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Sample records for fast spike activation

  1. Distinct nonuniform cable properties optimize rapid and efficient activation of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Nörenberg, Anja; Hu, Hua; Vida, Imre; Bartos, Marlene; Jonas, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition in the hippocampus. However, the dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid interneuron recruitment have remained unclear. To quantitatively address this question, we developed detailed passive cable models of BCs in the dentate gyrus based on dual somatic or somatodendritic recordings and complete morphologic reconstructions. Both specific membrane capacitance and axial resistivity were comparable to those of pyramidal neurons, but the average somatodendritic specific membrane resistance (Rm) was substantially lower in BCs. Furthermore, Rm was markedly nonuniform, being lowest in soma and proximal dendrites, intermediate in distal dendrites, and highest in the axon. Thus, the somatodendritic gradient of Rm was the reverse of that in pyramidal neurons. Further computational analysis revealed that these unique cable properties accelerate the time course of synaptic potentials at the soma in response to fast inputs, while boosting the efficacy of slow distal inputs. These properties will facilitate both rapid phasic and efficient tonic activation of BCs in hippocampal microcircuits. PMID:20080772

  2. Distinct nonuniform cable properties optimize rapid and efficient activation of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Nörenberg, Anja; Hu, Hua; Vida, Imre; Bartos, Marlene; Jonas, Peter

    2010-01-12

    Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition in the hippocampus. However, the dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid interneuron recruitment have remained unclear. To quantitatively address this question, we developed detailed passive cable models of BCs in the dentate gyrus based on dual somatic or somatodendritic recordings and complete morphologic reconstructions. Both specific membrane capacitance and axial resistivity were comparable to those of pyramidal neurons, but the average somatodendritic specific membrane resistance (R(m)) was substantially lower in BCs. Furthermore, R(m) was markedly nonuniform, being lowest in soma and proximal dendrites, intermediate in distal dendrites, and highest in the axon. Thus, the somatodendritic gradient of R(m) was the reverse of that in pyramidal neurons. Further computational analysis revealed that these unique cable properties accelerate the time course of synaptic potentials at the soma in response to fast inputs, while boosting the efficacy of slow distal inputs. These properties will facilitate both rapid phasic and efficient tonic activation of BCs in hippocampal microcircuits.

  3. Oxytocin enhances hippocampal spike transmission by modulating fast-spiking interneurons.

    PubMed

    Owen, Scott F; Tuncdemir, Sebnem N; Bader, Patrick L; Tirko, Natasha N; Fishell, Gord; Tsien, Richard W

    2013-08-22

    Neuromodulatory control by oxytocin is essential to a wide range of social, parental and stress-related behaviours. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with deficiencies in oxytocin levels and with genetic alterations of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). Thirty years ago, Mühlethaler et al. found that oxytocin increases the firing of inhibitory hippocampal neurons, but it remains unclear how elevated inhibition could account for the ability of oxytocin to improve information processing in the brain. Here we describe in mammalian hippocampus a simple yet powerful mechanism by which oxytocin enhances cortical information transfer while simultaneously lowering background activity, thus greatly improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Increased fast-spiking interneuron activity not only suppresses spontaneous pyramidal cell firing, but also enhances the fidelity of spike transmission and sharpens spike timing. Use-dependent depression at the fast-spiking interneuron-pyramidal cell synapse is both necessary and sufficient for the enhanced spike throughput. We show the generality of this novel circuit mechanism by activation of fast-spiking interneurons with cholecystokinin or channelrhodopsin-2. This provides insight into how a diffusely delivered neuromodulator can improve the performance of neural circuitry that requires synapse specificity and millisecond precision.

  4. Balance of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic activity is altered in fast-spiking interneurons in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Chen, Huan-Xin; Roper, Steven N

    2009-10-01

    Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause of intractable epilepsy in children and adults. We have studied rats irradiated in utero as a model of CD to better understand mechanisms that underlie dysplasia-associated epilepsy. Prior studies have shown a reduction in the number of cortical interneurons and in the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in pyramidal cells in this model. They have also shown a reduced frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the surviving cortical interneurons. However, the inhibitory synaptic contacts were not examined in that study. The current experiments were performed to assess inhibitory synaptic activity in fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in irradiated rats and controls and the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in these cells. Whole cell recordings were obtained from layer IV FS cells in controls and comparable FS cells in irradiated rats. The frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs was reduced in dysplastic cortex, but the amplitude of these currents was unchanged. Stimulus-evoked IPSCs showed short-term depression in control and short-term facilitation in dysplastic cortex. Simultaneous recording of spontaneous EPSCs and IPSCs showed a shift in the ratio of excitation-to-inhibition in favor of inhibition in FS cells from dysplastic cortex. The same shift toward inhibition was seen when miniature EPSCs and IPSCs were examined. These results show that FS cells in dysplastic cortex have a relative lack of excitatory drive. This may result in an important class of inhibitory cells that are less able to perform their normal function especially in periods of increased excitatory activity.

  5. Parvalbumin tunes spike-timing and efferent short-term plasticity in striatal fast spiking interneurons.

    PubMed

    Orduz, David; Bischop, Don Patrick; Schwaller, Beat; Schiffmann, Serge N; Gall, David

    2013-07-01

      Striatal fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) modulate output of the striatum by synchronizing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). Recent studies have broadened our understanding of FSIs, showing that they are implicated in severe motor disorders such as parkinsonism, dystonia and Tourette syndrome. FSIs are the only striatal neurons to express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). This selective expression of PV raises questions about the functional role of this Ca(2+) buffer in controlling FSI Ca(2+) dynamics and, consequently, FSI spiking mode and neurotransmission. To study the functional involvement of FSIs in striatal microcircuit activity and the role of PV in FSI function, we performed perforated patch recordings on enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing FSIs in brain slices from control and PV-/- mice. Our results revealed that PV-/- FSIs fired more regularly and were more excitable than control FSIs by a mechanism in which Ca(2+) buffering is linked to spiking activity as a result of the activation of small conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. A modelling approach of striatal FSIs supports our experimental results. Furthermore, PV deletion modified frequency-specific short-term plasticity at inhibitory FSI to MSN synapses. Our results therefore reinforce the hypothesis that in FSIs, PV is crucial for fine-tuning of the temporal responses of the FSI network and for the orchestration of MSN populations. This, in turn, may play a direct role in the generation and pathology-related worsening of motor rhythms.

  6. Parvalbumin tunes spike-timing and efferent short-term plasticity in striatal fast spiking interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Orduz, David; Bischop, Don Patrick; Schwaller, Beat; Schiffmann, Serge N; Gall, David

    2013-01-01

    Striatal fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) modulate output of the striatum by synchronizing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). Recent studies have broadened our understanding of FSIs, showing that they are implicated in severe motor disorders such as parkinsonism, dystonia and Tourette syndrome. FSIs are the only striatal neurons to express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). This selective expression of PV raises questions about the functional role of this Ca2+ buffer in controlling FSI Ca2+ dynamics and, consequently, FSI spiking mode and neurotransmission. To study the functional involvement of FSIs in striatal microcircuit activity and the role of PV in FSI function, we performed perforated patch recordings on enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing FSIs in brain slices from control and PV−/− mice. Our results revealed that PV−/− FSIs fired more regularly and were more excitable than control FSIs by a mechanism in which Ca2+ buffering is linked to spiking activity as a result of the activation of small conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. A modelling approach of striatal FSIs supports our experimental results. Furthermore, PV deletion modified frequency-specific short-term plasticity at inhibitory FSI to MSN synapses. Our results therefore reinforce the hypothesis that in FSIs, PV is crucial for fine-tuning of the temporal responses of the FSI network and for the orchestration of MSN populations. This, in turn, may play a direct role in the generation and pathology-related worsening of motor rhythms. PMID:23551945

  7. Perineuronal Nets Enhance the Excitability of Fast-Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized complexes of extracellular matrix molecules that surround the somata of fast-spiking neurons throughout the vertebrate brain. PNNs are particularly prevalent throughout the auditory brainstem, which transmits signals with high speed and precision. It is unknown whether PNNs contribute to the fast-spiking ability of the neurons they surround. Whole-cell recordings were made from medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) principal neurons in acute brain slices from postnatal day 21 (P21) to P27 mice. PNNs were degraded by incubating slices in chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and were compared to slices that were treated with a control enzyme (penicillinase). ChABC treatment did not affect the ability of MNTB neurons to fire at up to 1000 Hz when driven by current pulses. However, f–I (frequency–intensity) curves constructed by injecting Gaussian white noise currents superimposed on DC current steps showed that ChABC treatment reduced the gain of spike output. An increase in spike threshold may have contributed to this effect, which is consistent with the observation that spikes in ChABC-treated cells were delayed relative to control-treated cells. In addition, parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking cortical neurons in >P70 slices that were treated with ChABC also had reduced excitability and gain. The development of PNNs around somata of fast-spiking neurons may be essential for fast and precise sensory transmission and synaptic inhibition in the brain. PMID:27570824

  8. Kv3.1/Kv3.2 channel positive modulators enable faster activating kinetics and increase firing frequency in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Boddum, Kim; Hougaard, Charlotte; Xiao-Ying Lin, Julie; von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-02-24

    Due to their fast kinetic properties, Kv3.1 voltage gated potassium channels are important in setting and controlling firing frequency in neurons and pivotal in generating high frequency firing of interneurons. Pharmacological activation of Kv3.1 channels may possess therapeutic potential for treatment of epilepsy, hearing disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive impairments. Here we thoroughly investigate the selectivity and positive modulation of the two small molecules, EX15 and RE01, on Kv3 channels. Selectivity studies, conducted in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed a positive modulatory effect of the two compounds on Kv3.1 and to a minor extent on Kv3.2 channels. RE01 had no effect on the Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 channels, whereas EX15 had an inhibitory impact on the Kv3.4 mediated current. Voltage-clamp experiments in monoclonal hKv3.1b/HEK293 cells (34 °C) revealed that the two compounds indeed induced larger currents and faster activation kinetics. They also decrease the speed of deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of activation, to a more negative activation threshold. Application of action potential clamping and repetitive stimulation protocols of hKv3.1b expressing HEK293 cells revealed that EX15 and RE01 significantly increased peak amplitude, half width and decay time of Kv3.1 mediated currents, even during high-frequency action potential clamping (250 Hz). In rat hippocampal slices, EX15 and RE01 increased neuronal excitability in fast-spiking interneurons in dentate gyrus. Action potential frequency was prominently increased at minor depolarizing steps, whereas more marginal effects of EX15 and RE01 were observed after stronger depolarizations. In conclusion, our results suggest that EX15 and RE01 positive modulation of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 currents facilitate increased firing frequency in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

  9. Focal cortical lesions induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of fast spiking and non fast spiking cortical interneurons.

    PubMed

    Imbrosci, Barbara; Neitz, Angela; Mittmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A physiological brain function requires neuronal networks to operate within a well-defined range of activity. Indeed, alterations in neuronal excitability have been associated with several pathological conditions, ranging from epilepsy to neuropsychiatric disorders. Changes in inhibitory transmission are known to play a key role in the development of hyperexcitability. However it is largely unknown whether specific interneuronal subpopulations contribute differentially to such pathological condition. In the present study we investigated functional alterations of inhibitory interneurons embedded in a hyperexcitable cortical circuit at the border of chronically induced focal lesions in mouse visual cortex. Interestingly, we found opposite alterations in the excitability of non fast-spiking (Non Fs) and fast-spiking (Fs) interneurons in acute cortical slices from injured animals. Non Fs interneurons displayed a depolarized membrane potential and a higher frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). In contrast, Fs interneurons showed a reduced sEPSCs amplitude. The observed downscaling of excitatory synapses targeting Fs interneurons may prevent the recruitment of this specific population of interneurons to the hyperexcitable network. This mechanism is likely to seriously affect neuronal network function and to exacerbate hyperexcitability but it may be important to protect this particular vulnerable population of GABAegic neurons from excitotoxicity.

  10. Mechanisms of Firing Patterns in Fast-Spiking Cortical Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, David; Donner, Karnit; Shacham, Liron; Shlosberg, Dan; Amitai, Yael; Hansel, David

    2007-01-01

    Cortical fast-spiking (FS) interneurons display highly variable electrophysiological properties. Their spike responses to step currents occur almost immediately following the step onset or after a substantial delay, during which subthreshold oscillations are frequently observed. Their firing patterns include high-frequency tonic firing and rhythmic or irregular bursting (stuttering). What is the origin of this variability? In the present paper, we hypothesize that it emerges naturally if one assumes a continuous distribution of properties in a small set of active channels. To test this hypothesis, we construct a minimal, single-compartment conductance-based model of FS cells that includes transient Na+, delayed-rectifier K+, and slowly inactivating d-type K+ conductances. The model is analyzed using nonlinear dynamical system theory. For small Na+ window current, the neuron exhibits high-frequency tonic firing. At current threshold, the spike response is almost instantaneous for small d-current conductance, g d, and it is delayed for larger g d. As g d further increases, the neuron stutters. Noise substantially reduces the delay duration and induces subthreshold oscillations. In contrast, when the Na+ window current is large, the neuron always fires tonically. Near threshold, the firing rates are low, and the delay to firing is only weakly sensitive to noise; subthreshold oscillations are not observed. We propose that the variability in the response of cortical FS neurons is a consequence of heterogeneities in their g d and in the strength of their Na+ window current. We predict the existence of two types of firing patterns in FS neurons, differing in the sensitivity of the delay duration to noise, in the minimal firing rate of the tonic discharge, and in the existence of subthreshold oscillations. We report experimental results from intracellular recordings supporting this prediction. PMID:17696606

  11. How Can Monosynaptic Spike Transmission Be So Fast?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Amarasingham, Asohan

    There has been recently a great deal of interest in ``mapping the brain'', namely in establishing the precise structural organization of neural microcircuits. High-density extracellular recordings offer the unique opportunity to observe simultaneously the activity of hundreds of neurons with millisecond precision in the behaving mammal. Neural connectivity is typically inferred from this recording type by seeking the cell pairs that exhibit finely-timed spike correlation. There is however no widely-accepted biophysical justification for this procedure, nor is there much in the way of ``ground truth'' data that might validate these inferences. First, we showed that a millisecond spike correlation can be observed between monosynaptically connected neurons regardless of the timescale of the postsynaptic potential response. The demonstration is based on the theory of stochastic processes - in particular on an escape noise model - and numerical simulations of biophysical models of monosynaptic spike transfer. Second, using the developed biophysical models, we highlighted the relevance of nonparametric statistical methods, called ``jitter methods'', in connectivity analysis from spike trains, even in the face of extreme firing nonstationarity. Supported by NIH Grant R01MH102840 and DoD (HBCU/MI) Grant W911NF-15-R-0002.

  12. Spectrotemporal processing differences between auditory cortical fast-spiking and regular-spiking neurons

    PubMed Central

    Atencio, Craig A.; Schreiner, Christoph E.

    2008-01-01

    Excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons constitute the main elements of cortical circuitry and have distinctive morphologic and electrophysiological properties. Here, we differentiate them by analyzing the time course of their action potentials (APs) and characterizing their receptive field properties in auditory cortex. Pyramidal neurons have longer APs and discharge as Regular-Spiking Units (RSUs), while basket and chandelier cells, which are inhibitory interneurons, have shorter APs and are Fast-Spiking Units (FSUs). To compare these neuronal classes we stimulated cat primary auditory cortex neurons with a dynamic moving ripple stimulus and constructed single-unit spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) and their associated nonlinearities. FSUs had shorter latencies, broader spectral tuning, greater stimulus specificity, and higher temporal precision than RSUs. The STRF structure of FSUs was more separable, suggesting more independence between spectral and temporal processing regimes. The nonlinearities associated with the two cell classes was indicative of higher feature selectivity for FSUs. These global functional differences between RSUs and FSUs suggest fundamental distinctions between putative excitatory and inhibitory neurons that shape auditory cortical processing. PMID:18400888

  13. Firing regulation of fast-spiking interneurons by autaptic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daqing; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Wu, Shengdun; Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in the brain are self-innervated by powerful inhibitory GABAergic autaptic connections. By computational modelling, we investigate how autaptic inhibition regulates the firing response of such interneurons. Our results indicate that autaptic inhibition both boosts the current threshold for action potential generation and modulates the input-output gain of FS interneurons. The autaptic transmission delay is identified as a key parameter that controls the firing patterns and determines multistability regions of FS interneurons. Furthermore, we observe that neuronal noise influences the firing regulation of FS interneurons by autaptic inhibition and extends their dynamic range for encoding inputs. Importantly, autaptic inhibition modulates noise-induced irregular firing of FS interneurons, such that coherent firing appears at an optimal autaptic inhibition level. Our results reveal the functional roles of autaptic inhibition in taming the firing dynamics of FS interneurons.

  14. Regulation of Fast-Spiking Basket Cell Synapses by the Chloride Channel ClC–2

    PubMed Central

    Földy, Csaba; Lee, Sang-Hun; Morgan, Robert J.; Soltesz, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking basket cells play key roles in the generation of synchronous, rhythmic population activities in the hippocampus. Here we show that GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inputs from murine parvalbumin-expressing basket cells are selectively modulated by the membrane voltage- and intracellular chloride-dependent chloride channel ClC–2. These data demonstrate a novel cell type-specific regulation of intracellular chloride homeostasis in the perisomatic region of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. PMID:20676104

  15. Dopaminergic modulation of short-term synaptic plasticity in fast-spiking interneurons of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Burgos, G; Kroener, S; Seamans, J K; Lewis, D A; Barrionuevo, G

    2005-12-01

    Dopaminergic regulation of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity is essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the cellular mechanisms of dopamine neuromodulation in PFC are not well understood. We have studied the effects of dopamine receptor activation during persistent stimulation of excitatory inputs onto fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in monkey PFC. Stimulation at 20 Hz induced short-term excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) depression. The D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 (5 microM) significantly reduced the amplitude of the first EPSP but not of subsequent responses in EPSP trains, which still displayed significant depression. Dopamine (DA; 10 microM) effects were similar to those of SKF81297 and were abolished by the D1 antagonist SCH23390 (5 microM), indicating a D1 receptor-mediated effect. DA did not alter miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, suggesting that its effects were activity dependent and presynaptic action potential dependent. In contrast to previous findings in pyramidal neurons, in fast-spiking cells, contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to EPSPs at subthreshold potentials was not significant and fast-spiking cell depolarization decreased EPSP duration. In addition, DA had no significant effects on temporal summation. The selective decrease in the amplitude of the first EPSP in trains delivered every 10 s suggests that in fast-spiking neurons, DA reduces the amplitude of EPSPs evoked at low frequency but not of EPSPs evoked by repetitive stimulation. DA may therefore improve detection of EPSP bursts above background synaptic activity. EPSP bursts displaying short-term depression may transmit spike-timing-dependent temporal codes contained in presynaptic spike trains. Thus DA neuromodulation may increase the signal-to-noise ratio at fast-spiking cell inputs.

  16. Optical Recording of Suprathreshold Neural Activity with Single-cell and Single-spike Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Gayathri Nattar; Koester, Helmut J.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling of information in the vertebrate central nervous system is often carried by populations of neurons rather than individual neurons. Also propagation of suprathreshold spiking activity involves populations of neurons. Empirical studies addressing cortical function directly thus require recordings from populations of neurons with high resolution. Here we describe an optical method and a deconvolution algorithm to record neural activity from up to 100 neurons with single-cell and single-spike resolution. This method relies on detection of the transient increases in intracellular somatic calcium concentration associated with suprathreshold electrical spikes (action potentials) in cortical neurons. High temporal resolution of the optical recordings is achieved by a fast random-access scanning technique using acousto-optical deflectors (AODs)1. Two-photon excitation of the calcium-sensitive dye results in high spatial resolution in opaque brain tissue2. Reconstruction of spikes from the fluorescence calcium recordings is achieved by a maximum-likelihood method. Simultaneous electrophysiological and optical recordings indicate that our method reliably detects spikes (>97% spike detection efficiency), has a low rate of false positive spike detection (< 0.003 spikes/sec), and a high temporal precision (about 3 msec) 3. This optical method of spike detection can be used to record neural activity in vitro and in anesthetized animals in vivo3,4. PMID:22972033

  17. Function of specific K(+) channels in sustained high-frequency firing of fast-spiking neocortical interneurons.

    PubMed

    Erisir, A; Lau, D; Rudy, B; Leonard, C S

    1999-11-01

    Fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons of the neocortex and hippocampus fire high-frequency trains of brief action potentials with little spike-frequency adaptation. How these striking properties arise is unclear, although recent evidence suggests K(+) channels containing Kv3.1-Kv3.2 proteins play an important role. We investigated the role of these channels in the firing properties of fast-spiking neocortical interneurons from mouse somatosensory cortex using a pharmacological and modeling approach. Low tetraethylammonium (TEA) concentrations (spike trains evoked by steady depolarization revealed that, although TEA had little effect on the initial firing rate, it strongly reduced firing frequency later in the trains. These effects appeared to be specific to Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels, because blockade of dendrotoxin-sensitive Kv1 channels and BK Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, which also have high TEA sensitivity, produced opposite or no effects. Voltage-clamp experiments confirmed the presence of a Kv3.1-Kv3.2-like current in fast-spiking neurons, but not in other interneurons. Analysis of spike shape changes during the spike trains suggested that Na(+) channel inactivation plays a significant role in the firing-rate slowdown produced by TEA, a conclusion that was supported by computer simulations. These findings indicate that the unique properties of Kv3.1-Kv3.2 channels enable sustained high-frequency firing by facilitating the recovery of Na(+) channel inactivation and by minimizing the duration of the afterhyperpolarization in neocortical interneurons.

  18. Repeated cocaine exposure increases fast-spiking interneuron excitability in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Campanac, Emilie; Hoffman, Dax A

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in cocaine addiction. However, how chronic cocaine exposure affects cortical networks remains unclear. Most studies have focused on layer 5 pyramidal neurons (the circuit output), while the response of local GABAergic interneurons to cocaine remains poorly understood. Here, we recorded from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-IN) after repeated cocaine exposure and found altered membrane excitability. After cocaine withdrawal, FS-IN showed an increase in the number of spikes evoked by positive current injection, increased input resistance, and decreased hyperpolarization-activated current. We also observed a reduction in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current activity was unaffected. We show that, in animals with cocaine history, dopamine receptor D(2) activation is less effective in increasing FS-IN intrinsic excitability. Interestingly, these alterations are only observed 1 wk or more after the last cocaine exposure. This suggests that the dampening of D(2)-receptor-mediated response may be a compensatory mechanism to rein down the excitability of FS-IN.

  19. Repeated cocaine exposure increases fast-spiking interneuron excitability in the rat medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Dax A.

    2013-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in cocaine addiction. However, how chronic cocaine exposure affects cortical networks remains unclear. Most studies have focused on layer 5 pyramidal neurons (the circuit output), while the response of local GABAergic interneurons to cocaine remains poorly understood. Here, we recorded from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-IN) after repeated cocaine exposure and found altered membrane excitability. After cocaine withdrawal, FS-IN showed an increase in the number of spikes evoked by positive current injection, increased input resistance, and decreased hyperpolarization-activated current. We also observed a reduction in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current activity was unaffected. We show that, in animals with cocaine history, dopamine receptor D2 activation is less effective in increasing FS-IN intrinsic excitability. Interestingly, these alterations are only observed 1 wk or more after the last cocaine exposure. This suggests that the dampening of D2-receptor-mediated response may be a compensatory mechanism to rein down the excitability of FS-IN. PMID:23486201

  20. Cannabinoids attenuate hippocampal γ oscillations by suppressing excitatory synaptic input onto CA3 pyramidal neurons and fast spiking basket cells.

    PubMed

    Holderith, Noémi; Németh, Beáta; Papp, Orsolya I; Veres, Judit M; Nagy, Gergo A; Hájos, Norbert

    2011-10-15

    CB(1) cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) activation by exogenous ligands can impair memory processes, which critically depend on synchronous neuronal activities that are temporarily structured by oscillations. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the cannabinoid-induced decrease in gamma oscillations. We first verified that cannabinoids (CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2) readily suppressed carbachol-induced gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of hippocampal slices via activation of CB(1)Rs. The cannabinoid-induced decrease in the peak power of oscillations was accompanied by reduced and less precise firing activity in CA3 pyramidal cells and fast spiking basket cells. By examining the cannabinoid sensitivity of synaptic inputs we found that the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents was significantly suppressed upon CB(1)R activation in both CA3 pyramidal cells and fast spiking basket cells. In contrast, evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA3 pyramidal cells were unaltered. Furthermore, we observed that a CB(1)R agonist-induced decrease in the oscillation power at the beginning of the drug application was accompanied primarily by the reduced discharge of fast spiking basket cells, while pyramidal cell firing was unaltered. This result implies that the dampening of cholinergically induced gamma oscillations in the hippocampus by cannabinoids can be explained by a reduced excitatory input predominantly onto fast spiking basket cells, which leads to a reduction in neuronal firing frequency and precision, and thus to smaller field potentials. In addition, we uncovered that the spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple activities in hippocampal slices could also be suppressed by CB(1)R activation suggesting that cannabinoids profoundly reduce the intrinsically generated oscillatory activities at distinct frequencies in CA3 networks by reducing synaptic neurotransmission.

  1. Complex Intrinsic Membrane Properties and Dopamine Shape Spiking Activity in a Motor Axon

    PubMed Central

    Ballo, Aleksander W.; Bucher, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    We studied the peripheral motor axons of the two pyloric dilator (PD) neurons of the stomatogastric ganglion in the lobster, Homarus americanus. Intracellular recordings from the motor nerve showed both fast and slow voltage- and activity-dependent dynamics. During rhythmic bursts, the PD axons displayed changes in spike amplitude and duration. Pharmacological experiments and the voltage-dependence of these phenomena suggest that inactivation of sodium and A-type potassium channels are responsible. In addition, the “resting” membrane potential was dependent on ongoing spike or burst activity, with more hyperpolarized values when activity was strong. Nerve stimulations, pharmacological block and current clamp experiments suggest that this is due to a functional antagonism between a slow after-hyperpolarization (sAHP) and inward rectification through hyperpolarization-activated current (IH). Dopamine application resulted in modest depolarization and “ectopic” peripheral spike initiation in the absence of centrally generated activity. This effect was blocked by CsCl and ZD7288, consistent with a role of IH. High frequency nerve stimulation inhibited peripheral spike initiation for several seconds, presumably due to the sAHP. Both during normal bursting activity and antidromic nerve stimulation, the conduction delay over the length of the peripheral nerve changed in a complex manner. This suggests that axonal membrane dynamics can have a substantial effect on the temporal fidelity of spike patterns propagated from a spike initiation site to a synaptic target, and that neuromodulators can influence the extent to which spike patterns are modified. PMID:19386902

  2. Involvement of cortical fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive basket cells in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao; Lachance, Mathieu; Rossignol, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons of the parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking basket cells subtype (PV INs) are important regulators of cortical network excitability and gamma oscillations, involved in signal processing and cognition. Impaired development or function of PV INs has been associated with epilepsy in various animal models of epilepsy, as well as in some genetic forms of epilepsy in humans. In this review, we provide an overview of some of the experimental data linking PV INs dysfunction with epilepsy, focusing on disorders of the specification, migration, maturation, synaptic function or connectivity of PV INs. Furthermore, we reflect on the potential therapeutic use of cell-type specific stimulation of PV INs within active networks and on the transplantation of PV INs precursors in the treatment of epilepsy and its co-morbidities. PMID:27323940

  3. Gamma-range synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons can enhance detection of tactile stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Joshua H.; Pritchett, Dominique L.; Moore, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the sensory impact of repeated synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons (FS), an activity pattern thought to underlie neocortical gamma oscillations. We optogenetically drove “FS-gamma” while mice detected naturalistic vibrissal stimuli and found enhanced detection of less salient stimuli and impaired detection of more salient ones. Prior studies have predicted that the benefit of FS-gamma is generated when sensory neocortical excitation arrives in a specific temporal window 20-25 ms after FS synchronization. To systematically test this prediction, we aligned periodic tactile and optogenetic stimulation. We found that the detection of less salient stimuli was improved only when peripheral drive led to the arrival of excitation 20-25 ms after synchronization and that other temporal alignments either had no effects or impaired detection. These results provide causal evidence that FS-gamma can enhance processing of less salient stimuli, those that benefit from the allocation of attention. PMID:25151266

  4. Generalized activity equations for spiking neural network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buice, Michael A.; Chow, Carson C.

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made in uncovering the computational capabilities of spiking neural networks. However, spiking neurons will always be more expensive to simulate compared to rate neurons because of the inherent disparity in time scales—the spike duration time is much shorter than the inter-spike time, which is much shorter than any learning time scale. In numerical analysis, this is a classic stiff problem. Spiking neurons are also much more difficult to study analytically. One possible approach to making spiking networks more tractable is to augment mean field activity models with some information about spiking correlations. For example, such a generalized activity model could carry information about spiking rates and correlations between spikes self-consistently. Here, we will show how this can be accomplished by constructing a complete formal probabilistic description of the network and then expanding around a small parameter such as the inverse of the number of neurons in the network. The mean field theory of the system gives a rate-like description. The first order terms in the perturbation expansion keep track of covariances. PMID:24298252

  5. Voltage-dependent membrane potential oscillations of rat striatal fast-spiking interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Bracci, Enrico; Centonze, Diego; Bernardi, Giorgio; Calabresi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    We used whole-cell recordings to investigate subthreshold membrane potential oscillations and their relationship with intermittent firing in striatal fast-spiking interneurons. During current injections (100–500 pA, 1 s), these cells displayed a highly variable pattern of spike bursts (comprising 1–30 action potentials) interspersed with membrane potential oscillations. The oscillation threshold was −42 ± 10 mV, and coincided with that for action potentials. The oscillation frequency was voltage dependent and ranged between 20 and 100 Hz. Oscillations were unaffected by the calcium channel blockers cadmium and nickel and by blockers of ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors. Conversely, the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin fully abolished the oscillations and the spike bursts. The first spike of a burst appeared to be triggered by an oscillation, since the timing and rate of rise of the membrane potential in the subthreshold voltage region was similar for the two events. Conversely, the second spike (and the subsequent ones) displayed much faster depolarisations in the subthreshold voltage range, indicating that they were generated by a different mechanism. Consistent with these notions, a small pulse of intracellular current delivered during the oscillation was effective in triggering a burst of action potentials that largely outlasted the pulse. We conclude that fast-spiking interneuron oscillations are generated by an intrinsic membrane mechanism that does not require fast synaptic transmission, and which depends on sodium conductance but not calcium conductance, and that such oscillations are responsible for triggering the intermittent spike bursts that are typical of these neurons. PMID:12665602

  6. Resilient RTN fast spiking in Kv3.1 null mice suggests redundancy in the action potential repolarization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Porcello, Darrell M; Ho, Chi Shun; Joho, Rolf H; Huguenard, John R

    2002-03-01

    Fast spiking (FS), GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) are capable of firing high-frequency trains of brief action potentials, with little adaptation. Studies in recombinant systems have shown that high-voltage-activated K(+) channels containing the Kv3.1 and/or Kv3.2 subunits display biophysical properties that may contribute to the FS phenotype. Given that RTN expresses high levels of Kv3.1, with little or no Kv3.2, we tested whether this subunit was required for the fast action potential repolarization mechanism essential to the FS phenotype. Single- and multiple-action potentials were recorded using whole-cell current clamp in RTN neurons from brain slices of wild-type and Kv3.1-deficient mice. At 23 degrees C, action potentials recorded from homozygous Kv3.1 deficient mice (Kv3.1(-/-)) compared with their wild-type (Kv3.1(+/+)) counterparts had reduced amplitudes (-6%) and fast after-hyperpolarizations (-16%). At 34 degrees C, action potentials in Kv3.1(-/-) mice had increased duration (21%) due to a reduced rate of repolarization (-30%) when compared with wild-type controls. Action potential trains in Kv3.1(-/-) were associated with a significantly greater spike decrement and broadening and a diminished firing frequency versus injected current relationship (F/I) at 34 degrees C. There was no change in either spike count or maximum instantaneous frequency during low-threshold Ca(2+) bursts in Kv3.1(-/-) RTN neurons at either temperature tested. Our findings show that Kv3.1 is not solely responsible for fast spikes or high-frequency firing in RTN neurons. This suggests genetic redundancy in the system, possibly in the form of other Kv3 members, which may suffice to maintain the FS phenotype in RTN neurons in the absence of Kv3.1.

  7. Kinetics of fast short-term depression are matched to spike train statistics to reduce noise.

    PubMed

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Nesse, William H; Longtin, Andre; Maler, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Short-term depression (STD) is observed at many synapses of the CNS and is important for diverse computations. We have discovered a form of fast STD (FSTD) in the synaptic responses of pyramidal cells evoked by stimulation of their electrosensory afferent fibers (P-units). The dynamics of the FSTD are matched to the mean and variance of natural P-unit discharge. FSTD exhibits switch-like behavior in that it is immediately activated with stimulus intervals near the mean interspike interval (ISI) of P-units (approximately 5 ms) and recovers immediately after stimulation with the slightly longer intervals (>7.5 ms) that also occur during P-unit natural and evoked discharge patterns. Remarkably, the magnitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials appear to depend only on the duration of the previous ISI. Our theoretical analysis suggests that FSTD can serve as a mechanism for noise reduction. Because the kinetics of depression are as fast as the natural spike statistics, this role is distinct from previously ascribed functional roles of STD in gain modulation, synchrony detection or as a temporal filter.

  8. Fast gamma oscillations are generated intrinsically in CA1 without the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael T; McBain, Chris J

    2015-02-25

    Information processing in neuronal networks relies on the precise synchronization of ensembles of neurons, coordinated by the diverse family of inhibitory interneurons. Cortical interneurons can be usefully parsed by embryonic origin, with the vast majority arising from either the caudal or medial ganglionic eminences (CGE and MGE). Here, we examine the activity of hippocampal interneurons during gamma oscillations in mouse CA1, using an in vitro model where brief epochs of rhythmic activity were evoked by local application of kainate. We found that this CA1 KA-evoked gamma oscillation was faster than that in CA3 and, crucially, did not appear to require the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells. In contrast to CA3, we also found that optogenetic inhibition of pyramidal cells in CA1 did not significantly affect the power of the oscillation, suggesting that excitation may not be essential for gamma genesis in this region. We found that MGE-derived interneurons were generally more active than CGE interneurons during CA1 gamma, although a group of CGE-derived interneurons, putative trilaminar cells, were strongly phase-locked with gamma oscillations and, together with MGE-derived axo-axonic and bistratified cells, provide attractive candidates for being the driver of this locally generated, predominantly interneuron-driven model of gamma oscillations.

  9. Impaired fast-spiking interneuron function in a genetic mouse model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Jonas-Frederic; Strüber, Michael; Bartos, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic neuronal activity provides a frame for information coding by co-active cell assemblies. Abnormal brain rhythms are considered as potential pathophysiological mechanisms causing mental disease, but the underlying network defects are largely unknown. We find that mice expressing truncated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), which mirror a high-prevalence genotype for human psychiatric illness, show depression-related behavior. Theta and low-gamma synchrony in the prelimbic cortex (PrlC) is impaired in Disc1 mice and inversely correlated with the extent of behavioural despair. While weak theta activity is driven by the hippocampus, disturbance of low-gamma oscillations is caused by local defects of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FS-INs). The number of FS-INs is reduced, they receive fewer excitatory inputs, and form fewer release sites on targets. Computational analysis indicates that weak excitatory input and inhibitory output of FS-INs may lead to impaired gamma oscillations. Our data link network defects with a gene mutation underlying depression in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04979.001 PMID:25735038

  10. Layer Specific Development of Neocortical Pyramidal to Fast Spiking Cell Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Voinova, Olga; Valiullina, Fliza; Zakharova, Yulia; Mukhtarov, Marat; Draguhn, Andreas; Rozov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    All cortical neurons are engaged in inhibitory feedback loops which ensure excitation-inhibition balance and are key elements for the development of coherent network activity. The resulting network patterns are strongly dependent on the strength and dynamic properties of these excitatory-inhibitory loops which show pronounced regional and developmental diversity. Therefore we compared the properties and postnatal maturation of two different synapses between rat neocortical pyramidal cells (layer 2/3 and layer 5, respectively) and fast spiking (FS) interneurons in the corresponding layer. At P14, both synapses showed synaptic depression upon repetitive activation. Synaptic release properties between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and FS cells were stable from P14 to P28. In contrast, layer 5 pyramidal to FS cell connections showed a significant increase in paired pulse ratio by P28. Presynaptic calcium dynamics also changed at these synapses, including sensitivity to exogenously loaded calcium buffers and expression of presynaptic calcium channel subtypes. These results underline the large variety of properties at different, yet similar, synapses in the neocortex. They also suggest that postnatal maturation of the brain goes along with increasing differences between synaptically driven network activity in layer 5 and layer 2/3. PMID:26834564

  11. Active dendrites support efficient initiation of dendritic spikes in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyun; Guzman, Segundo J; Hu, Hua; Jonas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    CA3 pyramidal neurons are important for memory formation and pattern completion in the hippocampal network. It is generally thought that proximal synapses from the mossy fibers activate these neurons most efficiently, whereas distal inputs from the perforant path have a weaker modulatory influence. We used confocally targeted patch-clamp recording from dendrites and axons to map the activation of rat CA3 pyramidal neurons at the subcellular level. Our results reveal two distinct dendritic domains. In the proximal domain, action potentials initiated in the axon backpropagate actively with large amplitude and fast time course. In the distal domain, Na+ channel–mediated dendritic spikes are efficiently initiated by waveforms mimicking synaptic events. CA3 pyramidal neuron dendrites showed a high Na+-to-K+ conductance density ratio, providing ideal conditions for active backpropagation and dendritic spike initiation. Dendritic spikes may enhance the computational power of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal network. PMID:22388958

  12. Electrical and chemical synapses among parvalbumin fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in adult mouse neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Galarreta, Mario; Hestrin, Shaul

    2002-01-01

    Networks of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons connected via electrical and chemical synapses are thought to play an important role in detecting and promoting synchronous activity in the cerebral cortex. Although the properties of electrical and chemical synaptic interactions among inhibitory interneurons are critical for their function as a network, they have only been studied systematically in juvenile animals. Here, we have used transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein in cells containing parvalbumin (PV) to study the synaptic connectivity among fast-spiking (FS) cells in slices from adult animals (2–7 months old). We have recorded from pairs of PV-FS cells and found that the majority of them were electrically coupled (61%, 14 of 23 pairs). In addition, 78% of the pairs were connected via GABAergic chemical synapses, often reciprocally. The average coupling coefficient for step injections was 1.5% (n = 14), a smaller value than that reported in juvenile animals. GABA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents and potentials decayed with exponential time constants of 2.6 and 5.9 ms, respectively, and exhibited paired-pulse depression (50-ms interval). The inhibitory synaptic responses in the adult were faster than those observed in young animals. Our results indicate that PV-FS cells are highly interconnected in the adult cerebral cortex by both electrical and chemical synapses, establishing networks that can have important implications for coordinating activity in cortical circuits. PMID:12213962

  13. Aspartic acid aminotransferase activity is increased in actively spiking compared with non-spiking human epileptic cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Kish, S J; Dixon, L M; Sherwin, A L

    1988-01-01

    Increased concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter aspartic acid in actively spiking human epileptic cerebral cortex was recently described. In order to further characterise changes in the aspartergic system in epileptic brain, the behaviour of aspartic acid aminotransferase (AAT), a key enzyme involved in aspartic acid metabolism has now been examined. Electrocorticography performed during surgery was employed to identify cortical epileptic spike foci in 16 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable seizures. Patients with spontaneously spiking lateral temporal cortex (n = 8) were compared with a non-spiking control group (n = 8) of patients in whom the epileptic lesions were confined to the hippocampus sparing the temporal convexity. Mean activity of AAT in spiking cortex was significantly elevated by 16-18%, with aspartic acid concentration increased by 28%. Possible explanations for the enhanced AAT activity include increased proliferation of cortical AAT-containing astrocytes at the spiking focus and/or a generalised increase in neuronal or extraneuronal metabolism consequent to the ongoing epileptic discharge. It is suggested that the data provide additional support for a disturbance of central excitatory aspartic acid mechanisms in human epileptic brain. PMID:2898010

  14. Dendritic calcium nonlinearities switch the direction of synaptic plasticity in fast-spiking interneurons.

    PubMed

    Camiré, Olivier; Topolnik, Lisa

    2014-03-12

    Postsynaptic calcium (Ca2+) nonlinearities allow neuronal coincidence detection and site-specific plasticity. Whether such events exist in dendrites of interneurons and play a role in regulation of synaptic efficacy remains unknown. Here, we used a combination of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and two-photon Ca2+ imaging to reveal Ca2+ nonlinearities associated with synaptic integration in dendrites of mouse hippocampal CA1 fast-spiking interneurons. Local stimulation of distal dendritic branches within stratum oriens/alveus elicited fast Ca2+ transients, which showed a steep sigmoidal relationship to stimulus intensity. Supralinear Ca2+ events required Ca2+ entry through AMPA receptors with a subsequent Ca2+ release from internal stores. To investigate the functional significance of supralinear Ca2+ signals, we examined activity-dependent fluctuations in transmission efficacy triggered by Ca2+ signals of different amplitudes at excitatory synapses of interneurons. Subthreshold theta-burst stimulation (TBS) produced small amplitude postsynaptic Ca2+ transients and triggered long-term potentiation. In contrast, the suprathreshold TBS, which was associated with the generation of supralinear Ca2+ events, triggered long-term depression. Blocking group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) during suprathreshold TBS resulted in a slight reduction of supralinear Ca2+ events and induction of short-term depression. In contrast, blocking internal stores and supralinear Ca2+ signals during suprathreshold TBS switched the direction of plasticity from depression back to potentiation. These data reveal a novel type of supralinear Ca2+ events at synapses lacking the GluA2 AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors and demonstrate a general mechanism by which Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors, together with internal stores and mGluRs, control the direction of plasticity at interneuron excitatory synapses.

  15. Two functional inhibitory circuits are comprised of a heterogeneous population of fast-spiking cortical interneurons.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Huntsman, M M

    2014-04-18

    Cortical fast spiking (FS) interneurons possess autaptic, synaptic, and electrical synapses that serve to mediate a fast, coordinated response to their postsynaptic targets. While FS interneurons are known to participate in numerous and diverse actions, functional subgroupings within this multi-functional interneuron class remain to be identified. In the present study, we examined parvalbumin-positive FS interneurons in layer 4 of the primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex - a brain region well-known for specialized inhibitory function. Here we show that FS interneurons fall into two broad categories identified by the onset of the first action potential in a depolarizing train as: "delayed firing FS interneurons (FSD) and early onset firing FS interneurons (FSE). Subtle variations in action potential firing reveal six subtypes within these two categories: delayed non-accommodating (FSD-NAC), delayed stuttering (FSD-STUT), early onset stuttering (FSE-STUT), early onset-late spiking (FSE-LS), early onset early-spiking (FSE-ES), and early onset accommodating (FSE-AC). Using biophysical criteria previously employed to distinguish neuronal cell types, the FSD and FSE categories exhibit several shared biophysical and synaptic properties that coincide with the notion of specificity of inhibitory function within the cortical FS interneuron class.

  16. The ionic mechanism of gamma resonance in rat striatal fast-spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Wilson, Charles J

    2011-12-01

    Striatal fast-spiking (FS) cells in slices fire in the gamma frequency range and in vivo are often phase-locked to gamma oscillations in the field potential. We studied the firing patterns of these cells in slices from rats ages 16-23 days to determine the mechanism of their gamma resonance. The resonance of striatal FS cells was manifested as a minimum frequency for repetitive firing. At rheobase, cells fired a doublet of action potentials or doublets separated by pauses, with an instantaneous firing rate averaging 44 spikes/s. The minimum rate for sustained firing was also responsible for the stuttering firing pattern. Firing rate adapted during each episode of firing, and bursts were terminated when firing was reduced to the minimum sustainable rate. Resonance and stuttering continued after blockade of Kv3 current using tetraethylammonium (0.1-1 mM). Both gamma resonance and stuttering were strongly dependent on Kv1 current. Blockade of Kv1 channels with dendrotoxin-I (100 nM) completely abolished the stuttering firing pattern, greatly lowered the minimum firing rate, abolished gamma-band subthreshold oscillations, and slowed spike frequency adaptation. The loss of resonance could be accounted for by a reduction in potassium current near spike threshold and the emergence of a fixed spike threshold. Inactivation of the Kv1 channel combined with the minimum firing rate could account for the stuttering firing pattern. The resonant properties conferred by this channel were shown to be adequate to account for their phase-locking to gamma-frequency inputs as seen in vivo.

  17. Specific functions of synaptically localized potassium channels in synaptic transmission at the neocortical GABAergic fast-spiking cell synapse.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ethan M; Watanabe, Shigeo; Chang, Su Ying; Joho, Rolf H; Huang, Z Josh; Leonard, Christopher S; Rudy, Bernardo

    2005-05-25

    Potassium (K+) channel subunits of the Kv3 subfamily (Kv3.1-Kv3.4) display a positively shifted voltage dependence of activation and fast activation/deactivation kinetics when compared with other voltage-gated K+ channels, features that confer on Kv3 channels the ability to accelerate the repolarization of the action potential (AP) efficiently and specifically. In the cortex, the Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins are expressed prominently in a subset of GABAergic interneurons known as fast-spiking (FS) cells and in fact are a significant determinant of the fast-spiking discharge pattern. However, in addition to expression at FS cell somata, Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins also are expressed prominently at FS cell terminals, suggesting roles for Kv3 channels in neurotransmitter release. We investigated the effect of 1.0 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA; which blocks Kv3 channels) on inhibitory synaptic currents recorded in layer II/III neocortical pyramidal cells. Spike-evoked GABA release by FS cells was enhanced nearly twofold by 1.0 mM TEA, with a decrease in the paired pulse ratio (PPR), effects not reproduced by blockade of the non-Kv3 subfamily K+ channels also blocked by low concentrations of TEA. Moreover, in Kv3.1/Kv3.2 double knock-out (DKO) mice, the large effects of TEA were absent, spike-evoked GABA release was larger, and the PPR was lower than in wild-type mice. Together, these results suggest specific roles for Kv3 channels at FS cell terminals that are distinct from those of Kv1 and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (also present at the FS cell synapse). We propose that at FS cell terminals synaptically localized Kv3 channels keep APs brief, limiting Ca2+ influx and hence release probability, thereby influencing synaptic depression at a synapse designed for sustained high-frequency synaptic transmission.

  18. Kinetic theory for neuronal networks with fast and slow excitatory conductances driven by the same spike train.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Aaditya V; Kovacic, Gregor; Cai, David

    2008-04-01

    We present a kinetic theory for all-to-all coupled networks of identical, linear, integrate-and-fire, excitatory point neurons in which a fast and a slow excitatory conductance are driven by the same spike train in the presence of synaptic failure. The maximal-entropy principle guides us in deriving a set of three (1+1) -dimensional kinetic moment equations from a Boltzmann-like equation describing the evolution of the one-neuron probability density function. We explain the emergence of correlation terms in the kinetic moment and Boltzmann-like equations as a consequence of simultaneous activation of both the fast and slow excitatory conductances and furnish numerical evidence for their importance in correctly describing the coarse-grained dynamics of the underlying neuronal network.

  19. Uncovering representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Grosmark, Andres D.; Penagos, Hector; Wilson, Matthew A.

    2016-08-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the rodent hippocampus exhibit spatial tuning during spatial navigation, and they are reactivated in specific temporal order during sharp-wave ripples observed in quiet wakefulness or slow wave sleep. However, analyzing representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity remains a great challenge. In contrast to wake, during sleep there is a complete absence of animal behavior, and the ensemble spike activity is sparse (low occurrence) and fragmental in time. To examine important issues encountered in sleep data analysis, we constructed synthetic sleep-like hippocampal spike data (short epochs, sparse and sporadic firing, compressed timescale) for detailed investigations. Based upon two Bayesian population-decoding methods (one receptive field-based, and the other not), we systematically investigated their representation power and detection reliability. Notably, the receptive-field-free decoding method was found to be well-tuned for hippocampal ensemble spike data in slow wave sleep (SWS), even in the absence of prior behavioral measure or ground truth. Our results showed that in addition to the sample length, bin size, and firing rate, number of active hippocampal pyramidal neurons are critical for reliable representation of the space as well as for detection of spatiotemporal reactivated patterns in SWS or quiet wakefulness.

  20. Uncovering representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Grosmark, Andres D.; Penagos, Hector; Wilson, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the rodent hippocampus exhibit spatial tuning during spatial navigation, and they are reactivated in specific temporal order during sharp-wave ripples observed in quiet wakefulness or slow wave sleep. However, analyzing representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity remains a great challenge. In contrast to wake, during sleep there is a complete absence of animal behavior, and the ensemble spike activity is sparse (low occurrence) and fragmental in time. To examine important issues encountered in sleep data analysis, we constructed synthetic sleep-like hippocampal spike data (short epochs, sparse and sporadic firing, compressed timescale) for detailed investigations. Based upon two Bayesian population-decoding methods (one receptive field-based, and the other not), we systematically investigated their representation power and detection reliability. Notably, the receptive-field-free decoding method was found to be well-tuned for hippocampal ensemble spike data in slow wave sleep (SWS), even in the absence of prior behavioral measure or ground truth. Our results showed that in addition to the sample length, bin size, and firing rate, number of active hippocampal pyramidal neurons are critical for reliable representation of the space as well as for detection of spatiotemporal reactivated patterns in SWS or quiet wakefulness. PMID:27573200

  1. Firing Frequency Maxima of Fast-Spiking Neurons in Human, Monkey, and Mouse Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Ke, Wei; Guang, Jing; Chen, Guang; Yin, Luping; Deng, Suixin; He, Quansheng; Liu, Yaping; He, Ting; Zheng, Rui; Jiang, Yanbo; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Li, Tianfu; Luan, Guoming; Lu, Haidong D.; Zhang, Mingsha; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shu, Yousheng

    2016-01-01

    Cortical fast-spiking (FS) neurons generate high-frequency action potentials (APs) without apparent frequency accommodation, thus providing fast and precise inhibition. However, the maximal firing frequency that they can reach, particularly in primate neocortex, remains unclear. Here, by recording in human, monkey, and mouse neocortical slices, we revealed that FS neurons in human association cortices (mostly temporal) could generate APs at a maximal mean frequency (Fmean) of 338 Hz and a maximal instantaneous frequency (Finst) of 453 Hz, and they increase with age. The maximal firing frequency of FS neurons in the association cortices (frontal and temporal) of monkey was even higher (Fmean 450 Hz, Finst 611 Hz), whereas in the association cortex (entorhinal) of mouse it was much lower (Fmean 215 Hz, Finst 342 Hz). Moreover, FS neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) could fire at higher frequencies (Fmean 415 Hz, Finst 582 Hz) than those in association cortex. We further validated our in vitro data by examining spikes of putative FS neurons in behaving monkey and mouse. Together, our results demonstrate that the maximal firing frequency of FS neurons varies between species and cortical areas. PMID:27803650

  2. Firing Frequency Maxima of Fast-Spiking Neurons in Human, Monkey, and Mouse Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Ke, Wei; Guang, Jing; Chen, Guang; Yin, Luping; Deng, Suixin; He, Quansheng; Liu, Yaping; He, Ting; Zheng, Rui; Jiang, Yanbo; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Li, Tianfu; Luan, Guoming; Lu, Haidong D; Zhang, Mingsha; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shu, Yousheng

    2016-01-01

    Cortical fast-spiking (FS) neurons generate high-frequency action potentials (APs) without apparent frequency accommodation, thus providing fast and precise inhibition. However, the maximal firing frequency that they can reach, particularly in primate neocortex, remains unclear. Here, by recording in human, monkey, and mouse neocortical slices, we revealed that FS neurons in human association cortices (mostly temporal) could generate APs at a maximal mean frequency (Fmean) of 338 Hz and a maximal instantaneous frequency (Finst) of 453 Hz, and they increase with age. The maximal firing frequency of FS neurons in the association cortices (frontal and temporal) of monkey was even higher (Fmean 450 Hz, Finst 611 Hz), whereas in the association cortex (entorhinal) of mouse it was much lower (Fmean 215 Hz, Finst 342 Hz). Moreover, FS neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) could fire at higher frequencies (Fmean 415 Hz, Finst 582 Hz) than those in association cortex. We further validated our in vitro data by examining spikes of putative FS neurons in behaving monkey and mouse. Together, our results demonstrate that the maximal firing frequency of FS neurons varies between species and cortical areas.

  3. Neonatal NMDA Receptor Blockade Disrupts Spike Timing and Glutamatergic Synapses in Fast Spiking Interneurons in a NMDA Receptor Hypofunction Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kevin S.; Corbin, Joshua G.; Huntsman, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    The dysfunction of parvalbumin-positive, fast-spiking interneurons (FSI) is considered a primary contributor to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ), but deficits in FSI physiology have not been explicitly characterized. We show for the first time, that a widely-employed model of schizophrenia minimizes first spike latency and increases GluN2B-mediated current in neocortical FSIs. The reduction in FSI first-spike latency coincides with reduced expression of the Kv1.1 potassium channel subunit which provides a biophysical explanation for the abnormal spiking behavior. Similarly, the increase in NMDA current coincides with enhanced expression of the GluN2B NMDA receptor subunit, specifically in FSIs. In this study mice were treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, during the first week of life. During adolescence, we detected reduced spike latency and increased GluN2B-mediated NMDA current in FSIs, which suggests transient disruption of NMDA signaling during neonatal development exerts lasting changes in the cellular and synaptic physiology of neocortical FSIs. Overall, we propose these physiological disturbances represent a general impairment to the physiological maturation of FSIs which may contribute to schizophrenia-like behaviors produced by this model. PMID:25290690

  4. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Andersen, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents reach goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a reach goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two reach conditions: reach goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near reach onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a reach goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20-40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced reach goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide reach goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications.

  5. Separation of synaptic and spike activity in intracellular recordings for selective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hedwig, B; Knepper, M

    1992-04-01

    A software spike filter has been developed which allows the separation of synaptic activity and action potentials in intracellular recordings. The algorithm uses the different velocities of the membrane potential during synaptic and spike activity and a time window to identify action potentials. When spikes are recognized, they are removed and the membrane potential is substituted by interpolated values. The spike filter makes possible a separate quantitative evaluation of postsynaptic potentials and spike activity. Thus a comprehensive characterization of neuron activity can be obtained. The spike filter is part of a modular software package designed for the evaluation of neurobiological data.

  6. Efficient Ca2+ buffering in fast-spiking basket cells of rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Yexica; Bischofberger, Josef; Jonas, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Fast-spiking parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) represent a major type of inhibitory interneuron in the hippocampus. These cells inhibit principal cells in a temporally precise manner and are involved in the generation of network oscillations. Although BCs show a unique expression profile of Ca2+-permeable receptors, Ca2+-binding proteins and Ca2+-dependent signalling molecules, physiological Ca2+ signalling in these interneurons has not been investigated. To study action potential (AP)-induced dendritic Ca2+ influx and buffering, we combined whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with ratiometric Ca2+ imaging from the proximal apical dendrites of rigorously identified BCs in acute slices, using the high-affinity Ca2+ indicator fura-2 or the low-affinity dye fura-FF. Single APs evoked dendritic Ca2+ transients with small amplitude. Bursts of APs evoked Ca2+ transients with amplitudes that increased linearly with AP number. Analysis of Ca2+ transients under steady-state conditions with different fura-2 concentrations and during loading with 200 μm fura-2 indicated that the endogenous Ca2+-binding ratio was ∼200 (κS= 202 ± 26 for the loading experiments). The peak amplitude of the Ca2+ transients measured directly with 100 μm fura-FF was 39 nm AP−1. At ∼23°C, the decay time constant of the Ca2+ transients was 390 ms, corresponding to an extrusion rate of ∼600 s−1. At 34°C, the decay time constant was 203 ms and the corresponding extrusion rate was ∼1100 s−1. At both temperatures, continuous theta-burst activity with three to five APs per theta cycle, as occurs in vivo during exploration, led to a moderate increase in the global Ca2+ concentration that was proportional to AP number, whereas more intense stimulation was required to reach micromolar Ca2+ concentrations and to shift Ca2+ signalling into a non-linear regime. In conclusion, dentate gyrus BCs show a high endogenous Ca2+-binding ratio, a small AP-induced dendritic Ca2+ influx, and a

  7. Functional effects of distinct innervation styles of pyramidal cells by fast spiking cortical interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Satoru; Nomura, Masaki; Hatada, Sayuri; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Mohamed, Alsayed A; Karube, Fuyuki; Lübke, Joachim; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons target precise membrane regions on pyramidal cells, but differences in their functional effects on somata, dendrites and spines remain unclear. We analyzed inhibitory synaptic events induced by cortical, fast-spiking (FS) basket cells which innervate dendritic shafts and spines as well as pyramidal cell somata. Serial electron micrograph (EMg) reconstructions showed that somatic synapses were larger than dendritic contacts. Simulations with precise anatomical and physiological data reveal functional differences between different innervation styles. FS cell soma-targeting synapses initiate a strong, global inhibition, those on shafts inhibit more restricted dendritic zones, while synapses on spines may mediate a strictly local veto. Thus, FS cell synapses of different sizes and sites provide functionally diverse forms of pyramidal cell inhibition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07919.001 PMID:26142457

  8. Reduced chemical and electrical connections of fast-spiking interneurons in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Roper, Steven N

    2014-09-15

    Aberrant neural connections are regarded as a principal factor contributing to epileptogenesis. This study examined chemical and electrical connections between fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (FS-PV) interneurons and regular-spiking (RS) neurons (pyramidal neurons or spiny stellate neurons) in a rat model of prenatal irradiation-induced cortical dysplasia. Presynaptic action potentials were evoked by current injection and the elicited unitary inhibitory or excitatory postsynaptic potentials (uIPSPs or uEPSPs) were recorded in the postsynaptic cell. In dysplastic cortex, connection rates between presynaptic FS-PV interneurons and postsynaptic RS neurons and FS-PV interneurons, and uIPSP amplitudes were significantly smaller than controls, but both failure rates and coefficient of variation of uIPSP amplitudes were larger than controls. In contrast, connection rates from RS neurons to FS-PV interneurons and uEPSPs amplitude were similar in the two groups. Assessment of the paired pulse ratio showed a significant decrease in synaptic release probability at FS-PV interneuronal terminals, and the density of terminal boutons on axons of biocytin-filled FS-PV interneurons was also decreased, suggesting presynaptic dysfunction in chemical synapses formed by FS-PV interneurons. Electrical connections were observed between FS-PV interneurons, and the connection rates and coupling coefficients were smaller in dysplastic cortex than controls. In dysplastic cortex, we found a reduced synaptic efficiency for uIPSPs originating from FS-PV interneurons regardless of the type of target cell, and impaired electrical connections between FS-PV interneurons. This expands our understanding of the fundamental impairment of inhibition in this model and may have relevance for certain types of human cortical dysplasia.

  9. The Reconnection Region With Fast Shock Fronts As A Source Of Microwave Spikes (Based On Soho And Yohkoh Data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, G. P.; Fu, Q. J.; Lao, D. B.; Kosugi, T.; Hanaoka, Y.

    1999-10-01

    A new model for solar spike bursts is considered based on the interaction of Langmuir waves with ion-sound waves :l+s-->t. Such mechanism can operate in shock fronts, propagating from a magnetic reconnection region. New observations of microwave millisecond spikes are discussed. They have been observed in the event 1997.11.04 between 0552-0610 UT and 1997.11.28 event between 05:00-05:10 UT using multichannel spectrograph in the range 2,6-3.8 GHz of Beijing AO. The first time we describe very fast and narrowband microwave spikes: duration 8 ms, bandwidth 10 MHz. Yohkoh/SXTimages in AR and SOHO EIT images testify a reconstruction of bright loops after the escape of CME in Nov.4 event and X-ray jets in Nov.28 event. Fast shock fronts might be manifested as a narrow very bright line at Te SXT maps ( 18 MK) and as dense structures at Emission Mesure maps. Strong left polarization of spike emission from a source above the leader spot of south magnetic polarity in AR 8100 corresponds in this event to the extraordinary magnetoionic mode. The model gives the ordinary mode of spike emission, therefore we propose the depolarization of the emission in the transverse magnetic field and rather in the vanishing magnetic field in the middle of QT region. The scattering of O-mode into X-mode by whistlers just above the escape level of X-mode can also provide an additional depolarization. Duration and frequency band of isolated spikes are connected with parameters of fast particle beams and shock front.

  10. Afferent inputs to cortical fast-spiking interneurons organize pyramidal cell network oscillations at high-gamma frequencies (60–200 Hz)

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Nathan E.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.

    2014-01-01

    High-gamma activity, ranging in frequency between ∼60 Hz and 200 Hz, has been observed in local field potential, electrocorticography, EEG and magnetoencephalography signals during cortical activation, in a variety of functional brain systems. The origin of these signals is yet unknown. Using computational modeling, we show that a cortical network model receiving thalamic input generates high-gamma responses comparable to those observed in local field potential recorded in monkey somatosensory cortex during vibrotactile stimulation. These high-gamma oscillations appear to be mediated mostly by an excited population of inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons firing at high-gamma frequencies and pacing excitatory regular-spiking pyramidal cells, which fire at lower rates but in phase with the population rhythm. The physiological correlates of high-gamma activity, in this model of local cortical circuits, appear to be similar to those proposed for hippocampal ripples generated by subsets of interneurons that regulate the discharge of principal cells. PMID:25210164

  11. Quantifying noise-induced stability of a cortical fast-spiking cell model with Kv3-channel-like current.

    PubMed

    Tateno, T; Robinson, H P C

    2007-01-01

    Population oscillations in neural activity in the gamma (>30 Hz) and higher frequency ranges are found over wide areas of the mammalian cortex. Recently, in the somatosensory cortex, the details of neural connections formed by several types of GABAergic interneurons have become apparent, and they are believed to play a significant role in generating these oscillations through synaptic and gap-junctional interactions. However, little is known about the mechanism of how such oscillations are maintained stably by particular interneurons and by their local networks, in a noisy environment with abundant synaptic inputs. To obtain more insight into this, we studied a fast-spiking (FS)-cell model including Kv3-channel-like current, which is a distinctive feature of these cells, from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. To examine the specific role of the Kv3-channel in determining oscillation properties, we analyzed basic properties of the FS-cell model, such as the bifurcation structure and phase resetting curves (PRCs). Furthermore, to quantitatively characterize the oscillation stability under noisy fluctuations mimicking small fast synaptic inputs, we applied a recently developed method from random dynamical system theory to estimate Lyapunov exponents, both for the original four-dimensional dynamics and for a reduced one-dimensional phase-equation on the circle. The results indicated that the presence of the Kv3-channel-like current helps to regulate the stability of noisy neural oscillations and a transient-period length to stochastic attractors.

  12. Distinct Physiological Effects of Dopamine D4 Receptors on Prefrontal Cortical Pyramidal Neurons and Fast-Spiking Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ping; Yan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R), which is strongly linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, is highly expressed in pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we examined the impact of D4R on the excitability of these 2 neuronal populations. We found that D4R activation decreased the frequency of spontaneous action potentials (sAPs) in PFC pyramidal neurons, whereas it induced a transient increase followed by a decrease of sAP frequency in PFC parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons. D4R activation also induced distinct effects in both types of PFC neurons on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents, which drive the generation of sAP. Moreover, dopamine substantially decreased sAP frequency in PFC pyramidal neurons, but markedly increased sAP frequency in PV+ interneurons, and both effects were partially mediated by D4R activation. In the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia, the decreasing effect of D4R on sAP frequency in both types of PFC neurons was attenuated, whereas the increasing effect of D4R on sAP in PV+ interneurons was intact. These results suggest that D4R activation elicits distinct effects on synaptically driven excitability in PFC projection neurons versus fast-spiking interneurons, which are differentially altered in neuropsychiatric disorder-related conditions.

  13. Interneurons. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin⁺ GABAergic interneurons: from cellular design to microcircuit function.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hua; Gan, Jian; Jonas, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The success story of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) GABAergic interneurons (GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid) in the mammalian central nervous system is noteworthy. In 1995, the properties of these interneurons were completely unknown. Twenty years later, thanks to the massive use of subcellular patch-clamp techniques, simultaneous multiple-cell recording, optogenetics, in vivo measurements, and computational approaches, our knowledge about PV(+) interneurons became more extensive than for several types of pyramidal neurons. These findings have implications beyond the "small world" of basic research on GABAergic cells. For example, the results provide a first proof of principle that neuroscientists might be able to close the gaps between the molecular, cellular, network, and behavioral levels, representing one of the main challenges at the present time. Furthermore, the results may form the basis for PV(+) interneurons as therapeutic targets for brain disease in the future. However, much needs to be learned about the basic function of these interneurons before clinical neuroscientists will be able to use PV(+) interneurons for therapeutic purposes.

  14. Synchrony of fast-spiking interneurons interconnected by GABAergic and electrical synapses.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masaki; Fukai, Tomoki; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2003-09-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons have specific types (Kv3.1/3.2 type) of the delayed potassium channel, which differ from the conventional Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type potassium channel (Kv1.3 type) in several aspects. In this study, we show dramatic effects of the Kv3.1/3.2 potassium channel on the synchronization of the FS interneurons. We show analytically that two identical electrically coupled FS interneurons modeled with Kv3.1/3.2 channel fire synchronously at arbitrary firing frequencies, unlike similarly coupled FS neurons modeled with Kv1.3 channel that show frequency-dependent synchronous and antisynchronous firing states. Introducing GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic connections into an FS neuron pair tends to induce an antisynchronous firing state, even if the chemical synapses are bidirectional. Accordingly, an FS neuron pair connected simultaneously by electrical and chemical synapses achieves both synchronous firing state and antisynchronous firing state in a physiologically plausible range of the conductance ratio between electrical and chemical synapses. Moreover, we find that a large-scale network of FS interneurons connected by gap junctions and bidirectional GABAergic synapses shows similar bistability in the range of gamma frequencies (30-70 Hz).

  15. Mature BDNF, but not proBDNF, reduces excitability of fast-spiking interneurons in mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Holm, Mai Marie; Nieto-Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Vardya, Irina; Vaegter, Christian Bjerggaard; Nykjaer, Anders; Jensen, Kimmo

    2009-10-07

    Mature BDNF and its precursor proBDNF may both be secreted to exert opposite effects on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. However, it is unknown how proBDNF and mature BDNF affect the excitability of GABAergic interneurons and thereby regulate GABAergic inhibition. We made recordings of GABAergic spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in mouse dentate gyrus granule cells and found that chronic or acute BDNF reductions led to large increases in the sIPSC frequencies, which were TTX (tetrodotoxin) sensitive and therefore action-potential driven. Conversely, addition of mature BDNF, but not proBDNF, within minutes led to a decrease in the sIPSC frequency to 44%. Direct recordings from fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons revealed that mature BDNF reduced their excitability and depressed their action potential firing, whereas proBDNF had no effect. Using the TrkB inhibitor K-252a, or mice deficient for the common neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR), the regulation of GABAergic activity was shown specifically to be mediated by BDNF binding to the neurotrophin receptor TrkB. In agreement, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TrkB, but not p75(NTR), was expressed in parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Our results suggest that mature BDNF decreases the excitability of GABAergic interneurons via activation of TrkB, while proBDNF does not impact on GABAergic activity. Thus, by affecting the firing of GABAergic interneurons, mature BDNF may play an important role in regulating network oscillations in the hippocampus.

  16. Kv3.4 subunits enhance the repolarizing efficiency of Kv3.1 channels in fast-spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Gytis; Tkatch, Tatiana; Nagata, Keiichi; Yeh, Jay Z; Surmeier, D James

    2003-03-01

    Neurons with the capacity to discharge at high rates--'fast-spiking' (FS) neurons--are critical participants in central motor and sensory circuits. It is widely accepted that K+ channels with Kv3.1 or Kv3.2 subunits underlie fast, delayed-rectifier (DR) currents that endow neurons with this FS ability. Expression of these subunits in heterologous systems, however, yields channels that open at more depolarized potentials than do native Kv3 family channels, suggesting that they differ. One possibility is that native channels incorporate a subunit that modifies gating. Molecular, electrophysiological and pharmacological studies reported here suggest that a splice variant of the Kv3.4 subunit coassembles with Kv3.1 subunits in rat brain FS neurons. Coassembly enhances the spike repolarizing efficiency of the channels, thereby reducing spike duration and enabling higher repetitive spike rates. These results suggest that manipulation of K3.4 subunit expression could be a useful means of controlling the dynamic range of FS neurons.

  17. Effects of Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal on Fast Spiking Neurons in Mouse Cortical Layer 6B

    PubMed Central

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Fast spiking (FS) GABAergic neurons are thought to be involved in the generation of high-frequency cortical rhythms during the waking state. We previously showed that cortical layer 6b (L6b) was a specific target for the wake-promoting transmitter, hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx). Here, we have investigated whether L6b FS cells were sensitive to hcrt/orx and other transmitters associated with cortical activation. Recordings were thus made from L6b FS cells in either wild-type mice or in transgenic mice in which GFP-positive GABAergic cells are parvalbumin positive. Whereas in a control condition hcrt/orx induced a strong increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of spontaneous synaptic currents, in the presence of TTX, it had no effect at all on miniature synaptic currents. Hcrt/orx effect was thus presynaptic although not by an action on glutamatergic terminals but rather on neighboring cells. In contrast, noradrenaline and acetylcholine depolarized and excited these cells through a direct postsynaptic action. Neurotensin, which is colocalized in hcrt/orx neurons, also depolarized and excited these cells but the effect was indirect. Morphologically, these cells exhibited basket-like features. These results suggest that hcrt/orx, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and neurotensin could contribute to high-frequency cortical activity through an action on L6b GABAergic FS cells. PMID:27235100

  18. Characterization of thalamocortical responses of regular-spiking and fast-spiking neurons of the mouse auditory cortex in vitro and in silico

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Alex D.

    2012-01-01

    We use a combination of in vitro whole cell recordings and computer simulations to characterize the cellular and synaptic properties that contribute to processing of auditory stimuli. Using a mouse thalamocortical slice preparation, we record the intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic properties of layer 3/4 regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal neurons and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in primary auditory cortex (AI). We find that postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked in FS cells are significantly larger and depress more than those evoked in RS cells after thalamic stimulation. We use these data to construct a simple computational model of the auditory thalamocortical circuit and find that the differences between FS and RS cells observed in vitro generate model behavior similar to that observed in vivo. We examine how feedforward inhibition and synaptic depression affect cortical responses to time-varying inputs that mimic sinusoidal amplitude-modulated tones. In the model, the balance of cortical inhibition and thalamic excitation evolves in a manner that depends on modulation frequency (MF) of the stimulus and determines cortical response tuning. PMID:22090462

  19. Neuroligin-2 deletion selectively decreases inhibitory synaptic transmission originating from fast-spiking, but not from somatostatin-positive interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroligins are cell-adhesion molecules involved in synapse formation and/or function. Neurons express four neuroligins (NL1–NL4), of which NL1 is specific to excitatory, and NL2 to inhibitory synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses include numerous subtypes. However, it is unknown whether NL1 performs similar functions in all excitatory and NL2 in all inhibitory synapses, or whether they regulate the formation and/or function of specific subsets of synapses. To address this central question, we performed paired recordings in primary somatosensory cortex of mice lacking NL1 or NL2. Using this system, we examined neocortical microcircuits formed by reciprocal synapses between excitatory neurons and two subtypes of inhibitory interneurons, namely fast-spiking and somatostatin-positive interneurons. We find that the NL1 deletion had little effect on inhibitory synapses, whereas the NL2 deletion decreased (40–50%) the unitary (cell-to-cell) IPSC amplitude evoked from single fast-spiking interneurons. Strikingly, the NL2 deletion had no effect on IPSC amplitude evoked from single somatostatin-positive inhibitory interneurons. Moreover, the frequency of unitary synaptic connections between individual fast-spiking and somatostatin-positive interneurons and excitatory neurons was unchanged. The decrease in unitary IPSC amplitude originating from fast-spiking interneurons in NL2-deficient mice was due to a multiplicative and uniform down-scaling of the amplitude distribution, which in turn was mediated by a decrease in both synaptic quantal amplitude and quantal content – the latter inferred from an increase in the coefficient of variation. Thus, NL2 is not necessary for establishing unitary inhibitory synaptic connections, but is selectively required for “scaling up” unitary connections originating from a subset of interneurons. PMID:19889999

  20. Controlling self-sustained spiking activity by adding or removing one network link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kesheng; Huang, Wenwen; Li, Baowen; Dhamala, Mukesh; Liu, Zonghua

    2013-06-01

    Being able to control the neuronal spiking activity in specific brain regions is central to a treatment scheme in several brain disorders such as epileptic seizures, mental depression, and Parkinson's diseases. Here, we present an approach for controlling self-sustained oscillations by adding or removing one directed network link in coupled neuronal oscillators, in contrast to previous approaches of adding stimuli or noise. We find that such networks can exhibit a variety of activity patterns such as on-off switch, sustained spikes, and short-term spikes. We derive the condition for a specific link to be the controller of the on-off effect. A qualitative analysis is provided to facilitate the understanding of the mechanism for spiking activity by adding one link. Our findings represent the first report on generating spike activity with the addition of only one directed link to a network and provide a deeper understanding of the microscopic roots of self-sustained spiking.

  1. Impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on NMDA spikes in cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Active electrical events play an important role in shaping signal processing in dendrites. As these events are usually associated with an increase in intracellular calcium, they are likely to be under the control of calcium-activated potassium channels. Here, we investigate the impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent spikes, or NMDA spikes, evoked by glutamate iontophoresis onto basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons. We found that small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) act to reduce NMDA spike amplitude but at the same time, also decrease the iontophoretic current required for their generation. This SK-mediated decrease in NMDA spike threshold was dependent on R-type voltage-gated calcium channels and indicates a counterintuitive, excitatory effect of SK channels on NMDA spike generation, whereas the capacity of SK channels to suppress NMDA spike amplitude is in line with the expected inhibitory action of potassium channels on dendritic excitability. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels had no significant impact on NMDA spikes, indicating that these channels are either absent from basal dendrites or not activated by NMDA spikes. These experiments reveal complex and opposing interactions among NMDA receptors, SK channels, and voltage-gated calcium channels in basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons during NMDA spike generation, which are likely to play an important role in regulating the way these neurons integrate the thousands of synaptic inputs they receive. PMID:26936985

  2. Amperometric Resolution of a Pre-Spike Stammer and Evoked Phases of Fast Release from Retinal Bipolar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Chad P.; Zenisek, David

    2013-01-01

    The neurotransmitter glutamate is used by most neurons in the brain to activate a multitude of different types of glutamate receptors and transporters involved in fast and relatively slower signaling. Synaptic ribbons are large presynaptic structures found in neurons involved in vision, balance and hearing, which utilize a large number glutamate filled synaptic vesicles to meet their signaling demands. To directly measure synaptic vesicle release events, the ribbon-type presynaptic terminal of goldfish retinal bipolar cells were coaxed to release a false transmitter that could be monitored with amperometry by placing the carbon fiber directly on the larger synaptic terminal. Spontaneous secretion events formed a uni-modal charge distribution, but single spike properties were heterogeneous. Larger events rose exponentially without interruption (τ~30µsec), and smaller events exhibited a stammer in their rising phase that is interpreted as a brief pause in pore dilation, a characteristic commonly associated with large dense core granule fusion pores. These events were entirely Ca2+-dependent. Holding the cells at −60mV halted spontaneous release, and when the voltage was stepped to over −40mV, secretion ensued. When stepping the voltage to 0 mV, novel kinetic phases of vesicle recruitment were revealed. Approximately 14 vesicles were released per ribbon in two kinetic phases with time constants of 1.5 and 16 msec, which are proposed to represent different primed states within the population of docked vesicles. PMID:23658155

  3. Dynamic Control of Synchronous Activity in Networks of Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hutt, Axel; Mierau, Andreas; Lefebvre, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activity is believed to play a central role in neural coding. Accumulating evidence shows that features of these oscillations are highly dynamic: power, frequency and phase fluctuate alongside changes in behavior and task demands. The role and mechanism supporting this variability is however poorly understood. We here analyze a network of recurrently connected spiking neurons with time delay displaying stable synchronous dynamics. Using mean-field and stability analyses, we investigate the influence of dynamic inputs on the frequency of firing rate oscillations. We show that afferent noise, mimicking inputs to the neurons, causes smoothing of the system’s response function, displacing equilibria and altering the stability of oscillatory states. Our analysis further shows that these noise-induced changes cause a shift of the peak frequency of synchronous oscillations that scales with input intensity, leading the network towards critical states. We lastly discuss the extension of these principles to periodic stimulation, in which externally applied driving signals can trigger analogous phenomena. Our results reveal one possible mechanism involved in shaping oscillatory activity in the brain and associated control principles. PMID:27669018

  4. Pallidal spiking activity reflects learning dynamics and predicts performance

    PubMed Central

    Noblejas, Maria Imelda; Mizrahi, Aviv D.; Dauber, Omer; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) network has been divided into interacting actor and critic components, modulating the probabilities of different state–action combinations through learning. Most models of learning and decision making in the BG focus on the roles of the striatum and its dopaminergic inputs, commonly overlooking the complexities and interactions of BG downstream nuclei. In this study, we aimed to reveal the learning-related activity of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), a downstream structure whose computational role has remained relatively unexplored. Recording from monkeys engaged in a deterministic three-choice reversal learning task, we found that changes in GPe discharge rates predicted subsequent behavioral shifts on a trial-by-trial basis. Furthermore, the activity following the shift encoded whether it resulted in reward or not. The frequent changes in stimulus–outcome contingencies (i.e., reversals) allowed us to examine the learning-related neural activity and show that GPe discharge rates closely matched across-trial learning dynamics. Additionally, firing rates exhibited a linear decrease in sequences of correct responses, possibly reflecting a gradual shift from goal-directed execution to automaticity. Thus, modulations in GPe spiking activity are highest for attention-demanding aspects of behavior (i.e., switching choices) and decrease as attentional demands decline (i.e., as performance becomes automatic). These findings are contrasted with results from striatal tonically active neurons, which show none of these task-related modulations. Our results demonstrate that GPe, commonly studied in motor contexts, takes part in cognitive functions, in which movement plays a marginal role. PMID:27671661

  5. Slow Cholinergic Modulation of Spike Probability in Ultra-Fast Time-Coding Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, David; Kurth, Stefanie; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sensory processing in the lower auditory pathway is generally considered to be rigid and thus less subject to modulation than central processing. However, in addition to the powerful bottom-up excitation by auditory nerve fibers, the ventral cochlear nucleus also receives efferent cholinergic innervation from both auditory and nonauditory top–down sources. We thus tested the influence of cholinergic modulation on highly precise time-coding neurons in the cochlear nucleus of the Mongolian gerbil. By combining electrophysiological recordings with pharmacological application in vitro and in vivo, we found 55–72% of spherical bushy cells (SBCs) to be depolarized by carbachol on two time scales, ranging from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes. These effects were mediated by nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively. Pharmacological block of muscarinic receptors hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, suggesting a novel mechanism of setting the resting membrane potential for SBC. The cholinergic depolarization led to an increase of spike probability in SBCs without compromising the temporal precision of the SBC output in vitro. In vivo, iontophoretic application of carbachol resulted in an increase in spontaneous SBC activity. The inclusion of cholinergic modulation in an SBC model predicted an expansion of the dynamic range of sound responses and increased temporal acuity. Our results thus suggest of a top–down modulatory system mediated by acetylcholine which influences temporally precise information processing in the lower auditory pathway. PMID:27699207

  6. Status epilepticus enhances tonic GABA currents and depolarizes GABA reversal potential in dentate fast-spiking basket cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiandong; Proddutur, Archana; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Ito, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with loss of interneurons and inhibitory dysfunction in the dentate gyrus. While status epilepticus (SE) leads to changes in granule cell inhibition, whether dentate basket cells critical for regulating granule cell feedforward and feedback inhibition express tonic GABA currents (IGABA) and undergo changes in inhibition after SE is not known. We find that interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin in the hilar-subgranular region express GABAA receptor (GABAAR) δ-subunits, which are known to underlie tonic IGABA. Dentate fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) demonstrate baseline tonic IGABA blocked by GABAAR antagonists. In morphologically and physiologically identified FS-BCs, tonic IGABA is enhanced 1 wk after pilocarpine-induced SE, despite simultaneous reduction in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) frequency. Amplitude of tonic IGABA in control and post-SE FS-BCs is enhanced by 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), demonstrating the contribution of GABAAR δ-subunits. Whereas FS-BC resting membrane potential is unchanged after SE, perforated-patch recordings from FS-BCs show that the reversal potential for GABA currents (EGABA) is depolarized after SE. In model FS-BCs, increasing tonic GABA conductance decreased excitability when EGABA was shunting and increased excitability when EGABA was depolarizing. Although simulated focal afferent activation evoked seizurelike activity in model dentate networks with FS-BC tonic GABA conductance and shunting EGABA, excitability of identical networks with depolarizing FS-BC EGABA showed lower activity levels. Thus, together, post-SE changes in tonic IGABA and EGABA maintain homeostasis of FS-BC activity and limit increases in dentate excitability. These findings have implications for normal FS-BC function and can inform studies examining comorbidities and therapeutics following SE. PMID:23324316

  7. Voltage-dependent potassium currents during fast spikes of rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons: inhibition by BDS-I toxin.

    PubMed

    Martina, Marco; Metz, Alexia E; Bean, Bruce P

    2007-01-01

    We characterized the kinetics and pharmacological properties of voltage-activated potassium currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons using recordings from nucleated patches, which allowed high resolution of activation and deactivation kinetics. Activation was exceptionally rapid, with 10-90% activation in about 400 mus at +30 mV, near the peak of the spike. Deactivation was also extremely rapid, with a decay time constant of about 300 mus near -80 mV. These rapid activation and deactivation kinetics are consistent with mediation by Kv3-family channels but are even faster than reported for Kv3-family channels in other neurons. The peptide toxin BDS-I had very little blocking effect on potassium currents elicited by 100-ms depolarizing steps, but the potassium current evoked by action potential waveforms was inhibited nearly completely. The mechanism of inhibition by BDS-I involves slowing of activation rather than total channel block, consistent with the effects described in cloned Kv3-family channels and this explains the dramatically different effects on currents evoked by short spikes versus voltage steps. As predicted from this mechanism, the effects of toxin on spike width were relatively modest (broadening by roughly 25%). These results show that BDS-I-sensitive channels with ultrafast activation and deactivation kinetics carry virtually all of the voltage-dependent potassium current underlying repolarization during normal Purkinje cell spikes.

  8. Calcium-activated chloride channels as a new target to control the spiking pattern of neurons.

    PubMed

    Ha, Go Eun; Cheong, Eunji

    2017-03-03

    Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information in the neural circuits. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS). Spike-frequency adaptation in thalamocortical (TC) and CA1 hippocampal neurons is mediated by the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CACC) anoctamin-2 (ANO2). Knockdown of ANO2 in these neurons results in significantly reduced spike-frequency adaptation along with increased number of spikes. No previous study has described the finding that CACCs mediate afterhyperpolarization currents, which result in the modulation of neuronal spike patterns in the central nervous system. Therefore, our study proposes a novel role for ANO2 in spike-frequency adaptation and transmission of information in the brain.

  9. BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels control different aspects of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons action potentials and spiking activity.

    PubMed

    Pedroarena, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    Deep cerebellar nuclear neurons (DCNs) display characteristic electrical properties, including spontaneous spiking and the ability to discharge narrow spikes at high frequency. These properties are thought to be relevant to processing inhibitory Purkinje cell input and transferring well-timed signals to cerebellar targets. Yet, the underlying ionic mechanisms are not completely understood. BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels subserve similar functions in spike repolarization and fast firing in many neurons and are both highly expressed in DCNs. Here, their role in the abovementioned spiking characteristics was addressed using whole-cell recordings of large and small putative-glutamatergic DCNs. Selective BK channel block depolarized DCNs of both groups and increased spontaneous firing rate but scarcely affected evoked activity. After adjusting the membrane potential to control levels, the spike waveforms under BK channel block were indistinguishable from control ones, indicating no significant BK channel involvement in spike repolarization. The increased firing rate suggests that lack of DCN-BK channels may have contributed to the ataxic phenotype previously found in BK channel-deficient mice. On the other hand, block of Kv3.1 channels with low doses of 4-aminopyridine (20 μM) hindered spike repolarization and severely depressed evoked fast firing. Therefore, I propose that despite similar characteristics of BK and Kv3.1 channels, they play different roles in DCNs: BK channels control almost exclusively spontaneous firing rate, whereas DCN-Kv3.1 channels dominate the spike repolarization and enable fast firing. Interestingly, after Kv3.1 channel block, BK channels gained a role in spike repolarization, demonstrating how the different function of each of the two channels is determined in part by their co-expression and interplay.

  10. Concordance of Epileptic Networks Associated with Epileptic Spikes Measured by High-Density EEG and Fast fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Vera; Dümpelmann, Matthias; LeVan, Pierre; Ramantani, Georgia; Mader, Irina; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aims to investigate whether a newly developed fast fMRI called MREG (magnetic resonance encephalography) measures metabolic changes related to interictal epileptic discharges (IED). For this purpose BOLD changes are correlated with the IED distribution and variability. Methods Patients with focal epilepsy underwent EEG-MREG using a 64 channel cap. IED voltage maps were generated using 32 and 64 channels and compared regarding their correspondence to the BOLD response. The extents of IEDs (defined as number of channels with >50% of maximum IED negativity) were correlated with the extents of positive and negative BOLD responses. Differences in inter-spike variability were investigated between interictal epileptic discharges (IED) sets with and without concordant positive or negative BOLD responses. Results 17 patients showed 32 separate IED types. In 50% of IED types the BOLD changes could be confirmed by another independent imaging method. The IED extent significantly correlated with the positive BOLD extent (p = 0.04). In 6 patients the 64-channel EEG voltage maps better reflected the positive or negative BOLD response than the 32-channel EEG; in all others no difference was seen. Inter-spike variability was significantly lower in IED sets with than without concordant positive or negative BOLD responses (with p = 0.04). Significance Higher density EEG and fast fMRI seem to improve the value of EEG-fMRI in epilepsy. The correlation of positive BOLD and IED extent could suggest that widespread BOLD responses reflect the IED network. Inter-spike variability influences the likelihood to find IED concordant positive or negative BOLD responses, which is why single IED analysis may be promising. PMID:26496480

  11. Increased gamma- and decreased delta-oscillations in a mouse deficient for a potassium channel expressed in fast-spiking interneurons.

    PubMed

    Joho, R H; Ho, C S; Marks, G A

    1999-10-01

    Kv3.1 is a voltage-gated, fast activating/deactivating potassium (K(+)) channel with a high-threshold of activation and a large unit conductance. Kv3.1 K(+) channels are expressed in fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing interneurons in cortex, hippocampus, striatum, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), and in several nuclei of the brain stem. A high density of Kv3.1 channels contributes to short-duration action potentials, fast afterhyperpolarizations, and brief refractory periods enhancing the capability in these neurons for high-frequency firing. Kv3.1 K(+) channel expression in the TRN and cortex also suggests a role in thalamocortical and cortical function. Here we show that fast gamma and slow delta oscillations recorded from the somatomotor cortex are altered in the freely behaving Kv3.1 mutant mouse. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from homozygous Kv3.1(-/-) mice show a three- to fourfold increase in both absolute and relative spectral power in the gamma frequency range (20-60 Hz). In contrast, Kv3.1-deficient mice have a 20-50% reduction of power in the slow delta range (2-3 Hz). The increase in gamma power is most prominent during waking in the 40- to 55-Hz range, whereas the decrease in delta power occurs equally across all states of arousal. Our findings suggest that Kv3. 1-expressing neurons are involved in the generation and maintenance of cortical fast gamma and slow delta oscillations. Hence the Kv3. 1-mutant mouse could serve as a model to study the generation and maintenance of fast gamma and slow delta rhythms and their involvement in behavior and cognition.

  12. Noise influence on spike activation in a Hindmarsh-Rose small-world neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Sun; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2016-07-01

    We studied the role of noise in neural networks, especially focusing on its relation to the propagation of spike activity in a small sized system. We set up a source of information using a single neuron that is constantly spiking. This element called initiator x o feeds spikes to the rest of the network that is initially quiescent and subsequently reacts with vigorous spiking after a transitional period of time. We found that noise quickly suppresses the initiator’s influence and favors spontaneous spike activity and, using a decibel representation of noise intensity, we established a linear relationship between noise amplitude and the interval from the initiator’s first spike and the rest of the network activation. We studied the same process with networks of different sizes (number of neurons) and found that the initiator x o has a measurable influence on small networks, but as the network grows in size, spontaneous spiking emerges disrupting its effects on networks of more than about N = 100 neurons. This suggests that the mechanism of internal noise generation allows information transmission within a small neural neighborhood, but decays for bigger network domains. We also analyzed the Fourier spectrum of the whole network membrane potential and verified that noise provokes the reduction of main θ and α peaks before transitioning into chaotic spiking. However, network size does not reproduce a similar phenomena; instead we recorded a reduction in peaks’ amplitude, a better sharpness and definition of Fourier peaks, but not the evident degeneration to chaos observed with increasing external noise. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of propagation of spontaneous spiking in neural networks and gives a quantitative assessment of how noise can be used to control and modulate this phenomenon in Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural networks.

  13. Single-trial estimation of stimulus and spike-history effects on time-varying ensemble spiking activity of multiple neurons: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Hideaki

    2013-12-01

    Neurons in cortical circuits exhibit coordinated spiking activity, and can produce correlated synchronous spikes during behavior and cognition. We recently developed a method for estimating the dynamics of correlated ensemble activity by combining a model of simultaneous neuronal interactions (e.g., a spin-glass model) with a state-space method (Shimazaki et al. 2012 PLoS Comput Biol 8 e1002385). This method allows us to estimate stimulus-evoked dynamics of neuronal interactions which is reproducible in repeated trials under identical experimental conditions. However, the method may not be suitable for detecting stimulus responses if the neuronal dynamics exhibits significant variability across trials. In addition, the previous model does not include effects of past spiking activity of the neurons on the current state of ensemble activity. In this study, we develop a parametric method for simultaneously estimating the stimulus and spike-history effects on the ensemble activity from single-trial data even if the neurons exhibit dynamics that is largely unrelated to these effects. For this goal, we model ensemble neuronal activity as a latent process and include the stimulus and spike-history effects as exogenous inputs to the latent process. We develop an expectation-maximization algorithm that simultaneously achieves estimation of the latent process, stimulus responses, and spike-history effects. The proposed method is useful to analyze an interaction of internal cortical states and sensory evoked activity.

  14. Robustness of persistent spiking to partial synchronization in a minimal model of synaptically driven self-sustained activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Nikita; Gutkin, Boris

    2016-11-01

    We study the behavior of a minimal model of synaptically sustained persistent activity that consists of two quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons mutually coupled via excitatory synapses. Importantly, each of the neurons is excitable, as opposed to an oscillator; hence when uncoupled it sits at a subthreshold rest state. When the constituent neurons are mutually coupled via sufficiently strong fast excitatory synapses, the system demonstrates bistability between a fixed point (quiescent background state) and a limit cycle (memory state with synaptically driven spiking activity). Previous work showed that this persistent activity can be stopped by an excitatory input that synchronizes the network. Here we analyzed how this persistent state reacts to partial synchronization. We considered three types of progressively more complex excitatory synaptic kernels: delta pulse, square, and exponential. The first two cases were treated analytically, and the latter case numerically. Using phase-plane methods, we characterized the shape of the region, such that all orbits starting within it correspond to infinite spike trains; this constitutes the persistent activity region. In the case of instant coupling, all such active orbits were neutrally stable; in the case of noninstant coupling, the activity region contained a unique stable limit cycle (so the activity region was the basin of attraction for the limit cycle). This limit cycle corresponded to purely antiphase spiking of two neurons. Increasing synchronization shifted the system toward the border of the activity region, eventually terminating spiking activity. We calculated three measures of robustness of the active state: width of the activity region in the phase plane, critical level of synchronization that can be tolerated by the persistent spiking activity, and speed of reconvergence to the limit cycle. Our analysis revealed that the self-sustained activity is more robust to synchronization when each individual neuron

  15. Prolonged stimulation with low-intensity ultrasound induces delayed increases in spontaneous hippocampal culture spiking activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Swanberg, Kelley M; Han, Hee-Sok; Kim, Jung-Chae; Kim, Jun-Woo; Lee, Sungon; Lee, C Justin; Maeng, Sungho; Kim, Tae-Seong; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound is a promising neural stimulation modality, but an incomplete understanding of its range and mechanism of effect limits its therapeutic application. We investigated the modulation of spontaneous hippocampal spike activity by ultrasound at a lower acoustic intensity and longer time scale than has been previously attempted, hypothesizing that spiking would change conditionally upon the availability of glutamate receptors. Using a 60-channel multielectrode array (MEA), we measured spontaneous spiking across organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures (N = 28) for 3 min each before, during, and after stimulation with low-intensity unfocused pulsed or sham ultrasound (spatial-peak pulse average intensity 780 μW/cm(2) ) preperfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 300 μM kynurenic acid (KA), or 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX) at 3 ml/min. Spike rates were normalized and compared across stimulation type and period, subregion, threshold level, and/or perfusion condition using repeated-measures ANOVA and generalized linear mixed models. Normalized 3-min spike counts for large but not midsized, small, or total spikes increased after but not during ultrasound relative to sham stimulation. This result was recapitulated in subregions CA1 and dentate gyrus and replicated in a separate experiment for all spike size groups in slices pretreated with aCSF but not KA or TTX. Increases in normalized 18-sec total, midsized, and large spike counts peaked predominantly 1.5 min following ultrasound stimulation. Our low-intensity ultrasound setup exerted delayed glutamate receptor-dependent, amplitude- and possibly region-specific influences on spontaneous spike rates across the hippocampus, expanding the range of known parameters at which ultrasound may be used for neural activity modulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Conditional Probability Analyses of the Spike Activity of Single Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter R.

    1967-01-01

    With the objective of separating stimulus-related effects from refractory effects in neuronal spike data, various conditional probability analyses have been developed. These analyses are introduced and illustrated with examples based on electrophysiological data from auditory nerve fibers. The conditional probability analyses considered here involve the estimation of the conditional probability of a firing in a specified time interval (defined relative to the time of the stimulus presentation), given that the last firing occurred during an earlier specified time interval. This calculation enables study of the stimulus-related effects in the spike data with the time-since-the-last-firing as a controlled variable. These calculations indicate that auditory nerve fibers “recover” from the refractory effects that follow a firing in the following sense: after a “recovery time” of approximately 20 msec, the firing probabilities no longer depend on the time-since-the-last-firing. Probabilities conditional on this minimum time since the last firing are called “recovered probabilities.” The recovered probabilities presented in this paper are contrasted with the corresponding poststimulus time histograms, and the differences are related to the refractory properties of the nerve fibers. Imagesp[762]-a PMID:19210997

  17. A finite rate of innovation algorithm for fast and accurate spike detection from two-photon calcium imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oñativia, Jon; Schultz, Simon R.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Inferring the times of sequences of action potentials (APs) (spike trains) from neurophysiological data is a key problem in computational neuroscience. The detection of APs from two-photon imaging of calcium signals offers certain advantages over traditional electrophysiological approaches, as up to thousands of spatially and immunohistochemically defined neurons can be recorded simultaneously. However, due to noise, dye buffering and the limited sampling rates in common microscopy configurations, accurate detection of APs from calcium time series has proved to be a difficult problem. Approach. Here we introduce a novel approach to the problem making use of finite rate of innovation (FRI) theory (Vetterli et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50 1417-28). For calcium transients well fit by a single exponential, the problem is reduced to reconstructing a stream of decaying exponentials. Signals made of a combination of exponentially decaying functions with different onset times are a subclass of FRI signals, for which much theory has recently been developed by the signal processing community. Main results. We demonstrate for the first time the use of FRI theory to retrieve the timing of APs from calcium transient time series. The final algorithm is fast, non-iterative and parallelizable. Spike inference can be performed in real-time for a population of neurons and does not require any training phase or learning to initialize parameters. Significance. The algorithm has been tested with both real data (obtained by simultaneous electrophysiology and multiphoton imaging of calcium signals in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites), and surrogate data, and outperforms several recently proposed methods for spike train inference from calcium imaging data.

  18. Presynaptic hyperpolarization induces a fast analogue modulation of spike-evoked transmission mediated by axonal sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Rama, Sylvain; Zbili, Mickaël; Bialowas, Andrzej; Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Laure; Ankri, Norbert; Carlier, Edmond; Marra, Vincenzo; Debanne, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, synaptic transmission usually depends on presynaptic action potentials (APs) in an all-or-none (or digital) manner. Recent studies suggest, however, that subthreshold depolarization in the presynaptic cell facilitates spike-evoked transmission, thus creating an analogue modulation of a digital process (or analogue–digital (AD) modulation). At most synapses, this process is slow and not ideally suited for the fast dynamics of neural networks. We show here that transmission at CA3–CA3 and L5–L5 synapses can be enhanced by brief presynaptic hyperpolarization such as an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). Using dual soma–axon patch recordings and live imaging, we find that this hyperpolarization-induced AD facilitation (h-ADF) is due to the recovery from inactivation of Nav channels controlling AP amplitude in the axon. Incorporated in a network model, h-ADF promotes both pyramidal cell synchrony and gamma oscillations. In conclusion, cortical excitatory synapses in local circuits display hyperpolarization-induced facilitation of spike-evoked synaptic transmission that promotes network synchrony. PMID:26657943

  19. Characterizing the persistent CA3 interneuronal spiking activity in elevated extracellular potassium in the young rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Damian Seung-Ho; Yu, Wilson; Fawcett, Adrian; Carlen, Peter Louis

    2010-05-17

    Seizures coincide with an increase in extracellular potassium concentrations [K(+)](e) yet little information is available regarding this phenomenon on the firing pattern, frequency and neuronal properties of inhibitory neurons responsible for modulating network excitability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of elevating [K(+)](e) from 2.5 to 12.5mM on CA3 rat hippocampal interneurons in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that the majority of interneurons (21/25) in artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) exhibited spontaneous tonic spiking activity. As the [K(+)](e) increased to 12.5mM, interneurons exhibited a tonic, irregular, burst firing activity, or a combination of these. The input resistance decreased significantly to 59+/-18% at 7.5mM K(+) and did not further change at higher [K(+)](e) while the amount of K(+)-induced depolarization significantly increased from 5 to 12.5mM K(+) perfusion; a depolarization block occurred in 4 of the 12 interneurons at 12.5mM. Also, as [K(+)](e) increased, a transition from lower (1.3+/-0.6Hz) to higher dominant peak frequency (15.0+/-5.0Hz) was observed. We found that non-fast spiking (NFS) interneurons represented the majority of cells recorded and exhibited mostly tonic firing activity in raised K(+). Fast spiking (FS) interneurons predominately had a tonic firing pattern with very few exhibiting bursting activity in elevated K(+). In conclusion, we report that raised [K(+)](e) in amounts observed during seizures increases hippocampal CA3 interneuronal activity and suggests that a loss or impairment of inhibitory function may be present during these events.

  20. Impaired fast-spiking, suppressed cortical inhibition, and increased susceptibility to seizures in mice lacking Kv3.2 K+ channel proteins.

    PubMed

    Lau, D; Vega-Saenz de Miera, E C; Contreras, D; Ozaita, A; Harvey, M; Chow, A; Noebels, J L; Paylor, R; Morgan, J I; Leonard, C S; Rudy, B

    2000-12-15

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels of the Kv3 subfamily have unusual electrophysiological properties, including activation at very depolarized voltages (positive to -10 mV) and very fast deactivation rates, suggesting special roles in neuronal excitability. In the brain, Kv3 channels are prominently expressed in select neuronal populations, which include fast-spiking (FS) GABAergic interneurons of the neocortex, hippocampus, and caudate, as well as other high-frequency firing neurons. Although evidence points to a key role in high-frequency firing, a definitive understanding of the function of these channels has been hampered by a lack of selective pharmacological tools. We therefore generated mouse lines in which one of the Kv3 genes, Kv3.2, was disrupted by gene-targeting methods. Whole-cell electrophysiological recording showed that the ability to fire spikes at high frequencies was impaired in immunocytochemically identified FS interneurons of deep cortical layers (5-6) in which Kv3.2 proteins are normally prominent. No such impairment was found for FS neurons of superficial layers (2-4) in which Kv3.2 proteins are normally only weakly expressed. These data directly support the hypothesis that Kv3 channels are necessary for high-frequency firing. Moreover, we found that Kv3.2 -/- mice showed specific alterations in their cortical EEG patterns and an increased susceptibility to epileptic seizures consistent with an impairment of cortical inhibitory mechanisms. This implies that, rather than producing hyperexcitability of the inhibitory interneurons, Kv3.2 channel elimination suppresses their activity. These data suggest that normal cortical operations depend on the ability of inhibitory interneurons to generate high-frequency firing.

  1. [Dynamics of the activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells induced by changes in the duration of complex spikes].

    PubMed

    Podladchikova, L N; Bondar', G G; Ivlev, S A; Tikidzhi-Khambur'ian, R A; Dunin-Barkovskiĭ, V L

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between complex and simple spikes of Purkinje cells from vermis cerebelli of guinea pigs has been investigated. The ratio of complex spikes innervated by the processes of one and the same liana-like fiber ("twins cells") has also been studied. Three types of complex spikes in each Purkinje cell from vermis cerebelli of guinea pigs (n = 44) have been differentiated, which differ in duration. It was found that long (10.28 +/- 0.27 ms) complex spikes in all cells lead to a more pronounced inhibition of simple spikes than complex spikes of short duration (6.08 +/- 0.25 ms). It was shown that the dynamics of duration of complex spikes coordinates with changes in the activity of some Purkinje cells and their local groups: (a) complex spikes generated before the onset of pauses of simple spikes are longer than complex spikes generated before the termination of pauses; (b) in "twins cells" innervated by one liana-like fiber, the properties of complex spikes change simultaneously; (c) The degree of synchronism of complex spikes in closely-spaced (to 150 microm) Purkinje cells receiving the inputs from different liana-like fibers increases with their duration. A possible functional role and the mechanisms of generation of complex spikes are discussed.

  2. Spiking irregularity and frequency modulate the behavioral report of single-neuron stimulation.

    PubMed

    Doron, Guy; von Heimendahl, Moritz; Schlattmann, Peter; Houweling, Arthur R; Brecht, Michael

    2014-02-05

    The action potential activity of single cortical neurons can evoke measurable sensory effects, but it is not known how spiking parameters and neuronal subtypes affect the evoked sensations. Here, we examined the effects of spike train irregularity, spike frequency, and spike number on the detectability of single-neuron stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex. For regular-spiking, putative excitatory neurons, detectability increased with spike train irregularity and decreasing spike frequencies but was not affected by spike number. Stimulation of single, fast-spiking, putative inhibitory neurons led to a larger sensory effect compared to regular-spiking neurons, and the effect size depended only on spike irregularity. An ideal-observer analysis suggests that, under our experimental conditions, rats were using integration windows of a few hundred milliseconds or more. Our data imply that the behaving animal is sensitive to single neurons' spikes and even to their temporal patterning.

  3. Cell type- and activity-dependent extracellular correlates of intracellular spiking

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Rodrigo; Buzsáki, György; Markram, Henry; Koch, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of extracellular action potential (EAP) recordings monitoring brain activity, the biophysical origin and inherent variability of these signals remain enigmatic. We performed whole cell patch recordings of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in rat somatosensory cortex slice while positioning a silicon probe in their vicinity to concurrently record intra- and extracellular voltages for spike frequencies under 20 Hz. We characterize biophysical events and properties (intracellular spiking, extracellular resistivity, temporal jitter, etc.) related to EAP recordings at the single-neuron level in a layer-specific manner. Notably, EAP amplitude was found to decay as the inverse of distance between the soma and the recording electrode with similar (but not identical) resistivity across layers. Furthermore, we assessed a number of EAP features and their variability with spike activity: amplitude (but not temporal) features varied substantially (∼30–50% compared with mean) and nonmonotonically as a function of spike frequency and spike order. Such EAP variation only partly reflects intracellular somatic spike variability and points to the plethora of processes contributing to the EAP. Also, we show that the shape of the EAP waveform is qualitatively similar to the negative of the temporal derivative to the intracellular somatic voltage, as expected from theory. Finally, we tested to what extent EAPs can impact the lowpass-filtered part of extracellular recordings, the local field potential (LFP), typically associated with synaptic activity. We found that spiking of excitatory neurons can significantly impact the LFP at frequencies as low as 20 Hz. Our results question the common assertion that the LFP acts as proxy for synaptic activity. PMID:25995352

  4. A reanalysis of "Two types of asynchronous activity in networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons".

    PubMed

    Engelken, Rainer; Farkhooi, Farzad; Hansel, David; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Wolf, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity in the central nervous system varies strongly in time and across neuronal populations. It is a longstanding proposal that such fluctuations generically arise from chaotic network dynamics. Various theoretical studies predict that the rich dynamics of rate models operating in the chaotic regime can subserve circuit computation and learning. Neurons in the brain, however, communicate via spikes and it is a theoretical challenge to obtain similar rate fluctuations in networks of spiking neuron models. A recent study investigated spiking balanced networks of leaky integrate and fire (LIF) neurons and compared their dynamics to a matched rate network with identical topology, where single unit input-output functions were chosen from isolated LIF neurons receiving Gaussian white noise input. A mathematical analogy between the chaotic instability in networks of rate units and the spiking network dynamics was proposed. Here we revisit the behavior of the spiking LIF networks and these matched rate networks. We find expected hallmarks of a chaotic instability in the rate network: For supercritical coupling strength near the transition point, the autocorrelation time diverges. For subcritical coupling strengths, we observe critical slowing down in response to small external perturbations. In the spiking network, we found in contrast that the timescale of the autocorrelations is insensitive to the coupling strength and that rate deviations resulting from small input perturbations rapidly decay. The decay speed even accelerates for increasing coupling strength. In conclusion, our reanalysis demonstrates fundamental differences between the behavior of pulse-coupled spiking LIF networks and rate networks with matched topology and input-output function. In particular there is no indication of a corresponding chaotic instability in the spiking network.

  5. A toolbox for the fast information analysis of multiple-site LFP, EEG and spike train recordings

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Cesare; Whittingstall, Kevin; Singh, Vanessa; Logothetis, Nikos K; Panzeri, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Background Information theory is an increasingly popular framework for studying how the brain encodes sensory information. Despite its widespread use for the analysis of spike trains of single neurons and of small neural populations, its application to the analysis of other types of neurophysiological signals (EEGs, LFPs, BOLD) has remained relatively limited so far. This is due to the limited-sampling bias which affects calculation of information, to the complexity of the techniques to eliminate the bias, and to the lack of publicly available fast routines for the information analysis of multi-dimensional responses. Results Here we introduce a new C- and Matlab-based information theoretic toolbox, specifically developed for neuroscience data. This toolbox implements a novel computationally-optimized algorithm for estimating many of the main information theoretic quantities and bias correction techniques used in neuroscience applications. We illustrate and test the toolbox in several ways. First, we verify that these algorithms provide accurate and unbiased estimates of the information carried by analog brain signals (i.e. LFPs, EEGs, or BOLD) even when using limited amounts of experimental data. This test is important since existing algorithms were so far tested primarily on spike trains. Second, we apply the toolbox to the analysis of EEGs recorded from a subject watching natural movies, and we characterize the electrodes locations, frequencies and signal features carrying the most visual information. Third, we explain how the toolbox can be used to break down the information carried by different features of the neural signal into distinct components reflecting different ways in which correlations between parts of the neural signal contribute to coding. We illustrate this breakdown by analyzing LFPs recorded from primary visual cortex during presentation of naturalistic movies. Conclusion The new toolbox presented here implements fast and data-robust computations

  6. EEG and MEG: sensitivity to epileptic spike activity as function of source orientation and depth.

    PubMed

    Hunold, A; Funke, M E; Eichardt, R; Stenroos, M; Haueisen, J

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of neuronal activity from epileptic patients reveal situations in which either EEG or MEG or both modalities show visible interictal spikes. While different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the spikes in EEG and MEG have been reported, a quantitative relation of spike source orientation and depth as well as the background brain activity to the SNR has not been established. We investigated this quantitative relationship for both dipole and patch sources in an anatomically realistic cortex model. Altogether, 5600 dipole and 3300 patch sources were distributed on the segmented cortical surfaces of two volunteers. The sources were classified according to their quantified depths and orientations, ranging from 20 mm to 60 mm below the skin surface and radial and tangential, respectively. The source time-courses mimicked an interictal spike, and the simulated background activity emulated resting activity. Simulations were conducted with individual three-compartment boundary element models. The SNR was evaluated for 128 EEG, 102 MEG magnetometer, and 204 MEG gradiometer channels. For superficial dipole and superficial patch sources, EEG showed higher SNRs for dominantly radial orientations, and MEG showed higher values for dominantly tangential orientations. Gradiometers provided higher SNR than magnetometers for superficial sources, particularly for those with dominantly tangential orientations. The orientation dependent difference in SNR in EEG and MEG gradually changed as the sources were located deeper, where the interictal spikes generated higher SNRs in EEG compared to those in MEG for all source orientations. With deep sources, the SNRs in gradiometers and magnetometers were of the same order. To better detect spikes, both EEG and MEG should be used.

  7. Effects of Calcium Spikes in the Layer 5 Pyramidal Neuron on Coincidence Detection and Activity Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yansong; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The role of dendritic spiking mechanisms in neural processing is so far poorly understood. To investigate the role of calcium spikes in the functional properties of the single neuron and recurrent networks, we investigated a three compartment neuron model of the layer 5 pyramidal neuron with calcium dynamics in the distal compartment. By performing single neuron simulations with noisy synaptic input and occasional large coincident input at either just the distal compartment or at both somatic and distal compartments, we show that the presence of calcium spikes confers a substantial advantage for coincidence detection in the former case and a lesser advantage in the latter. We further show that the experimentally observed critical frequency phenomenon, in which action potentials triggered by stimuli near the soma above a certain frequency trigger a calcium spike at distal dendrites, leading to further somatic depolarization, is not exhibited by a neuron receiving realistically noisy synaptic input, and so is unlikely to be a necessary component of coincidence detection. We next investigate the effect of calcium spikes in propagation of spiking activities in a feed-forward network (FFN) embedded in a balanced recurrent network. The excitatory neurons in the network are again connected to either just the distal, or both somatic and distal compartments. With purely distal connectivity, activity propagation is stable and distinguishable for a large range of recurrent synaptic strengths if the feed-forward connections are sufficiently strong, but propagation does not occur in the absence of calcium spikes. When connections are made to both the somatic and the distal compartments, activity propagation is achieved for neurons with active calcium dynamics at a much smaller number of neurons per pool, compared to a network of passive neurons, but quickly becomes unstable as the strength of recurrent synapses increases. Activity propagation at higher scaling factors can be

  8. Effects of Calcium Spikes in the Layer 5 Pyramidal Neuron on Coincidence Detection and Activity Propagation.

    PubMed

    Chua, Yansong; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The role of dendritic spiking mechanisms in neural processing is so far poorly understood. To investigate the role of calcium spikes in the functional properties of the single neuron and recurrent networks, we investigated a three compartment neuron model of the layer 5 pyramidal neuron with calcium dynamics in the distal compartment. By performing single neuron simulations with noisy synaptic input and occasional large coincident input at either just the distal compartment or at both somatic and distal compartments, we show that the presence of calcium spikes confers a substantial advantage for coincidence detection in the former case and a lesser advantage in the latter. We further show that the experimentally observed critical frequency phenomenon, in which action potentials triggered by stimuli near the soma above a certain frequency trigger a calcium spike at distal dendrites, leading to further somatic depolarization, is not exhibited by a neuron receiving realistically noisy synaptic input, and so is unlikely to be a necessary component of coincidence detection. We next investigate the effect of calcium spikes in propagation of spiking activities in a feed-forward network (FFN) embedded in a balanced recurrent network. The excitatory neurons in the network are again connected to either just the distal, or both somatic and distal compartments. With purely distal connectivity, activity propagation is stable and distinguishable for a large range of recurrent synaptic strengths if the feed-forward connections are sufficiently strong, but propagation does not occur in the absence of calcium spikes. When connections are made to both the somatic and the distal compartments, activity propagation is achieved for neurons with active calcium dynamics at a much smaller number of neurons per pool, compared to a network of passive neurons, but quickly becomes unstable as the strength of recurrent synapses increases. Activity propagation at higher scaling factors can be

  9. Calcium permeable AMPA receptor-dependent long lasting plasticity of intrinsic excitability in fast spiking interneurons of the dentate gyrus decreases inhibition in the granule cell layer.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Debanjan; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The local fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs) are considered to be crucial for the generation, maintenance, and modulation of neuronal network oscillations especially in the gamma frequency band. Gamma frequency oscillations have been associated with different aspects of behavior. But the prolonged effects of gamma frequency synaptic activity on the FSINs remain elusive. Using whole cell current clamp patch recordings, we observed a sustained decrease of intrinsic excitability in the FSINs of the dentate gyrus (DG) following repetitive stimulations of the mossy fibers at 30 Hz (gamma bursts). Surprisingly, the granule cells (GCs) did not express intrinsic plastic changes upon similar synaptic excitation of their apical dendritic inputs. Interestingly, pairing the gamma bursts with membrane hyperpolarization accentuated the plasticity in FSINs following the induction protocol, while the plasticity attenuated following gamma bursts paired with membrane depolarization. Paired pulse ratio measurement of the synaptic responses did not show significant changes during the experiments. However, the induction protocols were accompanied with postsynaptic calcium rise in FSINs. Interestingly, the maximum and the minimum increase occurred during gamma bursts with membrane hyperpolarization and depolarization respectively. Including a selective blocker of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the bath; significantly attenuated the calcium rise and blocked the membrane potential dependence of the calcium rise in the FSINs, suggesting their involvement in the observed phenomenon. Chelation of intracellular calcium, blocking HCN channel conductance or blocking CP-AMPARs during the experiment forbade the long lasting expression of the plasticity. Simultaneous dual patch recordings from FSINs and synaptically connected putative GCs confirmed the decreased inhibition in the GCs accompanying the decreased intrinsic excitability in the FSINs. Experimentally constrained network

  10. Cortical fast-spiking parvalbumin interneurons enwrapped in the perineuronal net express the metallopeptidases Adamts8, Adamts15 and Neprilysin.

    PubMed

    Rossier, J; Bernard, A; Cabungcal, J-H; Perrenoud, Q; Savoye, A; Gallopin, T; Hawrylycz, M; Cuénod, M; Do, K; Urban, A; Lein, Ed S

    2015-02-01

    The in situ hybridization Allen Mouse Brain Atlas was mined for proteases expressed in the somatosensory cerebral cortex. Among the 480 genes coding for protease/peptidases, only four were found enriched in cortical interneurons: Reln coding for reelin; Adamts8 and Adamts15 belonging to the class of metzincin proteases involved in reshaping the perineuronal net (PNN) and Mme encoding for Neprilysin, the enzyme degrading amyloid β-peptides. The pattern of expression of metalloproteases (MPs) was analyzed by single-cell reverse transcriptase multiplex PCR after patch clamp and was compared with the expression of 10 canonical interneurons markers and 12 additional genes from the Allen Atlas. Clustering of these genes by K-means algorithm displays five distinct clusters. Among these five clusters, two fast-spiking interneuron clusters expressing the calcium-binding protein Pvalb were identified, one co-expressing Pvalb with Sst (PV-Sst) and another co-expressing Pvalb with three metallopeptidases Adamts8, Adamts15 and Mme (PV-MP). By using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, a specific marker for PNN, PV-MP interneurons were found surrounded by PNN, whereas the ones expressing Sst, PV-Sst, were not.

  11. Statistical models suggest presence of two distinct subpopulations of miniature EPSCs in fast-spiking interneurons of rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Malkin, S L; Kim, K K; Tikhonov, D B; Magazanik, L G; Zaitsev, A V

    2015-08-20

    Properties of excitatory synaptic responses in fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) and pyramidal neurons (PNs) are different; however, the mechanisms and determinants of this diversity have not been fully investigated. In the present study, voltage-clamp recording of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) was performed of layer 2-3 FSIs and PNs in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats aged 19-22days. The average mEPSCs in the FSIs exhibited amplitudes that were two times larger than those of the PNs and with much faster rise and decay. The mEPSC amplitude distributions in both cell types were asymmetric and in FSIs, the distributions were more skewed and had two-times larger coefficients of variation than in the PNs. In PNs but not in FSIs, the amplitude distributions were fitted well by different skewed unimodal functions that have been used previously for this purpose. In the FSIs, the distributions were well approximated only by a sum of two such functions, suggesting the presence of at least two subpopulations of events with different modal amplitudes. According to our estimates, two-thirds of the mEPSCs in FSIs belong to the high-amplitude subpopulation, and the modal amplitude in this subpopulation is approximately two times larger than that in the low-amplitude subpopulation. Using different statistical models, varying binning size, and data subsets, we confirmed the robustness and consistency of these findings.

  12. Neuregulin-Dependent Regulation of Fast-Spiking Interneuron Excitability Controls the Timing of the Critical Period.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Tran, Trinh; Murase, Sachiko; Borrell, Andrew; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-05

    Maturation of excitatory drive onto fast-spiking interneurons (FS INs) in the visual cortex has been implicated in the control of the timing of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate the strength of these synapses over cortical development are not understood. Here we use a mouse model to show that neuregulin (NRG) and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB4 regulate the timing of the critical period. NRG1 enhanced the strength of excitatory synapses onto FS INs, which inhibited ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period but rescued plasticity in transgenics with hypoexcitable FS INs. Blocking the effects of endogenous neuregulin via inhibition of erbBs rescued ocular dominance plasticity in postcritical period adults, allowing recovery from amblyopia induced by chronic monocular deprivation. Thus, the strength of excitation onto FS INs is a key determinant of critical period plasticity and is maintained at high levels by NRG-erbB4 signaling to constrain plasticity in adulthood.

  13. Desynchronization of Fast-Spiking Interneurons Reduces β-Band Oscillations and Imbalance in Firing in the Dopamine-Depleted Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Sriraman; Cressman, John R.; Jedrzejewski-Szmek, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations in the β-band (8–30 Hz) that emerge in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia during Parkinson's disease, along with an imbalanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways, have been linked to the hypokinetic motor output associated with the disease. Although dopamine depletion causes a change in cellular and network properties in the striatum, it is unclear whether abnormal activity measured in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata is caused by abnormal striatal activity. Here we use a computational network model of medium spiny neurons (MSNs)—fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), based on data from several mammalian species, and find that robust β-band oscillations and imbalanced firing emerge from implementation of changes to cellular and circuit properties caused by dopamine depletion. These changes include a reduction in connections between MSNs, a doubling of FSI inhibition to D2 MSNs, an increase in D2 MSN dendritic excitability, and a reduction in D2 MSN somatic excitability. The model reveals that the reduced decorrelation between MSNs attributable to weakened lateral inhibition enables the strong influence of synchronous FSIs on MSN firing and oscillations. Weakened lateral inhibition also produces an increased sensitivity of MSN output to cortical correlation, a condition relevant to the parkinsonian striatum. The oscillations of FSIs, in turn, are strongly modulated by fast electrical transmission between FSIs through gap junctions. These results suggest that pharmaceuticals that desynchronize FSI activity may provide a novel treatment for the enhanced β-band oscillations, imbalanced firing, and motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25609629

  14. Synaptic Mechanisms of Tight Spike Synchrony at Gamma Frequency in Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Salkoff, David B.; Zagha, Edward; Yüzgeç, Özge

    2015-01-01

    During the generation of higher-frequency (e.g., gamma) oscillations, cortical neurons can exhibit pairwise tight (<10 ms) spike synchrony. To understand how synaptic currents contribute to rhythmic activity and spike synchrony, we performed dual whole-cell recordings in mouse entorhinal cortical slices generating periodic activity (the slow oscillation). This preparation exhibited a significant amount of gamma-coherent spike synchrony during the active phase of the slow oscillation (Up state), particularly among fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. IPSCs arriving in pairs of either pyramidal or fast-spiking neurons during the Up state were highly synchronized and exhibited significant coherence at frequencies from 10 to 100 Hz, peaking at ∼40 Hz, suggesting both synchronous discharge of, and synaptic divergence from, nearby inhibitory neurons. By inferring synaptic currents related to spike generation in simultaneously recorded pyramidal or fast-spiking neurons, we detected a decay of inhibition ∼20 ms before spiking. In fast-spiking interneurons, this was followed by an even larger excitatory input immediately before spike generation. Consistent with an important role for phasic excitation in driving spiking, we found that the correlation of excitatory inputs was highly predictive of spike synchrony in pairs of fast-spiking interneurons. Interestingly, spike synchrony in fast-spiking interneurons was not related to the strength of gap junctional coupling, and was still prevalent in connexin 36 knock-out animals. Our results support the pyramidal-interneuron gamma model of fast rhythmic oscillation in the cerebral cortex and suggest that spike synchrony and phase preference arises from the precise interaction of excitatory–inhibitory postsynaptic currents. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We dissected the cellular and synaptic basis of spike synchrony occurring at gamma frequency (30–80 Hz). We used simultaneous targeted whole-cell recordings in an active slice

  15. The Effects of Context and Attention on Spiking Activity in Human Early Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer; Ris, Peterjan; Jeurissen, Danique; Reddy, Leila; Claus, Steven; Baayen, Johannes C.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first quantitative analysis of spiking activity in human early visual cortex. We recorded multi-unit activity from two electrodes in area V2/V3 of a human patient implanted with depth electrodes as part of her treatment for epilepsy. We observed well-localized multi-unit receptive fields with tunings for contrast, orientation, spatial frequency, and size, similar to those reported in the macaque. We also observed pronounced gamma oscillations in the local-field potential that could be used to estimate the underlying spiking response properties. Spiking responses were modulated by visual context and attention. We observed orientation-tuned surround suppression: responses were suppressed by image regions with a uniform orientation and enhanced by orientation contrast. Additionally, responses were enhanced on regions that perceptually segregated from the background, indicating that neurons in the human visual cortex are sensitive to figure-ground structure. Spiking responses were also modulated by object-based attention. When the patient mentally traced a curve through the neurons’ receptive fields, the accompanying shift of attention enhanced neuronal activity. These results demonstrate that the tuning properties of cells in the human early visual cortex are similar to those in the macaque and that responses can be modulated by both contextual factors and behavioral relevance. Our results, therefore, imply that the macaque visual system is an excellent model for the human visual cortex. PMID:27015604

  16. Differential Purkinje cell simple spike activity and pausing behavior related to cerebellar modules

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haibo; Voges, Kai; Lin, Zhanmin; Ju, Chiheng

    2015-01-01

    The massive computational capacity of the cerebellar cortex is conveyed by Purkinje cells onto cerebellar and vestibular nuclei neurons through their GABAergic, inhibitory output. This implies that pauses in Purkinje cell simple spike activity are potentially instrumental in cerebellar information processing, but their occurrence and extent are still heavily debated. The cerebellar cortex, although often treated as such, is not homogeneous. Cerebellar modules with distinct anatomical connectivity and gene expression have been described, and Purkinje cells in these modules also differ in firing rate of simple and complex spikes. In this study we systematically correlate, in awake mice, the pausing in simple spike activity of Purkinje cells recorded throughout the entire cerebellum, with their location in terms of lobule, transverse zone, and zebrin-identified cerebellar module. A subset of Purkinje cells displayed long (>500-ms) pauses, but we found that their occurrence correlated with tissue damage and lower temperature. In contrast to long pauses, short pauses (<500 ms) and the shape of the interspike interval (ISI) distributions can differ between Purkinje cells of different lobules and cerebellar modules. In fact, the ISI distributions can differ both between and within populations of Purkinje cells with the same zebrin identity, and these differences are at least in part caused by differential synaptic inputs. Our results suggest that long pauses are rare but that there are differences related to shorter intersimple spike intervals between and within specific subsets of Purkinje cells, indicating a potential further segregation in the activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:25717166

  17. Activity-dependent plasticity of spike pauses in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    PubMed Central

    Grasselli, Giorgio; He, Qionger; Wan, Vivian; Adelman, John P.; Ohtsuki, Gen; Hansel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst–pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice) and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning. PMID:26972012

  18. H2 histamine receptor-phosphorylation of Kv3.2 modulates interneuron fast spiking.

    PubMed

    Atzori, M; Lau, D; Tansey, E P; Chow, A; Ozaita, A; Rudy, B; McBain, C J

    2000-08-01

    Histamine-containing neurons of the tuberomammilary nucleus project to the hippocampal formation to innervate H1 and H2 receptors on both principal and inhibitory interneurons. Here we show that H2 receptor activation negatively modulates outward currents through Kv3.2-containing potassium channels by a mechanism involving PKA phosphorylation in inhibitory interneurons. PKA phosphorylation of Kv3.2 lowered the maximum firing frequency of inhibitory neurons, which in turn negatively modulated high-frequency population oscillations recorded in principal cell layers. All these effects were absent in a Kv3.2 knockout mouse. These data reveal a novel pathway for histamine-dependent regulation of high-frequency oscillations within the hippocampal formation.

  19. HCN4 subunit expression in fast-spiking interneurons of the rat spinal cord and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D I; Boyle, K A; Kinnon, C M; Bilsland, C; Quayle, J A; Callister, R J; Graham, B A

    2013-05-01

    Hyperpolarisation-activated (Ih) currents are considered important for dendritic integration, synaptic transmission, setting membrane potential and rhythmic action potential (AP) discharge in neurons of the central nervous system. Hyperpolarisation-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels underlie these currents and are composed of homo- and hetero-tetramers of HCN channel subunits (HCN1-4), which confer distinct biophysical properties on the channel. Despite understanding the structure-function relationships of HCN channels with different subunit stoichiometry, our knowledge of their expression in defined neuronal populations remains limited. Recently, we have shown that HCN subunit expression is a feature of a specific population of dorsal horn interneurons that exhibit high-frequency AP discharge. Here we expand on this observation and use neuroanatomical markers to first identify well-characterised neuronal populations in the lumbar spinal cord and hippocampus and subsequently determine whether HCN4 expression correlates with high-frequency AP discharge in these populations. In the spinal cord, HCN4 is expressed in several putative inhibitory interneuron populations including parvalbumin (PV)-expressing islet cells (84.1%; SD: ±2.87), in addition to all putative Renshaw cells and Ia inhibitory interneurons. Similarly, virtually all PV-expressing cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield (93.5%; ±3.40) and the dentate gyrus (90.9%; ±6.38) also express HCN4. This HCN4 expression profile in inhibitory interneurons mirrors both the prevalence of Ih sub-threshold currents and high-frequency AP discharge. Our findings indicate that HCN4 subunits are expressed in several populations of spinal and hippocampal interneurons, which are known to express both Ih sub-threshold currents and exhibit high-frequency AP discharge. As HCN channel function plays a critical role in pain perception, learning and memory, and sleep as well as the pathogenesis of several

  20. HCN4 subunit expression in fast-spiking interneurons of the rat spinal cord and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, D.I.; Boyle, K.A.; Kinnon, C.M.; Bilsland, C.; Quayle, J.A.; Callister, R.J.; Graham, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpolarisation-activated (Ih) currents are considered important for dendritic integration, synaptic transmission, setting membrane potential and rhythmic action potential (AP) discharge in neurons of the central nervous system. Hyperpolarisation-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels underlie these currents and are composed of homo- and hetero-tetramers of HCN channel subunits (HCN1–4), which confer distinct biophysical properties on the channel. Despite understanding the structure–function relationships of HCN channels with different subunit stoichiometry, our knowledge of their expression in defined neuronal populations remains limited. Recently, we have shown that HCN subunit expression is a feature of a specific population of dorsal horn interneurons that exhibit high-frequency AP discharge. Here we expand on this observation and use neuroanatomical markers to first identify well-characterised neuronal populations in the lumbar spinal cord and hippocampus and subsequently determine whether HCN4 expression correlates with high-frequency AP discharge in these populations. In the spinal cord, HCN4 is expressed in several putative inhibitory interneuron populations including parvalbumin (PV)-expressing islet cells (84.1%; SD: ±2.87), in addition to all putative Renshaw cells and Ia inhibitory interneurons. Similarly, virtually all PV-expressing cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield (93.5%; ±3.40) and the dentate gyrus (90.9%; ±6.38) also express HCN4. This HCN4 expression profile in inhibitory interneurons mirrors both the prevalence of Ih sub-threshold currents and high-frequency AP discharge. Our findings indicate that HCN4 subunits are expressed in several populations of spinal and hippocampal interneurons, which are known to express both Ih sub-threshold currents and exhibit high-frequency AP discharge. As HCN channel function plays a critical role in pain perception, learning and memory, and sleep as well as the pathogenesis of several

  1. Ca2+-activated K+ currents regulate odor adaptation by modulating spike encoding of olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Fusao

    2002-01-01

    The olfactory system is thought to accomplish odor adaptation through the ciliary transduction machinery in olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). However, ORCs that have lost their cilia can exhibit spike frequency accommodation in which the action potential frequency decreases with time despite a steady depolarizing stimulus. This raises the possibility that somatic ionic channels in ORCs might serve for odor adaptation at the level of spike encoding, because spiking responses in ORCs encode the odor information. Here I investigate the adaptational mechanism at the somatic membrane using conventional and dynamic patch-clamp recording techniques, which enable the ciliary mechanism to be bypassed. A conditioning stimulus with an odorant-induced current markedly shifted the response range of action potentials induced by the same test stimulus to higher concentrations of the odorant, indicating odor adaptation. This effect was inhibited by charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers, suggesting that somatic Ca2+-activated K+ currents regulate odor adaptation by modulating spike encoding. I conclude that not only the ciliary machinery but also the somatic membrane currents are crucial to odor adaptation. PMID:11916858

  2. Higher-order correlations in common input shapes the output spiking activity of a neural population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montangie, Lisandro; Montani, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Recent neurophysiological experiments suggest that populations of neurons use a computational scheme in which spike timing is regulated by common non-Gaussian inputs across neurons. The presence of beyond-pairwise correlations in the neuronal inputs and the spiking outputs following a non-Gaussian statistics elicits the need of developing a new theoretical framework taking into account the complexity of synchronous activity patterns. To this end, we quantify the amount of higher-order correlations in the common neuronal inputs and outputs of a population of neurons. We provide a novel formalism, of easy numerical implementation, that can capture the subtle changes of the inputs heterogeneities. Within our approach, correlations across neurons arise from q-Gaussian inputs into threshold neurons and higher-order correlations in the spiking outputs activity are quantified by the parameter q. We present an exhaustive analysis of how input statistics are transformed in this threshold process into output statistics, and we show under which conditions higher-order correlations can lead to either bigger or smaller number of synchronized spikes in the neural population outputs.

  3. Effect of gap junctions on the firing patterns and synchrony for different external inputs in the striatal fast-spiking neuron network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhao, Zongya; He, Ping; Wang, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Gap junctions are the mechanism for striatal fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) to interconnect with each other and play an important role in determining the physiological functioning of the FSIs. To investigate the effect of gap junctions on the firing activities and synchronization of the network for different external inputs, a simple network with least connections and a Newman-Watts small-world network were constructed. Our research shows that both properties of neural networks are related to the conductance of the gap junctions, as well as the frequency and correlation of the external inputs. The effect of gap junctions on the synchronization of network is different for inputs with different frequencies and correlations. The addition of gap junctions can promote the network synchrony in some conditions but suppress it in others, and they can inhibit the firing activities in most cases. Both the firing rate and synchronization of the network increase along with the increase of the electrical coupling strength for inputs with low frequency and high correlation. Thus, the network of coupled FSIs can act as a detector for synchronous synaptic input from cortex and thalamus.

  4. Synapse-associated protein 97 regulates the membrane properties of fast-spiking parvalbumin interneurons in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Akgul, Gulcan; Wollmuth, Lonnie P

    2013-07-31

    Fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in layers 2/3 of the visual cortex regulate gain control and tuning of visual processing. Synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97) belongs to a family of proteins that have been implicated in regulating glutamatergic synaptic transmission at pyramidal-to-pyramidal connections in the nervous system. For PV interneurons in mouse visual cortex, the expression of SAP97 is developmentally regulated, being expressed in almost all juvenile but only a fraction, ~40%, of adult PV interneurons. Using whole-cell patch-clamping, single-cell RT-PCR to assay endogenous expression of SAP97 and exogenous expression of SAP97, we investigated the functional significance of SAP97 in PV interneurons in layers 2/3 of the visual cortex. PV interneurons expressing SAP97, either endogenously or via exogenous expression, showed distinct membrane properties from those not expressing SAP97. This included an overall decrease in membrane excitability, as indexed by a decrease in membrane resistance and an increase in the stimulus threshold for the first action potential firing. Additionally, SAP97-expressing PV interneurons fired action potentials more frequently and, at moderate stimulus intensities, showed irregular or stuttering firing patterns. Furthermore, SAP97-expressing PV interneurons showed increased glutamatergic input and more extensive dendritic branching when compared with non-expressing PV interneurons. These differences in membrane and synaptic properties would significantly alter how PV interneurons expressing SAP97 compared with those not expressing SAP97 would function in local networks. Thus, our results indicate that the scaffolding protein SAP97 is a critical molecular factor regulating the input-output relationships of cortical PV interneurons.

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor controls functional differentiation and microcircuit formation of selectively isolated fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, Paul; Dobszay, Marton B; Sousa, Kyle M; Schulte, Gunnar; Mager, Peter P; Härtig, Wolfgang; Görcs, Tamás J; Zilberter, Yuri; Ernfors, Patrik; Harkany, Tibor

    2004-09-01

    GABAergic interneurons with high-frequency firing, fast-spiking (FS) cells, form synapses on perisomatic regions of principal cells in the neocortex and hippocampus to control the excitability of cortical networks. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the differentiation of multiple interneuron subtypes and the formation of their synaptic contacts. Here, we examined whether BDNF, alone or in conjunction with sustained KCl-induced depolarization, drives functional FS cell differentiation and the formation of inhibitory microcircuits. Homogeneous FS cell cultures were established by target-specific isolation using the voltage-gated potassium channel 3.1b subunit as the selection marker. Isolated FS cells expressed parvalbumin, were surrounded by perineuronal nets, formed immature inhibitory connections and generated slow action potentials at 12 days in vitro. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted FS cell differentiation by increasing the somatic diameter, dendritic branching and the frequency of action potential firing. In addition, BDNF treatment led to a significant up-regulation of synaptophysin and vesicular GABA transporter expression, components of the synaptic machinery critical for GABA release, which was paralleled by an increase in synaptic strength. Long-term membrane depolarization alone was detrimental to dendritic branching. However, we observed that BDNF and KCl exerted additive effects, as reflected by the significantly accelerated maturation of synaptic contacts and high discharge frequencies, and was required for the formation of reciprocal connections between FS cells. Our results show that BDNF, along with membrane depolarization, is critical for FS cells to establish inhibitory circuitries during corticogenesis.

  6. Dynamical changes and temporal precision of synchronized spiking activity in monkey motor cortex during movement preparation.

    PubMed

    Riehle, A; Grammont, F; Diesmann, M; Grün, S

    2000-01-01

    Movement preparation is considered to be based on central processes which are responsible for improving motor performance. For instance, it has been shown that motor cortical neurones change their activity selectively in relation to prior information about movement parameters. However, it is not clear how groups of neurones dynamically organize their activity to cope with computational demands. The aim of the study was to compare the firing rate of multiple simultaneously recorded neurones with the interaction between them by describing not only the frequency of occurrence of epochs of significant synchronization, but also its modulation in time and its changes in temporal precision during an instructed delay. Multiple single-neurone activity was thus recorded in monkey motor cortex during the performance of two different delayed multi-directional pointing tasks. In order to detect conspicuous spike coincidences in simultaneously recorded spike trains by tolerating temporal jitter ranging from 0 to 20 ms and to calculate their statistical significance, a modified method of the 'Unitary Events' analysis was used. Two main results were obtained. First, simultaneously recorded neurones synchronize their spiking activity in a highly dynamic way. Synchronization becomes significant only during short periods (about 100 to 200 ms). Several such periods occurred during a behavioural trial more or less regularly. Second, in many pairs of neurones, the temporal precision of synchronous activity was highest at the end of the preparatory period. As a matter of fact, at the beginning of this period, after the presentation of the preparatory signal, neurones significantly synchronize their spiking activity, but with low temporal precision. As time advances, significant synchronization becomes more precise. Data indicate that not only the discharge rate is involved in preparatory processes, but also temporal aspects of neuronal activity as expressed in the precise synchronization

  7. A Granger causality measure for point process models of ensemble neural spiking activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanggyun; Putrino, David; Ghosh, Soumya; Brown, Emery N

    2011-03-01

    The ability to identify directional interactions that occur among multiple neurons in the brain is crucial to an understanding of how groups of neurons cooperate in order to generate specific brain functions. However, an optimal method of assessing these interactions has not been established. Granger causality has proven to be an effective method for the analysis of the directional interactions between multiple sets of continuous-valued data, but cannot be applied to neural spike train recordings due to their discrete nature. This paper proposes a point process framework that enables Granger causality to be applied to point process data such as neural spike trains. The proposed framework uses the point process likelihood function to relate a neuron's spiking probability to possible covariates, such as its own spiking history and the concurrent activity of simultaneously recorded neurons. Granger causality is assessed based on the relative reduction of the point process likelihood of one neuron obtained excluding one of its covariates compared to the likelihood obtained using all of its covariates. The method was tested on simulated data, and then applied to neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex (MI) of a Felis catus subject. The interactions present in the simulated data were predicted with a high degree of accuracy, and when applied to the real neural data, the proposed method identified causal relationships between many of the recorded neurons. This paper proposes a novel method that successfully applies Granger causality to point process data, and has the potential to provide unique physiological insights when applied to neural spike trains.

  8. Spiking neural networks for cortical neuronal spike train decoding.

    PubMed

    Fang, Huijuan; Wang, Yongji; He, Jiping

    2010-04-01

    Recent investigation of cortical coding and computation indicates that temporal coding is probably a more biologically plausible scheme used by neurons than the rate coding used commonly in most published work. We propose and demonstrate in this letter that spiking neural networks (SNN), consisting of spiking neurons that propagate information by the timing of spikes, are a better alternative to the coding scheme based on spike frequency (histogram) alone. The SNN model analyzes cortical neural spike trains directly without losing temporal information for generating more reliable motor command for cortically controlled prosthetics. In this letter, we compared the temporal pattern classification result from the SNN approach with results generated from firing-rate-based approaches: conventional artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and linear regression. The results show that the SNN algorithm can achieve higher classification accuracy and identify the spiking activity related to movement control earlier than the other methods. Both are desirable characteristics for fast neural information processing and reliable control command pattern recognition for neuroprosthetic applications.

  9. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier Secure Axonal Spike Propagation.

    PubMed

    Gründemann, Jan; Clark, Beverley A

    2015-09-22

    Functional connectivity between brain regions relies on long-range signaling by myelinated axons. This is secured by saltatory action potential propagation that depends fundamentally on sodium channel availability at nodes of Ranvier. Although various potassium channel types have been anatomically localized to myelinated axons in the brain, direct evidence for their functional recruitment in maintaining node excitability is scarce. Cerebellar Purkinje cells provide continuous input to their targets in the cerebellar nuclei, reliably transmitting axonal spikes over a wide range of rates, requiring a constantly available pool of nodal sodium channels. We show that the recruitment of calcium-activated potassium channels (IK, K(Ca)3.1) by local, activity-dependent calcium (Ca(2+)) influx at nodes of Ranvier via a T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) current provides a powerful mechanism that likely opposes depolarizing block at the nodes and is thus pivotal to securing continuous axonal spike propagation in spontaneously firing Purkinje cells.

  10. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier Secure Axonal Spike Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gründemann, Jan; Clark, Beverley A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Functional connectivity between brain regions relies on long-range signaling by myelinated axons. This is secured by saltatory action potential propagation that depends fundamentally on sodium channel availability at nodes of Ranvier. Although various potassium channel types have been anatomically localized to myelinated axons in the brain, direct evidence for their functional recruitment in maintaining node excitability is scarce. Cerebellar Purkinje cells provide continuous input to their targets in the cerebellar nuclei, reliably transmitting axonal spikes over a wide range of rates, requiring a constantly available pool of nodal sodium channels. We show that the recruitment of calcium-activated potassium channels (IK, KCa3.1) by local, activity-dependent calcium (Ca2+) influx at nodes of Ranvier via a T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current provides a powerful mechanism that likely opposes depolarizing block at the nodes and is thus pivotal to securing continuous axonal spike propagation in spontaneously firing Purkinje cells. PMID:26344775

  11. The Ca2+-activated chloride channel anoctamin-2 mediates spike-frequency adaptation and regulates sensory transmission in thalamocortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Go Eun; Lee, Jaekwang; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Kiyeong; Kwon, Jea; Jung, Soon-Young; Hong, Joohyeon; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Hwang, Eun Mi; Shin, Hee-Sup; Lee, C. Justin; Cheong, Eunji

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal firing patterns, which are crucial for determining the nature of encoded information, have been widely studied; however, the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation are still not fully understood. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation in thalamocortical (TC) neurons is mediated by the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) anoctamin-2 (ANO2). Knockdown of ANO2 in TC neurons results in significantly reduced spike-frequency adaptation along with increased tonic spiking. Moreover, thalamus-specific knockdown of ANO2 increases visceral pain responses. These results indicate that ANO2 contributes to reductions in spike generation in highly activated TC neurons and thereby restricts persistent information transmission. PMID:27991499

  12. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo—in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29–38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100–200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26–28) and older animals (PD40–62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits. PMID:27065812

  13. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion.

    PubMed

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo-in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28) and older animals (PD40-62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits.

  14. Relationships between spike-free local field potentials and spike timing in human temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zanos, Theodoros P.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Ojemann, George A.; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    Intracortical recordings comprise both fast events, action potentials (APs), and slower events, known as local field potentials (LFPs). Although it is believed that LFPs mostly reflect local synaptic activity, it is unclear which of their signal components are most closely related to synaptic potentials and would therefore be causally related to the occurrence of individual APs. This issue is complicated by the significant contribution from AP waveforms, especially at higher LFP frequencies. In recordings of single-cell activity and LFPs from the human temporal cortex, we computed quantitative, nonlinear, causal dynamic models for the prediction of AP timing from LFPs, at millisecond resolution, before and after removing AP contributions to the LFP. In many cases, the timing of a significant number of single APs could be predicted from spike-free LFPs at different frequencies. Not surprisingly, model performance was superior when spikes were not removed. Cells whose activity was predicted by the spike-free LFP models generally fell into one of two groups: in the first group, neuronal spike activity was associated with specific phases of low LFP frequencies, lower spike activity at high LFP frequencies, and a stronger linear component in the spike-LFP model; in the second group, neuronal spike activity was associated with larger amplitude of high LFP frequencies, less frequent phase locking, and a stronger nonlinear model component. Spike timing in the first group was better predicted by the sign and level of the LFP preceding the spike, whereas spike timing in the second group was better predicted by LFP power during a certain time window before the spike. PMID:22157112

  15. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-12-15

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (E{sub GABA}). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (g{sub GABA-extra}) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in g{sub GABA-extra} and E{sub GABA} influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40–100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30–40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing g{sub GABA-extra} reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was shunting (−74 mV), but failed to alter average

  16. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-12-01

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (gGABA-extra) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in gGABA-extra and EGABA influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40-100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30-40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing gGABA-extra reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when EGABA was shunting (-74 mV), but failed to alter average FS-BC frequency when EGABA was depolarizing

  17. Relation of apical dendritic spikes to output decision in CA1 pyramidal cells during synchronous activation: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Ibarz, José M; Makarova, Ioulia; Herreras, Oscar

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies on the initiation and propagation of dendritic spikes have modified the classical view of postsynaptic integration. Earlier we reported that subthreshold currents and spikes recruited by synaptic currents play a critical role in defining outputs following synchronous activation. Experimental factors strongly condition these currents due to their nonlinear behaviour. Hence, we have performed a detailed parametric study in a CA1 pyramidal cell model to explore how different variables interact and initiate dendritic spiking, and how they influence cell output. The input pattern, the relative excitability of axon and dendrites, the presence/modulation of voltage-dependent channels, and inhibition were cross analysed. Subthreshold currents and spikes on synaptically excited branches fired spikes in other branches to jointly produce different modalities of apical shaft spiking with a variable impact on cell output. Synchronous activation initiated a varying number and temporal scatter of firing branches that produced in the apical shaft-soma axis nonpropagating spikes, pseudosaltatory or continuous forward conduction, or backpropagation. As few as 6-10 local spikes within a time window of 2 ms ensure cell output. However, the activation mode varied extremely when two or more variables were cross-analysed, becoming rather unpredictable when all the variables were considered. Spatially clustered inputs and upper modulation of dendritic Na(+) or Ca(2+) electrogenesis favour apical decision. In contrast, inhibition biased the output decision toward the axon and switched between dendritic firing modes. We propose that dendrites can discriminate input patterns and decide immediate cell output depending on the particular state of a variety of endogenous parameters.

  18. Algorithms for the analysis of ensemble neural spiking activity using simultaneous-event multivariate point-process models.

    PubMed

    Ba, Demba; Temereanca, Simona; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how ensembles of neurons represent and transmit information in the patterns of their joint spiking activity is a fundamental question in computational neuroscience. At present, analyses of spiking activity from neuronal ensembles are limited because multivariate point process (MPP) models cannot represent simultaneous occurrences of spike events at an arbitrarily small time resolution. Solo recently reported a simultaneous-event multivariate point process (SEMPP) model to correct this key limitation. In this paper, we show how Solo's discrete-time formulation of the SEMPP model can be efficiently fit to ensemble neural spiking activity using a multinomial generalized linear model (mGLM). Unlike existing approximate procedures for fitting the discrete-time SEMPP model, the mGLM is an exact algorithm. The MPP time-rescaling theorem can be used to assess model goodness-of-fit. We also derive a new marked point-process (MkPP) representation of the SEMPP model that leads to new thinning and time-rescaling algorithms for simulating an SEMPP stochastic process. These algorithms are much simpler than multivariate extensions of algorithms for simulating a univariate point process, and could not be arrived at without the MkPP representation. We illustrate the versatility of the SEMPP model by analyzing neural spiking activity from pairs of simultaneously-recorded rat thalamic neurons stimulated by periodic whisker deflections, and by simulating SEMPP data. In the data analysis example, the SEMPP model demonstrates that whisker motion significantly modulates simultaneous spiking activity at the 1 ms time scale and that the stimulus effect is more than one order of magnitude greater for simultaneous activity compared with non-simultaneous activity. Together, the mGLM, the MPP time-rescaling theorem and the MkPP representation of the SEMPP model offer a theoretically sound, practical tool for measuring joint spiking propensity in a neuronal ensemble.

  19. Spike sorting of muscle spindle afferent nerve activity recorded with thin-film intrafascicular electrodes.

    PubMed

    Djilas, Milan; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Guiraud, David; Yoshida, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Afferent muscle spindle activity in response to passive muscle stretch was recorded in vivo using thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes. A neural spike detection and classification scheme was developed for the purpose of separating activity of primary and secondary muscle spindle afferents. The algorithm is based on the multiscale continuous wavelet transform using complex wavelets. The detection scheme outperforms the commonly used threshold detection, especially with recordings having low signal-to-noise ratio. Results of classification of units indicate that the developed classifier is able to isolate activity having linear relationship with muscle length, which is a step towards online model-based estimation of muscle length that can be used in a closed-loop functional electrical stimulation system with natural sensory feedback.

  20. Rapid, parallel path planning by propagating wavefronts of spiking neural activity.

    PubMed

    Ponulak, Filip; Hopfield, John J

    2013-01-01

    Efficient path planning and navigation is critical for animals, robotics, logistics and transportation. We study a model in which spatial navigation problems can rapidly be solved in the brain by parallel mental exploration of alternative routes using propagating waves of neural activity. A wave of spiking activity propagates through a hippocampus-like network, altering the synaptic connectivity. The resulting vector field of synaptic change then guides a simulated animal to the appropriate selected target locations. We demonstrate that the navigation problem can be solved using realistic, local synaptic plasticity rules during a single passage of a wavefront. Our model can find optimal solutions for competing possible targets or learn and navigate in multiple environments. The model provides a hypothesis on the possible computational mechanisms for optimal path planning in the brain, at the same time it is useful for neuromorphic implementations, where the parallelism of information processing proposed here can fully be harnessed in hardware.

  1. Rapid, parallel path planning by propagating wavefronts of spiking neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Ponulak, Filip; Hopfield, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient path planning and navigation is critical for animals, robotics, logistics and transportation. We study a model in which spatial navigation problems can rapidly be solved in the brain by parallel mental exploration of alternative routes using propagating waves of neural activity. A wave of spiking activity propagates through a hippocampus-like network, altering the synaptic connectivity. The resulting vector field of synaptic change then guides a simulated animal to the appropriate selected target locations. We demonstrate that the navigation problem can be solved using realistic, local synaptic plasticity rules during a single passage of a wavefront. Our model can find optimal solutions for competing possible targets or learn and navigate in multiple environments. The model provides a hypothesis on the possible computational mechanisms for optimal path planning in the brain, at the same time it is useful for neuromorphic implementations, where the parallelism of information processing proposed here can fully be harnessed in hardware. PMID:23882213

  2. Fast activating voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium (BK) conductance promotes bursting in pituitary cells: a dynamic clamp study

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Joël; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Gonzalez-Iglesias, Arturo E.; Milescu, Lorin S.; Bertram, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The electrical activity pattern of endocrine pituitary cells regulates their basal secretion level. Rat somatotrophs and lactotrophs exhibit spontaneous bursting and have high basal levels of hormone secretion, while gonadotrophs exhibit spontaneous spiking and have low basal hormone secretion. It has been proposed that the difference in electrical activity between bursting somatotrophs and spiking gonadotrophs is due to the presence of large conductance potassium (BK) channels on somatotrophs but not on gonadotrophs. This is one example where the role of an ion channel type may be clearly established. We demonstrate here that BK channels indeed promote bursting activity in pituitary cells. Blocking BK channels in bursting lacto-somatotroph GH4C1 cells changes their firing activity to spiking, while further adding an artificial BK conductance via dynamic clamp restores bursting. Importantly, this burst-promoting effect requires a relatively fast BK activation/deactivation, as predicted by computational models. We also show that adding a fast activating BK conductance to spiking gonadotrophs converts the activity of these cells to bursting. Together, our results suggest that differences in BK channel expression may underlie the differences in electrical activity and basal hormone secretion levels among pituitary cell types and that the rapid rate of BK channel activation is key to its role in burst promotion. PMID:22090511

  3. Episodic activity in a heterogeneous excitatory network, from spiking neurons to mean field.

    PubMed

    Vladimirski, Boris B; Tabak, Joël; O'Donovan, Michael J; Rinzel, John

    2008-08-01

    Many developing neural systems exhibit spontaneous activity (O'Donovan, Curr Opin Neurobiol 9:94-104, 1999; Feller, Neuron 22:653-656, 1999) characterized by episodes of discharge (active phases) when many cells are firing, separated by silent phases during which few cells fire. Various models exhibit features of episodic behavior by means of recurrent excitation for supporting an episode and slow activity-dependent depression for terminating one. The basic mechanism has been analyzed using mean-field, firing-rate models. Firing-rate models are typically formulated ad hoc, not derived from a spiking network description, and the effects of substantial heterogeneity amongst the units are not usually considered. Here we develop an excitatory network of spiking neurons (N-cell model) with slow synaptic depression to model episodic rhythmogenesis. This N-cell model displays episodic behavior over a range of heterogeneity in bias currents. Important features of the episodic behavior include orderly recruitment of individual cells during silent phases and existence of a dynamical process whereby a small critical subpopulation of intermediate excitability conveys synaptic drive from active to silent cells. We also derive a general self-consistency equation for synaptic drive that includes cell heterogeneity explicitly. We use this mean-field description to expose the dynamical bistability that underlies episodic behavior in the heterogeneous network. In a systematic numerical study we find that the robustness of the episodic behavior improves with increasing heterogeneity. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of depression variables (imparted by the heterogeneity in cellular firing thresholds) plays an important role in this improvement: it renders the network episodic behavior more robust to variations in excitability than if depression is uniformized. We also investigate the effects of noise vs. heterogeneity on the robustness of episodic behavior, especially important for the

  4. Functional and molecular differences between voltage-gated K+ channels of fast-spiking interneurons and pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Martina, M; Schultz, J H; Ehmke, H; Monyer, H; Jonas, P

    1998-10-15

    We have examined gating and pharmacological characteristics of somatic K+ channels in fast-spiking interneurons and regularly spiking principal neurons of hippocampal slices. In nucleated patches isolated from basket cells of the dentate gyrus, a fast delayed rectifier K+ current component that was highly sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (half-maximal inhibitory concentrations <0.1 mM) predominated, contributing an average of 58% to the total K+ current in these cells. By contrast, in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region a rapidly inactivating A-type K+ current component that was TEA-resistant prevailed, contributing 61% to the total K+ current. Both types of neurons also showed small amounts of the K+ current component mainly found in the other type of neuron and, in addition, a slow delayed rectifier K+ current component with intermediate properties (slow inactivation, intermediate sensitivity to TEA). Single-cell RT-PCR analysis of mRNA revealed that Kv3 (Kv3.1, Kv3.2) subunit transcripts were expressed in almost all (89%) of the interneurons but only in 17% of the pyramidal neurons. In contrast, Kv4 (Kv4.2, Kv4.3) subunit mRNAs were present in 87% of pyramidal neurons but only in 55% of interneurons. Selective block of fast delayed rectifier K+ channels, presumably assembled from Kv3 subunits, by 4-AP reduced substantially the action potential frequency in interneurons. These results indicate that the differential expression of Kv3 and Kv4 subunits shapes the action potential phenotypes of principal neurons and interneurons in the cortex.

  5. Differential entrainment and learning-related dynamics of spike and local field potential activity in the sensorimotor and associative striatum.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Catherine A; Graybiel, Ann M

    2014-02-19

    Parallel cortico-basal ganglia loops are thought to have distinct but interacting functions in motor learning and habit formation. In rats, the striatal projection neuron populations (MSNs) in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum, respectively corresponding to sensorimotor and associative regions of the striatum, exhibit contrasting dynamics as rats acquire T-maze tasks (Thorn et al., 2010). Here, we asked whether these patterns could be related to the activity of local interneuron populations in the striatum and to the local field potential activity recorded simultaneously in the corresponding regions. We found that dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatal fast-spiking interneurons exhibited task-specific and training-related dynamics consistent with those of corresponding MSN populations. Moreover, both MSNs and interneuron populations in both regions became entrained to theta-band (5-12 Hz) frequencies during task acquisition. However, the predominant entrainment frequencies were different for the sensorimotor and associative zones. Dorsolateral striatal neurons became entrained mid-task to oscillations centered ∼ 5 Hz, whereas simultaneously recorded neurons in the dorsomedial region became entrained to higher frequency (∼ 10 Hz) rhythms. These region-specific patterns of entrainment evolved dynamically with the development of region-specific patterns of interneuron and MSN activity, indicating that, with learning, these two striatal regions can develop different frequency-modulated circuit activities in parallel. We suggest that such differential entrainment of sensorimotor and associative neuronal populations, acquired through learning, could be critical for coordinating information flow throughout each trans-striatal network while simultaneously enabling nearby components of the separate networks to operate independently.

  6. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Takuya; Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  7. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidor, Michelle M.; Spencer, Sade M.; Dzirasa, Kafui; Parekh, Puja K.; Tye, Kay M.; Warden, Melissa R.; Arey, Rachel N.; Enwright, John F; Jacobsen, Jacob PR; Kumar, Sunil; Remillard, Erin M; Caron, Marc G.; Deisseroth, Karl; McClung, Colleen A

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of euthymia at night. Mood cycling coincides with abnormal daytime spikes in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, and dopamine synthesis. To determine the significance of daytime increases in VTA dopamine activity to manic behaviors, we developed a novel optogenetic stimulation paradigm that produces a sustained increase in dopamine neuronal activity and find that this induces a manic-like behavioral state. Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviours in ClockΔ19 mice. Finally, we show that CLOCK acts as a negative regulator of TH transcription, revealing a novel molecular mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mood-related behaviour. Taken together, these studies have identified a mechanistic connection between circadian gene disruption and the precipitation of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. PMID:25560763

  8. Characterizing neural activities evoked by manual acupuncture through spiking irregularity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Yu, Hai-Tao; Chen, Ying-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    The neural system characterizes information in external stimulations by different spiking patterns. In order to examine how neural spiking patterns are related to acupuncture manipulations, experiments are designed in such a way that different types of manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations are taken at the ‘Zusanli’ point of experimental rats, and the induced electrical signals in the spinal dorsal root ganglion are detected and recorded. The interspike interval (ISI) statistical histogram is fitted by the gamma distribution, which has two parameters: one is the time-dependent firing rate and the other is a shape parameter characterizing the spiking irregularities. The shape parameter is the measure of spiking irregularities and can be used to identify the type of MA manipulations. The coefficient of variation is mostly used to measure the spike time irregularity, but it overestimates the irregularity in the case of pronounced firing rate changes. However, experiments show that each acupuncture manipulation will lead to changes in the firing rate. So we combine four relatively rate-independent measures to study the irregularity of spike trains evoked by different types of MA manipulations. Results suggest that the MA manipulations possess unique spiking statistics and characteristics and can be distinguished according to the spiking irregularity measures. These studies have offered new insights into the coding processes and information transfer of acupuncture.

  9. Optogenetically induced spatiotemporal gamma oscillations and neuronal spiking activity in primate motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Truccolo, Wilson; Wagner, Fabien B.; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E.; Ozden, Ilker; Zimmermann, Jonas B.; May, Travis; Agha, Naubahar S.; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Transient gamma-band (40–80 Hz) spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to play important roles in cortical function. Here we report the direct observation of gamma oscillations as spatiotemporal waves induced by targeted optogenetic stimulation, recorded by intracortical multichannel extracellular techniques in macaque monkeys during their awake resting states. Microelectrode arrays integrating an optical fiber at their center were chronically implanted in primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) cortices of two subjects. Targeted brain tissue was transduced with the red-shifted opsin C1V1(T/T). Constant (1-s square pulses) and ramp stimulation induced narrowband gamma oscillations during awake resting states. Recordings across 95 microelectrodes (4 × 4-mm array) enabled us to track the transient gamma spatiotemporal patterns manifested, e.g., as concentric expanding and spiral waves. Gamma oscillations were induced well beyond the light stimulation volume, via network interactions at distal electrode sites, depending on optical power. Despite stimulation-related modulation in spiking rates, neuronal spiking remained highly asynchronous during induced gamma oscillations. In one subject we examined stimulation effects during preparation and execution of a motor task and observed that movement execution largely attenuated optically induced gamma oscillations. Our findings demonstrate that, beyond previously reported induced gamma activity under periodic drive, a prolonged constant stimulus above a certain threshold may carry primate motor cortex network dynamics into gamma oscillations, likely via a Hopf bifurcation. More broadly, the experimental capability in combining microelectrode array recordings and optogenetic stimulation provides an important approach for probing spatiotemporal dynamics in primate cortical networks during various physiological and behavioral conditions. PMID:25761956

  10. Optogenetically induced spatiotemporal gamma oscillations and neuronal spiking activity in primate motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Truccolo, Wilson; Wagner, Fabien B; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E; Ozden, Ilker; Zimmermann, Jonas B; May, Travis; Agha, Naubahar S; Wang, Jing; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2015-06-01

    Transient gamma-band (40-80 Hz) spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to play important roles in cortical function. Here we report the direct observation of gamma oscillations as spatiotemporal waves induced by targeted optogenetic stimulation, recorded by intracortical multichannel extracellular techniques in macaque monkeys during their awake resting states. Microelectrode arrays integrating an optical fiber at their center were chronically implanted in primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) cortices of two subjects. Targeted brain tissue was transduced with the red-shifted opsin C1V1(T/T). Constant (1-s square pulses) and ramp stimulation induced narrowband gamma oscillations during awake resting states. Recordings across 95 microelectrodes (4 × 4-mm array) enabled us to track the transient gamma spatiotemporal patterns manifested, e.g., as concentric expanding and spiral waves. Gamma oscillations were induced well beyond the light stimulation volume, via network interactions at distal electrode sites, depending on optical power. Despite stimulation-related modulation in spiking rates, neuronal spiking remained highly asynchronous during induced gamma oscillations. In one subject we examined stimulation effects during preparation and execution of a motor task and observed that movement execution largely attenuated optically induced gamma oscillations. Our findings demonstrate that, beyond previously reported induced gamma activity under periodic drive, a prolonged constant stimulus above a certain threshold may carry primate motor cortex network dynamics into gamma oscillations, likely via a Hopf bifurcation. More broadly, the experimental capability in combining microelectrode array recordings and optogenetic stimulation provides an important approach for probing spatiotemporal dynamics in primate cortical networks during various physiological and behavioral conditions.

  11. Spiking neural network for recognizing spatiotemporal sequences of spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2004-02-01

    Sensory neurons in many brain areas spike with precise timing to stimuli with temporal structures, and encode temporally complex stimuli into spatiotemporal spikes. How the downstream neurons read out such neural code is an important unsolved problem. In this paper, we describe a decoding scheme using a spiking recurrent neural network. The network consists of excitatory neurons that form a synfire chain, and two globally inhibitory interneurons of different types that provide delayed feedforward and fast feedback inhibition, respectively. The network signals recognition of a specific spatiotemporal sequence when the last excitatory neuron down the synfire chain spikes, which happens if and only if that sequence was present in the input spike stream. The recognition scheme is invariant to variations in the intervals between input spikes within some range. The computation of the network can be mapped into that of a finite state machine. Our network provides a simple way to decode spatiotemporal spikes with diverse types of neurons.

  12. Colorimetric Sensor Array Allows Fast Detection and Simultaneous Identification of Sepsis-Causing Bacteria in Spiked Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Samantha; Xu, Zeyu; Taba, Brian; Budvytiene, Indre; Berliner, Anders N.; Queralto, Nuria; Churi, Yair S.; Huang, Richard S.; Eiden, Michael; Martino, Raymond A.; Rhodes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a medical emergency demanding early diagnosis and tailored antimicrobial therapy. Every hour of delay in initiating effective therapy measurably increases patient mortality. Blood culture is currently the reference standard for detecting bloodstream infection, a multistep process which may take one to several days. Here, we report a novel paradigm for earlier detection and the simultaneous identification of pathogens in spiked blood cultures by means of a metabolomic “fingerprint” of the volatile mixture outgassed by the organisms. The colorimetric sensor array provided significantly faster detection of positive blood cultures than a conventional blood culture system (12.1 h versus 14.9 h, P < 0.001) while allowing for the identification of 18 bacterial species with 91.9% overall accuracy within 2 h of growth detection. The colorimetric sensor array also allowed for discrimination between unrelated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that the metabolomic fingerprint has the potential to track nosocomial transmissions. Altogether, the colorimetric sensor array is a promising tool that offers a new paradigm for diagnosing bloodstream infections. PMID:24478493

  13. Colorimetric sensor array allows fast detection and simultaneous identification of sepsis-causing bacteria in spiked blood culture.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung H; Mix, Samantha; Xu, Zeyu; Taba, Brian; Budvytiene, Indre; Berliner, Anders N; Queralto, Nuria; Churi, Yair S; Huang, Richard S; Eiden, Michael; Martino, Raymond A; Rhodes, Paul; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-02-01

    Sepsis is a medical emergency demanding early diagnosis and tailored antimicrobial therapy. Every hour of delay in initiating effective therapy measurably increases patient mortality. Blood culture is currently the reference standard for detecting bloodstream infection, a multistep process which may take one to several days. Here, we report a novel paradigm for earlier detection and the simultaneous identification of pathogens in spiked blood cultures by means of a metabolomic "fingerprint" of the volatile mixture outgassed by the organisms. The colorimetric sensor array provided significantly faster detection of positive blood cultures than a conventional blood culture system (12.1 h versus 14.9 h, P < 0.001) while allowing for the identification of 18 bacterial species with 91.9% overall accuracy within 2 h of growth detection. The colorimetric sensor array also allowed for discrimination between unrelated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that the metabolomic fingerprint has the potential to track nosocomial transmissions. Altogether, the colorimetric sensor array is a promising tool that offers a new paradigm for diagnosing bloodstream infections.

  14. Solar Decameter Spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Shevchuk, N. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Poedts, S.; Lecacheux, A.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze and discuss the properties of decameter spikes observed in July - August 2002 by the UTR-2 radio telescope. These bursts have a short duration (about one second) and occur in a narrow frequency bandwidth (50 - 70 kHz). They are chaotically located in the dynamic spectrum. Decameter spikes are weak bursts: their fluxes do not exceed 200 - 300 s.f.u. An interesting feature of these spikes is the observed linear increase of the frequency bandwidth with frequency. This dependence can be explained in the framework of the plasma mechanism that causes the radio emission, taking into account that Langmuir waves are generated by fast electrons within a narrow angle θ≈13∘ - 18∘ along the direction of the electron propagation. In the present article we consider the problem of the short lifetime of decameter spikes and discuss why electrons generate plasma waves in limited regions.

  15. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Donoghue, John P.; Black, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. Disclosure. JPD is the Chief Scientific Officer and a director of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems (CYKN); he holds stock and receives compensation. JDS has been a consultant for CYKN. LRH receives clinical trial support from CYKN.

  16. Triphasic spike-timing-dependent plasticity organizes networks to produce robust sequences of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, Amelia; Appleby, Peter A.; De Kamps, Marc; Cohen, Netta

    2012-01-01

    Synfire chains have long been proposed to generate precisely timed sequences of neural activity. Such activity has been linked to numerous neural functions including sensory encoding, cognitive and motor responses. In particular, it has been argued that synfire chains underlie the precise spatiotemporal firing patterns that control song production in a variety of songbirds. Previous studies have suggested that the development of synfire chains requires either initial sparse connectivity or strong topological constraints, in addition to any synaptic learning rules. Here, we show that this necessity can be removed by using a previously reported but hitherto unconsidered spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rule and activity-dependent excitability. Under this rule the network develops stable synfire chains that possess a non-trivial, scalable multi-layer structure, in which relative layer sizes appear to follow a universal function. Using computational modeling and a coarse grained random walk model, we demonstrate the role of the STDP rule in growing, molding and stabilizing the chain, and link model parameters to the resulting structure. PMID:23162457

  17. Modeling activity-dependent changes of axonal spike conduction in primary afferent C-nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Tigerholm, Jenny; Petersson, Marcus E.; Obreja, Otilia; Lampert, Angelika; Carr, Richard; Schmelz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Action potential initiation and conduction along peripheral axons is a dynamic process that displays pronounced activity dependence. In patients with neuropathic pain, differences in the modulation of axonal conduction velocity by activity suggest that this property may provide insight into some of the pathomechanisms. To date, direct recordings of axonal membrane potential have been hampered by the small diameter of the fibers. We have therefore adopted an alternative approach to examine the basis of activity-dependent changes in axonal conduction by constructing a comprehensive mathematical model of human cutaneous C-fibers. Our model reproduced axonal spike propagation at a velocity of 0.69 m/s commensurate with recordings from human C-nociceptors. Activity-dependent slowing (ADS) of axonal propagation velocity was adequately simulated by the model. Interestingly, the property most readily associated with ADS was an increase in the concentration of intra-axonal sodium. This affected the driving potential of sodium currents, thereby producing latency changes comparable to those observed for experimental ADS. The model also adequately reproduced post-action potential excitability changes (i.e., recovery cycles) observed in vivo. We performed a series of control experiments replicating blockade of particular ion channels as well as changing temperature and extracellular ion concentrations. In the absence of direct experimental approaches, the model allows specific hypotheses to be formulated regarding the mechanisms underlying activity-dependent changes in C-fiber conduction. Because ADS might functionally act as a negative feedback to limit trains of nociceptor activity, we envisage that identifying its mechanisms may also direct efforts aimed at alleviating neuronal hyperexcitability in pain patients. PMID:24371290

  18. Real-time prediction of neuronal population spiking activity using FPGA.

    PubMed

    Li, Will X Y; Cheung, Ray C C; Chan, Rosa H M; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2013-08-01

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based hardware architecture is proposed and utilized for prediction of neuronal population firing activity. The hardware system adopts the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) generalized Laguerre-Volterra model (GLVM) structure to describe the nonlinear dynamic neural process of mammalian brain and can switch between the two important functions: estimation of GLVM coefficients and prediction of neuronal population spiking activity (model outputs). The model coefficients are first estimated using the in-sample training data; then the output is predicted using the out-of-sample testing data and the field estimated coefficients. Test results show that compared with previous software implementation of the generalized Laguerre-Volterra algorithm running on an Intel Core i7-2620M CPU, the FPGA-based hardware system can achieve up to 2.66×10(3) speedup in doing model parameters estimation and 698.84 speedup in doing model output prediction. The proposed hardware platform will facilitate research on the highly nonlinear neural process of the mammal brain, and the cognitive neural prosthesis design.

  19. Modeling spiking activity of in vitro neuronal networks through non linear methods.

    PubMed

    Maffezzoli, A; Signorini, M G; Gullo, F; Wanke, E

    2008-01-01

    Neuroscience research is even more exploiting technologies developed for electronic engineering use: this is the case of Micro-Electrode Array (MEA) technology, an instrumentation which is able to acquire in vitro neuron spiking activity from a finite number of channels. In this work we present three models of synaptic neuronal network connections, called 'Full-Connected', 'Hierarchical' and 'Closed-Path'. Related to each one we implemented an index giving quantitative measures of similarity and of statistical dependence among neuron activities recorded in different MEA channels. They are based on Information Theory techniques as Mutual and Multi Information: the last one extending the pair-wise information to higher-order connections on the entire MEA neuronal network. We calculated indexes for each model in order to test the presence of self-synchronization among neurons evolving in time, in response to external stimuli such as the application of chemical neuron-inhibitors. The availability of such different models helps us to investigate also how much the synaptic connections are spatially sparse or hierarchically structured and finally how much of the information exchanged on the neuronal network is regulated by higher-order correlations.

  20. GABAergic Activities Control Spike Timing- and Frequency-Dependent Long-Term Depression at Hippocampal Excitatory Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Makoto; Togashi, Kazunobu; Aihara, Takeshi; Hong, Kyonsoo

    2010-01-01

    GABAergic interneuronal network activities in the hippocampus control a variety of neural functions, including learning and memory, by regulating θ and γ oscillations. How these GABAergic activities at pre- and postsynaptic sites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differentially contribute to synaptic function and plasticity during their repetitive pre- and postsynaptic spiking at θ and γ oscillations is largely unknown. We show here that activities mediated by postsynaptic GABAARs and presynaptic GABABRs determine, respectively, the spike timing- and frequency-dependence of activity-induced synaptic modifications at Schaffer collateral-CA1 excitatory synapses. We demonstrate that both feedforward and feedback GABAAR-mediated inhibition in the postsynaptic cell controls the spike timing-dependent long-term depression of excitatory inputs (“e-LTD”) at the θ frequency. We also show that feedback postsynaptic inhibition specifically causes e-LTD of inputs that induce small postsynaptic currents (<70 pA) with LTP-timing, thus enforcing the requirement of cooperativity for induction of long-term potentiation at excitatory inputs (“e-LTP”). Furthermore, under spike-timing protocols that induce e-LTP and e-LTD at excitatory synapses, we observed parallel induction of LTP and LTD at inhibitory inputs (“i-LTP” and “i-LTD”) to the same postsynaptic cells. Finally, we show that presynaptic GABABR-mediated inhibition plays a major role in the induction of frequency-dependent e-LTD at α and β frequencies. These observations demonstrate the critical influence of GABAergic interneuronal network activities in regulating the spike timing- and frequency-dependences of long-term synaptic modifications in the hippocampus. PMID:21423508

  1. Persistence and storage of activity patterns in spiking recurrent cortical networks: modulation of sigmoid signals by after-hyperpolarization currents and acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jesse; Grossberg, Stephen; Versace, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    Many cortical networks contain recurrent architectures that transform input patterns before storing them in short-term memory (STM). Theorems in the 1970's showed how feedback signal functions in rate-based recurrent on-center off-surround networks control this process. A sigmoid signal function induces a quenching threshold below which inputs are suppressed as noise and above which they are contrast-enhanced before pattern storage. This article describes how changes in feedback signaling, neuromodulation, and recurrent connectivity may alter pattern processing in recurrent on-center off-surround networks of spiking neurons. In spiking neurons, fast, medium, and slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP) currents control sigmoid signal threshold and slope. Modulation of AHP currents by acetylcholine (ACh) can change sigmoid shape and, with it, network dynamics. For example, decreasing signal function threshold and increasing slope can lengthen the persistence of a partially contrast-enhanced pattern, increase the number of active cells stored in STM, or, if connectivity is distance-dependent, cause cell activities to cluster. These results clarify how cholinergic modulation by the basal forebrain may alter the vigilance of category learning circuits, and thus their sensitivity to predictive mismatches, thereby controlling whether learned categories code concrete or abstract features, as predicted by Adaptive Resonance Theory. The analysis includes global, distance-dependent, and interneuron-mediated circuits. With an appropriate degree of recurrent excitation and inhibition, spiking networks maintain a partially contrast-enhanced pattern for 800 ms or longer after stimuli offset, then resolve to no stored pattern, or to winner-take-all (WTA) stored patterns with one or multiple winners. Strengthening inhibition prolongs a partially contrast-enhanced pattern by slowing the transition to stability, while strengthening excitation causes more winners when the network

  2. Unsupervised Spike Sorting for Large-Scale, High-Density Multielectrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Hilgen, Gerrit; Sorbaro, Martino; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Muthmann, Jens-Oliver; Kepiro, Ibolya Edit; Ullo, Simona; Ramirez, Cesar Juarez; Puente Encinas, Albert; Maccione, Alessandro; Berdondini, Luca; Murino, Vittorio; Sona, Diego; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca; Sernagor, Evelyne; Hennig, Matthias Helge

    2017-03-07

    We present a method for automated spike sorting for recordings with high-density, large-scale multielectrode arrays. Exploiting the dense sampling of single neurons by multiple electrodes, an efficient, low-dimensional representation of detected spikes consisting of estimated spatial spike locations and dominant spike shape features is exploited for fast and reliable clustering into single units. Millions of events can be sorted in minutes, and the method is parallelized and scales better than quadratically with the number of detected spikes. Performance is demonstrated using recordings with a 4,096-channel array and validated using anatomical imaging, optogenetic stimulation, and model-based quality control. A comparison with semi-automated, shape-based spike sorting exposes significant limitations of conventional methods. Our approach demonstrates that it is feasible to reliably isolate the activity of up to thousands of neurons and that dense, multi-channel probes substantially aid reliable spike sorting.

  3. Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel inactivation contributes to spike broadening during repetitive firing in the rat lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Faber, E S Louise; Sah, Pankaj

    2003-10-15

    In many neurons, trains of action potentials show frequency-dependent broadening. This broadening results from the voltage-dependent inactivation of K+ currents that contribute to action potential repolarisation. In different neuronal cell types these K+ currents have been shown to be either slowly inactivating delayed rectifier type currents or rapidly inactivating A-type voltage-gated K+ currents. Recent findings show that inactivation of a Ca2+-dependent K+ current, mediated by large conductance BK-type channels, also contributes to spike broadening. Here, using whole-cell recordings in acute slices, we examine spike broadening in lateral amygdala projection neurons. Spike broadening is frequency dependent and is reversed by brief hyperpolarisations. This broadening is reduced by blockade of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and BK channels. In contrast, broadening is not blocked by high concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or alpha-dendrotoxin. We conclude that while inactivation of BK-type Ca2+-activated K+ channels contributes to spike broadening in lateral amygdala neurons, inactivation of another as yet unidentified outward current also plays a role.

  4. Hypocretin (orexin) regulates glutamate input to fast-spiking interneurons in layer V of the Fr2 region of the murine prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Aracri, Patrizia; Banfi, Daniele; Pasini, Maria Enrica; Amadeo, Alida; Becchetti, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    We studied the effect of hypocretin 1 (orexin A) in the frontal area 2 (Fr2) of the murine neocortex, implicated in the motivation-dependent goal-directed tasks. In layer V, hypocretin stimulated the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) on fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. The effect was accompanied by increased frequency of miniature EPSCs, indicating that hypocretin can target the glutamatergic terminals. Moreover, hypocretin stimulated the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) on pyramidal neurons, with no effect on miniature IPSCs. This action was prevented by blocking 1) the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors; 2) the hypocretin receptor type 1 (HCRTR-1), with SB-334867. Finally, hypocretin increased the firing frequency in FS cells, and the effect was blocked when the ionotropic glutamate transmission was inhibited. Immunolocalization confirmed that HCRTR-1 is highly expressed in Fr2, particularly in layer V-VI. Conspicuous labeling was observed in pyramidal neuron somata and in VGLUT1+ glutamatergic terminals, but not in VGLUT2+ fibers (mainly thalamocortical afferents). The expression of HCRTR-1 in GABAergic structures was scarce. We conclude that 1) hypocretin regulates glutamate release in Fr2; 2) the effect presents a presynaptic component; 3) the peptide control of FS cells is indirect, and probably mediated by the regulation of glutamatergic input onto these cells.

  5. Hypocretin (Orexin) Regulates Glutamate Input to Fast-Spiking Interneurons in Layer V of the Fr2 Region of the Murine Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Aracri, Patrizia; Banfi, Daniele; Pasini, Maria Enrica; Amadeo, Alida; Becchetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of hypocretin 1 (orexin A) in the frontal area 2 (Fr2) of the murine neocortex, implicated in the motivation-dependent goal-directed tasks. In layer V, hypocretin stimulated the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) on fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. The effect was accompanied by increased frequency of miniature EPSCs, indicating that hypocretin can target the glutamatergic terminals. Moreover, hypocretin stimulated the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) on pyramidal neurons, with no effect on miniature IPSCs. This action was prevented by blocking 1) the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors; 2) the hypocretin receptor type 1 (HCRTR-1), with SB-334867. Finally, hypocretin increased the firing frequency in FS cells, and the effect was blocked when the ionotropic glutamate transmission was inhibited. Immunolocalization confirmed that HCRTR-1 is highly expressed in Fr2, particularly in layer V–VI. Conspicuous labeling was observed in pyramidal neuron somata and in VGLUT1+ glutamatergic terminals, but not in VGLUT2+ fibers (mainly thalamocortical afferents). The expression of HCRTR-1 in GABAergic structures was scarce. We conclude that 1) hypocretin regulates glutamate release in Fr2; 2) the effect presents a presynaptic component; 3) the peptide control of FS cells is indirect, and probably mediated by the regulation of glutamatergic input onto these cells. PMID:24297328

  6. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C

    2016-06-02

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders.

  7. The spatial structure of stimuli shapes the timescale of correlations in population spiking activity.

    PubMed

    Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Chacron, Maurice J; Doiron, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the central nervous system, the timescale over which pairs of neural spike trains are correlated is shaped by stimulus structure and behavioral context. Such shaping is thought to underlie important changes in the neural code, but the neural circuitry responsible is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate a stimulus-induced shaping of pairwise spike train correlations in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish. Simultaneous single unit recordings of principal electrosensory cells show that an increase in the spatial extent of stimuli increases correlations at short (≈ 10 ms) timescales while simultaneously reducing correlations at long (≈ 100 ms) timescales. A spiking network model of the first two stages of electrosensory processing replicates this correlation shaping, under the assumptions that spatially broad stimuli both saturate feedforward afferent input and recruit an open-loop inhibitory feedback pathway. Our model predictions are experimentally verified using both the natural heterogeneity of the electrosensory system and pharmacological blockade of descending feedback projections. For weak stimuli, linear response analysis of the spiking network shows that the reduction of long timescale correlation for spatially broad stimuli is similar to correlation cancellation mechanisms previously suggested to be operative in mammalian cortex. The mechanism for correlation shaping supports population-level filtering of irrelevant distractor stimuli, thereby enhancing the population response to relevant prey and conspecific communication inputs.

  8. A camel-derived MERS-CoV with a variant spike protein cleavage site and distinct fusion activation properties

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Goldstein, Monty E; Labitt, Rachael N; Hsu, Hung-Lun; Daniel, Susan; Whittaker, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to circulate in both humans and camels, and the origin and evolution of the virus remain unclear. Here we characterize the spike protein of a camel-derived MERS-CoV (NRCE-HKU205) identified in 2013, early in the MERS outbreak. NRCE-HKU205 spike protein has a variant cleavage motif with regard to the S2′ fusion activation site—notably, a novel substitution of isoleucine for the otherwise invariant serine at the critical P1′ cleavage site position. The substitutions resulted in a loss of furin-mediated cleavage, as shown by fluorogenic peptide cleavage and western blot assays. Cell–cell fusion and pseudotyped virus infectivity assays demonstrated that the S2′ substitutions decreased spike-mediated fusion and viral entry. However, cathepsin and trypsin-like protease activation were retained, albeit with much reduced efficiency compared with the prototypical EMC/2012 human strain. We show that NRCE-HKU205 has more limited fusion activation properties possibly resulting in more restricted viral tropism and may represent an intermediate in the complex pattern of MERS-CoV ecology and evolution. PMID:27999426

  9. SPIKY: a graphical user interface for monitoring spike train synchrony.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Thomas; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa

    2015-05-01

    Techniques for recording large-scale neuronal spiking activity are developing very fast. This leads to an increasing demand for algorithms capable of analyzing large amounts of experimental spike train data. One of the most crucial and demanding tasks is the identification of similarity patterns with a very high temporal resolution and across different spatial scales. To address this task, in recent years three time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony have been proposed, the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and event synchronization. The Matlab source codes for calculating and visualizing these measures have been made publicly available. However, due to the many different possible representations of the results the use of these codes is rather complicated and their application requires some basic knowledge of Matlab. Thus it became desirable to provide a more user-friendly and interactive interface. Here we address this need and present SPIKY, a graphical user interface that facilitates the application of time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony to both simulated and real data. SPIKY includes implementations of the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and the SPIKE-synchronization (an improved and simplified extension of event synchronization) that have been optimized with respect to computation speed and memory demand. It also comprises a spike train generator and an event detector that makes it capable of analyzing continuous data. Finally, the SPIKY package includes additional complementary programs aimed at the analysis of large numbers of datasets and the estimation of significance levels.

  10. Fast-spiking GABA circuit dynamics in the auditory cortex predict recovery of sensory processing following peripheral nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Jennifer; Polley, Daniel B

    2017-03-21

    Cortical neurons remap their receptive fields and rescale sensitivity to spared peripheral inputs following sensory nerve damage. To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. We related the day-by-day recovery of sound processing to dynamic changes in the strength of intracortical inhibition from parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons. Whereas the status of brainstem-evoked potentials did not predict the recovery of sensory responses to surviving nerve fibers, homeostatic adjustments in PV-mediated inhibition during the first days following injury could predict the eventual recovery of cortical sound processing weeks later. These findings underscore the potential importance of self-regulated inhibitory dynamics for the restoration of sensory processing in excitatory neurons following peripheral nerve injuries.

  11. Neuronal communication: firing spikes with spikes.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael

    2012-08-21

    Spikes of single cortical neurons can exert powerful effects even though most cortical synapses are too weak to fire postsynaptic neurons. A recent study combining single-cell stimulation with population imaging has visualized in vivo postsynaptic firing in genetically identified target cells. The results confirm predictions from in vitro work and might help to understand how the brain reads single-neuron activity.

  12. Fast-spiking GABA circuit dynamics in the auditory cortex predict recovery of sensory processing following peripheral nerve damage

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, Jennifer; Polley, Daniel B

    2017-01-01

    Cortical neurons remap their receptive fields and rescale sensitivity to spared peripheral inputs following sensory nerve damage. To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. We related the day-by-day recovery of sound processing to dynamic changes in the strength of intracortical inhibition from parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons. Whereas the status of brainstem-evoked potentials did not predict the recovery of sensory responses to surviving nerve fibers, homeostatic adjustments in PV-mediated inhibition during the first days following injury could predict the eventual recovery of cortical sound processing weeks later. These findings underscore the potential importance of self-regulated inhibitory dynamics for the restoration of sensory processing in excitatory neurons following peripheral nerve injuries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21452.001 PMID:28323619

  13. Spike sorting of synchronous spikes from local neuron ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Pröpper, Robert; Alle, Henrik; Meier, Philipp; Geiger, Jörg R. P.; Obermayer, Klaus; Munk, Matthias H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous spike discharge of cortical neurons is thought to be a fingerprint of neuronal cooperativity. Because neighboring neurons are more densely connected to one another than neurons that are located further apart, near-synchronous spike discharge can be expected to be prevalent and it might provide an important basis for cortical computations. Using microelectrodes to record local groups of neurons does not allow for the reliable separation of synchronous spikes from different cells, because available spike sorting algorithms cannot correctly resolve the temporally overlapping waveforms. We show that high spike sorting performance of in vivo recordings, including overlapping spikes, can be achieved with a recently developed filter-based template matching procedure. Using tetrodes with a three-dimensional structure, we demonstrate with simulated data and ground truth in vitro data, obtained by dual intracellular recording of two neurons located next to a tetrode, that the spike sorting of synchronous spikes can be as successful as the spike sorting of nonoverlapping spikes and that the spatial information provided by multielectrodes greatly reduces the error rates. We apply the method to tetrode recordings from the prefrontal cortex of behaving primates, and we show that overlapping spikes can be identified and assigned to individual neurons to study synchronous activity in local groups of neurons. PMID:26289473

  14. Unmyelinated axons in the rat hippocampus hyperpolarize and activate an H current when spike frequency exceeds 1 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Soleng, A F; Chiu, K; Raastad, M

    2003-01-01

    The mammalian cortex is densely populated by extensively branching, thin, unmyelinated axons that form en passant synapses. Some thin axons in the peripheral nervous system hyperpolarize if action potential frequency exceeds 1-5 Hz. To test the hypothesis that cortical axons also show activity-induced hyperpolarization, we recorded extracellularly from individual CA3 pyramidal neurons while activating their axon with trains consisting of 30 electrical stimuli. Synaptic excitation was blocked by kynurenic acid. We observed a positive correlation between stimulation strength and the number of consecutive axonal stimuli that resulted in soma spikes, suggesting that the threshold increased as a function of the number of spikes. During trains without response failures there was always a cumulative increase in the soma response latency. Intermittent failures, however, decreased the latency of the subsequent response. At frequencies of > 1 Hz, the threshold and latency increases were enhanced by blocking the hyperpolarization-activated H current (Ih)by applying the specific Ih blocker ZD7288 (25 μM) or 2 mM Cs+. Under these conditions, response failures occurred after 15–25 stimuli, independent of the stimulation strength. Adding GABA receptor blockers (saclofen and bicuculline) and a blocker of metabotropic glutamate receptors did not change the activity-induced latency increase in recordings of the compound action potential. We interpret these results as an activity-induced hyperpolarization that is partly counteracted by Ih. Such a hyperpolarization may influence transmitter release and the conduction reliability of these axons. PMID:14561829

  15. Functional properties and short-term dynamics of unidirectional and reciprocal synaptic connections between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons in juvenile rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, A V; Lewis, D A

    2013-10-01

    The interactions between inhibitory fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and excitatory pyramidal neurons contribute to the fundamental properties of cortical networks. An important role for FS interneurons in mediating rapid inhibition in local sensory and motor cortex microcircuits and processing thalamic inputs to the cortex has been shown in multiple reports; however, studies in the prefrontal cortex, a key neocortical region supporting working memory, are less numerous. In the present work, connections between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and FS interneurons were studied with paired whole-cell recordings in acute neocortical slices of the medial prefrontal cortex from juvenile rats. The connection rate between FS interneurons and pyramidal neurons was about 40% in each direction with 16% of pairs connected reciprocally. Excitatory and inhibitory connections had a high efficacy and a low neurotransmission failure rate. Sustained presynaptic activity decreased the amplitude of responses and increased the failure rate more in excitatory connections than in inhibitory connections. In the reciprocal connections between the FS and pyramidal neurons, inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission was more efficient and had a lower failure rate than in the unidirectional connections; the differences increased during the train stimulation. These results suggest the presence of distinct preferential subnetworks between FS interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat prefrontal cortex that might be specific for this cortical area.

  16. Ion channels generating complex spikes in cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuil; Trussell, Laurence O

    2007-02-01

    Cartwheel cells are glycinergic interneurons that modify somatosensory input to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. They are characterized by firing of mixtures of both simple and complex action potentials. To understand what ion channels determine the generation of these two types of spike waveforms, we recorded from cartwheel cells using the gramicidin perforated-patch technique in brain slices of mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus and applied channel-selective blockers. Complex spikes were distinguished by whether they arose directly from a negative membrane potential or later during a long depolarization. Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels were major determinants of complex spikes. Onset complex spikes required T-type and possibly R-type Ca(2+) channels and were shaped by BK and SK K(+) channels. Complex spikes arising later in a depolarization were dependent on P/Q- and L-type Ca(2+) channels as well as BK and SK channels. BK channels also contributed to fast repolarization of simple spikes. Simple spikes featured an afterdepolarization that is probably the trigger for complex spiking and is shaped by T/R-type Ca(2+) and SK channels. Fast spikes were dependent on Na(+) channels; a large persistent Na(+) current may provide a depolarizing drive for spontaneous activity in cartwheel cells. Thus the diverse electrical behavior of cartwheel cells is determined by the interaction of a wide variety of ion channels with a prominent role played by Ca(2+).

  17. Decoding Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Kinematics from Cortical Neural Spike Trains during Monkey Performing Stand and Squat Movements

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuan; Ma, Chaolin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Jiang; He, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    Extensive literatures have shown approaches for decoding upper limb kinematics or muscle activity using multichannel cortical spike recordings toward brain machine interface (BMI) applications. However, similar topics regarding lower limb remain relatively scarce. We previously reported a system for training monkeys to perform visually guided stand and squat tasks. The current study, as a follow-up extension, investigates whether lower limb kinematics and muscle activity characterized by electromyography (EMG) signals during monkey performing stand/squat movements can be accurately decoded from neural spike trains in primary motor cortex (M1). Two monkeys were used in this study. Subdermal intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted to 8 right leg/thigh muscles. With ample data collected from neurons from a large brain area, we performed a spike triggered average (SpTA) analysis and got a series of density contours which revealed the spatial distributions of different muscle-innervating neurons corresponding to each given muscle. Based on the guidance of these results, we identified the locations optimal for chronic electrode implantation and subsequently carried on chronic neural data recordings. A recursive Bayesian estimation framework was proposed for decoding EMG signals together with kinematics from M1 spike trains. Two specific algorithms were implemented: a standard Kalman filter and an unscented Kalman filter. For the latter one, an artificial neural network was incorporated to deal with the nonlinearity in neural tuning. High correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratio between the predicted and the actual data were achieved for both EMG signals and kinematics on both monkeys. Higher decoding accuracy and faster convergence rate could be achieved with the unscented Kalman filter. These results demonstrate that lower limb EMG signals and kinematics during monkey stand/squat can be accurately decoded from a group of M1 neurons with the proposed

  18. Decoding Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Kinematics from Cortical Neural Spike Trains during Monkey Performing Stand and Squat Movements.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuan; Ma, Chaolin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Jiang; He, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    Extensive literatures have shown approaches for decoding upper limb kinematics or muscle activity using multichannel cortical spike recordings toward brain machine interface (BMI) applications. However, similar topics regarding lower limb remain relatively scarce. We previously reported a system for training monkeys to perform visually guided stand and squat tasks. The current study, as a follow-up extension, investigates whether lower limb kinematics and muscle activity characterized by electromyography (EMG) signals during monkey performing stand/squat movements can be accurately decoded from neural spike trains in primary motor cortex (M1). Two monkeys were used in this study. Subdermal intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted to 8 right leg/thigh muscles. With ample data collected from neurons from a large brain area, we performed a spike triggered average (SpTA) analysis and got a series of density contours which revealed the spatial distributions of different muscle-innervating neurons corresponding to each given muscle. Based on the guidance of these results, we identified the locations optimal for chronic electrode implantation and subsequently carried on chronic neural data recordings. A recursive Bayesian estimation framework was proposed for decoding EMG signals together with kinematics from M1 spike trains. Two specific algorithms were implemented: a standard Kalman filter and an unscented Kalman filter. For the latter one, an artificial neural network was incorporated to deal with the nonlinearity in neural tuning. High correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratio between the predicted and the actual data were achieved for both EMG signals and kinematics on both monkeys. Higher decoding accuracy and faster convergence rate could be achieved with the unscented Kalman filter. These results demonstrate that lower limb EMG signals and kinematics during monkey stand/squat can be accurately decoded from a group of M1 neurons with the proposed

  19. Population activity statistics dissect subthreshold and spiking variability in V1.

    PubMed

    Bányai, Mihály; Koman, Zsombor; Orbán, Gergő

    2017-03-15

    Response variability, as measured by fluctuating responses upon repeated performance of trials, is a major component of neural responses, and its characterization is key to interpret high dimensional population recordings. Response variability and covariability display predictable changes upon changes in stimulus and cognitive or behavioral state, providing an opportunity to test the predictive power of models of neural variability. Still, there is little agreement on which model to use as a building block for population-level analyses, and models of variability are often treated as a subject of choice. We investigate two competing models, the Doubly Stochastic Poisson (DSP) model assuming stochasticity at spike generation, and the Rectified Gaussian (RG) model tracing variability back to membrane potential variance, to analyze stimulus-dependent modulation of both single-neuron and pairwise response statistics. Using a pair of model neurons, we demonstrate that the two models predict similar single-cell statistics. However, DSP and RG models have contradicting predictions on the joint statistics of spiking responses. In order to test the models against data, we build a population model to simulate stimulus change-related modulations in pairwise response statistics. We use single-unit data from the primary visual cortex (V1) of monkeys to show that while model predictions for variance are qualitatively similar to experimental data, only the RG model's predictions are compatible with joint statistics. These results suggest that models using Poisson-like variability might fail to capture important properties of response statistics. We argue that membrane potential-level modelling of stochasticity provides an efficient strategy to model correlations.

  20. Relationship between Complex and Simple Spike Activity in Macaque Caudal Vermis during Three-Dimensional Vestibular Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yakusheva, Tatyana; Blazquez, Pablo M.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2013-01-01

    Lobules 10 and 9 in the caudal posterior vermis [also known as nodulus and uvula (NU)] are thought important for spatial orientation and balance. Here, we characterize complex spike (CS) and simple spike (SS) activity in response to three-dimensional vestibular stimulation. The strongest modulation was seen during translation (CS: 12.8 ± 1.5, SS: 287.0 ± 23.2 spikes/s/G, 0.5 Hz). Preferred directions tended to cluster along the cardinal axes (lateral, fore-aft, vertical) for CSs and along the semicircular canal axes for SSs. Most notably, the preferred directions for CS/SS pairs arising from the same Purkinje cells were rarely aligned. During 0.5 Hz pitch/roll tilt, only about a third of CSs had significant modulation. Thus, most CSs correlated best with inertial rather than net linear acceleration. By comparison, all SSs were selective for translation and ignored changes in spatial orientation relative to gravity. Like SSs, tilt modulation of CSs increased at lower frequencies. CSs and SSs had similar response dynamics, responding to linear velocity during translation and angular position during tilt. The most salient finding is that CSs did not always modulate out-of-phase with SSs. The CS/SS phase difference varied broadly among Purkinje cells, yet for each cell it was precisely matched for the otolith-driven and canal-driven components of the response. These findings illustrate a spatiotemporal mismatch between CS/SS pairs and provide the first comprehensive description of the macaque NU, an important step toward understanding how CSs and SSs interact during complex movements and spatial disorientation. PMID:20554862

  1. Phase Resetting Light Pulses Induce Per1 and Persistent Spike Activity in a Subpopulation of Biological Clock Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Silver, Rae; Le Sauter, Joseph; Bult-Ito, Abel; McMahon, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    The endogenous circadian clock of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) can be reset by light to synchronize the biological clock of the brain with the external environment. This process involves induction of immediate-early genes such as the circadian clock gene Period1 (Per1) and results in a stable shift in the timing of behavioral and physiological rhythms on subsequent days. The mechanisms by which gene activation permanently alters the phase of clock neuron activity are unknown. To study the relationship between acute gene activation and persistent changes in the neurophysiology of SCN neurons, we recorded from SCN neurons marked with a dynamic green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter of Per1 gene activity. Phase-resetting light pulses resulted in Per1 induction in a distinct subset of SCN neurons that also exhibited a persistent increase in action potential frequency 3–5 hr after a light pulse. By simultaneously quantifying Per1 gene activation and spike frequency in individual neurons, we found that the degree of Per1 induction was highly correlated with neuronal spike frequency on a cell-by-cell basis. Increased neuronal activity was mediated by membrane potential depolarization as a result of a reduction in outward potassium current. Double-label immunocytochemistry revealed that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing cells, but not arginine vasopressin (AVP)-expressing cells, exhibited significant Per1 induction by light pulses. Rhythmic GFP expression occurred in both VIP and AVP neurons. Our results indicate that the steps that link acute molecular events to permanent changes in clock phase involve persistent suppression of potassium current, downstream of Per1 gene induction, in a specific subset of Per1-expressing neurons enriched for VIP. PMID:12598633

  2. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2012 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  3. Active biopolymers confer fast reorganization kinetics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Douglas; Wingreen, Ned S

    2011-11-18

    Many cytoskeletal biopolymers are "active," consuming energy in large quantities. In this Letter, we identify a fundamental difference between active polymers and passive, equilibrium polymers: for equal mean lengths, active polymers can reorganize faster than equilibrium polymers. We show that equilibrium polymers are intrinsically limited to linear scaling between mean lifetime (or mean first-passage time, or MFPT) and mean length, MFPT∼, by analogy to 1D Potts models. By contrast, we present a simple active-polymer model that improves upon this scaling, such that MFPT∼(1/2). Since, to be biologically useful, structural biopolymers must typically be many monomers long yet respond dynamically to the needs of the cell, the difference in reorganization kinetics may help to justify the active polymers' greater energy cost.

  4. The role of hyperpolarization-activated cationic current in spike-time precision and intrinsic resonance in cortical neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gastrein, Philippe; Campanac, Emilie; Gasselin, Célia; Cudmore, Robert H; Bialowas, Andrzej; Carlier, Edmond; Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Laure; Ankri, Norbert; Debanne, Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide modulated current (I(h)) sets resonance frequency within the θ-range (5–12 Hz) in pyramidal neurons. However, its precise contribution to the temporal fidelity of spike generation in response to stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses remains unclear. In conditions where pharmacological blockade of I(h) does not affect synaptic transmission, we show that postsynaptic h-channels improve spike time precision in CA1 pyramidal neurons through two main mechanisms. I(h) enhances precision of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)--spike coupling because I(h) reduces peak EPSP duration. I(h) improves the precision of rebound spiking following inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons and sets pacemaker activity in stratum oriens interneurons because I(h) accelerates the decay of both IPSPs and after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs). The contribution of h-channels to intrinsic resonance and EPSP waveform was comparatively much smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Our results indicate that the elementary mechanisms by which postsynaptic h-channels control fidelity of spike timing at the scale of individual neurons may account for the decreased theta-activity observed in hippocampal and neocortical networks when h-channel activity is pharmacologically reduced.

  5. Solar microwave millisecond spike at 2.84 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi-Jun; Jin, Sheng-Zhen; Zhao, Ren-Yang; Zheng, Le-Ping; Liu, Yu-Ying; Li, Xiao-Cong; Wang, Shu-Lan; Chen, Zhi-Jun; Hu, Chu-Min

    1986-01-01

    Using the high time resolution of 1 ms, the data of solar microwave millisecond spike (MMS) event was recorded more than two hundred times at the frequency of 2.84 GHz at Beijing (Peking) Observatory since May 1981. A preliminary analysis was made. It can be seen from the data that the MMS-events have a variety of the fast activities such as the dispersed and isolated spikes, the clusters of the crowded spikes, the weak spikes superimposed on the noise background, and the phenomena of absorption. The marked differences from that observed with lower time resolution are presented. Using the data, a valuable statistical analysis was made. There are close correlations between MMS-events and hard X-ray bursts, and fast drifting bursts. The MMS events are highly dependent on the type of active regions and the magnetic field configuration. It seems to be crucial to find out the accurate positions on the active region where the MMS-events happen and to make co-operative observations at different bands during the special period when specific active regions appear on the solar disk.

  6. Age-Dependency of Location of Epileptic Foci in "Continuous Spike-and-Waves during Sleep": A Parallel to the Posterior-Anterior Trajectory of Slow Wave Activity.

    PubMed

    Heinzle, Bigna Katrin Bölsterli; Bast, Thomas; Critelli, Hanne; Huber, Reto; Schmitt, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Background Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-waves during sleep (CSWS) occurs during childhood and is characterized by an activation of spike wave complexes during slow wave sleep. The location of epileptic foci is variable, as is etiology. A relationship between the epileptic focus and age has been shown in various focal epilepsies following a posterior-anterior trajectory, and a link to brain maturation has been proposed.We hypothesize that in CSWS, maximal spike wave activity, corresponding to the epileptic focus, is related to age and shows a posterior-anterior evolution. Findings In a retrospective cross-sectional study on CSWS (22 EEGs of 22 patients aged 3.1-13.5 years), the location of the epileptic focus is related to age and follows a posterior-anterior course. Younger patients are more likely to have posterior foci than older ones. Conclusions We propose that the posterior-anterior trajectory of maximal spike waves in CSWS might reflect maturational changes of maximal expression of sleep slow waves, which follow a comparable course. Epileptic spike waves, that is, "hyper-synchronized slow waves" may occur at the place where the highest and therefore most synchronized slow waves meet brain tissue with an increased susceptibility to synchronization.

  7. Proteolytic activation of the SARS-coronavirus spike protein: cutting enzymes at the cutting edge of antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Graham; Zmora, Pawel; Gierer, Stefanie; Heurich, Adeline; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic revealed that zoonotic transmission of animal coronaviruses (CoV) to humans poses a significant threat to public health and warrants surveillance and the development of countermeasures. The activity of host cell proteases, which cleave and activate the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, is essential for viral infectivity and constitutes a target for intervention. However, the identities of the proteases involved have been unclear. Pioneer studies identified cathepsins and type II transmembrane serine proteases as cellular activators of SARS-CoV and demonstrated that several emerging viruses might exploit these enzymes to promote their spread. Here, we will review the proteolytic systems hijacked by SARS-CoV for S protein activation, we will discuss their contribution to viral spread in the host and we will outline antiviral strategies targeting these enzymes. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.''

  8. [Age-related changes in activity of cerebellum Purkinje cells, shape of the complex spike, and locomotion of wistar rats under effect of ethanol].

    PubMed

    Karelina, T V

    2012-01-01

    The work deals with study of peculiarities of effect of ethanol upon the Purkinje cell activity, shape of the complex spike, and locomotion of rats at different stages of ontogenesis, such as the stage of the morphofunstional maturation of the cerebellar cortex, the mature stage, and in the process of aging. The experiments were carried out on three age groups of Wistar rats: rat pups (2 weeks), adult rats (3-6 months), and senile animals (22-26 months). The administration of ethanol has been established to produce an increase in frequency of simple spikes, a decrease in frequency of complex spikes, a shortening of duration of depression of simple spikes, a decrease in the total duration of the complex spike, the number and frequency of its impulses as well as reduction of the motor activity of animals of all age groups. The change of the majority of the studied parameters occurred by the common temporal scheme. The earliest responding were the rat pups, later--the adult rats, and the last--the animals of the senior group. The stronger effect of ethanol was observed in adult rats. Their differences of all studied parameters, as compared with rat pups and senile animals, were characterized on the whole by the longer period of time and by the higher percent of changes relative to the initial values. Analysis of the obtained results has shown that the most pronounced changes in parameters of the cerebellum Purkinje cell activity and of the complex spike shape corresponded to the more significant decrease in the locomotion level, i. e., were recorded in adult rats. Thus, the work has demonstrated different sensitivity to administration of ethanol in the Wistar rats at different stages of ontogenetic development.

  9. Parallel optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal spike activity using high-speed digital light processing.

    PubMed

    Jerome, Jason; Foehring, Robert C; Armstrong, William E; Spain, William J; Heck, Detlef H

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in the mammalian neocortex receive inputs from and communicate back to thousands of other neurons, creating complex spatiotemporal activity patterns. The experimental investigation of these parallel dynamic interactions has been limited due to the technical challenges of monitoring or manipulating neuronal activity at that level of complexity. Here we describe a new massively parallel photostimulation system that can be used to control action potential firing in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution while performing extracellular or intracellular electrophysiological measurements. The system uses digital light processing technology to generate 2-dimensional (2D) stimulus patterns with >780,000 independently controlled photostimulation sites that operate at high spatial (5.4 μm) and temporal (>13 kHz) resolution. Light is projected through the quartz-glass bottom of the perfusion chamber providing access to a large area (2.76 mm × 2.07 mm) of the slice preparation. This system has the unique capability to induce temporally precise action potential firing in large groups of neurons distributed over a wide area covering several cortical columns. Parallel photostimulation opens up new opportunities for the in vitro experimental investigation of spatiotemporal neuronal interactions at a broad range of anatomical scales.

  10. Parallel Optical Control of Spatiotemporal Neuronal Spike Activity Using High-Speed Digital Light Processing

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Jason; Foehring, Robert C.; Armstrong, William E.; Spain, William J.; Heck, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in the mammalian neocortex receive inputs from and communicate back to thousands of other neurons, creating complex spatiotemporal activity patterns. The experimental investigation of these parallel dynamic interactions has been limited due to the technical challenges of monitoring or manipulating neuronal activity at that level of complexity. Here we describe a new massively parallel photostimulation system that can be used to control action potential firing in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution while performing extracellular or intracellular electrophysiological measurements. The system uses digital light processing technology to generate 2-dimensional (2D) stimulus patterns with >780,000 independently controlled photostimulation sites that operate at high spatial (5.4 μm) and temporal (>13 kHz) resolution. Light is projected through the quartz–glass bottom of the perfusion chamber providing access to a large area (2.76 mm × 2.07 mm) of the slice preparation. This system has the unique capability to induce temporally precise action potential firing in large groups of neurons distributed over a wide area covering several cortical columns. Parallel photostimulation opens up new opportunities for the in vitro experimental investigation of spatiotemporal neuronal interactions at a broad range of anatomical scales. PMID:21904526

  11. Slow potentials and spike unit activity of the cerebral cortex of rabbits exposed to microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Chizhenkova, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Unanesthetized rabbits exposed to 12.5-cm microwaves at a field intensity of 40 mW/cm/sup 2/ in the region of the head showed an increase in the number of slow waves and spindle-shaped firings in the EEG and a change in the discharge frequency of neurons in the visual cortex in 41-52% of the cases. An enhancement of the evoked response of visual cortex neurons to light was observed in 61% of the cases and a facilitation of the driving response in 80% of all cases. It is concluded that the evoked response is a more sensitive indicator of the microwave effect than background activity. The effects of the fields were most distinctly observed with the driving response.

  12. Reliability of Spike Timing in Neocortical Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainen, Zachary F.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    1995-06-01

    It is not known whether the variability of neural activity in the cerebral cortex carries information or reflects noisy underlying mechanisms. In an examination of the reliability of spike generation using recordings from neurons in rat neocortical slices, the precision of spike timing was found to depend on stimulus transients. Constant stimuli led to imprecise spike trains, whereas stimuli with fluctuations resembling synaptic activity produced spike trains with timing reproducible to less than 1 millisecond. These data suggest a low intrinsic noise level in spike generation, which could allow cortical neurons to accurately transform synaptic input into spike sequences, supporting a possible role for spike timing in the processing of cortical information by the neocortex.

  13. Imprecise correlated activity in self-organizing maps of spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Veredas, Francisco J; Mesa, Héctor; Martínez, Luis A

    2008-08-01

    How neurons communicate with each other to form effective circuits providing support to functional features of the nervous system is currently under debate. While many experts argue the existence of sparse neural codes based either on oscillations, neural assemblies or synchronous fire chains, other studies defend the necessity of a precise inter-neural communication to arrange efficient neural codes. As it has been demonstrated in neurophysiological studies, in the visual pathway between the retina and the visual cortex of mammals, the correlated activity among neurons becomes less precise as a direct consequence of an increase in the variability of synaptic transmission latencies. Although it is difficult to measure the influence of this reduction of correlated firing precision on the self-organization of cortical maps, it does not preclude the emergence of receptive fields and orientation selectivity maps. This is in close agreement with authors who consider that codes for neural communication are sparse. In this article, integrate-and-fire neural networks are simulated to analyze how changes in the precision of correlated firing among neurons affect self-organization. We observe how by keeping these changes within biologically realistic ranges, orientation selectivity maps can emerge and the features of neuronal receptive fields are significantly affected.

  14. Bifurcation and Spike Adding Transition in Chay-Keizer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo; Liu, Shenquan; Liu, Xuanliang; Jiang, Xiaofang; Wang, Xiaohui

    Electrical bursting is an activity which is universal in excitable cells such as neurons and various endocrine cells, and it encodes rich physiological information. As burst delay identifies that the signal integration has reached the threshold at which it can generate an action potential, the number of spikes in a burst may have essential physiological implications, and the transition of bursting in excitable cells is associated with the bifurcation phenomenon closely. In this paper, we focus on the transition of the spike count per burst of the pancreatic β-cells within a mathematical model and bifurcation phenomenon in the Chay-Keizer model, which is utilized to simulate the pancreatic β-cells. By the fast-slow dynamical bifurcation analysis and the bi-parameter bifurcation analysis, the local dynamics of the Chay-Keizer system around the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is illustrated. Then the variety of the number of spikes per burst is discussed by changing the settings of a single parameter and bi-parameter. Moreover, results on the number of spikes within a burst are summarized in ISIs (interspike intervals) sequence diagrams, maximum and minimum, and the number of spikes under bi-parameter value changes.

  15. Fast Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current Required for Circadian Neural Activity

    PubMed Central

    JN, Itri; S, Michel; MJ, Vansteensel; JH, Meijer; CS, Colwell

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, the precise circadian timing of many biological processes depends on the generation of oscillations in neural activity of pacemaker cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The ionic mechanisms underlying these rhythms are largely unknown. Using the mouse brain slice preparation, we demonstrate that the magnitude of fast delayed rectifier potassium currents exhibits a diurnal rhythm that peaks during the day. Importantly, this rhythm continues in constant darkness, providing the first demonstration of the circadian regulation of an intrinsic voltage–gated current in mammalian cells. Blocking this current prevented the daily rhythm in firing rate in SCN neurons. Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 potassium channels were found to be widely distributed within the SCN with higher expression during the day. We conclude that the fast delayed rectifier is necessary for the circadian modulation of electrical activity in SCN neurons, and represents an important part of the ionic basis for the generation of rhythmic output. PMID:15852012

  16. The dynamic relationship between cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spikes and the spikelet number of complex spikes

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, Amelia; Wise, Andrew K.; Xiao, Jianqiang; Houghton, Conor; Tang, Tianyu; Suh, Colleen Y.; Lang, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Purkinje cells are the sole output of the cerebellar cortex and fire two distinct types of action potential: simple spikes and complex spikes.Previous studies have mainly considered complex spikes as unitary events, even though the waveform is composed of varying numbers of spikelets.The extent to which differences in spikelet number affect simple spike activity (and vice versa) remains unclear.We found that complex spikes with greater numbers of spikelets are preceded by higher simple spike firing rates but, following the complex spike, simple spikes are reduced in a manner that is graded with spikelet number.This dynamic interaction has important implications for cerebellar information processing, and suggests that complex spike spikelet number may maintain Purkinje cells within their operational range. Abstract Purkinje cells are central to cerebellar function because they form the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. They exhibit two distinct types of action potential: simple spikes and complex spikes. It is widely accepted that interaction between these two types of impulse is central to cerebellar cortical information processing. Previous investigations of the interactions between simple spikes and complex spikes have mainly considered complex spikes as unitary events. However, complex spikes are composed of an initial large spike followed by a number of secondary components, termed spikelets. The number of spikelets within individual complex spikes is highly variable and the extent to which differences in complex spike spikelet number affects simple spike activity (and vice versa) remains poorly understood. In anaesthetized adult rats, we have found that Purkinje cells recorded from the posterior lobe vermis and hemisphere have high simple spike firing frequencies that precede complex spikes with greater numbers of spikelets. This finding was also evident in a small sample of Purkinje cells recorded from the posterior lobe hemisphere in awake

  17. Phase shift in the 24-hour rhythm of hippocampal EEG spiking activity in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, David A.; Talathi, Sachin S.; Parekh, Mansi B.; Cordiner, Daniel J.; Zhou, Junli; Mareci, Thomas H.; Ditto, William L.

    2013-01-01

    For over a century epileptic seizures have been known to cluster at specific times of the day. Recent studies have suggested that the circadian regulatory system may become permanently altered in epilepsy, but little is known about how this affects neural activity and the daily pattern of seizures. To investigate, we tracked long-term changes in the rate of spontaneous hippocampal EEG spikes (SPKs) in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In healthy animals, SPKs oscillated with near 24-h period; however, after injury by status epilepticus, a persistent phase shift of ∼12 h emerged in animals that later went on to develop chronic spontaneous seizures. Additional measurements showed that global 24-h rhythms, including core body temperature and theta state transitions, did not phase shift. Instead, we hypothesized that locally impaired circadian input to the hippocampus might be responsible for the SPK phase shift. This was investigated with a biophysical computer model in which we showed that subtle changes in the relative strengths of circadian input could produce a phase shift in hippocampal neural activity. MRI provided evidence that the medial septum, a putative circadian relay center for the hippocampus, exhibits signs of damage and therefore could contribute to local circadian impairment. Our results suggest that balanced circadian input is critical to maintaining natural circadian phase in the hippocampus and that damage to circadian relay centers, such as the medial septum, may disrupt this balance. We conclude by discussing how abnormal circadian regulation may contribute to the daily rhythms of epileptic seizures and related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23678009

  18. A-current modifies the spike of C-type neurones in the rabbit nodose ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Ducreux, C; Puizillout, J J

    1995-01-01

    1. In the rabbit nodose ganglion, C-type fibre neurones (C neurones) can be divided into two subtypes according to their after-hyperpolarizing potential (AHP) i.e. those with a fast AHP only and those with a fast AHP and a subsequent slow AHP produced by a slow calcium-dependent potassium current. In addition we have shown that some C neurones can be divided into two groups according to the effect of membrane hyperpolarization on their spikes i.e. type 1 in which duration and amplitude do not change and type 2 in which duration and amplitude decrease significantly. 2. In the present report we studied the effect of A-current (IA) on spike duration, amplitude and slow AHP using intracellular recording techniques. 3. To detect the presence of IA, we first applied a series of increasing rectangular hyperpolarizing pulses to remove IA inactivation and then a short depolarizing pulse to trigger a spike. In type 1 C neurones the lag time of the spike in relation to hyperpolarization remains constant whereas in type 2 C neurones the spike only appears after IA inactivation and lag time in relation to hyperpolarization is lengthened. Thus, type 2 C neurones have an IA while type 1 C neurones do not. The fact that addition of cadmium did not change the lag time in type 2 C neurones shows that the IA is not calcium dependent. 4. Nodose neurones can be orthodromically activated by stimulation of the vagal peripheral process. In this way, after a hyperpolarizing pulse, IA can be fully activated by the orthodromic spike itself. Under these conditions it is possible to analyse the effects of IA on the spike. This was done by increasing either the hyperpolarizing potential, pulse duration, or the delay of the spike after the end of the pulse. We observed that maximum IA inactivation removal was always associated with the lowest duration and amplitude of the spike. 5. When IA inhibitors, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or catechol, were applied to type 2 C neurones, the delay of the spike

  19. A-current modifies the spike of C-type neurones in the rabbit nodose ganglion.

    PubMed

    Ducreux, C; Puizillout, J J

    1995-07-15

    1. In the rabbit nodose ganglion, C-type fibre neurones (C neurones) can be divided into two subtypes according to their after-hyperpolarizing potential (AHP) i.e. those with a fast AHP only and those with a fast AHP and a subsequent slow AHP produced by a slow calcium-dependent potassium current. In addition we have shown that some C neurones can be divided into two groups according to the effect of membrane hyperpolarization on their spikes i.e. type 1 in which duration and amplitude do not change and type 2 in which duration and amplitude decrease significantly. 2. In the present report we studied the effect of A-current (IA) on spike duration, amplitude and slow AHP using intracellular recording techniques. 3. To detect the presence of IA, we first applied a series of increasing rectangular hyperpolarizing pulses to remove IA inactivation and then a short depolarizing pulse to trigger a spike. In type 1 C neurones the lag time of the spike in relation to hyperpolarization remains constant whereas in type 2 C neurones the spike only appears after IA inactivation and lag time in relation to hyperpolarization is lengthened. Thus, type 2 C neurones have an IA while type 1 C neurones do not. The fact that addition of cadmium did not change the lag time in type 2 C neurones shows that the IA is not calcium dependent. 4. Nodose neurones can be orthodromically activated by stimulation of the vagal peripheral process. In this way, after a hyperpolarizing pulse, IA can be fully activated by the orthodromic spike itself. Under these conditions it is possible to analyse the effects of IA on the spike. This was done by increasing either the hyperpolarizing potential, pulse duration, or the delay of the spike after the end of the pulse. We observed that maximum IA inactivation removal was always associated with the lowest duration and amplitude of the spike. 5. When IA inhibitors, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or catechol, were applied to type 2 C neurones, the delay of the spike

  20. Activation of mGluR5 induces spike afterdepolarization and enhanced excitability in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens by modulating persistent Na+ currents

    PubMed Central

    D’Ascenzo, Marcello; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Fellin, Tommaso; Azzena, Gian Battista; Haydon, Philip; Grassi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors type 5 (mGluR5) in drug-induced behaviours is well-established but limited information is available on their functional roles in addiction-relevant brain areas like the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This study demonstrates that pharmacological and synaptic activation of mGluR5 increases the spike discharge of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc. This effect was associated with the appearance of a slow afterdepolarization (ADP) which, in voltage-clamp experiments, was recorded as a slowly inactivating inward current. Pharmacological studies showed that ADP was elicited by mGluR5 stimulation via G-protein-dependent activation of phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Both ADP and spike aftercurrents were significantly inhibited by the Na+ channel-blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the selective blockade of persistent Na+ currents (INaP), achieved by NAc slice pre-incubation with 20 nm TTX or 10 μm riluzole, significantly reduced the ADP amplitude, indicating that this type of Na+ current is responsible for the mGluR5-dependent ADP. mGluR5 activation also produced significant increases in INaP, and the pharmacological blockade of this current prevented the mGluR5-induced enhancement of spike discharge. Collectively, these data suggest that mGluR5 activation upregulates INaP in MSNs of the NAc, thereby inducing an ADP that results in enhanced MSN excitability. Activation of mGluR5 will significantly alter spike firing in MSNs in vivo, and this effect could be an important mechanism by which these receptors mediate certain aspects of drug-induced behaviours. PMID:19433572

  1. A Scalable Weight-Free Learning Algorithm for Regulatory Control of Cell Activity in Spiking Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Foderaro, Greg; Henriquez, Craig; Ferrari, Silvia

    2016-12-22

    Recent developments in neural stimulation and recording technologies are providing scientists with the ability of recording and controlling the activity of individual neurons in vitro or in vivo, with very high spatial and temporal resolution. Tools such as optogenetics, for example, are having a significant impact in the neuroscience field by delivering optical firing control with the precision and spatiotemporal resolution required for investigating information processing and plasticity in biological brains. While a number of training algorithms have been developed to date for spiking neural network (SNN) models of biological neuronal circuits, exiting methods rely on learning rules that adjust the synaptic strengths (or weights) directly, in order to obtain the desired network-level (or functional-level) performance. As such, they are not applicable to modifying plasticity in biological neuronal circuits, in which synaptic strengths only change as a result of pre- and post-synaptic neuron firings or biological mechanisms beyond our control. This paper presents a weight-free training algorithm that relies solely on adjusting the spatiotemporal delivery of neuron firings in order to optimize the network performance. The proposed weight-free algorithm does not require any knowledge of the SNN model or its plasticity mechanisms. As a result, this training approach is potentially realizable in vitro or in vivo via neural stimulation and recording technologies, such as optogenetics and multielectrode arrays, and could be utilized to control plasticity at multiple scales of biological neuronal circuits. The approach is demonstrated by training SNNs with hundreds of units to control a virtual insect navigating in an unknown environment.

  2. Point-process analysis of neural spiking activity of muscle spindles recorded from thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes.

    PubMed

    Citi, Luca; Djilas, Milan; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Yoshida, Ken; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Recordings from thin-film Longitudinal Intra-Fascicular Electrodes (tfLIFE) together with a wavelet-based de-noising and a correlation-based spike sorting algorithm, give access to firing patterns of muscle spindle afferents. In this study we use a point process probability structure to assess mechanical stimulus-response characteristics of muscle spindle spike trains. We assume that the stimulus intensity is primarily a linear combination of the spontaneous firing rate, the muscle extension, and the stretch velocity. By using the ability of the point process framework to provide an objective goodness of fit analysis, we were able to distinguish two classes of spike clusters with different statistical structure. We found that spike clusters with higher SNR have a temporal structure that can be fitted by an inverse Gaussian distribution while lower SNR clusters follow a Poisson-like distribution. The point process algorithm is further able to provide the instantaneous intensity function associated with the stimulus-response model with the best goodness of fit. This important result is a first step towards a point process decoding algorithm to estimate the muscle length and possibly provide closed loop Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) systems with natural sensory feedback information.

  3. Functional Signature of Recovering Cortex: Dissociation of Local Field Potentials and Spiking Activity in Somatosensory Cortices of Spinal Cord Injured Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H.; Roe, Anna W.; Chen, Li Min

    2013-01-01

    After disruption of dorsal column afferents at high cervical spinal levels in adult monkeys, somatosensory cortical neurons recover responsiveness to tactile stimulation of the hand; this reactivation correlates with a recovery of hand use. However, it is not known if all neuronal response properties recover, and whether different cortical areas recover in a similar manner. To address this, we recorded neuronal activity in cortical area 3b and S2 in adult squirrel monkeys weeks after unilateral lesion of the dorsal columns. We found that in response to vibrotactile stimulation, local field potentials remained robust at all frequency ranges. However, neuronal spiking activity failed to follow at high frequencies (≥15Hz). We suggest that the failure to generate spiking activity at high stimulus frequency reflects a changed balance of inhibition and excitation in both area 3b and S2, and that this mismatch in spiking and local field potential is a signature of an early phase of recovering cortex (< two months). PMID:24017995

  4. Active vision system integrating fast and slow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrillon-Santana, Modesto; Guerra-Artal, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, J.; Dominguez-Brito, A.; Isern-Gonzalez, J.; Cabrera-Gamez, Jorge; Hernandez-Tejera, F. M.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes an Active Vision System whose design assumes a distinction between fast or reactive and slow or background processes. Fast processes need to operate in cycles with critical timeouts that may affect system stability. While slow processes, though necessary, do not compromise system stability if its execution is delayed. Based on this simple taxonomy, a control architecture has been proposed and a prototype implemented that is able to track people in real-time with a robotic head while trying to identify the target. In this system, the tracking mobile is considered as the reactive part of the system while person identification is considered a background task. This demonstrator has been developed using a new generation DSP (TMS320C80) as a specialized coprocessor to deal with fast processes, and a commercial robotic head with a dedicated DSP-based motor controller. These subsystems are hosted by a standard Pentium-Pro PC running Windows NT where slow processes are executed. The flexibility achieved in the design phase and the preliminary results obtained so far seem to validate the approach followed to integrate time- critical and slow tasks on a heterogeneous hardware platform.

  5. Consequences and mechanisms of spike broadening of R20 cells in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Ma, M; Koester, J

    1995-10-01

    We studied frequency-dependent spike broadening in the two electrically coupled R20 neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia. The peptidergic R20 cells excite the R25/L25 interneurons (which trigger respiratory pumping) and inhibit the RB cells. When fired at 1-10 Hz, the duration of the falling phase of the action potential in R20 neurons increases 2-10 fold during a spike train. Spike broadening recorded from the somata of the R20 cells affected synaptic transmission to nearby follower cells. Chemically mediated synaptic output was reduced by approximately 50% when recorded trains of nonbroadened action potentials were used as command signals for a voltage-clamped R20 cell. Electrotonic EPSPs between the R20 cells, which normally facilitated by two- to fourfold during a high frequency spike train, showed no facilitation when spike broadening was prevented under voltage-clamp control. To examine the mechanism of frequency-dependent spike broadening, we applied two-electrode voltage-clamp and pharmacological techniques to the somata of R20 cells. Several voltage-gated ionic currents were isolated, including INa, a multicomponent ICa, and three K+ currents--a high threshold, fast transient A-type K+ current (IAdepol), a delayed rectifier K+ current (IK-V), and a Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ current (IK-Ca), made up of two components. The influences of different currents on spike broadening were determined by using the recorded train of gradually broadening action potentials as the command for the voltage clamp. We found the following. (1) IAdepol is the major outward current that contributes to repolarization of nonbroadened spikes. It undergoes pronounced cumulative inactivation that is a critical determinant of spike broadening. (2) Activity-dependent changes in IK-V, IK-Ca, and ICa have complex effects on the kinetics and extent of broadening. (3) The time integral of ICa during individual action potentials increases approximately threefold during spike broadening.

  6. The Second Spiking Threshold: Dynamics of Laminar Network Spiking in the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Lars E.; Bonde, Lars H.; Harvey, Michael A.; Roland, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    Most neurons have a threshold separating the silent non-spiking state and the state of producing temporal sequences of spikes. But neurons in vivo also have a second threshold, found recently in granular layer neurons of the primary visual cortex, separating spontaneous ongoing spiking from visually evoked spiking driven by sharp transients. Here we examine whether this second threshold exists outside the granular layer and examine details of transitions between spiking states in ferrets exposed to moving objects. We found the second threshold, separating spiking states evoked by stationary and moving visual stimuli from the spontaneous ongoing spiking state, in all layers and zones of areas 17 and 18 indicating that the second threshold is a property of the network. Spontaneous and evoked spiking, thus can easily be distinguished. In addition, the trajectories of spontaneous ongoing states were slow, frequently changing direction. In single trials, sharp as well as smooth and slow transients transform the trajectories to be outward directed, fast and crossing the threshold to become evoked. Although the speeds of the evolution of the evoked states differ, the same domain of the state space is explored indicating uniformity of the evoked states. All evoked states return to the spontaneous evoked spiking state as in a typical mono-stable dynamical system. In single trials, neither the original spiking rates, nor the temporal evolution in state space could distinguish simple visual scenes. PMID:27582693

  7. Intermittent fasting attenuates inflammasome activity in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fann, David Yang-Wei; Santro, Tomislav; Manzanero, Silvia; Widiapradja, Alexander; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Lee, Seung-Yoon; Chunduri, Prasad; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Stranahan, Alexis M; Mattson, Mark P; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2014-07-01

    Recent findings have revealed a novel inflammatory mechanism that contributes to tissue injury in cerebral ischemia mediated by multi-protein complexes termed inflammasomes. Intermittent fasting (IF) can decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the periphery and brain. Here we investigated the impact of IF (16h of food deprivation daily) for 4months on NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activities following cerebral ischemia. Ischemic stroke was induced in C57BL/6J mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (I/R). IF decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, the expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome proteins, and both IL-1β and IL-18 in the ischemic brain tissue. These findings demonstrate that IF can attenuate the inflammatory response and tissue damage following ischemic stroke by a mechanism involving suppression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activity.

  8. Multiscale analysis of neural spike trains.

    PubMed

    Ramezan, Reza; Marriott, Paul; Chenouri, Shojaeddin

    2014-01-30

    This paper studies the multiscale analysis of neural spike trains, through both graphical and Poisson process approaches. We introduce the interspike interval plot, which simultaneously visualizes characteristics of neural spiking activity at different time scales. Using an inhomogeneous Poisson process framework, we discuss multiscale estimates of the intensity functions of spike trains. We also introduce the windowing effect for two multiscale methods. Using quasi-likelihood, we develop bootstrap confidence intervals for the multiscale intensity function. We provide a cross-validation scheme, to choose the tuning parameters, and study its unbiasedness. Studying the relationship between the spike rate and the stimulus signal, we observe that adjusting for the first spike latency is important in cross-validation. We show, through examples, that the correlation between spike trains and spike count variability can be multiscale phenomena. Furthermore, we address the modeling of the periodicity of the spike trains caused by a stimulus signal or by brain rhythms. Within the multiscale framework, we introduce intensity functions for spike trains with multiplicative and additive periodic components. Analyzing a dataset from the retinogeniculate synapse, we compare the fit of these models with the Bayesian adaptive regression splines method and discuss the limitations of the methodology. Computational efficiency, which is usually a challenge in the analysis of spike trains, is one of the highlights of these new models. In an example, we show that the reconstruction quality of a complex intensity function demonstrates the ability of the multiscale methodology to crack the neural code.

  9. State-space analysis of time-varying higher-order spike correlation for multiple neural spike train data.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Brown, Emery N; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  10. Independent component analysis in spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Savin, Cristina; Joshi, Prashant; Triesch, Jochen

    2010-04-22

    Although models based on independent component analysis (ICA) have been successful in explaining various properties of sensory coding in the cortex, it remains unclear how networks of spiking neurons using realistic plasticity rules can realize such computation. Here, we propose a biologically plausible mechanism for ICA-like learning with spiking neurons. Our model combines spike-timing dependent plasticity and synaptic scaling with an intrinsic plasticity rule that regulates neuronal excitability to maximize information transmission. We show that a stochastically spiking neuron learns one independent component for inputs encoded either as rates or using spike-spike correlations. Furthermore, different independent components can be recovered, when the activity of different neurons is decorrelated by adaptive lateral inhibition.

  11. Spike Ca2+ influx upmodulates the spike afterdepolarization and bursting via intracellular inhibition of KV7/M channels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shmuel; Yaari, Yoel

    2008-01-01

    In principal brain neurons, activation of Ca2+ channels during an action potential, or spike, causes Ca2+ entry into the cytosol within a millisecond. This in turn causes rapid activation of large conductance Ca2+-gated channels, which enhances repolarization and abbreviates the spike. Here we describe another remarkable consequence of spike Ca2+ entry: enhancement of the spike afterdepolarization. This action is also mediated by intracellular modulation of a particular class of K+ channels, namely by inhibition of KV7 (KCNQ) channels. These channels generate the subthreshold, non-inactivating M-type K+ current, whose activation curtails the spike afterdepolarization. Inhibition of KV7/M by spike Ca2+ entry allows the spike afterdepolarization to grow and can convert solitary spikes into high-frequency bursts of action potentials. Through this novel intracellular modulatory action, Ca2+ spike entry regulates the discharge mode and the signalling capacity of principal brain neurons. PMID:18187471

  12. Slow Magnetosonic Waves and Fast Flows in Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (approx 100-300 km/s) quasiperiodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow.We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

  13. Sparse and powerful cortical spikes.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jason; Houweling, Arthur R; Brecht, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Activity in cortical networks is heterogeneous, sparse and often precisely timed. The functional significance of sparseness and precise spike timing is debated, but our understanding of the developmental and synaptic mechanisms that shape neuronal discharge patterns has improved. Evidence for highly specialized, selective and abstract cortical response properties is accumulating. Singe-cell stimulation experiments demonstrate a high sensitivity of cortical networks to the action potentials of some, but not all, single neurons. It is unclear how this sensitivity of cortical networks to small perturbations comes about and whether it is a generic property of cortex. The unforeseen sensitivity to cortical spikes puts serious constraints on the nature of neural coding schemes.

  14. Cellular mechanisms underlying spontaneous interictal spikes in an acute model of focal cortical epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Curtis, M; Radici, C; Forti, M

    1999-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms involved in the generation of spontaneous epileptiform potentials were investigated in the pirifom cortex of the in vitro isolated guinea-pig brain. A single, unilateral injection of bicuculline (150-200 nmol) in the anterior piriform cortex induced locally spontaneous interictal spikes that recurred with a period of 8.81+/-4.47 s and propagated caudally to the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres. Simultaneous extra- and intracellular recordings from layer II and III principal cells showed that the spontaneous interictal spike correlates to a burst of action potentials followed by a large afterdepolarization. Intracellular application of the sodium conductance blocker, QX-314 (80 mM), abolished bursting activity and unmasked a high-threshold slow spike enhanced by the calcium chelator EGTA (50 mM). The slow spike was abolished by membrane hyperpolarization and by local perfusion with 2 mM cadmium. The depolarizing potential that followed the primary burst was reduced by arterial perfusion with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (100-200 microM). The non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (20 microM), completely and reversibly blocked the spontaneous spikes. The interictal spikes were terminated by a large afterpotential blocked either by intracellular QX-314 (80 mM) or by extracellular application of phaclofen and 2-hydroxysaclofen (10 and 4 mM, respectively). The present study demonstrates that, in an acute model of epileptogenesis, spontaneous interictal spikes are fostered by a primary burst of fast action potentials that ride on a regenerative high-threshold, possibly calcium-mediated spike, which activates a recurrent, glutamate-mediated potential responsible for the entrainment of adjacent and remote cortical regions. The bursting activity is controlled by a GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic potential.

  15. [Comparative analysis of forms of statistical relationship between the background spike activity of cortical neurons and the EEG in different functional states of the brain].

    PubMed

    Karnup, S V

    1980-01-01

    The types and values of statistic dependence between extracellularly recorded background spike activity of cortical neurones and EEG oscillations were studied in chronic experiments on intact alert rabbits. It was shown that the relative number of neurones with discharges significantly connected with EEG slow components, remains practically the same in different functional states of the brain and amounts to about 80%. The mean level of the studied dependence changes following transitions from one state to another:it is lowered during the extinction of orienting reaction and continues to go down during the elaboration of the conditioned reflex.

  16. Serial Spike Time Correlations Affect Probability Distribution of Joint Spike Events

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mina; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Pipa, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyze the simultaneous spike trains for precise spike correlation, these methods typically model the spike trains as a Poisson process implying that the generation of each spike is independent of all the other spikes. However, studies have shown that neural spike trains exhibit dependence among spike sequences, such as the absolute and relative refractory periods which govern the spike probability of the oncoming action potential based on the time of the last spike, or the bursting behavior, which is characterized by short epochs of rapid action potentials, followed by longer episodes of silence. Here we investigate non-renewal processes with the inter-spike interval distribution model that incorporates spike-history dependence of individual neurons. For that, we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the full shape of the coincidence count distribution and to generate false positives for coincidence detection. The results show that compared to the distributions based on homogeneous Poisson processes, and also non-Poisson processes, the width of the distribution of joint spike events changes. Non-renewal processes can lead to both heavy tailed or narrow coincidence distribution. We conclude that small differences in the exact autostructure of the point process can cause large differences in the width of a coincidence distribution. Therefore, manipulations of the autostructure for the estimation of significance of joint spike events seem to be inadequate. PMID:28066225

  17. Serial Spike Time Correlations Affect Probability Distribution of Joint Spike Events.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Mina; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Pipa, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyze the simultaneous spike trains for precise spike correlation, these methods typically model the spike trains as a Poisson process implying that the generation of each spike is independent of all the other spikes. However, studies have shown that neural spike trains exhibit dependence among spike sequences, such as the absolute and relative refractory periods which govern the spike probability of the oncoming action potential based on the time of the last spike, or the bursting behavior, which is characterized by short epochs of rapid action potentials, followed by longer episodes of silence. Here we investigate non-renewal processes with the inter-spike interval distribution model that incorporates spike-history dependence of individual neurons. For that, we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the full shape of the coincidence count distribution and to generate false positives for coincidence detection. The results show that compared to the distributions based on homogeneous Poisson processes, and also non-Poisson processes, the width of the distribution of joint spike events changes. Non-renewal processes can lead to both heavy tailed or narrow coincidence distribution. We conclude that small differences in the exact autostructure of the point process can cause large differences in the width of a coincidence distribution. Therefore, manipulations of the autostructure for the estimation of significance of joint spike events seem to be inadequate.

  18. Dendritic spikes induce ripples in parvalbumin interneurons during hippocampal sharp waves.

    PubMed

    Chiovini, Balázs; Turi, Gergely F; Katona, Gergely; Kaszás, Attila; Pálfi, Dénes; Maák, Pál; Szalay, Gergely; Szabó, Mátyás Forián; Szabó, Gábor; Szadai, Zoltán; Káli, Szabolcs; Rózsa, Balázs

    2014-05-21

    Sharp-wave ripples are transient oscillatory events in the hippocampus that are associated with the reactivation of neuronal ensembles within specific circuits during memory formation. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (FS-PV INs) are thought to provide fast integration in these oscillatory circuits by suppressing regenerative activity in their dendrites. Here, using fast 3D two-photon imaging and a caged glutamate, we challenge this classical view by demonstrating that FS-PV IN dendrites can generate propagating Ca(2+) spikes during sharp-wave ripples. The spikes originate from dendritic hot spots and are mediated dominantly by L-type Ca(2+) channels. Notably, Ca(2+) spikes were associated with intrinsically generated membrane potential oscillations. These oscillations required the activation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels, had the same frequency as the field potential oscillations associated with sharp-wave ripples, and controlled the phase of action potentials. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the smallest functional unit that can generate ripple-frequency oscillations is a segment of a dendrite.

  19. Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves and NMDA spikes locally suppress voltage-dependent Ca2+ signalling in rat pyramidal cell dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Manita, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Kenichi; Ross, William N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Postsynaptic [Ca2+]i changes contribute to several kinds of plasticity in pyramidal neurons. We examined the effects of synaptically activated Ca2+ waves and NMDA spikes on subsequent Ca2+ signalling in CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites in hippocampal slices. Tetanic synaptic stimulation evoked a localized Ca2+ wave in the primary apical dendrites. The [Ca2+]i increase from a backpropagating action potential (bAP) or subthreshold depolarization was reduced if it was generated immediately after the wave. The suppression had a recovery time of 30–60 s. The suppression only occurred where the wave was generated and was not due to a change in bAP amplitude or shape. The suppression also could be generated by Ca2+ waves evoked by uncaging IP3, showing that other signalling pathways activated by the synaptic tetanus were not required. The suppression was proportional to the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i change of the Ca2+ wave and was not blocked by a spectrum of kinase or phosphatase inhibitors, consistent with suppression due to Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+ channels. The waves also reduced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous, localized Ca2+ release events in the dendrites by a different mechanism, probably by depleting the stores at the site of wave generation. The same synaptic tetanus often evoked NMDA spike-mediated [Ca2+]i increases in the oblique dendrites where Ca2+ waves do not propagate. These NMDA spikes suppressed the [Ca2+]i increase caused by bAPs in those regions. [Ca2+]i increases by Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels also suppressed the [Ca2+]i increases from subsequent bAPs in regions where the voltage-gated [Ca2+]i increases were largest, showing that all ways of raising [Ca2+]i could cause suppression. PMID:21844002

  20. Columnar specificity of microvascular oxygenation and blood flow response in primary visual cortex: evaluation by local field potential and spiking activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Roe, Anna W

    2012-01-01

    The relation of cortical microcirculation, oxygen metabolism, and underlying neuronal network activity remains poorly understood. Anatomical distribution of cortical microvasculature and its relationship to cortical functional domains suggests that functional organizations may be revealed by mapping cerebral blood flow responses. However, there is little direct experimental evidence and a lack of electrophysiological evaluation. In this study, we mapped ocular-dominance columns in primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized macaques with capillary flow-based laser speckle contrast imaging and deoxyhemoglobin-based intrinsic optical imaging. In parallel, the local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes were recorded from a linear array of eight microelectrodes, carefully positioned into left and right eye columns in V1. We found differential activation maps of blood flow, after masking large superficial draining vessels, exhibited a column-like pattern similar as the oximetric maps. Both the activated spikes and γ-band LFP demonstrated corresponding eye preference, consistent with the imaging maps. Our results present direct support in favor of previous proposals that the regulation of microcirculation can be as fine as the submillimeter scale, suggesting that cortical vasculature is functionally organized at the columnar level in a manner appropriate for supplying energy demands of functionally specific neuronal populations. PMID:22027939

  1. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  2. The role of BK-type Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in spike broadening during repetitive firing in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Li-Rong; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Borg-Graham, Lyle; Storm, Johan F

    1999-01-01

    The role of large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (BK-channels; also known as maxi-K- or slo-channels) in spike broadening during repetitive firing was studied in CA1 pyramidal cells, using sharp electrode intracellular recordings in rat hippocampal slices, and computer modelling. Trains of action potentials elicited by depolarizing current pulses showed a progressive, frequency-dependent spike broadening, reflecting a reduced rate of repolarization. During a 50 ms long 5 spike train, the spike duration increased by 63·6 ± 3·4% from the 1st to the 3rd spike. The amplitude of the fast after-hyperpolarization (fAHP) also rapidly declined during each train. Suppression of BK-channel activity with (a) the selective BK-channel blocker iberiotoxin (IbTX, 60 nM), (b) the non-peptidergic BK-channel blocker paxilline (2–10 μM), or (c) calcium-free medium, broadened the 1st spike to a similar degree (≈60%). BK-channel suppression also caused a similar change in spike waveform as observed during repetitive firing, and eliminated (occluded) most of the spike broadening during repetitive firing. Computer simulations using a reduced compartmental model with transient BK-channel current and 10 other active ionic currents, produced an activity-dependent spike broadening that was strongly reduced when the BK-channel inactivation mechanism was removed. These results, which are supported by recent voltage-clamp data, strongly suggest that in CA1 pyramidal cells, fast inactivation of a transient BK-channel current (ICT), substantially contributes to frequency-dependent spike broadening during repetitive firing. PMID:10562340

  3. Neural response dynamics of spiking and local field potential activity depend on CRT monitor refresh rate in the tree shrew primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Veit, Julia; Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor

    2011-11-01

    Entrainment of neural activity to luminance impulses during the refresh of cathode ray tube monitor displays has been observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) of humans and macaque monkeys. This entrainment is of interest because it tends to temporally align and thus synchronize neural responses at the millisecond timescale. Here we show that, in tree shrew V1, both spiking and local field potential activity are also entrained at cathode ray tube refresh rates of 120, 90, and 60 Hz, with weakest but still significant entrainment even at 120 Hz, and strongest entrainment occurring in cortical input layer IV. For both luminance increments ("white" stimuli) and decrements ("black" stimuli), refresh rate had a strong impact on the temporal dynamics of the neural response for subsequent luminance impulses. Whereas there was rapid, strong attenuation of spikes and local field potential to prolonged visual stimuli composed of luminance impulses presented at 120 Hz, attenuation was nearly absent at 60-Hz refresh rate. In addition, neural onset latencies were shortest at 120 Hz and substantially increased, by ∼15 ms, at 60 Hz. In terms of neural response amplitude, black responses dominated white responses at all three refresh rates. However, black/white differences were much larger at 60 Hz than at higher refresh rates, suggesting a mechanism that is sensitive to stimulus timing. Taken together, our findings reveal many similarities between V1 of macaque and tree shrew, while underscoring a greater temporal sensitivity of the tree shrew visual system.

  4. Critical Slowing Down Governs the Transition to Neuron Spiking

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Christian; Klaus, Andreas; Kuehn, Christian; Plenz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Many complex systems have been found to exhibit critical transitions, or so-called tipping points, which are sudden changes to a qualitatively different system state. These changes can profoundly impact the functioning of a system ranging from controlled state switching to a catastrophic break-down; signals that predict critical transitions are therefore highly desirable. To this end, research efforts have focused on utilizing qualitative changes in markers related to a system’s tendency to recover more slowly from a perturbation the closer it gets to the transition—a phenomenon called critical slowing down. The recently studied scaling of critical slowing down offers a refined path to understand critical transitions: to identify the transition mechanism and improve transition prediction using scaling laws. Here, we outline and apply this strategy for the first time in a real-world system by studying the transition to spiking in neurons of the mammalian cortex. The dynamical system approach has identified two robust mechanisms for the transition from subthreshold activity to spiking, saddle-node and Hopf bifurcation. Although theory provides precise predictions on signatures of critical slowing down near the bifurcation to spiking, quantitative experimental evidence has been lacking. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal neurons and fast-spiking interneurons, we show that 1) the transition to spiking dynamically corresponds to a critical transition exhibiting slowing down, 2) the scaling laws suggest a saddle-node bifurcation governing slowing down, and 3) these precise scaling laws can be used to predict the bifurcation point from a limited window of observation. To our knowledge this is the first report of scaling laws of critical slowing down in an experiment. They present a missing link for a broad class of neuroscience modeling and suggest improved estimation of tipping points by incorporating scaling laws of critical slowing down as a

  5. Propagating Neural Source Revealed by Doppler Shift of Population Spiking Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Chiang, Chia-Chu; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical activity in the brain during normal and abnormal function is associated with propagating waves of various speeds and directions. It is unclear how both fast and slow traveling waves with sometime opposite directions can coexist in the same neural tissue. By recording population spikes simultaneously throughout the unfolded rodent hippocampus with a penetrating microelectrode array, we have shown that fast and slow waves are causally related, so a slowly moving neural source generates fast-propagating waves at ∼0.12 m/s. The source of the fast population spikes is limited in space and moving at ∼0.016 m/s based on both direct and Doppler measurements among 36 different spiking trains among eight different hippocampi. The fact that the source is itself moving can account for the surprising direction reversal of the wave. Therefore, these results indicate that a small neural focus can move and that this phenomenon could explain the apparent wave reflection at tissue edges or multiple foci observed at different locations in neural tissue. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The use of novel techniques with an unfolded hippocampus and penetrating microelectrode array to record and analyze neural activity has revealed the existence of a source of neural signals that propagates throughout the hippocampus. The source itself is electrically silent, but its location can be inferred by building isochrone maps of population spikes that the source generates. The movement of the source can also be tracked by observing the Doppler frequency shift of these spikes. These results have general implications for how neural signals are generated and propagated in the hippocampus; moreover, they have important implications for the understanding of seizure generation and foci localization. PMID:27013678

  6. Fast Virtual Stenting with Active Contour Models in Intracranical Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jingru; Long, Yunling; Yan, Huagang; Meng, Qianqian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial stents are becoming increasingly a useful option in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Image simulation of the releasing stent configuration together with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation prior to intervention will help surgeons optimize intervention scheme. This paper proposed a fast virtual stenting of IAs based on active contour model (ACM) which was able to virtually release stents within any patient-specific shaped vessel and aneurysm models built on real medical image data. In this method, an initial stent mesh was generated along the centerline of the parent artery without the need for registration between the stent contour and the vessel. Additionally, the diameter of the initial stent volumetric mesh was set to the maximum inscribed sphere diameter of the parent artery to improve the stenting accuracy and save computational cost. At last, a novel criterion for terminating virtual stent expanding that was based on the collision detection of the axis aligned bounding boxes was applied, making the stent expansion free of edge effect. The experiment results of the virtual stenting and the corresponding CFD simulations exhibited the efficacy and accuracy of the ACM based method, which are valuable to intervention scheme selection and therapy plan confirmation. PMID:26876026

  7. Self-sustained non-periodic activity in networks of spiking neurons: the contribution of local and long-range connections and dynamic synapses.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Peter; Wiles, Janet

    2010-09-01

    Cortical dynamics show self-sustained activity which is complex and non-periodic. Assemblies of neurons show transient coupling exhibiting both integration and segregation without entering a seizure state. Models to date have demonstrated these properties but have required external input to maintain activity. Here we propose a spiking network model that incorporates a novel combination of both local and long-range connectivity and dynamic synapses (which we call the LLDS network) and we present explorations of the network's micro and macro behaviour. At the micro level, the LLDS network exhibits self-sustained activity which is complex and non-periodic and shows transient coupling between assemblies in different network regions. At the macro level, the power spectrum of the derived EEG, calculated from the summed membrane potentials, shows a power-law-like distribution similar to that recorded from human EEG. We systematically explored parameter combinations to map the variety of behavioural regimes and found that network connectivity and synaptic mechanisms significantly impact the dynamics. The complex sustained behaviour occupies a transition region in parameter space between two types of non-complex activity state, a synchronised high firing rate regime, resembling seizure, for low connectivity, and repetitive activation of a single network assembly for high connectivity. Networks without synaptic dynamics show only transient complex behaviour. We conclude that local and long-range connectivity and short-term synaptic dynamics are together sufficient to support complex persistent activity. The ability to craft such persistent dynamics in a spiking network model creates new opportunities to study neural processing, learning, injury and disease in nervous systems.

  8. Unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway decreases the response of fast-spiking interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex to 5-HT1A receptor agonist and expression of the receptor in parvalbumin-positive neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gui, Z H; Zhang, Q J; Liu, J; Zhang, L; Ali, U; Hou, C; Fan, L L; Sun, Y N; Wu, Z H; Hui, Y P

    2011-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptors are expressed in the prefrontal cortical interneurons. Among these interneurons, calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV)-positive fast spiking (FS) interneurons play an important role in regulatory function of the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, the response of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) FS interneurons to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and change in expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor on PV-positive neurons were examined in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) by using extracellular recording and double-labeling immunofluorescence histochemistry. Systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT (1-243 μg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently inhibited the mean firing rate of the FS interneurons in sham-operated and the lesioned rats, respectively. The cumulative doses producing inhibition in the lesioned rats (243 μg/kg) was significantly higher than that of sham-operated rats (27 μg/kg). Furthermore, the local application of 8-OH-DPAT (0.01 μg) in the mPFC inhibited the FS interneurons in sham-operated rats, while having no effect on firing rate of the FS interneurons in the lesioned rats. In contrast to sham-operated rats, the lesion of the SNc in rats did not cause the change of PV-positive neurons in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, a subregion of the mPFC, whereas the lesion of the SNc markedly reduced in percentage of PV-positive neurons expressing 5-HT(1A) receptors. Our results indicate that degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway results in the decreased response of FS interneurons in the mPFC to 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, which attributes to down-regulation of 5-HT(1A) receptor expression in these interneurons.

  9. Learning Universal Computations with Spikes

    PubMed Central

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Uhlmann, Marvin; Kappen, Hilbert J.; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Providing the neurobiological basis of information processing in higher animals, spiking neural networks must be able to learn a variety of complicated computations, including the generation of appropriate, possibly delayed reactions to inputs and the self-sustained generation of complex activity patterns, e.g. for locomotion. Many such computations require previous building of intrinsic world models. Here we show how spiking neural networks may solve these different tasks. Firstly, we derive constraints under which classes of spiking neural networks lend themselves to substrates of powerful general purpose computing. The networks contain dendritic or synaptic nonlinearities and have a constrained connectivity. We then combine such networks with learning rules for outputs or recurrent connections. We show that this allows to learn even difficult benchmark tasks such as the self-sustained generation of desired low-dimensional chaotic dynamics or memory-dependent computations. Furthermore, we show how spiking networks can build models of external world systems and use the acquired knowledge to control them. PMID:27309381

  10. Statistical properties of superimposed stationary spike trains.

    PubMed

    Deger, Moritz; Helias, Moritz; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The Poisson process is an often employed model for the activity of neuronal populations. It is known, though, that superpositions of realistic, non- Poisson spike trains are not in general Poisson processes, not even for large numbers of superimposed processes. Here we construct superimposed spike trains from intracellular in vivo recordings from rat neocortex neurons and compare their statistics to specific point process models. The constructed superimposed spike trains reveal strong deviations from the Poisson model. We find that superpositions of model spike trains that take the effective refractoriness of the neurons into account yield a much better description. A minimal model of this kind is the Poisson process with dead-time (PPD). For this process, and for superpositions thereof, we obtain analytical expressions for some second-order statistical quantities-like the count variability, inter-spike interval (ISI) variability and ISI correlations-and demonstrate the match with the in vivo data. We conclude that effective refractoriness is the key property that shapes the statistical properties of the superposition spike trains. We present new, efficient algorithms to generate superpositions of PPDs and of gamma processes that can be used to provide more realistic background input in simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Using these generators, we show in simulations that neurons which receive superimposed spike trains as input are highly sensitive for the statistical effects induced by neuronal refractoriness.

  11. Noise-induced interspike interval correlations and spike train regularization in spike-triggered adapting neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    Spike generation in neurons produces a temporal point process, whose statistics is governed by intrinsic phenomena and the external incoming inputs to be coded. In particular, spike-evoked adaptation currents support a slow temporal process that conditions spiking probability at the present time according to past activity. In this work, we study the statistics of interspike interval correlations arising in such non-renewal spike trains, for a neuron model that reproduces different spike modes in a small adaptation scenario. We found that correlations are stronger as the neuron fires at a particular firing rate, which is defined by the adaptation process. When set in a subthreshold regime, the neuron may sustain this particular firing rate, and thus induce correlations, by noise. Given that, in this regime, interspike intervals are negatively correlated at any lag, this effect surprisingly implies a reduction in the variability of the spike count statistics at a finite noise intensity.

  12. Fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force of mouse fast skeletal muscle and ameliorates weakness due to nebulin-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; De Winter, Josine M; Buck, Danielle; Jasper, Jeffrey R; Malik, Fady I; Labeit, Siegfried; Ottenheijm, Coen A; Granzier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT) and nebulin deficient (NEB KO) mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse) or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM) patients with NEB mutations) causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension-pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ∼60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold) at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ∼6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM), CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring k(tr) (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch). CK-2066260 greatly increased k(tr) at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm) and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength.

  13. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract administration on intestinal α-glucosidases activities and spikes in postprandial blood glucose levels in SD rats model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Young-In; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L.) extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS) was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC(last)) in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg) was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL). The AUC(last) in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg) was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL). Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053) on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model. Compared

  14. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Holmes, Caroline M; Vellema, Michiel; Pack, Andrea R; Elemans, Coen P H; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel J

    2017-01-31

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function. By examining the activity of individual motor units (the muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron) and manipulating patterns of activation of these neurons, we provide both correlative and causal evidence that the nervous system uses millisecond-scale variations in the timing of spikes within multispike patterns to control a vertebrate behavior-namely, respiration in the Bengalese finch, a songbird. These findings suggest that a fundamental assumption of current theories of motor coding requires revision.

  15. Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Graham; Bertram, Stephanie; Glowacka, Ilona; Steffen, Imke; Chaipan, Chawaree; Agudelo, Juliet; Lu Kai; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Hofmann, Heike; Bates, Paul; Poehlmann, Stefan

    2011-05-10

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a considerable threat to human health. Activation of the viral spike (S)-protein by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity. However, the cleavage sites in SARS-S and the protease(s) activating SARS-S are incompletely defined. We found that R667 was dispensable for SARS-S-driven virus-cell fusion and for SARS-S-activation by trypsin and cathepsin L in a virus-virus fusion assay. Mutation T760R, which optimizes the minimal furin consensus motif 758-RXXR-762, and furin overexpression augmented SARS-S activity, but did not result in detectable SARS-S cleavage. Finally, SARS-S-driven cell-cell fusion was independent of cathepsin L, a protease essential for virus-cell fusion. Instead, a so far unknown leupeptin-sensitive host cell protease activated cellular SARS-S for fusion with target cells expressing high levels of ACE2. Thus, different host cell proteases activate SARS-S for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and SARS-S cleavage at R667 and 758-RXXR-762 can be dispensable for SARS-S activation.

  16. Spike after-depolarization and burst generation in adult rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M S; Azouz, R; Yaari, Y

    1996-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings in adult rat hippocampal slices were used to investigate the properties and origins of intrinsically generated bursts in the somata of CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). The CA1 PCs were classified as either non-bursters or bursters according to the firing patterns evoked by intrasomatically applied long ( > or = 100 ms) depolarizing current pulses. Non-bursters generated stimulus-graded trains of independent action potentials, whereas bursters generated clusters of three or more closely spaced spikes riding on a distinct depolarizing envelope. 2. In all PCs fast spike repolarization was incomplete and ended at a potential approximately 10 mV more positive than resting potential. Solitary spikes were followed by a distinct after-depolarizing potential (ADP) lasting 20-40 ms. The ADP in most non-bursters declined monotonically to baseline ('passive' ADP), whereas in most bursters it remained steady or even re-depolarized before declining to baseline ('active' ADP). 3. Active, but not passive, ADPs were associated with an apparent increase in input conductance. They were maximal in amplitude when the spike was evoked from resting potential and were reduced by mild depolarization or hyperpolarization (+/- 2 mV). 4. Evoked and spontaneous burst firing was sensitive to small changes in membrane potential. In most cases maximal bursts were generated at resting potential and were curtailed by small depolarizations or hyperpolarizations (+/- 5 mV). 5. Bursts comprising clusters of spikelets ('d-spikes') were observed in 12% of the bursters. Some of the d-spikes attained threshold for triggering full somatic spikes. Gradually hyperpolarizing these neurones blocked somatic spikes before blocking d-spikes, suggesting that the latter are generated at more remote sites. 6. The data suggest that active ADPs and intrinsic bursts in the somata of adult CA1 PCs are generated by a slow, voltage-gated inward current. Bursts arise in neurones in which this current

  17. Spike Timing Rigidity Is Maintained in Bursting Neurons under Pentobarbital-Induced Anesthetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Risako; Yamanaka, Masanori; Yokota, Eiko; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT), which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale. Neurons with high spontaneous firing frequency (>5 Hz) and bursting were classified as HFB neurons (n = 10), and those with low spontaneous firing frequency (<10 Hz) and without bursting were classified as non-HFB neurons (n = 48). Pentobarbital injection (30 mg/kg) reduced firing frequency in all HFB neurons and in 78% of non-HFB neurons. RMT analysis demonstrated that pentobarbital increased in the number of neurons with repulsion in both HFB and non-HFB neurons, suggesting that there is a correlation between spikes within a short interspike interval (ISI). Under awake conditions, in 50% of HFB and 40% of non-HFB neurons, the decay phase of normalized histograms of spontaneous firing were fitted to an exponential function, which indicated that the first spike had no correlation with subsequent spikes. In contrast, under pentobarbital-induced anesthesia conditions, the number of non-HFB neurons that were fitted to an exponential function increased to 80%, but almost no change in HFB neurons was observed. These results suggest that under both awake and pentobarbital-induced anesthetized conditions, spike firing in HFB neurons is more robustly regulated by preceding spikes than by non-HFB neurons, which may reflect the GABAA receptor-mediated regulation of cortical activities. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording in

  18. Fasting activated histaminergic neurons and enhanced arousal effect of caffeine in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Li, Rui; Wu, Xu; Zhu, Fen; Takata, Yohko; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Li, Shan-Qun; Qu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Caffeine, a popular psychoactive compound, promotes wakefulness via blocking adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, which projects to the arousal histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The TMN controls several behaviors such as wakefulness and feeding. Fasting has been reported to activate the TMN histaminergic neurons to increase arousal. Therefore, we propose that caffeine may promote greater arousal under fasting rather than normal feeding conditions. In the current study, locomotor activity recording, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram recording and c-Fos expression were used in wild type (WT) and histamine H1 receptor (H1R) knockout (KO) mice to investigate the arousal effects of caffeine under fasting conditions. Caffeine (15mg/kg) enhanced locomotor activity in fasted mice for 5h, but only did so for 3h in normally fed animals. Pretreatment with the H1R antagonist pyrilamine abolished caffeine-induced stimulation on locomotor activity in fasted mice. EEG recordings confirmed that caffeine-induced wakefulness for 3h in fed WT mice, and for 5h in fasted ones. A stimulatory effect of caffeine was not observed in fasted H1R KO mice. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was increased in the TMN under fasting conditions. These results indicate that caffeine had greater wakefulness-promoting effects in fasted mice through the mediation of H1R.

  19. Regulation of spike timing in visual cortical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Tiesinga, Paul; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    A train of action potentials (a spike train) can carry information in both the average firing rate and the pattern of spikes in the train. But can such a spike-pattern code be supported by cortical circuits? Neurons in vitro produce a spike pattern in response to the injection of a fluctuating current. However, cortical neurons in vivo are modulated by local oscillatory neuronal activity and by top-down inputs. In a cortical circuit, precise spike patterns thus reflect the interaction between internally generated activity and sensory information encoded by input spike trains. We review the evidence for precise and reliable spike timing in the cortex and discuss its computational role. PMID:18200026

  20. Contribution of LFP dynamics to single-neuron spiking variability in motor cortex during movement execution

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Michael E.; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Donoghue, John P.; Truccolo, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variability in single-neuron spiking responses is an important open problem for the theory of neural coding. This variability is thought to result primarily from spontaneous collective dynamics in neuronal networks. Here, we investigate how well collective dynamics reflected in motor cortex local field potentials (LFPs) can account for spiking variability during motor behavior. Neural activity was recorded via microelectrode arrays implanted in ventral and dorsal premotor and primary motor cortices of non-human primates performing naturalistic 3-D reaching and grasping actions. Point process models were used to quantify how well LFP features accounted for spiking variability not explained by the measured 3-D reach and grasp kinematics. LFP features included the instantaneous magnitude, phase and analytic-signal components of narrow band-pass filtered (δ,θ,α,β) LFPs, and analytic signal and amplitude envelope features in higher-frequency bands. Multiband LFP features predicted single-neuron spiking (1ms resolution) with substantial accuracy as assessed via ROC analysis. Notably, however, models including both LFP and kinematics features displayed marginal improvement over kinematics-only models. Furthermore, the small predictive information added by LFP features to kinematic models was redundant to information available in fast-timescale (<100 ms) spiking history. Overall, information in multiband LFP features, although predictive of single-neuron spiking during movement execution, was redundant to information available in movement parameters and spiking history. Our findings suggest that, during movement execution, collective dynamics reflected in motor cortex LFPs primarily relate to sensorimotor processes directly controlling movement output, adding little explanatory power to variability not accounted by movement parameters. PMID:26157365

  1. Directional spike propagation in a recurrent network: dynamical firewall as anisotropic recurrent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Samura, Toshikazu; Hayashi, Hatsuo

    2012-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that theta rhythm propagates along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampal CA1 of the rat running on a track, and it has been suggested that directional spike propagation in the hippocampal CA3 is reflected in CA1. In this paper, we show that directional spike propagation occurs in a recurrent network model in which neurons are connected locally and connection weights are modified through STDP. The recurrent network model consists of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which are intrinsic bursting and fast spiking neurons developed by Izhikevich, respectively. The maximum length of connections from excitatory neurons is shorter in the horizontal direction than the vertical direction. Connections from inhibitory neurons have the same maximum length in both directions, and the maximum length of inhibitory connections is the same as that of excitatory connections in the vertical direction. When connection weights between excitatory neurons (E→E) were modified through STDP and those from excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons (E→I) were constant, spikes propagated in the vertical direction as expected from the network structure. However, when E→I connection weights were modified through STDP, as well as E→E connection weights, spikes propagated in the horizontal direction against the above expectation. This paradoxical propagation was produced by strengthened E→I connections which shifted the timing of inhibition forward. When E→I connections are enhanced, the direction of effective inhibition changes from horizontal to vertical, as if a gate for spike propagation is opened in the horizontal direction and firewalls come out in the vertical direction. These results suggest that the advance of timing of inhibition caused by potentiation of E→I connections is influential in network activity and is an important element in determining the direction of spike propagation.

  2. Macroscopic Description for Networks of Spiking Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montbrió, Ernest; Pazó, Diego; Roxin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of neuroscience, statistical physics, and nonlinear dynamics is to understand how brain function arises from the collective dynamics of networks of spiking neurons. This challenge has been chiefly addressed through large-scale numerical simulations. Alternatively, researchers have formulated mean-field theories to gain insight into macroscopic states of large neuronal networks in terms of the collective firing activity of the neurons, or the firing rate. However, these theories have not succeeded in establishing an exact correspondence between the firing rate of the network and the underlying microscopic state of the spiking neurons. This has largely constrained the range of applicability of such macroscopic descriptions, particularly when trying to describe neuronal synchronization. Here, we provide the derivation of a set of exact macroscopic equations for a network of spiking neurons. Our results reveal that the spike generation mechanism of individual neurons introduces an effective coupling between two biophysically relevant macroscopic quantities, the firing rate and the mean membrane potential, which together govern the evolution of the neuronal network. The resulting equations exactly describe all possible macroscopic dynamical states of the network, including states of synchronous spiking activity. Finally, we show that the firing-rate description is related, via a conformal map, to a low-dimensional description in terms of the Kuramoto order parameter, called Ott-Antonsen theory. We anticipate that our results will be an important tool in investigating how large networks of spiking neurons self-organize in time to process and encode information in the brain.

  3. Glucocorticoids activate the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle during fasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, S. S.; Goldberg, A. L.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for the increase in protein breakdown in skeletal muscle normally seen during fasting. To determine which proteolytic pathway(s) are activated upon fasting, leg muscles from fed and fasted normal rats were incubated under conditions that block or activate different proteolytic systems. After food deprivation (1 day), the nonlysosomal ATP-dependent process increased by 250%, as shown in experiments involving depletion of muscle ATP. Also, the maximal capacity of the lysosomal process increased 60-100%, but no changes occurred in the Ca(2+)-dependent or the residual energy-independent proteolytic processes. In muscles from fasted normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, the protein breakdown sensitive to inhibitors of the lysosomal or Ca(2+)-dependent pathways did not differ. However, the ATP-dependent process was 30% slower in muscles from fasted ADX rats. Administering dexamethasone to these animals or incubating their muscles with dexamethasone reversed this defect. During fasting, when the ATP-dependent process rises, muscles show a two- to threefold increase in levels of ubiquitin (Ub) mRNA. However, muscles of ADX animals failed to show this response. Injecting dexamethasone into the fasted ADX animals increased muscle Ub mRNA within 6 h. Thus glucocorticoids activate the ATP-Ub-dependent proteolytic pathway in fasting apparently by enhancing the expression of components of this system such as Ub.

  4. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in fasting-mediated oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Hardwick, James P.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) regulates lipid homeostasis, particularly in the liver. This study was aimed at elucidating the relationship between hepatosteatosis and oxidative stress during fasting. Fasted Ppara-null mice exhibited marked hepatosteatosis, which was associated with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide synthase activity, and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Total glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial GSH, and the activities of major anti-oxidant enzymes were also lower in the fasted Ppara-null mice. Consequently, the number and extent of nitrated proteins were markedly increased in the fasted Ppara-null mice, although high levels of protein nitration were still detected in the fed Ppara-null mice while many oxidatively-modified proteins were only found in the fasted Ppara-null mice. However, the role of inflammation in increased oxidative stress in the fasted Ppara-null mice was minimal based on the similar levels of tumor necrosis factor-α change in all groups. These results with increased oxidative stress observed in the fasted Ppara-null mice compared with other groups demonstrate a role for PPARα in fasting-mediated oxidative stress and that inhibition of PPARα functions may increase the susceptibility to oxidative damage in the presence of another toxic agent. PMID:19539749

  5. State-Space Analysis of Time-Varying Higher-Order Spike Correlation for Multiple Neural Spike Train Data

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-ichi; Brown, Emery N.; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  6. Millisecond solar radio spikes observed at 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, B. P.; Kus, A. J.

    We present results from observations of narrowband solar millisecond radio spikes at 1420 MHz. Observing data were collected between February 2000 and December 2001 with the 15-m radio telescope at the Centre for Astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland, equipped with a radio spectrograph that covered the 1352-1490 MHz frequency band. The radio spectrograph has 3 MHz frequency resolution and 80 microsecond time resolution. We analyzed the individual radio spike duration, bandwidth and rate of frequency drift. A part of the observed spikes showed well-outlined subtle structures. On dynamic radio spectrograms of the investigated events we notice complex structures formed by numerous individual spikes known as chains of spikes and distinctly different structure of columns. Positions of active regions connected with radio spikes emission were investigated. It turns out that most of them are located near the center of the solar disk, suggesting strong beaming of the spikes emission.

  7. Spike timing control in retinal prosthetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werblin, Frank

    2005-03-01

    To restore meaningful vision to blind patients requires a retinal prosthetic device that can generate precise spiking patterns in retinal ganglion cells. We sought to develop a stimulus protocol that could reliably elicit one ganglion cell spike for every stimulation pulse over a broad frequency range. Small tipped platinum-iridium epiretinal electrodes were used to deliver biphasic cathodal electrical stimulus pulses at frequencies ranging from 10 to 125 Hz. We measured spiking responses with on-cell patch clamp from ganglion cells in the flat mount rabbit retina, identified by light response and morphology. Single electrical 30 pA cathodal pulses of 1 msec duration elicited both by direct electrical activation of ganglion cells and synaptic excitation and inhibition. Direct activation elicited a single spike that followed the onset of the cathodic pulse by about 100 μsec; presynaptic activation typically elicited multiple spikes which began after 10 msec and could persist for more than 50 ms depending on pulse amplitude levels. Limiting the pulse duration to 100 μsec eliminated all presynaptic activity: only ganglion cells were driven. Each pulse elicited a single pike for stimulation frequencies tested from 10 to125 Hz. Our ability to elicit one spike per pulse provides many important advantages: This protocol can be used to generate temporal patterns of activity in ganglion cells with precision. We can now mimic normal light evoked responses for either transient or sustained cells, and we can modulate spike frequency to simulate changes in intensity, contrast, motion and other essential cues in the visual environment.

  8. 77 FR 1697 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Fast Track Generic Clearance for the Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Fast Track Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery: IHS Web Site...

  9. Thyroid function in fasting rats: variations in 131I uptake and transient decrease in peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Moura, E G; Ramos, C F; Nascimento, C C; Rosenthal, D; Breitenbach, M M

    1987-01-01

    Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, radioiodide thyroid uptake and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity were studied over a 2 to 5 day period in fasting rats treated (F+) or not (F-) with TSH. In F- rats, TPO activity was transiently decreased on the 3rd day, whereas in F+ it was always higher than in controls. On the 5th day, the 2 h thyroid uptake of 131I decreased in F-, while the 24 h uptake increased in both F- and F+. Serum T3 and T4 decreased in both fasting groups. Thus, not all effects of fasting on rat thyroid function are reverted by TSH administration, suggesting intrinsic impairment of glandular function.

  10. Reduction of adrenergic neurotransmission with clonidine aggravates spike-wave seizures and alters activity in the cortex and the thalamus in WAG/Rij rats.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Evgenia; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2005-01-30

    The alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine in low dose inhibits the release of noradrenaline and aggravates absence seizures. The present study examines properties of two types of spike-wave discharges (SWD) in a genetic model of absence epilepsy, the WAG/Rij rats. After reduction of noradrenergic neurotransmission with clonidine (0.00625 mg/kg, i.p.), the electrical activity was recorded in the neocortex, the ventroposteromedial nucleus (VPM) and the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN). Clonidine temporally reduced percentage of wakefulness but did not affect sleep. Clonidine decreased the spectral power of sleep EEG (mostly in the delta band), this effect was found in the cortex and in the VPM. Clonidine increased the incidence of SWD type I (generalized); the spectral power of SWD I was lower in the frontal cortex (mostly in 1-9 and 30-100 Hz) and in the VPM (1-5 Hz), but higher in the RTN (9-14 Hz). Local occipital SWD (type II) had a tendency to be less numerous after clonidine, they had a lower power in the 5-9 Hz band in the occipital cortex, in the VPM and in the RTN. It can be concluded that strengthening of 9-14 Hz activity in the RTN may underlie clonidine-induced aggravation of SWD I.

  11. Input Specificity and Dependence of Spike Timing–Dependent Plasticity on Preceding Postsynaptic Activity at Unitary Connections between Neocortical Layer 2/3 Pyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Holmgren, Carl; Shemer, Isaac; Silberberg, Gilad; Grillner, Sten; Harkany, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells receive excitatory afferent input both from neighbouring pyramidal cells and from cortical and subcortical regions. The efficacy of these excitatory synaptic inputs is modulated by spike timing–dependent plasticity (STDP). Here we report that synaptic connections between L2/3 pyramidal cell pairs are located proximal to the soma, at sites overlapping those of excitatory inputs from other cortical layers. Nevertheless, STDP at L2/3 pyramidal to pyramidal cell connections showed fundamental differences from known STDP rules at these neighbouring contacts. Coincident low-frequency pre- and postsynaptic activation evoked only LTD, independent of the order of the pre- and postsynaptic cell firing. This symmetric anti-Hebbian STDP switched to a typical Hebbian learning rule if a postsynaptic action potential train occurred prior to the presynaptic stimulation. Receptor dependence of LTD and LTP induction and their pre- or postsynaptic loci also differed from those at other L2/3 pyramidal cell excitatory inputs. Overall, we demonstrate a novel means to switch between STDP rules dependent on the history of postsynaptic activity. We also highlight differences in STDP at excitatory synapses onto L2/3 pyramidal cells which allow for input specific modulation of synaptic gain. PMID:19193711

  12. SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2009-10-25

    The S2 domain of the coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to be responsible for mediating membrane fusion. In addition to a well-recognized cleavage site at the S1-S2 boundary, a second proteolytic cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). C-terminal to this S2 cleavage site is a conserved region flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833. Here, we investigated the importance of this well conserved region for SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion activation. We show that the residues between C822-C833 are well conserved across all coronaviruses. Mutagenic analysis of SARS-CoV S, combined with cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for the core-conserved residues C822, D830, L831, and C833. Based on available predictive models, we propose that the conserved domain flanked by cysteines 822 and 833 forms a loop structure that interacts with components of the SARS-CoV S trimer to control the activation of membrane fusion.

  13. Dynamics of self-sustained asynchronous-irregular activity in random networks of spiking neurons with strong synapses

    PubMed Central

    Kriener, Birgit; Enger, Håkon; Tetzlaff, Tom; Plesser, Hans E.; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2014-01-01

    Random networks of integrate-and-fire neurons with strong current-based synapses can, unlike previously believed, assume stable states of sustained asynchronous and irregular firing, even without external random background or pacemaker neurons. We analyze the mechanisms underlying the emergence, lifetime and irregularity of such self-sustained activity states. We first demonstrate how the competition between the mean and the variance of the synaptic input leads to a non-monotonic firing-rate transfer in the network. Thus, by increasing the synaptic coupling strength, the system can become bistable: In addition to the quiescent state, a second stable fixed-point at moderate firing rates can emerge by a saddle-node bifurcation. Inherently generated fluctuations of the population firing rate around this non-trivial fixed-point can trigger transitions into the quiescent state. Hence, the trade-off between the magnitude of the population-rate fluctuations and the size of the basin of attraction of the non-trivial rate fixed-point determines the onset and the lifetime of self-sustained activity states. During self-sustained activity, individual neuronal activity is moreover highly irregular, switching between long periods of low firing rate to short burst-like states. We show that this is an effect of the strong synaptic weights and the finite time constant of synaptic and neuronal integration, and can actually serve to stabilize the self-sustained state. PMID:25400575

  14. Physiological adaptations to fasting in an actively wintering canid, the Arctic blue fox (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Puukka, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Hänninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological adaptations to fasting using the farmed blue fox (Alopex lagopus) as a model for the endangered wild arctic fox. Sixteen blue foxes were fed throughout the winter and 32 blue foxes were fasted for 22 d in Nov-Dec 2002. Half of the fasted blue foxes were food-deprived again for 22 d in Jan-Feb 2003. The farmed blue fox lost weight at a slower rate (0.97-1.02% body mass d(-1)) than observed previously in the arctic fox, possibly due to its higher initial body fat content. The animals experienced occasional fasting-induced hypoglycaemia, but their locomotor activity was not affected. The plasma triacylglycerol and glycerol concentrations were elevated during phase II of fasting indicating stimulated lipolysis, probably induced by the high growth hormone concentrations. The total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, urea, uric acid and total protein levels and the urea:creatinine ratio decreased during fasting. Although the plasma levels of some essential amino acids increased, the blue foxes did not enter phase III of starvation characterized by stimulated proteolysis during either of the 22-d fasting procedures. Instead of excessive protein catabolism, it is liver dysfunction, indicated by the increased plasma bilirubin levels and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, that may limit the duration of fasting in the species.

  15. Removal of microcystin-LR from spiked water using either activated carbon or anthracite as filter material.

    PubMed

    Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Simard, Marie-Christine; Sauvageau, Christine; Blais, Jean François

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (blue-green algae) in drinking water sources is a big concern for human health. Removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from drinking water was evaluated at the laboratory pilot scale using either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and compared with the treatment using anthracite as filter material. Virgin GAC was more effective at removing MC-LR (initial concentration ranging from 9 to 47 microg L(-1)) to reach the World Health Organization recommended level (1.0 microg L(-1)). When the GAC filter was colonized by bacteria, the filter became less effective at removing MC-LR owing to competitive reactions occurring between protein adsorption (released by bacteria) and MC-LR adsorption. Using PAC, the concentration of MC-LR decreased from 22 to 3 microg L(-1) (removal of 86% of MC-LR) by the addition of 100 mg PAC L(-1).

  16. Is fast fiber innervation responsible for increased acetylcholinesterase activity in reinnervating soleus muscles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted as to whether the predominantly slow SOL, which is low in AChE activity, is initially reinnervated by axons that originally innervated fast muscle fibers with high AChE activity, such as those of the EDL. Local denervation of the SOL in the guinea pig was performed because this muscle is composed solely of slow (type I) fibers; thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of homologous muscle fast fiber innervation. The overshoot in this preparation was qualitatively similar to that seen with distal denervation in the guinea pig and local and distal denervation in the rat. Thus, initial fast fiber innvervation is not responsible for the patterns of change in AChE activity seen with reinnervation in the SOL. It is concluded that the neural control of AChe is different in these two muscles and may reflect specific differences in the characteristics of AChE regulation in fast and slow muscle.

  17. Asynchronous Rate Chaos in Spiking Neuronal Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Harish, Omri; Hansel, David

    2015-01-01

    The brain exhibits temporally complex patterns of activity with features similar to those of chaotic systems. Theoretical studies over the last twenty years have described various computational advantages for such regimes in neuronal systems. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear whether chaos requires specific cellular properties or network architectures, or whether it is a generic property of neuronal circuits. We investigate the dynamics of networks of excitatory-inhibitory (EI) spiking neurons with random sparse connectivity operating in the regime of balance of excitation and inhibition. Combining Dynamical Mean-Field Theory with numerical simulations, we show that chaotic, asynchronous firing rate fluctuations emerge generically for sufficiently strong synapses. Two different mechanisms can lead to these chaotic fluctuations. One mechanism relies on slow I-I inhibition which gives rise to slow subthreshold voltage and rate fluctuations. The decorrelation time of these fluctuations is proportional to the time constant of the inhibition. The second mechanism relies on the recurrent E-I-E feedback loop. It requires slow excitation but the inhibition can be fast. In the corresponding dynamical regime all neurons exhibit rate fluctuations on the time scale of the excitation. Another feature of this regime is that the population-averaged firing rate is substantially smaller in the excitatory population than in the inhibitory population. This is not necessarily the case in the I-I mechanism. Finally, we discuss the neurophysiological and computational significance of our results. PMID:26230679

  18. With or without spikes: localization of focal epileptic activity by simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Grouiller, Frédéric; Thornton, Rachel C; Groening, Kristina; Spinelli, Laurent; Duncan, John S; Schaller, Karl; Siniatchkin, Michael; Lemieux, Louis; Seeck, Margitta; Michel, Christoph M; Vulliemoz, Serge

    2011-10-01

    In patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, concordant non-invasive neuroimaging data are useful to guide invasive electroencephalographic recordings or surgical resection. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings can reveal regions of haemodynamic fluctuations related to epileptic activity and help localize its generators. However, many of these studies (40-70%) remain inconclusive, principally due to the absence of interictal epileptiform discharges during simultaneous recordings, or lack of haemodynamic changes correlated to interictal epileptiform discharges. We investigated whether the presence of epilepsy-specific voltage maps on scalp electroencephalography correlated with haemodynamic changes and could help localize the epileptic focus. In 23 patients with focal epilepsy, we built epilepsy-specific electroencephalographic voltage maps using averaged interictal epileptiform discharges recorded during long-term clinical monitoring outside the scanner and computed the correlation of this map with the electroencephalographic recordings in the scanner for each time frame. The time course of this correlation coefficient was used as a regressor for functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis to map haemodynamic changes related to these epilepsy-specific maps (topography-related haemodynamic changes). The method was first validated in five patients with significant haemodynamic changes correlated to interictal epileptiform discharges on conventional analysis. We then applied the method to 18 patients who had inconclusive simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies due to the absence of interictal epileptiform discharges or absence of significant correlated haemodynamic changes. The concordance of the results with subsequent intracranial electroencephalography and/or resection area in patients who were seizure free after

  19. With or without spikes: localization of focal epileptic activity by simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Grouiller, Frédéric; Thornton, Rachel C.; Groening, Kristina; Spinelli, Laurent; Duncan, John S.; Schaller, Karl; Siniatchkin, Michael; Lemieux, Louis; Seeck, Margitta; Michel, Christoph M.

    2011-01-01

    In patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, concordant non-invasive neuroimaging data are useful to guide invasive electroencephalographic recordings or surgical resection. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings can reveal regions of haemodynamic fluctuations related to epileptic activity and help localize its generators. However, many of these studies (40–70%) remain inconclusive, principally due to the absence of interictal epileptiform discharges during simultaneous recordings, or lack of haemodynamic changes correlated to interictal epileptiform discharges. We investigated whether the presence of epilepsy-specific voltage maps on scalp electroencephalography correlated with haemodynamic changes and could help localize the epileptic focus. In 23 patients with focal epilepsy, we built epilepsy-specific electroencephalographic voltage maps using averaged interictal epileptiform discharges recorded during long-term clinical monitoring outside the scanner and computed the correlation of this map with the electroencephalographic recordings in the scanner for each time frame. The time course of this correlation coefficient was used as a regressor for functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis to map haemodynamic changes related to these epilepsy-specific maps (topography-related haemodynamic changes). The method was first validated in five patients with significant haemodynamic changes correlated to interictal epileptiform discharges on conventional analysis. We then applied the method to 18 patients who had inconclusive simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies due to the absence of interictal epileptiform discharges or absence of significant correlated haemodynamic changes. The concordance of the results with subsequent intracranial electroencephalography and/or resection area in patients who were seizure free after

  20. Fast fluctuations of soft X-rays from active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. F.; Dennis, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    A selection of short lived small soft X-ray bursts is studied using data from the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS), and the results are compared with the data from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with a view to understanding conditions at the onset of flares. Short-lived events provide an opportunity to study the radiation from the primary energy transfer process without confusion from the slowly-varying thermal X-ray emission which characterizes the decay of a large flare. The fast decay of the soft X-rays, only a few tens of seconds, suggests that they occur in the dense chromosphere. The results indicate that the short events may be signatures of several different phenomena, depending on their characteristics. Some events occur in association with reverse-drift type III bursts and simultaneous flaring elsewhere on the Sun, thus suggesting dumping of particles accelerated at a remote site. Some events have hard X-ray bursts and normal type III bursts associated with them, while others have neither. The latter events place strong constraints on the nonthermal electron population present.

  1. Low Activation and Fast Inactivation of Transducin in Carp Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yonetsu, Shin-Ichi; Fukaya, Satoshi; Koshitani, Yuki; Kawamura, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors show lower light sensitivity and briefer light responses than rod photoreceptors. The light detection signal in these cells is amplified through a phototransduction cascade. The first step of amplification in the cascade is the activation of a GTP-binding protein, transducin (Tr), by light-activated visual pigment (R*). We quantified transducin activation by measuring the binding of GTPγS in purified carp rod and cone membrane preparations with the use of a rapid quench apparatus and found that transducin activation by an R* molecule is ∼5 times less efficient in cones than in rods. Transducin activation terminated in less than 1 s in cones, more quickly than in rods. The rate of GTP hydrolysis in Tr*, and thus the rate of Tr* inactivation, was ∼25 times higher in cones than in rods. This faster inactivation of Tr* ensures briefer light responses in cones. The expression level of RGS9 was found to be ∼20 times higher in cones than in rods, which explains higher GTP hydrolytic activity and, thus, faster Tr* inactivation in cones than in rods. Although carp rods and cones express rod- or cone-versions of visual pigment and transducin, these molecules themselves do not seem to induce the differences significantly in the transducin activation and Tr* inactivation in rods and cones. Instead, the differences seem to be brought about in a rod or cone cell-type specific manner. PMID:23045532

  2. Prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in post-weaned elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Rodriguez, Ruben; Viscarra, Jose A; Nishiyama, Akira; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-08-01

    Elephant seals naturally experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In humans, rats and mice, prolonged food deprivation activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and increases oxidative damage. In elephant seals, prolonged fasting activates RAS without increasing oxidative damage likely due to an increase in antioxidant defenses. The mechanism leading to the upregulation of antioxidant defenses during prolonged fasting remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated whether prolonged fasting activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, which controls the expression of antioxidant genes, and if such activation is potentially mediated by systemic increases in RAS. Blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from seals fasting for 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks. Nrf2 activity and nuclear content increased by 76% and 167% at week 7. Plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) were 5000% and 250% higher at week 7 than at week 1. Phosphorylation of Smad2, an effector of Ang II and TGF signaling, increased by 120% at week 7 and by 84% in response to intravenously infused Ang II. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) mRNA expression, which is controlled by smad proteins, increased 430% at week 7, while Nox4 protein expression, which can activate Nrf2, was 170% higher at week 7 than at week 1. These results demonstrate that prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in elephant seals and that RAS stimulation can potentially result in increased Nox4 through Smad phosphorylation. The results also suggest that Nox4 is essential to sustain the hormetic adaptive response to oxidative stress in fasting seals.

  3. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    PubMed

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent

    2015-08-01

    The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  4. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure. PMID:26291697

  5. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  6. A new class of metrics for spike trains.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Cătălin V; Florian, Răzvan V

    2014-02-01

    The distance between a pair of spike trains, quantifying the differences between them, can be measured using various metrics. Here we introduce a new class of spike train metrics, inspired by the Pompeiu-Hausdorff distance, and compare them with existing metrics. Some of our new metrics (the modulus-metric and the max-metric) have characteristics that are qualitatively different from those of classical metrics like the van Rossum distance or the Victor and Purpura distance. The modulus-metric and the max-metric are particularly suitable for measuring distances between spike trains where information is encoded in bursts, but the number and the timing of spikes inside a burst do not carry information. The modulus-metric does not depend on any parameters and can be computed using a fast algorithm whose time depends linearly on the number of spikes in the two spike trains. We also introduce localized versions of the new metrics, which could have the biologically relevant interpretation of measuring the differences between spike trains as they are perceived at a particular moment in time by a neuron receiving these spike trains.

  7. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  8. Hepatic Fasting-Induced PPARα Activity Does Not Depend on Essential Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Arnaud; Fouché, Edwin; Ducheix, Simon; Lasserre, Frédéric; Marmugi, Alice P; Mselli-Lakhal, Laila; Loiseau, Nicolas; Wahli, Walter; Guillou, Hervé; Montagner, Alexandra

    2016-09-24

    The liver plays a central role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, which is highly sensitive to transcriptional responses to nutrients and hormones. Transcription factors involved in this process include nuclear hormone receptors. One such receptor, PPARα, which is highly expressed in the liver and activated by a variety of fatty acids, is a critical regulator of hepatic fatty acid catabolism during fasting. The present study compared the influence of dietary fatty acids and fasting on hepatic PPARα-dependent responses. Pparα(-/-) male mice and their wild-type controls were fed diets containing different fatty acids for 10 weeks prior to being subjected to fasting or normal feeding. In line with the role of PPARα in sensing dietary fatty acids, changes in chronic dietary fat consumption influenced liver damage during fasting. The changes were particularly marked in mice fed diets lacking essential fatty acids. However, fasting, rather than specific dietary fatty acids, induced acute PPARα activity in the liver. Taken together, the data imply that the potent signalling involved in triggering PPARα activity during fasting does not rely on essential fatty acid-derived ligand.

  9. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-05-20

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use.

  10. Fast incorporation of optical flow into active polygons.

    PubMed

    Unal, Gozde; Krim, Hamid; Yezzi, Anthony

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we first reconsider, in a different light, the addition of a prediction step to active contour-based visual tracking using an optical flow and clarify the local computation of the latter along the boundaries of continuous active contours with appropriate regularizers. We subsequently detail our contribution of computing an optical flow-based prediction step directly from the parameters of an active polygon, and of exploiting it in object tracking. This is in contrast to an explicitly separate computation of the optical flow and its ad hoc application. It also provides an inherent regularization effect resulting from integrating measurements along polygon edges. As a result, we completely avoid the need of adding ad hoc regularizing terms to the optical flow computations, and the inevitably arbitrary associated weighting parameters. This direct integration of optical flow into the active polygon framework distinguishes this technique from most previous contour-based approaches, where regularization terms are theoretically, as well as practically, essential. The greater robustness and speed due to a reduced number of parameters of this technique are additional and appealing features.

  11. Effect of maternal fasting on ovine fetal and maternal branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities.

    PubMed

    Liechty, E A; Barone, S; Nutt, M

    1987-01-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid transaminase were assayed in maternal skeletal muscle, liver and fetal skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, kidney and placenta obtained from fed and 5-day-fasted late gestation ewes. Very high activities were found in placenta; fetal skeletal muscle also had high activity. Fetal brain had intermediate activity, followed by cardiac muscle and kidney. Fetal liver possessed negligible activity. Activities were low in both maternal liver and skeletal muscle. Trends were seen for fasting to increase activities in fetal placenta, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, heart and maternal liver, but these changes were statistically significant only for fetal brain and placental tissue. Fetal skeletal muscle activity was 100 times that of maternal skeletal muscle. These data imply differences in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids by fetal and adult ruminants and expand the thesis that branched-chain amino acids are important to the metabolism of the ovine fetus.

  12. Spike-Based Population Coding and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, Martin; Denève, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Compelling behavioral evidence suggests that humans can make optimal decisions despite the uncertainty inherent in perceptual or motor tasks. A key question in neuroscience is how populations of spiking neurons can implement such probabilistic computations. In this article, we develop a comprehensive framework for optimal, spike-based sensory integration and working memory in a dynamic environment. We propose that probability distributions are inferred spike-per-spike in recurrently connected networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. As a result, these networks can combine sensory cues optimally, track the state of a time-varying stimulus and memorize accumulated evidence over periods much longer than the time constant of single neurons. Importantly, we propose that population responses and persistent working memory states represent entire probability distributions and not only single stimulus values. These memories are reflected by sustained, asynchronous patterns of activity which make relevant information available to downstream neurons within their short time window of integration. Model neurons act as predictive encoders, only firing spikes which account for new information that has not yet been signaled. Thus, spike times signal deterministically a prediction error, contrary to rate codes in which spike times are considered to be random samples of an underlying firing rate. As a consequence of this coding scheme, a multitude of spike patterns can reliably encode the same information. This results in weakly correlated, Poisson-like spike trains that are sensitive to initial conditions but robust to even high levels of external neural noise. This spike train variability reproduces the one observed in cortical sensory spike trains, but cannot be equated to noise. On the contrary, it is a consequence of optimal spike-based inference. In contrast, we show that rate-based models perform poorly when implemented with stochastically spiking neurons. PMID:21379319

  13. Vocal sequences suppress spiking in the bat auditory cortex while evoking concomitant steady-state local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hechavarría, Julio C.; Beetz, M. Jerome; Macias, Silvio; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms by which the mammalian brain copes with information from natural vocalization streams remain poorly understood. This article shows that in highly vocal animals, such as the bat species Carollia perspicillata, the spike activity of auditory cortex neurons does not track the temporal information flow enclosed in fast time-varying vocalization streams emitted by conspecifics. For example, leading syllables of so-called distress sequences (produced by bats subjected to duress) suppress cortical spiking to lagging syllables. Local fields potentials (LFPs) recorded simultaneously to cortical spiking evoked by distress sequences carry multiplexed information, with response suppression occurring in low frequency LFPs (i.e. 2–15 Hz) and steady-state LFPs occurring at frequencies that match the rate of energy fluctuations in the incoming sound streams (i.e. >50 Hz). Such steady-state LFPs could reflect underlying synaptic activity that does not necessarily lead to cortical spiking in response to natural fast time-varying vocal sequences.

  14. Vocal sequences suppress spiking in the bat auditory cortex while evoking concomitant steady-state local field potentials

    PubMed Central

    Hechavarría, Julio C.; Beetz, M. Jerome; Macias, Silvio; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the mammalian brain copes with information from natural vocalization streams remain poorly understood. This article shows that in highly vocal animals, such as the bat species Carollia perspicillata, the spike activity of auditory cortex neurons does not track the temporal information flow enclosed in fast time-varying vocalization streams emitted by conspecifics. For example, leading syllables of so-called distress sequences (produced by bats subjected to duress) suppress cortical spiking to lagging syllables. Local fields potentials (LFPs) recorded simultaneously to cortical spiking evoked by distress sequences carry multiplexed information, with response suppression occurring in low frequency LFPs (i.e. 2–15 Hz) and steady-state LFPs occurring at frequencies that match the rate of energy fluctuations in the incoming sound streams (i.e. >50 Hz). Such steady-state LFPs could reflect underlying synaptic activity that does not necessarily lead to cortical spiking in response to natural fast time-varying vocal sequences. PMID:27976691

  15. An Overview of Bayesian Methods for Neural Spike Train Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neural spike train analysis is an important task in computational neuroscience which aims to understand neural mechanisms and gain insights into neural circuits. With the advancement of multielectrode recording and imaging technologies, it has become increasingly demanding to develop statistical tools for analyzing large neuronal ensemble spike activity. Here we present a tutorial overview of Bayesian methods and their representative applications in neural spike train analysis, at both single neuron and population levels. On the theoretical side, we focus on various approximate Bayesian inference techniques as applied to latent state and parameter estimation. On the application side, the topics include spike sorting, tuning curve estimation, neural encoding and decoding, deconvolution of spike trains from calcium imaging signals, and inference of neuronal functional connectivity and synchrony. Some research challenges and opportunities for neural spike train analysis are discussed. PMID:24348527

  16. Chromatin recruitment of activated AMPK drives fasting response genes co-controlled by GR and PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Ratman, Dariusz; Mylka, Viacheslav; Bougarne, Nadia; Pawlak, Michal; Caron, Sandrine; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Paumelle, Réjane; De Cauwer, Lode; Thommis, Jonathan; Rider, Mark H.; Libert, Claude; Lievens, Sam; Tavernier, Jan; Staels, Bart; De Bosscher, Karolien

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to fasting involves both Glucocorticoid Receptor (GRα) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) activation. Given both receptors can physically interact we investigated the possibility of a genome-wide cross-talk between activated GR and PPARα, using ChIP- and RNA-seq in primary hepatocytes. Our data reveal extensive chromatin co-localization of both factors with cooperative induction of genes controlling lipid/glucose metabolism. Key GR/PPAR co-controlled genes switched from transcriptional antagonism to cooperativity when moving from short to prolonged hepatocyte fasting, a phenomenon coinciding with gene promoter recruitment of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and blocked by its pharmacological inhibition. In vitro interaction studies support trimeric complex formation between GR, PPARα and phospho-AMPK. Long-term fasting in mice showed enhanced phosphorylation of liver AMPK and GRα Ser211. Phospho-AMPK chromatin recruitment at liver target genes, observed upon prolonged fasting in mice, is dampened by refeeding. Taken together, our results identify phospho-AMPK as a molecular switch able to cooperate with nuclear receptors at the chromatin level and reveal a novel adaptation mechanism to prolonged fasting. PMID:27576532

  17. Toward a Fast-Response Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Kypuros, Javier A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, technologies developed for clearance control can benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first portion of the paper addresses the research from a programmatic viewpoint. Recent studies that provide motivation for the work, identification of key technologies, and NASA's plan for addressing deficiencies in the technologies are discussed. The later portion of the paper drills down into one of the key technologies by presenting equations and results for a preliminary dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena.

  18. Storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via active Raman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Datang; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via a mechanism of active Raman gain (ARG). The system under consideration is a four-level atomic gas interacting with three (pump, signal, and control) laser fields. We show that a stable propagation of signal light pulses with superluminal velocity (i.e., fast-light pulses) is possible in such a system through the ARG contributed by the pump field and the quantum interference effect induced by the control field. We further show that a robust storage and retrieval of light pulses in such a fast-light medium can be implemented by switching on and off the pump and the control fields simultaneously. The results reported here may have potential applications for light information processing and transmission using fast-light media.

  19. Lyondell outage spikes prices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Methanol spot markets in the US Gulf Coast cooled a bit late last week from their Monday spike in the wake of a pipeline rupture and fire that shut down Lyondell Petrochemical`s Channelview, TX complex and its 248-million gal/year methanol plant. The unit resumed production last week and was expected to return to full service by August 3. Offering prices shot up at least 10% over the pre-accident level of about 50 cts/gal fob. No actual business could be confirmed at a price of more than 52 cts-53 cts/gal, however.

  20. Glucose reverses fasting-induced activation in the arcuate nucleus of mice.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2008-01-08

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is an important target for metabolic and hormonal signals controlling food intake. As demonstrated by c-Fos studies, arcuate neurons are activated in food-deprived mice, whereas refeeding reverses the fasting-induced activation. To evaluate whether an increase in blood glucose has an inhibitory effect on these neurons, we analyzed the c-Fos response to an intraperitoneal glucose injection in fasted mice. This treatment increased blood glucose levels twofold and reduced 2-h food intake. Similar to refeeding, it also reversed the fasting-induced activation in the arcuate nucleus. Therefore, an increase in blood glucose might be an important feeding-related signal acting via the arcuate nucleus to oppose orexigenic stimuli.

  1. Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adam P; Brookes, Matthew J; Rezek, Iead A; Smith, Stephen M; Behrens, Timothy; Probert Smith, Penny J; Woolrich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To provide an effective substrate for cognitive processes, functional brain networks should be able to reorganize and coordinate on a sub-second temporal scale. We used magnetoencephalography recordings of spontaneous activity to characterize whole-brain functional connectivity dynamics at high temporal resolution. Using a novel approach that identifies the points in time at which unique patterns of activity recur, we reveal transient (100–200 ms) brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks. By assessing temporal changes in the occurrence of these states, we demonstrate that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown. We further evaluate cross-network interactions, and show that anticorrelation between the default mode network and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network is consistent with an inability of the system to transition directly between two transient brain states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01867.001 PMID:24668169

  2. Effects of visual stimulation on LFPs, spikes, and LFP-spike relations in PRR.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Andersen, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) have shown diverse relations to the spikes across different brain areas and stimulus features, suggesting that LFP-spike relationships are highly specific to the underlying connectivity of a local network. If so, the LFP-spike relationship may vary even within one brain area under the same task condition if neurons have heterogeneous connectivity with the active input sources during the task. Here, we tested this hypothesis in the parietal reach region (PRR), which includes two distinct classes of motor goal planning neurons with different connectivity to the visual input, i.e., visuomotor neurons receive stronger visual input than motor neurons. We predicted that the visual stimulation would render both the spike response and the LFP-spike relationship different between the two neuronal subpopulations. Thus we examined how visual stimulations affect spikes, LFPs, and LFP-spike relationships in PRR by comparing their planning (delay) period activity between two conditions: with or without a visual stimulus at the reach target. Neurons were classified as visuomotor if the visual stimulation increased their firing rate, or as motor otherwise. We found that the visual stimulation increased LFP power in gamma bands >40 Hz for both classes. Moreover, confirming our prediction, the correlation between the LFP gamma power and the firing rate became higher for the visuomotor than motor neurons in the presence of visual stimulation. We conclude that LFPs vary with the stimulation condition and that the LFP-spike relationship depends on a given neuron's connectivity to the dominant input sources in a particular stimulation condition.

  3. Radioxenon spiked air

    DOE PAGES

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; ...

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The Internationalmore » Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.« less

  4. Fasting enhances TRAIL-mediated liver natural killer cell activity via HSP70 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Dang, Vu T A; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Tokumoto, Noriaki; Misumi, Toshihiro; Saeki, Yoshihiro; Fujikuni, Nobuaki; Ohdan, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Acute starvation, which is frequently observed in clinical practice, sometimes augments the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells against neoplastic cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of natural killer cell function by fasting in mice. The total number of liver resident natural killer cells in a unit weight of liver tissue obtained from C57BL/6J mice did not change after a 3-day fast, while the proportions of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)+ and CD69+ natural killer cells were significantly elevated (n = 7, p <0.01), as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, we found that TRAIL- natural killer cells that were adoptively transferred into Rag-2-/- γ chain-/- mice could convert into TRAIL+ natural killer cells in fasted mice at a higher proportion than in fed mice. Liver natural killer cells also showed high TRAIL-mediated antitumor function in response to 3-day fasting. Since these fasted mice highly expressed heat shock protein 70 (n = 7, p <0.05) in liver tissues, as determined by western blot, the role of this protein in natural killer cell activation was investigated. Treatment of liver lymphocytes with 50 µg/mL of recombinant heat shock protein 70 led to the upregulation of both TRAIL and CD69 in liver natural killer cells (n = 6, p <0.05). In addition, HSP70 neutralization by intraperitoneally injecting an anti- heat shock protein 70 monoclonal antibody into mice prior to fasting led to the downregulation of TRAIL expression (n = 6, p <0.05). These findings indicate that acute fasting enhances TRAIL-mediated liver natural killer cell activity against neoplastic cells through upregulation of heat shock protein 70.

  5. Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks comprising spiking neurons of a novel type have been conceived as improved pattern-analysis and pattern-recognition computational systems. These neurons are represented by a mathematical model denoted the state-variable model (SVM), which among other things, exploits a computational parallelism inherent in spiking-neuron geometry. Networks of SVM neurons offer advantages of speed and computational efficiency, relative to traditional artificial neural networks. The SVM also overcomes some of the limitations of prior spiking-neuron models. There are numerous potential pattern-recognition, tracking, and data-reduction (data preprocessing) applications for these SVM neural networks on Earth and in exploration of remote planets. Spiking neurons imitate biological neurons more closely than do the neurons of traditional artificial neural networks. A spiking neuron includes a central cell body (soma) surrounded by a tree-like interconnection network (dendrites). Spiking neurons are so named because they generate trains of output pulses (spikes) in response to inputs received from sensors or from other neurons. They gain their speed advantage over traditional neural networks by using the timing of individual spikes for computation, whereas traditional artificial neurons use averages of activity levels over time. Moreover, spiking neurons use the delays inherent in dendritic processing in order to efficiently encode the information content of incoming signals. Because traditional artificial neurons fail to capture this encoding, they have less processing capability, and so it is necessary to use more gates when implementing traditional artificial neurons in electronic circuitry. Such higher-order functions as dynamic tasking are effected by use of pools (collections) of spiking neurons interconnected by spike-transmitting fibers. The SVM includes adaptive thresholds and submodels of transport of ions (in imitation of such transport in biological

  6. A neural network model of reliably optimized spike transmission.

    PubMed

    Samura, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Yuji; Sato, Yasuomi D

    2015-06-01

    We studied the detailed structure of a neuronal network model in which the spontaneous spike activity is correctly optimized to match the experimental data and discuss the reliability of the optimized spike transmission. Two stochastic properties of the spontaneous activity were calculated: the spike-count rate and synchrony size. The synchrony size, expected to be an important factor for optimization of spike transmission in the network, represents a percentage of observed coactive neurons within a time bin, whose probability approximately follows a power-law. We systematically investigated how these stochastic properties could matched to those calculated from the experimental data in terms of the log-normally distributed synaptic weights between excitatory and inhibitory neurons and synaptic background activity induced by the input current noise in the network model. To ensure reliably optimized spike transmission, the synchrony size as well as spike-count rate were simultaneously optimized. This required changeably balanced log-normal distributions of synaptic weights between excitatory and inhibitory neurons and appropriately amplified synaptic background activity. Our results suggested that the inhibitory neurons with a hub-like structure driven by intensive feedback from excitatory neurons were a key factor in the simultaneous optimization of the spike-count rate and synchrony size, regardless of different spiking types between excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

  7. Changes in digestive enzyme activities of red porgy Pagrus pagrus during a fasting-refeeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Caruso, G; Denaro, M G; Caruso, R; De Pasquale, F; Genovese, L; Maricchiolo, G

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was carried out in red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Teleostei, Sparidae), to assess the effects of a 14-day fasting period, followed by refeeding to apparent satiation, on the contents of digestive enzymes (total proteases, and particularly pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidases A and B; amylase and lipase). Two fish groups were considered: one (indicated as fasted/refed group) was fasted for 14 days and then refed during further 7 and 15 days, and the other was fed throughout the study and was taken as a control group. The measured enzymatic values showed that fasting resulted in a generalized, not significant decrease, of the activity of digestive enzymes. Refeeding caused a significant increase for most of the assayed enzymes: total proteases both in the middle and distal intestine, pepsin in the stomach, trypsin in the middle intestine, and amylase and lipase in the proximal intestine. Nevertheless, the detection in the fasted/refed fish of enzymatic values still lower than those measured in the control fish suggested that fish experiencing short-term fasting were partially impaired in their digestive capacity.

  8. Acculturation, physical activity, and fast-food consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Reynolds, Kim; Shakib, Sohaila; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors-physical activity and fast-food consumption-among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. Respondents completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. The 6th grade survey assessed acculturation with the AHIMSA acculturation scale and a measure of English language usage. The 7th grade survey assessed frequency of moderate-to-intense physical activity and frequency of eating fast-food. Multiple regression analyses included acculturation and demographic covariates as predictors of physical activity and fast-food consumption. Acculturation to the US, assessed in 6th grade, was significantly associated with a lower frequency of physical activity participation and a higher frequency of fast-food consumption in 7th grade. The significant associations persisted after controlling for covariates and were consistent across gender and ethnic groups. Results suggest that acculturation to the US is a risk factor for obesity-related behaviors among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. Health promotion programs are needed to encourage physical activity and healthy diets among adolescents in acculturating families.

  9. SIK2 regulates fasting-induced PPARα activity and ketogenesis through p300.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Gong, Lulu; Lv, Sihan; Li, Jian; Tai, Xiaolu; Cao, Wenqi; Peng, Bing; Qu, Shen; Li, Weida; Zhang, Chao; Luan, Bing

    2016-03-17

    Fatty acid oxidation and subsequent ketogenesis is one of the major mechanisms to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis under fasting conditions. Fasting hormone glucagon has been shown to stimulate ketone body production through activation of PPARα; however, the signal pathway linking glucagon to PPARα is largely undiscovered. Here we report that a SIK2-p300-PPARα cascade mediates glucagon's effect on ketogenesis. p300 interacts with PPARα through a conserved LXXLL motif and enhances its transcriptional activity. SIK2 disrupts p300-PPARα interaction by direct phosphorylation of p300 at Ser89, which in turn decreases PPARα-mediated ketogenic gene expression. Moreover, SIK2 phosphorylation defective p300 (p300 S89A) shows increased interaction with PPARα and abolishes suppression of SIK2 on PPARα-mediated ketogenic gene expression in liver. Taken together, our results unveil the signal pathway that mediates fasting induced ketogenesis to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis.

  10. Whole-organism screening for gluconeogenesis identifies activators of fasting metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gut, Philipp; Baeza-Raja, Bernat; Andersson, Olov; Hasenkamp, Laura; Hsiao, Joseph; Hesselson, Daniel; Akassoglou, Katerina; Verdin, Eric; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the control of energy homeostasis can lower cardiovascular risk in metabolically compromised individuals. To identify new regulators of whole-body energy control, we conducted a high-throughput screen in transgenic reporter zebrafish for small molecules that modulate the expression of the fasting-inducible gluconeogenic gene pck1. We show that this in vivo strategy identified several drugs that impact gluconeogenesis in humans, as well as metabolically uncharacterized compounds. Most notably, we find that the Translocator Protein (TSPO) ligands PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 are glucose lowering agents despite a strong inductive effect on pck1 expression. We show that these drugs are activators of a fasting-like energy state, and importantly that they protect high-fat diet induced obese mice from hepatosteatosis and glucose intolerance, two pathological manifestations of metabolic dysregulation. Thus, using a whole-organism screening strategy, this study has identified new small molecule activators of fasting metabolism. PMID:23201900

  11. Finding the event structure of neuronal spike trains.

    PubMed

    Toups, J Vincent; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Peter J; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Tiesinga, Paul H

    2011-09-01

    Neurons in sensory systems convey information about physical stimuli in their spike trains. In vitro, single neurons respond precisely and reliably to the repeated injection of the same fluctuating current, producing regions of elevated firing rate, termed events. Analysis of these spike trains reveals that multiple distinct spike patterns can be identified as trial-to-trial correlations between spike times (Fellous, Tiesinga, Thomas, & Sejnowski, 2004 ). Finding events in data with realistic spiking statistics is challenging because events belonging to different spike patterns may overlap. We propose a method for finding spiking events that uses contextual information to disambiguate which pattern a trial belongs to. The procedure can be applied to spike trains of the same neuron across multiple trials to detect and separate responses obtained during different brain states. The procedure can also be applied to spike trains from multiple simultaneously recorded neurons in order to identify volleys of near-synchronous activity or to distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The procedure was tested using artificial data as well as recordings in vitro in response to fluctuating current waveforms.

  12. Rayleigh--Taylor spike evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, G. T.; Batha, S. H.; Klare, K. A.; Hollowell, D. E.; Mason, R. J.

    2001-09-01

    Laser-based experiments have shown that Rayleigh--Taylor (RT) growth in thin, perturbed copper foils leads to a phase dominated by narrow spikes between thin bubbles. These experiments were well modeled and diagnosed until this '' spike'' phase, but not into this spike phase. Experiments were designed, modeled, and performed on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton , Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to study the late-time spike phase. To simulate the conditions and evolution of late time RT, a copper target was fabricated consisting of a series of thin ridges (spikes in cross section) 150 {mu}m apart on a thin flat copper backing. The target was placed on the side of a scale-1.2 hohlraum with the ridges pointing into the hohlraum, which was heated to 190 eV. Side-on radiography imaged the evolution of the ridges and flat copper backing into the typical RT bubble and spike structure including the '' mushroom-like feet'' on the tips of the spikes. RAGE computer models [R. M. Baltrusaitis, M. L. Gittings, R. P. Weaver, R. F. Benjamin, and J. M. Budzinski, Phys. Fluids 8, 2471 (1996)] show the formation of the '' mushrooms,'' as well as how the backing material converges to lengthen the spike. The computer predictions of evolving spike and bubble lengths match measurements fairly well for the thicker backing targets but not for the thinner backings.

  13. IH activity is increased in populations of slow versus fast motor axons of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Chad; Jones, Kelvin E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is known about the electrophysiological variation in motoneuron somata across different motor units. However, comparatively less is known about electrophysiological variation in motor axons and how this could impact function or electrodiagnosis in healthy or diseased states. We performed nerve excitability testing on two groups of motor axons in Sprague–Dawley rats that are known to differ significantly in their chronic daily activity patterns and in the relative proportion of motor unit types: one group innervating the soleus (“slow motor axons”) and the other group innervating the tibialis anterior (“fast motor axons”) muscles. We found that slow motor axons have significantly larger accommodation compared to fast motor axons upon application of a 100 ms hyperpolarizing conditioning stimulus that is 40% of axon threshold (Z = 3.24, p = 0.001) or 20% of axon threshold (Z = 2.67, p = 0.008). Slow motor axons had larger accommodation to hyperpolarizing currents in the current-threshold measurement (-80% Z = 3.07, p = 0.002; -90% Z = 2.98, p = 0.003). In addition, we found that slow motor axons have a significantly smaller rheobase than fast motor axons (Z = -1.99, p = 0.047) accompanied by a lower threshold in stimulus-response curves. The results provide evidence that slow motor axons have greater activity of the hyperpolarization-activated inwardly rectifying cation conductance (IH) than fast motor axons. It is possible that this difference between fast and slow axons is caused by an adaptation to their chronic differences in daily activity patterns, and that this adaptation might have a functional effect on the motor unit. Moreover, these findings indicate that slow and fast motor axons may react differently to pathological conditions. PMID:25309406

  14. Unsupervised Learning of Visual Features through Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Masquelier, Timothée; Thorpe, Simon J

    2007-01-01

    Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a learning rule that modifies synaptic strength as a function of the relative timing of pre- and postsynaptic spikes. When a neuron is repeatedly presented with similar inputs, STDP is known to have the effect of concentrating high synaptic weights on afferents that systematically fire early, while postsynaptic spike latencies decrease. Here we use this learning rule in an asynchronous feedforward spiking neural network that mimics the ventral visual pathway and shows that when the network is presented with natural images, selectivity to intermediate-complexity visual features emerges. Those features, which correspond to prototypical patterns that are both salient and consistently present in the images, are highly informative and enable robust object recognition, as demonstrated on various classification tasks. Taken together, these results show that temporal codes may be a key to understanding the phenomenal processing speed achieved by the visual system and that STDP can lead to fast and selective responses. PMID:17305422

  15. Identification of Pre-Spike Network in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Faizo, Nahla L.; Burianová, Hana; Gray, Marcus; Hocking, Julia; Galloway, Graham; Reutens, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Seizures and interictal spikes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) affect a network of brain regions rather than a single epileptic focus. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) studies have demonstrated a functional network in which hemodynamic changes are time-locked to spikes. However, whether this reflects the propagation of neuronal activity from a focus, or conversely the activation of a network linked to spike generation remains unknown. The functional connectivity (FC) changes prior to spikes may provide information about the connectivity changes that lead to the generation of spikes. We used EEG-fMRI to investigate FC changes immediately prior to the appearance of interictal spikes on EEG in patients with MTLE. Methods/principal findings: Fifteen patients with MTLE underwent continuous EEG-fMRI during rest. Spikes were identified on EEG and three 10 s epochs were defined relative to spike onset: spike (0–10 s), pre-spike (−10 to 0 s), and rest (−20 to −10 s, with no previous spikes in the preceding 45s). Significant spike-related activation in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the seizure focus was found compared to the pre-spike and rest epochs. The peak voxel within the hippocampus ipsilateral to the seizure focus was used as a seed region for FC analysis in the three conditions. A significant change in FC patterns was observed before the appearance of electrographic spikes. Specifically, there was significant loss of coherence between both hippocampi during the pre-spike period compared to spike and rest states. Conclusion/significance: In keeping with previous findings of abnormal inter-hemispheric hippocampal connectivity in MTLE, our findings specifically link reduced connectivity to the period immediately before spikes. This brief decoupling is consistent with a deficit in mutual (inter-hemispheric) hippocampal inhibition that may predispose to spike generation. PMID

  16. Filter based phase distortions in extracellular spikes

    PubMed Central

    Yael, Dorin

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular recordings are the primary tool for extracting neuronal spike trains in-vivo. One of the crucial pre-processing stages of this signal is the high-pass filtration used to isolate neuronal spiking activity. Filters are characterized by changes in the magnitude and phase of different frequencies. While filters are typically chosen for their effect on magnitudes, little attention has been paid to the impact of these filters on the phase of each frequency. In this study we show that in the case of nonlinear phase shifts generated by most online and offline filters, the signal is severely distorted, resulting in an alteration of the spike waveform. This distortion leads to a shape that deviates from the original waveform as a function of its constituent frequencies, and a dramatic reduction in the SNR of the waveform that disrupts spike detectability. Currently, the vast majority of articles utilizing extracellular data are subject to these distortions since most commercial and academic hardware and software utilize nonlinear phase filters. We show that this severe problem can be avoided by recording wide-band signals followed by zero phase filtering, or alternatively corrected by reversed filtering of a narrow-band filtered, and in some cases even segmented signals. Implementation of either zero phase filtering or phase correction of the nonlinear phase filtering reproduces the original spike waveforms and increases the spike detection rates while reducing the number of false negative and positive errors. This process, in turn, helps eliminate subsequent errors in downstream analyses and misinterpretations of the results. PMID:28358895

  17. Comparison of segmentation using fast marching and geodesic active contours methods for bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilqis, A.; Widita, R.

    2016-03-01

    Image processing is important in diagnosing diseases or damages of human organs. One of the important stages of image processing is segmentation process. Segmentation is a separation process of the image into regions of certain similar characteristics. It is used to simplify the image to make an analysis easier. The case raised in this study is image segmentation of bones. Bone's image segmentation is a way to get bone dimensions, which is needed in order to make prosthesis that is used to treat broken or cracked bones. Segmentation methods chosen in this study are fast marching and geodesic active contours. This study uses ITK (Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit) software. The success of the segmentation was then determined by calculating its accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Based on the results, the Active Contours method has slightly higher accuracy and sensitivity values than the fast marching method. As for the value of specificity, fast marching has produced three image results that have higher specificity values compared to those of geodesic active contour's. The result also indicates that both methods have succeeded in performing bone's image segmentation. Overall, geodesic active contours method is quite better than fast marching in segmenting bone images.

  18. Fast neutron activation analysis by means of low voltage neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhat, M. E.

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This machine can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. Procedure of neutron flux determination and efficiency calculation is described. Examples of testing some Egyptian natural cosmetics are given.

  19. Radioxenon spiked air

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; Houghton, Tracy P.; Jenson, Douglas D.; Mann, Nick R.

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  20. Fast and slow activation of voltage-dependent ion channels in radish vacuoles.

    PubMed Central

    Gambale, F; Cantu, A M; Carpaneto, A; Keller, B U

    1993-01-01

    The molecular processes associated with voltage-dependent opening and closing (gating) of ion channels were investigated using a new preparation from plant cells, i.e., voltage and calcium-activated ion channels in radish root vacuoles. These channels display a main single channel conductance of approximately 90 pS and are characterized by long activation times lasting several hundreds of milliseconds. Here, we demonstrate that these channels have a second kinetically distinct activation mode which is characterized by even longer activation times. Different membrane potential protocols allowed to switch between the fast and the slow mode in a controlled and reversible manner. At transmembrane potentials of -100 mV, the ratio between the fast and slow activation time constant was around 1:5. Correspondingly, activation times lasting several seconds were observed in the slow mode. The molecular process controlling fast and slow activation may represent an effective modulator of voltage-dependent gating of ion channels in other plant and animal systems. PMID:7507716

  1. Spike processing with a graphene excitable laser

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Bhavin J.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Tait, Alexander N.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel materials and devices in photonics have the potential to revolutionize optical information processing, beyond conventional binary-logic approaches. Laser systems offer a rich repertoire of useful dynamical behaviors, including the excitable dynamics also found in the time-resolved “spiking” of neurons. Spiking reconciles the expressiveness and efficiency of analog processing with the robustness and scalability of digital processing. We demonstrate a unified platform for spike processing with a graphene-coupled laser system. We show that this platform can simultaneously exhibit logic-level restoration, cascadability and input-output isolation—fundamental challenges in optical information processing. We also implement low-level spike-processing tasks that are critical for higher level processing: temporal pattern detection and stable recurrent memory. We study these properties in the context of a fiber laser system and also propose and simulate an analogous integrated device. The addition of graphene leads to a number of advantages which stem from its unique properties, including high absorption and fast carrier relaxation. These could lead to significant speed and efficiency improvements in unconventional laser processing devices, and ongoing research on graphene microfabrication promises compatibility with integrated laser platforms. PMID:26753897

  2. The microwave spectrum of solar millisecond spikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehli, M.; Magun, A.

    1986-01-01

    The microwave radiation from solar flares sometimes shows short and intensive spikes which are superimposed on the burst continuum. In order to determine the upper frequency limit of their occurrence and the circular polarization, a statistical analysis was performed on digital microwave observations from 3.2 to 92.5 GHz. Additionally, fine structures were investigated with a fast 32-channel spectrometer at 3.47 GHz. It was found that about 10 percent of the bursts show fine structures at 3.2 and 5.2 GHz, whereas none occurred above 8.4 GHz. Most of the observed spikes were very short and their bandwidth varied from below 0.5 MHz to more than 200 MHz. Simultaneous observations at two further frequencies showed no coincident spikes at the second and third harmonic. The observations can be explained by the theory of electron cyclotron masering if the observed bandwidths are determined by magnetic field inhomogeneities or if the rise times are independent of the source diameters. The latter would imply source sizes between 50 and 100 km.

  3. Spiking neuron computation with the time machine.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vaibhav; Shekhar, Ravi; Harris, John G

    2012-04-01

    The Time Machine (TM) is a spike-based computation architecture that represents synaptic weights in time. This choice of weight representation allows the use of virtual synapses, providing an excellent tradeoff in terms of flexibility, arbitrary weight connections and hardware usage compared to dedicated synapse architectures. The TM supports an arbitrary number of synapses and is limited only by the number of simultaneously active synapses to each neuron. SpikeSim, a behavioral hardware simulator for the architecture, is described along with example algorithms for edge detection and objection recognition. The TM can implement traditional spike-based processing as well as recently developed time mode operations where step functions serve as the input and output of each neuron block. A custom hybrid digital/analog implementation and a fully digital realization of the TM are discussed. An analog chip with 32 neurons, 1024 synapses and an address event representation (AER) block has been fabricated in 0.5 μm technology. A fully digital field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based implementation of the architecture has 6,144 neurons and 100,352 simultaneously active synapses. Both implementations utilize a digital controller for routing spikes that can process up to 34 million synapses per second.

  4. Implementing Signature Neural Networks with Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Medina, José Luis; Latorre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks constitute the most promising approach to develop realistic Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Unlike traditional firing rate-based paradigms, information coding in spiking models is based on the precise timing of individual spikes. It has been demonstrated that spiking ANNs can be successfully and efficiently applied to multiple realistic problems solvable with traditional strategies (e.g., data classification or pattern recognition). In recent years, major breakthroughs in neuroscience research have discovered new relevant computational principles in different living neural systems. Could ANNs benefit from some of these recent findings providing novel elements of inspiration? This is an intriguing question for the research community and the development of spiking ANNs including novel bio-inspired information coding and processing strategies is gaining attention. From this perspective, in this work, we adapt the core concepts of the recently proposed Signature Neural Network paradigm—i.e., neural signatures to identify each unit in the network, local information contextualization during the processing, and multicoding strategies for information propagation regarding the origin and the content of the data—to be employed in a spiking neural network. To the best of our knowledge, none of these mechanisms have been used yet in the context of ANNs of spiking neurons. This paper provides a proof-of-concept for their applicability in such networks. Computer simulations show that a simple network model like the discussed here exhibits complex self-organizing properties. The combination of multiple simultaneous encoding schemes allows the network to generate coexisting spatio-temporal patterns of activity encoding information in different spatio-temporal spaces. As a function of the network and/or intra-unit parameters shaping the corresponding encoding modality, different forms of competition among the evoked patterns can emerge even in the

  5. Implementing Signature Neural Networks with Spiking Neurons.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Medina, José Luis; Latorre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks constitute the most promising approach to develop realistic Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Unlike traditional firing rate-based paradigms, information coding in spiking models is based on the precise timing of individual spikes. It has been demonstrated that spiking ANNs can be successfully and efficiently applied to multiple realistic problems solvable with traditional strategies (e.g., data classification or pattern recognition). In recent years, major breakthroughs in neuroscience research have discovered new relevant computational principles in different living neural systems. Could ANNs benefit from some of these recent findings providing novel elements of inspiration? This is an intriguing question for the research community and the development of spiking ANNs including novel bio-inspired information coding and processing strategies is gaining attention. From this perspective, in this work, we adapt the core concepts of the recently proposed Signature Neural Network paradigm-i.e., neural signatures to identify each unit in the network, local information contextualization during the processing, and multicoding strategies for information propagation regarding the origin and the content of the data-to be employed in a spiking neural network. To the best of our knowledge, none of these mechanisms have been used yet in the context of ANNs of spiking neurons. This paper provides a proof-of-concept for their applicability in such networks. Computer simulations show that a simple network model like the discussed here exhibits complex self-organizing properties. The combination of multiple simultaneous encoding schemes allows the network to generate coexisting spatio-temporal patterns of activity encoding information in different spatio-temporal spaces. As a function of the network and/or intra-unit parameters shaping the corresponding encoding modality, different forms of competition among the evoked patterns can emerge even in the absence

  6. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  7. Predictability of EEG interictal spikes.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D A; Schiff, S J

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether EEG spikes are predictable, time series of EEG spike intervals were generated from subdural and depth electrode recordings from four patients. The intervals between EEG spikes were hand edited to ensure high accuracy and eliminate false positive and negative spikes. Spike rates (per minute) were generated from longer time series, but for these data hand editing was usually not feasible. Linear and nonlinear models were fit to both types of data. One patient had no linear or nonlinear predictability, two had predictability that could be well accounted for with a linear stochastic model, and one had a degree of nonlinear predictability for both interval and rate data that no linear model could adequately account for. PMID:8580318

  8. Safety Design Requirements for Active Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...environments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active Hazard Mitigation Device insensitive munitions fast cook-off slow...DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTIVE HAZARD MITIGATION DEVICE (AHMD) EMPLOYED TO ADDRESS FAST AND SLOW COOK-OFF THERMAL THREATS DOD Fuze Engineering

  9. A robust and biologically plausible spike pattern recognition network.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Perrone, Ben P; Sen, Kamal; Billimoria, Cyrus P

    2010-11-17

    The neural mechanisms that enable recognition of spiking patterns in the brain are currently unknown. This is especially relevant in sensory systems, in which the brain has to detect such patterns and recognize relevant stimuli by processing peripheral inputs; in particular, it is unclear how sensory systems can recognize time-varying stimuli by processing spiking activity. Because auditory stimuli are represented by time-varying fluctuations in frequency content, it is useful to consider how such stimuli can be recognized by neural processing. Previous models for sound recognition have used preprocessed or low-level auditory signals as input, but complex natural sounds such as speech are thought to be processed in auditory cortex, and brain regions involved in object recognition in general must deal with the natural variability present in spike trains. Thus, we used neural recordings to investigate how a spike pattern recognition system could deal with the intrinsic variability and diverse response properties of cortical spike trains. We propose a biologically plausible computational spike pattern recognition model that uses an excitatory chain of neurons to spatially preserve the temporal representation of the spike pattern. Using a single neural recording as input, the model can be trained using a spike-timing-dependent plasticity-based learning rule to recognize neural responses to 20 different bird songs with >98% accuracy and can be stimulated to evoke reverse spike pattern playback. Although we test spike train recognition performance in an auditory task, this model can be applied to recognize sufficiently reliable spike patterns from any neuronal system.

  10. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    PubMed Central

    Swindale, Nicholas V.; Spacek, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted) with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC) algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 min. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis (PCA). Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scalable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). PMID:24574979

  11. A laser-induced repetitive fast neutron source applied for gold activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sungman; Park, Sangsoon; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Hyungki

    2012-12-15

    A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source was developed for applications in laser-driven nuclear physics research. The developed neutron source, which has a neutron yield of approximately 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n/pulse and can be operated up to a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, was applied for a gold activation analysis. Relatively strong delayed gamma spectra of the activated gold were measured at 333 keV and 355 keV, and proved the possibility of the neutron source for activation analyses. In addition, the nuclear reactions responsible for the measured gamma spectra of gold were elucidated by the 14 MeV fast neutrons resulting from the D(t,n)He{sup 4} nuclear reaction, for which the required tritium originated from the primary fusion reaction, D(d,p)T{sup 3}.

  12. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierlik, M.; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project "Accelerators & Detectors" (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  13. Fast activation of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels of skeletal muscle. Multiple pathways of channel gating

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) receptors of the transverse tubule membrane play two roles in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: (a) they function as the voltage sensor which undergoes fast transition to control release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum, and (b) they provide the conducting unit of a slowly activating L-type calcium channel. To understand this dual function of the DHP receptor, we studied the effect of depolarizing conditioning pulse on the activation kinetics of the skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive calcium channels reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes. Activation of the incorporated calcium channel was imposed by depolarizing test pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV. The gating kinetics of the channel was studied with ensemble averages of repeated episodes. Based on a first latency analysis, two distinct classes of channel openings occurred after depolarization: most had delayed latencies, distributed with a mode of 70 ms (slow gating); a small number of openings had short first latencies, < 12 ms (fast gating). A depolarizing conditioning pulse to +20 mV placed 200 ms before the test pulse (-10 mV), led to a significant increase in the activation rate of the ensemble averaged-current; the time constant of activation went from tau m = 110 ms (reference) to tau m = 45 ms after conditioning. This enhanced activation by the conditioning pulse was due to the increase in frequency of fast open events, which was a steep function of the intermediate voltage and the interval between the conditioning pulse and the test pulse. Additional analysis demonstrated that fast gating is the property of the same individual channels that normally gate slowly and that the channels adopt this property after a sojourn in the open state. The rapid secondary activation seen after depolarizing prepulses is not compatible with a linear activation model for the calcium channel, but is highly consistent with a cyclical model. A six- state cyclical model is

  14. Fast optical recording of light-flash evoked neural activation in amphibian retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xin-Cheng; George, John S.

    2005-08-01

    Imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses closely associated with neural activation promises important technical advantages over traditional single and multi-channel electrophysiological techniques for dynamic measurements of visual processing and early detection of eye diseases. We have developed a fast, no-moving-parts optical coherence tomography (OCT), system based on an electro-optic phase modulator, and used it to record dynamic near infrared (NIR) light scattering changes in frog retina activated by a visible light-flash. We also employed transmitted light for highly sensitive measurement and imaging of neural activation, and to optimize illumination and optical configuration. Using a photodiode detector, we routinely measured dynamic NIR transmitted optical responses in single passes. When the whole retina was illuminated by a visible light-flash, a positive peak was typically observed in transmitted light measurements. CCD image sequences disclosed larger fractional responses, in some cases exceeding 0.5% in individual pixels, and showed evidence of multiple response components with both negative- and positive-going signals with different timescales and complex but consistent spatial organization. The fast negative-going signals are highly correlated with the a-wave of the electrophysiological signals, and may reflect the activation of photoreceptors. The fast positive-going responses are related to the b-wave of the electrophysiological signals, and may result from the activation of ON bipolar cells. Slow optical responses may signal metabolic changes of retinal tissue. Our experimental results and theoretical analysis suggest that the optical responses may result from dynamic volume changes associated with neural activation, corresponding to ion and water flow across the cell membrane.

  15. Gamma oscillations of spiking neural populations enhance signal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; Doiron, Brent

    2007-11-01

    Selective attention is an important filter for complex environments where distractions compete with signals. Attention increases both the gamma-band power of cortical local field potentials and the spike-field coherence within the receptive field of an attended object. However, the mechanisms by which gamma-band activity enhances, if at all, the encoding of input signals are not well understood. We propose that gamma oscillations induce binomial-like spike-count statistics across noisy neural populations. Using simplified models of spiking neurons, we show how the discrimination of static signals based on the population spike-count response is improved with gamma induced binomial statistics. These results give an important mechanistic link between the neural correlates of attention and the discrimination tasks where attention is known to enhance performance. Further, they show how a rhythmicity of spike responses can enhance coding schemes that are not temporally sensitive.

  16. Recent progress in multi-electrode spike sorting methods.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Yger, Pierre; Marre, Olivier

    2017-03-02

    In recent years, arrays of extracellular electrodes have been developed and manufactured to record simultaneously from hundreds of electrodes packed with a high density. These recordings should allow neuroscientists to reconstruct the individual activity of the neurons spiking in the vicinity of these electrodes, with the help of signal processing algorithms. Algorithms need to solve a source separation problem, also known as spike sorting. However, these new devices challenge the classical way to do spike sorting. Here we review different methods that have been developed to sort spikes from these large-scale recordings. We describe the common properties of these algorithms, as well as their main differences. Finally, we outline the issues that remain to be solved by future spike sorting algorithms.

  17. Mapping Spikes to Sensations

    PubMed Central

    Stüttgen, Maik C.; Schwarz, Cornelius; Jäkel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Single-unit recordings conducted during perceptual decision-making tasks have yielded tremendous insights into the neural coding of sensory stimuli. In such experiments, detection or discrimination behavior (the psychometric data) is observed in parallel with spike trains in sensory neurons (the neurometric data). Frequently, candidate neural codes for information read-out are pitted against each other by transforming the neurometric data in some way and asking which code’s performance most closely approximates the psychometric performance. The code that matches the psychometric performance best is retained as a viable candidate and the others are rejected. In following this strategy, psychometric data is often considered to provide an unbiased measure of perceptual sensitivity. It is rarely acknowledged that psychometric data result from a complex interplay of sensory and non-sensory processes and that neglect of these processes may result in misestimating psychophysical sensitivity. This again may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the adequacy of candidate neural codes. In this review, we first discuss requirements on the neural data for a subsequent neurometric-psychometric comparison. We then focus on different psychophysical tasks for the assessment of detection and discrimination performance and the cognitive processes that may underlie their execution. We discuss further factors that may compromise psychometric performance and how they can be detected or avoided. We believe that these considerations point to shortcomings in our understanding of the processes underlying perceptual decisions, and therefore offer potential for future research. PMID:22084627

  18. Fractal dimension analysis for spike detection in low SNR extracellular signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmasi, Mehrdad; Büttner, Ulrich; Glasauer, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Many algorithms have been suggested for detection and sorting of spikes in extracellular recording. Nevertheless, it is still challenging to detect spikes in low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). We propose a spike detection algorithm that is based on the fractal properties of extracellular signals and can detect spikes in low SNR regimes. Semi-intact spikes are low-amplitude spikes whose shapes are almost preserved. The detection of these spikes can significantly enhance the performance of multi-electrode recording systems. Approach. Semi-intact spikes are simulated by adding three noise components to a spike train: thermal noise, inter-spike noise, and spike-level noise. We show that simulated signals have fractal properties which make them proper candidates for fractal analysis. Then we use fractal dimension as the main core of our spike detection algorithm and call it fractal detector. The performance of the fractal detector is compared with three frequently used spike detectors. Main results. We demonstrate that in low SNR, the fractal detector has the best performance and results in the highest detection probability. It is shown that, in contrast to the other three detectors, the performance of the fractal detector is independent of inter-spike noise power and that variations in spike shape do not alter its performance. Finally, we use the fractal detector for spike detection in experimental data and similar to simulations, it is shown that the fractal detector has the best performance in low SNR regimes. Significance. The detection of low-amplitude spikes provides more information about the neural activity in the vicinity of the recording electrodes. Our results suggest using the fractal detector as a reliable and robust method for detecting semi-intact spikes in low SNR extracellular signals.

  19. Dendritic Spikes in Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Manita, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    What is the function of dendritic spikes? One might argue that they provide conditions for neuronal plasticity or that they are essential for neural computation. However, despite a long history of dendritic research, the physiological relevance of dendritic spikes in brain function remains unknown. This could stem from the fact that most studies on dendrites have been performed in vitro. Fortunately, the emergence of novel techniques such as improved two-photon microscopy, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), and optogenetic tools has provided the means for vital breakthroughs in in vivo dendritic research. These technologies enable the investigation of the functions of dendritic spikes in behaving animals, and thus, help uncover the causal relationship between dendritic spikes, and sensory information processing and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the roles of dendritic spikes in brain function would provide mechanistic insight into the relationship between the brain and the mind. In this review article, we summarize the results of studies on dendritic spikes from a historical perspective and discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the role of dendritic spikes in sensory perception. PMID:28261060

  20. Spikes removal in surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podulka, P.; Pawlus, P.; Dobrzański, P.; Lenart, A.

    2014-03-01

    Several cylinder surface topographies made from grey cast iron were measured by Talysurf CCI white light interferometer with and without use of spikes filter. They were plateau honed by abrasive stones. Measured area was 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm, height resolution was 0.01 nm. The forms were eliminated using polynomial of the 3rd degree. After it, spikes were removed using four methods. These approaches were compared. Parameters of the smaller and highest sensitivity on spikes presence were selected.

  1. How Fast Is Fast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Abe

    1994-01-01

    Presents an activity that enables students to answer for themselves the question of how fast a body must travel before the nonrelativistic expression must be replaced with the correct relativistic expression by deciding on the accuracy required in describing the kinetic energy of a body. (ZWH)

  2. Mouse neuroblastoma cell based model and the effect of epileptic events on calcium oscillations and neural spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suhwan; Baek, Juyeong; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-05-01

    Recently, Mouse neuroblastoma cells are considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and intensively used as a model system in different areas. Among those areas, differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor mediated ion current, and glutamate induced physiological response are actively investigated. The reason for the interest to mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells is that they have a fast growing rate than other cells in neural origin with a few another advantages. This study evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spikes recording of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in mouse N2A cell with our proposed imaging modality, we report that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells can be an important model related to epileptic activity studies. It is concluded that the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce the epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as produced by the neurons or the astrocytes. This evidence advocates the increased and strong level of neurotransmitters release by enhancement in free calcium using the 4-aminopyridine which causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce the epileptic spikes and calcium oscillation.

  3. MODELING SUPER-FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES OBSERVED BY SDO IN ACTIVE REGION FUNNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ofman, L.; Liu, W.; Title, A.; Aschwanden, M.

    2011-10-20

    Recently, quasi-periodic, rapidly propagating waves have been observed in extreme ultraviolet by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in about 10 flare/coronal mass ejection (CME) events thus far. A typical example is the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/CME event that exhibited arc-shaped wave trains propagating in an active region (AR) magnetic funnel with {approx}5% intensity variations at speeds in the range of 1000-2000 km s{sup -1}. The fast temporal cadence and high sensitivity of AIA enabled the detection of these waves. We identify them as fast magnetosonic waves driven quasi-periodically at the base of the flaring region and develop a three-dimensional MHD model of the event. For the initial state we utilize the dipole magnetic field to model the AR and include gravitationally stratified density at coronal temperature. At the coronal base of the AR, we excite the fast magnetosonic wave by periodic velocity pulsations in the photospheric plane confined to a funnel of magnetic field lines. The excited fast magnetosonic waves have similar amplitude, wavelength, and propagation speeds as the observed wave trains. Based on the simulation results, we discuss the possible excitation mechanism of the waves, their dynamical properties, and the use of the observations for coronal MHD seismology.

  4. Reduced fasting-induced activation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased leptin sensitivity in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Fasting increases c-Fos expression in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) in lean, but not in hyperleptinemic mice with late-onset obesity (LOO). Although obesity is associated with leptin resistance, we hypothesized that under fasting conditions, leptin sensitivity might be restored and that hyperleptinemia may counteract the neuronal response to fasting. We investigated whether the reduced fasting response of ARC neurons in LOO is paralleled by an increase in leptin sensitivity, as measured by leptin-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation. To assess leptin's role in the modulation of the fasting-induced ARC activation, we investigated c-Fos responses and hormone and metabolite levels in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) and in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Leptin induced a stronger STAT-3 phosphorylation in fasted LOO and lean mice than in ad libitum-fed animals. Similar to LOO, hyperleptinemic DIO mice showed no c-Fos response after fasting, while ob/ob mice showed a stronger response than lean control mice. Mimicking hyperleptinemia by repeated leptin injections in lean mice during fasting attenuated the fasting-induced c-Fos expression. Our findings indicate that high leptin levels prevent the fasting-induced activation of ARC neurons in mice. Moreover, leptin sensitivity is dynamic in obese subjects and depends on the feeding status. During short-term increases in leptin sensitivity, e.g., during fasting, leptin signaling appears to be effective, even in hyperleptinemic obesity. As reflected by the blockade of the fasting-induced ARC activation, fasting seems to interfere with the responsiveness of the ARC to signals related to the status of energy intake.

  5. Spike history neural response model.

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Tatiana; Abramian, Miganoosh; Zarelli, Daniele; Nĕsić, Dragan; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Grayden, David B

    2015-06-01

    There is a potential for improved efficacy of neural stimulation if stimulation levels can be modified dynamically based on the responses of neural tissue in real time. A neural model is developed that describes the response of neurons to electrical stimulation and that is suitable for feedback control neuroprosthetic stimulation. Experimental data from NZ white rabbit retinae is used with a data-driven technique to model neural dynamics. The linear-nonlinear approach is adapted to incorporate spike history and to predict the neural response of ganglion cells to electrical stimulation. To validate the fitness of the model, the penalty term is calculated based on the time difference between each simulated spike and the closest spike in time in the experimentally recorded train. The proposed model is able to robustly predict experimentally observed spike trains.

  6. Reconciling Coherent Oscillation with Modulation of Irregular Spiking Activity in Selective Attention: Gamma-Range Synchronization between Sensory and Executive Cortical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Ardid, Salva; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Compte, Albert

    2010-01-01

    In this computational work, we investigated gamma-band synchronization across cortical circuits associated with selective attention. The model explicitly instantiates a reciprocally connected loop of spiking neurons between a sensory-type (area MT) and an executive-type (prefrontal/parietal) cortical circuit (the source area for top-down attentional signaling). Moreover, unlike models in which neurons behave as clock-like oscillators, in our model single-cell firing is highly irregular (close to Possion) while local field potential exhibits a population rhythm. In this “sparsely synchronized oscillatory” regime, the model reproduces and clarifies multiple observations from behaving animals. Top-down attentional inputs have a profound effect on network oscillatory dynamics while only modestly affecting single-neuron spiking statistics. In addition, attentional synchrony modulations are highly selective: Inter-areal neuronal coherence occurs only when there is a close match between the preferred feature of neurons, the attended feature and the presented stimulus, a prediction that is experimentally testable. When inter-areal coherence was abolished attention-induced gain modulations of sensory neurons were slightly reduced. Therefore, our model reconciles the rate and synchronization effects, and suggests that interareal coherence contributes to large-scale neuronal computation in the brain through modest enhancement of rate modulations as well as a pronounced attention-specific enhancement of neural synchrony. PMID:20181583

  7. Aurora Australis, Spiked, Sinuous Green Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This distant view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked and sinuous band of green airglow above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  8. Stochastic synchronization in finite size spiking networks.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John; Reyes, Alex

    2006-09-01

    We study a stochastic synchronization of spiking activity in feedforward networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons. A stochastic mean field analysis shows that synchronization occurs only when the network size is sufficiently small. This gives evidence that the dynamics, and hence processing, of finite size populations can be drastically different from that observed in the infinite size limit. Our results agree with experimentally observed synchrony in cortical networks, and further strengthen the link between synchrony and propagation in cortical systems.

  9. Cytoplasm-to-myonucleus ratios and succinate dehydrogenase activities in adult rat slow and fast muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, B. S.; Kasper, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between myonuclear number, cellular size, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and myosin type was examined in single fiber segments (n = 54; 9 +/- 3 mm long) mechanically dissected from soleus and plantaris muscles of adult rats. One end of each fiber segment was stained for DNA before quantitative photometric analysis of succinate dehydrogenase activity; the other end was double immunolabeled with fast and slow myosin heavy chain monoclonal antibodies. Mean +/- S.D. cytoplasmic volume/myonucleus ratio was higher in fast and slow plantaris fibers (112 +/- 69 vs. 34 +/- 21 x 10(3) microns3) than fast and slow soleus fibers (40 +/- 20 vs. 30 +/- 14 x 10(3) microns3), respectively. Slow fibers always had small volumes/myonucleus, regardless of fiber diameter, succinate dehydrogenase activity, or muscle of origin. In contrast, smaller diameter (< 70 microns) fast soleus and plantaris fibers with high succinate dehydrogenase activity appeared to have low volumes/myonucleus while larger diameter (> 70 microns) fast fibers with low succinate dehydrogenase activity always had large volume/myonucleus. Slow soleus fibers had significantly greater numbers of myonuclei/mm than did either fast soleus or fast plantaris fibers (116 +/- 51 vs. 55 +/- 22 and 44 +/- 23), respectively. These data suggest that the myonuclear domain is more limited in slow than fast fibers and in the fibers with a high, compared to a low, oxidative metabolic capability.

  10. Versatile illumination platform and fast optical switch to give standard observation camera gated active imaging capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasser, R.; Peyronneaudi, Benjamin; Yon, Kevin; Aubry, Marie

    2015-10-01

    CILAS, subsidiary of Airbus Defense and Space, develops, manufactures and sales laser-based optronics equipment for defense and homeland security applications. Part of its activity is related to active systems for threat detection, recognition and identification. Active surveillance and active imaging systems are often required to achieve identification capacity in case for long range observation in adverse conditions. In order to ease the deployment of active imaging systems often complex and expensive, CILAS suggests a new concept. It consists on the association of two apparatus working together. On one side, a patented versatile laser platform enables high peak power laser illumination for long range observation. On the other side, a small camera add-on works as a fast optical switch to select photons with specific time of flight only. The association of the versatile illumination platform and the fast optical switch presents itself as an independent body, so called "flash module", giving to virtually any passive observation systems gated active imaging capacity in NIR and SWIR.

  11. Fast determination of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y activity in milk by Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; Dolgin, B; German, U; Pelled, O; Alfassi, Z B

    2013-12-01

    Cherenkov counting of the ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y pure beta emitters is an attractive method for ⁹⁰Sr activity determination, but the color quenching effect may be significant, especially for strongly colored or semi-opaque media. A quench correction method based on the external source of some liquid scintillation systems (named ESAR - external source area ratio) was proposed and checked for aqueous solutions and was proved to be effective also for urine samples. In the present work, the application of the ESAR method for fast determination of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y activity in milk samples is described.

  12. Improving crosswind stability of fast rail vehicles using active secondary suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Dirk; Berg, Mats; Persson, Rickard; Stichel, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Rail vehicles are today increasingly equipped with active suspension systems for ride comfort purposes. In this paper, it is studied whether these often powerful systems also can be used to improve crosswind stability. A fast rail vehicle equipped with active secondary suspension for ride comfort purposes is exposed to crosswind loads during curve negotiation. For high crosswind loads, the active secondary suspension is used to reduce the impact of crosswind on the vehicle. The control input is taken from the primary vertical suspension deflection. Three different control cases are studied and compared with the only comfort-oriented active secondary suspension and a passive secondary suspension. The application of active secondary suspension resulted in significantly improved crosswind stability.

  13. Fast ionospheric response to enhanced activity in geospace: Ion feeding of the inner magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Daglis, I.A.; Axford, I.A.

    1996-03-01

    The authors look at the question of the ionosphere feeding ions into the magnetosphere/magnetotail, in response to magnetic storm activity, or coupling of the solar wind into the system. They are concerned with fast response, not the question of whether the ionosphere feeds ions in general. The dynamics which results in the inner magnetosphere in response to the input of cold ions from the ionosphere is of interest to the authors. They review recent and older data which has shed light on this question. They look at outflow data, and heating mechanisms for these cold ions, as well as the impact such ions may have on the dynamics of magnetic storms. They observe that fast feeding of ions out of the ionosphere may leave the inner magnetosphere heavily populated with heavy ions such as O{sup +}, which can have a definite impact on the dynamic development of the magnetosphere.

  14. 5'AMP-activated protein kinase activity is increased in adipose tissue of northern elephant seal pups during prolonged fasting-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Viscarra, Jose A; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2011-06-01

    Northern elephant seals endure a 2- to 3-month fast characterized by sustained hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and increased plasma cortisol and free fatty acids, conditions often seen in insulin-resistant humans. We had previously shown that adipose Glut4 expression and 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity increase and plasma glucose decreases in fasting seals suggesting that AMPK activity contributes to glucose regulation during insulin-resistant conditions. To address the hypothesis that AMPK activity increases during fasting-induced insulin resistance, we performed glucose tolerance tests (GTT) on early (n=5) and late (n=8)-fasted seal pups and compared adipose tissue expression of insulin signaling proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and AMPK, in addition to plasma adiponectin, leptin, cortisol, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels. Fasting was associated with decreased glucose clearance, plasma insulin and adiponectin, and intracellular insulin signaling, as well as increased plasma cortisol and NEFAs, supporting the suggestion that seals develop insulin resistance late in the fast. The expression of Glut4 and VAMP2 increased (52 and 63% respectively) with fasting but did not change significantly during the GTT. PPARγ and phosphorylated AMPK did not change in the early fasted seals, but increased significantly (73 and 50% respectively) in the late-fasted seals during the GTT. Increased AMPK activity along with the reduction in the activity of insulin-signaling proteins supports our hypothesis that AMPK activity is increased following the onset of insulin resistance. The association between increased AMPK activity and Glut4 expression suggests that AMPK plays a greater role in regulating glucose metabolism in mammals adapted to prolonged fasting than in non-fasting mammals.

  15. Progress reports for Gen IV sodium fast reactor activities FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J. E.; Tentner, A. M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-04

    An important goal of the US DOE Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) program is to develop the technology necessary to increase safety margins in future fast reactor systems. Although no decision has been made yet about who will build the next demonstration fast reactor, it seems likely that the construction team will include a combination of international companies, and the safety design philosophy for the reactor will reflect a consensus of the participating countries. A significant amount of experience in the design and safety analysis of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) using oxide fuel has been developed in both Japan and France during last few decades. In the US, the traditional approach to reactor safety is based on the principle of defense-in-depth, which is usually expressed in physical terms as multiple barriers to release of radioactive material (e.g. cladding, reactor vessel, containment building), but it is understood that the 'barriers' may consist of active systems or even procedures. As implemented in a reactor design, defense-in-depth is classed in levels of safety. Level 1 includes measures to specify and build a reliable design with significant safety margins that will perform according to the intentions of the designers. Level 2 consists of additional design measures, usually active systems, to protect against unlikely accidental events that may occur during the life of the plant. Level 3 design measures are intended to protect the public in the event of an extremely unlikely accident not foreseen to occur during the plant's life. All of the design measures that make up the first three levels of safety are within the design basis of the plant. Beyond Level 3, and beyond the normal design basis, there are accidents that are not expected to occur in a whole generation of plants, and it is in this class that severe accidents, i.e. accidents involving core melting, are included. Beyond design basis measures to address severe accidents are usually identified as being

  16. FOCAL GENERATION OF PAROXYSMAL FAST RUNS DURING ELECTROGRAPHIC SEIZURES

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Sofiane; Chauvette, Sylvain; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A cortically generated Lennox-Gastaut type seizure is associated with spike-wave/polyspike-wave discharges at 1.0–2.5 Hz and fast runs at 7–16 Hz. Here we studied the patterns of synchronization during runs of paroxysmal fast spikes. Methods Electrographic activities were recorded using multisite intracellular and field potential recordings in vivo from cats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. In different experiments, the recording electrodes were located either at short distances (<1 mm) or at longer distances (up to 12 mm). The main experimental findings were tested in computational models. Results In the majority of cases, the onset and the offset of fast runs occurred almost simultaneously in different recording sites. The amplitude and duration of fast runs could vary by orders of magnitude. Within the fast runs, the patterns of synchronization recorded in different electrodes were as following: (i) synchronous, in phase, (ii) synchronous, with phase shift, (iii) patchy, repeated in phase/phase shift transitions and (iv) non-synchronous, slightly different frequencies in different recording sites or absence of oscillatory activity in one of the recording sites; the synchronous patterns (in phase or with phase shifts) were most common. All these patterns could be recorded in the same pair of electrodes during different seizures and they were reproduced in a computational network model. Intrinsically-bursting (IB) neurons fired more spikes per cycle than any other neurons suggesting their leading role in the fast run generation. Conclusions Once started, the fast runs are generated locally with variable correlations between neighboring cortical foci. PMID:18616553

  17. Balanced synaptic input shapes the correlation between neural spike trains.

    PubMed

    Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Oswald, Anne-Marie M; Urban, Nathaniel N; Doiron, Brent

    2011-12-01

    Stimulus properties, attention, and behavioral context influence correlations between the spike times produced by a pair of neurons. However, the biophysical mechanisms that modulate these correlations are poorly understood. With a combined theoretical and experimental approach, we show that the rate of balanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input modulates the magnitude and timescale of pairwise spike train correlation. High rate synaptic inputs promote spike time synchrony rather than long timescale spike rate correlations, while low rate synaptic inputs produce opposite results. This correlation shaping is due to a combination of enhanced high frequency input transfer and reduced firing rate gain in the high input rate state compared to the low state. Our study extends neural modulation from single neuron responses to population activity, a necessary step in understanding how the dynamics and processing of neural activity change across distinct brain states.

  18. A method for decoding the neurophysiological spike-response transform.

    PubMed

    Stern, Estee; García-Crescioni, Keyla; Miller, Mark W; Peskin, Charles S; Brezina, Vladimir

    2009-11-15

    Many physiological responses elicited by neuronal spikes-intracellular calcium transients, synaptic potentials, muscle contractions-are built up of discrete, elementary responses to each spike. However, the spikes occur in trains of arbitrary temporal complexity, and each elementary response not only sums with previous ones, but can itself be modified by the previous history of the activity. A basic goal in system identification is to characterize the spike-response transform in terms of a small number of functions-the elementary response kernel and additional kernels or functions that describe the dependence on previous history-that will predict the response to any arbitrary spike train. Here we do this by developing further and generalizing the "synaptic decoding" approach of Sen et al. (1996). Given the spike times in a train and the observed overall response, we use least-squares minimization to construct the best estimated response and at the same time best estimates of the elementary response kernel and the other functions that characterize the spike-response transform. We avoid the need for any specific initial assumptions about these functions by using techniques of mathematical analysis and linear algebra that allow us to solve simultaneously for all of the numerical function values treated as independent parameters. The functions are such that they may be interpreted mechanistically. We examine the performance of the method as applied to synthetic data. We then use the method to decode real synaptic and muscle contraction transforms.

  19. Cytosolic pro-apoptotic SPIKE induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ivana; Kastratovic, Tatjana; Zelen, Ivanka; Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Mitrovic, Marina

    2010-04-30

    Proteins of the BCL-2 family are important regulators of apoptosis. The BCL-2 family includes three main subgroups: the anti-apoptotic group, such as BCL-2, BCL-XL, BCL-W, and MCL-1; multi-domain pro-apoptotic BAX, BAK; and pro-apoptotic "BH3-only" BIK, PUMA, NOXA, BID, BAD, and SPIKE. SPIKE, a rare pro-apoptotic protein, is highly conserved throughout the evolution, including Caenorhabditis elegans, whose expression is downregulated in certain tumors, including kidney, lung, and breast. In the literature, SPIKE was proposed to interact with BAP31 and prevent BCL-XL from binding to BAP31. Here, we utilized the Position Weight Matrix method to identify SPIKE to be a BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein mainly localized in the cytosol of all cancer cell lines tested. Overexpression of SPIKE weakly induced apoptosis in comparison to the known BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BIK. SPIKE promoted mitochondrial cytochrome c release, the activation of caspase 3, and the caspase cleavage of caspase's downstream substrates BAP31 and p130CAS. Although the informatics analysis of SPIKE implicates this protein as a member of the BH3-only BCL-2 subfamily, its role in apoptosis remains to be elucidated.

  20. A Spiking Working Memory Model Based on Hebbian Short-Term Potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Florian

    2017-01-01

    A dominant theory of working memory (WM), referred to as the persistent activity hypothesis, holds that recurrently connected neural networks, presumably located in the prefrontal cortex, encode and maintain WM memory items through sustained elevated activity. Reexamination of experimental data has shown that prefrontal cortex activity in single units during delay periods is much more variable than predicted by such a theory and associated computational models. Alternative models of WM maintenance based on synaptic plasticity, such as short-term nonassociative (non-Hebbian) synaptic facilitation, have been suggested but cannot account for encoding of novel associations. Here we test the hypothesis that a recently identified fast-expressing form of Hebbian synaptic plasticity (associative short-term potentiation) is a possible mechanism for WM encoding and maintenance. Our simulations using a spiking neural network model of cortex reproduce a range of cognitive memory effects in the classical multi-item WM task of encoding and immediate free recall of word lists. Memory reactivation in the model occurs in discrete oscillatory bursts rather than as sustained activity. We relate dynamic network activity as well as key synaptic characteristics to electrophysiological measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that fast Hebbian short-term potentiation is a key WM mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Working memory (WM) is a key component of cognition. Hypotheses about the neural mechanism behind WM are currently under revision. Reflecting recent findings of fast Hebbian synaptic plasticity in cortex, we test whether a cortical spiking neural network model with such a mechanism can learn a multi-item WM task (word list learning). We show that our model can reproduce human cognitive phenomena and achieve comparable memory performance in both free and cued recall while being simultaneously compatible with experimental data on structure, connectivity, and

  1. Activity-dependent depression of monosynaptic fast IPSCs in hippocampus: contributions from reductions in chloride driving force and conductance.

    PubMed

    Ling, D S; Benardo, L S

    1995-01-23

    Whole-cell recordings techniques were used to record pharmacologically isolated fast inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons from rat hippocampal slices. Repetitive extracellular stimulation up to 10 Hz progressively reduced steady-state fast IPSC amplitude. At low stimulation frequencies (up to 1 Hz), this attenuation was characterized by a positive shift of IPSC reversal potential with no change in IPSC conductance. Above 1 Hz stimulation, fast IPSC depression was associated with changes in both reversal potential and IPSC conductance. Use-dependent depression at low frequencies was prevented when cells were chloride-loaded using cesium chloride based intracellular solutions. These findings suggest that activity-dependent depression of fast IPSCs at low stimulus frequencies results entirely from a reduction in chloride driving force, stemming from intracellular chloride accumulation. Activity-dependent changes in fast IPSC conductance occur only at stimulation rates above 1 Hz.

  2. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  3. Stretch-activated calcium channels relay fast calcium waves propagated by calcium-induced calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2007-03-01

    For nearly 30 years, fast calcium waves have been attributed to a regenerative process propagated by CICR (calcium-induced calcium release) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, I propose a model containing a new subclass of fast calcium waves which is propagated by CICI (calcium-induced calcium influx) through the plasma membrane. They are called fast CICI waves. These move at the order of 100 to 1000 microm/s (at 20 degrees C), rather than the order of 3 to 30 microm/s found for CICR. Moreover, in this proposed subclass, the calcium influx which drives calcium waves is relayed by stretch-activated calcium channels. This model is based upon reports from approx. 60 various systems. In seven of these reports, calcium waves were imaged, and, in five of these, evidence was presented that these waves were regenerated by CICI. Much of this model involves waves that move along functioning flagella and cilia. In these systems, waves of local calcium influx are thought to cause waves of local contraction by inducing the sliding of dynein or of kinesin past tubulin microtubules. Other cells which are reported to exhibit waves, which move at speeds in the fast CICI range, include ones from a dozen protozoa, three polychaete worms, three molluscs, a bryozoan, two sea urchins, one arthropod, four insects, Amphioxus, frogs, two fish and a vascular plant (Equisetum), together with numerous healthy, as well as cancerous, mammalian cells, including ones from human. In two of these systems, very gentle local mechanical stimulation is reported to initiate waves. In these non-flagellar systems, the calcium influxes are thought to speed the sliding of actinomyosin filaments past each other. Finally, I propose that this mechanochemical model could be tested by seeing if gentle mechanical stimulation induces waves in more of these systems and, more importantly, by imaging the predicted calcium waves in more of them.

  4. Wavelet transform of neural spike trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngtae; Jung, Min Whan; Kim, Yunbok

    2000-02-01

    Wavelet transform of neural spike trains recorded with a tetrode in the rat primary somatosensory cortex is described. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) of the spike train clearly shows singularities hidden in the noisy or chaotic spike trains. A multiresolution analysis of the spike train is also carried out using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for denoising and approximating at different time scales. Results suggest that this multiscale shape analysis can be a useful tool for classifying the spike trains.

  5. Fast Rotation and Trailing Fragments of the Active Asteroid P/2012 F5 (Gibbs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahus, Michał; Waniak, Wacław; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-03-01

    While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200 m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 ± 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. FAST ROTATION AND TRAILING FRAGMENTS OF THE ACTIVE ASTEROID P/2012 F5 (GIBBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Drahus, Michał; Waniak, Wacław; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-03-20

    While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200 m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 ± 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus.

  7. Comparing effects in spike-triggered averages of rectified EMG across different behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Adam G.; O’Dell, Ryan; Chan, Vanessa; Schieber, Marc H.

    2007-01-01

    Effects in spike-triggered averages (SpikeTAs) of rectified electromyographic activity (EMG) compiled for the same neuron-muscle pair during various behaviors often appear different. Do these differences represent significant changes in the effect of the neuron on the muscle activity? Quantitative comparison of such differences has been limited by two methodological problems, which we address here. First, although the linear baseline trend of many SpikeTAs can be adjusted with ramp subtraction, the curvilinear baseline trend of other SpikeTAs can not. To address this problem, we estimated baseline trends using a form of moving average. Artificial triggers were created in 1 ms increments from 40 ms before to 40 ms after each spike used to compile the SpikeTA. These 81 triggers were used to compile another average of rectified EMG, which we call a single-spike increment shifted average (single-spike ISA). Single-spike ISAs were averaged to produce an overall ISA, which captured slow trends in the baseline EMG while distributing any spike-locked features evenly throughout the 80 ms analysis window. The overall ISA then was subtracted from the initial SpikeTA, removing any slow baseline trends for more accurate measurement of SpikeTA effects. Second, the measured amplitude and temporal characteristics of SpikeTA effects produced by the same neuron-muscle pair may vary during different behaviors. But whether or not such variation is significant has been difficult to ascertain. We therefore applied a multiple fragment approach to permit statistical comparison of the measured features of SpikeTA effects for the same neuron-muscle pair during different behavioral epochs. Spike trains recorded in each task were divided into non-overlapping fragments of 100 spikes each, and a separate, ISA-corrected, SpikeTA was compiled for each fragment. Measurements made on these fragment SpikeTAs then were used as test statistics for comparison of peak percent increase, mean percent

  8. Neuronal spike train entropy estimation by history clustering.

    PubMed

    Watters, Nicholas; Reeke, George N

    2014-09-01

    Neurons send signals to each other by means of sequences of action potentials (spikes). Ignoring variations in spike amplitude and shape that are probably not meaningful to a receiving cell, the information content, or entropy of the signal depends on only the timing of action potentials, and because there is no external clock, only the interspike intervals, and not the absolute spike times, are significant. Estimating spike train entropy is a difficult task, particularly with small data sets, and many methods of entropy estimation have been proposed. Here we present two related model-based methods for estimating the entropy of neural signals and compare them to existing methods. One of the methods is fast and reasonably accurate, and it converges well with short spike time records; the other is impractically time-consuming but apparently very accurate, relying on generating artificial data that are a statistical match to the experimental data. Using the slow, accurate method to generate a best-estimate entropy value, we find that the faster estimator converges to this value more closely and with smaller data sets than many existing entropy estimators.

  9. Unbiased estimation of precise temporal correlations between spike trains.

    PubMed

    Stark, Eran; Abeles, Moshe

    2009-04-30

    A key issue in systems neuroscience is the contribution of precise temporal inter-neuronal interactions to information processing in the brain, and the main analytical tool used for studying pair-wise interactions is the cross-correlation histogram (CCH). Although simple to generate, a CCH is influenced by multiple factors in addition to precise temporal correlations between two spike trains, thus complicating its interpretation. A Monte-Carlo-based technique, the jittering method, has been suggested to isolate the contribution of precise temporal interactions to neural information processing. Here, we show that jittering spike trains is equivalent to convolving the CCH derived from the original trains with a finite window and using a Poisson distribution to estimate probabilities. Both procedures over-fit the original spike trains and therefore the resulting statistical tests are biased and have low power. We devise an alternative method, based on convolving the CCH with a partially hollowed window, and illustrate its utility using artificial and real spike trains. The modified convolution method is unbiased, has high power, and is computationally fast. We recommend caution in the use of the jittering method and in the interpretation of results based on it, and suggest using the modified convolution method for detecting precise temporal correlations between spike trains.

  10. Purkinje-cell-restricted restoration of Kv3.3 function restores complex spikes and rescues motor coordination in Kcnc3 mutants.

    PubMed

    Hurlock, Edward C; McMahon, Anne; Joho, Rolf H

    2008-04-30

    The fast-activating/deactivating voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.3 (Kcnc3) is expressed in various neuronal cell types involved in motor function, including cerebellar Purkinje cells. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13) patients carrying dominant-negative mutations in Kcnc3 and Kcnc3-null mutant mice both display motor incoordination, suggested in mice by increased lateral deviation while ambulating and slips on a narrow beam. Motor skill learning, however, is spared. Mice lacking Kcnc3 also exhibit muscle twitches. In addition to broadened spikes, recordings of Kcnc3-null Purkinje cells revealed fewer spikelets in complex spikes and a lower intraburst frequency. Targeted reexpression of Kv3.3 channels exclusively in Purkinje cells in Kcnc3-null mice as well as in mice also heterozygous for Kv3.1 sufficed to restore simple spike brevity along with normal complex spikes and to rescue specifically coordination. Therefore, spike parameters requiring Kv3.3 function in Purkinje cells are involved in the ataxic null phenotype and motor coordination, but not motor learning.

  11. Concerning spikes in emission and absorption in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Gennady P.; Sych, Robert A.; Huang, Guang-Li; Ji, Hai-Sheng; Yan, Yi-Hua; Tan, Cheng-Ming

    2013-01-01

    In some events, weak fast solar bursts (near the level of the quiet Sun) were observed in the background of numerous spikes in emission and absorption. In such a case, the background contains the noise signals of the receiver. In events on 2005 September 16 and 2002 April 14, the solar origin of fast bursts was confirmed by simultaneous recording of the bursts at several remote observatories. The noisy background pixels in emission and absorption can be excluded by subtracting a higher level of continuum when constructing the spectra. The wavelet spectrum, noisy profiles in different polarization channels and a spectrum with continuum level greater than zero demonstrates the noisy character of pixels with the lowest levels of emission and absorption. Thus, in each case, in order to judge the solar origin of all spikes, it is necessary to determine the level of continuum against the background of which the solar bursts are observed. Several models of microwave spikes are discussed. The electron cyclotron maser emission mechanism runs into serious problems with the interpretation of microwave millisecond spikes: the main obstacles are too high values of the magnetic field strength in the source (ωPe <= ωBe). The probable mechanism is the interaction of plasma Langmuir waves with ion-sound waves (l + s → t) in a source related to shock fronts in the reconnection region.

  12. Communication through Resonance in Spiking Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frégnac, Yves; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    The cortex processes stimuli through a distributed network of specialized brain areas. This processing requires mechanisms that can route neuronal activity across weakly connected cortical regions. Routing models proposed thus far are either limited to propagation of spiking activity across strongly connected networks or require distinct mechanisms that create local oscillations and establish their coherence between distant cortical areas. Here, we propose a novel mechanism which explains how synchronous spiking activity propagates across weakly connected brain areas supported by oscillations. In our model, oscillatory activity unleashes network resonance that amplifies feeble synchronous signals and promotes their propagation along weak connections (“communication through resonance”). The emergence of coherent oscillations is a natural consequence of synchronous activity propagation and therefore the assumption of different mechanisms that create oscillations and provide coherence is not necessary. Moreover, the phase-locking of oscillations is a side effect of communication rather than its requirement. Finally, we show how the state of ongoing activity could affect the communication through resonance and propose that modulations of the ongoing activity state could influence information processing in distributed cortical networks. PMID:25165853

  13. Sediment spiking for toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, M.H.; Norman, D.M.; Chapman, P.M.; Norman, D.M.; Quintino, V.M.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment toxicity testing integrates responses to sediment variables and hence does not directly indicate cause-and-effect. One tool for determining cause-and-effect is sediment spiking in which relatively uncontaminated sediment is amended with known amounts of contaminants, then tested for toxicity. Based on the concentration-response relationship(s), the relative toxicity of the spiked contaminants and their significance in sediment mixtures can be assessed. However, sediment spiking methods vary considerably. The present study details an appropriate methodology for amending sediments with a range of organic contaminant concentrations including different solvent schemes and an equilibration period. This methodology is described as appropriate because predicted and actual concentrations were similar, and responses in an acute 10-d amphipod test matched predictions and other data.

  14. Millisecond precision spike timing shapes tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Mackevicius, Emily L; Best, Matthew D; Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2012-10-31

    In primates, the sense of touch has traditionally been considered to be a spatial modality, drawing an analogy to the visual system. In this view, stimuli are encoded in spatial patterns of activity over the sheet of receptors embedded in the skin. We propose that the spatial processing mode is complemented by a temporal one. Indeed, the transduction and processing of complex, high-frequency skin vibrations have been shown to play an important role in tactile texture perception, and the frequency composition of vibrations shapes the evoked percept. Mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the glabrous skin exhibit temporal patterning in their responses, but the importance and behavioral relevance of spike timing, particularly for naturalistic stimuli, remains to be elucidated. Based on neurophysiological recordings from Rhesus macaques, we show that spike timing conveys information about the frequency composition of skin vibrations, both for individual afferents and for afferent populations, and that the temporal fidelity varies across afferent class. Furthermore, the perception of skin vibrations, measured in human subjects, is better predicted when spike timing is taken into account, and the resolution that predicts perception best matches the optimal resolution of the respective afferent classes. In light of these results, the peripheral representation of complex skin vibrations draws a powerful analogy with the auditory and vibrissal systems.

  15. Millisecond Precision Spike Timing Shapes Tactile Perception

    PubMed Central

    Mackevicius, Emily L.; Best, Matthew D.; Saal, Hannes P.

    2012-01-01

    In primates, the sense of touch has traditionally been considered to be a spatial modality, drawing an analogy to the visual system. In this view, stimuli are encoded in spatial patterns of activity over the sheet of receptors embedded in the skin. We propose that the spatial processing mode is complemented by a temporal one. Indeed, the transduction and processing of complex, high-frequency skin vibrations have been shown to play an important role in tactile texture perception, and the frequency composition of vibrations shapes the evoked percept. Mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the glabrous skin exhibit temporal patterning in their responses, but the importance and behavioral relevance of spike timing, particularly for naturalistic stimuli, remains to be elucidated. Based on neurophysiological recordings from Rhesus macaques, we show that spike timing conveys information about the frequency composition of skin vibrations, both for individual afferents and for afferent populations, and that the temporal fidelity varies across afferent class. Furthermore, the perception of skin vibrations, measured in human subjects, is better predicted when spike timing is taken into account, and the resolution that predicts perception best matches the optimal resolution of the respective afferent classes. In light of these results, the peripheral representation of complex skin vibrations draws a powerful analogy with the auditory and vibrissal systems. PMID:23115169

  16. Spike-dip transformation of Setaria viridis.

    PubMed

    Saha, Prasenjit; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Traditional method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the generation of tissue culture had limited success for Setaria viridis, an emerging C4 monocot model. Here we present an efficient in planta method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis using spike dip. Pre-anthesis developing spikes were dipped into a solution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter to standardize and optimize conditions for transient as well as stable transformations. A transformation efficiency of 0.8 ± 0.1% was obtained after dipping of 5-day-old S3 spikes for 20 min in Agrobacterium cultures containing S. viridis spike-dip medium supplemented with 0.025% Silwet L-77 and 200 μm acetosyringone. Reproducibility of this method was demonstrated by generating stable transgenic lines expressing β-glucuronidase plus (GUSplus), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter genes driven by either CaMV35S or intron-interrupted maize ubiquitin (Ubi) promoters from three S. viridis genotypes. Expression of these reporter genes in transient assays as well as in T1 stable transformed plants was monitored using histochemical, fluorometric GUS activity and fluorescence microscopy. Molecular analysis of transgenic lines revealed stable integration of transgenes into the genome, and inherited transgenes expressed in the subsequent generations. This approach provides opportunities for the high-throughput transformation and potentially facilitates translational research in a monocot model plant.

  17. Spike count, spike timing and temporal information in the cortex of awake, freely moving rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaglione, Alessandro; Foffani, Guglielmo; Moxon, Karen A.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Sensory processing of peripheral information is not stationary but is, in general, a dynamic process related to the behavioral state of the animal. Yet the link between the state of the behavior and the encoding properties of neurons is unclear. This report investigates the impact of the behavioral state on the encoding mechanisms used by cortical neurons for both detection and discrimination of somatosensory stimuli in awake, freely moving, rats. Approach. Neuronal activity was recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex of five rats under two different behavioral states (quiet versus whisking) while electrical stimulation of increasing stimulus strength was delivered to the mystacial pad. Information theoretical measures were then used to measure the contribution of different encoding mechanisms to the information carried by neurons in response to the whisker stimulation. Main results. We found that the behavioral state of the animal modulated the total amount of information conveyed by neurons and that the timing of individual spikes increased the information compared to the total count of spikes alone. However, the temporal information, i.e. information exclusively related to when the spikes occur, was not modulated by behavioral state. Significance. We conclude that information about somatosensory stimuli is modulated by the behavior of the animal and this modulation is mainly expressed in the spike count while the temporal information is more robust to changes in behavioral state.

  18. Spike count, spike timing and temporal information in the cortex of awake, freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Alessandro; Foffani, Guglielmo; Moxon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sensory processing of peripheral information is not stationary but is, in general, a dynamic process related to the behavioral state of the animal. Yet the link between the state of the behavior and the encoding properties of neurons is unclear. This report investigates the impact of the behavioral state on the encoding mechanisms used by cortical neurons for both detection and discrimination of somatosensory stimuli in awake, freely moving, rats. Approach Neuronal activity was recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex of five rats under two different behavioral states (quiet vs. whisking) while electrical stimulation of increasing stimulus strength was delivered to the mystacial pad. Information theoretical measures were then used to measure the contribution of different encoding mechanisms to the information carried by neurons in response to the whisker stimulation. Main Results We found that the behavioral state of the animal modulated the total amount of information conveyed by neurons and that the timing of individual spikes increased the information compared to the total count of spikes alone. However, the temporal information, i.e. information exclusively related to when the spikes occur, was not modulated by behavioral state. Significance We conclude that information about somatosensory stimuli is modulated by the behavior of the animal and this modulation is mainly expressed in the spike count while the temporal information is more robust to changes in behavioral state. PMID:25024291

  19. Changes in contractile activation characteristics of rat fast and slow skeletal muscle fibres during regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gregorevic, Paul; Plant, David R; Stupka, Nicole; Lynch, Gordon S

    2004-01-01

    Damaged skeletal muscle fibres are replaced with new contractile units via muscle regeneration. Regenerating muscle fibres synthesize functionally distinct isoforms of contractile and regulatory proteins but little is known of their functional properties during the regeneration process. An advantage of utilizing single muscle fibre preparations is that assessment of their function is based on the overall characteristics of the contractile apparatus and regulatory system and as such, these preparations are sensitive in revealing not only coarse, but also subtle functional differences between muscle fibres. We examined the Ca2+- and Sr2+-activated contractile characteristics of permeabilized fibres from rat fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles at 7, 14 and 21 days following myotoxic injury, to test the hypothesis that fibres from regenerating fast and slow muscles have different functional characteristics to fibres from uninjured muscles. Regenerating muscle fibres had ∼10% of the maximal force producing capacity (Po) of control (uninjured) fibres, and an altered sensitivity to Ca2+ and Sr2+ at 7 days post-injury. Increased force production and a shift in Ca2+ sensitivity consistent with fibre maturation were observed during regeneration such that Po was restored to 36–45% of that in control fibres by 21 days, and sensitivity to Ca2+ and Sr2+ was similar to that of control (uninjured) fibres. The findings support the hypothesis that regenerating muscle fibres have different contractile activation characteristics compared with mature fibres, and that they adopt properties of mature fast- or slow-twitch muscle fibres in a progressive manner as the regeneration process is completed. PMID:15181161

  20. Analysis of distinct short and prolonged components in rebound spiking of deep cerebellar nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sangrey, Thomas; Jaeger, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) neurons show pronounced post-hyperpolarization rebound burst behavior, which may contribute significantly to responses to strong inhibitory inputs from cerebellar cortical Purkinje cells. Thus, rebound behavior could importantly shape the output from the cerebellum. We used whole cell recordings in brain slices to characterize DCN rebound properties and their dependence on hyperpolarization duration and depth. We found that DCN rebounds showed distinct fast and prolonged components, with different stimulus dependence and different underlying currents. The initial depolarization leading into rebound spiking was carried by HCN current, and variable expression of this current could lead to a control of rebound latency. The ensuing fast rebound burst was due to T-type calcium current, as previously described. It was highly variable between cells in strength, and could be expressed fully after short periods of hyperpolarization. In contrast, a subsequent prolonged rebound component required longer and deeper periods of hyperpolarization before it was fully established. We found using voltage-clamp and dynamic clamp analyses that a slowly inactivating persistent sodium current fit the conductance underlying this prolonged rebound component resulting in spike rate increases over several seconds. Overall, our results demonstrate that multiphasic DCN rebound properties could be elicited differentially by different levels of Purkinje cell activation, and thus create a rich repertoire of potential rebound dynamics in the cerebellar control of motor timing. PMID:21039958

  1. Brain electrical activities of dancers and fast ball sports athletes are different.

    PubMed

    Ermutlu, Numan; Yücesir, Ilker; Eskikurt, Gökçer; Temel, Tan; İşoğlu-Alkaç, Ümmühan

    2015-04-01

    Exercise training has been shown not only to influence physical fitness positively but also cognition in healthy and impaired populations. However, some particular exercise types, even though comparable based on physical efforts, have distinct cognitive and sensorimotor features. In this study, the effects of different types of exercise, such as fast ball sports and dance training, on brain electrical activity were investigated. Electroencephalography (EEG) scans were recorded in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each. In FBSA, power of delta and theta frequency activities of EEG was significantly higher than those of the dancers and the controls. Conversely, dancers had significantly higher amplitudes in alpha and beta bands compared to FBSA and significantly higher amplitudes in the alpha band in comparison with controls. The results suggest that cognitive features of physical training can be reflected in resting brain electrical oscillations. The differences in resting brain electrical oscillations between the dancers and the FBSA can be the result of innate network differences determining the talents and/or plastic changes induced by physical training.

  2. Membrane currents of spiking cells isolated from turtle retina.

    PubMed

    Lasater, E M; Witkovsky, P

    1990-05-01

    We examined the membrane properties of spiking neurons isolated from the turtle (Pseudemys scripta) retina. The cells were maintained in culture for 1-7 days and were studied with the whole cell patch clamp technique. We utilized cells whose perikaryal diameters were greater than 15 microns since Kolb (1982) reported that ganglion cell perikarya in Pseudemys retina are 13-25 microns, whereas amacrine perikarya are less than 14 microns in diameter. We identified 5 currents in the studied cells: (1) a transient sodium current (INa) blocked by TTX, (2) a sustained calcium current (ICa) blocked by cobalt and enhanced by Bay-K 8644, (3) a calcium-dependent potassium current (IK(Ca)), (4) an A-type transient potassium current (IA) somewhat more sensitive to 4-AP than TEA, (5) a sustained potassium current (IK) more sensitive to TEA than 4-AP. The estimated average input resistance of the cells at -70 mV was 720 +/- 440 M omega. When all active currents were blocked, the membrane resistance between -130 and +20 mV was 2.5 G omega. When examined under current clamp, some cells produced multiple spikes to depolarizing steps of 0.1-0.3 nA, whereas other cells produced only a single spike irrespective of the strength of the current pulse. Most single spikers had an outward current that rose to a peak relatively slowly, whereas multiple spikers tend to have a more rapidly activating outward current. Under current clamp, 4-AP slowed the repolarization phase of the spike thus broadening it, but did not always abolish the ability to produce multiple spikes. TEA induced a depolarized plateau following the initial spike which precluded further spikes. It thus appears that the spiking patterns of the retinal cells are shaped primarily by the kinetics of INa, IK and IA and to a lesser extent by IK(Ca).

  3. Experimental observation of transition from chaotic bursting to chaotic spiking in a neural pacemaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huaguang

    2013-06-01

    The transition from chaotic bursting to chaotic spiking has been simulated and analyzed in theoretical neuronal models. In the present study, we report experimental observations in a neural pacemaker of a transition from chaotic bursting to chaotic spiking within a bifurcation scenario from period-1 bursting to period-1 spiking. This was induced by adjusting extracellular calcium or potassium concentrations. The bifurcation scenario began from period-doubling bifurcations or period-adding sequences of bursting pattern. This chaotic bursting is characterized by alternations between multiple continuous spikes and a long duration of quiescence, whereas chaotic spiking is comprised of fast, continuous spikes without periods of quiescence. Chaotic bursting changed to chaotic spiking as long interspike intervals (ISIs) of quiescence disappeared within bursting patterns, drastically decreasing both ISIs and the magnitude of the chaotic attractors. Deterministic structures of the chaotic bursting and spiking patterns are also identified by a short-term prediction. The experimental observations, which agree with published findings in theoretical neuronal models, demonstrate the existence and reveal the dynamics of a neuronal transition from chaotic bursting to chaotic spiking in the nervous system.

  4. The fast neutron fluence and the activation detector activity calculations using the effective source method and the adjoint function

    SciTech Connect

    Hep, J.; Konecna, A.; Krysl, V.; Smutny, V.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the application of effective source in forward calculations and the adjoint method to the solution of fast neutron fluence and activation detector activities in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and RPV cavity of a VVER-440 reactor. Its objective is the demonstration of both methods on a practical task. The effective source method applies the Boltzmann transport operator to time integrated source data in order to obtain neutron fluence and detector activities. By weighting the source data by time dependent decay of the detector activity, the result of the calculation is the detector activity. Alternatively, if the weighting is uniform with respect to time, the result is the fluence. The approach works because of the inherent linearity of radiation transport in non-multiplying time-invariant media. Integrated in this way, the source data are referred to as the effective source. The effective source in the forward calculations method thereby enables the analyst to replace numerous intensive transport calculations with a single transport calculation in which the time dependence and magnitude of the source are correctly represented. In this work, the effective source method has been expanded slightly in the following way: neutron source data were performed with few group method calculation using the active core calculation code MOBY-DICK. The follow-up neutron transport calculation was performed using the neutron transport code TORT to perform multigroup calculations. For comparison, an alternative method of calculation has been used based upon adjoint functions of the Boltzmann transport equation. Calculation of the three-dimensional (3-D) adjoint function for each required computational outcome has been obtained using the deterministic code TORT and the cross section library BGL440. Adjoint functions appropriate to the required fast neutron flux density and neutron reaction rates have been calculated for several significant points within the RPV

  5. Fast oscillatory activity in the anterior cingulate cortex: dopaminergic modulation and effect of perineuronal net loss

    PubMed Central

    Steullet, Pascal; Cabungcal, Jan-Harry; Cuénod, Michel; Do, Kim Q.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in cognitive function such as working memory, attention and planning. Dopamine exerts complex modulation on excitability of pyramidal neurons and interneurons, and regulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Because of the complexity of this modulation, it is difficult to fully comprehend the effect of dopamine on neuronal network activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of dopamine on local high-frequency oscillatory neuronal activity (in β band) in slices of the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We found that dopamine enhanced the power of these oscillations induced by kainate and carbachol, but did not affect their peak frequency. Activation of D2R and in a lesser degree D1R increased the oscillation power, while activation of D4R had no effect. These high-frequency oscillations in the ACC relied on both phasic inhibitory and excitatory transmission and functional gap junctions. Thus, dopamine released in the ACC promotes high-frequency synchronized local cortical activity which is known to favor information transfer, fast selection and binding of distributed neuronal responses. Finally, the power of these oscillations was significantly enhanced after degradation of the perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping most parvalbumin interneurons. This study provides new insights for a better understanding of the abnormal prefrontal gamma activity in schizophrenia (SZ) patients who display prefrontal anomalies of both the dopaminergic system and the PNNs. PMID:25191228

  6. p21Cip1 plays a critical role in the physiological adaptation to fasting through activation of PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Guadamillas, Elena; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Pantoja, Cristina; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez, Dolores; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Valverde, Angela M.; Serrano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Fasting is a physiological stress that elicits well-known metabolic adaptations, however, little is known about the role of stress-responsive tumor suppressors in fasting. Here, we have examined the expression of several tumor suppressors upon fasting in mice. Interestingly, p21 mRNA is uniquely induced in all the tissues tested, particularly in liver and muscle (>10 fold), and this upregulation is independent of p53. Remarkably, in contrast to wild-type mice, p21-null mice become severely morbid after prolonged fasting. The defective adaptation to fasting of p21-null mice is associated to elevated energy expenditure, accelerated depletion of fat stores, and premature activation of protein catabolism in the muscle. Analysis of the liver transcriptome and cell-based assays revealed that the absence of p21 partially impairs the transcriptional program of PPARα, a key regulator of fasting metabolism. Finally, treatment of p21-null mice with a PPARα agonist substantially protects them from their accelerated loss of fat upon fasting. We conclude that p21 plays a relevant role in fasting adaptation through the positive regulation of PPARα. PMID:27721423

  7. Effects of Spike Anticipation on the Spiking Dynamics of Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    de Santos-Sierra, Daniel; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Garcia-Vellisca, Mariano A; Navas, Adrian; Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization is one of the central phenomena involved in information processing in living systems. It is known that the nervous system requires the coordinated activity of both local and distant neural populations. Such an interplay allows to merge different information modalities in a whole processing supporting high-level mental skills as understanding, memory, abstraction, etc. Though, the biological processes underlying synchronization in the brain are not fully understood there have been reported a variety of mechanisms supporting different types of synchronization both at theoretical and experimental level. One of the more intriguing of these phenomena is the anticipating synchronization, which has been recently reported in a pair of unidirectionally coupled artificial neurons under simple conditions (Pyragiene and Pyragas, 2013), where the slave neuron is able to anticipate in time the behavior of the master one. In this paper, we explore the effect of spike anticipation over the information processing performed by a neural network at functional and structural level. We show that the introduction of intermediary neurons in the network enhances spike anticipation and analyse how these variations in spike anticipation can significantly change the firing regime of the neural network according to its functional and structural properties. In addition we show that the interspike interval (ISI), one of the main features of the neural response associated with the information coding, can be closely related to spike anticipation by each spike, and how synaptic plasticity can be modulated through that relationship. This study has been performed through numerical simulation of a coupled system of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons.

  8. Effects of Spike Anticipation on the Spiking Dynamics of Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    de Santos-Sierra, Daniel; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Garcia-Vellisca, Mariano A.; Navas, Adrian; Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization is one of the central phenomena involved in information processing in living systems. It is known that the nervous system requires the coordinated activity of both local and distant neural populations. Such an interplay allows to merge different information modalities in a whole processing supporting high-level mental skills as understanding, memory, abstraction, etc. Though, the biological processes underlying synchronization in the brain are not fully understood there have been reported a variety of mechanisms supporting different types of synchronization both at theoretical and experimental level. One of the more intriguing of these phenomena is the anticipating synchronization, which has been recently reported in a pair of unidirectionally coupled artificial neurons under simple conditions (Pyragiene and Pyragas, 2013), where the slave neuron is able to anticipate in time the behavior of the master one. In this paper, we explore the effect of spike anticipation over the information processing performed by a neural network at functional and structural level. We show that the introduction of intermediary neurons in the network enhances spike anticipation and analyse how these variations in spike anticipation can significantly change the firing regime of the neural network according to its functional and structural properties. In addition we show that the interspike interval (ISI), one of the main features of the neural response associated with the information coding, can be closely related to spike anticipation by each spike, and how synaptic plasticity can be modulated through that relationship. This study has been performed through numerical simulation of a coupled system of Hindmarsh–Rose neurons. PMID:26648863

  9. A single amino acid substitution (R441A) in the receptor-binding domain of SARS coronavirus spike protein disrupts the antigenic structure and binding activity

    SciTech Connect

    He Yuxian . E-mail: yhe@nybloodcenter.org; Li Jingjing; Jiang Shibo

    2006-05-26

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has two major functions: interacting with the receptor to mediate virus entry and inducing protective immunity. Coincidently, the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 318-510) of SAR-CoV S protein is a major antigenic site to induce neutralizing antibodies. Here, we used RBD-Fc, a fusion protein containing the RBD and human IgG1 Fc, as a model in the studies and found that a single amino acid substitution in the RBD (R441A) could abolish the immunogenicity of RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice and rabbits. With a panel of anti-RBD mAbs as probes, we observed that R441A substitution was able to disrupt the majority of neutralizing epitopes in the RBD, suggesting that this residue is critical for the antigenic structure responsible for inducing protective immune responses. We also demonstrated that the RBD-Fc bearing R441A mutation could not bind to soluble and cell-associated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor for SARS-CoV and failed to block S protein-mediated pseudovirus entry, indicating that this point mutation also disrupted the receptor-binding motif (RBM) in the RBD. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence to show that a single amino acid residue at key position in the RBD can determine the major function of SARS-CoV S protein and imply for designing SARS vaccines and therapeutics.

  10. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters.

    PubMed

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Terentjevienė, Asta; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p < 0.05) weight, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure, whereas no changes were evident regarding any of the measured heart rate variability indices. Fasting decreased (p < 0.05) the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and improved (p < 0.05) mental flexibility and shifting set, whereas no changes were observed in working memory, visuospatial discrimination, and spatial orientation ability. Fasting also increased (p < 0.05) anger, whereas other mood states were not affected by it. Conclusions. 48 h fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it.

  11. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    PubMed Central

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p < 0.05) weight, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure, whereas no changes were evident regarding any of the measured heart rate variability indices. Fasting decreased (p < 0.05) the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and improved (p < 0.05) mental flexibility and shifting set, whereas no changes were observed in working memory, visuospatial discrimination, and spatial orientation ability. Fasting also increased (p < 0.05) anger, whereas other mood states were not affected by it. Conclusions. 48 h fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  12. To sort or not to sort: the impact of spike-sorting on neural decoding performance

    PubMed Central

    Todorova, Sonia; Sadtler, Patrick; Batista, Aaron; Chase, Steven; Ventura, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising technology for restoring motor ability to paralyzed patients: spiking-based BCIs have successfully been used in clinical trials to control multi-degree-of-freedom robotic devices. Current implementations of these devices require a lengthy spike-sorting step, which is an obstacle to moving this technology from the lab to the clinic. A viable alternative is to avoid spike-sorting, treating all threshold crossings of the voltage waveform on an electrode as coming from one putative neuron. It is not known, however, how much decoding information might be lost by ignoring spike identity. Approach We present a full analysis of the effects of spike-sorting schemes on decoding performance. Specifically, we compare how well two common decoders, the optimal linear estimator and the Kalman filter, reconstruct the arm movements of non-human primates performing reaching tasks, when receiving input from various sorting schemes. The schemes we tested included: using threshold crossings without spike-sorting; expertsorting discarding the noise; expert-sorting, including the noise as if it were another neuron; and automatic spike-sorting using waveform features. We also decoded from a joint statistical model for the waveforms and tuning curves, which does not involve an explicit spike-sorting step. Main results Discarding the threshold crossings that cannot be assigned to neurons degrades decoding: no spikes should be discarded. Decoding based on spike-sorted units outperforms decoding based on electrodes voltage crossings: spike-sorting is useful. The four waveform based spike-sorting methods tested here yield similar decoding efficiencies: a fast and simple method is competitive. Decoding using the joint waveform and tuning model shows promise but is not consistently superior. Significance Our results indicate that simple automated spikesorting performs as well as computationally or manually more intensive methods, which

  13. Inhibition of Fast Axonal Transport by Pathogenic SOD1 Involves Activation of p38 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morfini, Gerardo A.; Bosco, Daryl A.; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M. Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Pigino, Gustavo F.; Watterson, D. Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  14. Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity depends on dendritic location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froemke, Robert C.; Poo, Mu-ming; Dan, Yang

    2005-03-01

    In the neocortex, each neuron receives thousands of synaptic inputs distributed across an extensive dendritic tree. Although postsynaptic processing of each input is known to depend on its dendritic location, it is unclear whether activity-dependent synaptic modification is also location-dependent. Here we report that both the magnitude and the temporal specificity of spike-timing-dependent synaptic modification vary along the apical dendrite of rat cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. At the distal dendrite, the magnitude of long-term potentiation is smaller, and the window of pre-/postsynaptic spike interval for long-term depression (LTD) is broader. The spike-timing window for LTD correlates with the window of action potential-induced suppression of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors; this correlation applies to both their dendritic location-dependence and pharmacological properties. Presynaptic stimulation with partial blockade of NMDA receptors induced LTD and occluded further induction of spike-timing-dependent LTD, suggesting that NMDA receptor suppression underlies LTD induction. Computer simulation studies showed that the dendritic inhomogeneity of spike-timing-dependent synaptic modification leads to differential input selection at distal and proximal dendrites according to the temporal characteristics of presynaptic spike trains. Such location-dependent tuning of inputs, together with the dendritic heterogeneity of postsynaptic processing, could enhance the computational capacity of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  15. Active and fast particle driven Alfvén eigenmodes in Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, J. A.; Basse, N.; Boswell, C.; Edlund, E.; Fasoli, A.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Granetz, R. S.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Parker, R.; Porkolab, M.; Sears, J.; Sharapov, S.; Tang, V.; Wukitch, S.

    2005-05-01

    Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) are studied to assess their stability in high density reactor relevant regimes where Ti≈Te and as a diagnostic tool. Stable AEs are excited with active magnetohydrodynamics antennas in the range of the expected AE frequency. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) damping rates between 0.5%<γ/ω<4.5% have been observed in diverted and limited Ohmic plasmas. Unstable AEs are excited with a fast ion tail driven by H minority ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) heating with electron densities in the range of n¯e=0.5-2×1020m-3. Energetic particle modes or TAEs have been observed to decrease in frequency and mode number with time up to a large sawtooth collapse, indicating the role fast particles play in stabilizing sawteeth. In the current rise phase, unstable modes with frequencies that increase rapidly with time are observed with magnetic pick-up coils at the wall and phase contrast imaging density fluctuation measurements in the core. Modeling of these modes constrains the calculated safety factor profile to be very flat or with slightly reversed shear. AEs are found to be more stable for an inboard than for central or outboard ICRF resonances in qualitative agreement with modeling.

  16. Sensory-Evoked Spiking Behavior Emerges via an Experience-Dependent Plasticity Mechanism.

    PubMed

    van Rheede, Joram J; Richards, Blake A; Akerman, Colin J

    2015-09-02

    The ability to generate action potentials (spikes) in response to synaptic input determines whether a neuron participates in information processing. How a developing neuron becomes an active participant in a circuit or whether this process is activity dependent is not known, especially as spike-dependent plasticity mechanisms would not be available to non-spiking neurons. Here we use the optic tectum of awake Xenopus laevis tadpoles to determine how a neuron becomes able to generate sensory-driven spikes in vivo. At the onset of vision, many tectal neurons do not exhibit visual spiking behavior, despite being intrinsically excitable and receiving visuotopically organized synaptic inputs. However, a brief period of visual stimulation can drive these neurons to start generating stimulus-driven spikes. This conversion relies upon a selective increase in glutamatergic input and requires depolarizing GABAergic transmission and NMDA receptor activation. This permissive form of experience-dependent plasticity enables a neuron to start contributing to circuit function.

  17. Spike propagation in driven chain networks with dominant global inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wonil; Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2009-05-01

    Spike propagation in chain networks is usually studied in the synfire regime, in which successive groups of neurons are synaptically activated sequentially through the unidirectional excitatory connections. Here we study the dynamics of chain networks with dominant global feedback inhibition that prevents the synfire activity. Neural activity is driven by suprathreshold external inputs. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that spike propagation along the chain is a unique dynamical attractor in a wide parameter regime. The strong inhibition permits a robust winner-take-all propagation in the case of multiple chains competing via the inhibition.

  18. A stimulus-dependent spike threshold is an optimal neural coder

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Douglas L.; Johnson, Erik C.; Ratnam, Rama

    2015-01-01

    A neural code based on sequences of spikes can consume a significant portion of the brain's energy budget. Thus, energy considerations would dictate that spiking activity be kept as low as possible. However, a high spike-rate improves the coding and representation of signals in spike trains, particularly in sensory systems. These are competing demands, and selective pressure has presumably worked to optimize coding by apportioning a minimum number of spikes so as to maximize coding fidelity. The mechanisms by which a neuron generates spikes while maintaining a fidelity criterion are not known. Here, we show that a signal-dependent neural threshold, similar to a dynamic or adapting threshold, optimizes the trade-off between spike generation (encoding) and fidelity (decoding). The threshold mimics a post-synaptic membrane (a low-pass filter) and serves as an internal decoder. Further, it sets the average firing rate (the energy constraint). The decoding process provides an internal copy of the coding error to the spike-generator which emits a spike when the error equals or exceeds a spike threshold. When optimized, the trade-off leads to a deterministic spike firing-rule that generates optimally timed spikes so as to maximize fidelity. The optimal coder is derived in closed-form in the limit of high spike-rates, when the signal can be approximated as a piece-wise constant signal. The predicted spike-times are close to those obtained experimentally in the primary electrosensory afferent neurons of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) and pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of the rat. We suggest that KCNQ/Kv7 channels (underlying the M-current) are good candidates for the decoder. They are widely coupled to metabolic processes and do not inactivate. We conclude that the neural threshold is optimized to generate an energy-efficient and high-fidelity neural code. PMID:26082710

  19. A simple algorithm for averaging spike trains.

    PubMed

    Julienne, Hannah; Houghton, Conor

    2013-02-25

    Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.

  20. Prospective Coding by Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Johanni; Gaál, Alexisz Tamás; Senn, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Animals learn to make predictions, such as associating the sound of a bell with upcoming feeding or predicting a movement that a motor command is eliciting. How predictions are realized on the neuronal level and what plasticity rule underlies their learning is not well understood. Here we propose a biologically plausible synaptic plasticity rule to learn predictions on a single neuron level on a timescale of seconds. The learning rule allows a spiking two-compartment neuron to match its current firing rate to its own expected future discounted firing rate. For instance, if an originally neutral event is repeatedly followed by an event that elevates the firing rate of a neuron, the originally neutral event will eventually also elevate the neuron’s firing rate. The plasticity rule is a form of spike timing dependent plasticity in which a presynaptic spike followed by a postsynaptic spike leads to potentiation. Even if the plasticity window has a width of 20 milliseconds, associations on the time scale of seconds can be learned. We illustrate prospective coding with three examples: learning to predict a time varying input, learning to predict the next stimulus in a delayed paired-associate task and learning with a recurrent network to reproduce a temporally compressed version of a sequence. We discuss the potential role of the learning mechanism in classical trace conditioning. In the special case that the signal to be predicted encodes reward, the neuron learns to predict the discounted future reward and learning is closely related to the temporal difference learning algorithm TD(λ). PMID:27341100

  1. Electrophysiology of connection current spikes.

    PubMed

    Fish, Raymond M; Geddes, Leslie A

    2008-12-01

    Connection to a 60-Hz or other voltage source can result in cardiac dysrhythmias, a startle reaction, muscle contractions, and a variety of other physiological responses. Such responses can lead to injury, especially if significant ventricular cardiac dysrhythmias occur, or if a person is working at some height above ground and falls as a result of a musculoskeletal response. Physiological reactions are known to relate to intensity and duration of current exposure. The connection current that flows is a function of the applied voltage at the instant of connection, and the electrical impedance encountered by the voltage source in contact with the skin or other body tissues. In this article we describe a rarely investigated phenomenon, namely a contact, or connection, current spike that is many times higher than the steady-state current. This current spike occurs when an electrical connection is made at a non-zero voltage time in a sine wave or other waveform. Such current spikes may occur when electronic or manual switching or connecting of conductors occurs in electronic instrumentation connected to a patient. These findings are relevant to medical devices and instrumentation and to electrical safety in general.

  2. Fast and exact Newton and Bidirectional fitting of Active Appearance Models.

    PubMed

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Yorgos; Pantic, Maja

    2016-12-21

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative models of shape and appearance that have proven very attractive for their ability to handle wide changes in illumination, pose and occlusion when trained in the wild, while not requiring large training dataset like regression-based or deep learning methods. The problem of fitting an AAM is usually formulated as a non-linear least squares one and the main way of solving it is a standard Gauss-Newton algorithm. In this paper we extend Active Appearance Models in two ways: we first extend the Gauss-Newton framework by formulating a bidirectional fitting method that deforms both the image and the template to fit a new instance. We then formulate a second order method by deriving an efficient Newton method for AAMs fitting. We derive both methods in a unified framework for two types of Active Appearance Models, holistic and part-based, and additionally show how to exploit the structure in the problem to derive fast yet exact solutions. We perform a thorough evaluation of all algorithms on three challenging and recently annotated inthe- wild datasets, and investigate fitting accuracy, convergence properties and the influence of noise in the initialisation. We compare our proposed methods to other algorithms and show that they yield state-of-the-art results, out-performing other methods while having superior convergence properties.

  3. Circadian pancreatic enzyme pattern and relationship between secretory and motor activity in fasting humans.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2002-08-01

    It is unknown whether nonparallel pancreatic enzyme output occurs under basal conditions in humans. We aimed to determine whether the circadian or wake-sleep cycle influences the relationship among pancreatic enzymes or between pancreatic secretory and jejunal motor activity. Using orojejunal multilumen intubation, we measured enzyme outputs and proximal jejunal motility index during consecutive daytime and nighttime periods in each of seven fasting, healthy volunteers. Enzyme outputs were correlated tightly during daytime phases of wakefulness and nighttime phases of sleep (r > 0.72, P < 0.001). During nocturnal phases of wakefulness, output of proteases (r = 0.84, P < 0.001), but not of amylase and trypsin (r = 0.12), remained associated. Nocturnally, particularly during sleep, pancreatic secretory activity was directly correlated with jejunal motility index (r > 0.50, P < 0.001). In conclusion, parallel secretion of pancreatic enzymes dominates throughout the circadian cycle. Nonparallel secretion during nocturnal phases of wakefulness may be due to merely circadian effects or to the coupling of the wake-sleep and the circadian cycle. The association between fluctuations of secretory and motor activity appears to be particularly tight during the night.

  4. Simultaneous determination of silica and alumina in bulk bauxite samples by fast neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Borsaru, M.; Eisler, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    A prototype of a bulk bauxite analyzer based on fast neutron activation analysis has been developed for simultaneously determining the chemical concentrations of alumina and silica in both dried and undried bulk bauxite samples (about 3.5 kg). The determination of alumina is based on measuring the count rate in the 0.844 MeV ..gamma..-ray peak emitted by /sup 27/Mg formed in the activation of aluminum. The determination of silica is based on measuring the count rate in the 1.78 MeV ..gamma..-ray peak emitted by /sup 28/Al formed in the activation of silicon. The interference from alumina in the determination of silica was eliminated by measuring an additional parameter, the thermal neutrons underneath the bulk sample. The technique enables up to 10 analyses per hour with an accuracy (1 sigma) of 0.28% silica and 0.9% alumina. The samples analyzed contained 48 to 62% alumina and 2 to 11% silica. The tests indicated that the accuracy of analysis was similar for samples which had been oven-dried (0 to 5% free moisture) and samples which were taken from the benefication plant with free moisture varying in a narrow range (10 to 14% free moisture). The results also indicated that crushing and grinding of samples did not significantly improve the accuracy.

  5. A fast region-based active contour model for boundary detection of echocardiographic images.

    PubMed

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M L; Rohit, Manojkumar

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the boundary detection of atrium and ventricle in echocardiographic images. In case of mitral regurgitation, atrium and ventricle may get dilated. To examine this, doctors draw the boundary manually. Here the aim of this paper is to evolve the automatic boundary detection for carrying out segmentation of echocardiography images. Active contour method is selected for this purpose. There is an enhancement of Chan-Vese paper on active contours without edges. Our algorithm is based on Chan-Vese paper active contours without edges, but it is much faster than Chan-Vese model. Here we have developed a method by which it is possible to detect much faster the echocardiographic boundaries. The method is based on the region information of an image. The region-based force provides a global segmentation with variational flow robust to noise. Implementation is based on level set theory so it easy to deal with topological changes. In this paper, Newton-Raphson method is used which makes possible the fast boundary detection.

  6. A combination of MEF3 and NFI proteins activates transcription in a subset of fast-twitch muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, F; Salminen, M; Demignon, J; Kahn, A; Daegelen, D; Maire, P

    1997-01-01

    The human aldolase A pM promoter is active in fast-twitch muscles. To understand the role of the different transcription factors which bind to this promoter and determine which ones are responsible for its restricted pattern of expression, we analyzed several transgenic lines harboring different combinations of pM regulatory elements. We show that muscle-specific expression can be achieved without any binding sites for the myogenic factors MyoD and MEF2 and that a 64-bp fragment comprising a MEF3 motif and an NFI binding site is sufficient to drive reporter gene expression in some but, interestingly, not all fast-twitch muscles. A result related to this pattern of expression is that some isoforms of NFI proteins accumulate differentially in fast- and slow-twitch muscles and in distinct fast-twitch muscles. We propose that these isoforms of NFI proteins might provide a molecular basis for skeletal muscle diversity. PMID:9001219

  7. Fast fMRI can detect oscillatory neural activity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Laura D.; Setsompop, Kawin; Rosen, Bruce R.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neural dynamics play an important role in the coordination of large-scale brain networks. High-level cognitive processes depend on dynamics evolving over hundreds of milliseconds, so measuring neural activity in this frequency range is important for cognitive neuroscience. However, current noninvasive neuroimaging methods are not able to precisely localize oscillatory neural activity above 0.2 Hz. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have limited spatial resolution, whereas fMRI has limited temporal resolution because it measures vascular responses rather than directly recording neural activity. We hypothesized that the recent development of fast fMRI techniques, combined with the extra sensitivity afforded by ultra-high-field systems, could enable precise localization of neural oscillations. We tested whether fMRI can detect neural oscillations using human visual cortex as a model system. We detected small oscillatory fMRI signals in response to stimuli oscillating at up to 0.75 Hz within single scan sessions, and these responses were an order of magnitude larger than predicted by canonical linear models. Simultaneous EEG–fMRI and simulations based on a biophysical model of the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity suggested that the blood oxygen level-dependent response becomes faster for rapidly varying stimuli, enabling the detection of higher frequencies than expected. Accounting for phase delays across voxels further improved detection, demonstrating that identifying vascular delays will be of increasing importance with higher-frequency activity. These results challenge the assumption that the hemodynamic response is slow, and demonstrate that fMRI has the potential to map neural oscillations directly throughout the brain. PMID:27729529

  8. Effects of odor stimulation on antidromic spikes in olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Sherrill, Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Spikes were evoked in rat olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) populations by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb nerve layer in pentobarbital anesthetized rats. The latencies and recording positions for these compound spikes showed that they originated in olfactory epithelium. Dual simultaneous recordings indicated conduction velocities in the C-fiber range, around 0.5 m/s. These spikes are concluded to arise from antidromically activated olfactory sensory neurons. Electrical stimulation at 5 Hz was used to track changes in the size and latency of the antidromic compound population spike during the odor response. Strong odorant stimuli suppressed the spike size and prolonged its latency. The latency was prolonged throughout long odor stimuli, indicating continued activation of olfactory receptor neuron axons. The amounts of spike suppression and latency change were strongly correlated with the electroolfactogram (EOG) peak size evoked at the same site across odorants and across stimulus intensities. We conclude that the curve of antidromic spike suppression gives a reasonable representation of spiking activity in olfactory sensory neurons driven by odorants and that the correlation of peak spike suppression with the peak EOG shows the accuracy of the EOG as an estimate of intracellular potential in the population of olfactory sensory neurons. In addition, these results have important implications about traffic in olfactory nerve bundles. We did not observe multiple peaks corresponding to stimulated and unstimulated receptor neurons. This suggests synchronization of spikes in olfactory nerve, perhaps by ephaptic interactions. The long-lasting effect on spike latency shows that action potentials continue in the nerve throughout the duration of an odor stimulus in spite of many reports of depolarization block in olfactory receptor neuron cell bodies. Finally, strong odor stimulation caused almost complete block of antidromic spikes. This indicates that a very

  9. Slow State Transitions of Sustained Neural Oscillations by Activity-Dependent Modulation of Intrinsic Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the dynamics and mechanisms of transitions between tonic firing and bursting in cortical networks. Here, we use a computational model of a neocortical circuit with extracellular potassium dynamics to show that activity-dependent modulation of intrinsic excitability can lead to sustained oscillations with slow transitions between two distinct firing modes: fast run (tonic spiking or fast bursts with few spikes) and slow bursting. These transitions are caused by a bistability with hysteresis in a pyramidal cell model. Balanced excitation and inhibition stabilizes a network of pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the bistable region and causes sustained periodic alternations between distinct oscillatory states. During spike-wave seizures, neocortical paroxysmal activity exhibits qualitatively similar slow transitions between fast run and bursting. We therefore predict that extracellular potassium dynamics can cause alternating episodes of fast and slow oscillatory states in both normal and epileptic neocortical networks. PMID:16763023

  10. Training in the fasted state facilitates re-activation of eEF2 activity during recovery from endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, K; De Bock, K; Hespel, P

    2011-07-01

    Nutrition is an important co-factor in exercise-induced training adaptations in muscle. We compared the effect of 6 weeks endurance training (3 days/week, 1-2 h at 75% VO(2peak)) in either the fasted state (F; n = 10) or in the high carbohydrate state (CHO, n = 10), on Ca(2+)-dependent intramyocellular signalling in young male volunteers. Subjects in CHO received a carbohydrate-rich breakfast before each training session, as well as ingested carbohydrates during exercise. Before (pretest) and after (posttest) the training period, subjects performed a 2 h constant-load exercise bout (~70% of pretest VO(2peak)) while ingesting carbohydrates (1 g/kg h(-1)). A muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis immediately before and after the test, and after 4 h of recovery. Compared with pretest, in the posttest basal eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation was elevated in CHO (P < 0.05), but not in F. In the pretest, exercise increased the degree of eEF2 phosphorylation about twofold (P < 0.05), and values returned to baseline within the 4 h recovery period in each group. However, in the posttest dephosphorylation of eEF2 was negated after recovery in CHO, but not in F. Independent of the dietary condition training enhanced the basal phosphorylation status of Phospholamban at Thr(17), 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), and Acetyl CoA carboxylase β (ACCβ), and abolished the exercise-induced increase of AMPKα and ACCβ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, training in the fasted state, compared with identical training with ample carbohydrate intake, facilitates post-exercise dephosphorylation of eEF2. This may contribute to rapid re-activation of muscle protein translation following endurance exercise.

  11. Estimating the correlation between bursty spike trains and local field potentials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Yao, Li; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-09-01

    To further understand rhythmic neuronal synchronization, an increasingly useful method is to determine the relationship between the spiking activity of individual neurons and the local field potentials (LFPs) of neural ensembles. Spike field coherence (SFC) is a widely used method for measuring the synchronization between spike trains and LFPs. However, due to the strong dependency of SFC on the burst index, it is not suitable for analyzing the relationship between bursty spike trains and LFPs, particularly in high frequency bands. To address this issue, we developed a method called weighted spike field correlation (WSFC), which uses the first spike in each burst multiple times to estimate the relationship. In the calculation, the number of times that the first spike is used is equal to the spike count per burst. The performance of this method was demonstrated using simulated bursty spike trains and LFPs, which comprised sinusoids with different frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. This method was also used to estimate the correlation between pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and gamma oscillations in rats performing behaviors. Analyses using simulated and real data demonstrated that the WSFC method is a promising measure for estimating the correlation between bursty spike trains and high frequency LFPs.

  12. Radioxenon detector calibration spike production and delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Cameron, Ian M.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kriss, Aaron A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Mendez, Jennifer M.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Riedmann, Robin A.

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Beta-Gamma coincidence radioxenon detectors must be calibrated for each of the four-radioxenon isotopes (135Xe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 131mXe). Without a proper calibration, there is potential for the misidentification of the amount of each isotope detected. It is important to accurately determine the amount of each radioxenon isotope, as the ratios can be used to distinguish between an anthropogenic source and a nuclear explosion. We have developed a xenon calibration system (XeCalS) that produces calibration spikes of known activity and pressure for field calibration of detectors. The activity concentrations of these calibration spikes are measured using a beta-gamma coincidence detector and a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. We will present the results from the development and commissioning of XeCalS, along with the future plans for a portable spike implementation system.

  13. Stable propagation of synchronous spiking in cortical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesmann, Markus; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Aertsen, Ad

    1999-12-01

    The classical view of neural coding has emphasized the importance of information carried by the rate at which neurons discharge action potentials. More recent proposals that information may be carried by precise spike timing have been challenged by the assumption that these neurons operate in a noisy fashion-presumably reflecting fluctuations in synaptic input-and, thus, incapable of transmitting signals with millisecond fidelity. Here we show that precisely synchronized action potentials can propagate within a model of cortical network activity that recapitulates many of the features of biological systems. An attractor, yielding a stable spiking precision in the (sub)millisecond range, governs the dynamics of synchronization. Our results indicate that a combinatorial neural code, based on rapid associations of groups of neurons co-ordinating their activity at the single spike level, is possible within a cortical-like network.

  14. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology.

  15. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST K) synergizes with TIA-1/TIAR proteins to regulate Fas alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, José M; Valcárcel, Juan

    2007-01-19

    The factors and mechanisms that mediate the effects of intracellular signaling cascades on alternative pre-mRNA splicing are poorly understood. TIA-1 (T-cell intracellular antigen 1) and TIAR (TIA-1-related) proteins regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing by promoting the use of suboptimal 5' splice sites followed by uridine-rich intronic enhancer sequences. These proteins promote, for example, inclusion of Fas receptor exon 6, which leads to an mRNA encoding a pro-apoptotic form of the receptor at the expense of the form that skips exon 6, which encodes an anti-apoptotic form. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST K) is known to interact with and phosphorylate TIA-1. Here we have tested the possibility that FAST K influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing by affecting the activity of TIA-1/TIAR. Depletion of FAST K form Jurkat cells leads to skipping of exon 6 from endogenous Fas transcripts. Conversely, FAST K overexpression enhances exon 6 inclusion of Fas reporters transfected in HeLa cells. Consistent with the possibility that the effects of FAST K are mediated by changes in the function of TIA-1/TIAR, the effects of FAST K overexpression (i) are largely suppressed by depletion of TIA-1 and TIAR and (ii) are significantly compromised by mutation of a TIA-1/TIAR-responsive enhancer present downstream of exon 6 5' splice site. Furthermore, in vitro phosphorylation of TIA-1 by FAST K results in enhanced U1 snRNP recruitment. Interestingly, this enhancement is not due to increased binding of TIA-1 to the pre-mRNA. Taken together, the results connect Fas signaling with the activity of splicing factors that modulate Fas alternative splicing, suggesting the existence of an autoregulatory loop that could serve to amplify Fas responses.

  16. Energy channeling from trapped to passing fast ions mediated by GAE/CAE activity in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Belova, E.; Kramer, G.; Podesta, M.; Liu, D.

    2013-10-01

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment, an increased charge exchange neutral flux localized at the neutral beam full injection energy is measured by the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer. Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the beam-injected energetic ion spectrum in discharges where NTM or kink modes (f < 10 kHz) are absent, TAE activity (f ~ 10-150 kHz) is weak and CAE/GAE activity (f ~ 400 - 1200 kHz) is robust. The HEF exhibits a growth time of t ~ 20-80 ms and develops a slowing down distribution that continues to evolve over periods > 100 ms. HEFs are observed only in H-mode discharges with NB power Pb >= 4 MW and in the pitch range v||/v ~ 0.7 - 0.9. The HEF appears to be caused by a CAE/GAE wave-particle interaction that modifies the fast ion distribution, fi(E,v||/v,r). This mechanism was studied using the SPIRAL code that evolves an initial TRANSP-calculated fi(E,v||/v,r) distribution in the presence of background plasma profiles under drive from wave-particle resonances with CAE/GAE Alfvén eigenmodes. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Fast Cell Segmentation Using Scalable Sparse Manifold Learning and Affine Transform-approximated Active Contour.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Efficient and effective cell segmentation of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) in whole slide scanned images is a difficult task due to a large number of cells. The weak or misleading cell boundaries also present significant challenges. In this paper, we propose a fast, high throughput cell segmentation algorithm by combining top-down shape models and bottom-up image appearance information. A scalable sparse manifold learning method is proposed to model multiple subpopulations of different cell shape priors. Followed by a shape clustering on the manifold, a novel affine transform-approximated active contour model is derived to deform contours without solving a large amount of computationally-expensive Euler-Lagrange equations, and thus dramatically reduces the computational time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a high throughput cell segmentation algorithm for whole slide scanned pathology specimens using manifold learning to accelerate active contour models. The proposed approach is tested using 12 NET images, and the comparative experiments with the state of the arts demonstrate its superior performance in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness.

  18. Anomalous flattening of the fast-ion profile during Alfvén-Eigenmode activity.

    PubMed

    Heidbrink, W W; Gorelenkov, N N; Luo, Y; Van Zeeland, M A; White, R B; Austin, M E; Burrell, K H; Kramer, G J; Makowski, M A; McKee, G R; Nazikian, R

    2007-12-14

    Neutral-beam injection into plasmas with negative central shear produces a rich spectrum of toroidicity-induced and reversed-shear Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of fast-ion D_{alpha} (FIDA) spectroscopy to Alfvén-eigenmode physics shows that the central fast-ion profile is anomalously flat in the inner half of the discharge. Neutron and equilibrium measurements corroborate the FIDA data. The current density driven by fast ions is also strongly modified. Calculations based on the measured mode amplitudes do not explain the observed fast-ion transport.

  19. A Spiking Working Memory Model Based on Hebbian Short-Term Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Florian; Lansner, Anders

    2017-01-04

    A dominant theory of working memory (WM), referred to as the persistent activity hypothesis, holds that recurrently connected neural networks, presumably located in the prefrontal cortex, encode and maintain WM memory items through sustained elevated activity. Reexamination of experimental data has shown that prefrontal cortex activity in single units during delay periods is much more variable than predicted by such a theory and associated computational models. Alternative models of WM maintenance based on synaptic plasticity, such as short-term nonassociative (non-Hebbian) synaptic facilitation, have been suggested but cannot account for encoding of novel associations. Here we test the hypothesis that a recently identified fast-expressing form of Hebbian synaptic plasticity (associative short-term potentiation) is a possible mechanism for WM encoding and maintenance. Our simulations using a spiking neural network model of cortex reproduce a range of cognitive memory effects in the classical multi-item WM task of encoding and immediate free recall of word lists. Memory reactivation in the model occurs in discrete oscillatory bursts rather than as sustained activity. We relate dynamic network activity as well as key synaptic characteristics to electrophysiological measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that fast Hebbian short-term potentiation is a key WM mechanism.

  20. An active learning mammalian skeletal muscle lab demonstrating contractile and kinetic properties of fast- and slow-twitch muscle.

    PubMed

    Head, S I; Arber, M B

    2013-12-01

    The fact that humans possess fast- and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of ∼50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic properties of fast- and slow-twitch mammalian skeletal muscle. This laboratory illustrates the major differences in contractile properties and fatigue profiles exhibited by the two muscle types. Students compare and contrast twitch kinetics, fused tetanus characteristics, force-frequency relationships, and fatigue properties of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Examples of results collected by students during class are used to illustrate the type of data collected and analysis performed. During the laboratory, students are encouraged to connect factual information from their skeletal muscle lectures to their laboratory findings. This enables student learning in an active fashion; in particular, the isolated muscle preparation demonstrates that much of what makes muscle fast or slow is myogenic and not the product of the nervous or circulatory systems. This has far-reaching implications for motor control and exercise behavior and therefore is a crucial element in exercise science, with its focus on power and endurance sport activities. To measure student satisfaction with this active learning technique, a questionnaire was administered after the laboratory; 96% of the comments were positive in their support of active versus passive learning strategies.

  1. Physiological responses of juvenile rainbow trout to fasting and swimming activity: Effects on body composition and condition indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The physiological traits that allow fish to survive periods of limited food resources are poorly understood. We assessed changes in proximate body composition, relative organ mass, blood metabolites, and relative weight (Wr) of sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (154-182 mm total length) over 147 d of fasting. Fasting caused measurable responses that were augmented when fish were swimming. Lipids and plasma triacylglycerides declined over time. Proteins were catabolized simultaneously with lipid reserves, but ammonia concentrations in plasma did not increase. The liver somatic index (LSI) did not change substantially over 105 d, suggesting that gluconeogenesis maintained blood glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen reserves for a substantial period of fasting. The gut somatic index (GSI) and Wr declined linearly during fasting, but the LSI did not decline until after 105 d of fasting. Consequently, the use of different body condition indices could lead to different conclusions about the condition of juvenile rainbow trout. Swimming activity caused fish to have lower lipid and protein reserves than those of sedentary fish. No mortalities were observed among sedentary fish, but mortalities occurred among actively swimming fish after 97 d of fasting when 3.2% or less lipid remained in their bodies. Body condition indices did not account for differences in proximate body composition between sedentary and actively swimming fish and were relatively poor predictors of lipid content and risk of mortality. The probability of mortality was most accurately predicted by percent lipid content. Therefore, we suggest that fisheries scientists consider using percent lipid content when evaluating the physiological status and risk of mortality due to starvation among juvenile rainbow trout.

  2. Spikes and bursts in two types of thalamic projection neurons differentially shape sleep patterns and auditory responses in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Hahnloser, Richard H R; Wang, Claude Z-H; Nager, Aymeric; Naie, Katja

    2008-05-07

    In mammals, the thalamus plays important roles for cortical processing, such as relay of sensory information and induction of rhythmical firing during sleep. In neurons of the avian cerebrum, in analogy with cortical up and down states, complex patterns of regular-spiking and dense-bursting modes are frequently observed during sleep. However, the roles of thalamic inputs for shaping these firing modes are largely unknown. A suspected key player is the avian thalamic nucleus uvaeformis (Uva). Uva is innervated by polysensory input, receives indirect cerebral feedback via the midbrain, and projects to the cerebrum via two distinct pathways. Using pharmacological manipulation, electrical stimulation, and extracellular recordings of Uva projection neurons, we study the involvement of Uva in zebra finches for the generation of spontaneous activity and auditory responses in premotor area HVC (used as a proper name) and the downstream robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). In awake and sleeping birds, we find that single Uva spikes suppress and spike bursts enhance spontaneous and auditory-evoked bursts in HVC and RA neurons. Strong burst suppression is mediated mainly via tonically firing HVC-projecting Uva neurons, whereas a fast burst drive is mediated indirectly via Uva neurons projecting to the nucleus interface of the nidopallium. Our results reveal that cerebral sleep-burst epochs and arousal-related burst suppression are both shaped by sophisticated polysynaptic thalamic mechanisms.

  3. Physicochemical and adsorptive properties of fast-pyrolysis bio-chars and their steam activated counterparts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis is rapid heating in the absence of oxygen resulting in decomposition of organic material. When applied to biomass, it produces bio-oil, bio-char and gas. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the USDA has studied fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis of several bimoass including perenni...

  4. Reflections of hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical and spike activities of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2012-11-01

    Manifestations of hunger and satiation in myoelectric activity patterns in different portions of the stomach were studied in chronic experiments. The state of hunger manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow electric activity of muscles in the stomach body and antrum in the form of bimodal distributions of slow electric wave periods, while satiation as unimodal distribution. In hunger-specific bimodal distribution of slow electric wave periods generated by muscles of the stomach body and antrum, the position of the first maximum carries the information about oncoming food reinforcement, since this particular range of slow wave fluctuations determines temporal parameters of slow electric activity of muscles in all stomach regions in the course of subsequent successive food-procuring behavior. Under conditions of hunger, the pacemaker features of muscles in the lesser curvature are realized incompletely. Complete realization is achieved in the course of food intake and at the state of satiation.

  5. Experimental evidence for millisecond activation timescales using the Fast IN Chamber (FINCH) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Jaenicke, R.; Klein, H.; Nillius, B.; Reimann, B.; Wetter, T.; Bingemer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Ice formation in clouds is a subject of great practical and fundamental importance since the occurrence of ice particle initializes dramatic changes in the microphysical structure of the cloud, which finally ends in the formation of precipitation. The initially step of ice formation is largely unknown. Homogenous nucleation of ice occurs only below -40 °C. If an ice nucleus (IN) is present, heterogeneous nucleation may occur at higher temperature. Here deposition freezing, condensation and immersion freezing as well as contact freezing are known. Also growth rates of ice particles are known as function of crystal surface properties, temperature and super saturation. Timescales for homogenous freezing activation in the order of 0.01 seconds and nucleation rates have been measured by Anderson et al. (1980) and Hagen et al., (1981) using their expansion cloud chamber. This contribution of deposition mode freezing measurements by the ice nucleus counter FINCH presents evidence that the activation timescale of this freezing mode is in the order of 1E-3 seconds. FINCH is an Ice Nucleus counter which activates IN in a supersaturated environment at freezing temperatures. The activation conditions are actively controlled by mixing three gas flows (aerosol, particle-free cold-dry and warm-humid flows).See Bundke et al. 2008 for details. In a special operation mode of FINCH we are able to produce a controlled peak super saturation in the order of 1 ms duration. For several test aerosols the results observed in this particular mode are comparable to normal mode operations, where the maximum super saturation remains for more than a second, thus leading to the conclusion that the time for activation is in the order of 1ms or less. References: R.J. Anderson et al, "A Study of Homogeneous Condensation Freezing Nucleation of Small Water Droplets in an Expansion Cloud Chamber, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 37, 2508-2520, 1980 U.Bundke et al., "The fast Ice Nucleus

  6. Information content in cortical spike trains during brain state transitions.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Maria M; Szczepanski, Janusz; Montejo, Noelia; Amigó, José M; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2013-02-01

    Even in the absence of external stimuli there is ongoing activity in the cerebral cortex as a result of recurrent connectivity. This paper attempts to characterize one aspect of this ongoing activity by examining how the information content carried by specific neurons varies as a function of brain state. We recorded from rats chronically implanted with tetrodes in the primary visual cortex during awake and sleep periods. Electro-encephalogram and spike trains were recorded during 30-min periods, and 2-4 neuronal spikes were isolated per tetrode off-line. All the activity included in the analysis was spontaneous, being recorded from the visual cortex in the absence of visual stimuli. The brain state was determined through a combination of behavior evaluation, electroencephalogram and electromyogram analysis. Information in the spike trains was determined by using Lempel-Ziv Complexity. Complexity was used to estimate the entropy of neural discharges and thus the information content (Amigóet al. Neural Comput., 2004, 16: 717-736). The information content in spike trains (range 4-70 bits s(-1) ) was evaluated during different brain states and particularly during the transition periods. Transitions toward states of deeper sleep coincided with a decrease of information, while transitions to the awake state resulted in an increase in information. Changes in both directions were of the same magnitude, about 30%. Information in spike trains showed a high temporal correlation between neurons, reinforcing the idea of the impact of the brain state in the information content of spike trains.

  7. Mapping cortical mesoscopic networks of single spiking cortical or sub-cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P; Mitelut, Catalin C; Chan, Allen W; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Xie, Yicheng; Chen, Andrew Cn; Swindale, Nicholas V; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-02-04

    Understanding the basis of brain function requires knowledge of cortical operations over wide-spatial scales, but also within the context of single neurons. In vivo, wide-field GCaMP imaging and sub-cortical/cortical cellular electrophysiology were used in mice to investigate relationships between spontaneous single neuron spiking and mesoscopic cortical activity. We make use of a rich set of cortical activity motifs that are present in spontaneous activity in anesthetized and awake animals. A mesoscale spike-triggered averaging procedure allowed the identification of motifs that are preferentially linked to individual spiking neurons by employing genetically targeted indicators of neuronal activity. Thalamic neurons predicted and reported specific cycles of wide-scale cortical inhibition/excitation. In contrast, spike-triggered maps derived from single cortical neurons yielded spatio-temporal maps expected for regional cortical consensus function. This approach can define network relationships between any point source of neuronal spiking and mesoscale cortical maps.

  8. Adaptive Spike Threshold Enables Robust and Temporally Precise Neuronal Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, Andrey; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Neural processing rests on the intracellular transformation of information as synaptic inputs are translated into action potentials. This transformation is governed by the spike threshold, which depends on the history of the membrane potential on many temporal scales. While the adaptation of the threshold after spiking activity has been addressed before both theoretically and experimentally, it has only recently been demonstrated that the subthreshold membrane state also influences the effective spike threshold. The consequences for neural computation are not well understood yet. We address this question here using neural simulations and whole cell intracellular recordings in combination with information theoretic analysis. We show that an adaptive spike threshold leads to better stimulus discrimination for tight input correlations than would be achieved otherwise, independent from whether the stimulus is encoded in the rate or pattern of action potentials. The time scales of input selectivity are jointly governed by membrane and threshold dynamics. Encoding information using adaptive thresholds further ensures robust information transmission across cortical states i.e. decoding from different states is less state dependent in the adaptive threshold case, if the decoding is performed in reference to the timing of the population response. Results from in vitro neural recordings were consistent with simulations from adaptive threshold neurons. In summary, the adaptive spike threshold reduces information loss during intracellular information transfer, improves stimulus discriminability and ensures robust decoding across membrane states in a regime of highly correlated inputs, similar to those seen in sensory nuclei during the encoding of sensory information. PMID:27304526

  9. An Active Learning Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Lab Demonstrating Contractile and Kinetic Properties of Fast- and Slow-Twitch Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, S. I.; Arber, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that humans possess fast and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of approximately 50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic…

  10. Action potential repolarization and a fast after-hyperpolarization in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Storm, J F

    1987-04-01

    1. The repolarization of the action potential, and a fast after-hyperpolarization (a.h.p.) were studied in CA1 pyramidal cells (n = 76) in rat hippocampal slices (28-37 degrees C). Single spikes were elicited by brief (1-3 ms) current pulses, at membrane potentials close to rest (-60 to -70 mV). 2. Each action potential was followed by four after-potentials: (a) the fast a.h.p., lasting 2-5 ms; (b) an after-depolarization; (c) a medium a.h.p., (50-100 ms); and (d) a slow a.h.p. (1-2 s). Both the fast a.h.p. and the slow a.h.p. (but not the medium a.h.p.) were inhibited by Ca2+-free medium or Ca2+-channel blockers (Co2+, Mn2+ or Cd2+); but tetraethylammonium (TEA; 0.5-2 nM) blocked only the fast a.h.p., and noradrenaline (2-5 microM) only the slow a.h.p. This suggests that two Ca2+-activated K+ currents were involved: a fast, TEA-sensitive one (IC) underlying the fast a.h.p., and a slow noradrenaline-sensitive one (IAHP) underlying the slow a.h.p. 3. Like the fast a.h.p., spike repolarization seems to depend on a Ca2+-dependent K+ current of the fast, TEA-sensitive kind (IC). The repolarization was slowed by Ca2+-free medium, Co2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, or TEA, but not by noradrenaline. Charybdotoxin (CTX; 30 nM), a scorpion toxin which blocks the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel in muscle, had a similar effect to TEA. The effects of TEA and Cd2+ (or Mn2+) showed mutual occlusion. Raising the external K+ concentration reduced the fast a.h.p. and slowed the spike repolarization, whereas Cl- loading of the cell was ineffective. 4. The transient K+ current, IA, seems also to contribute to spike repolarization, because: (a) 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 0.1 mM), which blocks IA, slowed the spike repolarization; (b) depolarizing pre-pulses, which inactivate IA, had a similar effect; (c) hyperpolarizing pre-pulses speeded up the spike repolarization; (d) the effects of 4-AP and pre-pulses persisted during Ca2+ blockade (like IA); and (e) depolarizing pre-pulses reduced the

  11. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling.

  12. A SEARCH FOR FAST X-RAY VARIABILITY FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI USING SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Pryal, Matthew; Falcone, Abe; Stroh, Michael

    2015-03-20

    Blazars are a class of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) known for their very rapid variabilty in the high energy regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Despite this known fast variability, X-ray observations have generally not revealed variability in blazars with rate doubling or halving timescales less than approximately 15 minutes. Since its launch, the Swift X-ray Telescope has obtained 0.2–10 keV X-ray data on 143 AGNs, including blazars, through intense target of opportunity observations that can be analyzed in a multiwavelength context and used to model jet parameters, particularly during flare states. We have analyzed this broad Swift data set in a search for short timescale variability in blazars that could limit the size of the emission region in the blazar jet. While we do find several low-significance possible flares with potential indications of rapid variability, we find no strong evidence for rapid (<15 minutes) doubling or halving times in flares in the soft X-ray energy band for the AGNs analyzed.

  13. A novel thermometric biosensor for fast surveillance of β-lactamase activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mecklenburg, Michael; Yang, Dajin; Xie, Bin

    2013-11-15

    Regulatory restrictions on antibiotic residues in dairy products have resulted in the illegal addition of β-lactamase to lower antibiotic levels in milk in China. Here we demonstrate a fast, sensitive and convenient method based on enzyme thermistor (ET) for the surveillance of β-lactamase in milk. A fixed amount of penicillin G, which is a specific substrate of β-lactamase, was incubated with the milk sample, and an aliquot of the mixture was directly injected into the ET system to give a temperature change corresponding to the remained penicillin G. The amount of β-lactamase present in sample was deduced by the penicillin G consumed during incubation. This method was successfully applied to quantify β-lactamase in milk with the linear range of 1.1-20 UmL(-1) and the detection limit of 1.1 UmL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 93% to 105%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The stability of the column equipped in ET was also studied, and only 5% decrease of activity was observed after 60 days of use. Compared with the conventional culture-based assay, the advantages of high throughput, timesaving and accurate quantification have made this method an ideal alternative for routine use.

  14. Fast online deconvolution of calcium imaging data.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Johannes; Zhou, Pengcheng; Paninski, Liam

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescent calcium indicators are a popular means for observing the spiking activity of large neuronal populations, but extracting the activity of each neuron from raw fluorescence calcium imaging data is a nontrivial problem. We present a fast online active set method to solve this sparse non-negative deconvolution problem. Importantly, the algorithm 3progresses through each time series sequentially from beginning to end, thus enabling real-time online estimation of neural activity during the imaging session. Our algorithm is a generalization of the pool adjacent violators algorithm (PAVA) for isotonic regression and inherits its linear-time computational complexity. We gain remarkable increases in processing speed: more than one order of magnitude compared to currently employed state of the art convex solvers relying on interior point methods. Unlike these approaches, our method can exploit warm starts; therefore optimizing model hyperparameters only requires a handful of passes through the data. A minor modification can further improve the quality of activity inference by imposing a constraint on the minimum spike size. The algorithm enables real-time simultaneous deconvolution of O(105) traces of whole-brain larval zebrafish imaging data on a laptop.

  15. Fast online deconvolution of calcium imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Paninski, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent calcium indicators are a popular means for observing the spiking activity of large neuronal populations, but extracting the activity of each neuron from raw fluorescence calcium imaging data is a nontrivial problem. We present a fast online active set method to solve this sparse non-negative deconvolution problem. Importantly, the algorithm 3progresses through each time series sequentially from beginning to end, thus enabling real-time online estimation of neural activity during the imaging session. Our algorithm is a generalization of the pool adjacent violators algorithm (PAVA) for isotonic regression and inherits its linear-time computational complexity. We gain remarkable increases in processing speed: more than one order of magnitude compared to currently employed state of the art convex solvers relying on interior point methods. Unlike these approaches, our method can exploit warm starts; therefore optimizing model hyperparameters only requires a handful of passes through the data. A minor modification can further improve the quality of activity inference by imposing a constraint on the minimum spike size. The algorithm enables real-time simultaneous deconvolution of O(105) traces of whole-brain larval zebrafish imaging data on a laptop. PMID:28291787

  16. Cortical Specializations Underlying Fast Computations.

    PubMed

    Volgushev, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    The time course of behaviorally relevant environmental events sets temporal constraints on neuronal processing. How does the mammalian brain make use of the increasingly complex networks of the neocortex, while making decisions and executing behavioral reactions within a reasonable time? The key parameter determining the speed of computations in neuronal networks is a time interval that neuronal ensembles need to process changes at their input and communicate results of this processing to downstream neurons. Theoretical analysis identified basic requirements for fast processing: use of neuronal populations for encoding, background activity, and fast onset dynamics of action potentials in neurons. Experimental evidence shows that populations of neocortical neurons fulfil these requirements. Indeed, they can change firing rate in response to input perturbations very quickly, within 1 to 3 ms, and encode high-frequency components of the input by phase-locking their spiking to frequencies up to 300 to 1000 Hz. This implies that time unit of computations by cortical ensembles is only few, 1 to 3 ms, which is considerably faster than the membrane time constant of individual neurons. The ability of cortical neuronal ensembles to communicate on a millisecond time scale allows for complex, multiple-step processing and precise coordination of neuronal activity in parallel processing streams, while keeping the speed of behavioral reactions within environmentally set temporal constraints.

  17. The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungchil; Tang, Cha-Min; Yang, Sunggu

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic ion channels have been a subject of intense research in neuroscience because active ion channels in dendrites shape input signals. Ca2+-permeable channels including NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in supralinear dendritic integration, and the IA conductance in sublinear integration. Despite their essential roles in dendritic integration, it has remained uncertain whether these conductance coordinate with, or counteract, each other in the process of dendritic integration. To address this question, experiments were designed in hippocampal CA1 neurons with a recent 3D digital holography system that has shown excellent performance for spatial photoactivation. The results demonstrated a role of IA as a key modulator for two distinct dendritic spikes, low- and high-threshold Ca2+ spikes, through a preferential action of IA on Ca2+-permeable channel-mediated currents, over fast AMPAR-mediated currents. It is likely that the rapid kinetics of IA provides feed-forward inhibition to counteract the regenerative Ca2+ channel-mediated dendritic excitability. This research reveals one dynamic ionic mechanism of dendritic integration, and may contribute to a new understanding of neuronal hyperexcitability embedded in several neural diseases such as epilepsy, fragile X syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26696828

  18. Analysis of intracerebral EEG recordings of epileptic spikes: insights from a neural network model

    PubMed Central

    Demont-Guignard, Sophie; Benquet, Pascal; Gerber, Urs; Wendling, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    The pathophysiological interpretation of EEG signals recorded with depth electrodes (i.e. local field potentials, LFPs) during interictal (between seizures) or ictal (during seizures) periods is fundamental in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Our objective was to explain specific shape features of interictal spikes in the hippocampus (observed in LFPs) in terms of cell and network-related parameters of neuronal circuits that generate these events. We developed a neural network model based on “minimal” but biologically-relevant neuron models interconnected through GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses that reproduces the main physiological features of the CA1 subfield. Simulated LFPs were obtained by solving the forward problem (dipole theory) from networks including a large number (~3000) of cells. Insertion of appropriate parameters allowed the model to simulate events that closely resemble actual epileptic spikes. Moreover, the shape of the early fast component (‘spike’) and the late slow component (‘negative wave’) was linked to the relative contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic currents in pyramidal cells. In addition, the model provides insights about the sensitivity of electrode localization with respect to recorded tissue volume and about the relationship between the LFP and the intracellular activity of principal cells and interneurons represented in the network. PMID:19651549

  19. Developmental changes in the activation properties and ultrastructure of fast- and slow-twitch muscles from fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    West, J M; Barclay, C J; Luff, A R; Walker, D W

    1999-04-01

    At early stages of muscle development, skeletal muscles contract and relax slowly, regardless of whether they are destined to become fast- or slow-twitch. In this study, we have characterised the activation profiles of developing fast- and slow-twitch muscles from a precocial species, the sheep, to determine if the activation profiles of the muscles are characteristically slow when both the fast- and slow-twitch muscles have slow isometric contraction profiles. Single skinned muscle fibres from the fast-twitch flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles from fetal (gestational ages 70, 90, 120 and 140 days; term 147 days) and neonatal (8 weeks old) sheep were used to determine the isometric force-pCa (pCa = -log10[Ca2+]) and force-pSr relations during development. Fast-twitch mammalian muscles generally have a greatly different sensitivity to Ca2+ and Sr2+ whereas slow-twitch muscles have a similar sensitivity to these divalent cations. At all ages studied, the force-pCa and force-pSr relations of the FDL muscle were widely separated. The mean separation of the mid-point of the curves (pCa50-pSr50) was approximately 1.1. This is typical of adult fast-twitch muscle. The force-pCa and force-pSr curves for soleus muscle were also widely separated at 70 and 90 days gestation (pCa50-pSr50 approximately 0.75); between 90 days and 140 days this separation decreased significantly to approximately 0.2. This leads to a paradoxical situation whereby at early stages of muscle development the fast muscles have contraction dynamics of slow muscles but the slow muscles have activation profiles more characteristic of fast muscles. The time course for development of the FDL and soleus is different, based on sarcomere structure with the soleus muscle developing clearly defined sarcomere structure earlier in gestation than the FDL. At 70 days gestation the FDL muscle had no clearly defined sarcomeres. Force (N cm-2) increased almost linearly between 70 and 140 days

  20. HIV Glycoprotein Gp120 Impairs Fast Axonal Transport by Activating Tak1 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Berth, Sarah H.; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole; Wang, Bin; Kim, Hajwa; Song, Yuyu; Sapar, Maria; Morfini, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Sensory neuropathies are the most common neurological complication of HIV. Of these, distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is directly caused by HIV infection and characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Mechanisms for axonal degeneration in DSP remain unclear, but recent experiments revealed that the HIV glycoprotein gp120 is internalized and localized within axons of DRG neurons. Based on these findings, we investigated whether intra-axonal gp120 might impair fast axonal transport (FAT), a cellular process critical for appropriate maintenance of the axonal compartment. Significantly, we found that gp120 severely impaired both anterograde and retrograde FAT. Providing a mechanistic basis for these effects, pharmacological experiments revealed an involvement of various phosphotransferases in this toxic effect, including members of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (Tak-1, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)), inhibitor of kappa-B-kinase 2 (IKK2), and PP1. Biochemical experiments and axonal outgrowth assays in cell lines and primary cultures extended these findings. Impairments in neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by gp120 were rescued using a Tak-1 inhibitor, implicating a Tak-1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in gp120 neurotoxicity. Taken together, these observations indicate that kinase-based impairments in FAT represent a novel mechanism underlying gp120 neurotoxicity consistent with the dying-back degeneration seen in DSP. Targeting gp120-based impairments in FAT with specific kinase inhibitors might provide a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent axonal degeneration in DSP. PMID:27872270

  1. Eruption of the magnetic flux rope in a fast decayed active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shangbin

    2012-07-01

    An isolated and fast decayed active region was observed when passing through solar disk. There is only one CME related with it that give us a good opportunity to investigate the whole process of the CME. Filament in this active region rises up rapidly and then hesitates and disintegrates into flare loops. The rising filament from EIT images separates into two parts just before eruption. It is interesting that this filament rises up with positive kink which is opposite to the negative helicity according to the inverse S-shaped X-ray sigmoid and accumulated magnetic helicity. A new filament reforms several hours later after CME and the axis of this new one rotates clockwise about 22° comparing with that of the former one. We also observed a bright transient J-shaped X-ray sigmoid immediately appears after filament eruption. It quickly develops into a soft X-ray cusp and rises up firstly then drops down. We propose that field lines underneath bald-patch sparatrix surface (BPSS) where for the formation of a magnetic tangential discontinuity are locally rooted to the photosphere near the bald-patch (BP) inversion line. Field lines above the surface are detached from the photosphere to form this CME and partially open the field which make the filament loses equilibrium to rise quickly and then be drawn back by the tension force of magnetic field after eruption to form a new filament. Two magnetic cancelation regions have been observed clearly just before filament eruption that reflect the existence of BPs. On the other hand, the values of total magnetic helicity to the corona taken by emergence and differential rotation normalized by the square total magnetic flux implies the possibility of upper bound on the total magnetic helicity that a force-free field can contain.

  2. Serotonin modifies the spontaneous spiking activity of gracile nucleus neurons in rats: role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Grasso, C; Li Volsi, G; Barresi, M

    2016-06-01

    We tested the effects of microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5-HT) on the firing rate of neurons located in the gracile nucleus (GN) of rats. Application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists respectively mimicked/ modulated and blocked the effects produced by the amine, respectively. Among the tested neurons, 88.2% modified their background firing activity in the presence of 5-HT. Responsive neurons decreased their mean firing activity (MFA) in 56.7% of cases and increased it in the remaining 43.3%. To ascertain the specificity of the effects induced by 5-HT, we utilized 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (α-MET-5-HT), agonists for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors, respectively. The microiontophoresis of 8-OH-DPAT modified the background firing rate of all GN neurons (100% of tested neurons) mimicking the decrease of MFA evoked by 5-HT. The application of a-MET-5-HT modified the MFA in 76.9% of tested neurons, decreasing it in 61.5% of cases and increasing in the remaining 23.1%. The decrease of MFA induced by 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-[-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate salt (WAY100635), while application of 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserine tartrate (KET) antagonized only the increase of MFA induced by a-MET-5-HT. These results indicate that 5-HT is able to modulate the background firing activity of GN neurons by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

  3. Fasting alters protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in the hypothalamus of broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Yue, Yunshuang; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Everaert, Nadia; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan

    2012-09-15

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fasting and re-feeding on hypothalamic 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels and (an)orexigenic neuropeptides. Male Arbor Acres chicks (7-day-old, n=160) were allocated to four equal treatment groups: control chicks (fed ad libitum for 48 h, C48), chicks that were fasted for 48 h (F48), chicks that were first fasted for 48 h and then re-fed for 24h (F48C24), and chicks that were fed ad libitum for 72h (C72). Fasting for 48 h significantly (P<0.05) increased the ratio of phosphorylated AMPKα to total AMPKα and phosphorylated LKB1 to total LKB1, whereas re-feeding for 24h reduced these ratios to that of the ad libitum fed C72 chicks. The gene expressions of agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortin receptor 4, melanin-concentrating hormone, prepro-orexins and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the fasted chicks relative to the ad libitum fed C48 group. The gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), as well as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was not affected by the nutritional status. Fasting significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). The results suggest that the LKB1/AMPK signal pathway is involved in the energy homeostasis of fasted chicks, and its possible role in feed intake regulation might be mediated by the AgRP/NPY rather than the POMC/CART pathway.

  4. To sort or not to sort: the impact of spike-sorting on neural decoding performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Sonia; Sadtler, Patrick; Batista, Aaron; Chase, Steven; Ventura, Valérie

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising technology for restoring motor ability to paralyzed patients. Spiking-based BCIs have successfully been used in clinical trials to control multi-degree-of-freedom robotic devices. Current implementations of these devices require a lengthy spike-sorting step, which is an obstacle to moving this technology from the lab to the clinic. A viable alternative is to avoid spike-sorting, treating all threshold crossings of the voltage waveform on an electrode as coming from one putative neuron. It is not known, however, how much decoding information might be lost by ignoring spike identity. Approach. We present a full analysis of the effects of spike-sorting schemes on decoding performance. Specifically, we compare how well two common decoders, the optimal linear estimator and the Kalman filter, reconstruct the arm movements of non-human primates performing reaching tasks, when receiving input from various sorting schemes. The schemes we tested included: using threshold crossings without spike-sorting; expert-sorting discarding the noise; expert-sorting, including the noise as if it were another neuron; and automatic spike-sorting using waveform features. We also decoded from a joint statistical model for the waveforms and tuning curves, which does not involve an explicit spike-sorting step. Main results. Discarding the threshold crossings that cannot be assigned to neurons degrades decoding: no spikes should be discarded. Decoding based on spike-sorted units outperforms decoding based on electrodes voltage crossings: spike-sorting is useful. The four waveform based spike-sorting methods tested here yield similar decoding efficiencies: a fast and simple method is competitive. Decoding using the joint waveform and tuning model shows promise but is not consistently superior. Significance. Our results indicate that simple automated spike-sorting performs as well as the more computationally or manually intensive

  5. Reduced Spiking in Entorhinal Cortex during the Delay Period of a Cued Spatial Response Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Kishan; Keller, Lauren A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic persistent spiking mechanisms in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) neurons may play a role in active maintenance of working memory. However, electrophysiological studies of rat mEC units have primarily focused on spatial modulation. We sought evidence of differential spike rates in the mEC in rats trained on a T-maze, cued spatial delayed…

  6. Presynaptic Ca2+-activated K+ channels in glutamatergic hippocampal terminals and their role in spike repolarization and regulation of transmitter release.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Shao, L R; Chavoshy, S; Gu, N; Trieb, M; Behrens, R; Laake, P; Pongs, O; Knaus, H G; Ottersen, O P; Storm, J F

    2001-12-15

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK, also called Maxi-K or Slo channels) are widespread in the vertebrate nervous system, but their functional roles in synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain are largely unknown. By combining electrophysiology and immunogold cytochemistry, we demonstrate the existence of functional BK channels in presynaptic terminals in the hippocampus and compare their functional roles in somata and terminals of CA3 pyramidal cells. Double-labeling immunogold analysis with BK channel and glutamate receptor antibodies indicated that BK channels are targeted to the presynaptic membrane facing the synaptic cleft in terminals of Schaffer collaterals in stratum radiatum. Whole-cell, intracellular, and field-potential recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells showed that the presynaptic BK channels are activated by calcium influx and can contribute to repolarization of the presynaptic action potential (AP) and negative feedback control of Ca(2+) influx and transmitter release. This was observed in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 40-100 microm), which broadened the presynaptic compound action potential. In contrast, the presynaptic BK channels did not contribute significantly to regulation of action potentials or transmitter release under basal experimental conditions, i.e., without 4-AP, even at high stimulation frequencies. This is unlike the situation in the parent cell bodies (CA3 pyramidal cells), where BK channels contribute strongly to action potential repolarization. These results indicate that the functional role of BK channels depends on their subcellular localization.

  7. Fasting activates macroautophagy in neurons of Alzheimer’s disease mouse model but is insufficient to degrade amyloid-beta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xigui; Kondo, Kanoh; Motoki, Kazumi; Homma, Hidenori; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new technique to observe macroautophagy in the brain in vivo, and examined whether fasting induced macroautophagy in neurons and how the induction was different between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model and control mice. Lentivirus for EGFP-LC3 injected into the brain successfully visualized autophagosome in living neurons by two-photon microscopy. The time-lapse imaging revealed that fasting increased the number, size and signal intensity of autophagosome in neurons. In AD model mice, these parameters of autophagosome were higher at the basal levels before starvation, and increased more rapidly by fasting than in control mice. However, metabolism of exogenous labeled Aβ evaluated by the new technique suggested that the activated macroautophagy was insufficient to degrade the intracellular Aβ increased by enhanced uptake from extracellular space after fasting. Ordinary immunohistochemistry also revealed that fasting increased intracellular accumulation of endogenous Aβ, triggered cell dysfunction but did not mostly decrease extracellular Aβ accumulation. Moreover, we unexpectedly discovered a circadian rhythm of basal level of macroautophagy. These results revealed new aspects of neuronal autophagy in normal/AD states and indicated usefulness of our method for evaluating autophagy functions in vivo. PMID:26169250

  8. Strategies for high-performance resource-efficient compression of neural spike recordings.

    PubMed

    Thorbergsson, Palmi Thor; Garwicz, Martin; Schouenborg, Jens; Johansson, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) based on extracellular recordings with microelectrodes provide means of observing the activities of neurons that orchestrate fundamental brain function, and are therefore powerful tools for exploring the function of the brain. Due to physical restrictions and risks for post-surgical complications, wired BMIs are not suitable for long-term studies in freely behaving animals. Wireless BMIs ideally solve these problems, but they call for low-complexity techniques for data compression that ensure maximum utilization of the wireless link and energy resources, as well as minimum heat dissipation in the surrounding tissues. In this paper, we analyze the performances of various system architectures that involve spike detection, spike alignment and spike compression. Performance is analyzed in terms of spike reconstruction and spike sorting performance after wireless transmission of the compressed spike waveforms. Compression is performed with transform coding, using five different compression bases, one of which we pay special attention to. That basis is a fixed basis derived, by singular value decomposition, from a large assembly of experimentally obtained spike waveforms, and therefore represents a generic basis specially suitable for compressing spike waveforms. Our results show that a compression factor of 99.8%, compared to transmitting the raw acquired data, can be achieved using the fixed generic compression basis without compromising performance in spike reconstruction and spike sorting. Besides illustrating the relative performances of various system architectures and compression bases, our findings show that compression of spikes with a fixed generic compression basis derived from spike data provides better performance than compression with downsampling or the Haar basis, given that no optimization procedures are implemented for compression coefficients, and the performance is similar to that obtained when the optimal SVD based

  9. Participation of beta-adrenergic activity in modulation of GLUT4 expression during fasting and refeeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Zanquetta, Melissa Moreira; Nascimento, Monalisa Edi Cabral; Mori, Rosana Cristina Tieko; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Young, Martin E; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2006-11-01

    Through in vitro studies, several factors have been reported as modulators of GLUT4 gene expression. However, the role(s) of each potential GLUT4 modulator is not completely understood in the in vivo setting. The present study has investigated the hypothesis that beta-adrenergic stimulation participates in modulation of GLUT4 expression during fasting and refeeding. As such, GLUT4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were investigated in insulin-sensitive tissues during a 48-hour fast. In addition, the effects of 8-hour refeeding on GLUT4 mRNA in the gastrocnemius muscle and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) were investigated. Whether beta-adrenoceptor blockade by propranolol (20 mg/kg) treatment influenced the responsiveness to fasting/refeeding was also investigated. The results show that fasting repressed GLUT4 gene and protein expression in BAT, white adipose tissue, and soleus muscle, but had no effect on the gastrocnemius muscle. Refeeding induced a rapid overexpression of GLUT4 mRNA in both gastrocnemius (approximately 25%, P < .05) and BAT (approximately 200%, P < .001). Propranolol treatment induced an increase (approximately 60%, P < .05) in GLUT4 mRNA at the end of the fasting period. In contrast, propranolol treatment attenuated GLUT4 mRNA induction after refeeding; the latter may be due to attenuation of postprandial insulin levels. These results suggest that sympathetic activity is important for the repression of GLUT4 gene expression during fasting. In contrast, sympathetic control of the GLUT4 gene seems to be overbalanced by metabolic/hormonal modulators during refeeding stage. Taken together, the results suggest that feeding behavior influences GLUT4 gene expression pattern through changes in sympathetic activity, especially during long-term starvation periods.

  10. Hybrid Spintronic-CMOS Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip Learning: Devices, Circuits, and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Banerjee, Aparajita; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, spiking neural networks (SNNs) have emerged as one of the popular architectures to emulate the brain. In SNNs, information is temporally encoded and communication between neurons is accomplished by means of spikes. In such networks, spike-timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms require the online programing of synapses based on the temporal information of spikes transmitted by spiking neurons. In this work, we propose a spintronic synapse with decoupled spike-transmission and programing-current paths. The spintronic synapse consists of a ferromagnet-heavy-metal heterostructure where the programing current through the heavy metal generates spin-orbit torque to modulate the device conductance. Low programing energy and fast programing times demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device as a nanoelectronic synapse. We perform a simulation study based on an experimentally benchmarked device-simulation framework to demonstrate the interfacing of such spintronic synapses with CMOS neurons and learning circuits operating in the transistor subthreshold region to form a network of spiking neurons that can be utilized for pattern-recognition problems.

  11. An improved algorithm to remove cosmic spikes in Raman spectra for online monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Dai, Liankui

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectral analysis integrated with multivariate calibration is a fast and effective solution to monitor chemical product properties. However, Raman instruments utilizing charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors suffer from occasional spikes caused by cosmic rays. Cosmic spikes can disturb or even destroy the meaningful chemical information expressed by normal Raman spectra. In online monitoring, some cosmic spikes have intensity and bandwidth similar to normal Raman peaks of chemical components when a low resolution and cost-effective Raman instrument is used. Moreover, the online Raman spectra always contain variations of strong Raman peaks and fluorescence. Current spike-removal methods seem to have difficulty detecting and recovering cosmic spikes in these online Raman spectra. Therefore, an improved algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, a new scheme composed of intensity identification and local moving window correlation analysis is introduced for cosmic spike detection; intensity identification based on derivative spectra and local linear fitting approximation are used for the recovery of cosmic spikes. The algorithm is proved to be simple and effective and has been applied in an online Raman instrument installed at a continuous catalytic reforming unit in a refinery.

  12. Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis as precursor material for preparation of activated carbon in fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jingli; He, Tao; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-09-01

    Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis was activated by physical and chemical activation process in a fluidized bed reactor. The structure and morphology of the carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and SEM. Effects of activation time and activation agents on the structure of activation carbon were investigated. The physically activated carbons with CO2 have BET specific surface area up to 880 m(2)/g, and exhibit microporous structure. The chemically activated carbons with H3PO4 have BET specific surface area up to 600 m(2)/g, and exhibit mesoporous structure. The surface morphology shows that physically activated carbons exhibit fibrous like structure in nature with long ridges, resembling parallel lines. Whereas chemically activated carbons have cross-interconnected smooth open pores without the fibrous like structure.

  13. Philosophy of the Spike: Rate-Based vs. Spike-Based Theories of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Brette, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Does the brain use a firing rate code or a spike timing code? Considering this controversial question from an epistemological perspective, I argue that progress has been hampered by its problematic phrasing. It takes the perspective of an external observer looking at whether those two observables vary with stimuli, and thereby misses the relevant question: which one has a causal role in neural activity? When rephrased in a more meaningful way, the rate-based view appears as an ad hoc methodological postulate, one that is practical but with virtually no empirical or theoretical support. PMID:26617496

  14. Support vector machines for spike pattern classification with a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron

    PubMed Central

    Ambard, Maxime; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Spike pattern classification is a key topic in machine learning, computational neuroscience, and electronic device design. Here, we offer a new supervised learning rule based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) to determine the synaptic weights of a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neuron model for spike pattern classification. We compare classification performance between this algorithm and other methods sharing the same conceptual framework. We consider the effect of postsynaptic potential (PSP) kernel dynamics on patterns separability, and we propose an extension of the method to decrease computational load. The algorithm performs well in generalization tasks. We show that the peak value of spike patterns separability depends on a relation between PSP dynamics and spike pattern duration, and we propose a particular kernel that is well-suited for fast computations and electronic implementations. PMID:23181017

  15. Solar-stellar connection : A solar analogous behaviour by an active ultra fast rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairam, Lalitha; Schmitt, Juergen; Pal Singh, Kulinder

    2015-08-01

    AB Dor is an ultra-fast rotating (Prot ~ 0.51 d) active young K dwarf with an age of ~40-50 Myr. Located as a foreground star towards large magellanic cloud (LMC), AB Dor has the advantage of being observed at all times by most of the X-ray satellites making it a favourite calibration target. AB Dor has been repeatedly observed for calibration by reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM- Newton over last decade. This gives an ideal opportunity to perform a detailed analysis of the coronal emission, and to compare the flare characteristics with the Sun, since the Sun is usually considered as a prototype of low mass stars. Flares are frequent in low mass active stars across the electromagnetic spectrum similar to the Sun. We will for the first time, present an analysis of 30 intense X-ray flares observed from AB Dor. These flares detected in XMM-Newton data show a rapid rise (500-3000 s) and a slow decay (1000-6000 s). The derived X-ray luminosity during the flares ranges between 30.20 ≤ log(Lx) ≤ 30.83 erg/s; the flare peak temperature lies between 30-80 MK and the emission measures for these flares are in the range of 52.3 ≤ log(EM) ≤ 53.5 cm^-3. Our studies suggest that the scaling law between the flare peak emission measure and the flare peak temperature for all the flares observed on AB Dor is very similar to the relationship followed by solar flares, despite the fact that the AB Dor flare emission is ~250 times higher than the solar flare emission. We also carried out a homogenous study of flare frequencies, energetics and its occurrence in AB Dor. The frequency distribution of flare energies is a crucial diagnostic to calculate the overall energy residing in a flare. Our results of this study indicate that the large flare (33 ≤ log(E) ≤ 34 erg) may not contribute to the heating of the corona. We will show the presence of a possible long-term cycle in AB Dor both from a photospheric and coronal point of view, similar to the 11-year

  16. Recordings of mucociliary activity in vivo: benefit of fast Fourier transformation of the photoelectric signal.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, S; Cervin, A; Runer, T; Thomasson, L

    1996-09-01

    Investigations of mucociliary activity in vivo are based on photoelectric recordings of light reflections from the mucosa. The alterations in light intensity produced by the beating cilia are picked up by a photodetector and converted to photoelectric signals. The optimal processing of these signals is not known, but in vitro recordings have been reported to benefit from fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of the signal. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of FFT for frequency analysis of photoelectric signals originating from an artificial light source simulating mucociliary activity or from sinus or nasal mucosa in vivo, as compared to a conventional method of calculating mucociliary wave frequency, in which each peak in the signal is interpreted as a beat (old method). In the experiments with the artificial light source, the FFT system was superior to the conventional method by a factor of 50 in detecting weak signals. By using FFT signal processing, frequency could be correctly calculated in experiments with a compound signal. In experiments in the rabbit maxillary sinus, the spontaneous variations were greater when signals were processed by FFT. The correlation between the two methods was excellent: r = .92. The increase in mucociliary activity in response to the ciliary stimulant methacholine at a dosage of 0.5 microgram/kg was greater measured with the FFT than with the old method (55.3% +/- 8.3% versus 43.0% +/- 8.2%, p < .05, N = 8), and only with the FFT system could a significant effect of a threshold dose (0.05 microgram/kg) of methacholine be detected. In the human nose, recordings from aluminum foil placed on the nasal dorsum and from the nasal septa mucosa displayed some similarities in the lower frequency spectrum (< 5 Hz) attributable to artifacts. The predominant cause of these artifacts was the pulse beat, whereas in the frequency spectrum above 5 Hz, results differed for the two sources of reflected light, the mean frequency in

  17. Influence of substrate concentration and moisture content on the specific methanogenic activity of dry mesophilic municipal solid waste digestate spiked with propionate.

    PubMed

    Le Hyaric, Ronan; Chardin, Caroline; Benbelkacem, Hassen; Bollon, Julien; Bayard, Rémy; Escudié, Renaud; Buffière, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of substrate concentration and moisture content on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of a fresh dry mesophilic digestate from a municipal solid waste digester plant. For this purpose, SMA tests were performed under mesophilic conditions into glass bottles of 500 mL volume used as batch reactors, during a period of 20-25 days. Propionate was used as substrate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 gCOD/kg. Four moisture contents were studied: 65%, 75%, 80% and 82%. Experimental results showed that propionate concentration and moisture content strongly influenced the SMA. The highest SMA was observed at a substrate concentration of 10 gCOD/kg (11.3 mgCOD gVS(-1) d(-1) for the second dose of propionate) and at a moisture content of 82% (7.8 mgCOD gVS(-1) d(-1) for the second dose of propionate, at a concentration of 5 gCOD/kg). SMA was found to decrease linearly when decreasing the moisture content.

  18. The influence of posterior parietal cortex on extrastriate visual activity: A concurrent TMS and fast optical imaging study.

    PubMed

    Parks, Nathan A; Mazzi, Chiara; Tapia, Evelina; Savazzi, Silvia; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Beck, Diane M

    2015-11-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical node in attentional and saccadic eye movement networks of the cerebral cortex, exerting top-down control over activity in visual cortex. Here, we sought to further elucidate the properties of PPC feedback by providing a time-resolved map of functional connectivity between parietal and occipital cortex using single-pulse TMS to stimulate the left PPC while concurrently recording fast optical imaging data from bilateral occipital cortex. Magnetic stimulation of the PPC induced transient ipsilateral occipital activations (BA 18) 24-48ms post-TMS. Concurrent TMS and fast optical imaging results demonstrate a clear influence of PPC stimulation on activity within human extrastriate visual cortex and further extend this time- and space-resolved method for examining functional connectivity.

  19. The Influence of Posterior Parietal Cortex on Extrastriate Visual Activity: A Concurrent TMS and Fast Optical Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Nathan A.; Mazzi, Chiara; Tapia, Evelina; Savazzi, Silvia; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Beck, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical node in attentional and saccadic eye movement networks of the cerebral cortex, exerting top-down control over activity in visual cortex. Here, we sought to further elucidate the properties of PPC feedback by providing a time-resolved map of functional connectivity between parietal and occipital cortex using single-pulse TMS to stimulate the left PPC while concurrently recording fast optical imaging data from bilateral occipital cortex. Magnetic stimulation of the PPC induced transient ipsilateral occipital activations (BA 18) 24 to 48 ms post-TMS. Concurrent TMS and fast optical imaging results demonstrate a clear influence of PPC stimulation on activity within human extrastriate visual cortex and further extend this time- and space-resolved method for examining functional connectivity. PMID:26449990

  20. Advantage of support vector machine for neural spike train decoding under spike sorting errors.

    PubMed

    Hwan Kim, Kyung; Shin Kim, Sung; June Kim, Sung

    2005-01-01

    Decoding of kinematic variables from neuronal spike trains is important for neuroprosthetic devices. The spike trains from single units must be extracted from extracellular neural signals and thus spike detection and sorting procedure is essential. Since the spike detection and sorting procedure may yield considerable errors, decoding algorithm should be robust against spike train errors. Here we showed that the spike train decoding algorithms employing a nonlinear mapping, especially support vector machine (SVM), may be more advantageous contrary to conventional belief that linear filter is sufficient. The advantage became more conspicuous with erroneous spike trains. Using the SVM, satisfactory performance could be obtained much more easily, compared to the case of using multilayer perceptron, which was employed for previous studies. The results suggests the possibility of neuroprosthetic device with a low-quality spike sorting preprocessor.

  1. Cycle Training Increased GLUT4 and Activation of mTOR in Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Charles A.; Howell, Mary E.A.; Baker, Jonathan D.; Dykes, Rhesa J.; Duffourc, Michelle M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed six weeks of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling. Methods In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, changes in expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were compared using quantitative immunoblots with specific protein standards. Regulatory pathway components were evaluated by immunoblots of muscle homogenates and immunohistochemistry of microscopic sections. Results GLUT1 was unchanged, GLUT4 increased 66%, GLUT12 increased 104%, and GLUT5 decreased 72%. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c) and regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and phospho-AMPK) were unchanged, but the muscle hypertrophy pathway component, phospho-mTOR increased 83% after the exercise program. In baseline biopsies, GLUT4 by immunohistochemical techniques was 37% greater in Type I (slow twitch, red) muscle fibers, but the exercise training increased GLUT4 expression in Type II (fast twitch, white) fibers by 50%, achieving parity with the Type I fibers. Baseline phospho-mTOR expression was 50% higher in Type II fibers and increased more in Type II fibers (62%) with training, but also increased in Type I fibers (34%). Conclusion Progressive intensity stationary cycle training of previously sedentary subjects increased muscle insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GLUT4 and GLUT12) and decreased the fructose transporter (GLUT5). The increase in GLUT4 occurred primarily in Type II muscle fibers and this coincided with activation of the mTOR muscle hypertrophy pathway. There was little impact on Type I fiber GLUT4 expression and no evidence of change in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20010125

  2. Spiking neuron network Helmholtz machine

    PubMed Central

    Sountsov, Pavel; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggests that the brain performs optimal (or near-optimal) probabilistic inference and learning during perception and other tasks. Although many machine learning algorithms exist that perform inference and learning in an optimal way, the complete description of how one of those algorithms (or a novel algorithm) can be implemented in the brain is currently incomplete. There have been many proposed solutions that address how neurons can perform optimal inference but the question of how synaptic plasticity can implement optimal learning is rarely addressed. This paper aims to unify the two fields of probabilistic inference and synaptic plasticity by using a neuronal network of realistic model spiking neurons to implement a well-studied computational model called the Helmholtz Machine. The Helmholtz Machine is amenable to neural implementation as the algorithm it uses to learn its parameters, called the wake-sleep algorithm, uses a local delta learning rule. Our spiking-neuron network implements both the delta rule and a small example of a Helmholtz machine. This neuronal network can learn an internal model of continuous-valued training data sets without supervision. The network can also perform inference on the learned internal models. We show how various biophysical features of the neural implementation constrain the parameters of the wake-sleep algorithm, such as the duration of the wake and sleep phases of learning and the minimal sample duration. We examine the deviations from optimal performance and tie them to the properties of the synaptic plasticity rule. PMID:25954191

  3. Spiking neuron network Helmholtz machine.

    PubMed

    Sountsov, Pavel; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggests that the brain performs optimal (or near-optimal) probabilistic inference and learning during perception and other tasks. Although many machine learning algorithms exist that perform inference and learning in an optimal way, the complete description of how one of those algorithms (or a novel algorithm) can be implemented in the brain is currently incomplete. There have been many proposed solutions that address how neurons can perform optimal inference but the question of how synaptic plasticity can implement optimal learning is rarely addressed. This paper aims to unify the two fields of probabilistic inference and synaptic plasticity by using a neuronal network of realistic model spiking neurons to implement a well-studied computational model called the Helmholtz Machine. The Helmholtz Machine is amenable to neural implementation as the algorithm it uses to learn its parameters, called the wake-sleep algorithm, uses a local delta learning rule. Our spiking-neuron network implements both the delta rule and a small example of a Helmholtz machine. This neuronal network can learn an internal model of continuous-valued training data sets without supervision. The network can also perform inference on the learned internal models. We show how various biophysical features of the neural implementation constrain the parameters of the wake-sleep algorithm, such as the duration of the wake and sleep phases of learning and the minimal sample duration. We examine the deviations from optimal performance and tie them to the properties of the synaptic plasticity rule.

  4. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: effects of glucose intake, antimuscarinic activity and anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Celik, Pinar Yamantürk; Açikmeşe, Bariş

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to further evaluate the contribution of antimuscarinic activity and hypoglycaemia to the development of scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake. The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on convulsions were also evaluated. Antimuscarinic drugs atropine (3 mg/kg) and biperiden (10 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to animals fasted for 48 h. Like scopolamine, both drugs induced convulsions after animals were allowed to eat ad libitum. Another group of animals was given glucose (5%) in drinking water during fasting. These animals, although they had normoglycaemic blood levels after fasting, also developed convulsions after treated with scopolamine i.p. (3 mg/kg), atropine (3 mg/kg) or biperiden (10 mg/kg) and allowed to eat ad libitum. Among the drugs studied, only valproate (340 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) markedly reduced the incidence of scopolamine-induced convulsions. The present results indicate that antimuscarinic activity, but not hypoglycaemia, underlies these convulsions which do not respond to most of the conventional anticonvulsant drugs.

  5. Fasting activation of AgRP neurons requires NMDA receptors and involves spinogenesis and increased excitatory tone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiemin; Kong, Dong; Shah, Bhavik P; Ye, Chianping; Koda, Shuichi; Saunders, Arpiar; Ding, Jun B; Yang, Zongfang; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Lowell, Bradford B

    2012-02-09

    AgRP neuron activity drives feeding and weight gain whereas that of nearby POMC neurons does the opposite. However, the role of excitatory glutamatergic input in controlling these neurons is unknown. To address this question, we generated mice lacking NMDA receptors (NMDARs) on either AgRP or POMC neurons. Deletion of NMDARs from AgRP neurons markedly reduced weight, body fat and food intake whereas deletion from POMC neurons had no effect. Activation of AgRP neurons by fasting, as assessed by c-Fos, Agrp and Npy mRNA expression, AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, depolarization and firing rates, required NMDARs. Furthermore, AgRP but not POMC neurons have dendritic spines and increased glutamatergic input onto AgRP neurons caused by fasting was paralleled by an increase in spines, suggesting fasting induced synaptogenesis and spinogenesis. Thus glutamatergic synaptic transmission and its modulation by NMDARs play key roles in controlling AgRP neurons and determining the cellular and behavioral response to fasting.

  6. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  7. SPIKE: Application for ASTRO-D mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Johnston, M.; Morgan, E.; Clark, G.

    1992-01-01

    SPIKE is a mission planning software system developed by a team of programmers at the STScI for use with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). SPIKE has been developed for the purpose of automating observatory scheduling to increase the effective utilization and ultimately, scientific return from orbiting telescopes. High-level scheduling strategies using both rule-based and neural network approaches have been incorporated. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. Although SPIKE was originally developed for the HST, it can be used for other astronomy missions including ground-based observatories. One of the missions that has decided to use SPIKE is ASTRO-D, a Japanese X-ray satellite for which the U.S. is providing a part of the scientific payload. Scheduled to fly in Feb. 1993, its four telescopes will focus X-rays over a wide energy range onto CCD's and imaging gas proportional counters. ASTRO-D will be the first X-ray imaging mission operating over the 0.5-12 keV band with high energy resolution. This combination of capabilities will enable a varied and exciting program of astronomical research to be carried out. ASTRO-D is expected to observe 5 to 20 objects per day and a total of several thousands per year. This requires the implementation of an efficient planning and scheduling system which SPIKE can provide. Although the version of SPIKE that will be used for ASTRO-D mission is almost identical to that used for the HST, there are a few differences. For example, ASTRO-D will use two ground stations for data downlinks, instead of the TDRSS system for data transmission. As a consequence ASTRO-D is constrained by limited on-board data storage capacity to schedule high data-rate observations during periods of frequent high bit rate observations accordingly. We will demonstrate the ASTRO-D version of SPIKE to show what SPIKE can provide and how efficiently it creates an observational schedule.

  8. iRaster: a novel information visualization tool to explore spatiotemporal patterns in multiple spike trains.

    PubMed

    Somerville, J; Stuart, L; Sernagor, E; Borisyuk, R

    2010-12-15

    Over the last few years, simultaneous recordings of multiple spike trains have become widely used by neuroscientists. Therefore, it is important to develop new tools for analysing multiple spike trains in order to gain new insight into the function of neural systems. This paper describes how techniques from the field of visual analytics can be used to reveal specific patterns of neural activity. An interactive raster plot called iRaster has been developed. This software incorporates a selection of statistical procedures for visualization and flexible manipulations with multiple spike trains. For example, there are several procedures for the re-ordering of spike trains which can be used to unmask activity propagation, spiking synchronization, and many other important features of multiple spike train activity. Additionally, iRaster includes a rate representation of neural activity, a combined representation of rate and spikes, spike train removal and time interval removal. Furthermore, it provides multiple coordinated views, time and spike train zooming windows, a fisheye lens distortion, and dissemination facilities. iRaster is a user friendly, interactive, flexible tool which supports a broad range of visual representations. This tool has been successfully used to analyse both synthetic and experimentally recorded datasets. In this paper, the main features of iRaster are described and its performance and effectiveness are demonstrated using various types of data including experimental multi-electrode array recordings from the ganglion cell layer in mouse retina. iRaster is part of an ongoing research project called VISA (Visualization of Inter-Spike Associations) at the Visualization Lab in the University of Plymouth. The overall aim of the VISA project is to provide neuroscientists with the ability to freely explore and analyse their data. The software is freely available from the Visualization Lab website (see www.plymouth.ac.uk/infovis).

  9. A "Last Word" on Ice Spikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Helene F.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts an explanation of how "ice spikes" are formed. The spikes are upward protrusions of ice that occur when water expands as it cools in a rigid container of low thermal conductivity. Describes the results of an investigation and includes color photos. (LZ)

  10. PySpike-A Python library for analyzing spike train synchrony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulansky, Mario; Kreuz, Thomas

    Understanding how the brain functions is one of the biggest challenges of our time. The analysis of experimentally recorded neural firing patterns (spike trains) plays a crucial role in addressing this problem. Here, the PySpike library is introduced, a Python package for spike train analysis providing parameter-free and time-scale independent measures of spike train synchrony. It allows to compute similarity and dissimilarity profiles, averaged values and distance matrices. Although mainly focusing on neuroscience, PySpike can also be applied in other contexts like climate research or social sciences. The package is available as Open Source on Github and PyPI.

  11. Millisecond Radio Spikes in the Decimetric Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, B. P.; Rudawy, P.; Karlický, M.

    We present the results of the analysis of thirteen events consisting of dm-spikes observed in Toruń between 15 March 2000 and 30 October 2001. The events were obtained with a very high time resolution (80 microseconds) radio spectrograph in the 1352 - 1490 MHz range. These data were complemented with observations from the radio spectrograph at Ondřejov in the 0.8 - 2.0 GHz band. We evaluated the basic characteristics of the individual spikes (duration, spectral width, and frequency drifts), as well as their groups and chains, the location of their emission sources, and the temporal correlations of the emissions with various phases of the associated solar flares. We found that the mean duration and spectral width of the radio spikes are equal to 0.036 s and 9.96 MHz, respectively. Distributions of the duration and spectral widths of the spikes have positive skewness for all investigated events. Each spike shows positive or negative frequency drift. The mean negative and positive drifts of the investigated spikes are equal to -776 MHz s-1 and 1608 MHz s-1, respectively. The emission sources of the dm-spikes are located mainly at disk center. We have noticed two kinds of chains, with and without frequency drifts. The mean durations of the chains vary between 0.067 s and 0.509 s, while their spectral widths vary between 7.2 MHz and 17.25 MHz. The mean duration of an individual spike observed in a chain was equal to 0.03 s. While we found some agreement between the global characteristics of the groups of spikes recorded with the two instruments located in Toruń and Ondřejov, we did not find any one-to-one relation between individual spikes.

  12. Millisecond Radio Spikes in the Decimetric Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dąbrowski, B. P.; Rudawy, P.; Karlický, M.

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of the analysis of thirteen events consisting of dm-spikes observed in Toruń between 15 March 2000 and 30 October 2001. The events were obtained with a very high time resolution (80 microseconds) radio spectrograph in the 1352 - 1490 MHz range. These data were complemented with observations from the radio spectrograph at Ondřejov in the 0.8 - 2.0 GHz band. We evaluated the basic characteristics of the individual spikes (duration, spectral width, and frequency drifts), as well as their groups and chains, the location of their emission sources, and the temporal correlations of the emissions with various phases of the associated solar flares. We found that the mean duration and spectral width of the radio spikes are equal to 0.036 s and 9.96 MHz, respectively. Distributions of the duration and spectral widths of the spikes have positive skewness for all investigated events. Each spike shows positive or negative frequency drift. The mean negative and positive drifts of the investigated spikes are equal to -776 MHz s-1 and 1608 MHz s-1, respectively. The emission sources of the dm-spikes are located mainly at disk center. We have noticed two kinds of chains, with and without frequency drifts. The mean durations of the chains vary between 0.067 s and 0.509 s, while their spectral widths vary between 7.2 MHz and 17.25 MHz. The mean duration of an individual spike observed in a chain was equal to 0.03 s. While we found some agreement between the global characteristics of the groups of spikes recorded with the two instruments located in Toruń and Ondřejov, we did not find any one-to-one relation between individual spikes.

  13. Rebound spiking in layer II medial entorhinal cortex stellate cells: Possible mechanism of grid cell function.

    PubMed

    Shay, Christopher F; Ferrante, Michele; Chapman, G William; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    Rebound spiking properties of medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) stellate cells induced by inhibition may underlie their functional properties in awake behaving rats, including the temporal phase separation of distinct grid cells and differences in grid cell firing properties. We investigated rebound spiking properties using whole cell patch recording in entorhinal slices, holding cells near spiking threshold and delivering sinusoidal inputs, superimposed with realistic inhibitory synaptic inputs to test the capacity of cells to selectively respond to specific phases of inhibitory input. Stellate cells showed a specific phase range of hyperpolarizing inputs that elicited spiking, but non-stellate cells did not show phase specificity. In both cell types, the phase range of spiking output occurred between the peak and subsequent descending zero crossing of the sinusoid. The phases of inhibitory inputs that induced spikes shifted earlier as the baseline sinusoid frequency increased, while spiking output shifted to later phases. Increases in magnitude of the inhibitory inputs shifted the spiking output to earlier phases. Pharmacological blockade of h-current abolished the phase selectivity of hyperpolarizing inputs eliciting spikes. A network computational model using cells possessing similar rebound properties as found in vitro produces spatially periodic firing properties resembling grid cell firing when a simulated animal moves along a linear track. These results suggest that the ability of mEC stellate cells to fire rebound spikes in response to a specific range of phases of inhibition could support complex attractor dynamics that provide completion and separation to maintain spiking activity of specific grid cell populations.

  14. Activated Carbon Derived from Fast Pyrolysis Liquids Production of Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis is a thermochemical method that can be used for processing energy crops such as switchgrass, alfalfa, soybean straw, corn stover as well as agricultural residuals (broiler litter) for bio-oil production. Researchers with the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the USDA developed a 2...

  15. Separate activation of fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in rat neocortex in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Benardo, L S

    1994-01-01

    Synaptic inhibition was investigated by stimulating inhibitory neurones with focal microapplications of glutamate, while recording from layer V pyramidal neurones of rat somatosensory cortical slices. One class of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) thus elicited was characterized as a fast, chloride-mediated, GABAA IPSP in part by its fast time-to-peak (mean 2.5 ms) and brief duration, but primarily on the basis of its reversal potential at -68 mV, and its blockade by picrotoxin. The average peak amplitude for these fast IPSPs was -1.5 mV, measured at -60 mV. The peak conductance calculated for these events was about 10 nS. The conductance change associated with the maximal fast inhibitory postsynaptic potential resulting from electrical stimulation of afferent pathways ranged up to 116 nS. A second class of IPSP was encountered much less frequently. These glutamate-triggered events were characterized as slow, potassium-mediated GABAB IPSPs partly because of their longer times-to-peak (mean, 45 ms) and duration, but especially because of their extrapolated equilibrium potential at about -89 mV and blockade by 2-hydroxysaclofen. The average peak amplitude for these slow IPSPs was -2.3 mV, measured at -60 mV. The peak conductance for these events was about 8 nS. IPSPs resulting from the excitation of individual inhibitory interneurones were elicited by glutamate microapplication at particular locations relative to recording sites. Both fast and slow IPSPs were generated, but these occurred as separate events, and mixed responses were never seen. Thus, the two mechanistically distinct types of IPSPs which result from GABA interaction at GABAA and GABAB receptors on neocortical neurones may be mediated by separate classes of inhibitory neurones. PMID:7913968

  16. Only coherent spiking in posterior parietal cortex coordinates looking and reaching.

    PubMed

    Dean, Heather L; Hagan, Maureen A; Pesaran, Bijan

    2012-02-23

    Here, we report that temporally patterned, coherent spiking activity in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) coordinates the timing of looking and reaching. Using a spike-field approach, we identify a population of parietal area LIP neurons that fire spikes coherently with 15 Hz beta-frequency LFP activity. The firing rate of coherently active neurons predicts the reaction times (RTs) of coordinated reach-saccade movements but not of saccades when made alone. Area LIP neurons that do not fire coherently do not predict RT of either movement type. Similar beta-band LFP activity is present in the parietal reach region but not nearby visual area V3d. This suggests that coherent spiking activity in PPC can control reaches and saccades together. We propose that the neural mechanism of coordination involves a shared representation that acts to slow or speed movements together.

  17. The Global Spike: Conserved Dendritic Properties Enable Unique Ca2+ Spike Generation in Low-Threshold Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, William M.; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Low-threshold Ca2+ spikes (LTS) are an indispensible signaling mechanism for neurons in areas including the cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. They have critical physiological roles and have been strongly associated with disorders including epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. However, although dendritic T-type Ca2+ channels have been implicated in LTS generation, because the properties of low-threshold spiking neuron dendrites are unknown, the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here, combining data from fluorescence-targeted dendritic recordings and Ca2+ imaging from low-threshold spiking cells in rat brain slices with computational modeling, the cellular mechanism responsible for LTS generation is established. Our data demonstrate that key somatodendritic electrical conduction properties are highly conserved between glutamatergic thalamocortical neurons and GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus neurons and that these properties are critical for LTS generation. In particular, the efficiency of soma to dendrite voltage transfer is highly asymmetric in low-threshold spiking cells, and in the somatofugal direction, these neurons are particularly electrotonically compact. Our data demonstrate that LTS have remarkably similar amplitudes and occur synchronously throughout the dendritic tree. In fact, these Ca2+ spikes cannot occur locally in any part of the cell, and hence we reveal that LTS are generated by a unique whole-cell mechanism that means they always occur as spatially global spikes. This all-or-none, global electrical and biochemical signaling mechanism clearly distinguishes LTS from other signals, including backpropagating action potentials and dendritic Ca2+/NMDA spikes, and has important consequences for dendritic function in low-threshold spiking neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Low-threshold Ca2+ spikes (LTS) are critical for important physiological processes, including generation of sleep-related oscillations, and are

  18. Event-driven contrastive divergence for spiking neuromorphic systems

    PubMed Central

    Neftci, Emre; Das, Srinjoy; Pedroni, Bruno; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and Deep Belief Networks have been demonstrated to perform efficiently in a variety of applications, such as dimensionality reduction, feature learning, and classification. Their implementation on neuromorphic hardware platforms emulating large-scale networks of spiking neurons can have significant advantages from the perspectives of scalability, power dissipation and real-time interfacing with the environment. However, the traditional RBM architecture and the commonly used training algorithm known as Contrastive Divergence (CD) are based on discrete updates and exact arithmetics which do not directly map onto a dynamical neural substrate. Here, we present an event-driven variation of CD to train a RBM constructed with Integrate & Fire (I&F) neurons, that is constrained by the limitations of existing and near future neuromorphic hardware platforms. Our strategy is based on neural sampling, which allows us to synthesize a spiking neural network that samples from a target Boltzmann distributi