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Sample records for fast vectorised implementation

  1. VLSI Implementation Of The Fast Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Paul M.; Ku, Walter H.

    1986-03-01

    A VLSI implementation of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processor consisting of a mesh interconnection of complex floating-point butterfly units is presented. The Cooley-Tukey radix-2 Decimation-In-Frequency (DIF) formulation of the FFT was chosen since it offered the best overall compromise between the need for fast and efficient algorithmic computation and the need for a structure amenable to VLSI layout. Thus the VLSI implementation is modular, regular, expandable to various problem sizes and has a simple systolic flow of data and control. To evaluate the FFT architecture, VLSI area-time complexity concepts are used, but are now adapted to a complex floating-point number system rather than the usual integer ring representation. We show by our construction that the Thompson area-time optimum bound for the VLSI computation of an N-point FFT, area-time2oc = ORNlogN)1+a] can be attained by an alternative number representation, and hence the theoretical bound is a tight bound regardless of number system representation.

  2. Fast Hardware Implementation Of The DOLP Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, Frederick M.

    1988-03-01

    The Difference-of-Low-Pass (DOLP) Transform uses a hierarchy of bandpass filters to perform size discrimination and pattern matching of objects and features in a visual field. Like the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), it "sorts" entities according to their size or spatial frequencies; but unlike the DFT, it also retains positional information.This positional information is essential for the very common industrial web inspection problem in which a "flaw map" must be produced - mere flaw detection (as provided by the DFT) is not enough. The DOLP Transform is usually implemented using finite-impulse-response difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) filters of progressively increasing kernel size. Various potential industrial applications have been described and demonstrated, but implementations have been hampered by the heavy computational burden involved in the generation of the Transform. This paper describes a fast implementation of Crowley's resampled DOLP Transform using commercially-available board-level hardware. With a moderate investment in hardware modules, a nine-band DOLP Transform can be computed for a 485 by 512 image in about one second. Additional hardware modules could be added to bring the speed up to 30 complete 9-band Transforms per second, if desired. Additional bands beyond the first nine, while seldom needed, require very little additional time, because the image has been repeatedly resampled down to a small size.

  3. Fast compression implementation for hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Yoshida, Jun; Ishida, Juro; Takada, Jun; Senda, Yuzo; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Ohgi, Nagamitsu

    2010-11-01

    Fast and small foot print lossless image compressors aiming at hyper-spectral sensor for the earth observation satellite have been developed. Since more than one hundred channels are required for hyper-spectral sensors on optical observation satellites, fast compression algorithm with small foot print implementation is essential for reducing encoder size and weight resulting in realizing light-weight and small-size sensor system. The image compression method should have low complexity in order to reduce size and weight of the sensor signal processing unit, power consumption and fabrication cost. Coding efficiency and compression speed enables enlargement of the capacity of signal compression channels, which resulted in reducing signal compression channels onboard by multiplexing sensor signal channels into reduced number of compression channels. The employed method is based on FELICS1, which is hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we applied two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding, which enables small footprint. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling, whilst still delivering superior performance as measured by speed and complexity. The small footprint circuitry is embedded into the hyper-spectral sensor data formatter. In consequence, lossless compression function has been added without additional size and weight.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Vectorised and Multi-Core Event Reconstruction Algorithms within the CMS Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauth, T.; Innocente and, V.; Piparo, D.

    2012-12-01

    The processing of data acquired by the CMS detector at LHC is carried out with an object-oriented C++ software framework: CMSSW. With the increasing luminosity delivered by the LHC, the treatment of recorded data requires extraordinary large computing resources, also in terms of CPU usage. A possible solution to cope with this task is the exploitation of the features offered by the latest microprocessor architectures. Modern CPUs present several vector units, the capacity of which is growing steadily with the introduction of new processor generations. Moreover, an increasing number of cores per die is offered by the main vendors, even on consumer hardware. Most recent C++ compilers provide facilities to take advantage of such innovations, either by explicit statements in the programs sources or automatically adapting the generated machine instructions to the available hardware, without the need of modifying the existing code base. Programming techniques to implement reconstruction algorithms and optimised data structures are presented, that aim to scalable vectorization and parallelization of the calculations. One of their features is the usage of new language features of the C++11 standard. Portions of the CMSSW framework are illustrated which have been found to be especially profitable for the application of vectorization and multi-threading techniques. Specific utility components have been developed to help vectorization and parallelization. They can easily become part of a larger common library. To conclude, careful measurements are described, which show the execution speedups achieved via vectorised and multi-threaded code in the context of CMSSW.

  5. Fixed Point Implementations of Fast Kalman Algorithms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    fined point multiply. ve &geete a meatn ’C.- nero. variance N random vector s~t) each time weAfilter is said to be 12 Scaled if udae 8(t+11t0 - 3-1* AS...nl.v by bl ’k rn.b.) 20 AST iA C T ’Cnnin to .- a , o. a ide It .,oco ea ry and Idenuty by block number) In this paper we study scaling rules and round...realized in a -fast form that uses the so-called fast Kalman gain algorithm. The algorithm for the gain is fixed point. Scaling rules and expressions for

  6. Fast implementation of neural network classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Guiwon; Ok, Jiheon; Lee, Chulhee

    2013-09-01

    Most artificial neural networks use a nonlinear activation function that includes sigmoid and hyperbolic tangent functions. Most artificial networks employ nonlinear functions such as these sigmoid and hyperbolic tangent functions, which incur high complexity costs, particularly during hardware implementation. In this paper, we propose new polynomial approximation methods for nonlinear activation functions that can substantially reduce complexity without sacrificing performance. The proposed approximation methods were applied to pattern classification problems. Experimental results show that the processing time was reduced by up to 50% without any performance degradations in terms of computer simulation.

  7. A highly vectorised "link-cell" FORTRAN code for the DL_POLY molecular dynamics simulation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo; Smith, William; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    2000-03-01

    Highly vectorised FORTRAN subroutines, based on the link-cell algorithm for DL_POLY molecular dynamics simulation package, are developed. For several specific benchmark systems the efficiency of the proposed codes on a Fujitsu VPP700/128E vector computer has been tested. It is shown that in constructing the neighbor list and in calculating atomic forces our link-cell method is significantly faster than the original code.

  8. Implementation and parallelization of fast matrix multiplication for a fast Legendre transform

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wentao

    1993-09-01

    An algorithm was presented by Alpert and Rokhlin for the rapid evaluation of Legendre transforms. The fast algorithm can be expressed as a matrix-vector product followed by a fast cosine transform. Using the Chebyshev expansion to approximate the entries of the matrix and exchanging the order of summations reduces the time complexity of computation from O(n{sup 2}) to O(n log n), where n is the size of the input vector. Our work has been focused on the implementation and the parallelization of the fast algorithm of matrix-vector product. Results have shown the expected performance of the algorithm. Precision problems which arise as n becomes large can be resolved by doubling the precision of the calculation.

  9. Error correction and fast detectors implemented by ultrafast neuronal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Roni; Marmari, Hagar; Kanter, Ido

    2014-04-01

    We experimentally show that the neuron functions as a precise time integrator, where the accumulated changes in neuronal response latencies, under complex and random stimulation patterns, are solely a function of a global quantity, the average time lag between stimulations. In contrast, momentary leaps in the neuronal response latency follow trends of consecutive stimulations, indicating ultrafast neuronal plasticity. On a circuit level, this ultrafast neuronal plasticity phenomenon implements error-correction mechanisms and fast detectors for misplaced stimulations. Additionally, at moderate (high) stimulation rates this phenomenon destabilizes (stabilizes) a periodic neuronal activity disrupted by misplaced stimulations.

  10. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Lipunova, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.

  11. Maintenance implementation plan for the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.A.

    1997-01-30

    This plan implements the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (1994), at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF is a research and test reactor located near Richland, Washington, and is operated under contract for the DOE by the B&W Hanford Company (BWHC). The intent of this Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is to describe the manner in which the activities of the maintenance function are executed and controlled at the FFTF and how this compares to the requirements of DOE 4330.4B. The MIP ii a living document that is updated through a Facility Maintenance Self- Assessment Program. During the continuing self-assessment program, any discrepancies found are resolved to meet DOE 4330.4B requirements and existing practices. The philosophy of maintenance management at the FFTF is also describe within this MIP. This MIP has been developed based on information obtained from various sources including the following: * A continuing self-assessment against the requirements of the Conduct of Maintenance Order * In-depth reviews conducted by the members of the task team that assembled this MIP * Inputs from routine audits and appraisals conducted at the facility The information from these sources is used to identify those areas in which improvements could be made in the manner in which the facility conducts maintenance activities. The action items identified in Rev. 1 of the MIP have been completed. The MIP is arranged in six sections. Section I is this Executive Summary. Section 2 describes the facility and its 0683 history. Section 3 describes the philosophy of the graded approach and how it is applied at FFTF. Section 3 also discusses the strategy and the basis for the prioritizing resources. Section 4 contains the detailed discussion of `the elements of DOE 4330.4B and their state of implementation. Section 5 is for waivers and requested deviations from the requirements of the order. Section 6 contains a copy of the Maintenance

  12. Outline of a fast hardware implementation of Winograd's DFT algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1980-01-01

    The main characteristics of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm considered by Winograd (1976) is a significant reduction in the number of multiplications. Its primary disadvantage is a higher structural complexity. It is, therefore, difficult to translate the reduced number of multiplications into faster execution of the DFT by means of a software implementation of the algorithm. For this reason, a hardware implementation is considered in the current study, taking into account a design based on the algorithm prescription discussed by Zohar (1979). The hardware implementation of a FORTRAN subroutine is proposed, giving attention to a pipelining scheme in which 5 consecutive data batches are being operated on simultaneously, each batch undergoing one of 5 processing phases.

  13. Design and implementation of lens for fast biochip detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qing; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Wen-yuan; Tian, Jian-guo

    2007-12-01

    Raising the scanning speed of a detection system is indispensable for practical applications of biochips such as fast clinical diagnoses and high-throughput filtration. Compared with PMT-based confocal scanning system, CCD-based one can afford simultaneous illumination and detection of multiple pixels with high speed. The performance of imaging lens system plays an important role in CCD-based fluorescence collection and imaging systems. The sensitivity, speed and resolution of the detection system are controlled by numerical aperture, field and aberration of lens system respectively. One of the key technologies of fast biochip detection system refers to the design of the imaging lens system. In this paper, the main characteristics of CCD-based fluorescence collection and imaging system are analyzed in detail, and an imaging lens system is designed to meet the requirements of fast scanning. An optical design software ZEMAX is applied to design and optimize the imaging lens system. The system parameters such as modulation transfer function and field curvature and distortion are obtained. The imaging of standard biochip samples with cyanine (CY5) dye dots on glass substrates are realized by our manufactured lens system. Results show that our lens system is suitable for biochip scanning system with high speed and high sensitivity. Its system parameters are as: numerical aperture for 0.52, viewing field for 10 mm, working distance for 22.5 mm, spatial resolution for 10um and small aberrations. The limitations of the imaging lens system and the routes for further improvement are discussed.

  14. Study of hardware implementations of fast tracking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Z.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dong, J.; Huang, G.; Léonard, A.; Robert, F.; Wang, D.; Yang, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Real-time track reconstruction at high event rates is a major challenge for future experiments in high energy physics. To perform pattern-recognition and track fitting, artificial retina or Hough transformation methods have been introduced in the field which have to be implemented in FPGA firmware. In this note we report on a case study of a possible FPGA hardware implementation approach of the retina algorithm based on a Floating-Point core. Detailed measurements with this algorithm are investigated. Retina performance and capabilities of the FPGA are discussed along with perspectives for further optimization and applications.

  15. [Fast Implementation Method of Protein Spots Detection Based on CUDA].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Bangshu; Ye, Yijia; Ou, Qiaofeng; Zhang, Haodong

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of protein spots detection, a fast detection method based on CUDA was proposed. Firstly, the parallel algorithms of the three most time-consuming parts in the protein spots detection algorithm: image preprocessing, coarse protein point detection and overlapping point segmentation were studied. Then, according to single instruction multiple threads executive model of CUDA to adopted data space strategy of separating two-dimensional (2D) images into blocks, various optimizing measures such as shared memory and 2D texture memory are adopted in this study. The results show that the operative efficiency of this method is obviously improved compared to CPU calculation. As the image size increased, this method makes more improvement in efficiency, such as for the image with the size of 2,048 x 2,048, the method of CPU needs 52,641 ms, but the GPU needs only 4,384 ms.

  16. General purpose pulse shape analysis for fast scintillators implemented in digital readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.; Hennig, Wolfgang; Warburton, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Pulse shape discrimination applied to certain fast scintillators is usually performed offline. In sufficiently high-event rate environments data transfer and storage become problematic, which suggests a different analysis approach. In response, we have implemented a general purpose pulse shape analysis algorithm in the XIA Pixie-500 and Pixie-500 Express digital spectrometers. In this implementation waveforms are processed in real time, reducing the pulse characteristics to a few pulse shape analysis parameters and eliminating time-consuming waveform transfer and storage. We discuss implementation of these features, their advantages, necessary trade-offs and performance. Measurements from bench top and experimental setups using fast scintillators and XIA processors are presented.

  17. GPU implementation issues for fast unmixing of hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Maxime; Capriotti, Luca; Schmidt, Frédéric; Moussaoui, Saïd; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2013-04-01

    Space missions usually use hyperspectral imaging techniques to analyse the composition of planetary surfaces. Missions such as ESA's Mars Express and Venus Express generate extensive datasets whose processing demands so far have exceeded the resources available to many researchers. To overcome this limitation, the challenge is to develop numerical methods allowing to exploit the potential of modern calculation tools. The processing of a hyperspectral image consists of the identification of the observed surface components and eventually the assessment of their fractional abundances inside each pixel area. In this latter case, the problem is referred to as spectral unmixing. This work focuses on a supervised unmixing approach where the relevant component spectra are supposed to be part of an available spectral library. Therefore, the question addressed here is reduced to the estimation of the fractional abundances, or abundance maps. It requires the solution of a large-scale optimization problem subject to linear constraints; positivity of the abundances and their partial/full additivity (sum less/equal to one). Conventional approaches to such a problem usually suffer from a high computational overhead. Recently, an interior-point optimization using a primal-dual approach has been proven an efficient method to solve this spectral unmixing problem at reduced computational cost. This is achieved with a parallel implementation based on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Several issues are discussed such as the data organization in memory and the strategy used to compute efficiently one global quantity from a large dataset in a parallel fashion. Every step of the algorithm is optimized to be GPU-efficient. Finally, the main steps of the global system for the processing of a large number of hyperspectral images are discussed. The advantage of using a GPU is demonstrated by unmixing a large dataset consisting of 1300 hyperspectral images from Mars Express' OMEGA instrument

  18. Fast neuromimetic object recognition using FPGA outperforms GPU implementations.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Garrick; Martin, Jacob G; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of objects in still images has traditionally been regarded as a difficult computational problem. Although modern automated methods for visual object recognition have achieved steadily increasing recognition accuracy, even the most advanced computational vision approaches are unable to obtain performance equal to that of humans. This has led to the creation of many biologically inspired models of visual object recognition, among them the hierarchical model and X (HMAX) model. HMAX is traditionally known to achieve high accuracy in visual object recognition tasks at the expense of significant computational complexity. Increasing complexity, in turn, increases computation time, reducing the number of images that can be processed per unit time. In this paper we describe how the computationally intensive and biologically inspired HMAX model for visual object recognition can be modified for implementation on a commercial field-programmable aate Array, specifically the Xilinx Virtex 6 ML605 evaluation board with XC6VLX240T FPGA. We show that with minor modifications to the traditional HMAX model we can perform recognition on images of size 128 × 128 pixels at a rate of 190 images per second with a less than 1% loss in recognition accuracy in both binary and multiclass visual object recognition tasks.

  19. A Simple and Efficient Parallel Implementation of the Fast Marching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick

    2011-11-01

    The fast marching method is a widely used numerical method for solving the Eikonal equation arising from a variety of applications. However, this method is inherently serial and doesn't lend itself to a straightforward parallelization. In this study, we present a simple and efficient algorithm for the parallel implementation of the fast marching method using a domain decomposition approach. Properties of the Eikonal equation are explored to greatly relax the serial interdependence of neighboring sub-domains. Overlapping sub-domains are employed to reduce communication overhead and improve parallelism among sub-domains. There are no iterative procedures or rollback operations involved in the present algorithm and the changes to the serial version of the fast marching method are minimized. Examples are performed to demonstrate the efficiency of our parallel fast marching method. This study was supported by ONR.

  20. Fast implementation of sparse iterative covariance-based estimation for source localization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qilin; Abeida, Habti; Xue, Ming; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Fast implementations of the sparse iterative covariance-based estimation (SPICE) algorithm are presented for source localization with a uniform linear array (ULA). SPICE is a robust, user parameter-free, high-resolution, iterative, and globally convergent estimation algorithm for array processing. SPICE offers superior resolution and lower sidelobe levels for source localization compared to the conventional delay-and-sum beamforming method; however, a traditional SPICE implementation has a higher computational complexity (which is exacerbated in higher dimensional data). It is shown that the computational complexity of the SPICE algorithm can be mitigated by exploiting the Toeplitz structure of the array output covariance matrix using Gohberg-Semencul factorization. The SPICE algorithm is also extended to the acoustic vector-sensor ULA scenario with a specific nonuniform white noise assumption, and the fast implementation is developed based on the block Toeplitz properties of the array output covariance matrix. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate the computational gains of the proposed methods.

  1. A low-power VLSI implementation for fast full-search variable block size motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Tang, Hua

    2013-09-01

    Variable block size motion estimation (VBSME) is becoming the new coding technique in H.264/AVC. This article presents a low-power VLSI implementation for VBSME, which employs a fast full-search block-matching algorithm to reduce power consumption, while preserving the optimal motion vectors (MVs). The fast full-search algorithm is based on the comparison of the current minimum sum of absolute difference (SAD) to a conservative lower bound so that unnecessary SAD calculations can be eliminated. We first experimentally determine the specific conservative lower bound of SAD and then implement the fast full-search algorithm in FPGA and 0.18 µm CMOS technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a fast full-search block-matching algorithm is explored to reduce power consumption in the context of VBSME and implemented in hardware. Experiment results show that the proposed design can save power consumption by 45% compared to conventional VBSME designs that give optimal MV based on the full-search algorithms.

  2. Using single buffers and data reorganization to implement a multi-megasample fast Fourier transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Data ordering in large fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) is both conceptually and implementationally difficult. Discribed here is a method of visualizing data orderings as vectors of address bits, which enables the engineer to use more efficient data orderings and reduce double-buffer memory designs. Also detailed are the difficulties and algorithmic solutions involved in FFT lengths up to 4 megasamples (Msamples) and sample rates up to 80 MHz.

  3. The Sharper Image: Implementing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to Enhance a Video-Captured Image.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    mathematical system to quantitatively analyze and compare complex wave forms. In 1307, Baron Jean - Baptiste - Joseph Fourier proved that any periodic wave can be...HOVEY ROAD, PENSACOLA, FL 32508-1046 NAMRL Special Report 94-1 THE SHARPER IMAGE: 16 IMPLEMENTING A FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM (FFT) TO ENHANCE A VIDEO...most visually impaired persons fail to discern the higher spatial frequencies present in an image. Based on the Fourier analysis of vision, Peli et al

  4. The Vanderbilt University fast track to IAIMS: transition from planning to implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, W W; Borden, R; Bourne, J; Giuse, D; Giuse, N; Harris, T R; Miller, R A; Olsen, A J

    1996-01-01

    Vanderbilt University Medical Center is implementing an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) using a fast-track approach. The elapsed time between start-up and completion of implementation will be 7.5 years. The Start-Up and Planning phases of the project are complete. The Implementation phase asks one question: How does an organization create an environment that redirects and coordinates a variety of individual activities so that they come together to provide an IAIMS? Four answers to this question are being tested. First, design resources to be "scalable"--i.e., capable of supporting enterprise-wide use. Second, provide information technology planning activities as ongoing core functions that direct local efforts. Third, design core infrastructure resources to be both reusable and expandable at the local level. Fourth, use milestones to measure progress toward selected endpoints to permit early refinement of plans and strategies. PMID:8880678

  5. A novel approach to Hough Transform for implementation in fast triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Nicola; Montecassiano, Fabio; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2016-10-01

    Telescopes of position sensitive detectors are common layouts in charged particles tracking, and programmable logic devices, such as FPGAs, represent a viable choice for the real-time reconstruction of track segments in such detector arrays. A compact implementation of the Hough Transform for fast triggers in High Energy Physics, exploiting a parameter reduction method, is proposed, targeting the reduction of the needed storage or computing resources in current, or next future, state-of-the-art FPGA devices, while retaining high resolution over a wide range of track parameters. The proposed approach is compared to a Standard Hough Transform with particular emphasis on their application to muon detectors. In both cases, an original readout implementation is modeled.

  6. Fast Detection Anti-Collision Algorithm for RFID System Implemented On-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampe, Jahariah; Othman, Masuri

    This study presents a proposed Fast Detection Anti-Collision Algorithm (FDACA) for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system. Our proposed FDACA is implemented on-chip using Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technology and the algorithm is based on the deterministic anti-collision technique. The FDACA is novel in terms of a faster identification by reducing the number of iterations during the identification process. The primary FDACA also reads the identification (ID) bits at once regardless of its length. It also does not require the tags to remember the instructions from the reader during the communication process in which the tags are treated as address carrying devices only. As a result simple, small, low cost and memoryless tags can be produced. The proposed system is designed using Verilog HDL. The system is simulated using Modelsim XE II and synthesized using Xilinx Synthesis Technology (XST). The system is implemented in hardware using Field Programmable Grid Array (FPGA) board for real time verification. From the verification results it can be shown that the FDACA system enables to identify the tags without error until the operating frequency of 180 MHZ. Finally the FDACA system is implemented on chip using 0.18 μm Library, Synopsys Compiler and tools. From the resynthesis results it shows that the identification rate of the proposed FDACA system is 333 Mega tags per second with the power requirement of 3.451 mW.

  7. Airborne Demonstration of FPGA Implementation of Fast Lossless Hyperspectral Data Compression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, D.; Aranki, N.; Bakhshi, A.; Luong, H.; Sartures, C.; Dolman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient on-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces data volume in order to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The technique also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware.

  8. Design of fast signal processing readout front-end electronics implemented in CMOS 40 nm technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleczek, Rafal

    2016-12-01

    The author presents considerations on the design of fast readout front-end electronics implemented in a CMOS 40 nm technology with an emphasis on the system dead time, noise performance and power dissipation. The designed processing channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier with different feedback types (Krummenacher, resistive and constant current blocks), a threshold setting block, a discriminator and a counter with logic circuitry. The results of schematic and post-layout simulations with randomly generated input pulses in a time domain according to the Poisson distribution are presented and analyzed. Dead time below 20 ns is possible while keeping noise ENC ≈ 90 e- for a detector capacitance CDET = 160 fF.

  9. Fast focal zooming scheme for direct drive fusion implemented by inserting KD2PO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zheqiang; Hu, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    The highly required uniformity of target in direct-drive fusion is difficult to achieve and maintain during the entire laser fusion implosion. To mitigate the increasing nonuniformity, the fast focal zooming scheme implemented by inserting an electro-optic (EO) crystal in the front end of beamline has been proposed. Functioning as a phase plate, the specifically designed EO crystal may add the induced spherical wavefront to the laser beam and alter its focusing characteristics. However, in order to zoom out the focal spot by half, the required voltage for KD2PO4 (DKDP) with single pair of electrodes is relatively high. In order to decrease the voltage while maintaining the zooming performance, the DKDP cylinder with multi pairs of electrodes has been presented. The continuous phase plate (CPP) is designed according to both the injected beam and the output field. However, the conventional CPP is designed based on the assumption of an injected beam without wavefront distortion, which would zoom in the focal spot variation in the focal zooming scheme. In order to zoom out the focal spot, a redesigned CPP has been proposed by adding a spherical wavefront to the phase variation of the conventional CPP and further optimizing. On the basis, the focusing characteristics of laser beam during the fast focal zooming process have been analyzed. Results indicate that the focal spot size decreases with the increasing voltage on DKDP crystal, meanwhile the uniformity maintains high during the focal zooming process.

  10. Implementation of a fast 16-Bit dynamic clamp using LabVIEW-RT.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Paul H M; Wheeler, Diek W; Beacom, Joshua; Horn, John P

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic-clamp method provides a powerful electrophysiological tool for creating virtual ionic conductances in living cells and studying their influence on membrane potential. Here we describe G-clamp, a new way to implement a dynamic clamp using the real-time version of the Lab-VIEW programming environment together with a Windows host, an embedded microprocessor that runs a real-time operating system and a multifunction data-acquisition board. The software includes descriptions of a fast voltage-dependent sodium conductance, delayed rectifier, M-type and A-type potassium conductances, and a leak conductance. The system can also read synaptic conductance waveforms from preassembled data files. These virtual conductances can be reliably implemented at speeds < or =43 kHz while simultaneously saving two channels of data with 16-bit precision. G-clamp also includes utilities for measuring current-voltage relations, synaptic strength, and synaptic gain. Taking an approach built on a commercially available software/hardware platform has resulted in a system that is easy to assemble and upgrade. In addition, the graphical programming structure of LabVIEW should make it relatively easy for others to adapt G-clamp for new experimental applications.

  11. Fast implementation of Oliker's ellipses technology to build free form reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarill, S.

    2013-09-01

    The field of illumination optics has a number of applications where using free-form reflective surfaces to create a required light distribution can be beneficial. Oliker's concept of combining elliptical surfaces is the foundation of forming a reflector for an arbitrary illuminance distribution. The algorithm for fast implementation of this concept is discussed in detail. It is based on an analytical computation of a 3D cloud of points in order to map the reflector shape with the required flux distribution. Flux delivered to chosen zones across the target can be calculated based on the number of associated cloud points and its locations. This allows optimized ellipse parameters to achieve the required flux distribution without raytracing through the reflector geometry. Such a strictly analytical optimization is much faster than building reflector geometry and raytracing each step of the optimization. A generated 3D cloud of points can be used with a standard SolidWorks feature to build the loft surface. This surface consists of adjacent elliptical facets and should be smooth to maintain continuous irradiance across the target. A secondary operation to smooth the surface profile between elliptical facets is discussed. Examples of proposed algorithm implementations are presented.

  12. Pre-Hardware Optimization and Implementation Of Fast Optics Closed Control Loop Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Lyon, Richard G.; Herman, Jay R.; Abuhassan, Nader

    2004-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The FFT is particularly useful in two-dimensional (2-D) image processing (FFT2) within optical systems control. However, timing constraints of a fast optics closed control loop would require a supercomputer to run the software implementation of the FFT2 and its inverse, as well as other image processing representative algorithm, such as numerical image folding and fringe feature extraction. A laboratory supercomputer is not always available even for ground operations and is not feasible for a night project. However, the computationally intensive algorithms still warrant alternative implementation using reconfigurable computing technologies (RC) such as Digital Signal Processors (DSP) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), which provide low cost compact super-computing capabilities. We present a new RC hardware implementation and utilization architecture that significantly reduces the computational complexity of a few basic image-processing algorithm, such as FFT2, image folding and phase diversity for the NASA Solar Viewing Interferometer Prototype (SVIP) using a cluster of DSPs and FPGAs. The DSP cluster utilization architecture also assures avoidance of a single point of failure, while using commercially available hardware. This, combined with the control algorithms pre-hardware optimization, or the first time allows construction of image-based 800 Hertz (Hz) optics closed control loops on-board a spacecraft, based on the SVIP ground instrument. That spacecraft is the proposed Earth Atmosphere Solar Occultation Imager (EASI) to study greenhouse gases CO2, C2H, H2O, O3, O2, N2O from Lagrange-2 point in space. This paper provides an advanced insight into a new type of science capabilities for future space exploration missions based on on-board image processing

  13. A Fast Implementation of a Scan Statistic for Identifying Chromosomal Patterns of Genome Wide Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Jacobsen, Douglas M; Turner, Stephen T; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2009-03-15

    In order to take into account the complex genomic distribution of SNP variations when identifying chromosomal regions with significant SNP effects, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association scan statistic was developed. To address the computational needs of genome wide association (GWA) studies, a fast Java application, which combines single-locus SNP tests and a scan statistic for identifying chromosomal regions with significant clusters of significant SNP effects, was developed and implemented. To illustrate this application, SNP associations were analyzed in a pharmacogenomic study of the blood pressure lowering effect of thiazide-diuretics (N=195) using the Affymetrix Human Mapping 100K Set. 55,335 tagSNPs (pair-wise linkage disequilibrium R(2)<0.5) were selected to reduce the frequency correlation between SNPs. A typical workstation can complete the whole genome scan including 10,000 permutation tests within 3 hours. The most significant regions locate on chromosome 3, 6, 13 and 16, two of which contain candidate genes that may be involved in the underlying drug response mechanism. The computational performance of ChromoScan-GWA and its scalability were tested with up to 1,000,000 SNPs and up to 4,000 subjects. Using 10,000 permutations, the computation time grew linearly in these datasets. This scan statistic application provides a robust statistical and computational foundation for identifying genomic regions associated with disease and provides a method to compare GWA results even across different platforms.

  14. Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation

    DOE PAGES

    Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Houlmann, Raphael; ...

    2016-08-09

    One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant “time-reversal” QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. But, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, we proposed an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) in order to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. We analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find thatmore » DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.« less

  15. Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Houlmann, Raphael; Boso, Gianluca; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-08-09

    One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant “time-reversal” QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. But, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, we proposed an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) in order to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. We analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find that DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.

  16. Implementation of rooftop reciculation parameterization into the QUIC fast response urban wind model

    SciTech Connect

    Bagal, N.; Singh, B.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Brown, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    The QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex) dispersion modeling system has been developed to provide high-resolution wind and concentration fields in cities. The fast response 3D urban wind model QUIC-URB explicitly solves for the flow field around buildings using a suite of empirical parameterizations and mass conservation. This procedure is based on the work of Rockle (1990). The current Rockle (1990) model does not capture the rooftop recirculation region associated with flow separation from the leading edge of an isolated building. According to Banks et al. (2001), there are two forms of separation depending on the incident wind angle. For an incident wind angle within 20{sup o} of perpendicular to the front face of the building, 'bubble separation' occurs in which cylindrical vortices whose axis are orthogonal to the flow are generated along the rooftop surface (see Fig. 1). For a 'corner wind' flow or incident wind angle of 30{sup o} to 70{sup o} of perpendicular to the front face of the building, 'conical' or 'delta wing' vortices form along the roof surface (Fig. 3). In this work, a model for rooftop recirculation is implemented into the QUIC- URB model for the two incident wind angle regimes described above. The parameterizations for the length and height of the recirculation region are from Wilson (1979) for the case of flow perpendicular or near perpendicular to the building and from Banks et al. (2000) for the case of off-angle flow. In this paper, we describe the rooftop algorithms and show how the model results are improved through comparisons to experimental data (Snyder and Lawson 1994).

  17. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

    2012-03-01

    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses.

  18. Acceleration through a Holistic Support Model: An Implementation and Outcomes Analysis of FastStart@CCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgecombe, Nikki; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Baker, Elaine DeLott; Bailey, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Originally designed for students who test into at least two levels of developmental education in a particular subject area, FastStart is a compressed course program model launched in 2005 at the Community College of Denver (CCD). The program combines multiple semester-length courses into a single intensive semester, while providing case…

  19. Fast Implementation of New S-Band Capability in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazco, J. E.; Sosnowski, J.; Bowen, J.; Hanson, T.; Ocampo, J.; Huleis, J.; Taylor, M.; Pereira, E.; Montanez, S.; Young, M.; Link, C.; Long, E.; Lin, H.; Franco, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the implementation of a new S-band (2025-2120 MHz uplink, 2200-2300 MHz downlink) communications system capability for the Deep Space Network's (DSN) Deep Space Station 36 (DSS-36) performed by JPL's Communications Ground Systems Section (333). The newly implemented S-band system, consisting of a transmitter, a receiver, a waveguide system, and a feed, will enhance the capabilities of NASA's DSN to communicate with spacecraft in near-Earth orbit. A key milestone achieved during this project, described in detail in this article, is the implementation of an S-band receiver that features the best sensitivity to date in the DSN S-band systems. It is noteworthy that, in order to alleviate scheduling issues associated with installation of other systems into DSS-36, this successful implementation was carried out in record time.

  20. The Implementation of the Fast Track Program: An Example of a Large-Scale Prevention Science Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 1990, the Fast Track Project was initiated to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting children at risk for conduct disorders in four demographically diverse American communities (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group [CPPRG], 1992). Representing a prevention science approach toward community-based preventive intervention, the Fast Track intervention design was based upon the available data base elucidating the epidemiology of risk for conduct disorder and suggesting key causal developmental influences (R. P. Weissberg & M. T. Greenberg, 1998). Critical questions about this approach to prevention center around the extent to which such a science-based program can be effective at (1) engaging community members and stakeholders, (2) maintaining intervention fidelity while responding appropriately to the local norms and needs of communities that vary widely in their demographic and cultural/ethnic composition, and (3) maintaining community engagement in the long-term to support effective and sustainable intervention dissemination. This paper discusses these issues, providing examples from the Fast Track project to illustrate the process of program implementation and the evidence available regarding the success of this science-based program at engaging communities in sustainable and effective ways as partners in prevention programming. PMID:11930968

  1. WHFAST: a fast and unbiased implementation of a symplectic Wisdom-Holman integrator for long-term gravitational simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, Hanno; Tamayo, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We present WHFAST, a fast and accurate implementation of a Wisdom-Holman symplectic integrator for long-term orbit integrations of planetary systems. WHFAST is significantly faster and conserves energy better than all other Wisdom-Holman integrators tested. We achieve this by significantly improving the Kepler solver and ensuring numerical stability of coordinate transformations to and from Jacobi coordinates. These refinements allow us to remove the linear secular trend in the energy error that is present in other implementations. For small enough timesteps, we achieve Brouwer's law, i.e. the energy error is dominated by an unbiased random walk due to floating-point round-off errors. We implement symplectic correctors up to order 11 that significantly reduce the energy error. We also implement a symplectic tangent map for the variational equations. This allows us to efficiently calculate two widely used chaos indicators the Lyapunov characteristic number and the Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits. WHFAST is freely available as a flexible C package, as a shared library, and as an easy-to-use PYTHON module.

  2. Fast and accurate implementation of Fourier spectral approximations of nonlocal diffusion operators and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qiang; Yang, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    This work is concerned with the Fourier spectral approximation of various integral differential equations associated with some linear nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic operators under periodic boundary conditions. For radially symmetric kernels, the nonlocal operators under consideration are diagonalizable in the Fourier space so that the main computational challenge is on the accurate and fast evaluation of their eigenvalues or Fourier symbols consisting of possibly singular and highly oscillatory integrals. For a large class of fractional power-like kernels, we propose a new approach based on reformulating the Fourier symbols both as coefficients of a series expansion and solutions of some simple ODE models. We then propose a hybrid algorithm that utilizes both truncated series expansions and high order Runge-Kutta ODE solvers to provide fast evaluation of Fourier symbols in both one and higher dimensional spaces. It is shown that this hybrid algorithm is robust, efficient and accurate. As applications, we combine this hybrid spectral discretization in the spatial variables and the fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta for temporal discretization to offer high order approximations of some nonlocal gradient dynamics including nonlocal Allen-Cahn equations, nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equations, and nonlocal phase-field crystal models. Numerical results show the accuracy and effectiveness of the fully discrete scheme and illustrate some interesting phenomena associated with the nonlocal models.

  3. A display module implemented by the fast high-temperatue response of carbon nanotube thin yarns.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-05-09

    Suspending superaligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films were processed into CNT thin yarns, about 1 μm in diameter, by laser cutting and an ethanol atomization bath treatment. The fast high-temperature response under a vacuum was revealed by monitoring the incandescent light with a photo diode. The thin yarns can be electrically heated up to 2170 K in 0.79 mS, and the succeeding cool-down time is 0.36 mS. The fast response is attributed to the ultrasmall mass of the independent single yarn, large radiation coefficient, and improved thermal conductance through the two cool ends. The millisecond response time makes it possible to use the visible hot thin yarns as light-emitting elements of an incandescent display. A fully sealed display with 16 × 16 matrix was successfully fabricated using screen-printed thick electrodes and CNT thin yarns. It can display rolling characters with a low power consumption. More applications can be further developed based on the addressable CNT thermal arrays.

  4. Professional Learning Academy: Supporting District Implementation of Early Childhood Policy. CEELO FastFact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon; Costanza, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    Local education agencies (LEAs) are working to manage and maintain commitment and enthusiasm to numerous initiatives mandated by the state to improve student success. The rapid pace of scaling up many initiatives at once often leads to relying on local administrators and educators to interpret and unpack the complexity of implementing these…

  5. Theory and implementation of a fast algorithm linear equalizer. [for multiplication-free data detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T. Y.; Yao, K.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and implementation of a multiplication-free linear mean-square error criterion equalizer for data transmission are considered. For many real-time signal processing situations, a large number of multiplications is objectionable. The linear estimation problem on a binary computer is considered where the estimation parameters are constrained to be powers of two and thus all multiplications are replaced by shifts. The optimal solution is obtained from an integer-programming-like problem except that the allowable discrete points are non-integers. The branch-and-bound algorithm is used to obtain the coefficients of the equalization TDL. Specific experimental performance results are given for an equalizer implemented with a 12 bit A/D device and a 8080 microprocessor.

  6. Efficient implementation of a multidimensional fast fourier transform on a distributed-memory parallel multi-node computer

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan V.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2008-01-01

    The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.

  7. Efficient implementation of multidimensional fast fourier transform on a distributed-memory parallel multi-node computer

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan V [Princeton, NJ; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2012-01-10

    The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.

  8. An Improved TA-SVM Method Without Matrix Inversion and Its Fast Implementation for Nonstationary Datasets.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingzhong; Chung, Fu-Lai; Wang, Shitong

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a time-adaptive support vector machine (TA-SVM) is proposed for handling nonstationary datasets. While attractive performance has been reported and the new classifier is distinctive in simultaneously solving several SVM subclassifiers locally and globally by using an elegant SVM formulation in an alternative kernel space, the coupling of subclassifiers brings in the computation of matrix inversion, thus resulting to suffer from high computational burden in large nonstationary dataset applications. To overcome this shortcoming, an improved TA-SVM (ITA-SVM) is proposed using a common vector shared by all the SVM subclassifiers involved. ITA-SVM not only keeps an SVM formulation, but also avoids the computation of matrix inversion. Thus, we can realize its fast version, that is, improved time-adaptive core vector machine (ITA-CVM) for large nonstationary datasets by using the CVM technique. ITA-CVM has the merit of asymptotic linear time complexity for large nonstationary datasets as well as inherits the advantage of TA-SVM. The effectiveness of the proposed classifiers ITA-SVM and ITA-CVM is also experimentally confirmed.

  9. Implementation Plan for Qualification of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Technology Information

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne; Honma, George

    2016-03-01

    This document identifies and discusses implementation elements that can be used to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of technical information (with focus on SFR technology) that will be used to support licensing of advanced reactor designs. Information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The approach for determining acceptability of test data, analysis, and/or other technical information is based on guidance provided in INL/EXT-15-35805, “Guidance on Evaluating Historic Technology Information for Use in Advanced Reactor Licensing.” The implementation plan can be adopted into a working procedure at each of the national laboratories performing data qualification, or by applicants seeking future license application for advanced reactor technology.

  10. Implementation of a Synchronized Oscillator Circuit for Fast Sensing and Labeling of Image Objects

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Jacek; Strzelecki, Michal; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2011-01-01

    We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) CMOS chip that implements a synchronized oscillator cellular neural network with a matrix size of 32 × 32 for object sensing and labeling in binary images. Networks of synchronized oscillators are a recently developed tool for image segmentation and analysis. Its parallel network operation is based on a “temporary correlation” theory that attempts to describe scene recognition as if performed by the human brain. The synchronized oscillations of neuron groups attract a person’s attention if he or she is focused on a coherent stimulus (image object). For more than one perceived stimulus, these synchronized patterns switch in time between different neuron groups, thus forming temporal maps that code several features of the analyzed scene. In this paper, a new oscillator circuit based on a mathematical model is proposed, and the network architecture and chip functional blocks are presented and discussed. The proposed chip is implemented in AMIS 0.35 μm C035M-D 5M/1P technology. An application of the proposed network chip for the segmentation of insulin-producing pancreatic islets in magnetic resonance liver images is presented. PMID:22163803

  11. Implementation of a synchronized oscillator circuit for fast sensing and labeling of image objects.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jacek; Strzelecki, Michal; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2011-01-01

    We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) CMOS chip that implements a synchronized oscillator cellular neural network with a matrix size of 32 × 32 for object sensing and labeling in binary images. Networks of synchronized oscillators are a recently developed tool for image segmentation and analysis. Its parallel network operation is based on a "temporary correlation" theory that attempts to describe scene recognition as if performed by the human brain. The synchronized oscillations of neuron groups attract a person's attention if he or she is focused on a coherent stimulus (image object). For more than one perceived stimulus, these synchronized patterns switch in time between different neuron groups, thus forming temporal maps that code several features of the analyzed scene. In this paper, a new oscillator circuit based on a mathematical model is proposed, and the network architecture and chip functional blocks are presented and discussed. The proposed chip is implemented in AMIS 0.35 μm C035M-D 5M/1P technology. An application of the proposed network chip for the segmentation of insulin-producing pancreatic islets in magnetic resonance liver images is presented.

  12. Design and Implementation of the Control System for a 2 kHz Rotary Fast Tool Servo

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R C; Trumper, D L

    2004-03-29

    This paper presents a summary of the performance of our 2 kHz rotary fast tool servo and an overview of its control systems. We also discuss the loop shaping techniques used to design the power amplifier current control loop and the implementation of that controller in an op-amp circuit. The design and development of the control system involved a long list of items including: current compensation; tool position compensation; notch filter design and phase stabilizing with an additional pole for a plant with an undamped resonance; adding viscous damping to the fast tool servo; voltage budget for driving real and reactive loads; dealing with unwanted oscillators; ground loops; digital-to-analog converter glitches; electrical noise from the spindle motor switching power supply; and filtering the spindle encoder signal to generate smooth tool tip trajectories. Eventually, all of these topics will be discussed in detail in a Ph.D. thesis that will include this work. For the purposes of this paper, rather than present a diluted discussion that attempts to touch on all of these topics, we will focus on the first item with sufficient detail for providing insight into the design process.

  13. A proposed optical system for implementing the novel super-fast image processing scheme: the LPED method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chialun John

    2014-04-01

    LPED method, or Local Polar Edge Detection method, is a novel method the author discovered and implemented in many image processing schemes in the last 3 years with 3 papers published in this and other SPIE national conferences. It uses a special real-time boundary extraction method applied to some binary images taken by an uncooled IR camera on some high temperature objects embedded in a cold environment background in the far field. The unique boundary shape of each high temperature object can then be used to construct a 36D analog vector (a 36 - "digit" number U, with each "digit" being a positive analog number of any magnitude). This 36D analog vector U then represents the ID code to identify this object possessing this particular boundary shape. Therefore, U may be used for tracking and targeting on this particular object when this object is moving very fast in a 2D space and criss-crossing with other fast moving objects embedded in the same field of view. The current paper will report a preliminary optical bench design of the optical system that will use the above developed soft-ware to construct a real-time, instant-detect, instant track, and automatic targeting high power laser gun system, for shooting down any spontaneously launched enemy surface-to-air-missiles from the near-by battle ground. It uses the total reflection phenomenon in the Wollastron beam combiner and real-time monitor screen auto-targeting and firing system to implement this "instant-detect, instant-kill, SAM killer system".

  14. Numerical implementation of non-local polycrystal plasticity using fast Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Needleman, Alan

    2016-12-01

    We present the numerical implementation of a non-local polycrystal plasticity theory using the FFT-based formulation of Suquet and co-workers. Gurtin (2002) non-local formulation, with geometry changes neglected, has been incorporated in the EVP-FFT algorithm of Lebensohn et al. (2012). Numerical procedures for the accurate estimation of higher order derivatives of micromechanical fields, required for feedback into single crystal constitutive relations, are identified and applied. A simple case of a periodic laminate made of two fcc crystals with different plastic properties is first used to assess the soundness and numerical stability of the proposed algorithm and to study the influence of different model parameters on the predictions of the non-local model. Different behaviors at grain boundaries are explored, and the one consistent with the micro-clamped condition gives the most pronounced size effect. The formulation is applied next to 3-D fcc polycrystals, illustrating the possibilities offered by the proposed numerical scheme to analyze the mechanical response of polycrystalline aggregates in three dimensions accounting for size dependence arising from plastic strain gradients with reasonable computing times.

  15. Numerical implementation of non-local polycrystal plasticity using fast Fourier transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Needleman, Alan

    2016-03-28

    Here, we present the numerical implementation of a non-local polycrystal plasticity theory using the FFT-based formulation of Suquet and co-workers. Gurtin (2002) non-local formulation, with geometry changes neglected, has been incorporated in the EVP-FFT algorithm of Lebensohn et al. (2012). Numerical procedures for the accurate estimation of higher order derivatives of micromechanical fields, required for feedback into single crystal constitutive relations, are identified and applied. A simple case of a periodic laminate made of two fcc crystals with different plastic properties is first used to assess the soundness and numerical stability of the proposed algorithm and to study the influence of different model parameters on the predictions of the non-local model. Different behaviors at grain boundaries are explored, and the one consistent with the micro-clamped condition gives the most pronounced size effect. The formulation is applied next to 3-D fcc polycrystals, illustrating the possibilities offered by the proposed numerical scheme to analyze the mechanical response of polycrystalline aggregates in three dimensions accounting for size dependence arising from plastic strain gradients with reasonable computing times.

  16. Numerical implementation of non-local polycrystal plasticity using fast Fourier transforms

    DOE PAGES

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Needleman, Alan

    2016-03-28

    Here, we present the numerical implementation of a non-local polycrystal plasticity theory using the FFT-based formulation of Suquet and co-workers. Gurtin (2002) non-local formulation, with geometry changes neglected, has been incorporated in the EVP-FFT algorithm of Lebensohn et al. (2012). Numerical procedures for the accurate estimation of higher order derivatives of micromechanical fields, required for feedback into single crystal constitutive relations, are identified and applied. A simple case of a periodic laminate made of two fcc crystals with different plastic properties is first used to assess the soundness and numerical stability of the proposed algorithm and to study the influencemore » of different model parameters on the predictions of the non-local model. Different behaviors at grain boundaries are explored, and the one consistent with the micro-clamped condition gives the most pronounced size effect. The formulation is applied next to 3-D fcc polycrystals, illustrating the possibilities offered by the proposed numerical scheme to analyze the mechanical response of polycrystalline aggregates in three dimensions accounting for size dependence arising from plastic strain gradients with reasonable computing times.« less

  17. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementation of the ORAC Molecular Dynamics Program for Generalized Ensemble and Fast Switching Alchemical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Piero

    2016-06-27

    We present a new release (6.0β) of the ORAC program [Marsili et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2010, 31, 1106-1116] with a hybrid OpenMP/MPI (open multiprocessing message passing interface) multilevel parallelism tailored for generalized ensemble (GE) and fast switching double annihilation (FS-DAM) nonequilibrium technology aimed at evaluating the binding free energy in drug-receptor system on high performance computing platforms. The production of the GE or FS-DAM trajectories is handled using a weak scaling parallel approach on the MPI level only, while a strong scaling force decomposition scheme is implemented for intranode computations with shared memory access at the OpenMP level. The efficiency, simplicity, and inherent parallel nature of the ORAC implementation of the FS-DAM algorithm, project the code as a possible effective tool for a second generation high throughput virtual screening in drug discovery and design. The code, along with documentation, testing, and ancillary tools, is distributed under the provisions of the General Public License and can be freely downloaded at www.chim.unifi.it/orac .

  18. Fast l₁-SPIRiT compressed sensing parallel imaging MRI: scalable parallel implementation and clinically feasible runtime.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mark; Alley, Marcus; Demmel, James; Keutzer, Kurt; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Lustig, Michael

    2012-06-01

    We present l₁-SPIRiT, a simple algorithm for auto calibrating parallel imaging (acPI) and compressed sensing (CS) that permits an efficient implementation with clinically-feasible runtimes. We propose a CS objective function that minimizes cross-channel joint sparsity in the wavelet domain. Our reconstruction minimizes this objective via iterative soft-thresholding, and integrates naturally with iterative self-consistent parallel imaging (SPIRiT). Like many iterative magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions, l₁-SPIRiT's image quality comes at a high computational cost. Excessively long runtimes are a barrier to the clinical use of any reconstruction approach, and thus we discuss our approach to efficiently parallelizing l₁-SPIRiT and to achieving clinically-feasible runtimes. We present parallelizations of l₁-SPIRiT for both multi-GPU systems and multi-core CPUs, and discuss the software optimization and parallelization decisions made in our implementation. The performance of these alternatives depends on the processor architecture, the size of the image matrix, and the number of parallel imaging channels. Fundamentally, achieving fast runtime requires the correct trade-off between cache usage and parallelization overheads. We demonstrate image quality via a case from our clinical experimentation, using a custom 3DFT spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence with up to 8× acceleration via Poisson-disc undersampling in the two phase-encoded directions.

  19. A novel, fast, HMM-with-Duration implementation – for application with a new, pattern recognition informed, nanopore detector

    PubMed Central

    Winters-Hilt, Stephen; Baribault, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) provide an excellent means for structure identification and feature extraction on stochastic sequential data. An HMM-with-Duration (HMMwD) is an HMM that can also exactly model the hidden-label length (recurrence) distributions – while the regular HMM will impose a best-fit geometric distribution in its modeling/representation. Results A Novel, Fast, HMM-with-Duration (HMMwD) Implementation is presented, and experimental results are shown that demonstrate its performance on two-state synthetic data designed to model Nanopore Detector Data. The HMMwD experimental results are compared to (i) the ideal model and to (ii) the conventional HMM. Its accuracy is clearly an improvement over the standard HMM, and matches that of the ideal solution in many cases where the standard HMM does not. Computationally, the new HMMwD has all the speed advantages of the conventional (simpler) HMM implementation. In preliminary work shown here, HMM feature extraction is then used to establish the first pattern recognition-informed (PRI) sampling control of a Nanopore Detector Device (on a "live" data-stream). Conclusion The improved accuracy of the new HMMwD implementation, at the same order of computational cost as the standard HMM, is an important augmentation for applications in gene structure identification and channel current analysis, especially PRI sampling control, for example, where speed is essential. The PRI experiment was designed to inherit the high accuracy of the well characterized and distinctive blockades of the DNA hairpin molecules used as controls (or blockade "test-probes"). For this test set, the accuracy inherited is 99.9%. PMID:18047718

  20. Fast CRCs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Detecting Codes: General Theory and Their Application in Feedback Communication Systems. Kluwer Academic, 1995. [8] D.E. Knuth , The Art of Computer ... computation . Index Terms—Fast CRC, low-complexity CRC, checksum, error-detection code, Hamming code, period of polynomial, fast software implementation...simulations, and performance analysis of systems and networks. CRC implementation in software is desirable, because many computers do not have hardware

  1. Implementation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes elements for the set of activities to ensure that control strategies are put into effect and that air quality goals and standards are fulfilled, permitting programs, and additional resources related to implementation under the Clean Air Act.

  2. Analysis and Implementation of Particle-to-Particle (P2P) Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) Kernel for Black-Box Adaptive Fast Multipole Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ARL-TR-7315 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Analysis and Implementation of Particle-to- Particle (P2P) Graphics Processor ...Particle-to- Particle (P2P) Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) Kernel for Black-Box Adaptive Fast Multipole Method by Richard H Haney and Dale Shires...reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information

  3. TH-A-19A-08: Intel Xeon Phi Implementation of a Fast Multi-Purpose Monte Carlo Simulation for Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Souris, K; Lee, J; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of graphics processing units (GPUs) to compute dose distributions using Monte Carlo (MC) methods within clinical time constraints. However, GPUs have a rigid vectorial architecture that favors the implementation of simplified particle transport algorithms, adapted to specific tasks. Our new, fast, and multipurpose MC code, named MCsquare, runs on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. This technology offers 60 independent cores, and therefore more flexibility to implement fast and yet generic MC functionalities, such as prompt gamma simulations. Methods: MCsquare implements several models and hence allows users to make their own tradeoff between speed and accuracy. A 200 MeV proton beam is simulated in a heterogeneous phantom using Geant4 and two configurations of MCsquare. The first one is the most conservative and accurate. The method of fictitious interactions handles the interfaces and secondary charged particles emitted in nuclear interactions are fully simulated. The second, faster configuration simplifies interface crossings and simulates only secondary protons after nuclear interaction events. Integral depth-dose and transversal profiles are compared to those of Geant4. Moreover, the production profile of prompt gammas is compared to PENH results. Results: Integral depth dose and transversal profiles computed by MCsquare and Geant4 are within 3%. The production of secondaries from nuclear interactions is slightly inaccurate at interfaces for the fastest configuration of MCsquare but this is unlikely to have any clinical impact. The computation time varies between 90 seconds for the most conservative settings to merely 59 seconds in the fastest configuration. Finally prompt gamma profiles are also in very good agreement with PENH results. Conclusion: Our new, fast, and multi-purpose Monte Carlo code simulates prompt gammas and calculates dose distributions in less than a minute, which complies with clinical time

  4. Implementation of Fast-ICA: A Performance Based Comparison Between Floating Point and Fixed Point DSP Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Dinesh; Das, Niva; Routray, Aurobinda

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of the paper is to bring out the differences in performance related issues of Fast-ICA algorithm associated with floating point and fixed point digital signal processing (DSP) platforms. The DSP platforms consisting of TMS320C6713 floating point processor and TMS320C6416 fixed point processor from Texas Instruments have been chosen for this purpose. To study the consistency of performance, the algorithm has been subjected to three different test cases comprising of a mixture of synthetic signals, a mixture of speech signals and a mixture of synthetic signals in presence of noise, respectively. The performance of the Fast-ICA algorithm on floating point and fixed point platform are compared on the basis of accuracy of separation and execution time. Experimental results show insignificant differences in the accuracy of separation and execution time obtained from fixed point processor when compared with those obtained from floating point processor. This clearly strengthens the feasibility issue concerning hardware realization of Fast-ICA on fixed point platform for specific applications.

  5. A simplified implementation of edge detection in MATLAB is faster and more sensitive than fast fourier transform for actin fiber alignment quantification.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Steven Frank; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2011-04-01

    Fiber alignment plays a critical role in the structure and function of cells and tissues. While fiber alignment quantification is important to experimental analysis and several different methods for quantifying fiber alignment exist, many studies focus on qualitative rather than quantitative analysis perhaps due to the complexity of current fiber alignment methods. Speed and sensitivity were compared in edge detection and fast Fourier transform (FFT) for measuring actin fiber alignment in cells exposed to shear stress. While edge detection using matrix multiplication was consistently more sensitive than FFT, image processing time was significantly longer. However, when MATLAB functions were used to implement edge detection, MATLAB's efficient element-by-element calculations and fast filtering techniques reduced computation cost 100 times compared to the matrix multiplication edge detection method. The new computation time was comparable to the FFT method, and MATLAB edge detection produced well-distributed fiber angle distributions that statistically distinguished aligned and unaligned fibers in half as many sample images. When the FFT sensitivity was improved by dividing images into smaller subsections, processing time grew larger than the time required for MATLAB edge detection. Implementation of edge detection in MATLAB is simpler, faster, and more sensitive than FFT for fiber alignment quantification.

  6. Optoelectronic analogs of self-programming neural nets - Architecture and methodologies for implementing fast stochastic learning by simulated annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhat, Nabil H.

    1987-01-01

    Self-organization and learning is a distinctive feature of neural nets and processors that sets them apart from conventional approaches to signal processing. It leads to self-programmability which alleviates the problem of programming complexity in artificial neural nets. In this paper architectures for partitioning an optoelectronic analog of a neural net into distinct layers with prescribed interconnectivity pattern to enable stochastic learning by simulated annealing in the context of a Boltzmann machine are presented. Stochastic learning is of interest because of its relevance to the role of noise in biological neural nets. Practical considerations and methodologies for appreciably accelerating stochastic learning in such a multilayered net are described. These include the use of parallel optical computing of the global energy of the net, the use of fast nonvolatile programmable spatial light modulators to realize fast plasticity, optical generation of random number arrays, and an adaptive noisy thresholding scheme that also makes stochastic learning more biologically plausible. The findings reported predict optoelectronic chips that can be used in the realization of optical learning machines.

  7. Consumer Awareness of Fast-Food Calorie Information in New York City After Implementation of a Menu Labeling Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Christina Y.; Bassett, Mary T.; Silver, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed consumer awareness of menu calorie information at fast-food chains after the introduction of New York City's health code regulation requiring these chains to display food-item calories on menus and menu boards. Methods. At 45 restaurants representing the 15 largest fast-food chains in the city, we conducted cross-sectional surveys 3 months before and 3 months after enforcement began. At both time points, customers were asked if they had seen calorie information and, if so, whether it had affected their purchase. Data were weighted to the number of city locations for each chain. Results. We collected 1188 surveys pre-enforcement and 1229 surveys postenforcement. Before enforcement, 25% of customers reported seeing calorie information; postenforcement, this figure rose to 64% (P < .001; 38% and 72%, weighted). Among customers who saw calorie information postenforcement, 27% said they used the information, which represents a 2-fold increase in the percentage of customers making calorie-informed choices (10% vs 20%, weighted; P < .001). Conclusions. Posting calorie information on menu boards increases the number of people who see and use this information. Since enforcement of New York's calorie labeling regulation began, approximately 1 million New York adults have seen calorie information each day. PMID:20966367

  8. Optoelectronic analogs of self-programming neural nets: architecture and methodologies for implementing fast stochastic learning by simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N H

    1987-12-01

    Self-organization and learning is a distinctive feature of neural nets and processors that sets them apart from conventional approaches to signal processing. It leads to self-programmability which alleviates the problem of programming complexity in artificial neural nets. In this paper architectures for partitioning an optoelectronic analog of a neural net into distinct layers with prescribed interconnectivity pattern to enable stochastic learning by simulated annealing in the context of a Boltzmann machine are presented. Stochastic learning is of interest because of its relevance to the role of noise in biological neural nets. Practical considerations and methodologies for appreciably accelerating stochastic learning in such a multilayered net are described. These include the use of parallel optical computing of the global energy of the net, the use of fast nonvolatile programmable spatial light modulators to realize fast plasticity, optical generation of random number arrays, and an adaptive noisy thresholding scheme that also makes stochastic learning more biologically plausible. The findings reported predict optoelectronic chips that can be used in the realization of optical learning machines.

  9. Exploratory Analysis of Fast-Food Chain Restaurant Menus Before and After Implementation of Local Calorie-Labeling Policies, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Alexa; Leonberg, Beth L.; Wootan, Margo G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2008, several states and municipalities have implemented regulations requiring provision of nutrition information at chain restaurants to address obesity. Although early research into the effect of such labels on consumer decisions has shown mixed results, little information exists on the restaurant industry’s response to labeling. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effect of menu labeling on fast-food menu offerings over 7 years, from 2005 through 2011. Methods Menus from 5 fast-food chains that had outlets in jurisdictions subject to menu-labeling laws (cases) were compared with menus from 4 fast-food chains operating in jurisdictions not requiring labeling (controls). A trend analysis assessed whether case restaurants improved the healthfulness of their menus relative to the control restaurants. Results Although the overall prevalence of “healthier” food options remained low, a noteworthy increase was seen after 2008 in locations with menu-labeling laws relative to those without such laws. Healthier food options increased from 13% to 20% at case locations while remaining static at 8% at control locations (test for difference in the trend, P = .02). Since 2005, the average calories for an à la carte entrée remained moderately high (approximately 450 kilocalories), with less than 25% of all entrées and sides qualifying as healthier and no clear systematic differences in the trend between chain restaurants in case versus control areas (P ≥ .50). Conclusion These findings suggest that menu labeling has thus far not affected the average nutritional content of fast-food menu items, but it may motivate restaurants to increase the availability of healthier options. PMID:23786908

  10. A fast, open source implementation of adaptive biasing potentials uncovers a ligand design strategy for the chromatin regulator BRD4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Bradley M.; de Waal, Parker W.; Ramjan, Zachary H.; Xu, H. Eric; Rothbart, Scott B.

    2016-10-01

    In this communication we introduce an efficient implementation of adaptive biasing that greatly improves the speed of free energy computation in molecular dynamics simulations. We investigated the use of accelerated simulations to inform on compound design using a recently reported and clinically relevant inhibitor of the chromatin regulator BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4). Benchmarking on our local compute cluster, our implementation achieves up to 2.5 times more force calls per day than plumed2. Results of five 1 μs-long simulations are presented, which reveal a conformational switch in the BRD4 inhibitor between a binding competent and incompetent state. Stabilization of the switch led to a -3 kcal/mol improvement of absolute binding free energy. These studies suggest an unexplored ligand design principle and offer new actionable hypotheses for medicinal chemistry efforts against this druggable epigenetic target class.

  11. A fast, open source implementation of adaptive biasing potentials uncovers a ligand design strategy for the chromatin regulator BRD4.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Bradley M; de Waal, Parker W; Ramjan, Zachary H; Xu, H Eric; Rothbart, Scott B

    2016-10-21

    In this communication we introduce an efficient implementation of adaptive biasing that greatly improves the speed of free energy computation in molecular dynamics simulations. We investigated the use of accelerated simulations to inform on compound design using a recently reported and clinically relevant inhibitor of the chromatin regulator BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4). Benchmarking on our local compute cluster, our implementation achieves up to 2.5 times more force calls per day than plumed2. Results of five 1 μs-long simulations are presented, which reveal a conformational switch in the BRD4 inhibitor between a binding competent and incompetent state. Stabilization of the switch led to a -3 kcal/mol improvement of absolute binding free energy. These studies suggest an unexplored ligand design principle and offer new actionable hypotheses for medicinal chemistry efforts against this druggable epigenetic target class.

  12. Implementation of a fast analytic ground state potential energy surface for the N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2} reaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.-S.; Rabitz, H.; Aoiz, F. J.; Banares, L.; Vazquez, S. A.; Harding, L. B.; Chemistry; Princeton Univ.; Univ. Complutense

    2003-08-08

    A new implementation is presented for the potential energy surface (PES) of the 1{sup 2}A' state of the N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2} system based on a set of 2715 ab initio points resulting from the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. The implementation is carried out using the reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space interpolation method. Range parameters, via bond-order-like coordinates, are properly chosen to render a sufficiently short-range three-body interaction and a regularization procedure is invoked to yield a globally smooth PES. A fast algorithm, with the help of low-order spline reproducing kernels, is implemented for the computation of the PES and, particularly, its gradients, whose fast evaluation is essential for large scale quasi-classical trajectory calculations. It is found that the new PES can be evaluated more than ten times faster than that of an existing (old) PES based on a smaller number (1141) of data points resulting from the same MRCI calculations and a similar interpolation procedure. Although there is a general good correspondence between the two surfaces, the new PES is in much better agreement with the ab initio calculations, especially in key stationary point regions including the C{sub 2v} minimum, the C{sub 2v} transition state, and the N-H-H linear barrier. Moreover, the new PES is free of spurious small scale features. Analytic gradients are made available in the new PES code to further facilitate quasiclassical trajectory calculations, which have been performed and compared with the results based on the old surface.

  13. Fast interactive real-time volume rendering of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: an implementation for low-end computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saracino, G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Shiota, T.; Corsi, C.; Lamberti, C.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is an innovative cardiac imaging modality. However, partly due to lack of user-friendly software, RT3DE has not been widely accepted as a clinical tool. The object of this study was to develop and implement a fast and interactive volume renderer of RT3DE datasets designed for a clinical environment where speed and simplicity are not secondary to accuracy. Thirty-six patients (20 regurgitation, 8 normal, 8 cardiomyopathy) were imaged using RT3DE. Using our newly developed software, all 3D data sets were rendered in real-time throughout the cardiac cycle and assessment of cardiac function and pathology was performed for each case. The real-time interactive volume visualization system is user friendly and instantly provides consistent and reliable 3D images without expensive workstations or dedicated hardware. We believe that this novel tool can be used clinically for dynamic visualization of cardiac anatomy.

  14. How culture impacts the dissemination and implementation of innovation: a case study of the Families and Schools Together program (FAST) for preventing violence with immigrant Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Nancy G; Knox, Lyndee

    2008-06-01

    We consider how culture impacts the translation of research into practice, focusing on the culture of the client and the culture of the agency implementing selected programs. We build on lessons learned from a pilot study of an evidence-based family-school partnership, Families and Schools Together (FAST), to prevent youth violence with low-income, immigrant Latino families in Southern California. We examine the impact of cultural characteristics on the translation of this innovation into practice at the community level, relying on an interactive systems framework developed recently by Wandersman and colleagues (2008, American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3-4), in press) discussed in this issue. As we point out, the culture of the client and the culture of the agency can facilitate or impede connections within and across these interactive systems.

  15. fast-matmul

    SciTech Connect

    Grey Ballard, Austin Benson

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.

  16. fastKDE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Travis A.; Kashinath, Karthik

    2015-05-22

    This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.

  17. How Fast Is Fast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Abe

    1994-01-01

    Presents an activity that enables students to answer for themselves the question of how fast a body must travel before the nonrelativistic expression must be replaced with the correct relativistic expression by deciding on the accuracy required in describing the kinetic energy of a body. (ZWH)

  18. A prospective study to assess the implementation of a fast-track system to meet the two-week target for colorectal cancer in Somerset.

    PubMed

    Davies, R. J.; Ewings, P.; Welbourn, R.; Collins, C.; Kennedy, R.; Royle, C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective study assesses the introduction of a fast-track referral system for patients with suspected colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The referral system was initiated in Yeovil District Hospital and Taunton and Somerset Hospital using six screening criteria to select high-risk patients. Data on all high-risk patients from 1 November 1999 to 30 April 2000 was recorded prospectively. Patients with proven colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1 November 1998 and 30 April 1999 have been identified for comparison. RESULTS: There were 158 new cases of colorectal cancer in total (111 elective, 47 emergency). 59 cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed from 433 fast-track referrals (53% of total elective cases). Median time from referral to diagnosis in the fast-track group was 11 days vs. 32.5 days for nonfast-track elective patients (P < 0.001). Median time from referral to diagnosis for all elective cases was 17 days vs. 38.5 days for patients presenting one year earlier (P < 0.001). 75% of fast-track patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within two weeks, compared with 17% of nonfast-track elective patients (P < 0.001). The proportion of emergency admissions was reduced from 40% to 30% (P=0.07) following the introduction of this system. CONCLUSION: Data from the first six months reveal that over half of the elective cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed within the fast-track system. The median time from referral to diagnosis in these patients was within two weeks and there has been a significant reduction in the time to diagnosis associated with the introduction of this service.

  19. Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.

    The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises

  20. Conceptual process design and techno-economic assessment of ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass: A fixed bed reactor implementation scenario for future feasibility

    DOE PAGES

    Dutta, Abhijit; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Humbird, David; ...

    2015-10-06

    Ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is a promising route for the production of fungible liquid biofuels. There is significant ongoing research on the design and development of catalysts for this process. However, there are a limited number of studies investigating process configurations and their effects on biorefinery economics. Herein we present a conceptual process design with techno-economic assessment; it includes the production of upgraded bio-oil via fixed bed ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by final hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. This study builds upon previous work using fluidized bed systems, as detailed in a recent design reportmore » led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL/TP-5100-62455); overall yields are assumed to be similar, and are based on enabling future feasibility. Assuming similar yields provides a basis for easy comparison and for studying the impacts of areas of focus in this study, namely, fixed bed reactor configurations and their catalyst development requirements, and the impacts of an inline hot gas filter. A comparison with the fluidized bed system shows that there is potential for higher capital costs and lower catalyst costs in the fixed bed system, leading to comparable overall costs. The key catalyst requirement is to enable the effective transformation of highly oxygenated biomass into hydrocarbons products with properties suitable for blending into current fuels. Potential catalyst materials are discussed, along with their suitability for deoxygenation, hydrogenation and C–C coupling chemistry. This chemistry is necessary during pyrolysis vapor upgrading for improved bio-oil quality, which enables efficient downstream hydroprocessing; C–C coupling helps increase the proportion of diesel/jet fuel range product. One potential benefit of fixed bed upgrading over fluidized bed upgrading is catalyst flexibility, providing greater control over chemistry and product composition

  1. Conceptual process design and techno-economic assessment of ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass: A fixed bed reactor implementation scenario for future feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Abhijit; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Humbird, David; Baddour, Frederick G.; Sahir, Asad

    2015-10-06

    Ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is a promising route for the production of fungible liquid biofuels. There is significant ongoing research on the design and development of catalysts for this process. However, there are a limited number of studies investigating process configurations and their effects on biorefinery economics. Herein we present a conceptual process design with techno-economic assessment; it includes the production of upgraded bio-oil via fixed bed ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by final hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. This study builds upon previous work using fluidized bed systems, as detailed in a recent design report led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL/TP-5100-62455); overall yields are assumed to be similar, and are based on enabling future feasibility. Assuming similar yields provides a basis for easy comparison and for studying the impacts of areas of focus in this study, namely, fixed bed reactor configurations and their catalyst development requirements, and the impacts of an inline hot gas filter. A comparison with the fluidized bed system shows that there is potential for higher capital costs and lower catalyst costs in the fixed bed system, leading to comparable overall costs. The key catalyst requirement is to enable the effective transformation of highly oxygenated biomass into hydrocarbons products with properties suitable for blending into current fuels. Potential catalyst materials are discussed, along with their suitability for deoxygenation, hydrogenation and C–C coupling chemistry. This chemistry is necessary during pyrolysis vapor upgrading for improved bio-oil quality, which enables efficient downstream hydroprocessing; C–C coupling helps increase the proportion of diesel/jet fuel range product. One potential benefit of fixed bed upgrading over fluidized bed upgrading is catalyst flexibility, providing greater control over chemistry and product composition. Since this

  2. A Fast Parallel Simulation Code for Interaction between Proto-Planetary Disk and Embedded Proto-Planets: Implementation for 3D Code

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui

    2012-06-14

    We develop a 3D simulation code for interaction between the proto-planetary disk and embedded proto-planets. The protoplanetary disk is treated as a three-dimensional (3D), self-gravitating gas whose motion is described by the locally isothermal Navier-Stokes equations in a spherical coordinate centered on the star. The differential equations for the disk are similar to those given in Kley et al. (2009) with a different gravitational potential that is defined in Nelson et al. (2000). The equations are solved by directional split Godunov method for the inviscid Euler equations plus operator-split method for the viscous source terms. We use a sub-cycling technique for the azimuthal sweep to alleviate the time step restriction. We also extend the FARGO scheme of Masset (2000) and modified in Li et al. (2001) to our 3D code to accelerate the transport in the azimuthal direction. Furthermore, we have implemented a reduced 2D (r, {theta}) and a fully 3D self-gravity solver on our uniform disk grid, which extends our 2D method (Li, Buoni, & Li 2008) to 3D. This solver uses a mode cut-off strategy and combines FFT in the azimuthal direction and direct summation in the radial and meridional direction. An initial axis-symmetric equilibrium disk is generated via iteration between the disk density profile and the 2D disk-self-gravity. We do not need any softening in the disk self-gravity calculation as we have used a shifted grid method (Li et al. 2008) to calculate the potential. The motion of the planet is limited on the mid-plane and the equations are the same as given in D'Angelo et al. (2005), which we adapted to the polar coordinates with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta solver. The disk gravitational force on the planet is assumed to evolve linearly with time between two hydrodynamics time steps. The Planetary potential acting on the disk is calculated accurately with a small softening given by a cubic-spline form (Kley et al. 2009). Since the torque is extremely sensitive to

  3. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  4. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  5. Project FAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essexville-Hampton Public Schools, MI.

    Described are components of Project FAST (Functional Analysis Systems Training) a nationally validated project to provide more effective educational and support services to learning disordered children and their regular elementary classroom teachers. The program is seen to be based on a series of modules of delivery systems ranging from mainstream…

  6. Efficient Computer Implementations of Fast Fourier Transforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    TRANSFORMS, THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University in Partial Fulfillment of...The Algorithm * of S. Winograd", NASA, Jet Propulsion Lab, California Ins.titute of Technology , Pasadena, CA, 15 February 79 (AS N79-19733). 1 ’ 192...M. :- E. ,._T-. OF THE A ’rY TO B E TRANFO:-:F ’. :3:’ -:f1 .QT E:-7T TE:-T FLAG3=1 IF PE :-L TRAN’-FORM :34"(1 TEST FLAG = IF IF ,OMLE. TRA;:FORM 7 T

  7. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 1ST QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORT: Simulations of fast correction of chromatic aberrations to establish physics specifications for implementation on NDCX-1 and NDCX-2

    SciTech Connect

    LIDIA, S.M.; LUND, S.M.; SEIDL, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. Focal spot differences at the target plane between the compressed and uncompressed regions of the beam pulse have been modeled and measured on NDCX-1. Time-dependent focusing and energy sweep from the induction bunching module are seen to increase the compressed pulse spot size at the target plane by factors of two or more, with corresponding scaled reduction in the peak intensity and fluence on target. A time-varying beam envelope correction lens has been suggested to remove the time-varying aberration. An Einzel (axisymmetric electric) lens system has been analyzed and optimized for general transport lines, and as a candidate correction element for NDCX-1. Attainable high-voltage holdoff and temporal variations of the lens driving waveform are seen to effect significant changes on the beam envelope angle over the duration of interest, thus confirming the utility of such an element on NDCX-1. Modeling of the beam dynamics in NDCX-1 was performed using a time-dependent (slice) envelope code and with the 3-D, self-consistent, particle-in-cell code WARP. Proof of concept was established with the slice envelope model such that the spread in beam waist positions relative to the target plane can be minimized with a carefully designed

  8. The fast encryption package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1988-01-01

    The organization of some tools to help improve passwork security at a UNIX-based site is described along with how to install and use them. These tools and their associated library enable a site to force users to pick reasonably safe passwords (safe being site configurable) and to enable site management to try to crack existing passworks. The library contains various versions of a very fast implementation of the Data Encryption Standard and of the one-way encryption functions used to encryp the password.

  9. MontePython: Implementing Quantum Monte Carlo using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Jon Kristian

    2007-11-01

    We present a cross-language C++/Python program for simulations of quantum mechanical systems with the use of Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. We describe a system for which to apply QMC, the algorithms of variational Monte Carlo and diffusion Monte Carlo and we describe how to implement theses methods in pure C++ and C++/Python. Furthermore we check the efficiency of the implementations in serial and parallel cases to show that the overhead using Python can be negligible. Program summaryProgram title: MontePython Catalogue identifier: ADZP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 519 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 114 484 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python Computer: PC, IBM RS6000/320, HP, ALPHA Operating system: LINUX Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized with MPI Number of processors used: 1-96 RAM: Depends on physical system to be simulated Classification: 7.6; 16.1 Nature of problem: Investigating ab initio quantum mechanical systems, specifically Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of 87Rb Solution method: Quantum Monte Carlo Running time: 225 min with 20 particles (with 4800 walkers moved in 1750 time steps) on 1 AMD Opteron TM Processor 2218 processor; Production run for, e.g., 200 particles takes around 24 hours on 32 such processors.

  10. Fast, efficient lossless data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents lossless data compression and decompression algorithms which can be easily implemented in software. The algorithms can be partitioned into their fundamental parts which can be implemented at various stages within a data acquisition system. This allows for efficient integration of these functions into systems at the stage where they are most applicable. The algorithms were coded in Forth to run on a Silicon Composers Single Board Computer (SBC) using the Harris RTX2000 Forth processor. The algorithms require very few system resources and operate very fast. The performance of the algorithms with the RTX enables real time data compression and decompression to be implemented for a wide range of applications.

  11. Fasting in paediatric ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Klemetti, Seija; Suominen, Tarja

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine how preoperative fasting and postoperative termination of the fast was experienced in ambulatory surgery by child patients and their mothers. The target group consisted of children (n = 12, age 2-10 years) who had undergone tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, and their mothers. In the interviews, the mothers were asked to describe the problems connected with their child's preoperative fast and postoperative termination of the fast, as well as the things that went well in the process. Content analysis was carried out inductively. Preoperatively, the children were thirsty and anxious, but understood the fasting situation well. In some cases, there were conflicts between the child and his/her parent if fasting was prolonged. Parents also had doubts about their ability to implement the child's fast. Postoperatively, children had pains in their throats and stomachs, suffered from nausea, and had difficulty taking in nutrition and medication. Parents had worries about their child's home care, such as food intake and administration of pain medication. The possibility of postoperative bleeding and exacerbation of the child's condition was also worrying for the parents. The most evident result of the study was that parents need more information before their child's operation. Preparing the child for the operation by giving him/her nutrition as long as permitted enhances postoperative recovery and improves parents' control over the ambulatory surgical experience. Nurses should take a more active part in children's perioperative fasting and preoperative preparation of children and their parents. In further research, experimental studies should be designed in order to receive more evidence-based information for clinical practice.

  12. 76 FR 6369 - Changes To Implement the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I) of the Enhanced Examination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... implementation of the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I), providing fast examination for applicants desiring... examiners or supervisory patent examiners, specialized examiner training for fast track...

  13. Intermittent fasting: a "new" historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    PubMed

    Hartman, Adam L; Rubenstein, James E; Kossoff, Eric H

    2013-05-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions.

  14. Very fast approximate reconstruction of MR images.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, P A

    1998-11-01

    The ultra fast Fourier transform (UFFT) provides the means for a very fast computation of a magnetic resonance (MR) image, because it is implemented using only additions and no multiplications at all. It achieves this by approximating the complex exponential functions involved in the Fourier transform (FT) sum with computationally simpler periodic functions. This approximation introduces erroneous spectrum peaks of small magnitude. We examine the performance of this transform in some typical MRI signals. The results show that this transform can very quickly provide an MR image. It is proposed to be used as a replacement of the classically used FFT whenever a fast general overview of an image is required.

  15. Implementation and validation of an economic module in the Be-FAST model to predict costs generated by livestock disease epidemics: Application to classical swine fever epidemics in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carrión, E; Ivorra, B; Martínez-López, B; Ramos, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-04-01

    Be-FAST is a computer program based on a time-spatial stochastic spread mathematical model for studying the transmission of infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. The present work describes a new module integrated into Be-FAST to model the economic consequences of the spreading of classical swine fever (CSF) and other infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. CSF is financially one of the most damaging diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Specifically in Spain, the economic costs in the two last CSF epidemics (1997 and 2001) reached jointly more than 108 million euros. The present analysis suggests that severe CSF epidemics are associated with significant economic costs, approximately 80% of which are related to animal culling. Direct costs associated with control measures are strongly associated with the number of infected farms, while indirect costs are more strongly associated with epidemic duration. The economic model has been validated with economic information around the last outbreaks in Spain. These results suggest that our economic module may be useful for analysing and predicting economic consequences of livestock disease epidemics.

  16. Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Rodney J.

    2010-10-12

    Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.

  17. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...

  18. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  19. Parallel fast gauss transform

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Rahul S; Sundar, Hari; Veerapaneni, Shravan

    2010-01-01

    We present fast adaptive parallel algorithms to compute the sum of N Gaussians at N points. Direct sequential computation of this sum would take O(N{sup 2}) time. The parallel time complexity estimates for our algorithms are O(N/n{sub p}) for uniform point distributions and O( (N/n{sub p}) log (N/n{sub p}) + n{sub p}log n{sub p}) for non-uniform distributions using n{sub p} CPUs. We incorporate a plane-wave representation of the Gaussian kernel which permits 'diagonal translation'. We use parallel octrees and a new scheme for translating the plane-waves to efficiently handle non-uniform distributions. Computing the transform to six-digit accuracy at 120 billion points took approximately 140 seconds using 4096 cores on the Jaguar supercomputer. Our implementation is 'kernel-independent' and can handle other 'Gaussian-type' kernels even when explicit analytic expression for the kernel is not known. These algorithms form a new class of core computational machinery for solving parabolic PDEs on massively parallel architectures.

  20. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  1. Fast flux test facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-10-24

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for the Fast Flux Test Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  2. Fast algorithm for computing complex number-theoretic transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Liu, K. Y.; Truong, T. K.

    1977-01-01

    A high-radix FFT algorithm for computing transforms over FFT, where q is a Mersenne prime, is developed to implement fast circular convolutions. This new algorithm requires substantially fewer multiplications than the conventional FFT.

  3. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  4. Fast computation of voxel-level brain connectivity maps from resting-state functional MRI using l₁-norm as approximation of Pearson's temporal correlation: proof-of-concept and example vector hardware implementation.

    PubMed

    Minati, Ludovico; Zacà, Domenico; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    An outstanding issue in graph-based analysis of resting-state functional MRI is choice of network nodes. Individual consideration of entire brain voxels may represent a less biased approach than parcellating the cortex according to pre-determined atlases, but entails establishing connectedness for 1(9)-1(11) links, with often prohibitive computational cost. Using a representative Human Connectome Project dataset, we show that, following appropriate time-series normalization, it may be possible to accelerate connectivity determination replacing Pearson correlation with l1-norm. Even though the adjacency matrices derived from correlation coefficients and l1-norms are not identical, their similarity is high. Further, we describe and provide in full an example vector hardware implementation of l1-norm on an array of 4096 zero instruction-set processors. Calculation times <1000 s are attainable, removing the major deterrent to voxel-based resting-sate network mapping and revealing fine-grained node degree heterogeneity. L1-norm should be given consideration as a substitute for correlation in very high-density resting-state functional connectivity analyses.

  5. Fast protein folding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  6. Fast and effective?

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2013-12-18

    The 5.2 diet involves two days of fasting each week. It is being promoted as the key to sustained weight loss, as well as wider health benefits, despite the lack of evidence on the long-term effects. Nurses need to support patients who wish to try intermittent fasting.

  7. Fast optical pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezairliyan, Ared

    1988-01-01

    Design and operation of accurate millisecond and microsecond resolution optical pyrometers developed at the National Bureau of Standards during the last two decades are described. Results of tests are presented and estimates of uncertainties in temperature measurements are given. Calibration methods are discussed and examples of applications of fast pyrometry are given. Ongoing research in developing fast multiwavelength and spatial scanning pyrometers are summarized.

  8. Controlling fast chaos in delay dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Jonathan N; Illing, Lucas; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2004-05-14

    We introduce a novel approach for controlling fast chaos in time-delay dynamical systems and use it to control a chaotic photonic device with a characteristic time scale of approximately 12 ns. Our approach is a prescription for how to implement existing chaos-control algorithms in a way that exploits the system's inherent time delay and allows control even in the presence of substantial control-loop latency (the finite time it takes signals to propagate through the components in the controller). This research paves the way for applications exploiting fast control of chaos, such as chaos-based communication schemes and stabilizing the behavior of ultrafast lasers.

  9. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  10. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P.; Emin, David

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  11. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  12. FAST Construction Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, R. D.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, L.; Cai, W. J.; Liu, N.; Xie, J. T.; Zhang, S. X.

    2016-11-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. A unique karst depression in Guizhou province has been selected as the site to build an active reflector radio telescope with a diameter of 500 m and three outstanding aspects, which enables FAST to have a large sky coverage and the ability of observing astronomical targets with a high precision. Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guizhou province are in charge of FAST construction. The first light of the telescope was expected on September 25, 2016.

  13. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  14. Pneumococcal Disease Fast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About Pneumococcal Types of Infection Risk Factors & Transmission Symptoms & Complications Diagnosis & Treatment Prevention Photos Fast Facts Pneumococcal Vaccination For Clinicians Streptococcus pneumoniae Transmission Clinical Features Risk Factors Diagnosis & Management Prevention For ...

  15. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  16. Discovery with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  17. Education For All (EFA) - Fast Track Initiative Progress Report 30046

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank Education Advisory Service, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Launched in June 2002, the Education For All-Fast Track Initiative (FTI) is a performance-based program focusing on the implementation of sustainable policies in support of universal primary completion (UPC) and the required resource mobilization. During its twenty months of implementation, FTI has delivered on results, which give reason for…

  18. Fast data parallel polygon rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, F.A.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a parallel method for polygonal rendering on a massively parallel SIMD machine. This method, based on a simple shading model, is targeted for applications which require very fast polygon rendering for extremely large sets of polygons such as is found in many scientific visualization applications. The algorithms described in this paper are incorporated into a library of 3D graphics routines written for the Connection Machine. The routines are implemented on both the CM-200 and the CM-5. This library enables a scientists to display 3D shaded polygons directly from a parallel machine without the need to transmit huge amounts of data to a post-processing rendering system.

  19. FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) Users: Summary and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixter, Jeffrey; Childress, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past ten years, various organizations, both public and private, have expressed interest in implementing the Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST) in their cataloging workflows. As interest in FAST has grown, so too has interest in knowing how FAST is being used and by whom. Since 2002 eighteen institutions in six countries…

  20. Fast wave current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.

  1. Towards a fast implementation of spectral nested dissection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pothen, Alex; Simon, Horst D.; Wang, Lie; Barnard, Stephen T.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the spectral nested dissection (SND) algorithm, a new algorithm for computing orderings appropriate for parallel factorization of sparse, symmetric matrices. The algorithm makes use of spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix associated with the given matrix to compute separators. We evaluate the quality of the spectral orderings with respect to several measures: fill, elimination tree height, height and weight balances of elimination trees, and clique tree heights. We use some very large structural analysis problems as test cases and demonstrate on these real applications (such as the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) that spectral orderings compare quite favorably with commonly used orderings, outperforming them by a wide margin for some of these measures. The only disadvantage of SND is its relatively long execution time. We will present some recent efforts to improve the execution time using both a multilevel and a hybrid approach. We use SND in computing a multifrontal numerical factorization with the different orderings on an eight processor Cray Y-MP and show its effectiveness. We believe that spectral nested dissection is a major breakthrough in terms of generating efficient sparse orderings for parallel machines.

  2. A Fast Implementation of the ISODATA Clustering Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Mount, David M.; Netanyahu, Nathan S.; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Clustering is central to many image processing and remote sensing applications. ISODATA is one of the most popular and widely used clustering methods in geoscience applications, but it can run slowly, particularly with large data sets. We present a more efficient approach to ISODATA clustering, which achieves better running times by storing the points in a kd-tree and through a modification of the way in which the algorithm estimates the dispersion of each cluster. We also present an approximate version of the algorithm which allows the user to further improve the running time, at the expense of lower fidelity in computing the nearest cluster center to each point. We provide both theoretical and empirical justification that our modified approach produces clusterings that are very similar to those produced by the standard ISODATA approach. We also provide empirical studies on both synthetic data and remotely sensed Landsat and MODIS images that show that our approach has significantly lower running times.

  3. Fast modular network implementation for support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang-Bin; Mao, K Z; Siew, Chee-Kheong; Huang, De-Shuang

    2005-11-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) have been extensively used. However, it is known that SVMs face difficulty in solving large complex problems due to the intensive computation involved in their training algorithms, which are at least quadratic with respect to the number of training examples. This paper proposes a new, simple, and efficient network architecture which consists of several SVMs each trained on a small subregion of the whole data sampling space and the same number of simple neural quantizer modules which inhibit the outputs of all the remote SVMs and only allow a single local SVM to fire (produce actual output) at any time. In principle, this region-computing based modular network method can significantly reduce the learning time of SVM algorithms without sacrificing much generalization performance. The experiments on a few real large complex benchmark problems demonstrate that our method can be significantly faster than single SVMs without losing much generalization performance.

  4. Fast Implementation of Matched Filter Based Automatic Alignment Image Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K; Taha, T

    2008-04-02

    Video images of laser beams imprinted with distinguishable features are used for alignment of 192 laser beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Algorithms designed to determine the position of these beams enable the control system to perform the task of alignment. Centroiding is a common approach used for determining the position of beams. However, real world beam images suffer from intensity fluctuation or other distortions which make such an approach susceptible to higher position measurement variability. Matched filtering used for identifying the beam position results in greater stability of position measurement compared to that obtained using the centroiding technique. However, this gain is achieved at the expense of extra processing time required for each beam image. In this work we explore the possibility of using a field programmable logic array (FPGA) to speed up these computations. The results indicate a performance improvement of 20 using the FPGA relative to a 3 GHz Pentium 4 processor.

  5. Generalized Backprojection Operator: Fast Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miqueles, Eduardo X.; Helou, Elias S.; De Pierro, Alvaro R.

    2014-03-01

    The inverse Radon transform and his straightforward implementation, known as filtered backprojection (also known as FBP), has become a powerful algorithm for solving a tomographic inverse problem. It has a wide range of applications, including geophysics, medicine and synchrotrons, and from kilo to centi to micro scale respectively. Such a classical inversion has a major computational disadvantage: increasing slowness proportionally to the data size. An ordinary implementation of this algorithm relies on a simple integral that has to be done pixelwise. Many accelerating techniques were proposed in the literature so as to make this part of the inversion as fast as possible. One the most promising strategies is converting the backprojection as a convolution operator (at log-polar coordinates). The generalized backprojector has many applications, for instance in the analytical inversion of single-photon emission tomography or x-ray fluorescence tomography. Our aim in this paper is to show how these ideas can be used for other inversion methods, the iterative ones; which deal much better with noise.

  6. A Fast Hermite Transform.

    PubMed

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2008-12-17

    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed.

  7. Implementation Reviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The point of the implementation review is to prevent problems from occurring later by trying to get our arms around the planning from the start. fmplementation reviews set the tone for management of the project. They establish a teaming relationship (if they are run properly), and they level the playing field instead of setting up turf wars.

  8. Fast ForWord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Fast ForWord, a CD-ROM and Internet-based training program for children (pre-K to grade 8) with language and reading problems that helps children rapidly build oral language comprehension and other critical skills necessary for learning to read or becoming a better reader. With the help of computers, speech…

  9. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  11. Fast packet switch architectures for broadband integrated services digital networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1990-01-01

    Background information on networking and switching is provided, and the various architectures that have been considered for fast packet switches are described. The focus is solely on switches designed to be implemented electronically. A set of definitions and a brief description of the functionality required of fast packet switches are given. Three basic types of packet switches are identified: the shared-memory, shared-medium, and space-division types. Each of these is described, and examples are given.

  12. FAST - FREEDOM ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING TOOL PROTOTYPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    -Language and has been implemented on DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The program is distributed in executable form. The source code is also provided, but it cannot be compiled without the Tree Manipulation Based Routines (TMBR) package from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which is not currently available from COSMIC. The main memory requirement is based on the data used to drive the FAST program. All applications should easily run on an installation with 10Mb of main memory. FAST was developed in 1990 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. DEC, VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  13. FastBit Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng

    2007-08-02

    An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.

  14. Fast controller for a unity-power-factor PWM rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Eissa, M.O.; Leeb, S.B.; Verghese, G.C.; Stankovic, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an analog implementation of a fast controller for a unity-power-factor (UPF) PWM rectifier. The best settling times of many popular controllers for this type of converter are on the order of a few line cycles, corresponding to bandwidths under 20 Hz. The fast controller demonstrated in this paper can exercise control action at a rate comparable to the switching frequency rather than the line frequency. In order to accomplish this while maintaining unity power factor during steady-state operation, the fast controller employs a ripple-feedback cancellation scheme.

  15. Efficient Kriging via Fast Matrix-Vector Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Raykar, Vikas C.; Duraiswami, Ramani; Mount, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Interpolating scattered data points is a problem of wide ranging interest. Ordinary kriging is an optimal scattered data estimator, widely used in geosciences and remote sensing. A generalized version of this technique, called cokriging, can be used for image fusion of remotely sensed data. However, it is computationally very expensive for large data sets. We demonstrate the time efficiency and accuracy of approximating ordinary kriging through the use of fast matrixvector products combined with iterative methods. We used methods based on the fast Multipole methods and nearest neighbor searching techniques for implementations of the fast matrix-vector products.

  16. Fast global orbit feedback system in PLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, E. H.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, T. Y.; Park, C. D.; Shin, S.; Yoon, J. C.; Cho, W. S.; Park, G. S.; Kim, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The transverse position of the electron beam in the Pohang Light Source-II is stabilized by the global orbit feedback system. A slow orbit feedback system has been operating at 2 Hz, and a fast orbit feedback (FOFB) system at 813 Hz was installed recently. This FOFB system consists of 96 electron-beam-position monitors, 48 horizontal fast correctors, 48 vertical fast correctors and Versa Module Europa bus control system. We present the design and implementation of the FOFB system and its test result. Simulation analysis is presented and future improvements are suggested.

  17. Density Estimation Trees as fast non-parametric modelling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlini, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    A Density Estimation Tree (DET) is a decision trees trained on a multivariate dataset to estimate the underlying probability density function. While not competitive with kernel techniques in terms of accuracy, DETs are incredibly fast, embarrassingly parallel and relatively small when stored to disk. These properties make DETs appealing in the resource- expensive horizon of the LHC data analysis. Possible applications may include selection optimization, fast simulation and fast detector calibration. In this contribution I describe the algorithm and its implementation made available to the HEP community as a RooFit object. A set of applications under discussion within the LHCb Collaboration are also briefly illustrated.

  18. Fast electrochemical actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Postnikov, A. V.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-03-01

    Lack of fast and strong microactuators is a well-recognized problem in MEMS community. Electrochemical actuators can develop high pressure but they are notoriously slow. Water electrolysis produced by short voltage pulses of alternating polarity can overcome the problem of slow gas termination. Here we demonstrate an actuation regime, for which the gas pressure is relaxed just for 10 μs or so. The actuator consists of a microchamber filled with the electrolyte and covered with a flexible membrane. The membrane bends outward when the pressure in the chamber increases. Fast termination of gas and high pressure developed in the chamber are related to a high density of nanobubbles in the chamber. The physical processes happening in the chamber are discussed so as problems that have to be resolved for practical applications of this actuation regime. The actuator can be used as a driving engine for microfluidics.

  19. "Fast" Capitalism and "Fast" Schools: New Realities and New Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.

    This paper locates the phenomenon of self-managing schools within the framework of "fast capitalism" and identifies themes of organization central to fast capitalism, which are argued to also underpin the self-managing schools. "Fast capitalism" refers to the rapidly intensified integration of regionalized productive activities into the global…

  20. PHENIX Fast TOF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aria; Chiu, Mickey; Mannel, Eric; Stoll, Sean; Lynch, Don; Boose, Steve; Northacker, Dave; Alfred, Marcus; Lindesay, James; Chujo, Tatsuya; Inaba, Motoi; Nonaka, Toshihiro; Sato, Wataru; Sakatani, Ikumi; Hirano, Masahiro; Choi, Ihnjea

    2014-01-15

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of PHENIX Fast TOF group who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the FY2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The goals for this test beam experiment are to verify the timing performance of the two types of time-of-flight detector prototypes.

  1. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made.

  3. Fasting - the ultimate diet?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, A M

    2007-05-01

    Adult humans often undertake acute fasts for cosmetic, religious or medical reasons. For example, an estimated 14% of US adults have reported using fasting as a means to control body weight and this approach has long been advocated as an intermittent treatment for gross refractory obesity. There are unique historical data sets on extreme forms of food restriction that give insight into the consequences of starvation or semi-starvation in previously healthy, but usually non-obese subjects. These include documented medical reports on victims of hunger strike, famine and prisoners of war. Such data provide a detailed account on how the body adapts to prolonged starvation. It has previously been shown that fasting for the biblical period of 40 days and 40 nights is well within the overall physiological capabilities of a healthy adult. However, the specific effects on the human body and mind are less clearly documented, either in the short term (hours) or in the longer term (days). This review asks the following three questions, pertinent to any weight-loss therapy, (i) how effective is the regime in achieving weight loss, (ii) what impact does it have on psychology? and finally, (iii) does it work long-term?

  4. Lipid metabolism during fasting.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M D; Ekberg, K; Landau, B R

    2001-10-01

    These studies were conducted to understand the relationship between measures of systemic free fatty acid (FFA) reesterification and regional FFA, glycerol, and triglyceride metabolism during fasting. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure fatty acid oxidation in six men after a 60-h fast. Systemic and regional (splanchnic, renal, and leg) FFA ([(3)H]palmitate) and glycerol ([(3)H]glycerol) kinetics, as well as splanchnic triglyceride release, were measured. The rate of systemic FFA reesterification was 366 +/- 93 micromol/min, which was greater (P < 0.05) than splanchnic triglyceride fatty acid output (64 +/- 6 micromol/min), a measure of VLDL triglyceride fatty acid export. The majority of glycerol uptake occurred in the splanchnic and renal beds, although some leg glycerol uptake was detected. Systemic FFA release was approximately double that usually present in overnight postabsorptive men, yet the regional FFA release rates were of the same proportions previously observed in overnight postabsorptive men. In conclusion, FFA reesterification at rest during fasting far exceeds splanchnic triglyceride fatty acid output. This indicates that nonhepatic sites of FFA reesterification are important, and that peripheral reesterification of FFA exceeds the rate of simultaneous intracellular triglyceride fatty acid oxidation.

  5. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  6. Using ultra fast analog memories for fast photodetector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Dominique; Delagnes, Eric; Maalmi, Jihane

    2012-12-01

    The recent progresses in the field of photodetection have pushed the performances of the detectors toward the picosecond scale. Necessary precise charge and time measurement are mainly based on high-end oscilloscopes or commercial modules, but these solutions are expensive and house very few channels. The USB-WaveCatcher board provides high performances over a short time window. It houses two 12-bit 500-MHz-bandwidth digitizers sampling up to 3.2 GS/s. Its low consumption allows it to be USB-powered and it offers a lot of functionalities. The board has been used in different test benches dedicated to fast MCP-PMTs or SiPMs, and a reproducible time precision better than 10 ps rms has been demonstrated. Implementations with up to 16 channels have been designed and exhibit the same time precision. The USB-WaveCatcher thus seems to be a wonderful tool for photodetector characterization. Our next step is to widely expand the number of channels while keeping the 10 ps time precision.

  7. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  8. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  9. Introduction to FAST central control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinghai; Zhu, Lichun; Jiang, Zhiqian

    2016-07-01

    FAST is the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. During observation, part of spherical reflector forms paraboloid to the source direction, meanwhile the feed is placed to instant focus. The control of telescope is difficult and complicated. An autonomous central control system is designed and implemented for methodically and efficiently operation. The system connects and coordinates all subsystems including control, measurement and health monitoring for reflector, feed support and receiver respectively. The main functions are managing observation tasks, commanding subsystems, storing operating data, monitoring statuses and providing the uniform time standard. In this paper, the functions, software and hardware of FAST central control system are presented. The relative infrastructures such as power, network and control room arrangement are introduced.

  10. Fast curve fitting using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, C. M.; Roach, C. M.

    1992-10-01

    Neural networks provide a new tool for the fast solution of repetitive nonlinear curve fitting problems. In this article we introduce the concept of a neural network, and we show how such networks can be used for fitting functional forms to experimental data. The neural network algorithm is typically much faster than conventional iterative approaches. In addition, further substantial improvements in speed can be obtained by using special purpose hardware implementations of the network, thus making the technique suitable for use in fast real-time applications. The basic concepts are illustrated using a simple example from fusion research, involving the determination of spectral line parameters from measurements of B iv impurity radiation in the COMPASS-C tokamak.

  11. Fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Couture, Charles-André; Légaré, Katherine; Pinsard, Maxime; Rivard, Maxime; Brown, Cameron; Légaré, François

    2016-01-01

    We report the implementation of fast Interferometric Second Harmonic Generation (I-SHG) microscopy to study the polarity of non-centrosymmetric structures in biological tissues. Using a sample quartz plate, we calibrate the spatially varying phase shift introduced by the laser scanning system. Compensating this phase shift allows us to retrieve the correct phase distribution in periodically poled lithium niobate, used as a model sample. Finally, we used fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy to acquire phase images in tendon. Our results show that the method exposed here, using a laser scanning system, allows to recover the polarity of collagen fibrils, similarly to standard I-SHG (using a sample scanning system), but with an imaging time about 40 times shorter. PMID:26977349

  12. Fabrication techniques for very fast diffractive lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Anthony M.; Marron, Joseph C.

    1993-01-01

    Aspheric lenses with arbitrary phase functions can be fabricated on thin light weight substrates via the binary optics fabrication technique. However, it is difficult and costly to fabricate a fast lens (f/number less than 1) for use as the shorter wavelengths. The pitch of the masks and the alignment accuracy must be very fine. For a large lens, the space-bandwidth product of the element can also become impractically large. In this paper, two alternate approaches for the fabrication of fast aspheric diffractive lenses are described. The first approach fabricates the diffractive lens interferometrically, utilizing a spherical wavefront to provide the optical power of the lens and a computer generated hologram to create the aspheric components. The second approach fabricates the aspheric diffractive lens in the form if a higher order kinoform which trades groove profile fidelity for coarser feature size. The design and implementation issues for these two fabrication techniques are discussed.

  13. Fast-earth: A global image caching architecture for fast access to remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, B. G.; Talbot, L. M.

    We introduce Fast-Earth, a novel server architecture that enables rapid access to remote sensing data. Fast-Earth subdivides a WGS-84 model of the earth into small 400 × 400 meter regions with fixed locations, called plats. The resulting 3,187,932,913 indexed plats are accessed with a rapid look-up algorithm. Whereas many traditional databases store large original images as a series by collection time, requiring long searches and slow access times for user queries, the Fast-Earth architecture enables rapid access. We have prototyped a system in conjunction with a Fast-Responder mobile app to demonstrate and evaluate the concepts. We found that new data could be indexed rapidly in about 10 minutes/terabyte, high-resolution images could be chipped in less than a second, and 250 kB image chips could be delivered over a 3G network in about 3 seconds. The prototype server implemented on a very small computer could handle 100 users, but the concept is scalable. Fast-Earth enables dramatic advances in rapid dissemination of remote sensing data for mobile platforms as well as desktop enterprises.

  14. Interaction between high harmonic fast waves and fast ions in NSTX/NSTX-U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelli, N.; Valeo, E. J.; Gorelenkova, M.; Green, D. L.; RF SciDAC Team

    2016-10-01

    Fast wave (FW) heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) has been successfully used to sustain and control the fusion plasma performance, and it will likely play an important role in the ITER experiment. As demonstrated in the NSTX and DIII-D experiments the interactions between fast waves and fast ions can be so strong to significantly modify the fast ion population from neutral beam injection. In fact, it has been recently found in NSTX that FWs can modify and, under certain conditions, even suppress the energetic particle driven instabilities, such as toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes and global Alfvén eigenmodes and fishbones. This paper examines such interactions in NSTX/NSTX-U plasmas by using the recent extension of the RF full-wave code TORIC to include non-Maxwellian ions distribution functions. Particular attention is given to the evolution of the fast ions distribution function w/ and w/o RF. Tests on the RF kick-operator implemented in the Monte-Carlo particle code NUBEAM is also discussed in order to move towards a self consistent evaluation of the RF wave-field and the ion distribution functions in the TRANSP code. Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Fast evaluation of polarizable forces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Skeel, Robert D

    2005-10-22

    Polarizability is considered to be the single most significant development in the next generation of force fields for biomolecular simulations. However, the self-consistent computation of induced atomic dipoles in a polarizable force field is expensive due to the cost of solving a large dense linear system at each step of a simulation. This article introduces methods that reduce the cost of computing the electrostatic energy and force of a polarizable model from about 7.5 times the cost of computing those of a nonpolarizable model to less than twice the cost. This is probably sufficient for the routine use of polarizable forces in biomolecular simulations. The reduction in computing time is achieved by an efficient implementation of the particle-mesh Ewald method, an accurate and robust predictor based on least-squares fitting, and non-stationary iterative methods whose fast convergence is accelerated by a simple preconditioner. Furthermore, with these methods, the self-consistent approach with a larger timestep is shown to be faster than the extended Lagrangian approach. The use of dipole moments from previous timesteps to calculate an accurate initial guess for iterative methods leads to an energy drift, which can be made acceptably small. The use of a zero initial guess does not lead to perceptible energy drift if a reasonably strict convergence criterion for the iteration is imposed.

  16. Measuring Fast Ion Losses in a Reversed Field Pinch Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonofiglo, P. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Kim, J.; Clark, J.; Capecchi, W.; Sears, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) provides a unique environment to study fast ion confinement and transport. The RFP's weak toroidal field, strong magnetic shear, and ability to enter a 3D state provide a wide range of dynamics to study fast ions. Core-localized, 25 keV fast ions are sourced into MST by a tangentially injected hydrogen/deuterium neutral beam. Neutral particle analysis and measured fusion neutron flux indicate enhanced fast ion transport in the plasma core. Past experiments point to a dynamic loss of fast ions associated with the RFP's transition to a 3D state and with beam-driven, bursting magnetic modes. Consequently, fast ion transport and losses in the RFP have garnered recent attention. Valuable information on fast-ion loss, such as energy and pitch distributions, are sought to provide a better understanding of the transport mechanisms at hand. We have constructed and implemented two fast ion loss detectors (FILDs) for use on MST. The FILDs have two, independent, design concepts: collecting particles as a function of v⊥ or with pitch greater than 0.8. In this work, we present our preliminary findings and results from our FILDs on MST. This research is supported by US DOE.

  17. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  18. Simplified fast neutron dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    1979-01-01

    Direct fast-neutron-induced recoil and alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate films may be enlarged for direct visual observation and automated counting procedures employing electrochemical etching techniques. Electrochemical etching is, for example, carried out in a 28% KOH solution at room temperature by applying a 2000 V peak-to-peak voltage at 1 kHz frequency. Such recoil particle amplification can be used for the detection of wide neutron dose ranges from 1 mrad. to 1000 rads. or higher, if desired.

  19. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  20. Fast neutron nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrillat, M. Th.; Lions, N.

    1985-01-08

    The invention relates to a fast neutron nuclear reactor of the integrated type comprising a cylindrical inner vessel. The inner vessel comprises two concentric ferrules and the connection between the hot collector defined within this vessel and the inlet port of the exchangers is brought about by a hot structure forming a heat baffle and supported by the inner ferrule and by a cold structure surrounding the hot structure, supported by the outer ferrule and sealingly connected to the exchanger. Application to the generation of electric power in nuclear power stations.

  1. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  2. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  3. Fast causal multicast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Schiper, Andre; Stephenson, Pat

    1990-01-01

    A new protocol is presented that efficiently implements a reliable, causally ordered multicast primitive and is easily extended into a totally ordered one. Intended for use in the ISIS toolkit, it offers a way to bypass the most costly aspects of ISIS while benefiting from virtual synchrony. The facility scales with bounded overhead. Measured speedups of more than an order of magnitude were obtained when the protocol was implemented within ISIS. One conclusion is that systems such as ISIS can achieve performance competitive with the best existing multicast facilities - a finding contradicting the widespread concern that fault-tolerance may be unacceptably costly.

  4. Fast casual multicast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth; Schiper, Andre; Stephenson, Pat

    1990-01-01

    A new protocol is presented that efficiently implements a reliable, causally ordered multicast primitive and is easily extended into a totally ordered one. Intended for use in the ISIS toolkit, it offers a way to bypass the most costly aspects of ISIS while benefiting from virtual synchrony. The facility scales with bounded overhead. Measured speedups of more than an order of magnitude were obtained when the protocol was implemented within ISIS. One conclusion is that systems such as ISIS can achieve performance competitive with the best existing multicast facilities--a finding contradicting the widespread concern that fault-tolerance may be unacceptably costly.

  5. Fasting and sport: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J

    2010-06-01

    Most humans observe an overnight fast on a daily basis, and the human body copes well with short duration fasting. Periodic fasting is widely practised for cultural, religious or health reasons. Fasting may take many different forms. Prolonged restriction of food and fluid is harmful to health and performance, and it is often automatically assumed that intermittent fasting will lead to decrements in exercise performance. Athletes who choose to fast during training or competitions may therefore be at a disadvantage. The available evidence does not entirely support this view, but there is little or no information on the effects on elite athletes competing in challenging environments. Prolonged periods of training in the fasted state may not allow optimum adaptation of muscles and other tissues. Further research on a wide range of athletes with special nutrition needs is urgently required. In events where performance might be affected, other strategies to eliminate or minimise any effects must be sought.

  6. Large-Constraint-Length, Fast Viterbi Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Dolinar, S.; Hsu, In-Shek; Pollara, F.; Olson, E.; Statman, J.; Zimmerman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Scheme for efficient interconnection makes VLSI design feasible. Concept for fast Viterbi decoder provides for processing of convolutional codes of constraint length K up to 15 and rates of 1/2 to 1/6. Fully parallel (but bit-serial) architecture developed for decoder of K = 7 implemented in single dedicated VLSI circuit chip. Contains six major functional blocks. VLSI circuits perform branch metric computations, add-compare-select operations, and then store decisions in traceback memory. Traceback processor reads appropriate memory locations and puts out decoded bits. Used as building block for decoders of larger K.

  7. Fast-Acting Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, Bogdan V. (Inventor); Pegg, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fast-acting valve includes an annular valve seat that defines an annular valve orifice between the edges of the annular valve seat, an annular valve plug sized to cover the valve orifice when the valve is closed, and a valve-plug holder for moving the annular valve plug on and off the annular valve seat. The use of an annular orifice reduces the characteristic distance between the edges of the valve seat. Rather than this distance being equal to the diameter of the orifice, as it is for a conventional circular orifice, the characteristic distance equals the distance between the inner and outer radii (for a circular annulus). The reduced characteristic distance greatly reduces the gap required between the annular valve plug and the annular valve seat for the valve to be fully open, thereby greatly reducing the required stroke and corresponding speed and acceleration of the annular valve plug. The use of a valve-plug holder that is under independent control to move the annular valve plug between its open and closed positions is important for achieving controllable fast operation of the valve.

  8. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  9. A Parallel Implementation of Multilevel Recursive Spectral Bisection for Application to Adaptive Unstructured Meshes. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Stephen T.; Simon, Horst; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The design of a parallel implementation of multilevel recursive spectral bisection is described. The goal is to implement a code that is fast enough to enable dynamic repartitioning of adaptive meshes.

  10. Slow and fast light in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedgwick, Forrest Grant

    Slow and fast light are the propagation of optical signals at group velocities below and above the speed of light in a given medium. There has been great interest in the use of nonlinear optics to engineer slow and fast light dispersion for applications in optical communications and radio-frequency or microwave photonics. Early results in this field were primarily confined to dilute atomic systems. While these results were impressive, they had two major barriers to practical application. First, the wavelengths were not compatible with fiber optic telecommunications. More importantly, the bandwidth obtainable in these experiments was inherently low; 100 kHz or less. Within the last five years slow and fast light effects have been observed and engineered in a much wider variety of systems. In this work, we detail our efforts to realize slow and fast light in semiconductor systems. There are three primary advantages of semiconductor systems: fiber-compatible wavelengths, larger bandwidth, and simplification of integration with other optical components. In this work we will explore three different types of physical mechanisms for implementing slow and fast light. The first is electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In transporting this process to semiconductors, we initially turn our attention to quantum dots or "artificial atoms". We present simulations of a quantum dot EIT-based device within the context of an optical communications link and we derive results which are generally applicable to a broad class of slow light devices. We then present experimental results realizing EIT in quantum wells by using long-lived electron spin coherence. The second mechanism we will explore is coherent population oscillations (CPO), also known as carrier density pulsations (CDP). We examine for the first time how both slow and fast light may be achieved in a quantum well semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) while operating in the gain regime. Again, we simulate the device

  11. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  12. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  13. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOEpatents

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  14. Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Taki, M; Muanenda, Y; Oton, C J; Nannipieri, T; Signorini, A; Di Pasquale, F

    2013-08-01

    A cyclic pulse coding technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for fast implementation of long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). The proposed technique allows for accurate temperature and strain measurements with meter-scale spatial resolution over kilometers of standard single-mode fiber, with subsecond measurement times.

  15. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  16. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  17. Fast thyratron driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Cassel, R.L.

    1991-04-01

    A fast solid-state pulse generator used as a thyratron grid driver for kicker pulsers, has been developed and built with power MOSFETs and a transmission line transformer. The MOSFET, pulsed on and off by a pair of P-N channel HEXFETs, switches charged capacitors into the transformer connected in parallel on one end and in series on the other end to step up the voltage. The resulting output pulse parameters are 2 kilovolts peak (into 50 Ohms), 13 nanoseconds risetime (10--90%), 250 nanoseconds duration, and less than 50 picoseconds pulse-to-pulse jitter. Various methods are employed to protect the MOSFETs from thyratron arc back, including the use of TransZorbs and a magnetic diode. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  18. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  19. Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2017-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are a recently discovered phenomenon consisting of short (few ms) bursts of radio waves that have dispersion measures that strongly suggest an extragalactic and possibly cosmological origin. Current best estimates for the rate of FRBs is several thousand per sky per day at radio frequencies near 1.4 GHz. Even with so high a rate, to date, fewer than 20 FRBs have been reported, with one source showing repeated bursts. In this talk I will describe known FRB properties including what is known about the lone repeating source, as well as models for the origin of these mysterious events. I will also describe the CHIME radio telescope, currently under construction in Canada. Thanks to its great sensitivity and unprecedented field-of-view, CHIME promises major progress on FRBs.

  20. Adaptive line enhancers for fast acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H.-G.; Nguyen, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    Three adaptive line enhancer (ALE) algorithms and architectures - namely, conventional ALE, ALE with double filtering, and ALE with coherent accumulation - are investigated for fast carrier acquisition in the time domain. The advantages of these algorithms are their simplicity, flexibility, robustness, and applicability to general situations including the Earth-to-space uplink carrier acquisition and tracking of the spacecraft. In the acquisition mode, these algorithms act as bandpass filters; hence, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is improved for fast acquisition. In the tracking mode, these algorithms simply act as lowpass filters to improve signal-to-noise ratio; hence, better tracking performance is obtained. It is not necessary to have a priori knowledge of the received signal parameters, such as CNR, Doppler, and carrier sweeping rate. The implementation of these algorithms is in the time domain (as opposed to the frequency domain, such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT)). The carrier frequency estimation can be updated in real time at each time sample (as opposed to the batch processing of the FFT). The carrier frequency to be acquired can be time varying, and the noise can be non-Gaussian, nonstationary, and colored.

  1. Flight Research into Simple Adaptive Control on the NASA FAST Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2011-01-01

    A series of simple adaptive controllers with varying levels of complexity were designed, implemented and flight tested on the NASA Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft. Lessons learned from the development and flight testing are presented.

  2. A new fast algorithm for computing a complex number: Theoretic transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Liu, K. Y.; Truong, T. K.

    1977-01-01

    A high-radix fast Fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm for computing transforms over GF(sq q), where q is a Mersenne prime, is developed to implement fast circular convolutions. This new algorithm requires substantially fewer multiplications than the conventional FFT.

  3. Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial".

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha; Hachmann, Wibke; Neubauer, Claudia; Konieczny, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading in which individuals process letters serially with a pronounced length effect. Yet, there is considerable variation in the performance of alexic readers with generally very slow, but also occasionally fast responses, an observation addressed rarely in previous reports. It has been suggested that "fast" responses in pure alexia reflect residual parallel letter processing or that they may even be subserved by an independent reading system. Four experiments assessed fast and slow reading in a participant (DN) with pure alexia. Two behavioral experiments investigated frequency, neighborhood, and length effects in forced fast reading. Two further experiments measured eye movements when DN was forced to read quickly, or could respond faster because words were easier to process. Taken together, there was little support for the proposal that "qualitatively different" mechanisms or reading strategies underlie both types of responses in DN. Instead, fast responses are argued to be generated by the same serial-reading strategy.

  4. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  5. Fast dual tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  6. Fast foldable tent domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    In the near future ELTs (Extreme Large Telescopes) will be built. Preferably these telescopes should operate without obstructions in the near surrounding to reach optimal seeing conditions and avoid large turbulences with wind-gust accelerations around large obstacles. This applies also to future large solar telescopes. At present two foldable dome prototypes have been built on the Canary Islands: the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT, La Palma) and the GREGOR Telescope (Tenerife), having a diameter of 7 and 9 meter, respectively. The domes are usually fully retracted during observations. The research consists of measurements on the two domes. New camera systems are developed and placed inside the domes for precise dome deformation measurements within 0.1 mm over the whole dome size. Simultaneously, a variety of wind-speed and -direction sensors measure the wind field around the dome. In addition, fast sensitive air-pressure sensors placed on the supporting bows measure the wind pressure. The aim is to predict accurately the expected forces and deformations on up-scaled, fully retractable domes to make their construction more economically. The dimensions of 7 and 9 meter are large enough for realistic on-site tests in gusty wind and will give much more information than wind tunnel experiments.

  7. Fast and Adaptive Lossless Onboard Hyperspectral Data Compression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh I.; Keymeulen, Didier; Kimesh, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern hyperspectral imaging systems are able to acquire far more data than can be downlinked from a spacecraft. Onboard data compression helps to alleviate this problem, but requires a system capable of power efficiency and high throughput. Software solutions have limited throughput performance and are power-hungry. Dedicated hardware solutions can provide both high throughput and power efficiency, while taking the load off of the main processor. Thus a hardware compression system was developed. The implementation uses a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The implementation is based on the fast lossless (FL) compression algorithm reported in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data (NPO-42517), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), page 26, which achieves excellent compression performance and has low complexity. This algorithm performs predictive compression using an adaptive filtering method, and uses adaptive Golomb coding. The implementation also packetizes the coded data. The FL algorithm is well suited for implementation in hardware. In the FPGA implementation, one sample is compressed every clock cycle, which makes for a fast and practical realtime solution for space applications. Benefits of this implementation are: 1) The underlying algorithm achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that exceeds that of techniques currently in use. 2) The algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. 3) Hardware acceleration provides a throughput improvement of 10 to 100 times vs. the software implementation. A prototype of the compressor is available in software, but it runs at a speed that does not meet spacecraft requirements. The hardware implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex IV FPGAs, and makes the use of this compressor practical for Earth satellites as well as beyond-Earth missions with hyperspectral instruments.

  8. Fast Feedback in Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Katrina; Klaassen, Kees; Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 "Aust. Sci. Teach. J." 28-34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to be successful, and the data that we obtained…

  9. Glycemic management during Jain fasts

    PubMed Central

    Julka, Sandeep; Sachan, Alok; Bajaj, Sarita; Sahay, Rakesh; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet; Saboo, Banshi; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Baruah, Manash P.; Parmar, Girish; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This review describes the various fasts observed by adherents of the Jain religion. It attempts to classify them according to their suitability for people with diabetes and suggests appropriate regime and dose modification for those observing these fasts. The review is an endeavor to encourage rational and evidence-based management in this field of diabetology. PMID:28217525

  10. Verification of New Floating Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, F.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the latest release of NREL's wind turbine aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation software, FAST v8, several new capabilities and major changes were introduced. FAST has been significantly altered to improve the simulator's modularity and to include new functionalities in the form of modules in the FAST v8 framework. This paper is focused on the improvements made for the modeling of floating offshore wind systems. The most significant change was to the hydrodynamic load calculation algorithms, which are embedded in the HydroDyn module. HydroDyn is now capable of applying strip-theory (via an extension of Morison's equation) at the member level for user-defined geometries. Users may now use a strip-theory-only approach for applying the hydrodynamic loads, as well as the previous potential-flow (radiation/diffraction) approach and a hybrid combination of both methods (radiation/diffraction and the drag component of Morison's equation). Second-order hydrodynamic implementations in both the wave kinematics used by the strip-theory solution and the wave-excitation loads in the potential-flow solution were also added to HydroDyn. The new floating capabilities were verified through a direct code-to-code comparison. We conducted a series of simulations of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) floating semisubmersible model and compared the wind turbine response predicted by FAST v8, the corresponding FAST v7 results, and results from other participants in the OC4 project. We found good agreement between FAST v7 and FAST v8 when using the linear radiation/diffraction modeling approach. The strip-theory-based approach inherently differs from the radiation/diffraction approach used in FAST v7 and we identified and characterized the differences. Enabling the second-order effects significantly improved the agreement between FAST v8 and the other OC4 participants.

  11. Implementers' Perspectives on Fidelity of Implementation.

    PubMed

    Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Krieger, Kathleen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Miller, Shari

    2017-03-01

    Fidelity of implementation is an essential factor in realizing outcomes of evidence-based interventions. Yet perspectives vary on the degree to which fidelity is necessary or desirable, implementers may receive limited guidance on fidelity, and research on implementers' understanding and operationalization of fidelity is lacking. We conducted key informant interviews with 20 individuals who implemented an evidence-based teen dating violence prevention curriculum in seven sites. Interviews addressed how implementers defined fidelity and the adaptations they made in implementing the curriculum. Although all implementers reported delivering the curriculum with fidelity, their definitions of fidelity varied. Most defined fidelity in terms of adherence to the published curriculum, although definitions sometimes allowed modifications of pedagogy or adding or subtracting materials. A smaller group of implementers defined fidelity in terms of their perceptions of the curriculum's core messages. All implementers described variations from the published curriculum, which were frequently inconsistent with their own definitions of fidelity. Implementers committed to the value of implementation with fidelity may need support in its definition and application. Developers can support implementers by communicating program theory in terms that implementers will understand, clarifying expectations for fidelity and allowable adaptations, and codifying lessons learned from previous implementation.

  12. Fast Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis for dynamic sensing.

    PubMed

    Peled, Yair; Motil, Avi; Tur, Moshe

    2012-04-09

    A new technique for the fast implementation of Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) is proposed and demonstrated, carrying the classical BOTDA method to the dynamic sensing domain. By using a digital signal generator which enables fast switching among 100 scanning frequencies, we demonstrate a truly distributed and dynamic measurement of a 100 m long fiber with a sampling rate of ~10 kHz, limited only by the fiber length and the frequency granularity. With 10 averages the standard deviation of the measured strain was ~5 µε.

  13. Long Range Fast Tool Servo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    AD-A271 614 r, FINAL REPORT w to I OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH [I on * LONG RANGE FAST TOOL SERVO I ONR CONTRACT NO. N00014-92-J-4082-PII Covering the...n I I 1 INTRODUCTION The PEC’s MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis...by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces [1]. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had

  14. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  15. FAST-PT: a novel algorithm to calculate convolution integrals in cosmological perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Joseph E.; Fang, Xiao; Hirata, Christopher M.; Blazek, Jonathan A.

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel algorithm, FAST-PT, for performing convolution or mode-coupling integrals that appear in nonlinear cosmological perturbation theory. The algorithm uses several properties of gravitational structure formation—the locality of the dark matter equations and the scale invariance of the problem—as well as Fast Fourier Transforms to describe the input power spectrum as a superposition of power laws. This yields extremely fast performance, enabling mode-coupling integral computations fast enough to embed in Monte Carlo Markov Chain parameter estimation. We describe the algorithm and demonstrate its application to calculating nonlinear corrections to the matter power spectrum, including one-loop standard perturbation theory and the renormalization group approach. We also describe our public code (in Python) to implement this algorithm. The code, along with a user manual and example implementations, is available at https://github.com/JoeMcEwen/FAST-PT.

  16. The fast debris evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G.; Swinerd, G. G.; Newland, R. J.; Saunders, A.

    2009-09-01

    The 'particles-in-a-box' (PIB) model introduced by Talent [Talent, D.L. Analytic model for orbital debris environmental management. J. Spacecraft Rocket, 29 (4), 508-513, 1992.] removed the need for computer-intensive Monte Carlo simulation to predict the gross characteristics of an evolving debris environment. The PIB model was described using a differential equation that allows the stability of the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment to be tested by a straightforward analysis of the equation's coefficients. As part of an ongoing research effort to investigate more efficient approaches to evolutionary modelling and to develop a suite of educational tools, a new PIB model has been developed. The model, entitled Fast Debris Evolution (FADE), employs a first-order differential equation to describe the rate at which new objects ⩾10 cm are added and removed from the environment. Whilst Talent [Talent, D.L. Analytic model for orbital debris environmental management. J. Spacecraft Rocket, 29 (4), 508-513, 1992.] based the collision theory for the PIB approach on collisions between gas particles and adopted specific values for the parameters of the model from a number of references, the form and coefficients of the FADE model equations can be inferred from the outputs of future projections produced by high-fidelity models, such as the DAMAGE model. The FADE model has been implemented as a client-side, web-based service using JavaScript embedded within a HTML document. Due to the simple nature of the algorithm, FADE can deliver the results of future projections immediately in a graphical format, with complete user-control over key simulation parameters. Historical and future projections for the ⩾10 cm LEO debris environment under a variety of different scenarios are possible, including business as usual, no future launches, post-mission disposal and remediation. A selection of results is presented with comparisons with predictions made using the DAMAGE environment model

  17. The Fast Debris Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Hugh G.; Swinerd, Graham; Newland, Rebecca; Saunders, Arrun

    The ‘Particles-in-a-box' (PIB) model introduced by Talent (1992) removed the need for computerintensive Monte Carlo simulation to predict the gross characteristics of an evolving debris environment. The PIB model was described using a differential equation that allows the stability of the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment to be tested by a straightforward analysis of the equation's coefficients. As part of an ongoing research effort to investigate more efficient approaches to evolutionary modelling and to develop a suite of educational tools, a new PIB model has been developed. The model, entitled Fast Debris Evolution (FaDE), employs a first-order differential equation to describe the rate at which new objects (˜ 10 cm) are added and removed from the environment. Whilst Talent (1992) based the collision theory for the PIB approach on collisions between gas particles and adopted specific values for the parameters of the model from a number of references, the form and coefficients of the FaDE model equations can be inferred from the outputs of future projections produced by high-fidelity models, such as the DAMAGE model. The FaDE model has been implemented as a client-side, web-based service using Javascript embedded within a HTML document. Due to the simple nature of the algorithm, FaDE can deliver the results of future projections immediately in a graphical format, with complete user-control over key simulation parameters. Historical and future projections for the ˜ 10 cm low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment under a variety of different scenarios are possible, including business as usual, no future launches, post-mission disposal and remediation. A selection of results is presented with comparisons with predictions made using the DAMAGE environment model. The results demonstrate that the FaDE model is able to capture comparable time-series of collisions and number of objects as predicted by DAMAGE in several scenarios. Further, and perhaps more importantly

  18. FastStats: Contraceptive Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ... Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  19. FastStats: Sinus Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . FastStats Homepage Diseases and Conditions Anemia or Iron Deficiency Arthritis ... Statistics Tables for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2014, Table A-2 [PDF - 219 KB] Physician ...

  20. Fast Food: Tips for Choosing Healthier Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... make wise meal choices when going to a fast-food restaurant. By Mayo Clinic Staff Does following ... or healthy diet mean you must swear off fast food? Not necessarily. An occasional stop for fast ...

  1. FastML: a web server for probabilistic reconstruction of ancestral sequences.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Penn, Osnat; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Cohen, Ofir; Cannarozzi, Gina; Zomer, Oren; Pupko, Tal

    2012-07-01

    Ancestral sequence reconstruction is essential to a variety of evolutionary studies. Here, we present the FastML web server, a user-friendly tool for the reconstruction of ancestral sequences. FastML implements various novel features that differentiate it from existing tools: (i) FastML uses an indel-coding method, in which each gap, possibly spanning multiples sites, is coded as binary data. FastML then reconstructs ancestral indel states assuming a continuous time Markov process. FastML provides the most likely ancestral sequences, integrating both indels and characters; (ii) FastML accounts for uncertainty in ancestral states: it provides not only the posterior probabilities for each character and indel at each sequence position, but also a sample of ancestral sequences from this posterior distribution, and a list of the k-most likely ancestral sequences; (iii) FastML implements a large array of evolutionary models, which makes it generic and applicable for nucleotide, protein and codon sequences; and (iv) a graphical representation of the results is provided, including, for example, a graphical logo of the inferred ancestral sequences. The utility of FastML is demonstrated by reconstructing ancestral sequences of the Env protein from various HIV-1 subtypes. FastML is freely available for all academic users and is available online at http://fastml.tau.ac.il/.

  2. FastML: a web server for probabilistic reconstruction of ancestral sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Penn, Osnat; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Cohen, Ofir; Cannarozzi, Gina; Zomer, Oren; Pupko, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Ancestral sequence reconstruction is essential to a variety of evolutionary studies. Here, we present the FastML web server, a user-friendly tool for the reconstruction of ancestral sequences. FastML implements various novel features that differentiate it from existing tools: (i) FastML uses an indel-coding method, in which each gap, possibly spanning multiples sites, is coded as binary data. FastML then reconstructs ancestral indel states assuming a continuous time Markov process. FastML provides the most likely ancestral sequences, integrating both indels and characters; (ii) FastML accounts for uncertainty in ancestral states: it provides not only the posterior probabilities for each character and indel at each sequence position, but also a sample of ancestral sequences from this posterior distribution, and a list of the k-most likely ancestral sequences; (iii) FastML implements a large array of evolutionary models, which makes it generic and applicable for nucleotide, protein and codon sequences; and (iv) a graphical representation of the results is provided, including, for example, a graphical logo of the inferred ancestral sequences. The utility of FastML is demonstrated by reconstructing ancestral sequences of the Env protein from various HIV-1 subtypes. FastML is freely available for all academic users and is available online at http://fastml.tau.ac.il/. PMID:22661579

  3. TMDL Implementation: Lessons Learned

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Virginia Tech Center for TMDL and Watershed Studies provided state TMDL implementation information and reviewed ongoing TMDL implementation efforts across the country to identify factors that contribute to successful implementation.

  4. Fast-Tracking Colostomy Closures.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    There have been very few studies on applying fast-track principles to colostomy closures. We believe that outcome may be significantly improved with multimodal interventions in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective study was carried out comparing patients who had undergone colostomy closures by the fast-track and traditional care protocols at our centre. We intended to analyse peri-operative period and recovery in colostomy closures to confirm that fast-track surgery principles improved outcomes. Twenty-six patients in the fast-track arm and 24 patients in the traditional care arm had undergone colostomy closures. Both groups were comparable in terms of their baseline parameters. Patients in the fast-track group were ambulatory and accepted oral feeding earlier. There was a significant reduction in the duration of stay (4.73 ± 1.43 days vs. 7.21 ± 1.38 days, p = 0.0000). We did not observe a rise in complications or 30-day re-admissions. Fast-track surgery can safely be applied to colostomy closures. It shows earlier ambulation and reduction in length of hospital stay.

  5. MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2004-10-01

    Tensors (also known as mutidimensional arrays or N-way arrays) are used in a variety of applications ranging from chemometrics to psychometrics. We describe four MATLAB classes for tensor manipulations that can be used for fast algorithm prototyping. The tensor class extends the functionality of MATLAB's multidimensional arrays by supporting additional operations such as tensor multiplication. The tensor as matrix class supports the 'matricization' of a tensor, i.e., the conversion of a tensor to a matrix (and vice versa), a commonly used operation in many algorithms. Two additional classes represent tensors stored in decomposed formats: cp tensor and tucker tensor. We descibe all of these classes and then demonstrate their use by showing how to implement several tensor algorithms that have appeared in the literature.

  6. Fast swept-volume distance for robust collision detection

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, P.G.

    1997-04-01

    The need for collision detection arises in several robotics areas, including motion-planning, online collision avoidance, and simulation. At the heart of most current methods are algorithms for interference detection and/or distance computation. A few recent algorithms and implementations are very fast, but to use them for accurate collision detection, very small step sizes can be necessary, reducing their effective efficiency. We present a fast, implemented technique for doing exact distance computation and interference detection for translationally-swept bodies. For rotationally swept bodies, we adapt this technique to improve accuracy, for any given step size, in distance computation and interference detection. We present preliminary experiments that show that the combination of basic and swept-body calculations holds much promise for faster accurate collision detection.

  7. Implementing a Corporate Weblog for SAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broß, Justus; Quasthoff, Matthias; MacNiven, Sean; Zimmermann, Jürgen; Meinel, Christoph

    After web 2.0 technologies experienced a phenomenal expansion and high acceptance among private users, considerations are now intensified to assess whether they can be equally applicable, beneficially employed and meaningfully implemented in an entrepreneurial context. The fast-paced rise of social software like weblogs or wikis and the resulting new form of communication via the Internet is however observed ambiguously in the corporate environment. This is why the particular choice of the platform or technology to be implemented in this field is strongly dependent on its future business case and field of deployment and should therefore be carefully considered beforehand, as this paper strongly suggests.

  8. Notes on implementation of sparsely distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, J. D.; Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Sparsely Distributed Memory (SDM) developed by Kanerva is an unconventional memory design with very interesting and desirable properties. The memory works in a manner that is closely related to modern theories of human memory. The SDM model is discussed in terms of its implementation in hardware. Two appendices discuss the unconventional approaches of the SDM: Appendix A treats a resistive circuit for fast, parallel address decoding; and Appendix B treats a systolic array for high throughput read and write operations.

  9. Fast molecular shocks. II - Emission from fast dissociative shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Dalgarno, A.

    1989-01-01

    The line radiations emitted in the cooling gas behind a fast dissociative shock are studied. The intensities emitted in high rotational transitions of the neutral molecules CO, SiO, HCN, CN, NO, and SO are estimated, as well as in rovibrational transitions of the molecular ions HeH(+) and OH(+) in radio recombination lines of atomic hydrogen and in fine-structure transitions of C, C(+), O, and Si(+). The predictions are compared with the observed intensities of line emission from the Orion-KL region. For Orion-KL the observations do not exclude, but probably do not require, the presence of a fast dissociative shock. Emission from SiO in high-J rotational states and from vibrationally excited OH(+), HeH(+), HeH(+), and SO(+) may be detectable from dissociative shocks under suitable conditions of preshock density and shock velocity; such emission may prove to be a useful diagnostic probe of fast shock activity.

  10. Lingos, finite state machines, and fast similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Grant, J Andrew; Haigh, James A; Pickup, Barry T; Nicholls, Anthony; Sayle, Roger A

    2006-01-01

    We apply a recently published method of text-based molecular similarity searching (LINGO) to standard data sets for the purpose of quantifying the accuracy of the approach. Our implementation is based on a pattern-matching finite state machine (FSM) which results in fast search times. The accuracy of LINGO is demonstrated to be comparable to that of a path-based fingerprint and offers a simple yet effective method for similarity searching.

  11. [Diabetic patients in the Yom Kippur fast--who can fast and how to treat the fasting patients].

    PubMed

    Katz, Yisrael; Zangen, David; Leibowitz, Gil; Szalalt, Auryan

    2009-09-01

    Jews all over the world fast on Yom Kippur, a fast lasting 25 hours. For diabetic patients and their physicians the fast is a significant challenge. The Jewish law exempts patients from fasting if the fast endangers the patient's health. In order to know if they can fast safely, many diabetic patients consult their physicians. In this review, the authors summarize the potential risk for fasting in diabetic patients and propose treatment protocols for patients who intend to fast. The principle recommendations are based on data related to fasting diabetic patients during the Ramadan fast, which is shorter than Yom Kippur. Furthermore, practical suggestions are based on a recent Israeli study on type 1 diabetic patients fasting for 25 hours, taking into account the Jewish law. Every diabetic patient who intends to fast should consult his physician for assurance that fasting is safe. The physician should pay special attention to patients on intensive insulin treatment or on sulfonylureas. Some, but not all these patients, should avoid fasting. In case these patients decide to fast, intensive monitoring of blood glucose is required during the fast to prevent severe hypoglycemia.

  12. Automated measurement of fast mitochondrial transport in neurons.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kyle E; Liu, Xin-An; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that fast mitochondrial transport in neurons is disrupted in multiple neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, a major constraint in identifying novel therapeutics based on mitochondrial transport is that the large-scale analysis of fast transport is time consuming. Here we describe methodologies for the automated analysis of fast mitochondrial transport from data acquired using a robotic microscope. We focused on addressing questions of measurement precision, speed, reliably, workflow ease, statistical processing, and presentation. We used optical flow and particle tracking algorithms, implemented in ImageJ, to measure mitochondrial movement in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. With it, we are able to generate complete descriptions of movement profiles in an automated fashion of hundreds of thousands of mitochondria with a processing time of approximately one hour. We describe the calibration of the parameters of the tracking algorithms and demonstrate that they are capable of measuring the fast transport of a single mitochondrion. We then show that the methods are capable of reliably measuring the inhibition of fast mitochondria transport induced by the disruption of microtubules with the drug nocodazole in both hippocampal and cortical neurons. This work lays the foundation for future large-scale screens designed to identify compounds that modulate mitochondrial motility.

  13. HI Intensity Mapping with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Battye, R. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Chen, T.; Dickinson, C.; Harper, S.; Maffei, B.; Olivari, L. C.; Wilkinsondagger, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the detectability of large-scale HI intensity fluctuations using the FAST telescope. We present forecasts for the accuracy of measuring the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and constraining the properties of dark energy. The FAST 19-beam L-band receivers (1.05-1.45 GHz) can provide constraints on the matter power spectrum and dark energy equation of state parameters (w0,wa) that are comparable to the BINGO and CHIME experiments. For one year of integration time we find that the optimal survey area is 6000 deg2. However, observing with larger frequency coverage at higher redshift (0.95-1.35 GHz) improves the projected errorbars on the HI power spectrum by more than 2 σ confidence level. The combined constraints from FAST, CHIME, BINGO and Planck CMB observations can provide reliable, stringent constraints on the dark energy equation of state.

  14. Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST) motivates and prepares talented students with disabilities to further their education and achieve High Tech and professional employment. The FAST program is managed by local professionals, business, and industry leaders; it is modeled after High School High Tech project TAKE CHARGE started in Los Angeles in 1983. Through cooperative efforts of Alabama Department of Education, Vocational Rehabilitation, Adult and Children Services, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, north central Alabama was chosen as the second site for a High School High Tech project. In 1986 local business, industry, education, government agencies, and rehabilitation representatives started FAST. The program objectives and goals, results and accomplishments, and survey results are included.

  15. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  16. Fast Setting Cement - Literature Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    materials does produce early set times and high strengths . It is re- ported, also, that the addition of 1.5 percent Ca"l 2 to clinkers contain- Ing more than...produce high strength concrete. They include addition of iron asggregate, physical treatment of clinker , ’ addition of highly reactive SiO2 or Ca0, and...Fast-Fix. The Western Co. has developed materials designated as Fast-Fix with rapid setting and high strength properties. Published data show i .1

  17. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    PubMed

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery.

  18. Application of Fast Dynamic Allan Variance for the Characterization of FOGs-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Lin, Tie; Li, Xianmu

    2016-12-07

    The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series. What is worse, the FOG-based MWD underground often keeps working for several days; the gyro data collected aboveground is not only very time-consuming, but also sometimes discontinuous in the timeline. In this article, on the basis of the fast algorithm for DAVAR, we make a further advance in the fast algorithm (improved fast DAVAR) to extend the fast DAVAR to discontinuous time series. The improved fast DAVAR and the normal DAVAR are used to responsively characterize two sets of simulation data. The simulation results show that when the length of the time series is short, the improved fast DAVAR saves 78.93% of calculation time. When the length of the time series is long ( 6 × 10 5 samples), the improved fast DAVAR reduces calculation time by 97.09%. Another set of simulation data with missing data is characterized by the improved fast DAVAR. Its simulation results prove that the improved fast DAVAR could successfully deal with discontinuous data. In the end, a vibration experiment with FOGs-based MWD has been implemented to validate the good performance of the improved fast DAVAR. The results of the experience testify that the improved fast DAVAR not only shortens computation time, but could also analyze discontinuous time series.

  19. Application of Fast Dynamic Allan Variance for the Characterization of FOGs-Based Measurement While Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Lin, Tie; Li, Xianmu

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series. What is worse, the FOG-based MWD underground often keeps working for several days; the gyro data collected aboveground is not only very time-consuming, but also sometimes discontinuous in the timeline. In this article, on the basis of the fast algorithm for DAVAR, we make a further advance in the fast algorithm (improved fast DAVAR) to extend the fast DAVAR to discontinuous time series. The improved fast DAVAR and the normal DAVAR are used to responsively characterize two sets of simulation data. The simulation results show that when the length of the time series is short, the improved fast DAVAR saves 78.93% of calculation time. When the length of the time series is long (6×105 samples), the improved fast DAVAR reduces calculation time by 97.09%. Another set of simulation data with missing data is characterized by the improved fast DAVAR. Its simulation results prove that the improved fast DAVAR could successfully deal with discontinuous data. In the end, a vibration experiment with FOGs-based MWD has been implemented to validate the good performance of the improved fast DAVAR. The results of the experience testify that the improved fast DAVAR not only shortens computation time, but could also analyze discontinuous time series. PMID:27941600

  20. Fast semivariogram computation using FPGA architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagadapati, Yamuna; Shirvaikar, Mukul; Dong, Xuanliang

    2015-02-01

    The semivariogram is a statistical measure of the spatial distribution of data and is based on Markov Random Fields (MRFs). Semivariogram analysis is a computationally intensive algorithm that has typically seen applications in the geosciences and remote sensing areas. Recently, applications in the area of medical imaging have been investigated, resulting in the need for efficient real time implementation of the algorithm. The semivariogram is a plot of semivariances for different lag distances between pixels. A semi-variance, γ(h), is defined as the half of the expected squared differences of pixel values between any two data locations with a lag distance of h. Due to the need to examine each pair of pixels in the image or sub-image being processed, the base algorithm complexity for an image window with n pixels is O(n2). Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are an attractive solution for such demanding applications due to their parallel processing capability. FPGAs also tend to operate at relatively modest clock rates measured in a few hundreds of megahertz, but they can perform tens of thousands of calculations per clock cycle while operating in the low range of power. This paper presents a technique for the fast computation of the semivariogram using two custom FPGA architectures. The design consists of several modules dedicated to the constituent computational tasks. A modular architecture approach is chosen to allow for replication of processing units. This allows for high throughput due to concurrent processing of pixel pairs. The current implementation is focused on isotropic semivariogram computations only. Anisotropic semivariogram implementation is anticipated to be an extension of the current architecture, ostensibly based on refinements to the current modules. The algorithm is benchmarked using VHDL on a Xilinx XUPV5-LX110T development Kit, which utilizes the Virtex5 FPGA. Medical image data from MRI scans are utilized for the experiments

  1. Fast, Massively Parallel Data Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Robert A.; Blevins, Donald W.; Davis, ED

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fast, massively parallel data processor contains 8x16 array of processing elements with efficient interconnection scheme and options for flexible local control. Processing elements communicate with each other on "X" interconnection grid with external memory via high-capacity input/output bus. This approach to conditional operation nearly doubles speed of various arithmetic operations.

  2. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced field reflectors,'' is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  3. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-12-31

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced ``field reflectors,`` is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  4. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Kenneth L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reactions and characteristics of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectroscopy in which samples are ionized in a condensed state by bombardment with xenon or argon atoms, yielding positive/negative secondary ions. Includes applications of FAB to structural problems and considers future developments using the technique. (Author/JN)

  5. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  6. Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Paik, T

    2006-07-26

    computed efficiently for continuous multichannel seismic data. The speed of the calculation is significant as it may become desirable to deploy subspace detectors numbering in the thousands. One application contemplated for these detectors is as screens against signals from repeating sources such as mines or aftershocks of large earthquakes. With many tens of stations and potentially hundreds of sources to screen, efficient implementations are desirable. Speed, of course, can be achieved by procuring faster computers or special-purpose hardware. The approach we examine here is the development of two efficient algorithms that can make the calculations run faster on any machine. In the first section, we describe the subspace detector as we use it for the detection of repeating seismic events, defining terms and the parameterization used in succeeding sections. This section also reviews how the correlation computations central to the matched filter and subspace detectors can be implemented as a collection of convolution operations. Convolution algorithms using fast Fourier transforms, such as the overlap-add and overlap-save methods, have long been known as efficient implementations of discrete-time finite-impulse-response filters [e.g. Oppenheim and Schafer, 1975]. These may be extended in a straightforward manner to implement multichannel correlation detectors. In the second section, we describe how multichannel data can be multiplexed to compute the required convolutions with a single pair of FFT operations instead of a pair for each channel. This approach increases speed approximately twofold. Seismic data, almost invariably, are oversampled. This characteristic provides an opportunity for increased efficiency by decimating the data prior to performing the correlation calculations. In the third section, we describe a bandpass transformation of the data that allows a more aggressive decimation of the data without significant loss of fidelity in the correlation calculation

  7. Implementing Student Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Laurie; Porter, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Implementing an enterprise resource planning system is a complex undertaking. Careful planning, management, communication, and staffing can make the difference between a successful and unsuccessful implementation. (Contains 3 tables.)

  8. Fast Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithms for High-Dimensional Massive Data and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Mapreduce : Simplified data processing on large clusters . In Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation, 2004. 6.3.2 S. C. Deerwester, S. T...Fast Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithms for High-dimensional Massive Data and Applications Ting Liu CMU-CS-06-124 March 2006 School of...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fast Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithms for High-dimensional Massive Data and Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. Implementation of polyatomic MCTDHF capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, Daniel; Jones, Jeremiah; Rescigno, Thomas; McCurdy, C. William; Ibrahim, Khaled; Williams, Sam; Vecharynski, Eugene; Rouet, Francois-Henry; Li, Xiaoye; Yang, Chao

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of the Multiconfiguration Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock method for poly- atomic molecules using a cartesian product grid of sinc basis functions will be discussed. The focus will be on two key components of the method: first, the use of a resolution-of-the-identity approximation; sec- ond, the use of established techniques for triple Toeplitz matrix algebra using fast Fourier transform over distributed memory architectures (MPI 3D FFT). The scaling of two-electron matrix element transformations is converted from O(N4) to O(N log N) by including these components. Here N = n3, with n the number of points on a side. We test the prelim- inary implementation by calculating absorption spectra of small hydro- carbons, using approximately 16-512 points on a side. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under the Early Career program, and by the offices of BES and Advanced Scientific Computing Research, under the SciDAC program.

  10. [CUDA-based fast dose calculation in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianliang; Liu, Cao; Hou, Qing

    2011-10-01

    Dose calculation plays a key role in treatment planning of radiotherapy. Algorithms for dose calculation require high accuracy and computational efficiency. Finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm is a method commonly adopted in the treatment planning system for radiotherapy. However, improvement on its computational efficiency is still desirable for such purpose as real time treatment planning. In this paper, we present an implementation of the FSPB, by which the most time-consuming parts in the algorithm are parallelized and ported on graphic processing unit (GPU). Compared with the FSPB completely running on central processing unit (CPU), the GPU-implemented FSPB can speed up the dose calculation for 25-35 times on a low price GPU (Geforce GT320) and for 55-100 times on a Tesla C1060, indicating that the GPU-implemented FSPB can provide fast enough dose calculations for real-time treatment planning.

  11. Implementing electronic documentation.

    PubMed

    Noah, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Implementing health information technology is a major strategic objective. Health care organizations must meet "meaningful use" through the implementation of a certified electronic medical record. It is the imperative to secure leadership support in the project. Communication, accountability, and clinical champions are vital elements for successful implementation.

  12. Techniques for Fast Stereoscopic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Stereoscopic MRI can impart 3D perception with only two image acquisitions. This economy over standard multiplanar 3D volume renderings allows faster frame rates, which are needed for real-time imaging applications. Real-time 3D perception may enhance the appreciation of complex anatomical structures, and may improve hand-eye coordination while manipulating a medical device during an image-guided interventional procedure. To this goal, a system is being developed to acquire and display stereoscopic MR images in real-time. A clinically used, fast gradient-recalled echo-train sequence has been modified to produce stereo image pairs. Features have been added for depth cueing, view sharing, and bulk signal suppression. A workstation was attached to a clinical MR scanner for fast data extraction, image reconstruction and stereoscopic image display. PMID:11477636

  13. Fast Moreau envelope computation I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucet, Yves

    2006-11-01

    The present article summarizes the state of the art algorithms to compute the discrete Moreau envelope, and presents a new linear-time algorithm, named NEP for NonExpansive Proximal mapping. Numerical comparisons between the NEP and two existing algorithms: The Linear-time Legendre Transform (LLT) and the Parabolic Envelope (PE) algorithms are performed. Worst-case time complexity, convergence results, and examples are included. The fast Moreau envelope algorithms first factor the Moreau envelope as several one-dimensional transforms and then reduce the brute force quadratic worst-case time complexity to linear time by using either the equivalence with Fast Legendre Transform algorithms, the computation of a lower envelope of parabolas, or, in the convex case, the non expansiveness of the proximal mapping.

  14. Causes of Extremely Fast CMEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We study CMEs observed by LASCO to have plane of the sky velocities exceeding 1500 km/sec. We find that these extremely fast CMEs are typically associated with flares accompanied by erupting prominences. Our results are consistent with a single CME initiation process that consists of three stages. The initial stage is brought about by the emergence of new magnetic flux, which interacts with the pre-existing magnetic configuration and results in a slow rise of the magnetic structure. The second stage is a fast reconnection phase with flaring, filament eruption and a sudden increase of the rise velocity of the magnetic structure (CME). The third stage consists of propagation in the corona. We discuss the sources of these CMEs and the need for improved understanding of the first and third stages.

  15. Why are idioms recognized fast?

    PubMed

    Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

    2009-06-01

    It is an established fact that idiomatic expressions are fast to process. However, the explanation of the phenomenon is controversial. Using a semantic judgment paradigm, where people decide whether a string is meaningful or not, the present experiment tested the predictions deriving from the three main theories of idiom recognition-the lexical representation hypothesis, the idiom decomposition hypothesis, and the configuration hypothesis. Participants were faster at judging decomposable idioms, nondecomposable idioms, and clichés than at judging their matched controls. The effect was comparable for all conventional expressions. The results were interpreted as suggesting that, as posited by the configuration hypothesis, the fact that they are known expressions, rather than idiomaticity, explains their fast recognition.

  16. A fast meteor detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural, P.

    2016-01-01

    A low latency meteor detection algorithm for use with fast steering mirrors had been previously developed to track and telescopically follow meteors in real-time (Gural, 2007). It has been rewritten as a generic clustering and tracking software module for meteor detection that meets both the demanding throughput requirements of a Raspberry Pi while also maintaining a high probability of detection. The software interface is generalized to work with various forms of front-end video pre-processing approaches and provides a rich product set of parameterized line detection metrics. Discussion will include the Maximum Temporal Pixel (MTP) compression technique as a fast thresholding option for feeding the detection module, the detection algorithm trade for maximum processing throughput, details on the clustering and tracking methodology, processing products, performance metrics, and a general interface description.

  17. Application of Fast Multipole Methods to the NASA Fast Scattering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mark H.; Tinetti, Ana F.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a versatile noise prediction program designed to conduct aeroacoustic noise reduction studies. The equivalent source method is used to solve an exterior Helmholtz boundary value problem with an impedance type boundary condition. The solution process in FSC v2.0 requires direct manipulation of a large, dense system of linear equations, limiting the applicability of the code to small scales and/or moderate excitation frequencies. Recent advances in the use of Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) for solving scattering problems, coupled with sparse linear algebra techniques, suggest that a substantial reduction in computer resource utilization over conventional solution approaches can be obtained. Implementation of the single level FMM (SLFMM) and a variant of the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) into the FSC is discussed in this paper. The culmination of this effort, FSC v3.0, was used to generate solutions for three configurations of interest. Benchmarking against previously obtained simulations indicate that a twenty-fold reduction in computational memory and up to a four-fold reduction in computer time have been achieved on a single processor.

  18. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  19. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  20. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  1. Fast Anomaly Discovery Given Duplicates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    skipping the computations for duplicate points in SN(ui) that have ci larger than k, the runtime complexity is enhanced significantly. That is, in...Fast anomaly discovery given duplicates Jay-Yoon Lee, U Kang, Danai Koutra, Christos Faloutsos Dec 2012 CMU-CS-12-146 School of Computer Science...ES) Carnegie Mellon University,School of Computer Science,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  2. Fast track to 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals that are newly qualified for the 340B Drug Pricing Program may have an opportunity for fast-track approval to participate in the program. Three steps are required to seize this opportunity: Use data analytics to assess current and future percentages of Medicaid utilization and eligibility for federal SSI cash benefits. Determine the feasibility of early cost report filing. Prepare appropriate documentation and undertake the initial enrollment process.

  3. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  4. Sputtering of fast meteoroids' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, O. P.; Strelkov, A. S.; Sidneva, S. N.

    Entering meteoroids are subjected by direct impacts of molecules of the individual constituents of the air, when the body approaching the Earth at heights of about 300-100 km. At meteor velocities about 72 km/s the energy of air molecules is about 800 eV and oxygen atoms have energy about 400 eV. Particles with such energies don't penetrate into deep layers of entering body and are concentrated in narrow surface layer of about hundreds angstroms. Action of air particles on meteoroid leads to both heating of meteoroid and sputtering of meteoroid surface. Sputtering effect was supposed as explanation of this high altitude ionization and luminosity (Brosch et al, 2001), which aren't explained by classical ablation theory. Sputtering results in appearance of fast particles, which also may be exited and/or ionized. Flux of these particles causes formation of ionized meteor trails recording by radars. For bigger bodies fast particles may create luminous area at the altitudes above altitude of intensive evaporation. We demonstrate physical model, which allows us to describe sputtering of meteoroid surface under impacts of incoming air particles. We consider sputtering of meteoroid with composition close to hondritic one at the altitude 150 km. Fast particles are really sputtered from meteoroid surface. They carry out about 10% of incoming flux energy. There are also reflected particles, but the most part of total particle outcome is formed by particles of meteor substance. Presence of fast particles possibly explains a large size of meteors in diffuse stage at high altitudes (above 130 km). The sputtering is neglectable in the case of meteor velocities below 30 km/s. Sputtered and reflected particles have enough high ionization degree (˜ (1-5) 10-2, that is larger than ionization degree of surrounding atmosphere (˜ 10-5div 10-6)).

  5. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  6. [Fasting and physical endurance capacity].

    PubMed

    Schürch, P M

    1993-03-01

    Fasting, or zero calorie diets are used not only by overweight people as a means of losing weight, but by athletes too. Their use is then explained on philosophical grounds, with the aim of even enhancing sports performance. The purpose of this investigation consisted of quantifying the effects of a 10-day fast on maximum performance capacity and endurance (as measured on a bicycle ergometer) of 12 female students of physical education of normal weight. The measurements included resting and exercise metabolism determinants, as well as weight and lean body mass. The main results show that after the diet period the maximum ergometric performance was lower in absolute terms as well as in relation to weight or lean body mass. Performance capacity for submaximal exercise was also reduced. Fat combustion was enhanced both at rest and during exercise. The reduction of maximum performance and endurance capacity may be explained by an enhanced muscle breakdown, an efficiency drop of muscular work, and an inadequate glycogen content of the acting muscles. Shorter fasting periods of 24-36 hours also lead to a lower performance level for exercise bouts extending from several minutes to 1-3 hours. An enhancement of fat combustion was always conspicuous. One may conclude that optimal physical performance is dependent on full hepatic and muscle glycogen stores. Glycogen concentration in the liver decreases sharply as a matter of fact after merely one day of carbohydrate shortage. Zero calorie or low carbohydrate diets are thus at variance with an optimal physical work capacity.

  7. A repeating fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  8. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  9. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  10. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  11. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  12. A fast operator perturbation method for the solution of the special relativistic equation of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschildt, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A fast method for the solution of the radiative transfer equation in rapidly moving spherical media, based on an approximate Lambda-operator iteration, is described. The method uses the short characteristic method and a tridiagonal approximate Lambda-operator to achieve fast convergence. The convergence properties and the CPU time requirements of the method are discussed for the test problem of a two-level atom with background continuum absorption and Thomson scattering. Details of the actual implementation for fast vector and parallel computers are given. The method is accurate and fast enough to be incorporated in radiation-hydrodynamic calculations.

  13. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  14. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  15. Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Seo, Jung-Hun; Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Zhu, Ye; Celler, George K.; Voyles, Paul M.; Zhou, Weidong; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fast flexible electronics operating at radio frequencies (>1 GHz) are more attractive than traditional flexible electronics because of their versatile capabilities, dramatic power savings when operating at reduced speed and broader spectrum of applications. Transferrable single-crystalline Si nanomembranes (SiNMs) are preferred to other materials for flexible electronics owing to their unique advantages. Further improvement of Si-based device speed implies significant technical and economic advantages. While the mobility of bulk Si can be enhanced using strain techniques, implementing these techniques into transferrable single-crystalline SiNMs has been challenging and not demonstrated. The past approach presents severe challenges to achieve effective doping and desired material topology. Here we demonstrate the combination of strained- NM-compatible doping techniques with self-sustained-strain sharing by applying a strain-sharing scheme between Si and SiGe multiple epitaxial layers, to create strained print-transferrable SiNMs. We demonstrate a new speed record of Si-based flexible electronics without using aggressively scaled critical device dimensions. PMID:23416347

  16. Sequential algorithm for fast clique percolation.

    PubMed

    Kumpula, Jussi M; Kivelä, Mikko; Kaski, Kimmo; Saramäki, Jari

    2008-08-01

    In complex network research clique percolation, introduced by Palla, Derényi, and Vicsek [Nature (London) 435, 814 (2005)], is a deterministic community detection method which allows for overlapping communities and is purely based on local topological properties of a network. Here we present a sequential clique percolation algorithm (SCP) to do fast community detection in weighted and unweighted networks, for cliques of a chosen size. This method is based on sequentially inserting the constituent links to the network and simultaneously keeping track of the emerging community structure. Unlike existing algorithms, the SCP method allows for detecting k -clique communities at multiple weight thresholds in a single run, and can simultaneously produce a dendrogram representation of hierarchical community structure. In sparse weighted networks, the SCP algorithm can also be used for implementing the weighted clique percolation method recently introduced by Farkas [New J. Phys. 9, 180 (2007)]. The computational time of the SCP algorithm scales linearly with the number of k -cliques in the network. As an example, the method is applied to a product association network, revealing its nested community structure.

  17. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    PubMed

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  18. Fast wavelet estimation of weak biosignals.

    PubMed

    Causevic, Elvir; Morley, Robert E; Wickerhauser, M Victor; Jacquin, Arnaud E

    2005-06-01

    Wavelet-based signal processing has become commonplace in the signal processing community over the past decade and wavelet-based software tools and integrated circuits are now commercially available. One of the most important applications of wavelets is in removal of noise from signals, called denoising, accomplished by thresholding wavelet coefficients in order to separate signal from noise. Substantial work in this area was summarized by Donoho and colleagues at Stanford University, who developed a variety of algorithms for conventional denoising. However, conventional denoising fails for signals with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Electrical signals acquired from the human body, called biosignals, commonly have below 0 dB SNR. Synchronous linear averaging of a large number of acquired data frames is universally used to increase the SNR of weak biosignals. A novel wavelet-based estimator is presented for fast estimation of such signals. The new estimation algorithm provides a faster rate of convergence to the underlying signal than linear averaging. The algorithm is implemented for processing of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and of auditory middle latency response (AMLR) signals. Experimental results with both simulated data and human subjects demonstrate that the novel wavelet estimator achieves superior performance to that of linear averaging.

  19. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

  20. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, Howard; Curtis, Anthony; Welch, Aaron; Fridley, Andrew

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  1. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, S. K.; Stejner, M.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Jaulmes, F.; Korsholm, S. B.; Lazanyi, N.; Leipold, F.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROFusion MST1 Team

    2016-11-01

    Sawtooth instabilities can modify heating and current-drive profiles and potentially increase fast-ion losses. Understanding how sawteeth redistribute fast ions as a function of sawtooth parameters and of fast-ion energy and pitch is hence a subject of particular interest for future fusion devices. Here we present the first collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements of sawtooth-induced redistribution of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade. These also represent the first localized fast-ion measurements on the high-field side of this device. The results indicate fast-ion losses in the phase-space measurement volume of about 50% across sawtooth crashes, in good agreement with values predicted with the Kadomtsev sawtooth model implemented in TRANSP and with the sawtooth model in the EBdyna_go code. In contrast to the case of sawteeth, we observe no fast-ion redistribution in the presence of fishbone modes. We highlight how CTS measurements can discriminate between different sawtooth models, in particular when aided by multi-diagnostic velocity-space tomography, and briefly discuss our results in light of existing measurements from other fast-ion diagnostics.

  2. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  3. Fast Tree: Computing Large Minimum-Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    N. Price, Morgan; S. Dehal, Paramvir; P. Arkin, Adam

    2009-07-31

    Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree. For an alignment with N sequences, L sites, and a different characters, a distance matrix requires O(N^2) space and O(N^2 L) time, but FastTree requires just O( NLa + N sqrt(N) ) memory and O( N sqrt(N) log(N) L a ) time. To estimate the tree's reliability, FastTree uses local bootstrapping, which gives another 100-fold speedup over a distance matrix. For example, FastTree computed a tree and support values for 158,022 distinct 16S ribosomal RNAs in 17 hours and 2.4 gigabytes of memory. Just computing pairwise Jukes-Cantor distances and storing them, without inferring a tree or bootstrapping, would require 17 hours and 50 gigabytes of memory. In simulations, FastTree was slightly more accurate than neighbor joining, BIONJ, or FastME; on genuine alignments, FastTree's topologies had higher likelihoods. FastTree is available at http://microbesonline.org/fasttree.

  4. Mechanisms for fast flare reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhoven, G.; Deeds, D.; Tachi, T.

    1988-01-01

    Normal collisional-resistivity mechanisms of magnetic reconnection have the drawback that they are too slow to explain the fast rise of solar flares. Two methods are examined which are proposed for the speed-up of the magnetic tearing instability: the anomalous enhancement of resistivity by the injection of MHD turbulence and the increase of Coulomb resistivity by radiative cooling. The results are described for nonlinear numerical simulations of these processes which show that the first does not provide the claimed effects, while the second yields impressive rates of reconnection, but low saturated energy outputs.

  5. Fast-acting valve actuator

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Nakwon

    1980-01-01

    A fast-acting valve actuator utilizes a spring driven pneumatically loaded piston to drive a valve gate. Rapid exhaust of pressurized gas from the pneumatically loaded side of the piston facilitates an extremely rapid piston stroke. A flexible selector diaphragm opens and closes an exhaust port in response to pressure differentials created by energizing and de-energizing a solenoid which controls the pneumatic input to the actuator as well as selectively providing a venting action to one side of the selector diaphragm.

  6. Fast pulse nonthermal plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2005-06-14

    A fast pulsed nonthermal plasma reactor includes a discharge cell and a charging assembly electrically connected thereto. The charging assembly provides plural high voltage pulses to the discharge cell. Each pulse has a rise time between one and ten nanoseconds and a duration of three to twenty nanoseconds. The pulses create nonthermal plasma discharge within the discharge cell. Accordingly, the nonthermal plasma discharge can be used to remove pollutants from gases or break the gases into smaller molecules so that they can be more efficiently combusted.

  7. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  8. Isochoric implosions for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2006-06-05

    Fast Ignition (FI) exploits the ignition of a dense, uniform fuel assembly by an external energy source to achieve high gain. In conventional ICF implosions, however, the fuel assembles as a dense shell surrounding a low density, high-pressure hotspot. Such configurations are far from optimal for FI. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942).] may be employed to implode a dense, quasi-uniform fuel assembly with minimal energy wastage in forming a hotspot. A scheme for realizing these specialized implosions in a practical ICF target is also described.

  9. Searches for Fast Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J. M.; McLaughlin, M. A.

    2003-10-01

    We discuss optimal detection of fast radio transients from astrophysical objects while taking into account the effects of propagation through intervening ionized media, including dispersion, scattering, and scintillation. Our analysis applies to the giant-pulse phenomenon exhibited by some pulsars, for which we show examples, and to radio pulses from other astrophysical sources, such as prompt radio emission from gamma-ray burst sources and modulated signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. We estimate scintillation parameters for extragalactic sources that take into account scattering both in the host galaxy and in foreground Galactic plasma.

  10. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A.

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R&D topics are discussed.

  11. Two-Photon Laser Scanning Stereomicroscopy for Fast Volumetric Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanlong; Yao, Baoli; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Li, Runze; Horn, Mark Van; Chen, Xun; Li, Yang; Ye, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Bessel beams have been successfully used in two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy to extend the depth of field (EDF), which makes it possible to observe fast events volumetrically. However, the depth information is lost due to integration of fluorescence signals along the propagation direction. We describe the design and implementation of two-photon lasers scanning stereomicroscopy, which allows viewing dynamic processes in three-dimensional (3D) space stereoscopically in real-time with shutter glasses at the speed of 1.4 volumes per second. The depth information can be appreciated by human visual system or be recovered with correspondence algorithms for some cases. PMID:27997624

  12. Real Time Fast Ultrasound Imaging Technology and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruza, J. F.; Perez, M.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

    In this work, a novel hardware architecture for fast ultrasound imaging based on FPGA devices is proposed. A key difference over other approaches is the unlimited scalability in terms of active channels without performance losses. Acquisition and processing tasks share the same hardware, eliminating communication bottlenecks with smaller size and power losses. These features make this system suitable to implement the most demanding imaging applications, like 3D Phased Array, Total Focusing Method, Vector Doppler, Image Compounding, High Speed Part Scanning and advanced elastographic techniques. A single medium sized FPGA allows beamforming up to 200 scan lines simultaneously, which is enough to perform most of the above mentioned applications in strict real time.

  13. A Study on the RFID Tag Encryption using Fast SEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hoon; Kim, Jiyeon; Jung, Jongjin; Joe, Susan; Lee, Yongjun; Chang, Yoonseok

    2007-12-01

    We have to solve the problem of SEED to apply the SEED algorithm in RFID Tag. Because it must keep both a fast performance and low electronic, also it has the limitation of the physical character to it. Although the SEED is more safety than other encryption algorithms, it has a physical trouble when they try to apply it in Tag. Therefore, In this paper we proposed the way to reduce into the 8 rounds, and we implemented the 8 rounded SEED algorithm to RFID tag encryption.

  14. Laser rastering flow cytometry: fast cell counting and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, G.; Junnarkar, M. R.; Goldblatt, N. R.; Yee, M. W.; Van Slyke, B. M.; Briese, T. C.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the concept of laser rastering flow cytometry, where a rapidly scanning laser beam allows counting and classification of cells at much higher rates than currently possible. Modifications to existing flow cytometers to implement the concept include an acousto-optic deflector, fast analog-to-digital conversion, and a two-step digital-signal-processing scheme that handles the high data rates and provides key assay information. Results are shown that prove the concept, demonstrating the ability to resolve closely spaced cells and to measure cells at rates more than an order of magnitude faster than on conventional flow-cytometer-based hematology analyzers.

  15. Fast Model Generalized Pseudopotential Theory Interatomic Potential Routine

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-18

    MGPT is an unclassified source code for the fast evaluation and application of quantum-based MGPT interatomic potentials for mrtals. The present version of MGPT has been developed entirely at LLNL, but is specifically designed for implementation in the open-source molecular0dynamics code LAMMPS maintained by Sandia National Laboratories. Using MGPT in LAMMPS, with separate input potential data, one can perform large-scale atomistic simulations of the structural, thermodynamic, defeat and mechanical properties of transition metals with quantum-mechanical realism.

  16. Giving a nutritional fast hug in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Monares Zepeda, Enrique; Galindo Martín, Carlos Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Implementing a nutrition support protocol in critical care is a complex and dynamic process that involves the use of evidence, education programs and constant monitoring. To facilitate this task we developed a mnemonic tool called the Nutritional FAST HUG (F: feeding, A: analgesia, S: stools, T: trace elements, H: head of bed, U: ulcers, G: glucose control) with a process also internally developed (both modified from the mnemonic proposed by Jean Louis Vincent) called MIAR (M: measure, I: interpret, A: act, R: reanalysis) showing an easy form to perform medical rounds at the intensive care unit using a systematic process.

  17. A method for fast feature extraction in threshold scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Marius C.; Ritman, James

    2014-01-01

    We present a fast, analytical method to calculate the threshold and noise parameters from a threshold scan. This is usually done by fitting a response function to the data which is computationally very intensive. The runtime can be minimized by a hardware implementation, e.g. using an FPGA, which in turn requires to minimize the mathematical complexity of the algorithm in order to fit into the available resources on the FPGA. The systematic errors of the method are analyzed and reasonable choices of the parameters for use in practice are given.

  18. Fast computational scheme of image compression for 32-bit microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasperovich, Leonid

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational scheme of image compression based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), underlying JPEG and MPEG International Standards. The algorithm for the 2-d DCT computation uses integer operations (register shifts and additions / subtractions only); its computational complexity is about 8 additions per image pixel. As a meaningful example of an on-board image compression application we consider the software implementation of the algorithm for the Mars Rover (Marsokhod, in Russian) imaging system being developed as a part of Mars-96 International Space Project. It's shown that fast software solution for 32-bit microprocessors may compete with the DCT-based image compression hardware.

  19. GRIFFIN's Fast-Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaizola, Bruno; Griffin Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is the new β-decay spectrometer facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Consists of an array of 16 large-volume HPGe clover detectors with an unparalleled efficiency of 19% at 1.33 MeV. Its strongest advantage is the versatility of the ancillary detectors that can be coupled to the main array to tag on β particles, neutrons or precisely measure conversion electron spectra. An ancillary array of 8 LaBr3(Ce) detectors for γ-rays and a fast plastic scintillator for β-particles has been optimized for fast-timing experiments with GRIFFIN. The 51 mm x 51 mm cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) crystals are coupled to Hamamatsu R2083 photomultipliers. Timing resolutions as good as FWHM 200 ps and time-walks below +/- 30 ps have been obtained for individual crystals using analog electronics. There is also an ongoing project to develop an active BGO shield for the LaBr3(Ce) crystals. The LaBr3(Ce) array commissioning experiment to measure the 145,146Cs decay to 145,146Ba will test its capabilities over a wide range of lifetimes. Preliminary results on the lifetimes of some of the low-laying states will be presented.

  20. RCD+: Fast loop modeling server

    PubMed Central

    López-Blanco, José Ramón; Canosa-Valls, Alejandro Jesús; Li, Yaohang; Chacón, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Modeling loops is a critical and challenging step in protein modeling and prediction. We have developed a quick online service (http://rcd.chaconlab.org) for ab initio loop modeling combining a coarse-grained conformational search with a full-atom refinement. Our original Random Coordinate Descent (RCD) loop closure algorithm has been greatly improved to enrich the sampling distribution towards near-native conformations. These improvements include a new workflow optimization, MPI-parallelization and fast backbone angle sampling based on neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions. The server starts by efficiently searching the vast conformational space from only the loop sequence information and the environment atomic coordinates. The generated closed loop models are subsequently ranked using a fast distance-orientation dependent energy filter. Top ranked loops are refined with the Rosetta energy function to obtain accurate all-atom predictions that can be interactively inspected in an user-friendly web interface. Using standard benchmarks, the average root mean squared deviation (RMSD) is 0.8 and 1.4 Å for 8 and 12 residues loops, respectively, in the challenging modeling scenario in where the side chains of the loop environment are fully remodeled. These results are not only very competitive compared to those obtained with public state of the art methods, but also they are obtained ∼10-fold faster. PMID:27151199

  1. Cortical Specializations Underlying Fast Computations.

    PubMed

    Volgushev, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    The time course of behaviorally relevant environmental events sets temporal constraints on neuronal processing. How does the mammalian brain make use of the increasingly complex networks of the neocortex, while making decisions and executing behavioral reactions within a reasonable time? The key parameter determining the speed of computations in neuronal networks is a time interval that neuronal ensembles need to process changes at their input and communicate results of this processing to downstream neurons. Theoretical analysis identified basic requirements for fast processing: use of neuronal populations for encoding, background activity, and fast onset dynamics of action potentials in neurons. Experimental evidence shows that populations of neocortical neurons fulfil these requirements. Indeed, they can change firing rate in response to input perturbations very quickly, within 1 to 3 ms, and encode high-frequency components of the input by phase-locking their spiking to frequencies up to 300 to 1000 Hz. This implies that time unit of computations by cortical ensembles is only few, 1 to 3 ms, which is considerably faster than the membrane time constant of individual neurons. The ability of cortical neuronal ensembles to communicate on a millisecond time scale allows for complex, multiple-step processing and precise coordination of neuronal activity in parallel processing streams, while keeping the speed of behavioral reactions within environmentally set temporal constraints.

  2. Fast generic polar harmonic transforms.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai V; Tabbone, Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Generic polar harmonic transforms have recently been proposed to extract rotation-invariant features from images and their usefulness has been demonstrated in a number of pattern recognition problems. However, direct computation of these transforms from their definition is inefficient and is usually slower than some efficient computation strategies that have been proposed for other methods. This paper presents a number of novel computation strategies to compute these transforms rapidly. The proposed methods are based on the inherent recurrence relations among complex exponential and trigonometric functions used in the definition of the radial and angular kernels of these transforms. The employment of these relations leads to recursive and addition chain-based strategies for fast computation of harmonic function-based kernels. Experimental results show that the proposed method is about 10× faster than direct computation and 5× faster than fast computation of Zernike moments using the q-recursive strategy. Thus, among all existing rotation-invariant feature extraction methods, polar harmonic transforms are the fastest.

  3. Manybeam velocimeter for fast surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Goosman, D.; Avara, G.; Steinmetz, L.; Lai, C.; Perry, S.

    1996-09-01

    For the past 5 years, we have conceived, built and successfully used a new 10 beam laser velocimeter for monitoring velocity vs time histories of fast moving surfaces, and will have a 20 beam capability soon. We conceived a method to multiplex 5 to 10 beams through a single Fabry-Perot interferometer, without losing any light that our equivalently-performing single beam system could use, and with negligible cross- talk. This saves the cost of 16 interferometers, simplifies operation and takes less space than without multiplexing. We devised special efficient light collecting probes, streak cameras that change sweep speed during the course of the record, and a new double cavity interferometer which is better, cheaper and more flexible than our previous versions. With the 10 recorders, we conceived and employ a method of using both a fast and a slow streak camera on each of 5 beams without reducing the light that is available to either camera separately. Five new galvanometrically-driven triggerable CCD streak cameras will be installed soon.

  4. IPAS Implementation Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, D. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    While the use of analytics to promote student success is gaining in popularity, basic questions about what IPAS is and the issues institutions face during implementation and integration. The "IPAS Implementation Handbook" catalogs the experiences, observations, and practical advice from 19 institutions engaged in IPAS implementation…

  5. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Holland

    1999-12-01

    This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

  6. The implementation of POSTGRES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonebraker, Michael; Rowe, Lawrence A.; Hirohama, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation decisions made for the three-dimensional data manager POSTGRES are discussed. Attention is restricted to the DBMS backend functions. The POSTGRES data model and query language, the rules system, the storage system, the POSTGRES implementation, and the current status and performance are discussed.

  7. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Ormsby, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing (DSP) functions. Such capability also makes and FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM- based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance in a compact form-factor. Other researchers have presented the notion that a second order digital filter with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control functionality can be implemented in an FPGA. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSF) devices. Our goal is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. Meeting our goals requires alternative compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment encountered on spacecraft. Radiation tolerant FPGA's are a feasible option for reaching these goals.

  8. On the abstracted dataflow complexity of Fast Fourier Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, A.P.W.; Hiromoto, R.E.; Kelly, K.A.; Ashley, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we develop and analyze the simulated performance of codes for the Fast Fourier Transform written in If and targeted for execution on Motorola`s dataflow machine Monsoon. The FFT application is of interest because of its computational parallelism, its requirement for global communications, and its array element data dependences. We use the parallel profiling simulator Id World to study the dataflow performance of various implementations. Our approach is comparative. We study two approaches, a recursive and an iterative one, and in each version we examine the effect of a variety of implementations. We contend that only through such comparative evaluations can significant insight be gained in understanding the computational and structural details of functional algorithms.

  9. Fast complex memory polynomial-based adaptive digital predistorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Sappal, Amandeep; Singh Patterh, Manjeet; Sharma, Sanjay

    2011-07-01

    Today's 3G wireless systems require both high linearity and high power amplifier (PA) efficiency. The high peak-to-average ratios of the digital modulation schemes used in 3G wireless systems require that the RF PA maintain high linearity over a large range while maintaining this high efficiency; these two requirements are often at odds with each other with many of the traditional amplifier architectures. In this article, a fast and easy-to-implement adaptive digital predistorter has been presented for Wideband Code Division Multiplexed signals using complex memory polynomial work function. The proposed algorithm has been implemented to test a Motorola LDMOSFET PA. The proposed technique also takes care of the memory effects of the PA, which have been ignored in many proposed techniques in the literature. The results show that the new complex memory polynomial-based adaptive digital predistorter has better linearisation performance than conventional predistortion techniques.

  10. Reduced Fast Ion Transport Model For The Tokamak Transport Code TRANSP

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta,, Mario; Gorelenkova, Marina; White, Roscoe

    2014-02-28

    Fast ion transport models presently implemented in the tokamak transport code TRANSP [R. J. Hawryluk, in Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions, CEC Brussels, 1 , 19 (1980)] are not capturing important aspects of the physics associated with resonant transport caused by instabilities such as Toroidal Alfv en Eigenmodes (TAEs). This work describes the implementation of a fast ion transport model consistent with the basic mechanisms of resonant mode-particle interaction. The model is formulated in terms of a probability distribution function for the particle's steps in phase space, which is consistent with the MonteCarlo approach used in TRANSP. The proposed model is based on the analysis of fast ion response to TAE modes through the ORBIT code [R. B. White et al., Phys. Fluids 27 , 2455 (1984)], but it can be generalized to higher frequency modes (e.g. Compressional and Global Alfv en Eigenmodes) and to other numerical codes or theories.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF OPEN-PATH FTIR FOR FAST DEPLOYMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL THREATS AND ACCIDENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed a series of experiments to determine the tradeoff in detection sensitivity for implementing design features for an Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) chemical analyzer that would be quick to deploy under emergency response conditions. The fast-deplo...

  12. Development of out-of-core fast Fourier transform software for the connection machine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, R.; Wilson, J.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the algorithm and implementation of an out-of-core Fast Fourier Transform routine for the Thinking Machines Corp. CM-5 parallel computer. The software has the capability of transforming multi-dimensional arrays that are both real and complex.

  13. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  14. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  15. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  16. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL3 + L4), while existing algorithms take O(nL4). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier–Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA. PMID:27570801

  17. Integral fast reactor safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents.

  18. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL(3) + L(4)), while existing algorithms take O(nL(4)). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier-Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA.

  19. Storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via active Raman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Datang; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via a mechanism of active Raman gain (ARG). The system under consideration is a four-level atomic gas interacting with three (pump, signal, and control) laser fields. We show that a stable propagation of signal light pulses with superluminal velocity (i.e., fast-light pulses) is possible in such a system through the ARG contributed by the pump field and the quantum interference effect induced by the control field. We further show that a robust storage and retrieval of light pulses in such a fast-light medium can be implemented by switching on and off the pump and the control fields simultaneously. The results reported here may have potential applications for light information processing and transmission using fast-light media.

  20. The progress in the neutron diagnostics in the Fast Ignition experiment with GEKKO XII and LFEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Kojima, Sadaoki; Sakata, Shohei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Nakai, Mitsuo; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    In the fast ignitor experiment the neutron diagnostics is very challenging due to too large backgrounds originated from hard X ray. In the Fast Ignition integrated experimental campaign held in 2010 in GEKKO XII and LFEX facility in Institute of Laser Engineering Osaka (ILE), the Xylen based new liquid scintillator coupled with the gated photomultiplier tube has successfully recorded neutron signal with heating the energy of up to 400 J. However there was significant large background in the signal originated from neutrons via (γ,n) reaction from the target chamber wall. The neutron collimator was developed and implemented to suppress these neutron backgrounds. We succeeded to record a very clear neutron signals in every shot in the fast ignitor experimental campaign held in July 2012 with the heating laser energy of around 1000 J with the pulse width of 2.2 ps. The details of the detector and the result of the fast ignition experiment will be presented.

  1. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    PubMed

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  2. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  3. HDF5-FastQuery: Accelerating Complex Queries on HDF Datasets usingFast Bitmap Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Shalf, John; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel,Wes

    2006-03-30

    Large scale scientific data is often stored in scientific data formats such as FITS, netCDF and HDF. These storage formats are of particular interest to the scientific user community since they provide multi-dimensional storage and retrieval. However, one of the drawbacks of these storage formats is that they do not support semantic indexing which is important for interactive data analysis where scientists look for features of interests such as ''Find all supernova explosions where energy > 10{sup 5} and temperature > 10{sup 6}''. In this paper we present a novel approach called HDF5-FastQuery to accelerate the data access of large HDF5 files by introducing multi-dimensional semantic indexing. Our implementation leverages an efficient indexing technology called bitmap indexing that has been widely used in the database community. Bitmap indices are especially well suited for interactive exploration of large-scale read only data. Storing the bitmap indices into the HDF5 file has the following advantages: (a) Significant performance speedup of accessing subsets of multi-dimensional data and (b) portability of the indices across multiple computer platforms. We will present an API that simplifies the execution of queries on HDF5 files for general scientific applications and data analysis. The design is flexible enough to accommodate the use of arbitrary indexing technology for semantic range queries. We will also provide a detailed performance analysis of HDF5-FastQuery for both synthetic and scientific data. The results demonstrate that our proposed approach for multi-dimensional queries is up to a factor of 2 faster than HDF5.

  4. Research on Fast-Doppler-Broadening of neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Wang, K.; Yu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A Fast-Doppler-Broadening method is developed in this work to broaden Continuous Energy neutron cross-sections for Monte Carlo calculations. Gauss integration algorithm and parallel computing are implemented in this method, which is unprecedented in the history of cross section processing. Compared to the traditional code (NJOY, SIGMA1, etc.), the new Fast-Doppler-Broadening method shows a remarkable speedup with keeping accuracy. The purpose of using Gauss integration is to avoid complex derivation of traditional broadening formula and heavy load of computing complementary error function that slows down the Doppler broadening process. The OpenMP environment is utilized in parallel computing which can take full advantage of modern multi-processor computers. Combination of the two can reduce processing time of main actinides (such as {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U) to an order of magnitude of 1{approx}2 seconds. This new method is fast enough to be applied to Online Doppler broadening. It can be combined or coupled with Monte Carlo transport code to solve temperature dependent problems and neutronics-thermal hydraulics coupled scheme which is a big challenge for the conventional NJOY-MCNP system. Examples are shown to determine the efficiency and relative errors compared with the NJOY results. A Godiva Benchmark is also used in order to test the ACE libraries produced by the new method. (authors)

  5. Fast Covariance Estimation for High-dimensional Functional Data.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Luo; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Ruppert, David; Crainiceanu, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    We propose two fast covariance smoothing methods and associated software that scale up linearly with the number of observations per function. Most available methods and software cannot smooth covariance matrices of dimension J > 500; a recently introduced sandwich smoother is an exception but is not adapted to smooth covariance matrices of large dimensions, such as J = 10, 000. We introduce two new methods that circumvent those problems: 1) a fast implementation of the sandwich smoother for covariance smoothing; and 2) a two-step procedure that first obtains the singular value decomposition of the data matrix and then smoothes the eigenvectors. These new approaches are at least an order of magnitude faster in high dimensions and drastically reduce computer memory requirements. The new approaches provide instantaneous (a few seconds) smoothing for matrices of dimension J = 10,000 and very fast (< 10 minutes) smoothing for J = 100, 000. R functions, simulations, and data analysis provide ready to use, reproducible, and scalable tools for practical data analysis of noisy high-dimensional functional data.

  6. Symmetric Fast Marching Schemes for Better Numerical Isotropy.

    PubMed

    Appia, Vikram; Yezzi, Anthony

    2013-03-06

    Existing Fast Marching methods solve the Eikonal equation using a continuous (first order) model to estimate the accumulated cost, but a discontinuous (zero order) model for the traveling cost at each grid point. As a result the estimate of the accumulated cost (calculated numerically) at a given point will vary based on the direction of the arriving front, introducing an anisotropy into the discrete algorithm even though the continuous PDE is itself isotropic. To remove this anisotropy, we propose two very different schemes. In the first model we utilize a continuous interpolation of the traveling cost, which is not biased by the direction of the propagating front. In the second model we upsample the traveling cost on a higher resolution grid to overcome the directional bias. We show the significance of removing the directional bias in the computation of the cost in some applications of fast marching method, demonstrating that both methods make the discrete implementation more isotropic in accordance with the underlying continuous PDE. We also compare the accuracy and computation time of our proposed methods with the existing state of the art fast marching techniques to demonstrate the superiority of our method.

  7. Fast readout of GEM detectors for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucciantonio, M.; Amaldi, U.; Kieffer, R.; Malakhov, N.; Sauli, F.; Watts, D.

    2013-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a fast data acquisition (DAQ) system for Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) trackers applied to imaging and dosimetry in hadrontherapy. Within the AQUA project of the TERA foundation a prototype of Proton Range Radiography of 30×30 cm2 active area has been designed and built to provide in-beam integrated density images of the patient before treatment. It makes use of a pair of GEMs to record position and direction of protons emerging from the target. A fast data acquisition rate close to 1 MHz will allow obtaining a good resolution in-beam proton radiography in a few seconds. A dedicated fast front-end circuit for GEM detectors (GEMROC by AGH-Crakow University) is read by the FPGA based DAQ card (GR_DAQ), developed by the AQUA group. The same system is under evaluation (within the ENVISION European project) to realize the in-vivo dosimetry, based on detecting secondary light particles during the treatment of the patient.

  8. CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2006-12-01

    Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds Ntot˜59, there is a 10% 20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2% 4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l2. The suppression is much smaller for Ntot>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound Ntot˜59.

  9. Active vision system integrating fast and slow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrillon-Santana, Modesto; Guerra-Artal, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, J.; Dominguez-Brito, A.; Isern-Gonzalez, J.; Cabrera-Gamez, Jorge; Hernandez-Tejera, F. M.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes an Active Vision System whose design assumes a distinction between fast or reactive and slow or background processes. Fast processes need to operate in cycles with critical timeouts that may affect system stability. While slow processes, though necessary, do not compromise system stability if its execution is delayed. Based on this simple taxonomy, a control architecture has been proposed and a prototype implemented that is able to track people in real-time with a robotic head while trying to identify the target. In this system, the tracking mobile is considered as the reactive part of the system while person identification is considered a background task. This demonstrator has been developed using a new generation DSP (TMS320C80) as a specialized coprocessor to deal with fast processes, and a commercial robotic head with a dedicated DSP-based motor controller. These subsystems are hosted by a standard Pentium-Pro PC running Windows NT where slow processes are executed. The flexibility achieved in the design phase and the preliminary results obtained so far seem to validate the approach followed to integrate time- critical and slow tasks on a heterogeneous hardware platform.

  10. Fast Transient Behavior of Thyristor Switches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    FAST TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF THYRISTOR SWITCHES(U) TEXAS i/tl TECH UNIV LUBBOCK DEPT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PROTNOV FEB 85 RADC-TR-85-20...8217 , " , - ." .- ., .-, ..., .., . ., , ." ’ ’ , ’ , ., " " , ’ ., ., .., ..’ ..’ , .’ .. ., [ ." -.-.-, . ’ .J ,Z . ’ .’ , , . ,. C ; RADC-TR85-20 4 Final Technical Report February 1965 Lf) FAST TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF 4 ~THYRISTOR SWITCHES Texas Tech...Ctawaficaitonp FAST TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF THYRISTOR SWITCHES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S)

  11. Quantum Bayesian implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haoyang

    2013-02-01

    Mechanism design is a reverse problem of game theory. Nash implementation and Bayesian implementation are two important parts of mechanism design theory. The former one corresponds to a setting with complete information, whereas the latter one corresponds to a setting with incomplete information. A recent work Wu (Int J Quantum Inf 9:615-623, 2011) shows that when an additional condition is satisfied, the traditional sufficient conditions for Nash implementation will fail in a quantum domain. Inspired by this work, in this paper we will propose that the traditional sufficient conditions for Bayesian implementation will also fail if agents use quantum strategies to send messages to the designer through channels (e.g., Internet, cable etc) and two additional conditions are satisfied.

  12. Ozone Implementation Regulatory Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Training courses, presentations, and other resources to help state and local air professionals learn more about NAAQS implementation, air pollution control and emissions reduction, SIP development, and public participation.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program takes a systematic approach to Program implementation. Elements of this approach include the evaluation of new technologies, competitive selection of projects and partners, review of Program and project improvement, project tracking, and portfolio management and adjustment.

  14. Microprocessor implementation of an FFT for ionospheric VLF observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, J.; Kintner, P.; Holzworth, R.

    1984-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform algorithm is implemented on a CMOS microprocessor for application to very low-frequency electric fields (less than 10 kHz) sensed on high-altitude scientific balloons. Two FFT's are calculated simultaneously by associating them with conjugate symmetric and conjugate antisymmetric results. One goal of the system was to detect spectral signatures associated with fast time variations present in natural signals such as whistlers and chorus. Although a full evaluation of the system was not possible for operational reasons, a measure of the system's success has been defined and evaluated.

  15. ELN implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Drake, David J

    2007-08-01

    Electronic Laboratory Notebooks are becoming foundation platforms within many pharmaceutical companies because of the benefits that they offer to both the business and the scientists alike. Implementing an ELN within an established organisation presents challenges for the project team, both in terms of managing the impact on the scientists and the technical requirements for integration and data management. Implementation of a commercial ELN is not exempt from such challenges, and working with a third party supplier offers both advantages and additional challenges.

  16. The fast escaping set for quasiregular mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergweiler, Walter; Drasin, David; Fletcher, Alastair

    2014-06-01

    The fast escaping set of a transcendental entire function is the set of all points which tend to infinity under iteration as fast as possible compatible with the growth of the function. We study the analogous set for quasiregular mappings in higher dimensions and show, among other things, that various equivalent definitions of the fast escaping set for transcendental entire functions in the plane also coincide for quasiregular mappings. We also exhibit a class of quasiregular mappings for which the fast escaping set has the structure of a spider's web.

  17. Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Valter D.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but only recently studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity in part by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions. PMID:24440038

  18. Practical management of diabetes during Ramadan fasting.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, M; Mahtab, H; Latif, Z A; Siddiqui, N I

    2011-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic including Bangladesh. It is a chronic, costly and deadly disease. Recent advancement gives us the opportunity to control diabetes and offer the patient to have a normal or near normal life. Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. Recent studies show that most of the type-2 diabetic patients can fast during the holy month of Ramadan safely. But they need pre-Ramadan counseling for assessment, education, motivation, dietary and drug adjustment. Ramadan is beneficial for health. Fasting improves metabolic control, reduces weight and helps to control hypertension. Fasting also associated with some risks like-hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyper osmolar non ketotic coma and dehydration. All of these risks can be significantly reduced by pre-Ramadan counseling. Those who are at very high risks of hypoglycemia and acute diabetic or other complications they should not fast. After recovery they should complete their fast with the consultation of Islamic scholars. If there is hypoglycemia while fasting, fast must be broken. Islam allows us to have a regular blood sugar test during fast. Patient should follow a highly individualized management plan. Close monitoring is essential to prevent complications for safe Ramadan.

  19. mrsFAST-Ultra: a compact, SNP-aware mapper for high performance sequencing applications.

    PubMed

    Hach, Faraz; Sarrafi, Iman; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Eichler, Evan E; Sahinalp, S Cenk

    2014-07-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms generate unprecedented amounts of data that introduce challenges for processing and downstream analysis. While tools that report the 'best' mapping location of each read provide a fast way to process HTS data, they are not suitable for many types of downstream analysis such as structural variation detection, where it is important to report multiple mapping loci for each read. For this purpose we introduce mrsFAST-Ultra, a fast, cache oblivious, SNP-aware aligner that can handle the multi-mapping of HTS reads very efficiently. mrsFAST-Ultra improves mrsFAST, our first cache oblivious read aligner capable of handling multi-mapping reads, through new and compact index structures that reduce not only the overall memory usage but also the number of CPU operations per alignment. In fact the size of the index generated by mrsFAST-Ultra is 10 times smaller than that of mrsFAST. As importantly, mrsFAST-Ultra introduces new features such as being able to (i) obtain the best mapping loci for each read, and (ii) return all reads that have at most n mapping loci (within an error threshold), together with these loci, for any user specified n. Furthermore, mrsFAST-Ultra is SNP-aware, i.e. it can map reads to reference genome while discounting the mismatches that occur at common SNP locations provided by db-SNP; this significantly increases the number of reads that can be mapped to the reference genome. Notice that all of the above features are implemented within the index structure and are not simple post-processing steps and thus are performed highly efficiently. Finally, mrsFAST-Ultra utilizes multiple available cores and processors and can be tuned for various memory settings. Our results show that mrsFAST-Ultra is roughly five times faster than its predecessor mrsFAST. In comparison to newly enhanced popular tools such as Bowtie2, it is more sensitive (it can report 10 times or more mappings per read) and much faster (six times or

  20. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment

  1. Fast Translation Invariant Multiscale Image Denoising.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Ghosal, Subhashis

    2015-12-01

    Translation invariant (TI) cycle spinning is an effective method for removing artifacts from images. However, for a method using O(n) time, the exact TI cycle spinning by averaging all possible circulant shifts requires O(n(2)) time where n is the number of pixels, and therefore is not feasible in practice. Existing literature has investigated efficient algorithms to calculate TI version of some denoising approaches such as Haar wavelet. Multiscale methods, especially those based on likelihood decomposition, such as penalized likelihood estimator and Bayesian methods, have become popular in image processing because of their effectiveness in denoising images. As far as we know, there is no systematic investigation of the TI calculation corresponding to general multiscale approaches. In this paper, we propose a fast TI (FTI) algorithm and a more general k-TI (k-TI) algorithm allowing TI for the last k scales of the image, which are applicable to general d-dimensional images (d = 2, 3, …) with either Gaussian or Poisson noise. The proposed FTI leads to the exact TI estimation but only requires O(n log2 n) time. The proposed k-TI can achieve almost the same performance as the exact TI estimation, but requires even less time. We achieve this by exploiting the regularity present in the multiscale structure, which is justified theoretically. The proposed FTI and k-TI are generic in that they are applicable on any smoothing techniques based on the multiscale structure. We demonstrate the FTI and k-TI algorithms on some recently proposed state-of-the-art methods for both Poisson and Gaussian noised images. Both simulations and real data application confirm the appealing performance of the proposed algorithms. MATLAB toolboxes are online accessible to reproduce the results and be implemented for general multiscale denoising approaches provided by the users.

  2. The fast non-LTE code DEDALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilleron, Franck; Piron, Robin

    2015-12-01

    We present Dédale, a fast code implementing a simplified non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (NLTE) plasma model. In this approach, the stationary collisional-radiative rates equations are solved for a set of well-chosen Layzer complexes in order to determine the ion state populations. The electronic structure is approximated using the screened hydrogenic model (SHM) of More with relativistic corrections. The radiative and collisional cross-sections are based on Kramers and Van Regemorter formula, respectively, which are extrapolated to derive analytical expressions for all the rates. The latter are improved thereafter using Gaunt factors or more accurate tabulated data. Special care is taken for dielectronic rates which are compared and rescaled with quantum calculations from the Averroès code. The emissivity and opacity spectra are calculated under the same assumptions as for the radiative rates, either in a detailed manner by summing the transitions between each pair of complexes, or in a coarser statistical way by summing the one-electron transitions averaged over the complexes. Optionally, nℓ-splitting can be accounted for using a WKB approach in an approximate potential reconstructed analytically from the screened charges. It is also possible to improve the spectra by replacing some transition arrays with more accurate data tabulated using the SCO-RCG or FAC codes. This latter option is particularly useful for K-shell emission spectroscopy. The Dédale code was used to submit neon and tungsten cases in the last NLTE-8 workshop (Santa Fe, November 4-8, 2013). Some of these results are presented, as well as comparisons with Averroès calculations.

  3. Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock.

  4. The passage of fast electrons through matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorini, Adam P.

    This work regards the passage of fast electrons through matter, and in particular how electrons scatter and lose energy within a solid. The basic quantum theory of these scattering processes was first considered in the early- to mid-20th century by Bohr, Bethe, Fermi, and others. This work extends our understanding of how a relativistic electron scatters off, and loses energy to, a complex many-body system. The main idea of this work is that it is now possible to calculate, from first-principles, the inelastic losses of relativistic electrons in condensed matter. We present ab initio calculations based on a real-space Green's function approach, implemented in the FEFF8 computer program[1]. Our work focuses on three topics: Relativistic stopping power and associated loss parameters, electron energy loss spectroscopy in high energy transmission electron microscopes, and the inelastic electron scattering mixed dynamic form factor. We calculate, for the first time, ab initio stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths in real materials. The stopping powers are calculated over a broad energy range, from ten eV to above ten MeV. We also present the first ab initio calculations of the "mean excitation energy". We develop a relativistic theory of inelastic electron scattering, based on ab initio calculations of dielectric response, and the generalized Lorenz gauge. Using our relativistic dielectric theory, we calculate the EELS magic angle ratio for boron nitride and for graphite. In these anisotropic materials we find large relativistic corrections to the magic angle for high energy electron microscopes. We also predict and calculate large deviations in the EELS magic angle from the relativistic vacuum predictions in the low energy-loss regime. Finally, we present calculations of mixed dynamic form factor.

  5. Fast Plasma Instrument for MMS: Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Adrian, Mark L.; Lobell, James V.; Simpson, David G.; Barrie, Alex; Winkert, George E.; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Moore, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. The Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) of the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) for MMS meets these demanding requirements by acquiring the electron velocity distribution functions (VDFs) for the full sky with high-resolution angular measurements every 30 ms. This will provide unprecedented access to electron scale dynamics within the reconnection diffusion region. The DES consists of eight half-top-hat energy analyzers. Each analyzer has a 6 deg. x 11.25 deg. Full-sky coverage is achieved by electrostatically stepping the FOV of each of the eight sensors through four discrete deflection look directions. Data compression and burst memory management will provide approximately 30 minutes of high time resolution data during each orbit of the four MMS spacecraft. Each spacecraft will intelligently downlink the data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal structure. Here we present the results of a simulation of the DES analyzer measurements, data compression and decompression, as well as ground-based analysis using as a seed re-processed Cluster/PEACE electron measurements. The Cluster/PEACE electron measurements have been reprocessed through virtual DES analyzers with their proper geometrical, energy, and timing scale factors and re-mapped via interpolation to the DES angular and energy phase-space sampling measurements. The results of the simulated DES measurements are analyzed and the full moments of the simulated VDFs are compared with those obtained from the Cluster/PEACE spectrometer using a standard quadrature moment, a newly implemented spectral spherical harmonic method, and a singular value decomposition method. Our preliminary moment calculations show a remarkable agreement within the uncertainties of the measurements, with the

  6. Fast animation of lightning using an adaptive mesh.

    PubMed

    Kim, Theodore; Lin, Ming C

    2007-01-01

    We present a fast method for simulating, animating, and rendering lightning using adaptive grids. The "dielectric breakdown model" is an elegant algorithm for electrical pattern formation that we extend to enable animation of lightning. The simulation can be slow, particularly in 3D, because it involves solving a large Poisson problem. Losasso et al. recently proposed an octree data structure for simulating water and smoke, and we show that this discretization can be applied to the problem of lightning simulation as well. However, implementing the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) solver for this problem can be daunting, so we provide an extensive discussion of implementation issues. ICCG solvers can usually be accelerated using "Eisenstat's trick," but the trick cannot be directly applied to the adaptive case. Fortunately, we show that an "almost incomplete Cholesky" factorization can be computed so that Eisenstat's trick can still be used. We then present a fast rendering method based on convolution that is competitive with Monte Carlo ray tracing but orders of magnitude faster, and we also show how to further improve the visual results using jittering.

  7. X-33 Environmental Impact Statement: A Fast Track Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaleb, Rebecca C.; Holland, Donna L.

    1998-01-01

    NASA is required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to prepare an appropriate level environmental analysis for its major projects. Development of the X-33 Technology Demonstrator and its associated flight test program required an environmental impact statement (EIS) under the NEPA. The EIS process is consists of four parts: the "Notice of Intent" to prepare an EIS and scoping; the draft EIS which is distributed for review and comment; the final ETS; and the "Record of Decision." Completion of this process normally takes from 2 - 3 years, depending on the complexity of the proposed action. Many of the agency's newest fast track, technology demonstration programs require NEPA documentation, but cannot sustain the lengthy time requirement between program concept development to implementation. Marshall Space Flight Center, in cooperation with Kennedy Space Center, accomplished the NEPA process for the X-33 Program in 13 months from Notice of Intent to Record of Decision. In addition, the environmental team implemented an extensive public involvement process, conducting a total of 23 public meetings for scoping and draft EIS comment along with numerous informal meetings with public officials, civic organizations, and Native American Indians. This paper will discuss the fast track approach used to successfully accomplish the NEPA process for X-33 on time.

  8. A small and fast piezo-actuated legged robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumaryanto, Abdul A.; An, Jaebum; Lee, Sangyoon

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present the development of a small and fast LIPCA-actuated mobile robot. LIPCA (Lightweight Piezoceramic Composite curved Actuator) is a piezo-composite actuator that uses a PZT layer sandwiched between composite materials of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy layers to amplify the displacement. Three versions of LIPCA robots have been developed thus far to implement a small and autonomous robot. The design of the first prototype was inspired by a six-legged insect like a cockroach. Its maximum speed is 173 mm/sec with the voltage input of 400 Vpp at 40 Hz frequency. As the result of a slight modification in the design, a faster LIPCA robot was developed. However their structures are not strong enough to carry a load heavier than 20 gram, which can be a major obstacle to implementing autonomous robots. By several changes in the mechanism, the LIPCA-actuated robot has been improved such that it is able to carry a weight as much as 60 gram. For all the prototypes we used two LIPCA strips that are placed oppositely in the middle of the robot body. The LIPCA strips are driven by a square signal function of high AC voltage with the phase difference of 180°. All the experimental results show a possibility of a small and fast walking robot actuated by LIPCA without using any conventional electromagnetic actuator.

  9. Wishart Deep Stacking Network for Fast POLSAR Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Fang

    2016-05-11

    Inspired by the popular deep learning architecture - Deep Stacking Network (DSN), a specific deep model for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) image classification is proposed in this paper, which is named as Wishart Deep Stacking Network (W-DSN). First of all, a fast implementation of Wishart distance is achieved by a special linear transformation, which speeds up the classification of POLSAR image and makes it possible to use this polarimetric information in the following Neural Network (NN). Then a single-hidden-layer neural network based on the fast Wishart distance is defined for POLSAR image classification, which is named as Wishart Network (WN) and improves the classification accuracy. Finally, a multi-layer neural network is formed by stacking WNs, which is in fact the proposed deep learning architecture W-DSN for POLSAR image classification and improves the classification accuracy further. In addition, the structure of WN can be expanded in a straightforward way by adding hidden units if necessary, as well as the structure of the W-DSN. As a preliminary exploration on formulating specific deep learning architecture for POLSAR image classification, the proposed methods may establish a simple but clever connection between POLSAR image interpretation and deep learning. The experiment results tested on real POLSAR image show that the fast implementation of Wishart distance is very efficient (a POLSAR image with 768000 pixels can be classified in 0.53s), and both the single-hidden-layer architecture WN and the deep learning architecture W-DSN for POLSAR image classification perform well and work efficiently.

  10. Massively Parallel Processing for Fast and Accurate Stamping Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Siguang; Joshi, Ramesh; Wang, Chuan-tao; Paul, Sabu

    2005-08-01

    The competitive automotive market drives automotive manufacturers to speed up the vehicle development cycles and reduce the lead-time. Fast tooling development is one of the key areas to support fast and short vehicle development programs (VDP). In the past ten years, the stamping simulation has become the most effective validation tool in predicting and resolving all potential formability and quality problems before the dies are physically made. The stamping simulation and formability analysis has become an critical business segment in GM math-based die engineering process. As the simulation becomes as one of the major production tools in engineering factory, the simulation speed and accuracy are the two of the most important measures for stamping simulation technology. The speed and time-in-system of forming analysis becomes an even more critical to support the fast VDP and tooling readiness. Since 1997, General Motors Die Center has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of simulation software for mass production analysis applications. By 2001, this technology was matured in the form of distributed memory processing (DMP) of draw die simulations in a networked distributed memory computing environment. In 2004, this technology was refined to massively parallel processing (MPP) and extended to line die forming analysis (draw, trim, flange, and associated spring-back) running on a dedicated computing environment. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DM0P/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.

  11. Multitasking domain decomposition fast Poisson solvers on the Cray Y-MP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Fatoohi, Rod A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of multitasking implementation of a domain decomposition fast Poisson solver on eight processors of the Cray Y-MP are presented. The object of this research is to study the performance of domain decomposition methods on a Cray supercomputer and to analyze the performance of different multitasking techniques using highly parallel algorithms. Two implementations of multitasking are considered: macrotasking (parallelism at the subroutine level) and microtasking (parallelism at the do-loop level). A conventional FFT-based fast Poisson solver is also multitasked. The results of different implementations are compared and analyzed. A speedup of over 7.4 on the Cray Y-MP running in a dedicated environment is achieved for all cases.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of the Fast-SAGD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyundon

    The SAGD process has been tested in the field, and is now in a commercial stage in Western Canadian oil sands areas. The Fast-SAGD method can partly solve the drilling difficulty and reduce costs in a SAGD operation requiring paired parallel wells one above the other. This method also enhances the thermal efficiency in the reservoir. In this research, the reservoir parameters and operating conditions for the SAGD and Fast-SAGD processes are investigated by numerical simulation in the three Alberta oil sands areas. Scaled physical model experiments, which are operated by an automated process control system, are conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. The results of the study indicate that the shallow Athabasca-type reservoir, which is thick with high permeability (high kxh), is a good candidate for SAGD application, whereas Cold Lake- and Peace River-type reservoirs, which are thin with low permeability, are not as good candidates for conventional SAGD implementation. The simulation results indicate improved energy efficiency and productivity in most cases for the Fast-SAGD process; in those cases, the project economics were enhanced compared to the SAGD process. Both Cold Lake- and Peace River-type reservoirs are good candidates for a Fast-SAGD application rather than a conventional SAGD application. This new process demonstrates improved efficiency and lower costs for extracting heavy oil from these important reservoirs. A new economic indicator, called simple thermal efficiency parameter (STEP), was developed and validated to evaluate the performance of a SAGD project. STEP is based on cumulative steam-oil ratio (CSOR), calendar day oil rate (CDOR) and recovery factor (RF) for the time prior to the steam-oil ratio (SOR) attaining 4. STEP can be used as a financial metric quantitatively as well as qualitatively for this type of thermal project. An automated process control system was set-up and validated, and has the capability of

  13. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  14. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  15. Impulsively generated fast coronal pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwin, P. M.; Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid oscillations in the corona are discussed from a theoretical standpoint, developing some previous work on ducted, fast magnetoacoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium. In the theory, impulsively (e.g., flare) generated mhd (magnetohydrodynamic) waves are ducted by regions of low Alfven speed (high density) such as coronal loops. Wave propagation in such ducts is strongly dispersive and closely akin to the behavior of Love waves in seismology, Pekeris waves in oceanography and guided waves in fiber optics. Such flare-generated magnetoacoustic waves possess distinctive temporal signatures consisting of periodic, quasi-periodic and decay phases. The quasi-periodic phase possesses the strongest amplitudes and the shortest time scales. Time scales are typically of the order of a second for inhomogeneities (coronal loop width) of 1000 km and Alfven speeds of 1000/kms, and pulse duration times are of tens of seconds. Quasi-periodic signatures have been observed in radio wavelengths for over a decade and more recently by SMM. It is hoped that the theoretical ideas outlined may be successfully related to these observations and thus aid the interpretation of oscillatory signatures recorded by SMM. Such signatures may also provide a diagnostic of coronal conditions. New aspects of the ducted mhd waves, for example their behavior in smoothly varying as opposed to tube-like inhomogeneities, are currently under investigation. The theory is not restricted to loops but applied equally to open field regions.

  16. GROMACS: fast, flexible, and free.

    PubMed

    Van Der Spoel, David; Lindahl, Erik; Hess, Berk; Groenhof, Gerrit; Mark, Alan E; Berendsen, Herman J C

    2005-12-01

    This article describes the software suite GROMACS (Groningen MAchine for Chemical Simulation) that was developed at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in the early 1990s. The software, written in ANSI C, originates from a parallel hardware project, and is well suited for parallelization on processor clusters. By careful optimization of neighbor searching and of inner loop performance, GROMACS is a very fast program for molecular dynamics simulation. It does not have a force field of its own, but is compatible with GROMOS, OPLS, AMBER, and ENCAD force fields. In addition, it can handle polarizable shell models and flexible constraints. The program is versatile, as force routines can be added by the user, tabulated functions can be specified, and analyses can be easily customized. Nonequilibrium dynamics and free energy determinations are incorporated. Interfaces with popular quantum-chemical packages (MOPAC, GAMES-UK, GAUSSIAN) are provided to perform mixed MM/QM simulations. The package includes about 100 utility and analysis programs. GROMACS is in the public domain and distributed (with source code and documentation) under the GNU General Public License. It is maintained by a group of developers from the Universities of Groningen, Uppsala, and Stockholm, and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz. Its Web site is http://www.gromacs.org.

  17. Fast Robust PCA on Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Nauman; Perraudin, Nathanael; Kalofolias, Vassilis; Puy, Gilles; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Mining useful clusters from high dimensional data has received significant attention of the computer vision and pattern recognition community in the recent years. Linear and non-linear dimensionality reduction has played an important role to overcome the curse of dimensionality. However, often such methods are accompanied with three different problems: high computational complexity (usually associated with the nuclear norm minimization), non-convexity (for matrix factorization methods) and susceptibility to gross corruptions in the data. In this paper we propose a principal component analysis (PCA) based solution that overcomes these three issues and approximates a low-rank recovery method for high dimensional datasets. We target the low-rank recovery by enforcing two types of graph smoothness assumptions, one on the data samples and the other on the features by designing a convex optimization problem. The resulting algorithm is fast, efficient and scalable for huge datasets with O(nlog(n)) computational complexity in the number of data samples. It is also robust to gross corruptions in the dataset as well as to the model parameters. Clustering experiments on 7 benchmark datasets with different types of corruptions and background separation experiments on 3 video datasets show that our proposed model outperforms 10 state-of-the-art dimensionality reduction models. Our theoretical analysis proves that the proposed model is able to recover approximate low-rank representations with a bounded error for clusterable data.

  18. Fast approach for toner saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

    2011-01-01

    Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  20. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation

    PubMed Central

    WEITZEL, KRISTIN W.; ELSEY, AMANDA R.; LANGAEE, TAIMOUR Y.; BURKLEY, BENJAMIN; NESSL, DAVID R.; OBENG, ANIWAA OWUSU; STALEY, BENJAMIN J.; DONG, HUI-JIA; ALLAN, ROBERT W.; LIU, J. FELIX; COOPER-DEHOFF, RHONDA M.; ANDERSON, R. DAVID; CONLON, MICHAEL; CLARE-SALZLER, MICHAEL J.; NELSON, DAVID R.; JOHNSON, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Current challenges exist to widespread clinical implementation of genomic medicine and pharmacogenetics. The University of Florida (UF) Health Personalized Medicine Program (PMP) is a pharmacist-led, multidisciplinary initiative created in 2011 within the UF Clinical Translational Science Institute. Initial efforts focused on pharmacogenetics, with long-term goals to include expansion to disease-risk prediction and disease stratification. Herein we describe the processes for development of the program, the challenges that were encountered and the clinical acceptance by clinicians of the genomic medicine implementation. The initial clinical implementation of the UF PMP began in June 2012 and targeted clopidogrel use and the CYP2C19 genotype in patients undergoing left heart catheterization and percutaneous-coronary intervention (PCI). After 1 year, 1,097 patients undergoing left heart catheterization were genotyped preemptively, and 291 of those underwent subsequent PCI. Genotype results were reported to the medical record for 100% of genotyped patients. Eighty patients who underwent PCI had an actionable genotype, with drug therapy changes implemented in 56 individuals. Average turnaround time from blood draw to genotype result entry in the medical record was 3.5 business days. Seven different third party payors, including Medicare, reimbursed for the test during the first month of billing, with an 85% reimbursement rate for outpatient claims that were submitted in the first month. These data highlight multiple levels of success in clinical implementation of genomic medicine. PMID:24616371

  1. Fast Mapping Verb Meaning from Argument Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine lexical knowledge in children through a fast mapping task. Method: This study compared the performance of 60 African American English-speaking and general American English-speaking children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. They were presented with a comprehension task involving the fast mapping of novel verbs in 4 different…

  2. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  3. Fast Mapping by Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kana, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that young monolingual children's ability to "fast map" new word forms is closely associated with both their age and existing vocabulary knowledge. In this study we investigate potential relationships between age, fast mapping skills and existing vocabulary knowledge in both languages of developing bilingual preschool…

  4. Can Fast and Slow Intelligence Be Differentiated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partchev, Ivailo; De Boeck, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Responses to items from an intelligence test may be fast or slow. The research issue dealt with in this paper is whether the intelligence involved in fast correct responses differs in nature from the intelligence involved in slow correct responses. There are two questions related to this issue: 1. Are the processes involved different? 2. Are the…

  5. FAST User's Guide - Updated August 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L. Jr.

    2005-10-01

    The FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) Code is a comprehensive aeroelastic simulator capable of predicting both the extreme and fatigue loads of two- and three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). This document covers the features of FAST and outlines its operating procedures.

  6. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  7. The fast diffusion of Au IN Pb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Ko, C.; Brotzen, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    A treatment of the phenomenon of fast diffusion in lead is presented. The model used is based upon the fast diffusion of free solute interstitials. The very large negative enhancement coefficients found in the Pb-(Au, Ag) systems is explained by the formation of first and second order clusters of vacancies and substitutional solute atoms.

  8. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  9. Fasting: The History, Pathophysiology and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kerndt, Peter R.; Naughton, James L.; Driscoll, Charles E.; Loxterkamp, David A.

    1982-01-01

    An appreciation of the physiology of fasting is essential to the understanding of therapeutic dietary interventions and the effect of food deprivation in various diseases. The practice of prolonged fasting for political or religious purposes is increasing, and a physician is likely to encounter such circumstances. Early in fasting weight loss is rapid, averaging 0.9 kg per day during the first week and slowing to 0.3 kg per day by the third week; early rapid weight loss is primarily due to negative sodium balance. Metabolically, early fasting is characterized by a high rate of gluconeogenesis with amino acids as the primary substrates. As fasting continues, progressive ketosis develops due to the mobilization and oxidation of fatty acids. As ketone levels rise they replace glucose as the primary energy source in the central nervous system, thereby decreasing the need for gluconeogenesis and sparing protein catabolism. Several hormonal changes occur during fasting, including a fall in insulin and T3 levels and a rise in glucagon and reverse T3 levels. Most studies of fasting have used obese persons and results may not always apply to lean persons. Medical complications seen in fasting include gout and urate nephrolithiasis, postural hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. ImagesFigure 4. PMID:6758355

  10. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghasemi, S. A. Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-07-15

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  11. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Optical imaging of fast, dynamic neurophysiological function.

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D. M.; Carter, K. M.; Yao, X.; George, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Fast evoked responses were imaged from rat dorsal medulla and whisker barrel cortex. To investigate the biophysical mechanisms involved, fast optical responses associated with isolated crustacean nerve stimulation were recorded using birefringence and scattered light. Such studies allow optimization of non-invasive imaging techniques being developed for use in humans.

  13. Fast ion JET diagnostics: confinement and losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Sharapov, S. E.; Syme, D. B.; Cecconello, M.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Yavorskij, V.; Johnson, T.; Murari, A.; Reich, M.; Gorini, G.; Zoita, V.

    2008-03-12

    A study of magnetically confined fast ions in tokamaks plays an important role in burning plasma research. To reach ignition and steady burning of a reactor plasma an adequate confinement of energetic ions produced by NBI heating, accelerated with ICRF and born in fusion reactions is essential to provide efficient heating of the bulk plasma. Thus, investigation of the fast ion behaviour is an immediate task for present-day large machines, such as JET, in order to understand the main mechanisms of slowing down, redistribution and losses, and to develop optimal plasma scenarios. Today's JET has an enhanced suite of fast ion diagnostics both of confined and lost ions that enable to significantly contribute to this important area of research. Fast ion populations of p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, made with ICRF, NBI, and fusion reactions have been investigated in experiments on JET with sophisticated diagnostics in conventional and shear-reversed plasmas, exploring a wide range of effects. This paper will introduce to the JET fast-ion diagnostic techniques and will give an overview of recent observations. A synergy of the unique diagnostic set was utilised in JET, and studies of the response of fast ions to MHD modes (e.g. tornado modes, sawtooth crashes), fast {sup 3}He-ions behaviour in shear-reversed plasmas are impressive examples of that. Some results on fast ion losses in JET experiments with various levels of the toroidal field ripple will be demonstrated.

  14. Advances by the Integral Fast Reactor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lineberry, M.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The advances by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, improved passive safety, and the development of a prototype fuel cycle facility. 14 refs.

  15. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  16. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations?

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Richard T; Zillikens, M Carola; Friesema, Edith C H; delli Paoli, Giuseppe; Bloch, Wilhelm; Uitterlinden, André G; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities. In recent years signal transduction pathways related to exercise and fasting/food withdrawal in muscle have been intensively studied, both in animals and in humans. Combining fasting/food withdrawal with exercise in animals as well as in humans causes changes unlike those seen during fasting/food withdrawal or exercise alone, which favor repair of muscle over autophagy. In addition, compounds that mimic exercise have been studied in combination with exercise or fasting/food withdrawal. This review addresses our current knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the individual and combined effects of fasting/food withdrawal, endurance or resistance exercise, and their mimetics, in muscle vs other organs in rodents and humans, and highlights which combinations may improve metabolic disorders.-Jaspers, R. T., Zillikens, M. C., Friesema, E. C. H., delli Paoli, G., Bloch, W., Uitterlinden, A. G., Goglia, F., Lanni, A., de Lange, P. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations.

  17. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing functions. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM- based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) device or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using DSP devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment encountered on spacemap. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive-control algorithm

  18. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment

  19. Fast-SNP: a fast matrix pre-processing algorithm for efficient loopless flux optimization of metabolic models

    PubMed Central

    Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Computation of steady-state flux solutions in large metabolic models is routinely performed using flux balance analysis based on a simple LP (Linear Programming) formulation. A minimal requirement for thermodynamic feasibility of the flux solution is the absence of internal loops, which are enforced using ‘loopless constraints’. The resulting loopless flux problem is a substantially harder MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programming) problem, which is computationally expensive for large metabolic models. Results: We developed a pre-processing algorithm that significantly reduces the size of the original loopless problem into an easier and equivalent MILP problem. The pre-processing step employs a fast matrix sparsification algorithm—Fast- sparse null-space pursuit (SNP)—inspired by recent results on SNP. By finding a reduced feasible ‘loop-law’ matrix subject to known directionalities, Fast-SNP considerably improves the computational efficiency in several metabolic models running different loopless optimization problems. Furthermore, analysis of the topology encoded in the reduced loop matrix enabled identification of key directional constraints for the potential permanent elimination of infeasible loops in the underlying model. Overall, Fast-SNP is an effective and simple algorithm for efficient formulation of loop-law constraints, making loopless flux optimization feasible and numerically tractable at large scale. Availability and Implementation: Source code for MATLAB including examples is freely available for download at http://www.aibn.uq.edu.au/cssb-resources under Software. Optimization uses Gurobi, CPLEX or GLPK (the latter is included with the algorithm). Contact: lars.nielsen@uq.edu.au Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27559155

  20. FAST Spacecraft Battery Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Rao, Gopalakrishna; Ahmad, Anisa

    1997-01-01

    The Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) Explorer spacecraft is to study the physical processes that produce the aurora borealis and aurora australis. It is a unique plasma physics experiment that will take fundamental measurements of the magnetic and electrical fields. This investigation will add significantly to our understanding of the near-earth space environments and its effect. The FAST has a 1 year requirement and 3-year goal for its mission life in low earth orbit. The FAST power power system topology is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system based on the SAMPEX design. The FAST flight battery supplies power to the satellite during pre-launch operations, the launch phase, the eclipse periods for all mission phases, and when the load is about 50 watts.

  1. Fast and parallel spectral transform algorithms for global shallow water models. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jakob, R.

    1993-01-01

    The dissertation examines spectral transform algorithms for the solution of the shallow water equations on the sphere and studies their implementation and performance on shared memory vector multiprocessors. Beginning with the standard spectral transform algorithm in vorticity divergence form and its implementation in the Fortran based parallel programming language Force, two modifications are researched. First, the transforms and matrices associated with the meridional derivatives of the associated Legendre functions are replaced by corresponding operations with the spherical harmonic coefficients. Second, based on the fast Fourier transform and the fast multipole method, a lower complexity algorithm is derived that uses fast transformations between Legendre and interior Fourier nodes, fast surface spherical truncation and a fast spherical Helmholz solver. Because the global shallow water equations are similar to the horizontal dynamical component of general circulation models, the results can be applied to spectral transform numerical weather prediction and climate models. In general, the derived algorithms may speed up the solution of time dependent partial differential equations in spherical geometry.

  2. A highly scalable massively parallel fast marching method for the Eikonal equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick

    2017-03-01

    The fast marching method is a widely used numerical method for solving the Eikonal equation arising from a variety of scientific and engineering fields. It is long deemed inherently sequential and an efficient parallel algorithm applicable to large-scale practical applications is not available in the literature. In this study, we present a highly scalable massively parallel implementation of the fast marching method using a domain decomposition approach. Central to this algorithm is a novel restarted narrow band approach that coordinates the frequency of communications and the amount of computations extra to a sequential run for achieving an unprecedented parallel performance. Within each restart, the narrow band fast marching method is executed; simple synchronous local exchanges and global reductions are adopted for communicating updated data in the overlapping regions between neighboring subdomains and getting the latest front status, respectively. The independence of front characteristics is exploited through special data structures and augmented status tags to extract the masked parallelism within the fast marching method. The efficiency, flexibility, and applicability of the parallel algorithm are demonstrated through several examples. These problems are extensively tested on six grids with up to 1 billion points using different numbers of processes ranging from 1 to 65536. Remarkable parallel speedups are achieved using tens of thousands of processes. Detailed pseudo-codes for both the sequential and parallel algorithms are provided to illustrate the simplicity of the parallel implementation and its similarity to the sequential narrow band fast marching algorithm.

  3. LSST communications middleware implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Dave; Schumacher, German; Lotz, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The LSST communications middleware is based on a set of software abstractions; which provide standard interfaces for common communications services. The observatory requires communication between diverse subsystems, implemented by different contractors, and comprehensive archiving of subsystem status data. The Service Abstraction Layer (SAL) is implemented using open source packages that implement open standards of DDS (Data Distribution Service1) for data communication, and SQL (Standard Query Language) for database access. For every subsystem, abstractions for each of the Telemetry datastreams, along with Command/Response and Events, have been agreed with the appropriate component vendor (such as Dome, TMA, Hexapod), and captured in ICD's (Interface Control Documents).The OpenSplice (Prismtech) Community Edition of DDS provides an LGPL licensed distribution which may be freely redistributed. The availability of the full source code provides assurances that the project will be able to maintain it over the full 10 year survey, independent of the fortunes of the original providers.

  4. Fast TracKer: A fast hardware track trigger for the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandini, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system at the ATLAS experiment is designed to lower the event rate occurring from the nominal bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to about 1 kHz for a LHC luminosity of the order of 1034cm-2s-1. To achieve high background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals, sophisticated algorithms are needed which require an extensive use of tracking information. The Fast TracKer (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to perform track-finding at 100 kHz. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the combinatorial problem of pattern recognition is solved by 8000 standard-cell ASICs used to implement an Associative Memory architecture. The availability of the tracking and subsequent vertex information within a short latency ensures robust selections and allows improved trigger performance for the most difficult signatures, such as b-jets and τ leptons.

  5. Orbital Advection by Interpolation: A Fast and Accurate Numerical Scheme for Super-Fast MHD Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M; Guan, X; Gammie, F

    2008-04-11

    In numerical models of thin astrophysical disks that use an Eulerian scheme, gas orbits supersonically through a fixed grid. As a result the timestep is sharply limited by the Courant condition. Also, because the mean flow speed with respect to the grid varies with position, the truncation error varies systematically with position. For hydrodynamic (unmagnetized) disks an algorithm called FARGO has been developed that advects the gas along its mean orbit using a separate interpolation substep. This relaxes the constraint imposed by the Courant condition, which now depends only on the peculiar velocity of the gas, and results in a truncation error that is more nearly independent of position. This paper describes a FARGO-like algorithm suitable for evolving magnetized disks. Our method is second order accurate on a smooth flow and preserves {del} {center_dot} B = 0 to machine precision. The main restriction is that B must be discretized on a staggered mesh. We give a detailed description of an implementation of the code and demonstrate that it produces the expected results on linear and nonlinear problems. We also point out how the scheme might be generalized to make the integration of other supersonic/super-fast flows more efficient. Although our scheme reduces the variation of truncation error with position, it does not eliminate it. We show that the residual position dependence leads to characteristic radial variations in the density over long integrations.

  6. Fast optimization and dose calculation in scanned ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hild, S.; Graeff, C.; Trautmann, J.; Kraemer, M.; Zink, K.; Durante, M.; Bert, C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Particle therapy (PT) has advantages over photon irradiation on static tumors. An increased biological effectiveness and active target conformal dose shaping are strong arguments for PT. However, the sensitivity to changes of internal geometry complicates the use of PT for moving organs. In case of interfractionally moving objects adaptive radiotherapy (ART) concepts known from intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be adopted for PT treatments. One ART strategy is to optimize a new treatment plan based on daily image data directly before a radiation fraction is delivered [treatment replanning (TRP)]. Optimizing treatment plans for PT using a scanned beam is a time consuming problem especially for particles other than protons where the biological effective dose has to be calculated. For the purpose of TRP, fast optimization and fast dose calculation have been implemented into the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP98. Methods: This work reports about the outcome of a code analysis that resulted in optimization of the calculation processes as well as implementation of routines supporting parallel execution of the code. To benchmark the new features, the calculation time for therapy treatment planning has been studied. Results: Compared to the original version of the TPS, calculation times for treatment planning (optimization and dose calculation) have been improved by a factor of 10 with code optimization. The parallelization of the TPS resulted in a speedup factor of 12 and 5.5 for the original version and the code optimized version, respectively. Hence the total speedup of the new implementation of the authors' TPS yielded speedup factors up to 55. Conclusions: The improved TPS is capable of completing treatment planning for ion beam therapy of a prostate irradiation considering organs at risk in this has been overseen in the review process. Also see below 6 min.

  7. Microsupercomputers: Design and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    tools for BiCMOS. In the area of fast sRAM we were very pleased to find out that our new BiCMOS memory cell design, the CSEA cell, was used by a...while maintaining a reasonable power dissipation (1.5W). It uses the CSEA cell, with a bipolar transistor in each memory cell that we reported... Journal of Solid State Circuits. April, 1989. 4. Gasbarro, J. and Horowitz, M., Integrated Pin Electronics for VLSI Functional Testers, IEEE, Custom

  8. Microsupercomputers: Design and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Gupta 88b] is to appear in the Journal of Parallel Programming. At AAAI-88 [Gupta 88a], we also presented some new results detailing how to map rule-based...64K bit) fast (under 4ns) Bi𔃼MOS sRAM. We plan to use the CMOS Storage, Emitter Access ( CSEA ) memory cell that was mentioned in the last progress...Integrated Pin Electronics for VLSI Functional Testers. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits , April, 1989. To be published. [Gupta 88a] Gupta, A., Tambe, M

  9. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-15

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB{sup 11}) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  10. NASA GRC MBSE Implementation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Edith; Trase, Katie; Green, Randi; Varga, Denise; Powell, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview on GRCs Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) implementation status. This overview covers: history, project usage and implementation, challenges and future work.

  11. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Bajaj, Sarita; Gupta, Yashdeep; Agarwal, Pankaj; Singh, S. K.; Julka, Sandeep; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts. PMID:25729681

  12. Development towards a fast ion loss detector for the reversed field pinch.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglo, P J; Anderson, J K; Almagri, A F; Kim, J; Clark, J; Capecchi, W; Sears, S H; Egedal, J

    2016-11-01

    A fast ion loss detector has been constructed and implemented on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to investigate energetic ion losses and transport due to energetic particle and MHD instabilities. The detector discriminates particle orbits solely on pitch and consists of two thin-foil, particle collecting plates that are symmetric with respect to the device aperture. One plate collects fast ion signal, while the second aids in the minimization of background and noise effects. Initial measurements are reported along with suggestions for the next design phase of the detector.

  13. A modified VPPM algorithm of VLC systems suitable for fast dimming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Ahn, Byung-Gu; Ju, MinChul; Park, Youngil

    2016-04-01

    As LED applications with fast dimming appears, it is required that the variable pulse position modulation (VPPM)-based visible light communications (VLC) scheme works in this environment also. With the previous VPPM scheme, however, transmission was made possible only in different dimming levels, not in the transition period. In this work, we propose a novel VPPM scheme to operate even in rapid brightness fluctuation environment. For this purpose, we adopt a stepwise brightness change at the LED and moving average correlation masks to cope with the changing brightness. The implemented VLC testbed demonstrates that the proposed scheme is appropriate for fast dimming environment.

  14. A fast and memory-sparing probabilistic selection algorithm for the GPU

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, Laura M; Wendelberger, Joanne; Michalak, Sarah

    2010-09-29

    A fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top-N selection algorithm is implemented on the GPU. This probabilistic algorithm gives a deterministic result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces both the memory requirements and the average time required for the algorithm. This algorithm is well-suited to more general parallel processors with multiple layers of memory hierarchy. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be especially useful for processors having a limited amount of fast memory available.

  15. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  16. Fidelity of Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; Hughes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the US Department of Education awarded the Maricopa County Education Service Agency an Investing in Innovation (i3) grant to fund the Engineering STEM Identity (ESI) project. The purpose of i3 is to expand the implementation of, and investment in, innovative educational practices. Accordingly, the goal of ESI is to address one of the most…

  17. Adiabatically implementing quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng Liu, Fang

    2014-06-14

    We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.

  18. Lessons about Federal Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    Project Follow Through involved a diverse and major set of implementation problems: (1) The initial program mandate for an action program clashed with the later switch to an experimental focus; (2) The selection of curriculum rather than structural changes as the major intervention led to greater uncertainty regarding the practices to be…

  19. Implementing Sustainable Institutional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…

  20. Social Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Walter, Ed.; Elmore, Richard F., Ed.

    This book seeks to stimulate inquiry into the area of implementation in three social policy areas: education programs; community-oriented programs; and transfer-payment*programs. It is intended for government groups and social science researchers, including analysts, who carry out programs, researchers who are engaged in social policy studies, and…

  1. Implementing Teacher Work Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinne, Lenore J.; Watson, Dwight C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how the teacher work sample methodology of the Renaissance Partnership for Improving Teacher Quality was implemented within the teacher education program at a small liberal arts college. Resulting program improvements are described, as well as on-going challenges. The adapted teacher work sample prompt and scoring rubric are…

  2. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  3. Implementation Challenges and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirk; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the online and f2f summer algebra courses that were delivered in summers 2011 and 2012. These data will be used to frame the impact results presented in an earlier paper. In particular, the paper will provide a detailed picture of how the online course was structured and the types of supports provided to…

  4. Implementing Bilingual Pattern Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how semi-communicative bilingual drills were implemented in a four-month course in pedagogical English for a group of ten Polish adult learners. When the course was over, the learners were asked to evaluate the procedure by filling in a questionnaire. The learners expressed overwhelming approval for bilingual drills in terms…

  5. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  6. Fasting headache, weight loss, and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Mosek, A; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-01

    Recently, we showed that fasting is a strong headache precipitator unrelated to coffee, tea, or smoking withdrawal or to oversleeping. In the current study, we evaluated the role of dehydration as a possible precipitator of fasting headache. The effects of a 25-hour fast of the Jewish Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) were studied in women who participated in our previous Yom Kippur study. We asked the subjects to weigh themselves at the beginning and at the end of the Yom Kippur fast, assuming that the weight loss would largely reflect dehydration. In all but 1 of the 56 participants, the fast resulted in weight loss but only 28 (50%) reported headache. The average weight loss was 1.4 +/- 0.8 kg in those who developed headache and 1.2 +/- 0.5 kg in those who did not. This small difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that dehydration, as reflected by acute weight loss, is an unlikely cause of headache during a single day of fasting. The mechanism of fasting headache remains unclear.

  7. Risk Management Implementation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Shayla L.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous Risk Management (CM) is a software engineering practice with processes, methods, and tools for managing risk in a project. It provides a controlled environment for practical decision making, in order to assess continually what could go wrong, determine which risk are important to deal with, implement strategies to deal with those risk and assure the measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. Continuous Risk Management provides many training workshops and courses to teach the staff how to implement risk management to their various experiments and projects. The steps of the CRM process are identification, analysis, planning, tracking, and control. These steps and the various methods and tools that go along with them, identification, and dealing with risk is clear-cut. The office that I worked in was the Risk Management Office (RMO). The RMO at NASA works hard to uphold NASA s mission of exploration and advancement of scientific knowledge and technology by defining and reducing program risk. The RMO is one of the divisions that fall under the Safety and Assurance Directorate (SAAD). I worked under Cynthia Calhoun, Flight Software Systems Engineer. My task was to develop a help screen for the Continuous Risk Management Implementation Tool (RMIT). The Risk Management Implementation Tool will be used by many NASA managers to identify, analyze, track, control, and communicate risks in their programs and projects. The RMIT will provide a means for NASA to continuously assess risks. The goals and purposes for this tool is to provide a simple means to manage risks, be used by program and project managers throughout NASA for managing risk, and to take an aggressive approach to advertise and advocate the use of RMIT at each NASA center.

  8. FAST-LH: a manufacturing-environmental friendly method of lens heating monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yet, Siew Ing; Lim, Faith

    2009-12-01

    Lens heating monitoring is crucial for photolithography process control; ineffective lens heating compensation will cause severe focus and image drift on photoresist pattern. Conventional/standard lens heat-test recommended by equipment vendor normally requires long measuring time which is not manufacturing-environmental friendly, and it is designed more to equipment perspective. A fast and accurate method of lens heating monitoring (FAST-LH) is discussed in this paper. Focus drift induced by lens heating is measured using both conventional and FAST-LH; result comparison shows strong correlation of focus drift with the new measuring method. Detailed methodology for the lens heating monitoring is studied; a fine tuned new measuring method is proven to be not only fast but also accurate to monitor lens heating LC compensation rate. Compared to the conventional method, FAST-LH could reflect better the actual focus drift under manufacturing environment. Due to the limitation of transforming the FAST-LH to equipment LH compensation settings, the FASTLH is implemented for periodic monitoring and feedback; whereas the conventional method is used during compensation/corrective action.

  9. Fast Food and Neighborhood Stroke Risk

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Escobar, James D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hughes, Rebecca; Zuniga, Belinda G.; Garcia, Nelda; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the number of fast food restaurants and ischemic stroke in neighborhoods. Methods This work was a pre-specified part of the Brain Attack in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Ischemic stroke cases were prospectively ascertained in Nueces County, Texas. Home addresses were geocoded and used to establish the census tract for each stroke case. Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods (n=64). Using a standard definition, fast food restaurants were identified from a commercial list. Poisson regression was used to study the association between the number of fast food restaurants in the neighborhood, using a 1-mile buffer around each census tract, and the risk of stroke in the neighborhood. Models were adjusted for demographics and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Results There were 1,247 completed ischemic strokes from January 2000 through June 2003 and 262 fast food restaurants. The median number of fast food restaurants per census tract including buffer was 22 (IQR 12–33). Adjusting for neighborhood demographics and SES, the association of fast food restaurants with stroke was significant (p=0.02). The association suggested that the risk of stroke in a neighborhood increased by 1% for every fast food restaurant (RR 1.01 95% CI: 1.00–1.01). The relative risk of stroke comparing neighborhoods in the 75th to the 25th percentile of the distribution of fast food restaurants was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Interpretation Controlling for demographic and SES factors, there was a significant association between fast food restaurants and stroke risk in neighborhoods in this community-based study. PMID:19743456

  10. Optical Implementation of Matching Pursuit for Image Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, T.; Lau, B.; Miceli, W.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a technique for image analysis, representation, and decomposition. This technique was motivated by Stephane Mallat's matching-pursuit algorithm. We've altered and simplified the mechanics of his algorithm to enable an extremely fast implementation via optical processing. Initial computer simulations show that our algorithm is capable of decomposing and representing a 2-D image as a linear combination of basis images with both high speed and high fidelity.

  11. Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (WFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Guy; Ofek, Eran Oded; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Manulis, Ilan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Diner, Oz; Rappaport, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (W-FAST) is an experiment designed to explore variability on sub-second time scales. When completed it will consist of two robotic 55-cm f/2 Schmidt telescopes. The optics is capable of providing $\\sim0.5$" image quality over 23 deg$^2$. The focal plane will be equipped with fast readout, low read-noise sCMOS detectors. The first generation focal plane is expected to have 6.2 deg$^2$ field of view. WFAST is designed to study occultations by solar system objects (KBOs and Oort cloud objects), short time scale stellar variability, and high resolution imaging via proper coaddition.

  12. Fast reconstruction of digital tomosynthesis using on-board images

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Hui; Godfrey, Devon J.; Yin Fangfang

    2008-05-15

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional (3D) volume images from two-dimensional x-ray projections acquired over limited scan angles. Compared with cone-beam computed tomography, which is frequently used for 3D image guided radiation therapy, DTS requires less imaging time and dose. Successful implementation of DTS for fast target localization requires the reconstruction process to be accomplished within tight clinical time constraints (usually within 2 min). To achieve this goal, substantial improvement of reconstruction efficiency is necessary. In this study, a reconstruction process based upon the algorithm proposed by Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress was implemented on graphics hardware for the purpose of acceleration. The performance of the novel reconstruction implementation was tested for phantom and real patient cases. The efficiency of DTS reconstruction was improved by a factor of 13 on average, without compromising image quality. With acceleration of the reconstruction algorithm, the whole DTS generation process including data preprocessing, reconstruction, and DICOM conversion is accomplished within 1.5 min, which ultimately meets clinical requirement for on-line target localization.

  13. Fast reconstruction of digital tomosynthesis using on-board images.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Godfrey, Devon J; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2008-05-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional (3D) volume images from two-dimensional x-ray projections acquired over limited scan angles. Compared with cone-beam computed tomography, which is frequently used for 3D image guided radiation therapy, DTS requires less imaging time and dose. Successful implementation of DTS for fast target localization requires the reconstruction process to be accomplished within tight clinical time constraints (usually within 2 min). To achieve this goal, substantial improvement of reconstruction efficiency is necessary. In this study, a reconstruction process based upon the algorithm proposed by Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress was implemented on graphics hardware for the purpose of acceleration. The performance of the novel reconstruction implementation was tested for phantom and real patient cases. The efficiency of DTS reconstruction was improved by a factor of 13 on average, without compromising image quality. With acceleration of the reconstruction algorithm, the whole DTS generation process including data preprocessing, reconstruction, and DICOM conversion is accomplished within 1.5 min, which ultimately meets clinical requirement for on-line target localization.

  14. A fast algorithm for reordering sparse matrices for parallel factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.G.; Peyton, B.W.; Pothen, A.

    1989-01-01

    Jess and Kees introduced a method for ordering a sparse symmetric matrix A for efficient parallel factorization. The parallel ordering is computed in two steps. First, the matrix A is ordered by some fill-reducing ordering. Second, a parallel ordering of A is computed from the filled graph that results from factoring A using the initial fill-reducing ordering. Among all orderings whose fill lies in the filled graph, this parallel ordering achieves the minimum number of parallel steps in the factorization of A. Jess and Kees did not specify the implementation details of an algorithm for either step of this scheme. Liu and Mirzaian (1987) designed an algorithm implementing the second step, but it has time and space requirements higher than the cost of computing common fill-reducing orderings. We present here a new fast algorithm that implements the parallel ordering step by exploiting the clique tree representation of a chordal graph. We succeed in reducing the cost of the parallel ordering step well below that of the fill-reducing step. Our algorithm has time and space complexity linear in the number of compressed subscripts of L, i.e., the sum of the sizes of the maximal cliques of the filled graph. Empirically we demonstrate running times nearly identical to Liu's heuristic Composite Rotations algorithm that approximates the minimum number of parallel steps. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Fast, high sensitivity dewpoint hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A dewpoint/frostpoint hygrometer that uses a surface moisture-sensitive sensor as part of an RF oscillator circuit with feedback control of the sensor temperature to maintain equilibrium at the sensor surface between ambient water vapor and condensed water/ice. The invention is preferably implemented using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device in an RF oscillator circuit configured to generate a condensation-dependent output signal, a temperature sensor to measure the temperature of the SAW device and to distinguish between condensation-dependent and temperature-dependent signals, a temperature regulating device to control the temperature of the SAW device, and a feedback control system configured to keep the condensation-dependent signal nearly constant over time in the presence of time-varying humidity, corrected for temperature. The effect of this response is to heat or cool the surface moisture-sensitive device, which shifts the equilibrium with respect to evaporation and condensation at the surface of the device. The equilibrium temperature under feedback control is a measure of dewpoint or frostpoint.

  16. Implementing sepsis bundles

    PubMed Central

    Jozwiak, Mathieu; Monnet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis bundles represent key elements of care regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients with septic shock and allow ones to convert complex guidelines into meaningful changes in behavior. Sepsis bundles endorsed the early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) and their implementation resulted in an improved outcome of septic shock patients. They induced more consistent and timely application of evidence-based care and reduced practice variability. These benefits mainly depend on the compliance with sepsis bundles, highlighting the importance of dedicated performance improvement initiatives, such as multifaceted educational programs. Nevertheless, the interest of early goal directed therapy in septic shock patients compared to usual care has recently been questioned, leading to an update of sepsis bundles in 2015. These new sepsis bundles may also exhibit, as the previous bundles, some limits and pitfalls and the effects of their implementation still needs to be evaluated. PMID:27713890

  17. Implementation team activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, F.

    2002-12-01

    The implementation Team (IT) is a body reporting to the SCSB,. It has been assigned the task of preparing and harmonising policy, standards and specification proposals for evaluation, qualification and quality control, thus enabling a coherent and cost-effective ESCC Specification System for the procurement of EEE space components. Among the 10 recommendations issued by the SCAHC, 7 have been studied under the auspices of the Implementation Team. Its main activities have been the updating and modernising of the ESA/SCC system in order to meet user needs and to be compatible with market trends. In particular it updated the technical aspects of generic specifications for the different component families and introduced the QML concept into the SCC system. It has also studied and discussed other topics such as procurement standards, a reliability system, mutual recognition, databases and the preferred parts list. A summary of the progress made in all these fields will be presented below.

  18. Soil Transport Implement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, William; Fan, William; Lloyd, Joey; Pham, Nam-Anh; Stevens, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The design of the Soil Transport Implement (STI) for SKITTER is presented. The purpose of STI is to provide a protective layer of lunar soil for the lunar modules. The objective is to cover the lunar module with a layer of soil approximately two meters thick within a two week period. The amount of soil required to cover the module is roughly 77 dump truck loads or three million earth pounds. A spinning disk is employed to accomplish its task. STI is an autonomous, teleoperated system. The design incorporates the latest advances in composite materials and high strength, light weight alloys to achieve a high strength to weight ratio. The preliminary design should only be used to assess the feasibility of employing a spinning wheel as a soil transport implement. A mathematical model of the spinning wheel was used to evaluate the performance of this design.

  19. The influence of preoperative risk stratification on fast-tracking patients after pulmonary resection.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ayesha S; Cerfolio, Robert J

    2008-02-01

    Fast-tracking protocols or postoperative care computerized algorithms have been shown to reduce hospital length of stay and reduce costs; however, not all patients can be fast-tracked. Certain patient characteristics may put patients at increased risk to fail fast-tracking. Additionally some patients have multiple risk factors that have an additive effect that puts them at an even increased risk to fail fast-tracking, and more importantly, to significant morbidity. It is a mistake to force these protocols on all patients because it can lead to increased complications, readmissions, and low patient and family satisfaction. By carefully analyzing surgical results via accurate prospective databases, the types of patients who fail fast-tracking and the reasons they fail can be identified. Once these characteristics are pinpointed, specific changes to the postoperative algorithm can be implemented, and these alterations can lead to improved outcomes. The authors have shown that by using pain pumps instead of epidurals in elderly patients we can improve outcomes and still fast-track octogenarians with minimal morbidity and high-patient satisfaction. We have also shown that the increased use of physical therapy and respiratory treatments (important parts of the care of all patients after pulmonary resection, but a limited resource in most hospitals) may also lead to improved surgical results for those who have low FEV1% and DLco%. Further studies are needed. Although fast-tracking protocols cannot be applied to all, the vast majority of patients who undergo elective pulmonary resection, even those at high risk, can undergo safe, efficient, and cost-saving care via preset postoperative algorithms. When the typical daily events are convened each morning and the planned date of discharge is frequently communicated with the patient and family before surgery and each day in the hospital, most patients can be safely fast-tracked with high satisfaction and outstanding results.

  20. FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2009-06-23

    As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.

  1. Upgrading the ATLAS fast calorimeter simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubacek, Z.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full Geant4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software and can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. An improved parametrization is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and a neural network parametrization to optimise the amount of information to store in the ATLAS simulation infrastructure.

  2. Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours?

    PubMed

    Erol, Atila; Baylan, Gonul; Yazici, Fadime

    2008-07-01

    During Ramadan month, Muslims should refrain from drinking, eating and smoking from dawn to sunset. Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of young people, especially girls who are known as the most vulnerable group for eating disorders. Our sample consisted of 79 healthy volunteers from a high school (63 females; mean age = 16.29; 16 males; mean age = 16.31) who fasted during the Ramadan month. No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT (Eating Attitude Test) and BITE (Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh) which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of young girls and boys.

  3. Fast Food Combos Make Type A Lunches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stashower, Gloria

    1974-01-01

    Clark County school district in Las Vegas, Nevada, has combination lunches available for high school students that meet Type A nutrition requirements but which resemble the commercial fast food menus teenagers prefer. (MLF)

  4. Using Fast Food Restaurants for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koorland, Mark A.; Cooke, Janice C.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes how classroom discussion and field trips can be used to teach students with disabilities to engage in comparative shopping and informed choice making when they dine in fast food restaurants. (JDD)

  5. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A. Biehl, R.; Richter, D.; Ollivier, J.; Zamponi, M.

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D{sub 2}O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.

  6. Cosmology: Home of a fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2016-02-01

    Our understanding of fast radio bursts -- intense pulses of radio waves -- and their use as cosmic probes promises to be transformed now that one burst has been associated with a galaxy of known distance from Earth. See Letter p.453

  7. Implementation of SABSOON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    www.skio.peachnet.edu/sabsoon LONG-TERM GOALS We intend to assist efforts in utilizing the Navy’s offshore training facilities for scientific research...have been coordinating helicopter support. APPROACH We are facilitating the implementation of SABSOON by allowing the installation of scientific ...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  8. Partnership implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Leif I.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Unützer, Jürgen; Jaeckels, Nancy; Oftedahl, Gary; Beck, Arne; Maciosek, Michael V.; Crain, A. Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Background Translational research is increasingly important as academic health centers transform themselves to meet new requirements of NIH funding. Most attention has focused on T1 translation studies (bench to bedside) with considerable uncertainty about how to enhance T2 (effectiveness trials) and especially T3 (implementation studies). Objective To describe an innovative example of a T3 study, conducted as partnership research with the leaders of a major natural experiment in Minnesota to improve the primary care of depression. Methods All health plans in the state have agreed on a new payment model to support clinics that implement the well-evidenced collaborative care model for depression in the DIAMOND Initiative (Depression Improvement Across Minnesota: Offering a New Direction). The DIAMOND Study was developed in an ongoing partnership with Initiative leaders from seven health plans, 85 clinics, and a regional quality improvement collaborative to evaluate the implementation and its impacts on patients and other stakeholders. We agreed upon a staggered implementation, multiple baseline research design, utilizing the concepts of practical clinical trials and engaged scholarship and have collaborated on all aspects of conducting the study, including joint identification of patient and clinic survey recipients. Results Complex study methods have worked well through 20 months because of the commitment of all stakeholders to both the Initiative and study. Over 1,500 patient subjects have been recruited from health plan information delivered weekly and 99.7% of 316 physicians and administrators from all participating clinical organizations have completed Study surveys. Conclusions Partnership research can greatly facilitate translational research studies. PMID:20508531

  9. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, p<0.001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We

  10. Implementing PAT with Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  11. COUPLED FAST-THERMAL POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Avery, R.

    1961-07-18

    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  12. Fast imaging system on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Geraud, A.; Salasca, S.; Verger, J. M.; Alarcon, T.; Agarici, G.; Bremond, S.; Chenevois, J. P.; Geynet, M.; Migozzi, J. B.; Reux, C.

    2009-03-15

    A new endoscope aiming at transferring the image of a poloidal section of the Tore Supra plasma to a fast camera able to record frames at a speed up to 4800 frames per second at full resolution, or much faster for a limited number of pixel, has been installed on Tore Supra. First movies showing the light emission associated to fast phenomena such as plasma start up, disruptions or gas and pellet injections have been produced.

  13. Localizing the Fast Radio Burst 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Shami; Wharton, Robert; Law, Casey J.; Hessels, Jason; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Abruzzo, Matthew W.; Bassa, Cees; Butler, Bryan J.; Cordes, James M.; Paul, Demorest; Kaspi, Victoria M.; McLaughlin, Maura; Ransom, Scott M.; Scholz, Paul; Seymour, Andrew; Spitler, Laura; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; PALFA Survey Team; VLA+AO FRB121102 Simultaneous Campaign Team; EVN FRB121102 Campaign Team

    2017-01-01

    The precise localization of a fast radio burst and the identification of its host counterpart would allow constraints on their distances and energetics, and enable us to discriminate between various origin scenarios, from the local and mundane to the cosmological and exotic. Here we report on the results of an ongoing localization campaign on the repeating fast radio burst source, FRB 121102, with the VLA, Arecibo, and other telescopes.

  14. International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, Craig S.

    1990-01-01

    Cryospheric Sciences Program "International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow" (PI, C. Lingle) provided partial support for publication of Annals of Glaciology 36 by the International Glaciological Society. Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed journal. Annals 36, which was published in 2003, contains 39 peer-reviewed and edited papers from the International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow, which was held in Yakutat, Alaska, 10-14 June 2002.

  15. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  16. Fast, automated implementation of temporally precise blind deconvolution of multiphasic excitatory postsynaptic currents.

    PubMed

    Andor-Ardó, Daniel; Keen, Erica C; Hudspeth, A J; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2012-01-01

    Records of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) are often complex, with overlapping signals that display a large range of amplitudes. Statistical analysis of the kinetics and amplitudes of such complex EPSCs is nonetheless essential to the understanding of transmitter release. We therefore developed a maximum-likelihood blind deconvolution algorithm to detect exocytotic events in complex EPSC records. The algorithm is capable of characterizing the kinetics of the prototypical EPSC as well as delineating individual release events at higher temporal resolution than other extant methods. The approach also accommodates data with low signal-to-noise ratios and those with substantial overlaps between events. We demonstrated the algorithm's efficacy on paired whole-cell electrode recordings and synthetic data of high complexity. Using the algorithm to align EPSCs, we characterized their kinetics in a parameter-free way. Combining this approach with maximum-entropy deconvolution, we were able to identify independent release events in complex records at a temporal resolution of less than 250 µs. We determined that the increase in total postsynaptic current associated with depolarization of the presynaptic cell stems primarily from an increase in the rate of EPSCs rather than an increase in their amplitude. Finally, we found that fluctuations owing to postsynaptic receptor kinetics and experimental noise, as well as the model dependence of the deconvolution process, explain our inability to observe quantized peaks in histograms of EPSC amplitudes from physiological recordings.

  17. Hardware design and implementation of fast DOA estimation method based on multicore DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Zhao, Yingxiao; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Qianqiang; Chen, Zengping

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present a high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on multicore digital signal processor (DSP). The real-time signal processing platform shows several excellent characteristics including high performance computing, low power consumption, large-capacity data storage and high speed data transmission, which make it able to meet the constraint of real-time direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. To reduce the high computational complexity of DOA estimation algorithm, a novel real-valued MUSIC estimator is used. The algorithm is decomposed into several independent steps and the time consumption of each step is counted. Based on the statistics of the time consumption, we present a new parallel processing strategy to distribute the task of DOA estimation to different cores of the real-time signal processing hardware platform. Experimental results demonstrate that the high processing capability of the signal processing platform meets the constraint of real-time direction of arrival (DOA) estimation.

  18. RFI suppression in SAR based on filtering interpretation of SSA and fast implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Weidong; Qi, Xiangyang; Liu, Yue

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing instrument for underground and obscured object detection. However, SAR echoes are often contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI) from multiple broadcasting stations. Essentially, RFI suppression problem is one-dimensional stationary time series denoising problem. This article proposed a novel RFI suppression algorithm based on singular spectral analysis (SSA) from a linear invariant systems perspective. It can be seen that SSA algorithm has an equivalence relation with finite impulse response (FIR) filter banks. Besides, this article first introduce two approximated methods which can remarkably speed up spectral decomposition--Nyström method and Column-Sampling approximation--to obtain the coefficients of above SSA-FIR-filter. Simulation results and imaging results of measured data have proved the efficiency and validity of this algorithm.

  19. Fasting guidelines for diabetic children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Azad, Kiswhar; Mohsin, Fauzia; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zabeen, Bedowra; Ahmad, Jamal; Raza, Syed Abbas; Tayyeb, Samin; Bajaj, Sarita; Ishtiaq, Osama; Kalra, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar). During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM) who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician.

  20. Physical mechanism of spontaneous fast reconnection evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugai, M.

    2001-06-01

    Large dissipative events, such as solar flares and geomagnetic substorms, result from sudden onset of magnetic reconnection, so that it is a long-standing problem to find the physical mechanism that makes magnetic reconnection explosive. As recognized by Petschek, standing slow shocks enable the effective magnetic energy conversion in space plasmas of extremely large magnetic Reynolds number. Hence, a basic question is how the fast reconnection mechanism involving slow shocks can be realized as an eventual solution? We have proposed the spontaneous fast reconnection model, which describes a new type of nonlinear instability that grows by the positive feedback between plasma microphysics (current-driven anomalous resistivity) and macrophysics (global reconnection flow). It is demonstrated that the fast reconnection mechanism explosively grows by the positive feedback in a variety of physical situations; for the larger threshold of anomalous resistivity, the fast reconnection evolves more drastically. Also, distinct plasma processes, such as large-scale plasmoid and magnetic loop dynamics, result directly from the fast reconnection evolution. Even in general asymmetric situations, the spontaneous fast reconnection model effectively works, giving rise to drastic magnetic flux transfer.

  1. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  2. Implementation of low communication frequency 3D FFT algorithm for ultra-large-scale micromagnetics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukahara, Hiroshi; Iwano, Kaoru; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Ono, Kanta

    2016-10-01

    We implement low communication frequency three-dimensional fast Fourier transform algorithms on micromagnetics simulator for calculations of a magnetostatic field which occupies a significant portion of large-scale micromagnetics simulation. This fast Fourier transform algorithm reduces the frequency of all-to-all communications from six to two times. Simulation times with our simulator show high scalability in parallelization, even if we perform the micromagnetics simulation using 32 768 physical computing cores. This low communication frequency fast Fourier transform algorithm enables world largest class micromagnetics simulations to be carried out with over one billion calculation cells.

  3. Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goda, K.; Jalali, B.

    2013-02-01

    Dispersive Fourier transformation is an emerging measurement technique that overcomes the speed limitations of traditional optical instruments and enables fast continuous single-shot measurements in optical sensing, spectroscopy and imaging. Using chromatic dispersion, dispersive Fourier transformation maps the spectrum of an optical pulse to a temporal waveform whose intensity mimics the spectrum, thus allowing a single-pixel photodetector to capture the spectrum at a scan rate significantly beyond what is possible with conventional space-domain spectrometers. Over the past decade, this method has brought us a new class of real-time instruments that permit the capture of rare events such as optical rogue waves and rare cancer cells in blood, which would otherwise be missed using conventional instruments. In this Review, we discuss the principle of dispersive Fourier transformation and its implementation across a wide range of diverse applications.

  4. Fast chirality reversal of the magnetic vortex by electric current

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, W. L. Liu, R. H.; Urazhdin, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Erokhin, S. G.; Berkov, D.

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of high-density information encoding in magnetic materials by topologically stable inhomogeneous magnetization configurations such as domain walls, skyrmions, and vortices has motivated intense research into mechanisms enabling their control and detection. While the uniform magnetization states can be efficiently controlled by electric current using magnetic multilayer structures, this approach has proven much more difficult to implement for inhomogeneous states. Here, we report direct observation of fast reversal of magnetic vortex by electric current in a simple planar structure based on a bilayer of spin Hall material Pt with a single microscopic ferromagnetic disk contacted by asymmetric electrodes. The reversal is enabled by a combination of the chiral Oersted field and spin current generated by the nonuniform current distribution in Pt. Our results provide a route for the efficient control of inhomogeneous magnetization configurations by electric current.

  5. Fast algorithm for relaxation processes in big-data systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S.; Lee, D.-S.; Kahng, B.

    2014-10-01

    Relaxation processes driven by a Laplacian matrix can be found in many real-world big-data systems, for example, in search engines on the World Wide Web and the dynamic load-balancing protocols in mesh networks. To numerically implement such processes, a fast-running algorithm for the calculation of the pseudoinverse of the Laplacian matrix is essential. Here we propose an algorithm which computes quickly and efficiently the pseudoinverse of Markov chain generator matrices satisfying the detailed-balance condition, a general class of matrices including the Laplacian. The algorithm utilizes the renormalization of the Gaussian integral. In addition to its applicability to a wide range of problems, the algorithm outperforms other algorithms in its ability to compute within a manageable computing time arbitrary elements of the pseudoinverse of a matrix of size millions by millions. Therefore our algorithm can be used very widely in analyzing the relaxation processes occurring on large-scale networked systems.

  6. RADAR: A Fast, Scaleable, and Distributable Archive Inventory Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Alexov, A.; Berriman, G. B.; Good, J. C.; Kong, M.; Tahir-Kheli, N. D.; Monkewitz, S.

    2005-12-01

    The NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) has recently deployed the Recursive Archive Digest and Reference (RADAR) service, which returns an inventory of IRSA's holdings in response to a spatial query, and offers one-click download of data and links to IRSA's data access services. RADAR also supports inventories and data access from remote archives; the current implementation supports access to the Multi-mission Archive at STScI (MAST) Spectral and Image Scrapbook and NEDBasic Data. When complete, RADAR will maintain the results of multiple queries in ``data collections'' and will provide tools that will allow users to augment collections, remove data from them, modify search criteria, resubmit jobs, and check job status. RADAR is supported by an evolution of IRSA's component based architecture. It utilizes a fast estimation service and runs under the Request Management Environment (ROME) funded by NVO.

  7. S2LET: Fast wavelet analysis on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason

    2012-11-01

    S2LET provides high performance routines for fast wavelet analysis of signals on the sphere. It uses the SSHT code built on the MW sampling theorem to perform exact spherical harmonic transforms on the sphere. The resulting wavelet transform implemented in S2LET is theoretically exact, i.e. a band-limited signal can be recovered from its wavelet coefficients exactly and the wavelet coefficients capture all the information. S2LET also supports the HEALPix sampling scheme, in which case the transforms are not theoretically exact but achieve good numerical accuracy. The core routines of S2LET are written in C and have interfaces in Matlab, IDL and Java. Real signals can be written to and read from FITS files and plotted as Mollweide projections.

  8. A Massively Parallel Adaptive Fast Multipole Method on Heterogeneous Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lashuk, Ilya; Chandramowlishwaran, Aparna; Langston, Harper; Nguyen, Tuan-Anh; Sampath, Rahul S; Shringarpure, Aashay; Vuduc, Richard; Ying, Lexing; Zorin, Denis; Biros, George

    2012-01-01

    We describe a parallel fast multipole method (FMM) for highly nonuniform distributions of particles. We employ both distributed memory parallelism (via MPI) and shared memory parallelism (via OpenMP and GPU acceleration) to rapidly evaluate two-body nonoscillatory potentials in three dimensions on heterogeneous high performance computing architectures. We have performed scalability tests with up to 30 billion particles on 196,608 cores on the AMD/CRAY-based Jaguar system at ORNL. On a GPU-enabled system (NSF's Keeneland at Georgia Tech/ORNL), we observed 30x speedup over a single core CPU and 7x speedup over a multicore CPU implementation. By combining GPUs with MPI, we achieve less than 10 ns/particle and six digits of accuracy for a run with 48 million nonuniformly distributed particles on 192 GPUs.

  9. Fast and robust quantum computation with ionic Wigner crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrusch, J. D.; Negretti, A.; Taylor, J. M.; Calarco, T.

    2011-04-15

    We present a detailed analysis of the modulated-carrier quantum phase gate implemented with Wigner crystals of ions confined in Penning traps. We elaborate on a recent scheme, proposed by two of the authors, to engineer two-body interactions between ions in such crystals. We analyze the situation in which the cyclotron ({omega}{sub c}) and the crystal rotation ({omega}{sub r}) frequencies do not fulfill the condition {omega}{sub c}=2{omega}{sub r}. It is shown that even in the presence of the magnetic field in the rotating frame the many-body (classical) Hamiltonian describing small oscillations from the ion equilibrium positions can be recast in canonical form. As a consequence, we are able to demonstrate that fast and robust two-qubit gates are achievable within the current experimental limitations. Moreover, we describe a realization of the state-dependent sign-changing dipole forces needed to realize the investigated quantum computing scheme.

  10. Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

  11. A fast Fourier transform on multipoles (FFTM) algorithm for solving Helmholtz equation in acoustics analysis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Eng Teo; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng

    2004-09-01

    This article presents a fast algorithm for the efficient solution of the Helmholtz equation. The method is based on the translation theory of the multipole expansions. Here, the speedup comes from the convolution nature of the translation operators, which can be evaluated rapidly using fast Fourier transform algorithms. Also, the computations of the translation operators are accelerated by using the recursive formulas developed recently by Gumerov and Duraiswami [SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 25, 1344-1381(2003)]. It is demonstrated that the algorithm can produce good accuracy with a relatively low order of expansion. Efficiency analyses of the algorithm reveal that it has computational complexities of O(Na), where a ranges from 1.05 to 1.24. However, this method requires substantially more memory to store the translation operators as compared to the fast multipole method. Hence, despite its simplicity in implementation, this memory requirement issue may limit the application of this algorithm to solving very large-scale problems.

  12. Hyper fast radiative transfer for the physical retrieval of surface parameters from SEVIRI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Blasi, M. G.; Venafra, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the theoretical aspects of a fast scheme for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity from SEVIRI data, their implementation and some sample results obtained. The scheme is based on a Kalman Filter approach, which effectively exploits the temporal continuity in the observations of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, on which SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) operates. Such scheme embodies in its core a physical retrieval algorithm, which employs an hyper fast radiative transfer code highly customized for this retrieval task. Radiative transfer and its customizations are described in detail. Fastness, accuracy and stability of the code are fully documented for a variety of surface features, showing a peculiar application to the massive Greek forest fires in August 2007.

  13. Simultaneous acquisition of spatial harmonics (SMASH): fast imaging with radiofrequency coil arrays.

    PubMed

    Sodickson, D K; Manning, W J

    1997-10-01

    SiMultaneous Acquisition of Spatial Harmonics (SMASH) is a new fast-imaging technique that increases MR image acquisition speed by an integer factor over existing fast-imaging methods, without significant sacrifices in spatial resolution or signal-to-noise ratio. Image acquisition time is reduced by exploiting spatial information inherent in the geometry of a surface coil array to substitute for some of the phase encoding usually produced by magnetic field gradients. This allows for partially parallel image acquisitions using many of the existing fast-imaging sequences. Unlike the data combination algorithms of prior proposals for parallel imaging, SMASH reconstruction involves a small set of MR signal combinations prior to Fourier transformation, which can be advantageous for artifact handling and practical implementation. A twofold savings in image acquisition time is demonstrated here using commercial phased array coils on two different MR-imaging systems. Larger time savings factors can be expected for appropriate coil designs.

  14. Photoelectric photometry era at the Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences III. Fast photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaňko, M.; Kollár, V.; Komžík, R.; Koza, J.; Pribulla, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a continuation of the article series describing the photoelectric photometry era at the Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The paper aims to provide a comprehensive technical description of implementation of the fast photometry at the Stará Lesná Observatory and estimates its photometric precision. Using integration times of 0.1 s and 0.01 s, an estimated photometric precision of the fast photometry is about 0.02 mag and 0.06 mag, respectively. Here, we also show the observation principles of the fast photometry and its use in positive observation of stellar occultation lasting 18.44 s by the asteroid (85) Io.

  15. Low-power lead-cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX-fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitdikov, E. R.; Terekhova, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Fast reactor for the purpose of implementation of research, education of undergraduate and doctoral students in handling innovative fast reactors and training specialists for atomic research centers and nuclear power plants (BRUTs) was considered. Hard neutron spectrum achieved in the fast reactor with compact core and lead coolant. Possibility of prompt neutron runaway of the reactor is excluded due to the low reactivity margin which is less than the effective fraction of delayed neutrons. The possibility of using MOX fuel in the BRUTs reactor was examined. The effect of Keff growth connected with replacement of natural lead coolant to 208Pb coolant was evaluated. The calculations and reactor core model were performed using the Serpent Monte Carlo code.

  16. Fast imaging of live organisms with sculpted light sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Aleksander K.; Kyrsting, Anders; Mahou, Pierre; Wayland, Matthew T.; Muresan, Leila; Evers, Jan Felix; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-04-01

    Light-sheet microscopy is an increasingly popular technique in the life sciences due to its fast 3D imaging capability of fluorescent samples with low photo toxicity compared to confocal methods. In this work we present a new, fast, flexible and simple to implement method to optimize the illumination light-sheet to the requirement at hand. A telescope composed of two electrically tuneable lenses enables us to define thickness and position of the light-sheet independently but accurately within milliseconds, and therefore optimize image quality of the features of interest interactively. We demonstrated the practical benefit of this technique by 1) assembling large field of views from tiled single exposure each with individually optimized illumination settings; 2) sculpting the light-sheet to trace complex sample shapes within single exposures. This technique proved compatible with confocal line scanning detection, further improving image contrast and resolution. Finally, we determined the effect of light-sheet optimization in the context of scattering tissue, devising procedures for balancing image quality, field of view and acquisition speed.

  17. WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Seljebotn, D. S.

    2012-03-01

    We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L{sup 2}log{sup 2} L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L {approx} 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.

  18. Fast muon simulation in the JUNO central detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Deng, Zi-Yan; Li, Wei-Dong; Cao, Guo-Fu; You, Zheng-Yun; Li, Xin-Ying

    2016-08-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multi-purpose neutrino experiment designed to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy using a central detector (CD), which contains 20 kton liquid scintillator (LS) surrounded by about 17000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Due to the large fiducial volume and huge number of PMTs, the simulation of a muon particle passing through the CD with the Geant4 toolkit becomes an extremely computation-intensive task. This paper presents a fast simulation implementation using a so-called voxel method: for scintillation photons generated in a certain LS voxel, the PMT’s response is produced beforehand with Geant4 and then introduced into the simulation at runtime. This parameterisation method successfully speeds up the most CPU consuming process, the optical photon’s propagation in the LS, by a factor of 50. In the paper, the comparison of physics performance between fast and full simulation is also given. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA10010900) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405279, 11575224)

  19. F2Dock: Fast Fourier Protein-Protein Docking

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Chowdhury, Rezaul; Siddavanahalli, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    The functions of proteins is often realized through their mutual interactions. Determining a relative transformation for a pair of proteins and their conformations which form a stable complex, reproducible in nature, is known as docking. It is an important step in drug design, structure determination and understanding function and structure relationships. In this paper we extend our non-uniform fast Fourier transform docking algorithm to include an adaptive search phase (both translational and rotational) and thereby speed up its execution. We have also implemented a multithreaded version of the adaptive docking algorithm for even faster execution on multicore machines. We call this protein-protein docking code F2Dock (F2 = Fast Fourier). We have calibrated F2Dock based on an extensive experimental study on a list of benchmark complexes and conclude that F2Dock works very well in practice. Though all docking results reported in this paper use shape complementarity and Coulombic potential based scores only, F2Dock is structured to incorporate Lennard-Jones potential and re-ranking docking solutions based on desolvation energy. PMID:21071796

  20. A PDE-Based Fast Local Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Danping; Merriman, Barry; Osher, Stanley; Zhao, Hongkai; Kang, Myungjoo

    1999-11-01

    We develop a fast method to localize the level set method of Osher and Sethian (1988, J. Comput. Phys.79, 12) and address two important issues that are intrinsic to the level set method: (a) how to extend a quantity that is given only on the interface to a neighborhood of the interface; (b) how to reset the level set function to be a signed distance function to the interface efficiently without appreciably moving the interface. This fast local level set method reduces the computational effort by one order of magnitude, works in as much generality as the original one, and is conceptually simple and easy to implement. Our approach differs from previous related works in that we extract all the information needed from the level set function (or functions in multiphase flow) and do not need to find explicitly the location of the interface in the space domain. The complexity of our method to do tasks such as extension and distance reinitialization is O(N), where N is the number of points in space, not O(N log N) as in works by Sethian (1996, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 93, 1591) and Helmsen and co-workers (1996, SPIE Microlithography IX, p. 253). This complexity estimation is also valid for quite general geometrically based front motion for our localized method.

  1. Leveraging transcript quantification for fast computation of alternative splicing profiles

    PubMed Central

    Alamancos, Gael P.; Pagès, Amadís; Trincado, Juan L.; Bellora, Nicolás; Eyras, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays an essential role in many cellular processes and bears major relevance in the understanding of multiple diseases, including cancer. High-throughput RNA sequencing allows genome-wide analyses of splicing across multiple conditions. However, the increasing number of available data sets represents a major challenge in terms of computation time and storage requirements. We describe SUPPA, a computational tool to calculate relative inclusion values of alternative splicing events, exploiting fast transcript quantification. SUPPA accuracy is comparable and sometimes superior to standard methods using simulated as well as real RNA-sequencing data compared with experimentally validated events. We assess the variability in terms of the choice of annotation and provide evidence that using complete transcripts rather than more transcripts per gene provides better estimates. Moreover, SUPPA coupled with de novo transcript reconstruction methods does not achieve accuracies as high as using quantification of known transcripts, but remains comparable to existing methods. Finally, we show that SUPPA is more than 1000 times faster than standard methods. Coupled with fast transcript quantification, SUPPA provides inclusion values at a much higher speed than existing methods without compromising accuracy, thereby facilitating the systematic splicing analysis of large data sets with limited computational resources. The software is implemented in Python 2.7 and is available under the MIT license at https://bitbucket.org/regulatorygenomicsupf/suppa. PMID:26179515

  2. WGSQuikr: fast whole-genome shotgun metagenomic classification.

    PubMed

    Koslicki, David; Foucart, Simon; Rosen, Gail

    2014-01-01

    With the decrease in cost and increase in output of whole-genome shotgun technologies, many metagenomic studies are utilizing this approach in lieu of the more traditional 16S rRNA amplicon technique. Due to the large number of relatively short reads output from whole-genome shotgun technologies, there is a need for fast and accurate short-read OTU classifiers. While there are relatively fast and accurate algorithms available, such as MetaPhlAn, MetaPhyler, PhyloPythiaS, and PhymmBL, these algorithms still classify samples in a read-by-read fashion and so execution times can range from hours to days on large datasets. We introduce WGSQuikr, a reconstruction method which can compute a vector of taxonomic assignments and their proportions in the sample with remarkable speed and accuracy. We demonstrate on simulated data that WGSQuikr is typically more accurate and up to an order of magnitude faster than the aforementioned classification algorithms. We also verify the utility of WGSQuikr on real biological data in the form of a mock community. WGSQuikr is a Whole-Genome Shotgun QUadratic, Iterative, K-mer based Reconstruction method which extends the previously introduced 16S rRNA-based algorithm Quikr. A MATLAB implementation of WGSQuikr is available at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/wgsquikr.

  3. A generic technique for reducing OPC iteration: fast forward OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Le; Sturtevant, John

    2007-10-01

    The drive toward advanced technology nodes has drastically increased the computational complexity of optical proximity correction (OPC). Applying full-chip OPC to all critical layers has become the most computational demanding step in the tape-out process. Tuning for fast and accurate OPC recipes is a critical step in the development of a total manufacturing solution. OPC is by design an iterative cycle, where one iteration is a single simulation and polygon fragmentation shift sequence. Typically an accurate OPC recipe requires eight or more iterations to converge to a final best solution. The number of iterations in a recipe directly impacts the full-chip OPC runtime. Engineers often find themselves spending hours tuning an OPC recipe to reduce just one iteration. This paper presents a generic technique called Fast Forward OPC (FFOPC). FFOPC will help to reduce any golden OPC recipe that meets certain requirements to a fixed 4 iterations with minimum accuracy lost. Most importantly this technique can be easily implemented as a plugin with any existing OPC tools.

  4. Symmetric fast marching schemes for better numerical isotropy.

    PubMed

    Appia, Vikram; Yezzi, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    Existing fast marching methods solve the Eikonal equation using a continuous (first-order) model to estimate the accumulated cost, but a discontinuous (zero-order) model for the traveling cost at each grid point. As a result the estimate of the accumulated cost (calculated numerically) at a given point will vary based on the direction of the arriving front, introducing an anisotropy into the discrete algorithm even though the continuous partial differential equation (PDE) is itself isotropic. To remove this anisotropy, we propose two very different schemes. In the first model, we utilize a continuous interpolation of the traveling cost, which is not biased by the direction of the propagating front. In the second model, we upsample the traveling cost on a higher resolution grid to overcome the directional bias. We show the significance of removing the directional bias in the computation of the cost in some applications of the fast marching method, demonstrating that both methods make the discrete implementation more isotropic, in accordance with the underlying continuous PDE.

  5. A fast contour descriptor algorithm for supernova imageclassification

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Aragon, David Bradburn

    2006-07-16

    We describe a fast contour descriptor algorithm and its application to a distributed supernova detection system (the Nearby Supernova Factory) that processes 600,000 candidate objects in 80 GB of image data per night. Our shape-detection algorithm reduced the number of false positives generated by the supernova search pipeline by 41% while producing no measurable impact on running time. Fourier descriptors are an established method of numerically describing the shapes of object contours, but transform-based techniques are ordinarily avoided in this type of application due to their computational cost. We devised a fast contour descriptor implementation for supernova candidates that meets the tight processing budget of the application. Using the lowest-order descriptors (F{sub 1} and F{sub -1}) and the total variance in the contour, we obtain one feature representing the eccentricity of the object and another denoting its irregularity. Because the number of Fourier terms to be calculated is fixed and small, the algorithm runs in linear time, rather than the O(n log n) time of an FFT. Constraints on object size allow further optimizations so that the total cost of producing the required contour descriptors is about 4n addition/subtraction operations, where n is the length of the contour.

  6. FastQuery: A Parallel Indexing System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,

    2011-07-29

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the- art index and query technologies such as FastBit can significantly improve accesses to these datasets by augmenting the user data with indexes and other secondary information. However, a challenge is that the indexes assume the relational data model but the scientific data generally follows the array data model. To match the two data models, we design a generic mapping mechanism and implement an efficient input and output interface for reading and writing the data and their corresponding indexes. To take advantage of the emerging many-core architectures, we also develop a parallel strategy for indexing using threading technology. This approach complements our on-going MPI-based parallelization efforts. We demonstrate the flexibility of our software by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using data from a particle accelerator model and a global climate model. We also conducted a detailed performance study using these scientific datasets. The results show that FastQuery speeds up the query time by a factor of 2.5x to 50x, and it reduces the indexing time by a factor of 16 on 24 cores.

  7. Fast imaging of live organisms with sculpted light sheets

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Aleksander K.; Kyrsting, Anders; Mahou, Pierre; Wayland, Matthew T.; Muresan, Leila; Evers, Jan Felix; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-01-01

    Light-sheet microscopy is an increasingly popular technique in the life sciences due to its fast 3D imaging capability of fluorescent samples with low photo toxicity compared to confocal methods. In this work we present a new, fast, flexible and simple to implement method to optimize the illumination light-sheet to the requirement at hand. A telescope composed of two electrically tuneable lenses enables us to define thickness and position of the light-sheet independently but accurately within milliseconds, and therefore optimize image quality of the features of interest interactively. We demonstrated the practical benefit of this technique by 1) assembling large field of views from tiled single exposure each with individually optimized illumination settings; 2) sculpting the light-sheet to trace complex sample shapes within single exposures. This technique proved compatible with confocal line scanning detection, further improving image contrast and resolution. Finally, we determined the effect of light-sheet optimization in the context of scattering tissue, devising procedures for balancing image quality, field of view and acquisition speed. PMID:25893952

  8. Fast X-ray luminescence computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Liao, Qimei; Wang, Hongkai

    2014-06-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) opens new possibilities to perform molecular imaging with X-ray. However, challenges remain in dynamic XLCT imaging, where short scan time, good spatial resolution, and whole-body field of view should be considered simultaneously. In this paper, by the use of a single-view XLCT reconstruction method based on a compressive sensing (CS) technique, incorporating a cone beam XLCT imaging system, we implement fast 3-D XLCT imaging. To evaluate the performance of the method, two types of phantom experiments were performed based on a cone beam XLCT imaging system. In Case 1, one tube filled with the X-ray-excitable nanophosphor (Gd 2O 3 :Eu (3+)) was immerged in different positions in the phantom to evaluate the effect of the source position on single-view XLCT reconstruction accuracy. In Case 2, two tubes filled with Gd 2O 3 :Eu (3+) were immerged in different heights in the phantom to evaluate the whole-body imaging performance of single-view XLCT reconstruction. The experimental results indicated that the tubes used in previous phantom experiments can be resolved from single-view XCLT reconstruction images. The location error is less than 1.2 mm. In addition, since only one view data are needed to implement 3-D XLCT imaging, the acquisition time can be greatly reduced (∼1 frame/s) compared with previous XLCT systems. Hence, the technique is suited for imaging the fast distribution of the X-ray-excitable nanophosphors within a biological object.

  9. Fast pulse detection algorithms for digitized waveforms from scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, V.; Marocco, D.; Esposito, B.; Riva, M.; Kaschuck, Yu.

    2011-03-01

    Advanced C++ programming methods as well as fast Pulse Detection Algorithms (PDA) have been implemented in order to increase the computing speed of a LabVIEW™ data processing software developed for a Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination (DPSD) system for liquid scintillators. The newly implemented PDAs are described and compared: the most efficient method has been implemented in the data processing software, which has also been ported into C++. The comparison of the computing speeds of the new and old versions of the PDAs are presented. Program summaryProgram title: DPDS - Digital Pulse Detection Software Catalogue identifier: AEHQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 454 070 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20 987 104 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (Borland Visual C++) Computer: IBM PC Operating system: MS Windows 2000 and later… RAM: <50 Mbytes, highly depends on settings Classification: 4.12 External routines: Only standard Borland Visual C++ libraries Nature of problem: A very slow pulse detection algorithm, used as standard in LABView, is preventing the ability to process achieved data during the pause between plasma discharges in modern tokamaks. Solution method: Simple yet precise pulse detection algorithms implemented and the whole data processing software translated from LABView into C++. This speeded up the elaboration up to 30 times. Restrictions: Windows system decimal separator must be ".", not ",". Additional comments: Processing 300 MB data file should not take longer then 10 minutes. Running time: From 1 minute to 1 hour.

  10. Ketone-glucose interaction in fed, fasted, and fasted-infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, A G; Wolfe, R R; Colpoys, M F; Muhlbacher, F; Wilmore, D W

    1983-05-01

    Ketosis following starvation was suppressed by hindlimb infection in seven fasted sheep. Glucose production determined following the primed constant infusion of [6-3H(N)]glucose was elevated in the fasted-infected animals (9.50 +/- 1.11 mmol X kg-1 X min-1 (mean +/- SE) versus fasted controls (5.56 +/- 2.2). To determine if the ketonemia following sepsis contributed to the increased glucogenesis associated with catabolic disorder, glucose production and arterial substrates were measured before and after infusion of sodium-DL-beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB, 20 mumol X kg-1 X min-1) in fed, fasted, and fasted-infected animals. Following 3 h of beta-OHB infusion in the awake conditioned animals, beta-OHB and acetoacetate blood concentrations more than doubled. With infusion, blood glucose and alanine concentrations decreased in the fed and fasted sheep but not in the fasted-infected group. Glucose production fell significantly from 10.11 +/- 1.33 to 8.44 +/- 1.05 in the fed animals and from 5.05 +/- 0.28 to 4.11 +/- 0.33 in the fasted group. Glucose production was unaffected by beta-OHB infusion in the fasted-infected animals (9.50 +/- 1.83 vs. 9.11 +/- 1.44). The accelerated rate of glucose production in sheep following infection is not a consequence of the hypoketonemic state associated with sepsis.

  11. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recktenwald, Geoff; Deinert, Mark

    2010-03-01

    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks.

  12. Fast and Adaptive Lossless On-Board Hyperspectral Data Compression System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Bakhshi, Alireza; Keymeulen, Didier; Klimesh, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Efficient on-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces the data volume necessary to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The techniques also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware, which makes it practical for flight implementations of pushbroom instruments. A prototype of the compressor (and decompressor) of the algorithm is available in software, but this implementation may not meet speed and real-time requirements of some space applications. Hardware acceleration provides performance improvements of 10x-100x vs. the software implementation (about 1M samples/sec on a Pentium IV machine). This paper describes a hardware implementation of the JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' compression algorithm on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA implementation targets the current state of the art FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex IV and V families) and compresses one sample every clock cycle to provide a fast and practical real-time solution for Space applications.

  13. Modelling land-fast sea ice using a linear elastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Mathieu; Tremblay, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Land-fast ice is an important component of the Arctic system, capping the coastal Arctic waters for most of the year and exerting a large influence on ocean-atmosphere heat exchanges. Yet, the accurate representation of land-fast ice in most large-scale sea ice models remains a challenge, part due to the difficult (and sometimes non-physical) parametrisation of ice fracture. In this study, a linear elastic model is developed to investigate the internal stresses induced by the wind forcing on the land-fast ice, modelled as a 2D elastic plate. The model simulates ice fracture by the implementation of a damage coefficient which causes a local reduction in internal stress. This results in a cascade propagation of damage, simulating the ice fracture that determines the position of the land-fast ice edge. The modelled land-fast ice cover is sensitive to the choice of failure criterion. The parametrised cohesion, tensile and compressive strength and the relationship with the land-fast ice stability is discussed. To estimate the large scale mechanical properties of land-fast ice, these results are compared to a set of land-fast ice break up events and ice bridge formations observed in the Siberian Arctic. These events are identified using brightness temperature imagery from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra and Aqua satellites, from which the position of the flaw lead is identifiable by the opening of polynyi adjacent to the land-fast ice edge. The shape of the land-fast ice before, during and after these events, along with the characteristic scale of the resulting ice floes, are compared to the model results to extrapolate the stress state that corresponds to these observations. The model setting that best reproduce the scale of the observed break up events is used to provide an estimation of the strength of the ice relative to the wind forcing. These results will then be used to investigate the relationship between the ice thickness and the

  14. Kernel Density Estimation, Kernel Methods, and Fast Learning in Large Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shitong; Wang, Jun; Chung, Fu-lai

    2014-01-01

    Kernel methods such as the standard support vector machine and support vector regression trainings take O(N(3)) time and O(N(2)) space complexities in their naïve implementations, where N is the training set size. It is thus computationally infeasible in applying them to large data sets, and a replacement of the naive method for finding the quadratic programming (QP) solutions is highly desirable. By observing that many kernel methods can be linked up with kernel density estimate (KDE) which can be efficiently implemented by some approximation techniques, a new learning method called fast KDE (FastKDE) is proposed to scale up kernel methods. It is based on establishing a connection between KDE and the QP problems formulated for kernel methods using an entropy-based integrated-squared-error criterion. As a result, FastKDE approximation methods can be applied to solve these QP problems. In this paper, the latest advance in fast data reduction via KDE is exploited. With just a simple sampling strategy, the resulted FastKDE method can be used to scale up various kernel methods with a theoretical guarantee that their performance does not degrade a lot. It has a time complexity of O(m(3)) where m is the number of the data points sampled from the training set. Experiments on different benchmarking data sets demonstrate that the proposed method has comparable performance with the state-of-art method and it is effective for a wide range of kernel methods to achieve fast learning in large data sets.

  15. Fast String Search on Multicore Processors: Mapping fundamental algorithms onto parallel hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpazza, Daniele P.; Villa, Oreste; Petrini, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    String searching is one of these basic algorithms. It has a host of applications, including search engines, network intrusion detection, virus scanners, spam filters, and DNA analysis, among others. The Cell processor, with its multiple cores, promises to speed-up string searching a lot. In this article, we show how we mapped string searching efficiently on the Cell. We present two implementations: • The fast implementation supports a small dictionary size (approximately 100 patterns) and provides a throughput of 40 Gbps, which is 100 times faster than reference implementations on x86 architectures. • The heavy-duty implementation is slower (3.3-4.3 Gbps), but supports dictionaries with tens of thousands of strings.

  16. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  17. Implementation notes on bdes(1). [data encryption implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1991-01-01

    This note describes the implementation of bdes, the file encryption program being distributed in the 4.4 release of the Berkeley Software Distribution. It implements all modes of the Data Encryption Standard program.

  18. Strategic implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Life Science Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) describes its plans for assuring the health, safety, and productivity of astronauts in space, and its plans for acquiring further fundamental scientific knowledge concerning space life sciences. This strategic implementation plan details OSSA's goals, objectives, and planned initiatives. The following areas of interest are identified: operational medicine; biomedical research; space biology; exobiology; biospheric research; controlled ecological life support; flight programs and advance technology development; the life sciences educational program; and earth benefits from space life sciences.

  19. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  20. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  1. GOSIP implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Van Norman, H.J.

    1996-07-01

    GOSIP (Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile) is a subset of ISO`s OSI protocol standards relevant to US Government operations. As a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), GOSIP is required by law for all Federal agencies. Mandatory standards-based communications products are required when purchasing functionality equivalent to what is specified in GOSIP. This unprecedented requirement by the Federal government has caused considerable confusion concerning practical implementation of relatively immature and untested technologies. Many organizations already have substantial investment in one or more proprietary network architectures. This paper examines issues associated with conversion to the GOSIP system.

  2. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  3. Computational Studies and Designs for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sakagami, H.; Mima, K.

    2006-12-01

    The fast ignition scheme is one of the most fascinating and feasible ignition schemes for the inertial fusion energy. At ILE Osaka University, FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project is in progress. Implosion experiments of the cryogenic target are scheduled in near future. There are two key issues for the fast ignition. One is controlling the implosion dynamics to form high density core plasma in non-spherical implosion, and the other is heating the core plasma efficiently by the short pulse high intense laser. The time and space scale in the fast ignition scheme vary widely from initial laser irradiation to solid target, to relativistic laser plasma interaction and final fusion burning. The numerical simulation plays an important role in demonstrating the performance of the fast ignition, designing the targets, and optimizing laser pulse shapes for the scheme. These all the physics are desired to be self-consistently described. In order to study these physics of FI, we have developed "Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code" (FI3), which consists of collective Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code (FISCOF1D/2D), Relativistic Fokker-Planck with hydro code (FIBMET), and 2-dimensional Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) radiation hydrodynamics code (PINOCO). Those codes are sophisticated in each suitable plasma parameters, and boundaries conditions and initial conditions for them are imported/exported to each other by way of DCCP, a simple and compact communication tool which enable these codes to communicate each others under executing different machines. We show the feature of the FI3 code, and numerical results of whole process of fast ignition. Individual important physics behind the FI are explained with the numerical results also.

  4. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  5. Navigator GPS Receiver for Fast Acquisition and Weak Signal Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winternitz, Luke; Moreau, Michael; Boegner, Gregory J.; Sirotzky, Steve

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a new space-borne GPS receiver that can operate effectively in the full range of Earth orbiting missions from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to geostationary and beyond. Navigator is designed to be a fully space flight qualified GPS receiver optimized for fast signal acquisition and weak signal tracking. The fast acquisition capabilities provide exceptional time to first fix performance (TIFF) with no a priori receiver state or GPS almanac information, even in the presence of high Doppler shifts present in LEO (or near perigee in highly eccentric orbits). The fast acquisition capability also makes it feasible to implement extended correlation intervals and therefore significantly reduce Navigator s acquisition threshold. This greatly improves GPS observability when the receiver is above the GPS constellation (and satellites must be tracked from the opposite side of the Earth) by providing at least 10 dB of increased acquisition sensitivity. Fast acquisition and weak signal tracking algorithms have been implemented and validated on a hardware development board. A fully functional version of the receiver, employing most of the flight parts, with integrated navigation software is expected by mid 2005. An ultimate goal of this project is to license the Navigator design to an industry partner who will then market the receiver as a commercial product.

  6. A VLSI pipeline design of a fast prime factor DFT on a finite field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Shao, H. M.; Reed, I. S.; Shyu, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    A conventional prime factor discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm is used to realize a discrete Fourier-like transform on the finite field, GF(q sub n). A pipeline structure is used to implement this prime factor DFT over GF(q sub n). This algorithm is developed to compute cyclic convolutions of complex numbers and to decode Reed-Solomon codes. Such a pipeline fast prime factor DFT algorithm over GF(q sub n) is regular, simple, expandable, and naturally suitable for VLSI implementation. An example illustrating the pipeline aspect of a 30-point transform over GF(q sub n) is presented.

  7. A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A.

    2010-01-15

    This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)

  8. Fast 3-D large-scale gravity and magnetic modeling using unstructured grids and an adaptive multilevel fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Tang, Jingtian; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2017-01-01

    A novel fast and accurate algorithm is developed for large-scale 3-D gravity and magnetic modeling problems. An unstructured grid discretization is used to approximate sources with arbitrary mass and magnetization distributions. A novel adaptive multilevel fast multipole (AMFM) method is developed to reduce the modeling time. An observation octree is constructed on a set of arbitrarily distributed observation sites, while a source octree is constructed on a source tetrahedral grid. A novel characteristic is the independence between the observation octree and the source octree, which simplifies the implementation of different survey configurations such as airborne and ground surveys. Two synthetic models, a cubic model and a half-space model with mountain-valley topography, are tested. As compared to analytical solutions of gravity and magnetic signals, excellent agreements of the solutions verify the accuracy of our AMFM algorithm. Finally, our AMFM method is used to calculate the terrain effect on an airborne gravity data set for a realistic topography model represented by a triangular surface retrieved from a digital elevation model. Using 16 threads, more than 5800 billion interactions between 1,002,001 observation points and 5,839,830 tetrahedral elements are computed in 453.6 s. A traditional first-order Gaussian quadrature approach requires 3.77 days. Hence, our new AMFM algorithm not only can quickly compute the gravity and magnetic signals for complicated problems but also can substantially accelerate the solution of 3-D inversion problems.

  9. Hardware Implementation of Lossless Adaptive and Scalable Hyperspectral Data Compression for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Keymeulen, Didier; Bakhshi, Alireza; Klimesh, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    On-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces data volume in order to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The technique also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware. A modified form of the algorithm that is better suited for data from pushbroom instruments is generally appropriate for flight implementation. A scalable field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware implementation was developed. The FPGA implementation achieves a throughput performance of 58 Msamples/sec, which can be increased to over 100 Msamples/sec in a parallel implementation that uses twice the hardware resources This paper describes the hardware implementation of the 'Modified Fast Lossless' compression algorithm on an FPGA. The FPGA implementation targets the current state-of-the-art FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex IV and V families) and compresses one sample every clock cycle to provide a fast and practical real-time solution for space applications.

  10. A preliminary report on the development of MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2004-07-01

    We describe three MATLAB classes for manipulating tensors in order to allow fast algorithm prototyping. A tensor is a multidimensional or N-way array. We present a tensor class for manipulating tensors which allows for tensor multiplication and 'matricization.' We have further added two classes for representing tensors in decomposed format: cp{_}tensor and tucker{_}tensor. We demonstrate the use of these classes by implementing several algorithms that have appeared in the literature.

  11. Fast maximum intensity projection algorithm using shear warp factorization and reduced resampling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Laifa; Wang, Yi; Qiu, Bensheng; Qian, Yuancheng

    2002-04-01

    Maximal intensity projection (MIP) is routinely used to view MRA and other volumetric angiographic data. The straightforward implementation of MIP is ray casting that traces a volumetric data set in a computationally expensive manner. This article reports a fast MIP algorithm using shear warp factorization and reduced resampling that drastically reduced the redundancy in the computations for projection, thereby speeding up MIP by more than 10 times.

  12. Implementation: Measuring and Explaining the Fidelity of CSR Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki, Anja; Boyle, Andrea; Aladjem, Daniel K.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive school reform (CSR) is only as effective as its implementation. By using data collected for the National Longitudinal Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform (NLECSR), this article explores the factors that predict CSR model implementation and the ways that CSR model implementation varies. We found little difference in the fidelity…

  13. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.

    1999-01-01

    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  14. The Physics of Fast Z Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    RYUTOV,D.D.; DERZON,MARK S.; MATZEN,M. KEITH

    1999-10-25

    The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizing the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 36 figures and more than 300 references.

  15. Antiproton fast ignition for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.

    1997-10-24

    With 180MJ/{micro}g, antiprotons offer the highest stored energy per unit mass of any known entity. We investigate the use of antiprotons to promote fast ignition in an ICF capsule and seek high gains with only modest compression of the main fuel. Unlike standard fast ignition where the ignition energy is supplied by an energetic, short pulse laser, the energy here is supplied through the ionization energy deposited when antiprotons annihilate at the center of a compressed fuel capsule. In the first of two candidate fast ignition schemes, the antiproton package is delivered by a low energy external ion beam. In the second, ''autocatalytic'' scheme, the antiprotons are pre-emplaced at the center of the capsule prior to compression. In both schemes, we estimate that {approximately}3x10{sup 13} antiprotons are required to initiate fast ignition in a typical ICF capsule and show that incorporation of a thin, heavy metal shell is desirable to enhance energy deposition in the igniter zone. In addition to obviating the need for a second energetic fast laser and vulnerable final optics, this scheme would achieve central without reliance on laser channeling through halo plasma or houlrahm debris. However, in addition to the unknowns involved in the storage and manipulation of antiprotons at low energy, the other large uncertainty for the practicality of such a scheme is the ultimate efficiency of antiproton production in, an external, optimized facility.

  16. The physics of fast Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.; Derzon, M.S.; Matzen, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizes the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z-pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 52 figures and nearly 300 references.

  17. FATRAS - the ATLAS Fast Track Simulation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechnich, Jörg; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response is an integral component of any analysis performed with data from the LHC experiments. As these simulated data sets must be both large and precise, their production is a CPU-intensive task. ATLAS has developed full and fast detector simulation techniques to achieve this goal within the computing limits of the collaboration. At the current early stages of data-taking, it is necessary to reprocess the Monte Carlo event samples continuously, while integrating adaptations to the simulation modules in order to improve the agreement with data taken by means of the detector itself. FATRAS is a fast track simulation engine which produces a Monte Carlo simulation based on modules and the geometry of the standard ATLAS track reconstruction algorithm. It can be combined with a fast parametrized-response simulation of the calorimeters. This approach shows a high level of agreement with the full simulation, while achieving a relative timing gain of two orders of magnitude. FATRAS was designed to provide a fast feedback cycle for tuning the MC simulation with real data: this includes the material distribution inside the detector, the integration of misalignment and current conditions, as well as calibration at the hit level. We present the updated and calibrated version of FATRAS based on the first LHC data. Extensive comparisons of the fast track simulation with the full simulation and data at 900 GeV are shown.

  18. Fasting does not precipitate onset of labour.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Baider, C; Boaz, M; Sulema, V; Golan, A; Sadan, O

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective observational study examined whether fasting (the 'Yom Kippur effect') precipitates labour. Birth rates of Yom Kippur (a fasting festival) were compared with those of other festivals that are observed (Tisha B'Av) and not observed (1st day of Passover) by fasting during a 4-year period. Compared with the mean birth rate, the number of births that occurred 1 day after Yom Kippur was increased (p = 0.023). A significant decrease in the number of births during Tisha B'Av (p = 0.044) and a significant increase in the number of births 2 days after Tisha B'Av (p = 0.009) was observed. Two days prior to the 1st day of Passover, a significant decrease in the number of births was also observed (p = 0.034). Contrary to previous reports, the present study does not confirm an association between a 1-day long fast and increased birth rate in the 24-h period after breaking of the fast.

  19. A Fast Visible Camera Divertor-Imaging Diagnostic on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Roquemore, A; Maingi, R; Lasnier, C; Nishino, N; Evans, T; Fenstermacher, M; Nagy, A

    2007-06-19

    In recent campaigns, the Photron Ultima SE fast framing camera has proven to be a powerful diagnostic when applied to imaging divertor phenomena on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Active areas of NSTX divertor research addressed with the fast camera include identification of types of EDGE Localized Modes (ELMs)[1], dust migration, impurity behavior and a number of phenomena related to turbulence. To compare such edge and divertor phenomena in low and high aspect ratio plasmas, a multi-institutional collaboration was developed for fast visible imaging on NSTX and DIII-D. More specifically, the collaboration was proposed to compare the NSTX small type V ELM regime [2] and the residual ELMs observed during Type I ELM suppression with external magnetic perturbations on DIII-D[3]. As part of the collaboration effort, the Photron camera was installed recently on DIII-D with a tangential view similar to the view implemented on NSTX, enabling a direct comparison between the two machines. The rapid implementation was facilitated by utilization of the existing optics that coupled the visible spectral output from the divertor vacuum ultraviolet UVTV system, which has a view similar to the view developed for the divertor tangential TV camera [4]. A remote controlled filter wheel was implemented, as was the radiation shield required for the DIII-D installation. The installation and initial operation of the camera are described in this paper, and the first images from the DIII-D divertor are presented.

  20. Catalyzing Country Ownership and Aid Effectiveness: Role of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the contribution of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) global partnership in strengthening aid effectiveness in the education sector, and specifically how the implementation modalities of the EFA-FTI Catalytic Fund (CF) have contributed to this strengthening. The empirical findings are based on a review…

  1. Improved magnetic feedback system on the fast rotating kink mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qian

    This thesis presents an improved feedback system on HBT-EP and suppression of the fast rotating kink mode using this system. HBT-EP is an experimental tokamak at Columbia University designed to study the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in confined fusion. The most damaging instabilities are global long wavelength kink modes, which break the toroidal symmetry of the magnetic structure and lead to plasma disruption and termination. When a tokamak is surrounded by a close fitting conducting wall, then the single helicity linear dispersion relation of the kink instability has two dominating branches: one is the "slow mode", rotating at the time scale of wall time, known as resistive wall mode (RWM), the other is the fast mode, that becomes unstable near the ideal wall stability limit. Both instabilities are required to be controlled by the feedback system in HBT-EP. In this thesis, improvements have been made upon the previous GPU-based system to enhance the feedback performance and obtain clear evidence of the feedback suppression effect. Specifically, a new algorithm is implemented that maintains an accurate phase shift between the applied perturbation and the unstable mode. This prevents the excitation of the slow kink mode observed in previous studies and results in high gain suppression for fast mode control at all frequency for the first time. When the system is turned off, suppression is lost and the fast mode is observed to grow back. The feedback performance is tested with several wall configurations including the presence of ferritic material. This provides the first comparison of feedback control between the ferritic and stainless wall. The effect of plasma rotation on feedback control is tested by applying a static voltage on a bias probe. As the mode rotation being slowed by the radial current flow, a higher gain on the kink mode is required to achieve feedback suppression. The change in plasma rotation also modifies the plasma response to the

  2. Reduction of calcium release site models via fast/slow analysis and iterative aggregation/disaggregation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Kemper, Peter; Smith, Gregory D

    2009-09-01

    Mathematical models of calcium release sites derived from Markov chain models of intracellular calcium channels exhibit collective gating reminiscent of the experimentally observed phenomenon of calcium puffs and sparks. Such models often take the form of stochastic automata networks in which the transition probabilities of each channel depend on the local calcium concentration and thus the state of the other channels. In order to overcome the state-space explosion that occurs in such compositionally defined calcium release site models, we have implemented several automated procedures for model reduction using fast/slow analysis. After categorizing rate constants in the single channel model as either fast or slow, groups of states in the expanded release site model that are connected by fast transitions are lumped, and transition rates between reduced states are chosen consistent with the conditional probability distribution among states within each group. For small problems these conditional probability distributions can be numerically calculated from the full model without approximation. For large problems the conditional probability distributions can be approximated without the construction of the full model by assuming rapid mixing of states connected by fast transitions. Alternatively, iterative aggregation/disaggregation may be employed to obtain reduced calcium release site models in a memory-efficient fashion. Benchmarking of several different iterative aggregation/disaggregation-based fast/slow reduction schemes establishes the effectiveness of automated calcium release site reduction utilizing the Koury-McAllister-Stewart method.

  3. Development of Fast Algorithms Using Recursion, Nesting and Iterations for Computational Electromagnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, W. C.; Song, J. M.; Lu, C. C.; Weedon, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of our work, we have concentrated on laying the foundation to develop fast algorithms, including the use of recursive structure like the recursive aggregate interaction matrix algorithm (RAIMA), the nested equivalence principle algorithm (NEPAL), the ray-propagation fast multipole algorithm (RPFMA), and the multi-level fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). We have also investigated the use of curvilinear patches to build a basic method of moments code where these acceleration techniques can be used later. In the second phase, which is mainly reported on here, we have concentrated on implementing three-dimensional NEPAL on a massively parallel machine, the Connection Machine CM-5, and have been able to obtain some 3D scattering results. In order to understand the parallelization of codes on the Connection Machine, we have also studied the parallelization of 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code with PML material absorbing boundary condition (ABC). We found that simple algorithms like the FDTD with material ABC can be parallelized very well allowing us to solve within a minute a problem of over a million nodes. In addition, we have studied the use of the fast multipole method and the ray-propagation fast multipole algorithm to expedite matrix-vector multiplication in a conjugate-gradient solution to integral equations of scattering. We find that these methods are faster than LU decomposition for one incident angle, but are slower than LU decomposition when many incident angles are needed as in the monostatic RCS calculations.

  4. Fast-responder: Rapid mobile-phone access to recent remote sensing imagery for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, L. M.; Talbot, B. G.

    We introduce Fast-Responder, a novel prototype data-dissemination application and architecture concept to rapidly deliver remote sensing imagery to smartphones to enable situational awareness. The architecture implements a Fast-Earth image caching system on the phone and interacts with a Fast-Earth server. Prototype evaluation successfully demonstrated that National Guard users could select a location, download multiple remote sensing images, and flicker between images, all in less than a minute on a 3G mobile commercial link. The Fast-Responder architecture is a significant advance that is designed to meet the needs of mobile users, such as National Guard response units, to rapidly access information during a crisis, such as a natural or man-made disaster. This paper focuses on the architecture design and advanced user interface concepts for small-screens for highly active mobile users. Novel Fast-Responder concepts can also enable rapid dissemination and evaluation of imagery on the desktop, opening new technology horizons for both desktop and mobile users.

  5. Fasting-related autophagic response in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tomonori; Oishi, Yasuharu; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Muraoka, Isao

    2010-03-26

    This study investigated regulation of autophagy in slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles in fasting-related atrophy. Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to fasting for 1, 2, or 3 days. Greater weight loss was observed in plantaris muscle than in soleus muscle in response to fasting. Western blot analysis demonstrated that LC3-II, a marker protein for macroautophagy, was expressed at a notably higher level in plantaris than in soleus muscle, and that the expression level was fasting duration-dependent. To identify factors related to LC3-II enhancement, autophagy-related signals were examined in both types of muscle. Phosphorylated mTOR was reduced in plantaris but not in soleus muscle. FOXO3a and ER stress signals were unchanged in both muscle types during fasting. These findings suggest that preferential atrophy of fast-twitch muscle is associated with induction of autophagy during fasting and that differences in autophagy regulation are attributable to differential signal regulation in soleus and plantaris muscle.

  6. Grid Oriented Implementation of the Tephra Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Drago, A.; Pistagna, F.; Prestifilippo, M.; Reitano, D.; Scollo, S.; Spata, G.

    2009-04-01

    TEPHRA is a two dimensional advection-diffusion model implemented by Bonadonna et al. [2005] that describes the sedimentation process of particles from volcanic plumes. The model is used by INGV - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, to forecast tephra dispersion during Etna volcanic events. Every day weather forecast provided by the Italian Air Force Meteorological Office in Rome and by the hydrometeorological service of ARPA in Emilia Romagna are processed by TEPHRA model with other volcanological parameters to simulate two different eruptive scenarios of Mt. Etna (corresponding to 1998 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions). The model outputs are plotted on maps and transferred to Civil Protection which takes the trouble to give public warnings and plan mitigation measures. The TEPHRA model is implemented in ANSI-C code using MPI commands to maximize parallel computation. Actually the model runs on an INGV Beowulf cluster. In order to provide better performances we worked on porting it to PI2S2 sicilian grid infrastructure inside the "PI2S2 Project" (2006-2008). We configured the application to run on grid, using Glite middleware, analyzed the obtained performances and comparing them with ones obtained on the local cluster. As TEPHRA needs to be run in a short time in order to transfer fastly the dispersion maps to Civil Protection, we also worked to minimize and stabilize grid job-scheduling time by using customized high-priority queues called Emergency Queue.

  7. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  8. Slow and Fast Light in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Hongrok; Smith, David D.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Dimmock, John O.; Gregory, Don A.; Frazier, Donald O.

    2005-01-01

    We predict the propagation of slow and fast light in two co-resonant coupled optical resonators. In coupled resonators, slow light can propagate without attenuation by a cancellation of absorption as a result of mode splitting and destructive interference, whereas transparent fast light propagation can be achieved by the assistance of gain and splitting of the intracavity resonances, which consequently change the dispersion from normal to anomalous. The effective steady-state response of coupled-resonators is derived using the temporal coupled-mode formalism, and the absorptive and dispersive responses are described. Specifically, the occurrence of slow light via coupled-resonator-induced transparency and gain-assisted fast light are discussed.

  9. Slow and fast light switching in ruby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Rajitha P.; Riesen, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Studies about light propagation have been undertaken for more than a century. It is now well established that any material that has normal or anomalous dispersion generates slow or fast light. In this paper, we demonstrate an experimental technique to rapidly switch between slow and fast light in ruby. The experiment utilizes transient holeburning to create drastic variation in refractive index of ruby to produce slow as well as fast light. Transient hole-burning involves the depletion of the ground state leading to a highly populated excited state by single frequency laser excitation. This leads to a hole in the absorption spectrum when readout by a laser. We observed a delay of 29 ns and advancement of -11 ns in an external magnetic field of B║c = 12 mT corresponding to a group velocity of c/961 and negative group velocity of -c/365 respectively.

  10. Measurements of the fast electron bremsstrahlung emission during electron cyclotron resonance heating in the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Song, X. Y.; Yuan, G. L.; Chen, W.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, J. W.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Pan, C. H.; Liu, Y.

    2010-10-15

    A fast electron bremsstrahlung (FEB) diagnostic technique based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector has been developed recently in the HL-2A tokamak for measurements of the temporal evolution of FEB emission in the energy range of 10-200 keV. With a perpendicular viewing into the plasma on the equatorial plane, the hard x-ray spectra with eight different energy channels are measured. The discrimination of the spectra is implemented by an accurate spectrometry. The system also makes use of fast digitization and software signal processing technology. An ambient environment of neutrons, gammas, and magnetic disturbance requires careful shielding. During electron cyclotron resonance heating, the generation of fast electrons and the oscillations of electron fishbone (e-fishbone) have been found. Using the FEB measurement system, it has been experimentally identified that the mode strongly correlates with the electron cyclotron resonance heating produced fast electrons with 30-70 keV.

  11. 48 CFR 52.213-1 - Fast Payment Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fast Payment Procedure. 52....213-1 Fast Payment Procedure. As prescribed in 13.404, insert the following clause: Fast Payment... contract, order, or blanket purchase agreement; and (ii) Display prominently on the invoice “FAST...

  12. 48 CFR 52.213-1 - Fast Payment Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fast Payment Procedure. 52....213-1 Fast Payment Procedure. As prescribed in 13.404, insert the following clause: Fast Payment... contract, order, or blanket purchase agreement; and (ii) Display prominently on the invoice “FAST...

  13. Dynamic Implementation Seeking Equilibrium Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riboldi, Pablo Jose

    Implementing exportable instructional systems has always been a problem for instructional developers. Even the best instructional systems lose effectiveness when they are poorly implemented. Researchers have focused their efforts on creating mechanisms to help developers and managers improve and control implementation. However, most of these…

  14. Ordered fast fourier transforms on a massively parallel hypercube multiprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Charles; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Design alternatives for ordered Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithms were examined on massively parallel hypercube multiprocessors such as the Connection Machine. Particular emphasis is placed on reducing communication which is known to dominate the overall computing time. To this end, the order and computational phases of the FFT were combined, and the sequence to processor maps that reduce communication were used. The class of ordered transforms is expanded to include any FFT in which the order of the transform is the same as that of the input sequence. Two such orderings are examined, namely, standard-order and A-order which can be implemented with equal ease on the Connection Machine where orderings are determined by geometries and priorities. If the sequence has N = 2 exp r elements and the hypercube has P = 2 exp d processors, then a standard-order FFT can be implemented with d + r/2 + 1 parallel transmissions. An A-order sequence can be transformed with 2d - r/2 parallel transmissions which is r - d + 1 fewer than the standard order. A parallel method for computing the trigonometric coefficients is presented that does not use trigonometric functions or interprocessor communication. A performance of 0.9 GFLOPS was obtained for an A-order transform on the Connection Machine.

  15. Progressive band processing of fast iterative pixel purity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Chang, Chein-I.

    2016-05-01

    Fast Iterative Pixel Purity Index (FIPPI) was previously developed to address two major issues arising in PPI which are the use of skewers whose number must be determined by a priori and inconsistent final results which cannot be reproduced. Recently, a new concept has been developed for hyperspectral data communication according to Band SeQuential (BSQ) acquisition format in such a way that bands can be collected band by band. By virtue of BSQ users are able to develop Progressive Band Processing (PBP) for hyperspectral imaging algorithms so that data analysts can observe progressive profiles of inter-band changes among bands. Its advantages have been justified in several applications, anomaly detection, constrained energy minimization, automatic target generation process, orthogonal subspace projection, PPI, etc. This paper further extends PBP to FIPPI. The idea to implement PBP-FIPPI is to use two loops specified by skewers and bands to process FIPPI. Depending upon which one is implemented in the outer loop two different versions of PBP-FIPPI can be designed. When the outer loop is iterated band by band, it is called to be called Progressive Band Processing of FIPPI (PBP-FIPPI). When the outer loop is iterated by growing skewers, it is called Progressive Skewer Processing of FIPPI (PSP-FIPPI). Interestingly, both versions provide different insights into the design of FIPPI but produce close results.

  16. Fast multipole method for the biharmonic equation in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerov, Nail A.; Duraiswami, Ramani

    2006-06-01

    The evaluation of sums (matrix-vector products) of the solutions of the three-dimensional biharmonic equation can be accelerated using the fast multipole method, while memory requirements can also be significantly reduced. We develop a complete translation theory for these equations. It is shown that translations of elementary solutions of the biharmonic equation can be achieved by considering the translation of a pair of elementary solutions of the Laplace equations. The extension of the theory to the case of polyharmonic equations in R3 is also discussed. An efficient way of performing the FMM for biharmonic equations using the solution of a complex valued FMM for the Laplace equation is presented. Compared to previous methods presented for the biharmonic equation our method appears more efficient. The theory is implemented and numerical tests presented that demonstrate the performance of the method for varying problem sizes and accuracy requirements. In our implementation, the FMM for the biharmonic equation is faster than direct matrix-vector product for a matrix size of 550 for a relative L2 accuracy ɛ2 = 10 -4, and N = 3550 for ɛ2 = 10 -12.

  17. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site`s environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  18. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  19. Implementing sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Loran, B.

    1997-08-01

    Criteria for the implementation of sustainable development are presented. These criteria are derived systematically from a definition of desirable goals, a comparison with the present situation, and an identification of available means to achieve the desired results. A revision of the standards used to measure a country status level (national standards) is found to be a key element. The present situation involves a largely unchecked population expansion in locations least suited to accommodate it, lack of energy and resource use plans, and national standards based on development, or growth. A sustainable development, on the other hand, requires stabilized population and energy and resource use, and national standards moving away from growth and accepting quality of life in its place. Examples of specific applications to different cultural environments and references to pertinent studies are provided, showing that sustainable development is a concrete possibility, once the basic criteria identified are recognized as desirable goals and receive gradual acceptance.

  20. Aqueous stream characterization from biomass fast pyrolysis and catalytic fast pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Brenna A.; Michener, William E.; Ramirez, Kelsey J.; Biddy, Mary J.; Knott, Brandon C.; Jarvis, Mark W.; Olstad, Jessica; Mante, Ofei D.; Dayton, David C.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-09-05

    Here, biomass pyrolysis offers a promising means to rapidly depolymerize lignocellulosic biomass for subsequent catalytic upgrading to renewable fuels. Substantial efforts are currently ongoing to optimize pyrolysis processes including various fast pyrolysis and catalytic fast pyrolysis schemes. In all cases, complex aqueous streams are generated containing solubilized organic compounds that are not converted to target fuels or chemicals and are often slated for wastewater treatment, in turn creating an economic burden on the biorefinery. Valorization of the species in these aqueous streams, however, offers significant potential for substantially improving the economics and sustainability of thermochemical biorefineries. To that end, here we provide a thorough characterization of the aqueous streams from four pilot-scale pyrolysis processes: namely, from fast pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis with downstream fractionation, in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, and ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis. These configurations and processes represent characteristic pyrolysis processes undergoing intense development currently. Using a comprehensive suite of aqueous-compatible analytical techniques, we quantitatively characterize between 12 g kg-1 of organic carbon of a highly aqueous catalytic fast pyrolysis stream and up to 315 g kg-1 of organic carbon present in the fast pyrolysis aqueous streams. In all cases, the analysis ranges between 75 and 100% of mass closure. The composition and stream properties closely match the nature of pyrolysis processes, with high contents of carbohydrate-derived compounds in the fast pyrolysis aqueous phase, high acid content in nearly all streams, and mostly recalcitrant phenolics in the heavily deoxygenated ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis stream. Overall, this work provides a detailed compositional analysis of aqueous streams from leading thermochemical processes -- analyses that are critical for subsequent