse. Results: We show that using Dirichlet boundary conditions at level interfaces is a good compromise between robustness and accuracy and that it can be used in structure formation calculations. The gain in computational time over our former unique time step method ranges from factors of 5 to 50 depending on the level of adaptive time-stepping and on the problem. We successfully compare the old and new methods for protostellar collapse calculations that involve highly non linear physics. Conclusions: We have developed a simple but robust method for adaptive time-stepping of implicit scheme on adaptive mesh-refinement grids. It can be applied to a wide variety of physical problems that involve diffusion processes.

  17. Arrested Bubble Rise in a Narrow Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamstaes, Catherine; Eggers, Jens

    2016-06-01

    If a long air bubble is placed inside a vertical tube closed at the top it can rise by displacing the fluid above it. However, Bretherton found that if the tube radius, R, is smaller than a critical value Rc=0.918 ℓ_c , where ℓ_c=√{γ /ρ g} is the capillary length, there is no solution corresponding to steady rise. Experimentally, the bubble rise appears to have stopped altogether. Here we explain this observation by studying the unsteady bubble motion for Rrise in infinite time remains very small, giving the appearance of arrested motion.

  18. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai; Mor, Ilan

    2015-07-15

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.

  19. Extension of the two-dimensional mass channel cluster plot method to fast separations utilizing low thermal mass gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-03-24

    Implementation of a data reduction and visualization method for use with high-speed gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) is reported. The method, called the "2D m/z cluster method" facilitates analyte detection, deconvolution, and identification, by accurately measuring peak widths and retention times using a fast TOFMS sampling frequency (500 Hz). Characteristics and requirements for high speed GC are taken into consideration: fast separations with narrow peak widths and high peak capacity, rapid data collection rate, and effective peak deconvolution. Transitioning from standard GC (10-60+ minute separations) to fast GC (1-10 min separations) required consideration of how to properly analyze the data. This report validates use of the 2D m/z cluster method with newly developed GC technology that produces ultra-fast separations (∼1 min) with narrow analyte peak widths. Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) operated at a heating rate of 250 °C/min coupled to a LECO Pegasus III TOFMS analyzed a 115 component test mixture in 120 s with peak widths-at-base, wb (4σ), of 350 ms (average) to produce a separation with a high peak capacity, nc ∼ 340 (at unit resolution Rs = 1). The 2D m/z cluster method is shown to separate overlapped analytes to a limiting Rs ∼ 0.03, so the effective peak capacity was increased nearly 30-fold to nc ∼10,000 in the 120 s separation. The method, when coupled with LTM-GC-TOFMS, is demonstrated to provide unambiguous peak rank (i.e. the number of analytes per overlapped peak in the total ion current (TIC)), by visualizing locations of pure and chromatographically overlapped m/z. Hence, peak deconvolution and identification using MCR-ALS (multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares) is demonstrated.

  20. Scintillating screen CCD camera using fast analog on-chip storage for time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Hagelstein, Michael; San Miguel, Alfonso; Fontaine, Alain; Ressler, Thorsten

    1995-03-01

    Serial readout of cooled, linear Si-photodiode arrays or CCDs offer a high dynamic range but only at moderate pixel readout rates. Recording spectroscopic information, i.e. 1D images, requires only a few sensitive lines of a 2D CCD array. A camera is presented where the unexposed part of the CCD is used as a buffer to store successive spectra with high frame rates. In this 'streak mode' the time resolution for data acquisition depends only on the line shift time of the CCD and no longer on the slow pixel readout time. A frame rate of 10 kHz for X-ray absorption spectra has been achieved. The CCD is part of an X-ray camera consisting of a scintillating screen lens-coupled to the CCD. The camera provides a high dynamic range of 17 bit, a spatial resolution of 60 micrometers (FWHM) and a high detective quantum efficiency of > 40% for x- ray energies between 4 keV and 25 keV. The camera is used for time- resolved energy-dispersive XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) experiments. This technique permits the study of time-dependent variations of electronic properties and the local environment of atoms under induced external perturbation.