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Sample records for fastidiosa infecting grapes

  1. Production of Xylella fastidiosa diffusible signal factor in transgenic grape causes pathogen confusion and reduction in severity of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Steven; Newman, Karyn; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Baccari, Clelia; Lavarone, Anthony T; Ionescu, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The rpfF gene from Xylella fastidiosa, encoding the synthase for diffusible signal factor (DSF), was expressed in 'Freedom' grape to reduce the pathogen's growth and mobility within the plant. Symptoms in such plants were restricted to near the point of inoculation and incidence of disease was two- to fivefold lower than in the parental line. Both the longitudinal and lateral movement of X. fastidiosa in the xylem was also much lower. DSF was detected in both leaves and xylem sap of RpfF-expressing plants using biological sensors, and both 2-Z-tetradecenoic acid, previously identified as a component of X. fastidiosa DSF, and cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid were detected in xylem sap using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A higher proportion of X. fastidiosa cells adhered to xylem vessels of the RpfF-expressing line than parental 'Freedom' plants, reflecting a higher adhesiveness of the pathogen in the presence of DSF. Disease incidence in RpfF-expressing plants in field trials in which plants were either mechanically inoculated with X. fastidiosa or subjected to natural inoculation by sharpshooter vectors was two- to fourfold lower in than that of the parental line. The number of symptomatic leaves on infected shoots was reduced proportionally more than the incidence of infection, reflecting a decreased ability of X. fastidiosa to move within DSF-producing plants.

  2. Production of Xylella fastidiosa diffusible signal factor in transgenic grape causes pathogen confusion and reduction in severity of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Steven; Newman, Karyn; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Baccari, Clelia; Lavarone, Anthony T; Ionescu, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The rpfF gene from Xylella fastidiosa, encoding the synthase for diffusible signal factor (DSF), was expressed in 'Freedom' grape to reduce the pathogen's growth and mobility within the plant. Symptoms in such plants were restricted to near the point of inoculation and incidence of disease was two- to fivefold lower than in the parental line. Both the longitudinal and lateral movement of X. fastidiosa in the xylem was also much lower. DSF was detected in both leaves and xylem sap of RpfF-expressing plants using biological sensors, and both 2-Z-tetradecenoic acid, previously identified as a component of X. fastidiosa DSF, and cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid were detected in xylem sap using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A higher proportion of X. fastidiosa cells adhered to xylem vessels of the RpfF-expressing line than parental 'Freedom' plants, reflecting a higher adhesiveness of the pathogen in the presence of DSF. Disease incidence in RpfF-expressing plants in field trials in which plants were either mechanically inoculated with X. fastidiosa or subjected to natural inoculation by sharpshooter vectors was two- to fourfold lower in than that of the parental line. The number of symptomatic leaves on infected shoots was reduced proportionally more than the incidence of infection, reflecting a decreased ability of X. fastidiosa to move within DSF-producing plants. PMID:24499029

  3. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552

  4. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium.

  5. Interactions between Grape and Sweet Orange Strains of Xylella Fastidiosa in Colonization and Symptom Production in Periwinkle Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is one of the most economically important bacterial plant pathogens, causing serious diseases including citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil and Pierce’s disease of grape in California. The sweet orange strain of X. fastidiosa is a particular a threat to US citrus industry and it...

  6. The role of Xylella fastidiosa cold shock proteins in Pierce’s disease of grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is limited to warmer climates, and plant infection can be eliminated by cold winter conditions. Milder winters can increase the likelihood of pathogen persistence from one growing season to the next. Cold adaptat...

  7. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Stefania M.; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S.; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-01-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  8. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Mang, Stefania M; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-04-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  9. Effects of Grape Xylem Sap and Cell-Wall Constituents on In Vitro Growth, Biofilm Formation and Cellular Aggregation of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purified cell-wall constituents or grape xylem sap added to media affected in vitro growth, biofilm formation, cell aggregation and gene expression of Xylella fastidiosa. Media containing xylem sap from Pierce’s disease (PD)-susceptible plants provided better support for bacterial growth and biofil...

  10. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  11. New Coffee Plant-Infecting Xylella fastidiosa Variants Derived via Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Denancé, Nicolas; Legendre, Bruno; Morel, Emmanuelle; Briand, Martial; Mississipi, Stelly; Durand, Karine; Olivier, Valérie; Portier, Perrine; Poliakoff, Françoise; Crouzillat, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium endemic to the Americas that has recently emerged in Asia and Europe. Although this bacterium is classified as a quarantine organism in the European Union, importation of plant material from contaminated areas and latent infection in asymptomatic plants have engendered its inevitable introduction. In 2012, four coffee plants (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) with leaf scorch symptoms growing in a confined greenhouse were detected and intercepted in France. After identification of the causal agent, this outbreak was eradicated. Three X. fastidiosa strains were isolated from these plants, confirming a preliminary identification based on immunology. The strains were characterized by multiplex PCR and by multilocus sequence analysis/typing (MLSA-MLST) based on seven housekeeping genes. One strain, CFBP 8073, isolated from C. canephora imported from Mexico, was assigned to X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa/X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. This strain harbors a novel sequence type (ST) with novel alleles at two loci. The two other strains, CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8074, isolated from Coffea arabica imported from Ecuador, were allocated to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. These two strains shared a novel ST with novel alleles at two loci. These MLST profiles showed evidence of recombination events. We provide genome sequences for CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8073 strains. Comparative genomic analyses of these two genome sequences with publicly available X. fastidiosa genomes, including the Italian strain CoDiRO, confirmed these phylogenetic positions and provided candidate alleles for coffee plant adaptation. This study demonstrates the global diversity of X. fastidiosa and highlights the diversity of strains isolated from coffee plants. PMID:26712553

  12. New Coffee Plant-Infecting Xylella fastidiosa Variants Derived via Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Denancé, Nicolas; Legendre, Bruno; Morel, Emmanuelle; Briand, Martial; Mississipi, Stelly; Durand, Karine; Olivier, Valérie; Portier, Perrine; Poliakoff, Françoise; Crouzillat, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium endemic to the Americas that has recently emerged in Asia and Europe. Although this bacterium is classified as a quarantine organism in the European Union, importation of plant material from contaminated areas and latent infection in asymptomatic plants have engendered its inevitable introduction. In 2012, four coffee plants (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) with leaf scorch symptoms growing in a confined greenhouse were detected and intercepted in France. After identification of the causal agent, this outbreak was eradicated. Three X. fastidiosa strains were isolated from these plants, confirming a preliminary identification based on immunology. The strains were characterized by multiplex PCR and by multilocus sequence analysis/typing (MLSA-MLST) based on seven housekeeping genes. One strain, CFBP 8073, isolated from C. canephora imported from Mexico, was assigned to X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa/X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. This strain harbors a novel sequence type (ST) with novel alleles at two loci. The two other strains, CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8074, isolated from Coffea arabica imported from Ecuador, were allocated to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. These two strains shared a novel ST with novel alleles at two loci. These MLST profiles showed evidence of recombination events. We provide genome sequences for CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8073 strains. Comparative genomic analyses of these two genome sequences with publicly available X. fastidiosa genomes, including the Italian strain CoDiRO, confirmed these phylogenetic positions and provided candidate alleles for coffee plant adaptation. This study demonstrates the global diversity of X. fastidiosa and highlights the diversity of strains isolated from coffee plants. PMID:26712553

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of coffee-infecting Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Deibs; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Santos, Daiene Souza; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Cláudia; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; de Oliveira, Regina Souza; Nunes, Luiz R

    2015-05-01

    Strains of Xylella fastidiosa constitute a complex group of bacteria that develop within the xylem of many plant hosts, causing diseases of significant economic importance, such as Pierce's disease in North American grapevines and citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil. X. fastidiosa has also been obtained from other host plants, in direct correlation with the development of diseases, as in the case of coffee leaf scorch (CLS)--a disease with potential to cause severe economic losses to the Brazilian coffee industry. This paper describes a thorough genomic characterization of coffee-infecting X. fastidiosa strains, initially performed through a microarray-based approach, which demonstrated that CLS strains could be subdivided in two phylogenetically distinct subgroups. Whole-genomic sequencing of two of these bacteria (one from each subgroup) allowed identification of ORFs and horizontally transferred elements (HTEs) that were specific to CLS-related X. fastidiosa strains. Such analyses confirmed the size and importance of HTEs as major mediators of chromosomal evolution amongst these bacteria, and allowed identification of differences in gene content, after comparisons were made with previously sequenced X. fastidiosa strains, isolated from alternative hosts. Although direct experimentation still needs to be performed to elucidate the biological consequences associated with such differences, it was interesting to verify that CLS-related bacteria display variations in genes that produce toxins, as well as surface-related factors (such as fimbrial adhesins and LPS) that have been shown to be involved with recognition of specific host factors in different pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25737482

  14. Genomic Sequencing of Two Coffee-Infecting Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Isolated from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Valquíria C; Barbosa, Deibs; Santos, Daiene S; Oliveira, Ana Cláudia F; de Oliveira, Regina C; Nunes, Luiz R

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequences of two Xylella fastidiosa strains: Xf6c and Xf32, which have been obtained from infected coffee plants in Brazil, and are associated with the disease known as coffee leaf scorch (CLS). PMID:24435874

  15. Intersubspecific Recombination in Xylella fastidiosa Strains Native to the United States: Infection of Novel Hosts Associated with an Unsuccessful Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Donald L.; Morano, Lisa D.; Russell, Stephanie E.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa infects xylem and causes disease in many plant species in the Americas. Different subspecies of this bacterium and different genotypes within subspecies infect different plant hosts, but the genetics of host adaptation are unknown. Here we examined the hypothesis that the introduction of novel genetic variation via intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) facilitates host shifts. We investigated IHR in 33 X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates previously identified as recombinant based on 8 loci (7 multilocus sequence typing [MLST] loci plus 1 locus). We found significant evidence of introgression from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa in 4 of the loci and, using published data, evidence of IHR in 6 of 9 additional loci. Our data showed that IHR regions in 2 of the 4 loci were inconsistent (12 mismatches) with X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa alleles found in the United States but consistent with alleles from Central America. The other two loci were consistent with alleles from both regions. We propose that the recombinant forms all originated via genomewide recombination of one X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex ancestor with one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa donor from Central America that was introduced into the United States but subsequently disappeared. Using all of the available data, 5 plant hosts of the recombinant types were identified, 3 of which also supported non-IHR X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, but 2 were unique to recombinant types from blueberry (7 isolates from Georgia, 3 from Florida); and blackberry (1 each from Florida and North Carolina), strongly supporting the hypothesis that IHR facilitated a host shift to blueberry and possibly blackberry. PMID:24296499

  16. Seasonal Fluctuations of Sap-Feeding Insect Species Infected by Xylella fastidiosa in Apulian Olive Groves of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ben Moussa, Issam Eddine; Mazzoni, Valerio; Valentini, Franco; Yaseen, Thaer; Lorusso, Donato; Speranza, Stefano; Digiaro, Michele; Varvaro, Leonardo; Krugner, Rodrigo; D'Onghia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    A study on seasonal abundance of Auchenorrhyncha species and their infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were monitored monthly over a 2-yr period from five olive groves. A total of 15 species were captured, identified, and tested for presence of X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For three species, Philaenus spumarius L., Neophilaenus campestris (Fallèn), and Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, positive reactions to X. fastidiosa were obtained, on average, in 16.3, 15.9 and 18.4% of adult insects, respectively. Philaneous spumarius was the dominant species (39.8% of total Auchenorrhyncha captured) with the highest adult abundance in summer months. Adult P. spumarius and N. campestris were first detected between March and May in both years, and all insects tested during these periods (year 1: n = 42, year 2: n = 132) gave negative reactions to X. fastidiosa by PCR. Similarly, first adults of E. lineolatus that appeared from October to November (year 1: n = 20, year 2: n = 15) tested negative for presence of X. fastidiosa Given the lack of transstadial and transovarial transmission of X. fastidiosa and considering that P. spumarius is univoltine, control measures against nymphal stages of P. spumarius should be investigated as means of population suppression to reduce spread of X. fastidiosa in olive groves. PMID:27401111

  17. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E.; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  18. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  19. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection. PMID:24983508

  20. Seasonal increase of Xylella fastidiosa in hemiptera collected from central Texas vineyards.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Forrest L; Brady, Jeff; Bextine, Blake; Lauzière, Isabelle

    2009-10-01

    Yellow sticky traps were placed in six vineyards in central Texas from 2003 to 2006 and in locations outside the vineyards in 2004-2006. In total, 72 collections on 55 dates were examined. Xylem fluid-feeding insects were removed and identified to species and then analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence or absence of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Of the 1318 insects removed, 13 species were found, dominated by Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), Clastoptera xanthocepahala Germar, and Graphocephala versuta (Say). Insects testing positive for X. fastidiosa were analyzed further using fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes to determine the genotype of the bacterium, which fell into four groups: subspecies fastidiosa, multiplex, sandyi, and unknown subspecies. Vineyards known to be affected by Pierce's disease had more insects that were contaminated by the bacterium than those that were not as affected. X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease, was found more commonly in insects collected from vineyards than from insects collected outside the vineyards. Conversely, the subspecies multiplex and sandyi, which are not known to cause disease in grape, were more commonly found in insects collected outside the vineyard. The percentage of individuals contaminated with the bacterium increased over the course of the growing season, and the data suggest that vector insects acquired X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa from infected grapevines, a necessary precursor for vine to vine transmission to occur. Management options, including the use of systemic insecticides and plant roguing, would be effective for this type of transmission model.

  1. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were mon...

  2. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  3. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  4. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  5. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value. PMID:27447755

  6. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of CO33, a Coffee-Infecting Isolate of Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Calzolari, Alessandra; Chiumenti, Michela; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Saponari, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa CO33 isolate, retrieved from symptomatic leaves of coffee plant intercepted in northern Italy, is reported. The CO33 genome size is 2,681,926 bp with a GC content of 51.7%.

  8. Specific detection and identification of mulberry-infecting strains of Xylella fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X. fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular land...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of CO33, a Coffee-Infecting Isolate of Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Calzolari, Alessandra; Chiumenti, Michela; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Saponari, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa CO33 isolate, retrieved from symptomatic leaves of coffee plant intercepted in northern Italy, is reported. The CO33 genome size is 2,681,926 bp with a GC content of 51.7%. PMID:26679584

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of CO33, a Coffee-Infecting Isolate of Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Calzolari, Alessandra; Chiumenti, Michela; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Saponari, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa CO33 isolate, retrieved from symptomatic leaves of coffee plant intercepted in northern Italy, is reported. The CO33 genome size is 2,681,926 bp with a GC content of 51.7%. PMID:26679584

  11. THE ROLE OF GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER SALIVARY ENZYMES IN INFECTION AND MOVEMENT OF X. FASTIDIOSA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this project is to determine whether a vector’s enzymatic saliva aids the establishment of the few ‘pioneer’ Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) cells that are inoculated into a plant; thus the bacteria would co-localize with the saliva. Previous work showed that watery saliva of glassy-winged ...

  12. Xylella fastidiosa subspecies: X. fastidiosa subsp. [correction] fastidiosa [correction] subsp. nov., X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex subsp. nov., and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Schaad, Norman W; Postnikova, Elena; Lacy, George; Fatmi, M'Barek; Chang, Chung-Jan

    2004-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, a fastidious bacterium causing disease in over 100 plant species, is classified as a single species, although genetic studies support multiple taxons. To determine the taxonomic relatedness among strains of X. fastidiosa, we conducted DNA-DNA relatedness assays and sequenced the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region using 26 strains from 10 hosts. Under stringent conditions (Tm -15 degrees C), the DNA relatedness for most X. fastidiosa strains was *70%. However, at high stringency (Tm -8 degrees C), three distinct genotypes (A, B, and C) were revealed. Taxon A included strains from cultivated grape, alfalfa, almond (two), and maple, interrelated by 85% (mean); taxon B included strains from peach, elm, plum, pigeon grape, sycamore, and almond (one), interrelated by 84%; and taxon C included only strains from citrus, interrelated by 87%. The mean reciprocal relatedness between taxons A and B, A and C, and B and C, were 58, 41, and 45%, respectively. ITS results also indicated the same grouping; taxons A and B, A and C, and B and C had identities of 98.7, 97.9, and 99.2%, respectively. Previous and present phenotypic data supports the molecular data. Taxon A strains grow faster on Pierce's disease agar medium whereas B and C strains grow more slowly. Taxon B and C strains are susceptible to penicillin and resistant to carbenicillin whereas A strains are opposite. Each taxon can be differentiated serologically as well as by structural proteins. We propose taxons A, B, and C be named X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa [correction] subsp. nov, subsp. multiplex, subsp. nov., and subsp. pauca, subsp. nov., respectively. The type strains of the subspecies are subsp. fastidiosa [correction] ICPB 50025 (= ATTC 35879T and ICMP 15197), subsp. multiplex ICPB 50039 (= ATTC 35871 and ICMP 15199), and subsp. pauca ICPB 50031 (= ICMP 15198).

  13. Initial genetic analysis of Xylella fastidiosa in Texas.

    PubMed

    Morano, Lisa D; Bextine, Blake R; Garcia, Dennis A; Maddox, Shermel V; Gunawan, Stanley; Vitovsky, Natalie J; Black, Mark C

    2008-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of Pierce's Disease of grape. No published record of X. fastidiosa genetics in Texas exists despite growing financial risk to the U.S. grape industry, a Texas population of the glassy-winged sharpshooter insect vector (Homalodisca vitripennis) now spreading in California, and evidence that the bacterium is ubiquitous to southern states. Using sequences of conserved gyrB and mopB genes, we have established at least two strains in Texas, grape strain and ragweed strain, corresponding genetically with subsp. piercei and multiplex, respectively. The grape strain in Texas is found in Vitis vinifera varieties, hybrid vines, and wild Vitis near vineyards, whereas the ragweed strain in Texas is found in annuals, shrubs, and trees near vineyards or other areas. RFLP and QRT PCR techniques were used to differentiate grape and ragweed strains with greater efficiency than sequencing and are practical for screening numerous X. fastidiosa isolates for clade identity.

  14. Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapes are grown worldwide, on about 7.9 million ha., and are used to produce wine, raisins, juice, jam, concentrate, and seed oils, as well as fresh fruit. Grapes (Vitis sp.) are members of the Vitaceae. Vitis includes two subgenera, Euvitis (38 chromosomes) and Muscadinia (40 chromosomes), with ...

  15. Detection and Analysis of the Bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, in Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, Populations in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Hail, Daymon; Mitchell, Forrest; Lauzière, Isabelle; Marshall, Patrick; Brady, Jeff; Bextine, Blake

    2010-01-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripeninis Germar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylophagous insect that is an endemic pest of several economically important plants in Texas. H. vitripennis is the main vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae), the bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grapevine and can travel long distances putting much of Texas grape production at risk. Understanding the movement of H. vitripennis populations capable of transmitting X. fastidiosa into Pierce's-disease-free areas is critical for developing a management program for Pierce's disease. To that end, the USDA-APHIS has developed a program to sample vineyards across Texas to monitor populations of H. vitripennis. From this sampling, H vitripennis collected during 2005 and 2006 over the months of May, June, and July from eight vineyards in different regions of Texas were recovered from yellow sticky traps and tested for the presence of X. fastidiosa. The foregut contents were vacuum extracted and analyzed using RT-PCR to determine the percentage of H. vitripennis within each population that harbor X. fastidiosa and have the potential to transmit this pathogen. H. vitripennis from vineyards known to have Pierce's disease routinely tested positive for the presence of X. fastidiosa. While almost all H. vitripennis collected from vineyards with no history of Pierce's disease tested negative for the presence of the pathogen, three individual insects tested positive. Furthermore, all three insects were determined, by DNA sequencing, to be carrying a strain of X. fastidiosa homologous to known Pierce's disease strains, signifying them as a risk factor for new X. fastidiosa infections. PMID:21062210

  16. Detection and analysis of the bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, in glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, populations in Texas.

    PubMed

    Hail, Daymon; Mitchell, Forrest; Lauzière, Isabelle; Marshall, Patrick; Brady, Jeff; Bextine, Blake

    2010-01-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripeninis Germar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylophagous insect that is an endemic pest of several economically important plants in Texas. H. vitripennis is the main vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae), the bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grapevine and can travel long distances putting much of Texas grape production at risk. Understanding the movement of H. vitripennis populations capable of transmitting X. fastidiosa into Pierce's-disease-free areas is critical for developing a management program for Pierce's disease. To that end, the USDA-APHIS has developed a program to sample vineyards across Texas to monitor populations of H. vitripennis. From this sampling, H vitripennis collected during 2005 and 2006 over the months of May, June, and July from eight vineyards in different regions of Texas were recovered from yellow sticky traps and tested for the presence of X. fastidiosa. The foregut contents were vacuum extracted and analyzed using RT-PCR to determine the percentage of H. vitripennis within each population that harbor X. fastidiosa and have the potential to transmit this pathogen. H. vitripennis from vineyards known to have Pierce's disease routinely tested positive for the presence of X. fastidiosa. While almost all H. vitripennis collected from vineyards with no history of Pierce's disease tested negative for the presence of the pathogen, three individual insects tested positive. Furthermore, all three insects were determined, by DNA sequencing, to be carrying a strain of X. fastidiosa homologous to known Pierce's disease strains, signifying them as a risk factor for new X. fastidiosa infections.

  17. Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes Enlarge the Pore Size of Intervessel Pit Membranes in Healthy and Xylella fastidiosa-Infected Grapevines1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G.; Sun, Qiang; Roper, M. Caroline; Greve, L. Carl; Kirkpatrick, Bruce; Labavitch, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The pit membrane (PM) is a primary cell wall barrier that separates adjacent xylem water conduits, limiting the spread of xylem-localized pathogens and air embolisms from one conduit to the next. This paper provides a characterization of the size of the pores in the PMs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The PM porosity (PMP) of stems infected with the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was compared with the PMP of healthy stems. Stems were infused with pressurized water and flow rates were determined; gold particles of known size were introduced with the water to assist in determining the size of PM pores. The effect of introducing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), oligogalacturonides, and polygalacturonic acid into stems on water flux via the xylem was also measured. The possibility that cell wall-degrading enzymes could alter the pore sizes, thus facilitating the ability of X. fastidiosa to cross the PMs, was tested. Two cell wall-degrading enzymes likely to be produced by X. fastidiosa (polygalactuoronase and endo-1,4- β -glucanase) were infused into stems, and particle passage tests were performed to check for changes in PMP. Scanning electron microscopy of control and enzyme-infused stem segments revealed that the combination of enzymes opened holes in PMs, probably explaining enzyme impacts on PMP and how a small X. fastidiosa population, introduced into grapevines by insect vectors, can multiply and spread throughout the vine and cause Pierce's disease. PMID:20107028

  18. Seasonal Abundance and Natural Inoculativity of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in Oklahoma Tree Nurseries and Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Overall, Lisa M; Rebek, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of diseases of perennial plants including peach, plum, elm, oak, pecan, and grape. This bacterial pathogen is transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. In recent years, Pierce's disease of grape has been detected in 10 counties in central and northeastern Oklahoma, prompting further investigation of the disease epidemiology in this state. We surveyed vineyards and tree nurseries in Oklahoma for potential insect vectors to determine species composition, infectivity, and natural inoculativity of commonly captured insect vectors. Yellow sticky cards were used to sample insect fauna at each location. Insects were removed from sticky cards and screened for X. fastidiosa using immunocapture-PCR to determine their infectivity. A second objective was to test the natural inoculativity of insect vectors that are found in vineyards. Graphocephala versuta (Say), Graphocephala coccinea (Forster), Paraulacizes irrorata (F.), Oncometopia orbona (F.), Cuerna costalis (F.), and Entylia carinata Germar were collected from vineyards and taken back to the lab to determine their natural inoculativity. Immunocapture-PCR was used to test plant and insect samples for presence of X. fastidiosa. The three most frequently captured species from vineyards and tree nurseries were G. versuta, Clastoptera xanthocephala Germar, and O. orbona. Of those insects screened for X. fastidiosa, 2.4% tested positive for the bacterium. Field-collected G. versuta were inoculative to both ragweed and alfalfa. Following a 7-d inoculation access period, a higher percentage of alfalfa became infected than ragweed. Results from this study provide insight into the epidemiology of X. fastidiosa in Oklahoma. PMID:26331482

  19. Seasonal Abundance and Natural Inoculativity of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in Oklahoma Tree Nurseries and Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Overall, Lisa M; Rebek, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of diseases of perennial plants including peach, plum, elm, oak, pecan, and grape. This bacterial pathogen is transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. In recent years, Pierce's disease of grape has been detected in 10 counties in central and northeastern Oklahoma, prompting further investigation of the disease epidemiology in this state. We surveyed vineyards and tree nurseries in Oklahoma for potential insect vectors to determine species composition, infectivity, and natural inoculativity of commonly captured insect vectors. Yellow sticky cards were used to sample insect fauna at each location. Insects were removed from sticky cards and screened for X. fastidiosa using immunocapture-PCR to determine their infectivity. A second objective was to test the natural inoculativity of insect vectors that are found in vineyards. Graphocephala versuta (Say), Graphocephala coccinea (Forster), Paraulacizes irrorata (F.), Oncometopia orbona (F.), Cuerna costalis (F.), and Entylia carinata Germar were collected from vineyards and taken back to the lab to determine their natural inoculativity. Immunocapture-PCR was used to test plant and insect samples for presence of X. fastidiosa. The three most frequently captured species from vineyards and tree nurseries were G. versuta, Clastoptera xanthocephala Germar, and O. orbona. Of those insects screened for X. fastidiosa, 2.4% tested positive for the bacterium. Field-collected G. versuta were inoculative to both ragweed and alfalfa. Following a 7-d inoculation access period, a higher percentage of alfalfa became infected than ragweed. Results from this study provide insight into the epidemiology of X. fastidiosa in Oklahoma.

  20. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth.

  1. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  2. Evaluation of the Genetic Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Populations Collected from Almond orchards in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes many economically important crop diseases including Pierce’s disease of grape and almond leaf scorch disease. A more detailed understanding of the genetic structure of X. fastidiosa populations is likely to aid development of novel management strategies. Current evidence i...

  3. Characterization of Novel Virulent Broad-Host-Range Phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Stephen J.; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry

    2014-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ∼4 × 10−12 ml cell−1 min−1 for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ∼5 × 10−10 to 7 × 10−10 ml cell−1 min−1 for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. PMID:24214944

  4. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher M; Wallingford, Anna K; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  5. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher M.; Wallingford, Anna K.; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  6. Effects of kaolin particle film and imidacloprid on glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)populations and the prevention of spread of Xylella fastidiosa in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata (Say), was introduced into California and soon became a major pest of important agronomic, horticultural, landscape, ornamental crops and native trees in California. This pest feeds readily on grape and, in doing so, transmits X. fastidio...

  7. Infectivity and transmission of Xylella fastidiosa Salento strain by Philaenus spumarius L. (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of X. fastidiosa from olive trees with “Olive quick decline syndrome" (OQDS) in October 2013 on the western coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards was the meado...

  8. Combined use of a new SNP-based assay and multilocus SSR markers to assess genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca infecting citrus and coffee plants.

    PubMed

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Lopes, Joao R S; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-03-01

    Two haplotypes of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp) that correlated with their host of origin were identified in a collection of 90 isolates infecting citrus and coffee plants in Brazil, based on a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gyrB sequence. A new single-nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) protocol was designed for rapid identification of Xfp according to the host source. The protocol proved to be robust for the prediction of the Xfp host source in blind tests using DNA from cultures of the bacterium, infected plants, and insect vectors allowed to feed on Xfp-infected citrus plants. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses of microsatellite data separated most Xfp populations on the basis of their host source, indicating that they were genetically distinct. The combined use of the SNaPshot protocol and three previously developed multilocus SSR markers showed that two haplotypes and distinct isolates of Xfp infect citrus and coffee in Brazil and that multiple, genetically different isolates can be present in a single orchard or infect a single tree. This combined approach will be very useful in studies of the epidemiology of Xfp-induced diseases, host specificity of bacterial genotypes, the occurrence of Xfp host jumping, vector feeding habits, etc., in economically important cultivated plants or weed host reservoirs of Xfp in Brazil and elsewhere.

  9. Combined use of a new SNP-based assay and multilocus SSR markers to assess genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca infecting citrus and coffee plants.

    PubMed

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Lopes, Joao R S; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-03-01

    Two haplotypes of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp) that correlated with their host of origin were identified in a collection of 90 isolates infecting citrus and coffee plants in Brazil, based on a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gyrB sequence. A new single-nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) protocol was designed for rapid identification of Xfp according to the host source. The protocol proved to be robust for the prediction of the Xfp host source in blind tests using DNA from cultures of the bacterium, infected plants, and insect vectors allowed to feed on Xfp-infected citrus plants. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses of microsatellite data separated most Xfp populations on the basis of their host source, indicating that they were genetically distinct. The combined use of the SNaPshot protocol and three previously developed multilocus SSR markers showed that two haplotypes and distinct isolates of Xfp infect citrus and coffee in Brazil and that multiple, genetically different isolates can be present in a single orchard or infect a single tree. This combined approach will be very useful in studies of the epidemiology of Xfp-induced diseases, host specificity of bacterial genotypes, the occurrence of Xfp host jumping, vector feeding habits, etc., in economically important cultivated plants or weed host reservoirs of Xfp in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:26415663

  10. Phylogenetic Relationships of Xylella fastidiosa Strains Isolated from Landscape Ornamentals in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina; de la Cerda, Karla A; Costa, Heather S; Cooksey, Donald A; Wong, Francis P

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that has been associated with a rise in incidence of diseased landscape ornamentals in southern California. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize strains isolated from ornamental hosts to understand their distribution and identity. Strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from ornamentals were characterized using a multiprimer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR). Based on RAPD-PCR and 16S-23S rDNA ISR, strains isolated from daylily, jacaranda, and magnolia clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi and caused oleander leaf scorch but not Pierce's disease symptoms in glasshouse assays on oleander and grape, respectively. This demonstrated both that our groupings based on genetic characterization were valid and that strains of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi are present in hosts other than oleander. Strains isolated from Spanish broom, cherry, and one strain isolated from western redbud clustered with X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa members. Strains isolated from purple-leafed plum, olive, peach, plum, sweetgum, maidenhair tree, crape myrtle, and another western redbud strain clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex. All strains isolated from mulberry and one from heavenly bamboo formed a separate cluster that has not yet been defined as a subspecies. PMID:18943935

  11. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from California, Georgia and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important plant pathogen causing Pierce’s Disease in grapes and in many other economically important crops. Because of its nutritional fastidiousness, characterization of this bacterium remains highly challenging, thereby hindering future scientific research and disease cont...

  12. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  13. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms.

  14. Diffusible signal factor-repressed extracellular traits enable attachment of Xylella fastidiosa to insect vectors and transmission.

    PubMed

    Baccari, Clelia; Killiny, Nabil; Ionescu, Michael; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that a wild-type strain of Xylella fastidiosa would restore the ability of rpfF mutants blocked in diffusible signal factor production to be transmitted to new grape plants by the sharpshooter vector Graphocephala atropunctata was tested. While the rpfF mutant was very poorly transmitted by vectors irrespective of whether they had also fed on plants infected with the wild-type strain, wild-type strains were not efficiently transmitted if vectors had fed on plants infected with the rpfF mutant. About 100-fewer cells of a wild-type strain attached to wings of a vector when suspended in xylem sap from plants infected with an rpfF mutant than in sap from uninfected grapes. The frequency of transmission of cells suspended in sap from plants that were infected by the rpfF mutant was also reduced over threefold. Wild-type cells suspended in a culture supernatant of an rpfF mutant also exhibited 10-fold less adherence to wings than when suspended in uninoculated culture media. A factor released into the xylem by rpfF mutants, and to a lesser extent by the wild-type strain, thus inhibits their attachment to, and thus transmission by, sharpshooter vectors and may also enable them to move more readily through host plants. PMID:24571393

  15. Plasmids of Xylella fastidiosa Mulberry-Infecting Strains Share Extensive Sequence Identity and Gene Complement with pVEIS01 From the Earthworm Symbiont Verminephrobacter Eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ~25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

  16. Comparative Genomics- Identifying similarities and differences across three leafhopper vectors of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers are the second most important vectors of agricultural diseases, thus we examined the gene expression across three leafhopper leafhoppers, Homalodisca vitripennis, Graphocephala atropunctata, and Oncometopia nigricans, which are vectors of the plant-infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa...

  17. The importance of cold shock proteins in Xylella fastidiosa virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), causal agent of Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevine, is mainly prevalent in warmer climates. Subjecting Xf-infected grapevines to cold temperatures can, in many cases, effectively eliminate the bacterial population, a phenomenon known as cold curing. However, very little is k...

  18. Role of cold shock proteins in Xylella fastidiosa virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), causal agent of Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevine, is mainly prevalent in warmer climates. Subjecting Xf-infected grapevines to cold temperatures can, in many cases, effectively eliminate the bacterial population, a phenomenon known as cold curing. However, very little is k...

  19. Sharpshooter feeding behavior in relation to transmission of Xylella fastidiosa: a model for foregut-borne transmission mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes several scorch diseases in important crops, such as Pierce’s disease of grape. Bacteria form a dense biofilm on the foregut cuticle of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, H. vitripennis, and other xylem-feeding vectors. Bacteria are inoculate...

  20. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.

  1. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Antonova, Elena S; Lindow, Steven E; Mellema, Matthew S; Goulart, Luiz R; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease "PrtA" that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa. PMID:27492542

  2. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A.; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S.; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Antonova, Elena S.; Lindow, Steven E.; Mellema, Matthew S.; Goulart, Luiz R.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Pierce’s disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease “PrtA” that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa. PMID:27492542

  3. Time course of colonization of the glassy-winged sharpshooter precibarium by Xylella fastidiosa provides evidence for two types of egestion during inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) into California has caused an increase in incidence of Pierce’s Disease in grape-growing regions. Although host plant resistance to the causative bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, and/or its GWSS vector is being sought, research is hampered by lack...

  4. Xylella fastidiosa is associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in a rabbiteye blueberry orchard in Louisiana but does not appear to spread rapidly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen that causes diseases such as Pierce’s disease of grape, bacterial leaf scorch of shade trees, and citrus variegated chlorosis. Work by researchers in Georgia and Florida has shown that it is the cause of bacterial leaf scorch of Southern highbush blueberrie...

  5. Seasonal Behavior of Xylella fastidiosa Causing Almond Leaf Scorch Under Field Conditions and Detection of the Bacteria by Means of Array-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa have re-emerged as a serious threat to several economically important crops, such as grape and almond, in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of bacterial behavior in plant hosts under field condition is important for disease control. This research c...

  6. Occurrence and infection of Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium in withered rotten grapes during post-harvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Fungi like Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium can occur on withered grapes causing spoilage of passito wine. There is little or no information on the pathogenic role of these fungi. This study describes the isolation, incidence and identification of several isolates from different withered rotten grapes. Representative isolates grouped in several phenotypes were identified by phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer, actin or elongation factor gene sequences. Isolates of Cladosporium and Fusarium were ascribed to different species, of these C. ramotenellum, C. halotolerans and F. graminearum were isolated from Vitis vinifera for the first time. All Epicoccum and Aureobasidium isolates belonged to E. nigrum and A. pullulans, respectively. Random amplified DNA polymorphism analysis showed high level of heterogenicity among Epicoccum and Fusarium isolates. Infection assays were carried out to evaluate infectivity in some strains under different withering conditions. Fusarium spp. strains had similar infectivity, while significant variability was observed among Cladosporium spp. and E. nigrum strains. A. pullulans resulted particularly infective. This study provided insights into the occurrence and infection of these fungi in fruit-drying rooms with important implications towards control management during the withering.

  7. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy G; Lincoln, James E; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  8. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeremy G.; Lincoln, James E.; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  9. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy G; Lincoln, James E; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  10. Molecular characteristics and efficacy of 16D10 siRNAs in inhibiting root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector ge...

  11. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain Stag’s Leap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Presented here is the draft genome sequence of the Stag’s Leap strain, previously used in pathogenicity/virulence assays to evaluate grapevine germplasm bearing Pierce’s disease....

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa Strain Stag’s Leap

    PubMed Central

    Wu, F.; Zheng, Z.; Deng, X.; Burbank, L. P.; Stenger, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Presented here is the draft genome sequence of the Stag’s Leap strain, previously used in pathogenicity/virulence assays to evaluate grapevine germplasm bearing Pierce’s disease resistance and a phenotypic assessment of knockout mutants to determine gene function. PMID:27103713

  13. Transmission efficiency of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in coffee and citrus.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Rosangela C; Lopes, João R S; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2008-08-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, Raju, Hung, Weisburg, Mandelco-Paul, and Brenner) is a bacterial pathogen transmitted by several sharpshooters in two tribes of Cicadellinae (Proconiini and Cicadellini). Here, we compared the transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by Cicadellini [Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) and Dilobopterus costalimai Young] and Proconiini [Homalodisca ignorata Melichar and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret)] sharpshooters that occur in both crops. At different seasons, healthy adults of each species were submitted to a 48-h acquisition access period on citrus or coffee source plants infected with X. fastidiosa isolates that cause Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and Coffee leaf scorch (CLS), respectively, and then confined on healthy seedlings of the corresponding host plant for a 48-h inoculation access period. No significant effect of inoculation season was observed when comparing infection rates of citrus or coffee plants inoculated by vectors at different times of the year. In citrus, the transmission rate by single insects was significantly higher for H. ignorata (30%) in relation to B. xanthophis (5%) and O. facialis (1.1%), but there was no difference among vector species in coffee, whose transmission rates ranged from 1.2 to 7.2%. Comparing host plants, H. ignorata was more effective in transmitting X. fastidiosa to citrus (30%) in relation to coffee (2.2%), whereas the other vectors transmitted the bacterium to both hosts with similar efficiencies. Despite these variations, vector efficiency in coffee and citrus is lower than that reported in other hosts.

  14. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

  15. Large-Scale Intersubspecific Recombination in the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Is Associated with the Host Shift to Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Schuenzel, Erin L.; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

  16. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Jordan, Ramon; Brlansky, Ronald H; Istomina, Olga; Hartung, John

    2015-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a member of the gamma proteobacteria. It is fastidious, insect-vectored and xylem-limited and causes a variety of diseases, some severe, on a wide range of economically important perennial crops, including grape and citrus. Antibody based detection assays are commercially available for X. fastidiosa, and are effective at the species, but not at the subspecies level. We have made a library of scFv antibody fragments directed against X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c (citrus) by using phage display technology. Antibody gene repertoires were PCR-amplified using 23 primers for the heavy chain variable region (V(H)) and 21 primers for the light chain variable region (V(L)). The V(H) and V(L) were joined by overlap extension PCR, and then the genes of the scFv library were ligated into the phage vector pKM19. The library contained 1.2×10(7) independent clones with full-length scFv inserts. In each of 3cycles of affinity-selection with 9a5c, about 1.0×10(12) phage were used for panning with 4.1×10(6), 7.1×10(6), 2.1×10(7) phage recovered after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Sixty-six percent of clones from the final library bound X. fastidiosa 9a5c in an ELISA. Some of these scFv antibodies recognized strain 9a5c and did not recognize X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's disease of grapevine.

  17. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Jordan, Ramon; Brlansky, Ronald H; Istomina, Olga; Hartung, John

    2015-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a member of the gamma proteobacteria. It is fastidious, insect-vectored and xylem-limited and causes a variety of diseases, some severe, on a wide range of economically important perennial crops, including grape and citrus. Antibody based detection assays are commercially available for X. fastidiosa, and are effective at the species, but not at the subspecies level. We have made a library of scFv antibody fragments directed against X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c (citrus) by using phage display technology. Antibody gene repertoires were PCR-amplified using 23 primers for the heavy chain variable region (V(H)) and 21 primers for the light chain variable region (V(L)). The V(H) and V(L) were joined by overlap extension PCR, and then the genes of the scFv library were ligated into the phage vector pKM19. The library contained 1.2×10(7) independent clones with full-length scFv inserts. In each of 3cycles of affinity-selection with 9a5c, about 1.0×10(12) phage were used for panning with 4.1×10(6), 7.1×10(6), 2.1×10(7) phage recovered after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Sixty-six percent of clones from the final library bound X. fastidiosa 9a5c in an ELISA. Some of these scFv antibodies recognized strain 9a5c and did not recognize X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's disease of grapevine. PMID:26232710

  18. 16D10 siRNAs inhibit root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constru...

  19. α-Ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application affects endogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and aromatic volatiles in grapes infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Saito, Takanori; Ohkawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Shishido, Masahiro; Ikeura, Hiromi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Kondo, Satoru

    2016-03-15

    Effects of α-ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application on endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and aromatic volatiles were investigated in 'Kyoho' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera) infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata). The expressions of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1), lipoxygenase (VvLOX), and allene oxide synthase (VvAOS) were also examined. The grape berries were dipped in 0.1mM KODA solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25°C for 12 days. The development of infection was significantly suppressed upon KODA treatment. Endogenous ABA, JA and phaseic acid (PA) were induced in inoculated berries. KODA application before inoculation increased endogenous ABA, PA and JA through the activation of VvNCED1, VvCYP707A1 and VvAOS genes, respectively. In addition, terpenes, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and C6-aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenal associated with fungal resistance also increased in KODA-treated berries during storage. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of JA, ABA, and some aromatic volatiles induced by KODA application may provide resistance to pathogen infection in grape berries. PMID:26881925

  20. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  1. Xylella fastidiosa disturbs nitrogen metabolism and causes a stress response in sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pera.

    PubMed

    Purcino, Rúbia P; Medina, Camilo Lázaro; Martins de Souza, Daniel; Winck, Flávia Vischi; Machado, Eduardo Caruso; Novello, José Camilo; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a fastidious bacterium that grows exclusively in the xylem of several important crop species, including grape and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) causing Pierce disease and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), respectively. The aim of this work was to study the nitrogen metabolism of a highly susceptible variety of sweet orange cv. 'Pêra' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) infected with Xf. Plants were artificially infected and maintained in the greenhouse until they have developed clear disease symptoms. The content of nitrogen compounds and enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism and proteases in the xylem sap and leaves of diseased (DP) and uninfected healthy (HP) plants was studied. The activity of nitrate reductase in leaves did not change in DP, however, the activity of glutamine synthetase was significantly higher in these leaves. Although amino acid concentration was slightly higher in the xylem sap of DP, the level dropped drastically in the leaves. The protein contents were lower in the sap and in leaves of DP. DP and HP showed the same amino acid profiles, but different proportions were observed among them, mainly for asparagine, glutamine, and arginine. The polyamine putrescine was found in high concentrations only in DP. Protease activity was higher in leaves of DP while, in the xylem sap, activity was detected only in DP. Bidimensional electrophoresis showed a marked change in the protein pattern in DP. Five differentially expressed proteins were identified (2 from HP and 3 from DP), but none showed similarity with the genomic (translated) and proteomic database of Xf, but do show similarity with the proteins thaumatin, mucin, peroxidase, ABC-transporter, and strictosidine synthase. These results showed that significant changes take place in the nitrogen metabolism of DP, probably as a response to the alterations in the absorption, assimilation and distribution of N in the plant.

  2. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K; Fleites, Laura A; Rayside, Patricia A; Hopkins, Donald L; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry. PMID:26218423

  3. Seasonal abundance of Draeculacephala minerva and other Xylella fastidiosa vectors in California almond orchards and vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Wistrom, Christina M; Shapland, Elaine B; Sisterson, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    Almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. Reports of increased incidence of ALS-diseased trees in California prompted surveys in three almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb]-growing regions, from June 2003 to September 2005, to determine insect vector species composition and abundance. For comparison, sampling in and near vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, California, also was completed. Sampling in or near almond orchards collected >42,000 Cicadomorpha of which 4.8% were xylem feeders, including 1912 grass sharpshooter, Draeculacephala minerva Ball; five Xyphon fulgida Nottingham; and a single spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. The most abundant vector was D. minerva. Season-long sampling indicated that D. minerva was a year-round resident in and/or near almonds in the Sacramento Valley, but not in the San Joaquin Valley. Similarly, D. minerca was rare in vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, but was abundant in irrigated pastures near vineyards. D. minerva was most frequently collected along orchard margins, and peak densities were observed in summer, the period of time when bacterial titers are reported to increase in infected trees. Screening of D. minerva for presence of X.fastidiosa found that 1.1% of insects collected near almond orchards and 4.5% of insects collected from pastures tested positive. The X. fastidiosa subspecies and genotype detected in insects collected from orchards matched those collected from ALS-diseased almond trees in the same orchard. Of the few X. fulgida and P. spumarius collected, none tested positive for X. fastidiosa. Results are discussed with respect to X. fastidiosa vector control and detection methods.

  4. Detecting Genetic Introgression: High Levels of Intersubspecific Recombination Found in Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Bromley, Robin E.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Documenting the role of novel mutation versus homologous recombination in bacterial evolution, and especially in the invasion of new hosts, is central to understanding the long-term dynamics of pathogenic bacteria. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study this issue in Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca from Brazil, a bacterium causing citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and coffee leaf scorch (CLS). All 55 citrus isolates typed (plus one coffee isolate) defined three similar sequence types (STs) dominated by ST11 (85%), while the remaining 22 coffee isolates defined two STs, mainly ST16 (74%). This low level of variation masked unusually large allelic differences (>1% divergence with no intermediates) at five loci (leuA, petC, malF, cysG, and holC). We developed an introgression test to detect whether these large differences were due to introgression via homologous recombination from another X. fastidiosa subspecies. Using additional sequencing around these loci, we established that the seven randomly chosen MLST targets contained seven regions of introgression totaling 2,172 bp of 4,161 bp (52%), only 409 bp (10%) of which were detected by other recombination tests. This high level of introgression suggests the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca became pathogenic on citrus and coffee (crops cultivated in Brazil for several hundred years) only recently after it gained genetic variation via intersubspecific recombination, facilitating a switch from native hosts. A candidate donor is the subspecies infecting plum in the region since 1935 (possibly X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex). This hypothesis predicts that nonrecombinant native X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca (not yet isolated) does not cause disease in citrus or coffee. PMID:22544234

  5. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K.; Fleites, Laura A.; Rayside, Patricia A.; Hopkins, Donald L.; Gabriel, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry. PMID:26218423

  6. A temperature-independent cold-shock protein homolog acts as a virulence factor in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), causal agent of Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevine, is mainly prevalent in warmer climates. Subjecting Xf-infected grapevines to cold temperatures can, in many cases, effectively eliminate the bacterial population. However, little is known regarding physiological responses o...

  7. Detection of small RNAs in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are regarded as ubiquitous regulatory elements in bacteria. For Xylella fastidiosa, a plant pathogen causing many economically important crop diseases, research attention to sRNAs has been limited. With the availability of whole genome sequences and increasing bioinfor...

  8. Grape Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  9. Transmission efficiency of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in coffee and citrus.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Rosangela C; Lopes, João R S; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2008-08-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, Raju, Hung, Weisburg, Mandelco-Paul, and Brenner) is a bacterial pathogen transmitted by several sharpshooters in two tribes of Cicadellinae (Proconiini and Cicadellini). Here, we compared the transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by Cicadellini [Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) and Dilobopterus costalimai Young] and Proconiini [Homalodisca ignorata Melichar and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret)] sharpshooters that occur in both crops. At different seasons, healthy adults of each species were submitted to a 48-h acquisition access period on citrus or coffee source plants infected with X. fastidiosa isolates that cause Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and Coffee leaf scorch (CLS), respectively, and then confined on healthy seedlings of the corresponding host plant for a 48-h inoculation access period. No significant effect of inoculation season was observed when comparing infection rates of citrus or coffee plants inoculated by vectors at different times of the year. In citrus, the transmission rate by single insects was significantly higher for H. ignorata (30%) in relation to B. xanthophis (5%) and O. facialis (1.1%), but there was no difference among vector species in coffee, whose transmission rates ranged from 1.2 to 7.2%. Comparing host plants, H. ignorata was more effective in transmitting X. fastidiosa to citrus (30%) in relation to coffee (2.2%), whereas the other vectors transmitted the bacterium to both hosts with similar efficiencies. Despite these variations, vector efficiency in coffee and citrus is lower than that reported in other hosts. PMID:18767717

  10. Molecular Characteristics and Efficacy of 16D10 siRNAs in Inhibiting Root-Knot Nematode Infection in Transgenic Grape Hairy Roots

    PubMed Central

    Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong; Cousins, Peter; Zhong, Gan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constructs, containing a stem sequence of 42 bp (pART27-42) or 271 bp (pART27-271) of the 16D10 gene, were transformed into grape hairy roots and compared for their small interfering RNA (siRNA) production and efficacy on suppression of nematode infection. Transgenic hairy root lines carrying either of the two RNAi constructs showed less susceptibility to nematode infection compared with control. Small RNA libraries from four pART27-42 and two pART27-271 hairy root lines were sequenced using an Illumina sequencing technology. The pART27-42 lines produced hundred times more 16D10-specific siRNAs than the pART27-271 lines. On average the 16D10 siRNA population had higher GC content than the 16D10 stem sequences in the RNAi constructs, supporting previous observation that plant dicer-like enzymes prefer GC-rich sequences as substrates for siRNA production. The stems of the 16D10 RNAi constructs were not equally processed into siRNAs. Several hot spots for siRNA production were found in similar positions of the hairpin stems in pART27-42 and pART27-271. Interestingly, stem sequences at the loop terminus produced more siRNAs than those at the stem base. Furthermore, the relative abundance of guide and passenger single-stranded RNAs from putative siRNA duplexes was largely correlated with their 5′ end thermodynamic strength. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a plant-derived RNAi approach for generation of novel nematode resistance in grapes and revealed several interesting molecular characteristics of transgene siRNAs important for optimizing plant RNAi constructs

  11. Characterization of novel secreted proteins from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterium that causes disease of agriculturally important crops, including Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Little is known about virulence factors that are necessary for X. fastidiosa to grow and cause disease in the xylem vessels of a plant host. Any protein secreted by the b...

  12. Identification of novel secreted virulence factors from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterium that causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevine and other leaf scorch diseases of agriculturally important crops. Little is known about virulence factors that are necessary for X. fastidiosa to grow and cause disease in the xylem vessels of a plant host. Any protein ...

  13. Fatty acid profiling to characterize California strains of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different strains of Xylella fastidiosa cause diseases such as Pierce’s disease of grapevine, citrus variegated chlorosis, and bacterial leaf scorch of hardwoods. However, more research is needed to better define subspecies and strains of X. fastidiosa to improve both regulations concerning this bac...

  14. Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jordan Lee; Balci, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship. PMID:25815838

  15. Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jordan Lee; Balci, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship.

  16. Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Michael; Zaini, Paulo A; Baccari, Clelia; Tran, Sophia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-09-16

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as responding to envelope stress or trafficking various cargoes to prevent dilution or degradation by other bacterial species. Here we show that OMVs produced by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, block its interaction with various surfaces such as the walls of xylem vessels in host plants. The release of OMVs was suppressed by the diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum-sensing system, and a X. fastidiosa ΔrpfF mutant in which quorum signaling was disrupted was both much more virulent to plants and less adhesive to glass and plant surfaces than the WT strain. The higher virulence of the ΔrpfF mutant was associated with fivefold higher numbers of OMVs recovered from xylem sap of infected plants. The frequency of attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels was 20-fold lower in the presence of OMVs than in their absence. OMV production thus is a strategy used by X. fastidiosa cells to adjust attachment to surfaces in its transition from adhesive cells capable of insect transmission to an "exploratory" lifestyle for systemic spread within the plant host which would be hindered by attachment. OMV production may contribute to the movement of other bacteria in porous environments by similarly reducing their contact with environmental constituents. PMID:25197068

  17. Development and systematic validation of qPCR assays for rapid and reliable differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing citrus variegated chlorosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Teixeira, Diva C; Hartung, John S; Huang, Qi; Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Chen, Jianchi; Lin, Hong; Lopes, Silvio; Ayres, A Juliano; Levy, Laurene

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited, Gram-negative, fastidious plant bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease affecting approximately half of the citrus plantations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The disease was recently found in Central America and is threatening the multi-billion U.S. citrus industry. Many strains of X. fastidiosa are pathogens or endophytes in various plants growing in the U.S., and some strains cross infect several host plants. In this study, a TaqMan-based assay targeting the 16S rDNA signature region was developed for the identification of X. fastidiosa at the species level. Another TaqMan-based assay was developed for the specific identification of the CVC strains. Both new assays have been systematically validated in comparison with the primer/probe sets from four previously published assays on one platform and under similar PCR conditions, and shown to be superior. The species specific assay detected all X. fastidiosa strains and did not amplify any other citrus pathogen or endophyte tested. The CVC-specific assay detected all CVC strains but did not amplify any non-CVC X. fastidiosa nor any other citrus pathogen or endophyte evaluated. Both sets were multiplexed with a reliable internal control assay targeting host plant DNA, and their diagnostic specificity and sensitivity remained unchanged. This internal control provides quality assurance for DNA extraction, performance of PCR reagents, platforms and operators. The limit of detection for both assays was equivalent to 2 to 10 cells of X. fastidiosa per reaction for field citrus samples. Petioles and midribs of symptomatic leaves of sweet orange harbored the highest populations of X. fastidiosa, providing the best materials for detection of the pathogen. These new species specific assay will be invaluable for molecular identification of X. fastidiosa at the species level, and the CVC specific assay will be very powerful for the

  18. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency.

  19. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency. PMID:24665686

  20. Characterization of different Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and characterization of different subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa are often dependent upon genotyping. However, complementary methods to detect and characterize different X. fastidiosa strains based on phenotype are needed to confirm conclusions. Characterization of the composition of fat...

  1. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Thelen, Jay J; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    light on the mechanisms underlying the grape infection.

  2. Xylella fastidiosa esterase rather than hydroxynitrile lyase.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Guzman; Ribeiro de Souza, Fayene Zeferino; Carrilho, Emanuel; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, we reported that the product of the gene SCJ21.16 (XFa0032) from Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-restricted plant pathogen that causes a range of diseases in several important crops, encodes a protein (XfHNL) with putative hydroxynitrile lyase activity. Sequence analysis and activity tests indicated that XfHNL exhibits an α/β-hydrolase fold and could be classified as a member of the family of FAD-independent HNLs. Here we provide a more detailed sequence analysis and new experimental data. Using pure heterologously expressed XfHNL we show that this enzyme cannot catalyse the cleavage/synthesis of mandelonitrile and that this protein is in fact a non-enantioselective esterase. Homology modelling and ligand docking simulations were used to study the active site and support these results. This finding could help elucidate the common ancestor of esterases and hydroxynitrile lyases with an α/β -hydrolase fold. PMID:25684099

  3. Fractal analysis of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, A. L. D.; Lorite, G. S.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Souza, A. A.; Cotta, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the growth process of Xylella fastidiosa biofilms inoculated on a glass. The size and the distance between biofilms were analyzed by optical images; a fractal analysis was carried out using scaling concepts and atomic force microscopy images. We observed that different biofilms show similar fractal characteristics, although morphological variations can be identified for different biofilm stages. Two types of structural patterns are suggested from the observed fractal dimensions Df. In the initial and final stages of biofilm formation, Df is 2.73±0.06 and 2.68±0.06, respectively, while in the maturation stage, Df=2.57±0.08. These values suggest that the biofilm growth can be understood as an Eden model in the former case, while diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) seems to dominate the maturation stage. Changes in the correlation length parallel to the surface were also observed; these results were correlated with the biofilm matrix formation, which can hinder nutrient diffusion and thus create conditions to drive DLA growth.

  4. Emendation of the Genus Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988 and Transfer of Amycolatopsis fastidiosa Henssen et al. 1987 as Actinokineospora fastidiosa comb. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species Amycolatopsis fastidiosa was proposed by Henssen et al. (1987), based on morphological and chemotaxonomic observations, for a strain originally described as 'Pseudonocardia fastidiosa' by Celmer et al. in a US Patent issued in 1977. In the course of a phylogenetic study of the valid tax...

  5. Functional identification of Xylella fastidiosa plasmid replication and stability factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strain RIV11 harbors a 25 kbp plasmid (pXFRIV11) belonging to the incP1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXFRIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in both Xf and Escherichia coli. Sequences required for replication i...

  6. Survey of the auchenorrhyncha in the Salento Peninsula in search of putative vectors of Xylella fastidiosa Pauca Codiro strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa was isolated in September 2013 from olive trees symptomatic for Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) in Salento (Italy) and was identified as X. fastidiosa pauca CoDiRO strain. X. fastidiosa is comprised of a group of genetically diverse bacteria in the class Gammaproteobacteria th...

  7. Functional characterization of the role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in the Pil-Chp operon involving signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of pilG in twitching motility and pathogenicity of X. fastidiosa, phenotypes of wild type, a pilG-mutant, and a complementary strain we...

  8. Validation of Small RNAs In Xylella fastidiosa by qRT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes many economically important crop diseases including almond leaf scorch disease and Pierce’ disease of grapevine. Although non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are regarded as ubiquitous regulatory elements in bacteria, research attention to sRNAs in X. fastidiosa has been limited...

  9. Identification of novel secreted virulence factors from Xylella fastidiosa using a TRV expression system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterium that causes leaf scorch diseases of agriculturally important crops including grapevines and almonds. Little is known about virulence factors that are necessary for X. fastidiosa to grow and cause disease in the xylem vessels of a plant host. Any protein secreted by ...

  10. Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Sycamore Leaf Scorch Disease in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2014-08-21

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees including sycamore. We determined the draft genome of X. fastidiosa strain Sy-Va, isolated in Virginia from a sycamore tree displaying leaf scorch symptoms. The Sy-VA genome contains 2,477,829 bp, and has a G+C content of 51.64 mol%.

  11. Genome sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa strain causing sycamore leaf scorch disease in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees including sycamore. We determined the draft genome of X. fastidiosa strain Sy-VA, isolated in Virginia from a sycamore tree displaying leaf scorch symptoms. The Sy-VA genome is 2,477,829 bp in size, and has a GC content of 51.64 mol%...

  12. Ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species on grapes from Chilean vineyards and Aspergillus threshold levels on grapes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gonzalo A; Torres, René; Vega, Mario; Latorre, Bernardo A

    2009-07-31

    This study reports the incidence of ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus on Chilean grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wineries, and production of OTA levels in wines with grapes having different levels of contamination with OTA-producing Aspergillus carbonarius was studied. A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. niveus, A. paradoxus, A. versicolor, A. wentii, and A. westerdijkiae were identified on apparently healthy clusters of red and white grape cultivars. However, A. carbonarius and A. niger were the most frequently identified species, more abundant on red than white grape cultivars. Aspergillus spp. populations increased between veraison and harvest, but the isolation frequencies were relatively low over the entire growing season. At the winery, A. carbonarius, A. niger and A. westerdijkiae were occasionally found in the air, exclusively during winemaking. OTA-producing strains were only found among isolates of A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. wenti, and A. westerdijkiae, producing 2 to 17 microg/L of OTA in liquid medium; however, A. westerdijkiae produced the highest OTA concentration in vitro. Red wines elaborated with 0.5% of grapes infected with an OTA-producing strain of A. carbonarius (Aspuc-SB36) exceeded the 2 microg/L of OTA tolerance established for wines by the European Community. Therefore, a threshold below 0.5% infected berries is proposed for red wines. ELISA tests proved to be useful for detecting OTA in broth culture as in wine samples.

  13. [Induced autotetraploid grape mutants].

    PubMed

    Kuliev, V M

    2011-01-01

    The methods of experimental mitotic and meiotic polyploidy in grapes are represented in the article. Results of cytological, histo-anatomical, biomorphological researches of induced autotetraploids are shown. Genetic characteristics, parameters of generative organs, quantitative and structural genome changes were studied. Comparative quantitative changes in the content of chloroplast and mitochondrion DNAs and RNAs in diploids and autotetraploids were defined. Also are shown. The biology-economic evaluation of autotetraploids on comparison with the initial grape variety is represented. PMID:21774401

  14. Characterization of an oxidative stress response regulator, homologous to Escherichia coli OxyR, from the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M A S; Schneider, D R; Azzoni, A R; Favaro, M T P; Pelloso, A C; Santos, C A; Saraiva, A M; Souza, A P

    2011-02-01

    The OxyR oxidative stress transcriptional regulator is a DNA-binding protein that belongs to the LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTR) family. It has the ability to sense oxidative species inside the cell and to trigger the cell's response, activating the transcription of genes involved in scavenging oxidative species. In the present study, we have overexpressed, purified and characterized the predicted OxyR homologue (orf xf1273) of the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa. This bacterium is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease caused by the 9a5c strain, resulting in economic and social losses. The secondary structure of the recombinant protein was analyzed by circular dichroism. Gel filtration showed that XfoxyR is a dimer in solution. Gel shift assays indicated that it does bind to its own predicted promoter under in vitro conditions. However, considering our control experiment we cannot state that this interaction occurs in vivo. Functional complementation assays indicated that xfoxyR is able to restore the oxidative stress response in an oxyr knockout Escherichia coli strain. These results show that the predicted orfxf1273 codes for a transcriptional regulator, homologous to E. coli OxyR, involved in the oxidative stress response. This may be important for X. fastidiosa to overcome the defense mechanisms of its host during the infection and colonization processes. PMID:20951212

  15. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  16. Promiscuous Diffusible Signal Factor Production and Responsiveness of the Xylella fastidiosa Rpf System

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Michael; Yokota, Kenji; Antonova, Elena; Garcia, Angelica; Beaulieu, Ellen; Hayes, Terry; Iavarone, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell density-dependent regulation of gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa that is crucial to its switching between plant hosts and insect vectors is dependent on RpfF and its production of 2-enoic acids known as diffusible signal factor (DSF). We show that X. fastidiosa produces a particularly large variety of similar, relatively long-chain-length 2-enoic acids that are active in modulating gene expression. Both X. fastidiosa itself and a Pantoea agglomerans surrogate host harboring X. fastidiosa RpfF (XfRpfF) is capable of producing a variety of both saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids. However, only 2-cis unsaturated acids were found to be biologically active in X. fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa produces, and is particularly responsive to, a novel DSF species, 2-cis-hexadecanoic acid that we term XfDSF2. It is also responsive to other, even longer 2-enoic acids to which other taxa such as Xanthomonas campestris are unresponsive. The 2-enoic acids that are produced by X. fastidiosa are strongly affected by the cellular growth environment, with XfDSF2 not detected in culture media in which 2-tetradecenoic acid (XfDSF1) had previously been found. X. fastidiosa is responsive to much lower concentrations of XfDSF2 than XfDSF1. Apparently competitive interactions can occur between various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that block the function of those agonistic 2-enoic fatty acids. By altering the particular 2-enoic acids produced and the relative balance of free enoic and saturated fatty acids, X. fastidiosa might modulate the extent of DSF-mediated quorum sensing. PMID:27435463

  17. Optimizing EPG settings to record blue-green sharpshooter X waves for future studies of grape host plant resistance to Xf inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term goal of the research reported in this review is to develop methodology for assessment of grapevine resistant to sharpshooter inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa(Xf)into healthy grapevines, thereby preventing Xf infection. Such a trait would be quite different from the more common mechani...

  18. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:25426629

  19. Effect of oxygen on the growth and biofilm formation of Xylella fastidiosa in liquid media.

    PubMed

    Shriner, Anthony D; Andersen, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines and scorch diseases of many other plant species. The disease symptoms are putatively due to blocking of the transpiration stream by bacterial-induced biofilm formation and/or by the formation of plant-generated tylosis. Xylella fastidiosa has been classified as an obligate aerobe, which appears unusual given that dissolved O2 levels in the xylem during the growing season are often hypoxic (20-60 μmol L(-1)). We examined the growth and biofilm formation of three strains of X. fastidiosa under variable O2 conditions (21, 2.1, 0.21 and 0 % O2), in comparison to that of Pseudomonas syringae (obligate aerobe) and Erwinia carotovora (facultative anaerobe) under similar conditions. The growth of X. fastidiosa more closely resembled that of the facultative anaerobe, and not the obligate aerobe. Xanthomonas campestris, the closest genetic relative of X. fastidiosa, exhibited no growth in an N2 environment, whereas X. fastidiosa was capable of growing in an N2 environment in PW(+), CHARDS, and XDM2-PR media. The magnitude of growth and biofilm formation in the N2 (0 % O2) treatment was dependent on the specific medium. Additional studies involving the metabolism of X. fastidiosa in response to low O2 are warranted. Whether X. fastidiosa is classified as an obligate aerobe or a facultative anaerobe should be confirmed by gene activation and/or the quantification of the metabolic profiles under hypoxic conditions. PMID:25100224

  20. Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Sycamore Leaf Scorch Disease in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees including sycamore. We determined the draft genome of X. fastidiosa strain Sy-Va, isolated in Virginia from a sycamore tree displaying leaf scorch symptoms. The Sy-VA genome contains 2,477,829 bp, and has a G+C content of 51.64 mol%. PMID:25146135

  1. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes".

    PubMed

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism. PMID:26020829

  2. Eudora muscadine grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Eudora', a purple fruited muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) intended for the fresh market, has been approved for joint release as a public domain cultivar by the University of Florida Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. ‘Eudora’ ripens in mid-season (late August), is high yielding, and ...

  3. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A.; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set. PMID:27257535

  4. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J; Goulart, Luiz R; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce's disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set.

  5. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J; Goulart, Luiz R; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce's disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set. PMID:27257535

  6. Recent Evolutionary Radiation and Host Plant Specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa Subspecies Native to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Danel B.; Bromley, Robin E.; Russell, Stephanie A.; Hartman, John R.; Morano, Lisa D.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 “non-IHR” isolates, 2 minimally recombinant “intermediate” ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): “almond,” “peach,” and “oak” types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity. PMID:23354698

  7. Microarray Analyses of Xylella fastidiosa Provide Evidence of Coordinated Transcription Control of Laterally Transferred Elements

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Luiz R.; Rosato, Yoko B.; Muto, Nair H.; Yanai, Giane M.; da Silva, Vivian S.; Leite, Daniela B.; Gonçalves, Edmilson R.; de Souza, Alessandra A.; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D.; Machado, Marcos A.; Lopes, Silvio A.; de Oliveira, Regina Costa

    2003-01-01

    Genetically distinct strains of the plant bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) are responsible for a variety of plant diseases, accounting for severe economic damage throughout the world. Using as a reference the genome of Xf 9a5c strain, associated with citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), we developed a microarray-based comparison involving 12 Xf isolates, providing a thorough assessment of the variation in genomic composition across the group. Our results demonstrate that Xf displays one of the largest flexible gene pools characterized to date, with several horizontally acquired elements, such as prophages, plasmids, and genomic islands (GIs), which contribute up to 18% of the final genome. Transcriptome analysis of bacteria grown under different conditions shows that most of these elements are transcriptionally active, and their expression can be influenced in a coordinated manner by environmental stimuli. Finally, evaluation of the genetic composition of these laterally transferred elements identified differences that may help to explain the adaptability of Xf strains to infect such a wide range of plant species. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.] PMID:12670998

  8. Multiple, stochastic factors can determine acquisition success of the foregut-borne bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, by a sharpshooter vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a phytopathogenic foregut-borne bacterium whose vectors are sharpshooter leafhoppers. Despite several decades of study, the mechanisms of transmission (acquisition and inoculation) of X. fastidiosa still are not fully understood. Studies of the inoculation mechanism depend upon...

  9. Evaluation of assembling methods on determination of whole genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa blueberry bacterial leaf scorch strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry bacterial leaf scorch (BBLS) disease, a threat to blueberry production in the Southern USA and potentially elsewhere, is caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Efficient control of BBLS requires knowledge of the pathogen. However, this is challenging because Xylella fastidiosa is difficult to cultu...

  10. Direct evidence of egestion and salivation of Xylella fastidiosa suggests sharpshooters can be “flying syringes”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly 70 years of research, the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by its sharpshooter vectors is still unproven. X. fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it does not circulate in the vector’s hemolymph, yet it is propagative because it adheres to an...

  11. Visualization of twitching motility and characterization of the role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in the Pil-Chp operon involving signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of pilG in twitching motility and pathogenicity of X. fastidiosa, the phenotypes of wild type, a pilG-deficient mutant (Xf'pilG), and a...

  12. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incP-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a ~25 kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the incP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to propagate in both X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidi...

  13. N-acetylcysteine in agriculture, a novel use for an old molecule: focus on controlling the plant-pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Giorgiano, Thais E; Takita, Marco A; Forim, Moacir R; Silva, Luis F C; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X. fastidiosa in different experimental conditions. Concentrations of NAC over 1 mg/mL reduced bacterial adhesion to glass surfaces, biofilm formation and the amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The minimal inhibitory concentration of NAC was 6 mg/mL. NAC was supplied to X. fastidiosa-infected plants in hydroponics, fertigation, and adsorbed to organic fertilizer (NAC-Fertilizer). HPLC analysis indicated that plants absorbed NAC at concentrations of 0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL but not at 6 mg/mL. Sweet orange plants with CVC symptoms treated with NAC (0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL) in hydroponics showed clear symptom remission and reduction in bacterial population, as analyzed by quantitative PCR and bacterial isolation. Experiments using fertigation and NAC-Fertilizer were done to simulate a condition closer to that normally is used in the field. For both, significant symptom remission and a reduced bacterial growth rate were observed. Using NAC-Fertilizer the lag for resurgence of symptoms on leaves after interruption of the treatment increased to around eight months. This is the first report of the anti-bacterial effect of NAC against a phytopathogenic bacterium. The results obtained in this work together with the characteristics of this molecule indicate that the use of NAC in agriculture might be a new and sustainable strategy for controlling plant pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Whole genome sequencing and analyses of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain GV156 causing Pierce’s disease of grapevine in Taiwan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a nutritionally fastidious Gram-negative bacterium causing Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines. PD was first reported in Anaheim, California in 1892 and is currently endemic in California and the southeastern U.S. PD also was found outside the U.S. but is limited to the America...

  15. Radicinin from Cochliobolus sp. inhibits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's Disease of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Thomas J; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Roper, M Caroline; Reader, Jordan M; Steinhaus, Matthew J; Rapicavoli, Jeannette; Vosburg, David A; Maloney, Katherine N

    2015-08-01

    The fastidious phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, poses a substantial threat to many economically important crops, causing devastating diseases including Pierce's Disease of grapevine. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) planted in an area under Pierce's Disease pressure often display differences in disease severity and symptom expression, with apparently healthy vines growing alongside the dying ones, despite the fact that all the vines are genetic clones of one another. Under the hypothesis that endophytic microbes might be responsible for this non-genetic resistance to X. fastidiosa, endophytic fungi were isolated from vineyard cvs. 'Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grown under high Pierce's Disease pressure. A Cochliobolus sp. isolated from a Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine inhibited the growth of X. fastidiosa in vitro. Bioassay-guided isolation of an organic extract of Cochliobolus sp. yielded the natural product radicinin as the major active compound. Radicinin also inhibited proteases isolated from the culture supernatant of X. fastidiosa. In order to assess structure-activity relationships, three semi-synthetic derivatives of radicinin were prepared and tested for activity against X. fastidiosa in vitro. Assay results of these derivatives are consistent with enzyme inactivation by conjugate addition to carbon-10 of radicinin, as proposed previously. PMID:25892412

  16. Directed evolution induces tributyrin hydrolysis in a virulence factor of Xylella fastidiosa using a duplicated gene as a template.

    PubMed

    Gouran, Hossein; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rao, Basuthkar J; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya

    2014-01-01

    Duplication of genes is one of the preferred ways for natural selection to add advantageous functionality to the genome without having to reinvent the wheel with respect to catalytic efficiency and protein stability. The duplicated secretory virulence factors of Xylella fastidiosa (LesA, LesB and LesC), implicated in Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis of citrus species, epitomizes the positive selection pressures exerted on advantageous genes in such pathogens. A deeper insight into the evolution of these lipases/esterases is essential to develop resistance mechanisms in transgenic plants. Directed evolution, an attempt to accelerate the evolutionary steps in the laboratory, is inherently simple when targeted for loss of function. A bigger challenge is to specify mutations that endow a new function, such as a lost functionality in a duplicated gene. Previously, we have proposed a method for enumerating candidates for mutations intended to transfer the functionality of one protein into another related protein based on the spatial and electrostatic properties of the active site residues (DECAAF). In the current work, we present in vivo validation of DECAAF by inducing tributyrin hydrolysis in LesB based on the active site similarity to LesA. The structures of these proteins have been modeled using RaptorX based on the closely related LipA protein from Xanthomonas oryzae. These mutations replicate the spatial and electrostatic conformation of LesA in the modeled structure of the mutant LesB as well, providing in silico validation before proceeding to the laborious in vivo work. Such focused mutations allows one to dissect the relevance of the duplicated genes in finer detail as compared to gene knockouts, since they do not interfere with other moonlighting functions, protein expression levels or protein-protein interaction. PMID:25717364

  17. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  18. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  19. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  20. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  1. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  2. Starting from grape cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  3. Fastidian gum: the Xylella fastidiosa exopolysaccharide possibly involved in bacterial pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F R; Vettore, A L; Kemper, E L; Leite, A; Arruda, P

    2001-09-25

    The Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was the first plant pathogen to be completely sequenced. This species causes several economically important plant diseases, including citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). Analysis of the genomic sequence of X. fastidiosa revealed a 12 kb DNA fragment containing an operon closely related to the gum operon of Xanthomonas campestris. The presence of all genes involved in the synthesis of sugar precursors, existence of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production regulators in the genome, and the absence of three of the X. campestris gum genes suggested that X. fastidiosa is able to synthesize an EPS different from that of xanthan gum. This novel EPS probably consists of polymerized tetrasaccharide repeating units assembled by the sequential addition of glucose-1-phosphate, glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid on a polyprenol phosphate carrier. PMID:11583843

  4. Transmission of phage by glassy-winged sharpshooters, a vector of Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Das, Mayukh; Heinz, Kevin M.; Krauter, Peter C.; Gonzalez, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xff) is the causal agent of Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines and is vectored by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis). Previously we have reported the development of a bacteriophage (phage) based biocontrol system for PD, but no information on insect transmission of phages has been reported. Here we communicate that laboratory reared GWSSs fed on cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) harboring the virulent phage Paz were able to uptake of phage efficiently when the phage was present in high concentration, but were inefficient in transfer to plants. PMID:27738554

  5. The crystal structure of the cysteine protease Xylellain from Xylella fastidiosa reveals an intriguing activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ney Ribeiro; Faro, Aline Regis; Dotta, Maria Amélia Oliva; Faim, Livia Maria; Gianotti, Andreia; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Oliva, Glaucius; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique

    2013-02-14

    Xylella fastidiosa is responsible for a wide range of economically important plant diseases. We report here the crystal structure and kinetic data of Xylellain, the first cysteine protease characterized from the genome of the pathogenic X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c. Xylellain has a papain-family fold, and part of the N-terminal sequence blocks the enzyme active site, thereby mediating protein activity. One novel feature identified in the structure is the presence of a ribonucleotide bound outside the active site. We show that this ribonucleotide plays an important regulatory role in Xylellain enzyme kinetics, possibly functioning as a physiological mediator.

  6. Effect of Thymol and Linalool Fumigation on Postharvest Diseases of Table Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  7. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  8. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage.

  9. Glassy-winged sharpshooter can use a mechanical mechanism to inoculate Xylella fastidiosa into grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylem-feeding leafhoppers such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae), are thought to inoculate the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) from colonies bound to cuticle of the sharpshooter’s functional foregut (precibarium and cibarium). The mechanism of ...

  10. Habitat Effects on Population Density and Movement of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes disease in grapevines, almonds, citrus, pear, alfalfa, and many other economically important plants. In California, USA, the bacteria are transmitted by several species of leafhoppers including the cicadellids Draeculacephala minerva Ball a...

  11. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system suppresses virulence in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a number agriculturally important plant diseases, encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. TA modules consist of a toxin protein co-expressed with a specific antitoxin, and are often acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Antitoxin molecules (RNA or ...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of 11399, a Transformable Citrus-Pathogenic Strain of Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Niza, Bárbara; Merfa, Marcus V.; Alencar, Valquíria C.; Menegidio, Fabiano B.; Nunes, Luiz R.; Machado, Marcos A.; Takita, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 11399, a transformable citrus-pathogenic strain, is reported here. The 11399 genome size is 2,690,704 bp and has a G+C content of 52.7%. The draft genome of 11399 reveals the absence of four type I restriction-modification system genes. PMID:27738038

  13. Whole genome sequence analyses of Xylella fastidiosa PD strains from different geographical regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequences were determined for two Pierce’s disease (PD) causing Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strains, one from Florida and one from Taiwan. The Florida strain was ATCC 35879, the type of strain used as a standard reference for related taxonomy research. By contrast, the Taiwan strain used was only...

  14. Xylella fastidiosa plasmid-encoded PemK toxin is an endoribonuclease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable inheritance of pXF-RIV11 in Xylella fastidiosa is conferred by the pemI/pemK plasmid addiction system. PemK serves as a toxin inhibiting bacterial growth; PemI is the corresponding antitoxin that blocks activity of PemK toxin by direct binding. PemK toxin and PemI antitoxin were over-expre...

  15. Functional characterization of two toxin-antitoxin systems of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) system homologues, including relE/dinJ and mqsR/ygiT. Phylogenetic analyses indicate these two Xf TA systems have distinct evolutionary histories. Comparisons among Xf subspecies/strains reveal TA systems are often embedded in prophage ...

  16. Stable plasmid vectors for complementation of Xylella fastidiosa mutants in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current understanding of the mechanisms of Pierce’s Disease development has been significantly advanced by molecular genetic studies of the causal agent, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Plasmid vectors are an essential tool for studies of bacterial genetics and pathogenesis. However, most commonly used pla...

  17. Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO Strain.

    PubMed

    Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Chiumenti, Michela; Saponari, Maria; Donvito, Giacinto; Italiano, Alessandro; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Cariddi, Corrado; Martelli, Giovanni Paolo; Saldarelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    We determined the draft genome sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO strain, which has been isolated from olive plants in southern Italy (Apulia). It is associated with olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) and characterized by extensive scorching and desiccation of leaves and twigs. PMID:25676759

  19. A stable shuttle vector for Xylella fastidiosa based on an endogenous incP-1 plasmid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strain RIV11 harbors a 25 kbp plasmid (pXFRIV11) belonging to the incP1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXFRIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to propagate in both Xf and Escherichia coli. Sequences required for replication i...

  20. The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. The Xylella fastidiosa Consortium of the Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A J; Reinach, F C; Arruda, P; Abreu, F A; Acencio, M; Alvarenga, R; Alves, L M; Araya, J E; Baia, G S; Baptista, C S; Barros, M H; Bonaccorsi, E D; Bordin, S; Bové, J M; Briones, M R; Bueno, M R; Camargo, A A; Camargo, L E; Carraro, D M; Carrer, H; Colauto, N B; Colombo, C; Costa, F F; Costa, M C; Costa-Neto, C M; Coutinho, L L; Cristofani, M; Dias-Neto, E; Docena, C; El-Dorry, H; Facincani, A P; Ferreira, A J; Ferreira, V C; Ferro, J A; Fraga, J S; França, S C; Franco, M C; Frohme, M; Furlan, L R; Garnier, M; Goldman, G H; Goldman, M H; Gomes, S L; Gruber, A; Ho, P L; Hoheisel, J D; Junqueira, M L; Kemper, E L; Kitajima, J P; Krieger, J E; Kuramae, E E; Laigret, F; Lambais, M R; Leite, L C; Lemos, E G; Lemos, M V; Lopes, S A; Lopes, C R; Machado, J A; Machado, M A; Madeira, A M; Madeira, H M; Marino, C L; Marques, M V; Martins, E A; Martins, E M; Matsukuma, A Y; Menck, C F; Miracca, E C; Miyaki, C Y; Monteriro-Vitorello, C B; Moon, D H; Nagai, M A; Nascimento, A L; Netto, L E; Nhani, A; Nobrega, F G; Nunes, L R; Oliveira, M A; de Oliveira, M C; de Oliveira, R C; Palmieri, D A; Paris, A; Peixoto, B R; Pereira, G A; Pereira, H A; Pesquero, J B; Quaggio, R B; Roberto, P G; Rodrigues, V; de M Rosa, A J; de Rosa, V E; de Sá, R G; Santelli, R V; Sawasaki, H E; da Silva, A C; da Silva, A M; da Silva, F R; da Silva, W A; da Silveira, J F; Silvestri, M L; Siqueira, W J; de Souza, A A; de Souza, A P; Terenzi, M F; Truffi, D; Tsai, S M; Tsuhako, M H; Vallada, H; Van Sluys, M A; Verjovski-Almeida, S; Vettore, A L; Zago, M A; Zatz, M; Meidanis, J; Setubal, J C

    2000-07-13

    Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis--a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign putative functions to 47% of the 2,904 predicted coding regions. Efficient metabolic functions are predicted, with sugars as the principal energy and carbon source, supporting existence in the nutrient-poor xylem sap. The mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and virulence involve toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems, as well as bacterium-bacterium and bacterium-host interactions mediated by a range of proteins. Orthologues of some of these proteins have only been identified in animal and human pathogens; their presence in X. fastidiosa indicates that the molecular basis for bacterial pathogenicity is both conserved and independent of host. At least 83 genes are bacteriophage-derived and include virulence-associated genes from other bacteria, providing direct evidence of phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer. PMID:10910347

  1. Visualization of Twitching Motility and Characterization of the Role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangyang; Lin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative non-flagellated bacterium that causes a number of economically important diseases of plants. The twitching motility provides X. fastidiosa a means for long-distance intra-plant movement and colonization, contributing toward pathogenicity in X. fastidiosa. The twitching motility of X. fastidiosa is operated by type IV pili. Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in Pil-Chp operon encoding proteins that are involved with signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the roles of pilG in the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa, a pilG-deficient mutant XfΔpilG and its complementary strain XfΔpilG-C containing native pilG were developed. A microfluidic chambers integrated with a time-lapse image recording system was used to observe twitching motility in XfΔpilG, XfΔpilG-C and its wild type strain. Using this recording system, it permits long-term spatial and temporal observations of aggregation, migration of individual cells and populations of bacteria via twitching motility. X. fastidiosa wild type and complementary XfΔpilG-C strain showed typical twitching motility characteristics directly observed in the microfluidic flow chambers, whereas mutant XfΔpliG exhibited the twitching deficient phenotype. This study demonstrates that pilG contributes to the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa. The microfluidic flow chamber is used as a means for observing twitching motility. PMID:27166660

  2. Moving towards disease resistance in grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced the North American Native Grape Genome database to host grape research data for the U.S. viticulture industry. Within this database we have produced and identified hundreds of genetic markers (~800) which are being screened to expedite the selection of new grape varieties with increased...

  3. [Tyndalization by gamma rays. Preliminary esperiments on grape].

    PubMed

    Jona, R; Vallania, R

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of rot in two grape cultivars ("Moscato bianco" and "Favorita") has shown that the most effective gamma rays dose which pasteurizes fruit pulp with little or no damages is about 180-200 Kr. if administered divided into three fractions, the irradiated sample is less affected by infections (P = 0.01) then the 100 Kr or control samples. On the opposite, no difference between various doses could be detected when gamma rays are administered all at once.

  4. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

  5. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control.

  6. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  7. A new paradigm for vector inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa: Direct evidence of egestion and salivation supports that sharpshooters can be “flying syringes”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly 70 years of research, the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by its sharpshooter vectors remains unproven. X. fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but non-circulative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of th...

  8. Sharpshooters may be “flying syringes:” First direct evidence of mixed egestion and salivation in inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly 70 years of research, the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by its sharpshooter vectors remains unproven. X. fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but non-circulative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of t...

  9. Olive “quick decline” in Italy is associated with Xylella fastidiosa, a plant pathogenic bacterium also associated with California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s Disease on grapevine, has made its first documented entrance to continental Europe, possibly associated with a new disease on olive called “quick decline.” In October 2013, X. fastidiosa was reported in the Puglia region of southern Italy on declining...

  10. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which...

  11. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  12. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  13. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  14. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which...

  15. Gene Disruption by Homologous Recombination in the Xylella fastidiosa Citrus Variegated Chlorosis Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gaurivaud, Patrice; Souza, Leonardo C. A.; Virgílio, Andrea C. D.; Mariano, Anelise G.; Palma, Renê R.; Monteiro, Patrícia B.

    2002-01-01

    Mutagenesis by homologous recombination was evaluated in Xylella fastidiosa by using the bga gene, coding for β-galactosidase, as a model. Integration of replicative plasmids by homologous recombination between the cloned truncated copy of bga and the endogenous gene was produced by one or two crossover events leading to β-galactosidase mutants. A promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was used to monitor the expression of the target gene and to select a cvaB mutant. PMID:12200328

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa Pear Leaf Scorch Strain in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, C-C; Deng, W-L; Jan, F-J; Chang, C-J; Huang, H; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain PLS229, isolated from the pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp, with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 genome was annotated and has 3,259 open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24652975

  17. Origins of the Xylella fastidiosa Prophage-Like Regions and Their Impact in Genome Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Varani, Alessandro; Souza, Rangel Celso; Nakaya, Helder I.; de Lima, Wanessa Cristina; Paula de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Chen, Jianchi; Civerolo, Edwin; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative plant pathogen causing many economically important diseases, and analyses of completely sequenced X. fastidiosa genome strains allowed the identification of many prophage-like elements and possibly phage remnants, accounting for up to 15% of the genome composition. To better evaluate the recent evolution of the X. fastidiosa chromosome backbone among distinct pathovars, the number and location of prophage-like regions on two finished genomes (9a5c and Temecula1), and in two candidate molecules (Ann1 and Dixon) were assessed. Based on comparative best bidirectional hit analyses, the majority (51%) of the predicted genes in the X. fastidiosa prophage-like regions are related to structural phage genes belonging to the Siphoviridae family. Electron micrograph reveals the existence of putative viral particles with similar morphology to lambda phages in the bacterial cell in planta. Moreover, analysis of microarray data indicates that 9a5c strain cultivated under stress conditions presents enhanced expression of phage anti-repressor genes, suggesting switches from lysogenic to lytic cycle of phages under stress-induced situations. Furthermore, virulence-associated proteins and toxins are found within these prophage-like elements, thus suggesting an important role in host adaptation. Finally, clustering analyses of phage integrase genes based on multiple alignment patterns reveal they group in five lineages, all possessing a tyrosine recombinase catalytic domain, and phylogenetically close to other integrases found in phages that are genetic mosaics and able to perform generalized and specialized transduction. Integration sites and tRNA association is also evidenced. In summary, we present comparative and experimental evidence supporting the association and contribution of phage activity on the differentiation of Xylella genomes. PMID:19116666

  18. Genome-wide comparison and taxonomic relatedness of multiple Xylella fastidiosa strains reveal the occurrence of three subspecies and a new Xylella species.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A total of 21 Xylella fastidiosa strains were assessed by comparing their genomes to infer their taxonomic relationships. The whole-genome-based average nucleotide identity and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficient analyses were performed. In addition, a consensus tree based on comparisons of 956 core gene families, and a genome-wide phylogenetic tree and a Neighbor-net network were constructed with 820,088 nucleotides (i.e., approximately 30-33 % of the entire X. fastidiosa genome). All approaches revealed the occurrence of three well-demarcated genetic clusters that represent X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, with the latter appeared to diverge. We suggest that the proposed but never formally described subspecies 'sandyi' and 'morus' are instead members of the subspecies fastidiosa. These analyses support the view that the Xylella strain isolated from Pyrus pyrifolia in Taiwan is likely to be a new species. A widely used multilocus sequence typing analysis yielded conflicting results. PMID:27209415

  19. VapD in Xylella fastidiosa Is a Thermostable Protein with Ribonuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Juliano S.; Santiago, André da S.; Toledo, Marcelo A. S.; Rosselli-Murai, Luciana K.; Favaro, Marianna T. P.; Santos, Clelton A.; Horta, Maria Augusta C.; Crucello, Aline; Beloti, Lilian L.; Romero, Fabian; Tasic, Ljubica; de Souza, Alessandra A.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c is a gram-negative phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a disease that is responsible for economic losses in Brazilian agriculture. The most well-known mechanism of pathogenicity for this bacterial pathogen is xylem vessel occlusion, which results from bacterial movement and the formation of biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence caused by biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we provide evidence showing that virulence-associated protein D in X. fastidiosa (Xf-VapD) is a thermostable protein with ribonuclease activity. Moreover, protein expression analyses in two X. fastidiosa strains, including virulent (Xf9a5c) and nonpathogenic (XfJ1a12) strains, showed that Xf-VapD was expressed during all phases of development in both strains and that increased expression was observed in Xf9a5c during biofilm growth. This study is an important step toward characterizing and improving our understanding of the biological significance of Xf-VapD and its potential functions in the CVC pathosystem. PMID:26694028

  20. VapD in Xylella fastidiosa Is a Thermostable Protein with Ribonuclease Activity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Juliano S; Santiago, André da S; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Rosselli-Murai, Luciana K; Favaro, Marianna T P; Santos, Clelton A; Horta, Maria Augusta C; Crucello, Aline; Beloti, Lilian L; Romero, Fabian; Tasic, Ljubica; de Souza, Alessandra A; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c is a gram-negative phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a disease that is responsible for economic losses in Brazilian agriculture. The most well-known mechanism of pathogenicity for this bacterial pathogen is xylem vessel occlusion, which results from bacterial movement and the formation of biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence caused by biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we provide evidence showing that virulence-associated protein D in X. fastidiosa (Xf-VapD) is a thermostable protein with ribonuclease activity. Moreover, protein expression analyses in two X. fastidiosa strains, including virulent (Xf9a5c) and nonpathogenic (XfJ1a12) strains, showed that Xf-VapD was expressed during all phases of development in both strains and that increased expression was observed in Xf9a5c during biofilm growth. This study is an important step toward characterizing and improving our understanding of the biological significance of Xf-VapD and its potential functions in the CVC pathosystem. PMID:26694028

  1. Calcium-Enhanced Twitching Motility in Xylella fastidiosa Is Linked to a Single PilY1 Homolog.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luisa F; Parker, Jennifer K; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is restricted to the xylem vessel environment, where mineral nutrients are transported through the plant host; therefore, changes in the concentrations of these elements likely impact the growth and virulence of this bacterium. Twitching motility, dependent on type IV pili (TFP), is required for movement against the transpiration stream that results in basipetal colonization. We previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca) increases the motility of X. fastidiosa, although the mechanism was unknown. PilY1 is a TFP structural protein recently shown to bind Ca and to regulate twitching and adhesion in bacterial pathogens of humans. Sequence analysis identified three pilY1 homologs in X. fastidiosa (PD0023, PD0502, and PD1611), one of which (PD1611) contains a Ca-binding motif. Separate deletions of PD0023 and PD1611 resulted in mutants that still showed twitching motility and were not impaired in attachment or biofilm formation. However, the response of increased twitching at higher Ca concentrations was lost in the pilY1-1611 mutant. Ca does not modulate the expression of any of the X. fastidiosa PilY1 homologs, although it increases the expression of the retraction ATPase pilT during active movement. The evidence presented here suggests functional differences between the PilY1 homologs, which may provide X. fastidiosa with an adaptive advantage in environments with high Ca concentrations, such as xylem sap. PMID:25217013

  2. A Temperature-Independent Cold-Shock Protein Homolog Acts as a Virulence Factor in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, is a fastidious organism that requires very specific conditions for replication and plant colonization. Cold temperatures reduce growth and survival of X. fastidiosa both in vitro and in planta. However, little is known regarding physiological responses of X. fastidiosa to temperature changes. Cold-shock proteins (CSP), a family of nucleic acid-binding proteins, act as chaperones facilitating translation at low temperatures. Bacterial genomes often encode multiple CSP, some of which are strongly induced following exposure to cold. Additionally, CSP contribute to the general stress response through mRNA stabilization and posttranscriptional regulation. A putative CSP homolog (Csp1) with RNA-binding activity was identified in X. fastidiosa Stag's Leap. The csp1 gene lacked the long 5' untranslated region characteristic of cold-inducible genes and was expressed in a temperature-independent manner. As compared with the wild type, a deletion mutant of csp1 (∆csp1) had decreased survival rates following cold exposure and salt stress in vitro. The deletion mutant also was significantly less virulent in grapevine, as compared with the wild type, in the absence of cold stress. These results suggest an important function of X. fastidiosa Csp1 in response to cellular stress and during plant colonization. PMID:26808446

  3. Interactive effects of water stress and xylem-limited bacterial infection on the water relations of a host vine.

    PubMed

    McElrone, Andrew J; Sherald, James L; Forseth, Irwin N

    2003-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited bacterial pathogen that causes bacterial leaf scorch in its hosts, has a diverse and extensive host range among plant species worldwide. Previous work has shown that water stress enhances leaf scorch symptom severity and progression along the stem in Parthenocissus quinquefolia infected by X. fastidiosa. The objective here was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the interaction of water stress and infection by X. fastidiosa. Using the eastern deciduous forest vine, P. quinquefolia, infection and water availability were manipulated while measuring leaf water potentials (psi(L)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), whole shoot hydraulic conductance (K(h)), per cent xylem embolism, and xylem vessel dimensions. No significant differences in any of the physiological measurements were found between control and infected plants prior to drought. Drought treatment significantly reduced psi(L) and g(s) at all leaf positions throughout the day in late summer in both years of the study. In addition, infection significantly reduced psi(L) and g(s) in the most basal leaf positions in late summer in both years. Whole shoot hydraulic conductance was reduced by both low water and infection treatments. However, per cent embolized vessels and mean vessel diameter were affected by drought treatment only. These results imply that the major effect of infection by X. fastidiosa occurs due to reduced hydraulic conductance caused by clogging of the vessels, and not increased cavitation and embolism of xylem elements. The reduced K(h) caused by X. fastidiosa infection acts additively with the water limitation imposed by Drought stress.

  4. Managing ochratoxin A risk in the grape-wine food chain.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Angelo; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    The main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the wine food chain is the infection of grapes by "black aspergilli" in the field. OTA-producing black aspergilli include principally Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and possibly A. tubingensis. They are opportunistic fungi that develop particularly on damaged berries at ripening, although they may occur and form OTA on grapes from veraison to harvest. Climatic conditions (high humidity and temperature) and geographical location are important factors favouring OTA accumulation in grape berries. The severity of aspergillus rot is influenced by excessive irrigation and rainfall prior to harvest, which causes berry splitting. In addition, berry wounds caused by insect attack provide preferential entries for black aspergilli. High OTA levels occur in grapes severely damaged by the grape moth, Lobesia botrana, particularly in Mediterranean areas. Some grape varieties display greater susceptibility to aspergillus rot due to intrinsic genetic characteristics and bunch conformation (i.e. compact>sparse). Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. Proper fungicidal and insecticidal treatments can reduce OTA contamination. Nevertheless, knowledge about the fate of OTA and its distribution in wine and winery by-products is important to manage OTA risk in contaminated stock. In our wine-making experiments, only 4% of the OTA present in grapes remained in the wine--the majority is retained in pressed grape pomaces. OTA concentration remained unchanged in wine after a 1-year aging as well as in all liquid fractions collected during vinification (i.e. must, free run wine, and wine after first and second decantation). Activated carbon can reduce OTA levels in wine but negatively affects wine quality.

  5. Population Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Almond Leaf Scorch Disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Islam, Md Sajedul; Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Civerolo, Edwin L; Groves, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in many commercial crops, including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of X. fastidiosa associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Isolates obtained from two almond orchards in Fresno and Kern County in the San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for two successive years. Multilocus simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed two major genetic clusters that were associated with two host cultivars, 'Sonora' and 'Nonpareil', respectively, regardless of the year of study or location of the orchard. These relationships suggest that host cultivar selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS X. fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley. This finding will provide insight into understanding pathogen adaptation and host selection in the context of ALS disease dynamics.

  6. Population Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Almond Leaf Scorch Disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Islam, Md Sajedul; Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Civerolo, Edwin L; Groves, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in many commercial crops, including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of X. fastidiosa associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Isolates obtained from two almond orchards in Fresno and Kern County in the San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for two successive years. Multilocus simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed two major genetic clusters that were associated with two host cultivars, 'Sonora' and 'Nonpareil', respectively, regardless of the year of study or location of the orchard. These relationships suggest that host cultivar selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS X. fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley. This finding will provide insight into understanding pathogen adaptation and host selection in the context of ALS disease dynamics. PMID:25807309

  7. Multiplexed lateral flow microarray assay for detection of citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    SciTech Connect

    Cary; R. Bruce; Stubben, Christopher J.

    2011-03-22

    The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.

  8. Inhibition of fungi from diseased grape by syringomycin E-rhamnolipid mixture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal infections of vineyard grapes compromise the yield and organoleptic properties of wines, and there is a need for more effective fungal control measures. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the potential of a novel lipopeptide fungicidal formulation to control these diseases. A mixtur...

  9. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  10. Establishment and Production of Muscadine Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia, Michx.) are adapted to the warm humid climate of the Southeastern U.S., and have been produced commercially in this region for over 300 years. Recent discoveries of the health benefits associated with muscadine grape consumption involve phenolic compounds inclu...

  11. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  12. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  13. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Battilani, Paola; Camardo Leggieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes. PMID:26258791

  14. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach.

    PubMed

    Paola, Battilani; Marco, Camardo Leggieri

    2015-08-06

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  15. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach.

    PubMed

    Paola, Battilani; Marco, Camardo Leggieri

    2015-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes. PMID:26258791

  16. O antigen modulates insect vector acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Kinsinger, Nichola; Perring, Thomas M; Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Walker, Sharon; Roper, M Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Hemipteran insect vectors transmit the majority of plant pathogens. Acquisition of pathogenic bacteria by these piercing/sucking insects requires intimate associations between the bacterial cells and insect surfaces. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and thus mediates bacterial interactions with the environment and potential hosts. We hypothesized that bacterial cell surface properties mediated by LPS would be important in modulating vector-pathogen interactions required for acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Utilizing a mutant that produces truncated O antigen (the terminal portion of the LPS molecule), we present results that link this LPS structural alteration to a significant decrease in the attachment of X. fastidiosa to blue-green sharpshooter foreguts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that this defect in initial attachment compromised subsequent biofilm formation within vector foreguts, thus impairing pathogen acquisition. We also establish a relationship between O antigen truncation and significant changes in the physiochemical properties of the cell, which in turn affect the dynamics of X. fastidiosa adhesion to the vector foregut. Lastly, we couple measurements of the physiochemical properties of the cell with hydrodynamic fluid shear rates to produce a Comsol model that predicts primary areas of bacterial colonization within blue-green sharpshooter foreguts, and we present experimental data that support the model. These results demonstrate that, in addition to reported protein adhesin-ligand interactions, O antigen is crucial for vector-pathogen interactions, specifically in the acquisition of this destructive agricultural pathogen. PMID:26386068

  17. O Antigen Modulates Insect Vector Acquisition of the Bacterial Plant Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Rapicavoli, Jeannette N.; Kinsinger, Nichola; Perring, Thomas M.; Backus, Elaine A.; Shugart, Holly J.; Walker, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Hemipteran insect vectors transmit the majority of plant pathogens. Acquisition of pathogenic bacteria by these piercing/sucking insects requires intimate associations between the bacterial cells and insect surfaces. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and thus mediates bacterial interactions with the environment and potential hosts. We hypothesized that bacterial cell surface properties mediated by LPS would be important in modulating vector-pathogen interactions required for acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Utilizing a mutant that produces truncated O antigen (the terminal portion of the LPS molecule), we present results that link this LPS structural alteration to a significant decrease in the attachment of X. fastidiosa to blue-green sharpshooter foreguts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that this defect in initial attachment compromised subsequent biofilm formation within vector foreguts, thus impairing pathogen acquisition. We also establish a relationship between O antigen truncation and significant changes in the physiochemical properties of the cell, which in turn affect the dynamics of X. fastidiosa adhesion to the vector foregut. Lastly, we couple measurements of the physiochemical properties of the cell with hydrodynamic fluid shear rates to produce a Comsol model that predicts primary areas of bacterial colonization within blue-green sharpshooter foreguts, and we present experimental data that support the model. These results demonstrate that, in addition to reported protein adhesin-ligand interactions, O antigen is crucial for vector-pathogen interactions, specifically in the acquisition of this destructive agricultural pathogen. PMID:26386068

  18. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  19. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  20. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  1. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  2. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  3. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  4. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  5. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  6. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  7. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  8. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  9. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  10. Support for the salivation-egestion hypothesis for Xylella fastidiosa inoculation: salivary glucanase is injected into xylem during vector feeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The salivation-egestion hypothesis for the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) proposes that saliva secreted into plants is taken up into the vector’s precibarium. There, saliva loosens the Xf bacterial biofilm by enzymatically degrading ß-1, 4 glucans that form the chemical backbone o...

  11. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana is genetically similar to a strain found in Southern highbush blueberry in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past ten years, Xylella fastidiosa has been confirmed as a pathogen of Southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in Georgia and Florida. Recent work in Louisiana has shown that it is also associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in ‘Tifblue’ ...

  12. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa lipopolysaccharide and its role in key steps of the disease cycle in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce’s Disease of grapevine (PD), and also colonizes and causes disease in other crops such as almond, citrus, and oleander. While all identified Xf isolates belong to the same species, some isolates can cause disease in one host, but not another. T...

  13. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to Zinc: Decreased Culturability, Increased Exopolysaccharide Production, and Formation of Resilient Biofilms under Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events. PMID:24271184

  14. Plasmid vectors for Xylella fastidiosa utilizing a toxin-antitoxin system for plasmid stability in the absence of antibiotic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacte...

  15. Plasmid Vectors for Xylella fastidiosa Utilizing a Toxin-Antitoxin System for Stability in the Absence of Antibiotic Selection.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-08-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacterial genetics but there are only a limited number of plasmid vectors available that replicate in X. fastidiosa, and even fewer that are retained without antibiotic selection. Two plasmids are described here that show stable replication in X. fastidiosa and are effective for gene complementation both in vitro and in planta. Plasmid maintenance is facilitated by incorporation of the PemI/PemK plasmid addiction system, consisting of PemK, an endoribonuclease toxin, and its cognate antitoxin, PemI. Vector pXf20pemIK utilizes a native X. fastidiosa replication origin as well as a high-copy-number pUC origin for propagation in Escherichia coli cloning strains. Broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK is a medium- to low-copy-number plasmid based on the pBBR1 backbone. Both plasmids are maintained for extended periods of time in the absence of antibiotic selection, as well as up to 14 weeks in grapevine, without affecting bacterial fitness. These plasmids present an alternative to traditional complementation and expression vectors which rely on antibiotic selection for plasmid retention.

  16. Plasmid Vectors for Xylella fastidiosa Utilizing a Toxin-Antitoxin System for Stability in the Absence of Antibiotic Selection.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-08-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacterial genetics but there are only a limited number of plasmid vectors available that replicate in X. fastidiosa, and even fewer that are retained without antibiotic selection. Two plasmids are described here that show stable replication in X. fastidiosa and are effective for gene complementation both in vitro and in planta. Plasmid maintenance is facilitated by incorporation of the PemI/PemK plasmid addiction system, consisting of PemK, an endoribonuclease toxin, and its cognate antitoxin, PemI. Vector pXf20pemIK utilizes a native X. fastidiosa replication origin as well as a high-copy-number pUC origin for propagation in Escherichia coli cloning strains. Broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK is a medium- to low-copy-number plasmid based on the pBBR1 backbone. Both plasmids are maintained for extended periods of time in the absence of antibiotic selection, as well as up to 14 weeks in grapevine, without affecting bacterial fitness. These plasmids present an alternative to traditional complementation and expression vectors which rely on antibiotic selection for plasmid retention. PMID:27088393

  17. How to be an ideal vector: Four crucial steps in the transmission mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses recent research on how the feeding of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis controls transmission (acquisition and inoculation) of Xylella fastidiosa. Studies to date support a model of four crucial steps that must all occur simultaneously during H. vitripennis fe...

  18. The transmission mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooter vectors and a model for quantification of vector efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exact mechanism of transmission (acquisition and inoculation) of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) by sharpshooter vectors such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), has been unknown. This presentation will summarize five years of work to identify the transmission mechanism...

  19. Population structure of Xylella fastidiosa associated with almond leaf scorch disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes disease in many commercial crops including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of Xf associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Strains isolated from two almond production si...

  20. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants. PMID:23569854

  1. Spatiotemporal distribution of different extracellular polymeric substances and filamentation mediate Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Janissen, Richard; Murillo, Duber M; Niza, Barbara; Sahoo, Prasana K; Nobrega, Marcelo M; Cesar, Carlos L; Temperini, Marcia L A; Carvalho, Hernandes F; de Souza, Alessandra A; Cotta, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism pathogenicity strongly relies on the generation of multicellular assemblies, called biofilms. Understanding their organization can unveil vulnerabilities leading to potential treatments; spatially and temporally-resolved comprehensive experimental characterization can provide new details of biofilm formation, and possibly new targets for disease control. Here, biofilm formation of economically important phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa was analyzed at single-cell resolution using nanometer-resolution spectro-microscopy techniques, addressing the role of different types of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) at each stage of the entire bacterial life cycle. Single cell adhesion is caused by unspecific electrostatic interactions through proteins at the cell polar region, where EPS accumulation is required for more firmly-attached, irreversibly adhered cells. Subsequently, bacteria form clusters, which are embedded in secreted loosely-bound EPS, and bridged by up to ten-fold elongated cells that form the biofilm framework. During biofilm maturation, soluble EPS forms a filamentous matrix that facilitates cell adhesion and provides mechanical support, while the biofilm keeps anchored by few cells. This floating architecture maximizes nutrient distribution while allowing detachment upon larger shear stresses; it thus complies with biological requirements of the bacteria life cycle. Using new approaches, our findings provide insights regarding different aspects of the adhesion process of X. fastidiosa and biofilm formation. PMID:25891045

  2. Spatiotemporal distribution of different extracellular polymeric substances and filamentation mediate Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Janissen, Richard; Murillo, Duber M.; Niza, Barbara; Sahoo, Prasana K.; Nobrega, Marcelo M.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Temperini, Marcia L. A.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; de Souza, Alessandra A.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism pathogenicity strongly relies on the generation of multicellular assemblies, called biofilms. Understanding their organization can unveil vulnerabilities leading to potential treatments; spatially and temporally-resolved comprehensive experimental characterization can provide new details of biofilm formation, and possibly new targets for disease control. Here, biofilm formation of economically important phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa was analyzed at single-cell resolution using nanometer-resolution spectro-microscopy techniques, addressing the role of different types of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) at each stage of the entire bacterial life cycle. Single cell adhesion is caused by unspecific electrostatic interactions through proteins at the cell polar region, where EPS accumulation is required for more firmly-attached, irreversibly adhered cells. Subsequently, bacteria form clusters, which are embedded in secreted loosely-bound EPS, and bridged by up to ten-fold elongated cells that form the biofilm framework. During biofilm maturation, soluble EPS forms a filamentous matrix that facilitates cell adhesion and provides mechanical support, while the biofilm keeps anchored by few cells. This floating architecture maximizes nutrient distribution while allowing detachment upon larger shear stresses; it thus complies with biological requirements of the bacteria life cycle. Using new approaches, our findings provide insights regarding different aspects of the adhesion process of X. fastidiosa and biofilm formation. PMID:25891045

  3. Toxicity of sulcotrione and grape marc on Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-12-10

    The cell toxicity of sulcotrione, a selective triketone herbicide, was evaluated on Vicia faba. Sulcotrione, trademark Mikado, grape marc, and mixtures of sulcotrione or Mikado with grape marc induced cell death. Addition of grape marc to either sulcotrione or Mikado enhanced cell death, especially with Mikado. Addition of grape marc to herbicides, sulcotrione, or Mikado resulted in different expression of genes usually associated with cell stress. Mixtures of grape marc and herbicides enhanced transcript accumulation for ubiquitin, hsp 70, and cytosolic superoxide dismutase, but did not change ascorbate peroxidase transcript accumulation. The results thus provide evidence that sulcotrione, Mikado, and mixtures with grape marc can trigger cell death and specific gene expressions. Cocktails of products with sulcotrione, such as commercial additives and grape marc, can modify biological features of pesticide. Moreover, grape marc differently enhanced cell toxicity of sulcotrione and Mikado, suggesting a synergy between pesticide products and grape marc.

  4. Acetic acid bacteria isolated from grapes of South Australian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Bartowsky, E J

    2014-05-16

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) diversity from healthy, mould-infected and rot-affected grapes collected from three vineyards of Adelaide Hills (South Australia) was analyzed by molecular typing and identification methods. Nine different AAB species were identified from the 624 isolates recovered: Four species from Gluconobacter genus, two from Asaia and one from Acetobacter were identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer. However, the identification of other isolates that were assigned as Asaia sp. and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis required more analysis for a correct species classification. The species of Gluconobacter cerinus was the main one identified; while one genotype of Asaia siamensis presented the highest number of isolates. The number of colonies recovered and genotypes identified was strongly affected by the infection status of the grapes; the rot-affected with the highest number. However, the species diversity was similar in all the cases. High AAB diversity was detected with a specific genotype distribution for each vineyard.

  5. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:26971218

  6. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

  7. Infection.

    PubMed

    Miclau, Theodore; Schmidt, Andrew H; Wenke, Joseph C; Webb, Lawrence X; Harro, Janette M; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Musculoskeletal infection is a clinical problem with significant direct healthcare costs. The prevalence of infection after closed, elective surgery is frequently estimated to be less than 2%, but in severe injuries, posttraumatic infection rates have been reported as 10% or greater. Although clinical infections are found outside the realm of medical devices, it is clear that the enormous increase of infections associated with the use of implants presents a major challenge worldwide. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections.

  8. Grape

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), diarrhea, heavy menstrual bleeding, uterine bleeding, and ... Hemorrhoids. Constipation. Cough. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder ... syndrome (CFS). Diarrhea. Heavy menstrual periods. Age-related macular ...

  9. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  10. Identification and field evaluation of grape shoot volatiles attractive to female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from shoots of riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) acting as behavioral attractants for female grape berry moth (GBM, Paralobesia viteana). Consistent...

  11. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  12. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  13. Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Ayse Sibel; Ozden, Sibel; Alpertunga, Buket

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin and widespread food contaminant which results in a probable human exposure. A total of 85 samples (50 dried grapes, 10 grape juices and 25 pekmez (boiled and concentrated grape juices) were collected from different supermarkets and traditional bazaars in Istanbul during 2008-2009. An analytical method based on immuno-affinity column for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used to determine the OTA. Contamination frequencies were 8%, 20% and 88% with mean concentrations of positive samples of 1.15, 1.40 and 2.04 µg/kg for dried grapes, grape juices and pekmez samples, respectively. These levels were lower than the maximum levels as set by the European Commission (EC). However, 12 of 25 pekmez samples had higher levels than permitted by the European Union (EU) for safe consumption. PMID:24779935

  14. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:26572322

  15. Structural and biochemical characterization of peroxiredoxin Qbeta from Xylella fastidiosa: catalytic mechanism and high reactivity.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bruno Brasil; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Discola, Karen Fulan; Cussiol, José Renato Rosa; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares

    2010-05-21

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the etiological agent of various plant diseases. To survive under oxidative stress imposed by the host, microorganisms express antioxidant proteins, including cysteine-based peroxidases named peroxiredoxins. This work is a comprehensive analysis of the catalysis performed by PrxQ from X. fastidiosa (XfPrxQ) that belongs to a peroxiredoxin class still poorly characterized and previously considered as moderately reactive toward hydroperoxides. Contrary to these assumptions, our competitive kinetics studies have shown that the second-order rate constants of the peroxidase reactions of XfPrxQ with hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite are in the order of 10(7) and 10(6) M(-1) S(-1), respectively, which are as fast as the most efficient peroxidases. The XfPrxQ disulfides were only slightly reducible by dithiothreitol; therefore, the identification of a thioredoxin system as the probable biological reductant of XfPrxQ was a relevant finding. We also showed by site-specific mutagenesis and mass spectrometry that an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys-47 and Cys-83 is generated during the catalytic cycle. Furthermore, we elucidated the crystal structure of XfPrxQ C47S in which Ser-47 and Cys-83 lie approximately 12.3 A apart. Therefore, significant conformational changes are required for disulfide bond formation. In fact, circular dichroism data indicated that there was a significant redox-dependent unfolding of alpha-helices, which is probably triggered by the peroxidatic cysteine oxidation. Finally, we proposed a model that takes data from this work as well data as from the literature into account. PMID:20335172

  16. Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence.

    PubMed

    Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

    2014-11-01

    Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants.

  17. Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence.

    PubMed

    Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

    2014-11-01

    Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

  18. Zinc Detoxification Is Required for Full Virulence and Modification of the Host Leaf Ionome by Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for all forms of life because it is a structural or catalytic cofactor of many proteins, but it can have toxic effects at high concentrations; thus, microorganisms must tightly regulate its levels. Here, we evaluated the role of Zn homeostasis proteins in the virulence of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, among other diseases. Two mutants of X. fastidiosa 'Temecula' affected in genes which regulate Zn homeostasis (zur) and Zn detoxification (czcD) were constructed. Both knockouts showed increased sensitivity to Zn at physiologically relevant concentrations and increased intracellular accumulation of this metal compared with the wild type. Increased Zn sensitivity was correlated with decreased growth in grapevine xylem sap, reduced twitching motility, and downregulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Tobacco plants inoculated with either knockout mutant showed reduced foliar symptoms and a much reduced (czcD) or absent (zur) modification of the leaf ionome (i.e., the mineral nutrient and trace element composition), as well as reduced bacterial populations. The results show that detoxification of Zn is crucial for the virulence of X. fastidiosa and verifies our previous findings that modification of the host leaf ionome correlates with bacterial virulence. PMID:25561271

  19. Calcium transcriptionally regulates the biofilm machinery of Xylella fastidiosa to promote continued biofilm development in batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer K; Chen, Hongyu; McCarty, Sara E; Liu, Lawrence Y; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2016-05-01

    The functions of calcium (Ca) in bacteria are less characterized than in eukaryotes, where its role has been studied extensively. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa has several virulence features that are enhanced by increased Ca concentrations, including biofilm formation. However, the specific mechanisms driving modulation of this feature are unclear. Characterization of biofilm formation over time showed that 4 mM Ca supplementation produced denser biofilms that were still developing at 96 h, while biofilm in non-supplemented media had reached the dispersal stage by 72 h. To identify changes in global gene expression in X. fastidiosa grown in supplemental Ca, RNA-Seq of batch culture biofilm cells was conducted at three 24-h time intervals. Results indicate that a variety of genes are differentially expressed in response to Ca, including genes related to attachment, motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation, peptidoglycan synthesis, regulatory functions, iron homeostasis, and phages. Collectively, results demonstrate that Ca supplementation induces a transcriptional response that promotes continued biofilm development, while biofilm cells in nonsupplemented media are driven towards dispersion of cells from the biofilm structure. These results have important implications for disease progression in planta, where xylem sap is the source of Ca and other nutrients for X. fastidiosa. PMID:26913481

  20. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...

  1. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  2. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  3. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  4. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  5. Grape products and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods.

  6. Differential gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c during co-cultivation with the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Santos, Daiene Souza; Nunes, Luiz Roberto; Costa de Oliveira, Regina Lúcia Batista da; de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), colonizes plant xylem, reducing sap flow, and inducing internerval chlorosis, leaf size reduction, necrosis, and harder and smaller fruits. This bacterium may be transmitted from plant to plant by sharpshooter insects, including Bucephalogonia xanthopis. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes citrus xylem and previous studies showed that this strain is also transferred from plant to plant by B. xanthopis (Insecta), suggesting that this endophytic bacterium may interact with X. fastidiosa in planta and inside the insect vector during co-transmission by the same insect vector. To better understand the X. fastidiosa behavior in the presence of M. mesophilicum, we evaluated the X. fastidiosa transcriptional profile during in vitro interaction with M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6. The results showed that during co-cultivation, X. fastidiosa down-regulated genes related to growth and up-regulated genes related to energy production, stress, transport, and motility, suggesting the existence of a specific adaptive response to the presence of M. mesophilicum in the culture medium.

  7. Differential gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c during co-cultivation with the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Santos, Daiene Souza; Nunes, Luiz Roberto; Costa de Oliveira, Regina Lúcia Batista da; de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), colonizes plant xylem, reducing sap flow, and inducing internerval chlorosis, leaf size reduction, necrosis, and harder and smaller fruits. This bacterium may be transmitted from plant to plant by sharpshooter insects, including Bucephalogonia xanthopis. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes citrus xylem and previous studies showed that this strain is also transferred from plant to plant by B. xanthopis (Insecta), suggesting that this endophytic bacterium may interact with X. fastidiosa in planta and inside the insect vector during co-transmission by the same insect vector. To better understand the X. fastidiosa behavior in the presence of M. mesophilicum, we evaluated the X. fastidiosa transcriptional profile during in vitro interaction with M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6. The results showed that during co-cultivation, X. fastidiosa down-regulated genes related to growth and up-regulated genes related to energy production, stress, transport, and motility, suggesting the existence of a specific adaptive response to the presence of M. mesophilicum in the culture medium. PMID:26218710

  8. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1671 gene encoding degenerate c-di-GMP GGDEF/EAL domains, and its role in the development of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Luciana; Athinuwat, Dusit; Patel, Kelly R; Galvani, Cheryl D; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases including Pierce's disease of grapevines. X. fastidiosa is thought to induce disease by colonizing and clogging xylem vessels through the formation of cell aggregates and bacterial biofilms. Here we examine the role in X. fastidiosa virulence of an uncharacterized gene, PD1671, annotated as a two-component response regulator with potential GGDEF and EAL domains. GGDEF domains are found in c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases while EAL domains are found in phosphodiesterases, and these domains are for c-di-GMP production and turnover, respectively. Functional analysis of the PD1671 gene revealed that it affected multiple X. fastidiosa virulence-related phenotypes. A Tn5 PD1671 mutant had a hypervirulent phenotype in grapevines presumably due to enhanced expression of gum genes leading to increased exopolysaccharide levels that resulted in elevated biofilm formation. Interestingly, the PD1671 mutant also had decreased motility in vitro but did not show a reduced distribution in grapevines following inoculation. Given these responses, the putative PD1671 protein may be a negative regulator of X. fastidiosa virulence. PMID:25811864

  9. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  10. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  11. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms. PMID:23205623

  12. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  13. Persistence of Azoxystrobin in/on Grapes and Soil in Different Grapes Growing Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Gajbhiye, Vijay Tularam; Gupta, Suman; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Shashi Bala; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Yogesh

    2010-01-01

    Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in/on grapes when applied @ 150 g ai ha−1 (recommended dose) and 300 g ai ha−1 (double the recommended dose) in three grapes growing states of India, namely Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in the year 2006–2007. A total of five sprays were given at an interval of about 15 days. Grapes and soil samples were collected after 5th spray, extracted and analysed by gas chromatography using electron capture detector. Half life of azoxystrobin on grapes varied from 5.4 to 11.2 days. Residues of azoxystrobin were much below the prescribed MRL (0.5 mg kg−1) after 21 days. The dissipation of azoxystrobin in soil followed first order rate kinetics with an average half life of 8.1 days at the recommended dose of application. PMID:21153804

  14. Impact of foliar symptoms of "Esca proper" on proteins related to defense and oxidative stress of grape skins during ripening.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Grégory; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Vilain, Sébastien; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Claverol, Stéphane; Gény, Laurence; Bonneu, Marc; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Donèche, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Esca is one of the major diseases affecting vineyards with direct impact on product yield; nevertheless, scientific studies concerning its impact on grape quality are scarce. As an attempt to better understand the mechanisms behind "Esca proper" development in grapes, this work focused on the identification of proteins whose expression is altered by the disease. 2-DEs were performed on protein extracts from grape skins at different stages of maturity for two consecutive vintages. Grapes were collected in 2009 and in 2010 from plants that did not present signs of infection by Esca proper since the 2004 vintage and from plants that presented cast leaf symptoms at least once since 2004. For the first time, 13 proteins were shown to be influenced by Esca proper during the ripening process. Extensive bioinformatics analysis allowed the grouping of proteins involved in (i) stress tolerance and defense response, (ii) oxidative phosphorylation, (iii) oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, and (iv) oxidation-reduction processes in chloroplasts. Of these 13 proteins, cysteine synthase is the only one implicated in a metabolic pathway of oenological interest. This study shows how foliar symptoms of Esca proper may impact stress-related pathways in grapes, which are characterized by modifications in the chain of oxidative phosphorylation and redox scavenging.

  15. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection. PMID:27038944

  16. Characterization of a putative Xylella fastidiosa diffusible signal factor by HRGC-EI-MS.

    PubMed

    Colnaghi Simionato, Ana Valéria; da Silva, Denise Santos; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2007-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X.f.) is a plant pathogen with high levels of genomic similarity to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (X.c.c.). It has been shown that X. fastidiosa synthesizes a putative diffusible signal factor (X.f.-DSF) that activates regulation of pathogenicity factor (rpf) genes in a X.c.c. reporter system, which might be involved in the regulation of pathogenesis associated genes as in X.c.c., as well as in quorum-sensing. The nature of the X.f.-DSF is not known, whereas the X.c.c.-DSF has been identified as cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid. In this work, the chemical nature of a putative X.f.-DSF molecule, able to restore endoglucanase activity in a X.c.c. rpfF mutant, was investigated as if it was a fatty acid derivative. Bioassays with X.c.c. reporter bacterium and X.f. culture extracts, based on endoglucanase restoration activity, were also carried out in order to confirm the DSFs molecules similarities. For this reason, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed with standard fatty acids methyl esters mixtures. The retention time, as well as the fragmentation patterns, of each standard was used to identify the DSF molecule synthesized by X.f. in the culture medium. Typical ester fragmentation patterns (the derivatized analyte) were observed, such as: McLafferty rearrangement and migration of the Hdelta followed by 1,4-hydrogen shift and cleavage of the bond Cbeta--Cgamma, confirming the nature of this molecule. This confirmation was corroborated by the common peaks in both spectra. Besides, the observed retention time reinforces our conclusion since it corresponds to a methyl ester with 15 carbons. Since the X.f.-DSF molecule was tentatively identified as 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (by mass spectra library comparison), this standard compound was also analyzed, strongly suggesting that this is the identification of such a molecule. To our knowledge, this is the first time a DSF produced by X.f. has been characterized.

  17. Characterization of a putative Xylella fastidiosa diffusible signal factor by HRGC-EI-MS.

    PubMed

    Colnaghi Simionato, Ana Valéria; da Silva, Denise Santos; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2007-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X.f.) is a plant pathogen with high levels of genomic similarity to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (X.c.c.). It has been shown that X. fastidiosa synthesizes a putative diffusible signal factor (X.f.-DSF) that activates regulation of pathogenicity factor (rpf) genes in a X.c.c. reporter system, which might be involved in the regulation of pathogenesis associated genes as in X.c.c., as well as in quorum-sensing. The nature of the X.f.-DSF is not known, whereas the X.c.c.-DSF has been identified as cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid. In this work, the chemical nature of a putative X.f.-DSF molecule, able to restore endoglucanase activity in a X.c.c. rpfF mutant, was investigated as if it was a fatty acid derivative. Bioassays with X.c.c. reporter bacterium and X.f. culture extracts, based on endoglucanase restoration activity, were also carried out in order to confirm the DSFs molecules similarities. For this reason, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed with standard fatty acids methyl esters mixtures. The retention time, as well as the fragmentation patterns, of each standard was used to identify the DSF molecule synthesized by X.f. in the culture medium. Typical ester fragmentation patterns (the derivatized analyte) were observed, such as: McLafferty rearrangement and migration of the Hdelta followed by 1,4-hydrogen shift and cleavage of the bond Cbeta-Cgamma, confirming the nature of this molecule. This confirmation was corroborated by the common peaks in both spectra. Besides, the observed retention time reinforces our conclusion since it corresponds to a methyl ester with 15 carbons. Since the X.f.-DSF molecule was tentatively identified as 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (by mass spectra library comparison), this standard compound was also analyzed, strongly suggesting that this is the identification of such a molecule. To our knowledge, this is the first time a DSF produced by X.f. has been characterized.

  18. VitisGen: accelerating grape cultivar improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisGen is a multiple institute collaborative project funded by the USDA SCRI program, with a long term goal to accelerate grape cultivar improvement by using cutting-edge molecular marker technologies, rigorous centralized facilities to characterize traits, and molecular breeding expertise. The ge...

  19. Inoculum detection for managing grape powdery mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe necator) often develops explosively and can result in significant yield and quality losses, despite your best efforts. The threat of quality losses often leads to a low risk prophylactic regimen rather than a higher risk IPM approach. Gary Grove and I have co...

  20. Sun drying of seedless and seeded grapes.

    PubMed

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    In this study, sun drying behaviour of seedless and seeded grapes was investigated. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of seedless and seeded grapes of berry size of 1.72 cm and 2.20 cm thicknesses from the initial moisture contents of 78.2% and 79.5% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 22% (w.b.) were 176 and 228 h in open sun drying, respectively. The drying data were fitted to 12 thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models were compared using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), mean relative percent error (P), reduced chi-square (χ (2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that Midilli et al. model was found to satisfactorily describe the sun drying curves of seedless and seeded grapes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were estimated from Fick's diffusion model by 1.02 × 10(-11) and 1.66 × 10(-11) m(2)/s for seeded and seedless grapes. PMID:23572844

  1. Characterization of polyphenolic metabolites in grape hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the berries of 48 hybrid grapes (Vitis) were characterized for two consecutive years. A total of 48 polyphenolic compounds including 28 anthocyanins, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 6 hydroxycinnamic derivatives, 6 flavonols and 6 flavanols were ident...

  2. [Characterization of cookies made with deseeded grape pomace].

    PubMed

    Canett Romero, Rafael; Ledesma Osuna, Ana Irene; Robles Sánchez, Rosario Maribel; Morales Castro, Rafael; León-Martínez, Liliana; León-Gálvez, Rosaura

    2004-03-01

    Characterization of cookies made with deseeded grape pomace. The objective of this study was to evaluate deseeded grape pomace as a potential ingredient to elaborate some food products. Cookies were made with flour containing four levels of deseeded grape pomace (0, 5, 7.5 and 10%). Moisture, protein, ashes, fat, tannins and dietary fiber contents were determined in both the deseeded of grape pomace and the cookies. Besides, color, sensorial acceptability and biological evaluations of Net Protein Ratio (NPR), Apparent Digestibility (AD) and True Digestibility (TD) of Protein were determined to the cookies. Substantial amounts of dietary fiber and ashes were found in both the deseeded grape pomace and the cookies. Total dietary fiber increased while adding more deseeded grape pomace. Cookies were well accepted as observed in the sensory evaluation, showing no significative differences among the four levels of deseeded grape pomace addition. The addition of deseeded grape pomace imparted a darker color to the cookies. The dark color was greater in the samples containing more fiber which was indicated by the lower L color value. Regarding nutritional analysis, the higher the deseeded grape pomace addition, the lower the NPR, AD, and TD values. The NPR was affected in greater degree, although these differences were not significant. It is possible to use deseeded grape pomace as an ingredient to make high fiber cookies with acceptable sensorial attributes.

  3. Characterization of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator YcjZ-like from Xylella fastidiosa overexpressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santiago, André S; Santos, Clelton A; Mendes, Juliano S; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Souza, Alessandra A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-09-01

    The Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c strain is a xylem-limited phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). This bacterium is able to form a biofilm and occlude the xylem vessels of susceptible plants, which leads to significant agricultural and economic losses. Biofilms are associated with bacterial pathogenicity because they are very resistant to antibiotics and other metal-based chemicals that are used in agriculture. The X. fastidiosa YcjZ-like (XfYcjZ-like) protein belongs to the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) family and is involved in various cellular functions that range from quorum sensing to bacterial survival. In the present study, we report the cloning, expression and purification of XfYcjZ-like, which was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The secondary folding of the recombinant and purified protein was assessed by circular dichroism, which revealed that XfYcjZ-like contains a typical α/β fold. An initial hydrodynamic characterization showed that XfYcjZ-like is a globular tetramer in solution. In addition, using a polyclonal antibody against XfYcjZ-like, we assessed the expression profile of this protein during the different developmental phases of X. fastidiosa in in vitro cultivated biofilm cells and demonstrated that XfYcjZ-like is upregulated in planktonic cells in response to a copper shock treatment. Finally, the ability of XfYcjZ-like to interact with its own predicted promoter was confirmed in vitro, which is a typical feature of LysR. Taken together, our findings indicated that the XfYcjZ-like protein is involved in both the organization of the architecture and the maturation of the bacterial biofilm and that it is responsive to oxidative stress. PMID:25979465

  4. Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Boespflug, Erin L; Fleck, David E; Stein, Amanda L; Wightman, Jolynne D; Shidler, Marcelle D; Sadat-Hossieny, Sara

    2012-06-13

    Polyphenol compounds found in berry fruits, in particular flavonoids, have been associated with health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging. Concord grape juice contains polyphenols, including anthocyanins and flavanols, and previous research has shown improvement in a number of human health conditions with grape juice supplementation. In the current study, older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16 weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and postintervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. Relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline. PMID:22468945

  5. Lipopolysaccharide modulates the vector-pathogen interface of the xylem-limited phytopathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. is a gram-negative, insect-transmitted bacterium that causes a lethal disease of grapevine called Pierce’s disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the most dominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial interactions with the env...

  6. Identification of a response regulator involved in surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, exopolysaccharide production and virulence in the plant pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevines, possesses several two-component signal transduction systems that allow the bacterium to sense and respond to changes in its environment. Signals are perceived by sensor kinases that autophosphorylate and transfer the phosphate t...

  7. Xylella fastidiosa isolates from mulberry harbor a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian isolates of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

  8. Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

  9. Host selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS Xylella fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes disease in many commercial crops including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of Xf associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Strains from two almond production sites in th...

  10. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several plant diseases in the Americas. While the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal of H. vitripennis has been studie...

  11. Muscle movements that control inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa are revealed by head X-rays of feeding glassy-winged sharpshooters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of inoculation of the Pierce’s disease bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), by vectors such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is still unknown, despite nearly 70 years of study. Research in support of the egestion-salivation hypothesis for Xf inoculation is presented. Two impor...

  12. Effect of intra and interspecific interaction on OTA production by A. section Nigri in grapes during dehydration.

    PubMed

    Valero, Ana; Oliván, Sergio; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the colonizing capability and OTA production of different populations of Aspergillus section Nigri spp. in grapes, as affected by the interactions with other fungi, during a simulated in vitro sun-drying. Mature white grapes were divided into two lots of healthy and artificially injured grapes and inoculated with A. section Nigri spp. (A. carbonarius OTA producer, A. niger aggregate OTA producer, A. niger aggregate OTA non-producer), Eurotium amstelodami and Penicillium janthinellum, in different combinations. The drying process was simulated adjusting water activity firstly at 0.98 a(w) and gradually decreasing it to 0.76 a(w) for a total of 20 days. Colonizing grape percentages were recorded after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of dehydration and OTA content was measured after 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 17 and 20 days. Colonization of grapes increased with time in all treatments. A. niger aggregate OTA-positive showed the highest colonization percentage, followed by A. carbonarius, and finally their mixed inoculum. When the two OTA-producing strains were combined, addition of any other microorganism increased the percentage of infection by A. section Nigri. A. carbonarius was the highest OTA producer in pure culture, followed by A. niger aggregate OTA-positive. In general, when competing fungi were added to A. carbonarius inoculum, the OTA content was reduced. E. amstelodami was the only competing fungus which increased OTA accumulation. The sun-drying process may be conducive to OTA accumulation in dried grapes. The complex fungal interactions which may take place during this process, may act as an additional control factor, given that the higher presence of A. niger aggregate OTA-negative inhibits OTA accumulation by OTA producing species. PMID:17188203

  13. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  14. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  15. [Micronutrient composition of grape growing in Dagestan].

    PubMed

    Bakhmulaeva, Z K; Magadova, S A

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient content in Pearl Zala, Pearl Saba, Creamy, and Amber Muscat varieties of grape has been determined. The ultimate analysis has been made by the atomic-absorption flame photometry; ascorbic acid has been determined by the titrometric analysis; rutin, niacin, and carotene have been studied by the colorimetric method. It has been found that the content of potassium (2673.8 mg/kg), calcium (349.0 mg/kg), iron (35.9 mg/kg), silicon (611.3 mg/kg), manganese (0.89 mg/kg) and vitamin C (5.3 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearl Zala grapes, while the content of zinc (0.31 mg/kg), nicotinic acid (10.9 mg/dm3) and carotene (0,33 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearls Saba. Amber Muscat grape has been found to have the highest concentration of sodium (151.4 mg/kg), phosphorus (466.8 mg/kg), magnesium (221.6 mg/kg), aluminum (68.5 mg/kg), cobalt (0.120 mg/kg) and copper (1.91 mg/kg) in comparison with other grape varieties. It has been found that the content of ascorbic acid and rutin differ 1.5-1.6 fold, of magnesium, iron, silicon and potassium--1.7-1.8 fold, of calcium and phosphorus--2.2-2.5 fold, carotene--4.1 times, aluminum, sodium and nicotinic acid--4.7-5.5 fold, cobalt and copper--8.6-8.7 fold, zinc and manganese--10.3-22.2 fold. PMID:26841557

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a glutathione S-transferase from Xylella fastidiosa

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Wanius; Travensolo, Regiane F.; Rodrigues, Nathalia C.; Muniz, João R. C.; Caruso, Célia S.; Lemos, Eliana G. M.; Araujo, Ana Paula U.; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2008-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase from X. fastidiosa (xfGST) has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.23 Å. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) form a group of multifunctional isoenzymes that catalyze the glutathione-dependent conjugation and reduction reactions involved in the cellular detoxification of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. GST from Xylella fastidiosa (xfGST) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by conventional affinity chromatography. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of xfGST is described. The purified protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method, producing crystals that belonged to the triclinic space group P1. The unit-cell parameters were a = 47.73, b = 87.73, c = 90.74 Å, α = 63.45, β = 80.66, γ = 94.55°. xfGST crystals diffracted to 2.23 Å resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source.

  17. Overexpression, purification, and biochemical characterization of GumC, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide by Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    de Pieri, Celina; Beltramini, Leila M; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vettore, André L; da Silva, Felipe R; Arruda, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; de Souza, Dulce H F

    2004-04-01

    GumC is one of nine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of fastidian gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa that may be linked directly to the pathogenicity of the microorganism. GumC may be responsible for gum polymerization or secretion through the membrane of X. fastidiosa. To perform structure and functions studies, we developed an expression system for the production of GumC as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein (MBP) using pMAL-c2x vector. The GumC-MBP fusion protein was expressed as a 94 kDa protein, which strongly reacts with anti-MBP antibodies. GumC-MBP was isolated by affinity chromatography through an amylose column and used to produce antibodies against the fusion protein. After the enzymatic cleavage of MBP, GumC was purified on a Q Sepharose Fast Flow column. GumC showed a molecular weight corresponding to the expected one (52 kDa) and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that deduced from the DNA. The shape of the circular dichroism spectrum was compatible with a folded protein that contains alpha-helical regions in its structure. Therefore, in this study we describe, for the first time, the production of GumC recombinant protein. PMID:15003255

  18. Overexpression, purification, biochemical characterization, and molecular modeling of recombinant GDP-mannosyltransferase (GumH) from Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Muniz, João Renato C; Alves, Claudia A; de Pieri, Celina; Beltramini, Leila M; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vettore, André L; da Silva, Felipe R; Arruda, Paulo; Garratt, Richard C; Oliva, Glaucius; Souza, Dulce H F

    2004-03-01

    The GumH enzyme from Xylella fastidiosa catalyzes the transfer reaction of a mannose from GDP-mannose to the carrier lipid cellobiose-pyrophosphate-polyprenol (Glc(2)-PP-Lip), an intermediary in the reaction for the synthesis of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) fastidian gum. The gumH gene was subcloned in the pMal-c2x vector, allowing the expression of the GumH-MBP fusion protein. Various attempts were made to obtain protein with the necessary degree of purity for crystallographic studies but the yield was very low. The gumH gene was then subcloned in the pET28a vector allowing the expression of the GumH enzyme in fusion with a histidine-rich peptide. The protein was purified and characterized. The three-dimensional structure of the X. fastidiosa GumH enzyme was modeled by threading studies. The model consists of N- and C-terminal domains similar in size and topology and separated by a deep cleft, which includes the EX(7)E motif that can be involved in the catalysis of GumH. PMID:14766234

  19. Occurrence of ochratoxin A producing fungi in wine and table grapes in Israel.

    PubMed

    Guzev, L; Danshin, A; Ziv, S; Lichter, A

    2006-09-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted to assay the number of Aspergillus Section Nigri isolates and in vitro ochratoxin A (OTA) production capacity in 10 vineyards in Israel. The survey included field sampling of two wine cultivars, 'Sauvignon Blanc' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' as well as the table grape cultivar 'Superior'. A total of 2114 isolates were analyzed and of those 161 isolates were shown to produce OTA. The major finding was that Aspergillus carbonarius (336 tested strains) is the most consistent producer of OTA, with approximately 35% of the isolates identified as positive in vitro. In comparison, 3.1% of other isolates from the Aspergillus niger aggregate (of 1432 strains) produced OTA in vitro. In contrast, none of the 346 tested strains with a uniseriate head morphology produced OTA. The incidence of infected berries was very low before veraison, while at harvest, this frequency was twice as high. In general, the composition of black Aspergilli did not differ during berry development. Generally, more OTA-producing isolates were isolated from the surface of table grapes cv. 'Superior' compared to 'Sauvignon Blanc'. None of the samples collected at harvest contained traces of OTA in the juice. This study shows that grapes in Israel are contaminated with ochratoxigenic species which represent a risk of OTA contamination. PMID:16698103

  20. Occurrence of ochratoxin A producing fungi in wine and table grapes in Israel.

    PubMed

    Guzev, L; Danshin, A; Ziv, S; Lichter, A

    2006-09-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted to assay the number of Aspergillus Section Nigri isolates and in vitro ochratoxin A (OTA) production capacity in 10 vineyards in Israel. The survey included field sampling of two wine cultivars, 'Sauvignon Blanc' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' as well as the table grape cultivar 'Superior'. A total of 2114 isolates were analyzed and of those 161 isolates were shown to produce OTA. The major finding was that Aspergillus carbonarius (336 tested strains) is the most consistent producer of OTA, with approximately 35% of the isolates identified as positive in vitro. In comparison, 3.1% of other isolates from the Aspergillus niger aggregate (of 1432 strains) produced OTA in vitro. In contrast, none of the 346 tested strains with a uniseriate head morphology produced OTA. The incidence of infected berries was very low before veraison, while at harvest, this frequency was twice as high. In general, the composition of black Aspergilli did not differ during berry development. Generally, more OTA-producing isolates were isolated from the surface of table grapes cv. 'Superior' compared to 'Sauvignon Blanc'. None of the samples collected at harvest contained traces of OTA in the juice. This study shows that grapes in Israel are contaminated with ochratoxigenic species which represent a risk of OTA contamination.

  1. Performance of Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) Cultivars in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadines are grapes indigenous to the Southeastern United States, and they are highly prized for their unique fruity flavors. Factors including skin color, berry size, skin thickness, flower type, productivity, etc., vary among muscadine grape cultivars, making some cultivars more desirable for f...

  2. Performance of Muscadine Grape Cultivars in South Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadines are grapes are indigenous to the Southeastern United States and are highly prized for their unique flavor for both fresh market fruit and for processing for juice, jelly, and wine. Skin color varies among muscadine grape cultivars from bronze to purple and berry also quality varies, maki...

  3. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  4. Phenolic Content of Raisin Grape Varieties and Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six raisin grape cultivars and ten new raisin grape selections were analyzed for antioxidant activity (ABTS assay) and for total and individual phenolic compounds. Samples were freeze-dried and values are reported on a dry weight basis. Antioxidant activity across the 16 samples ranged from 7.7 to...

  5. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... produce grape juice or wine. It contains the common components of grape juice; namely, anthocyanins... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d)...

  6. Effect of some viticultural parameters on the grape carotenoid profile.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla; Ferreira, António César; Costa, Paulo; Guerra, Joaquim; Guedes De Pinho, Paula

    2004-06-30

    The effect of some viticultural parameters on the grape carotenoid profile was investigated. Grape cultivar, ripeness stage, sunlight and shade exposure, altitude, and vegetative height were studied. Differences between cultivars were observed in eight different black grape varieties: Touriga Brasileira (TBR), Tinta Barroca (TB), Tinta Amarela (TA), Souzão (S), Touriga Franca (TF), Touriga Nacional (TN), Tinta Roriz (TR), and Tinto Cão (TC), from the Douro region. TA and TBR clearly produced higher concentrations of carotenoids. Results showed that carotenoid content decreased during ripening. Decreases of lutein were observed until 66%, whereas beta-carotene slowly decreased, having a constant level until the harvest date. Carotenoid contents were consistently higher in grapes exposed to shade than in those exposed to direct sunlight in both studied white grape varieties, Maria Gomes (MG) and Loureiro (L). In the Douro Valley, high-elevation terraces, which presented a lower temperature and higher humidity during the maturation period, appeared to produce grapes with higher carotenoid values. Grapes grown with higher vegetative height seem to have higher carotenoid levels; furthermore, grapes grown with lower vegetative height had higher weight and sugar concentrations. PMID:15212466

  7. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. We characterized genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera, and its wild relative, Vitis sy...

  8. Natural occurrence of grape poisoning in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon-Seek; Byun, Jae-Won; Kim, Min-Jeong; Bae, You-Chan; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Yoon, Sorah; Lee, Garam; Song, Jae-Young

    2011-02-01

    Clinical grape poisoning in two dogs (a 1.6-year-old male Shih Tzu and a 5-year-old female Yorkshire Terrier) was described in the present study. Clinical signs included decreased urine output in the Shih Tzu and ataxia in the Yorkshire Terrier after grape ingestion. The Shih Tzu died 5 days post-grape ingestion, while the Yorkshire Terrier died 3 days post-grape ingestion. Erythematous serosae and mucosae, multifocal red small intestinal foci, and blood and grape seeds were identified in the intestinal lumen. Brownish-yellow crystals were bilaterally identified in the renal pelvis. The primary histological findings were acute tubular necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubules, severe necrosis, and mineralization in the renal cortical tubules. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase were increased in the dogs. Many Korean veterinary clinicians have suspected clinical grape poisoning. However, to our knowledge, grape poisoning has not been identified by pathologic and clinicopathologic basis until this writing in Korea. Education and knowledge about the risks of grape poisoning is necessary for the prevention of accidental exposures.

  9. SNP Validation and Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Tomatoes and Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated grapes and tomatoes have very different reproductive systems. While grapes are often outcrossed and grafted, tomatoes are generally selfed and propogated by seed. Large-scale public EST datasets were used in both crops to predict SNPs and PCR primers flanking these SNPs. Genomic DNA was a...

  10. Super-parameterization in GRAPES: The construction of SP-GRAPES and associated preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Wang, Yuhong

    2015-04-01

    Super-parameterization (SP) aims to explicitly represent deep convection within a coarse resolution global model by embedding a cloud resolving model (CRM) in each column of the mother model. For the first time, we implemented the SP in a mesoscale regional weather model, the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES). The constructed SP-GRAPES uses a two-dimensional (2D) CRM in each grid column. A control and two SP simulations are conducted for the Beijing "7.21" heavy rainfall event to evaluate improvements in GRAPES using SP. The SP-run-I is a basic SP run delivering microphysics feedback only, whereas the SP-run-II delivers both microphysical and cloud fraction feedbacks. A comparison of the runs indicates that the SP-run-I has a slightly positive impact on the precipitation forecast than the control run. However, the inclusion of cloud fraction feedback leads to an evident overall improvement, particularly in terms of cloud fraction and 24-h cumulative precipitation. Although this is only a preliminary study using SP-GRAPES, we believe that it will provide considerable guidance for follow-up studies using SP in China.

  11. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  12. Effects of chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; de Souza Pontes, Alline Lima; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to obtain chitosan (CHI) from Cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Moreover, the influence of CHI-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. According to the surface response methodology, the best conditions for isolating CHI from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-medium yielded 8.8 g/100mL at pHs between 5.0 and 5.5 and at 180 rpm. CHI from C. elegans inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination and caused morphological changes in the spores of the tested fungal strains. The CHI coatings delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes. Applying a CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes, as measured by some physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes, throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of CHI from C. elegans to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, B. cinerea and P. expansum in table grapes.

  13. Effects of chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; de Souza Pontes, Alline Lima; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to obtain chitosan (CHI) from Cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Moreover, the influence of CHI-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. According to the surface response methodology, the best conditions for isolating CHI from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-medium yielded 8.8 g/100mL at pHs between 5.0 and 5.5 and at 180 rpm. CHI from C. elegans inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination and caused morphological changes in the spores of the tested fungal strains. The CHI coatings delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes. Applying a CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes, as measured by some physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes, throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of CHI from C. elegans to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, B. cinerea and P. expansum in table grapes. PMID:24321603

  14. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape.

    PubMed

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R; Owens, Christopher L; Brown, Patrick J; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D; Buckler, Edward S

    2011-03-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity.

  15. Antioxidant activity of grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Grape pomace is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We examined pomace from nine varieties of Midwestern grapes for total phenolic content and antioxidant acti...

  16. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  17. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  18. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  19. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  20. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  1. Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nereide Serafim Timóteo; Athayde Aguiar, Ana Júlia Alves; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Veríssimo de Sales, Camila; de Melo E Silva, Silvanda; Sousa da Silva, Rosana; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CHI) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OV) in the inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3728 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 on laboratory media and on grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) and its influence on the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days). The application of mixtures of different CHI and OV concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungi. The application of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations (CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/4 MIC; CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/2 MIC) inhibited spore germination and caused morphological changes in fungal spores and mycelia, in addition to inhibiting the growth of the assayed fungi strains in artificially infected grapes as well as the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperature. In general, the application of a coating composed of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical and physicochemical attributes, while some of their sensory attributes improved throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, R. stolonifer and A. niger in grapes. PMID:22986200

  2. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Grape Juice at Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ravika; Jain, Ritu; Sharma, Krishna S.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity of fresh juice of two cultivars of grapes, Sultania (green grapes) and Black Monukka (black grapes) was measured in terms of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over the frequency range from 1 to 50 GHz and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, by using the PNA network analyzer model E8364C and open ended coaxial probe 85070E. The Cole-Cole plots and dielectric constant vs. (angular frequency) dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant vs. dielectric loss factor/(angular frequency) regression lines at different temperatures were used in Debye approximation to predict relaxation frequency of molecules for the two cultivars of grapes in the low frequency and high frequency limits, respectively. It was observed that the acidic character of green grapes is responsible for the large amplitude vibrational peaks in dielectric loss factor - frequency curves, in the high frequency region at higher temperatures. On the other hand, excess of sugar in black grapes suppresses the activity of water molecules, thereby suppressing the vibrational peaks at higher frequencies. Different relaxation frequencies found for the two cultivars of grapes suggest that they have different molecular structure.

  3. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.

    PubMed

    Shi, John; Yu, Jianmel; Pohorly, Joseph E; Kakuda, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    Grape seeds are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8% polyphenols depending on the variety. Polyphenols in grape seeds are mainly flavonoids, including gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-O-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins). Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Extensive research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of health because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers. PMID:14977436

  4. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.

    PubMed

    Shi, John; Yu, Jianmel; Pohorly, Joseph E; Kakuda, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    Grape seeds are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8% polyphenols depending on the variety. Polyphenols in grape seeds are mainly flavonoids, including gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-O-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins). Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Extensive research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of health because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers.

  5. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  6. Control of ochratoxin A production in grapes.

    PubMed

    Ponsone, María Lorena; Chiotta, María Laura; Palazzini, Juan Manuel; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía

    2012-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  7. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  8. Agronomic use of biotechnologically processed grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, J; Páez, G; Mármol, Z; Ramones, E; Chandler, C; Marín, M; Ferrer, A

    2001-01-01

    Grape waste was composted by biodegradation and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer for 20 day-corn. Combinations of recently compressed grape waste and hen droppings (10% w/w) were prepared to study the activating effect of hen droppings and the effect of aeration on the composting process. The final hydrogen potential (pH), %C, %N and C/N ratio, indicated an adequate development of the bioprocess. Satisfactory results were observed when the products were applied at several doses (1,000-4,000 kg/ ha) as a soil conditioner for corn seed germination in greenhouses. Only the addition of hen droppings had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on corn dry matter (14% increase). A dose of 3000 kg/ha was considered as optimal and was used supplemented with triple superphosphate (TSP) in agronomic trials. All the treatments produced greater corn dry matter (P < 0.05) than the chemical industrial fertilizer used as a control (0.52-0.71 g/pot for the organic fertilizers vs 0.45 g/pot for the control). Anaerobic conditions and hen droppings addition significantly produced (P < 0.05) higher corn dry matter. PMID:11315808

  9. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  10. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    PubMed

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations. PMID:16721391

  11. Effects of different drying treatments on fungal population and ochratoxin A occurrence in sultana type grapes.

    PubMed

    Şen, Levent; Ocak, İjlal; Nas, Sebahattin; Şevik, Ramazan

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the changes in mould and ochratoxin A (OTA) occurrence in sultanas under three different conventional drying conditions. Five different vineyards were chosen, and the three different treatments were applied to these grapes while drying. At the end of the drying process, total mould and black aspergilli (BA) populations in the samples varied from 2.45 to 5.61 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-)(1) and from 0 to 4.92 log CFU g(-)(1), respectively. Significant increases (p < 0.05) occurred in mould loads depending on the extending drying period. However, independent of vineyard location, all the samples treated with cold dipping solution showed the lowest fungal loads. These results indicate that dipping solution treatment was the most effective drying method to minimise fungal infection of grapes. The expected results could not be achieved by drying grapes artificially contaminated with ochratoxigenic Aspergillus carbonarius spores. Seventy-one of 96 isolates (73.95%) obtained during drying were Aspergillus spp., and the remaining (n = 25, 26.05%) belonged to other genera, such as Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium. Grape juice-based agar medium was used to determine the realistic OTA production capacities of the isolated mould strains. The highest OTA production capacities were 809.70 ± 9.19, 87.58 ± 16.89 and 45.44 ± 18.78 ng g(-1) in 50% grape juice agar (GJ50), all five of which were from A. niger isolates. OTA was not present in any sample during the drying period; however, OTA was detected in two samples at 0.32 ± 0.15 and 0.52 ± 0.36 µg kg(-)(1) after the end of the drying process. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method used for detecting OTA in samples were 0.1 and 0.3 µg kg(-)(1), respectively. PMID:27461091

  12. A Doped Polyaniline Modified Electrode Amperometric Biosensor for Gluconic Acid Determination in Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Donatella; Malvano, Francesca; Sannini, Adriana; Pilloton, Roberto; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK) and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid; PANI-PAAMPSA) is reported in this study. The conductive polymer electrodeposed on the working electrode surface allowed the detection of NADH at low potential (0.1 V) with a linear range from 4 × 10−3 to 1 mM (R2 = 0.99) and a sensitivity of 419.44 nA·mM−1. The bienzymatic sensor has been optimized with regard to GK/6PGDH enzymatic unit ratio and ATP/NADP+ molar ratio which resulted equal to 0.33 and 1.2, respectively. Under these conditions a sensitivity of 255.2 nA·mM−1, a limit of detection of 5 μM and a Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 4.2% (n = 5) have been observed. Finally, the biosensor has been applied for gluconic acid measurements in must grape samples and the matrix effect has been taken into consideration. The results have been compared with those obtained on the same samples with a commercial kit based on a spectrophotometric enzyme assay and were in good agreement, showing the capability of the bienzymatic PANI-PAAMPSA biosensor for gluconic acid measurements and thus for the evaluation of Botrytis cinerea infection in grapes. PMID:24960084

  13. PemK toxin encoded by the Xylella fastidiosa IncP-1 plasmid pXF-RIV11 is a ribonuclease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable inheritance of the IncP-1 plasmid pXF-RIV11 in Xylella fastidiosa is conferred by the pemI/pemK plasmid addiction system. PemK serves as a toxin inhibiting bacterial growth; PemI is the corresponding antitoxin that blocks activity of PemK toxin by direct binding. Here, PemK toxin and PemI ant...

  14. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants. PMID:21108125

  15. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

  16. Cell wall compounds of red grapes skins and their grape marcs from three different winemaking techniques.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María

    2015-11-15

    Different winemaking practices are aimed at increasing cell wall degradation to facilitate extraction of valuables molecules into the wine. However, little attention has been paid to the composition of marcs from different cultivars according to the influence of the winemaking procedures. We provide information on skin cell walls from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell grapes and examine how different winemaking practices (addition of enzymatic preparation and β-galactosidase separately and dry ice addition) may affect the composition of marc skin cell wall material (CWM). The efficiency of CWM isolation from the grape skin and also its composition is influenced by the cultivar. A similar cultivar influence has been detected on CWM from the marc, being the differences also due to the enological technique. Our results help to increase our knowledge on the degradation of cell walls during vinification, while providing a valuable guideline to upgrade the value of these by-products. PMID:25977002

  17. Comparison data of common and abundant terpenes at different grape development stages in Shiraz wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Terpenoids were extracted from grape vine bunches during plant development and analysed by GC-MSD. The grapevines analysed were from a commercial harvest of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz. The terpenoids were analysed from 4 weeks post flowering (wpf) to harvest in one season. The data are presented with the structure of the compound and aroma profile and semi-quantified. The sub-class of sesquiterpenes was given special attention, and this data set describes the first analysis of these compounds during ripening of this important economic crop. Sesquiterpenes may have a hitherto described contribution to wine aroma. This data set may provide insight into biosynthetic pathways and aroma chemistry. Interpretation of our data and further discussion can be found in "Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes" (Zhang et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27547791

  18. Cell wall compounds of red grapes skins and their grape marcs from three different winemaking techniques.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María

    2015-11-15

    Different winemaking practices are aimed at increasing cell wall degradation to facilitate extraction of valuables molecules into the wine. However, little attention has been paid to the composition of marcs from different cultivars according to the influence of the winemaking procedures. We provide information on skin cell walls from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell grapes and examine how different winemaking practices (addition of enzymatic preparation and β-galactosidase separately and dry ice addition) may affect the composition of marc skin cell wall material (CWM). The efficiency of CWM isolation from the grape skin and also its composition is influenced by the cultivar. A similar cultivar influence has been detected on CWM from the marc, being the differences also due to the enological technique. Our results help to increase our knowledge on the degradation of cell walls during vinification, while providing a valuable guideline to upgrade the value of these by-products.

  19. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Merfa, Marcus V.; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A.; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis—CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  20. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation.

    PubMed

    Merfa, Marcus V; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A; De Souza, Alessandra A

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis-CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  1. Characterization of the TolB-Pal trans-envelope complex from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the biofilm development process.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Janissen, Richard; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Azzoni, Adriano R; Cotta, Monica A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-10-01

    The intriguing roles of the bacterial Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex range from maintenance of cell envelope integrity to potential participation in the process of cell division. In this study, we report the characterization of the XfTolB and XfPal proteins of the Tol-Pal complex of Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is a major plant pathogen that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, triggering the development of diseases in important cultivable plants around the word. Based on functional complementation experiments in Escherichia coli tolB and pal mutant strains, we confirmed the role of xftolB and xfpal in outer membrane integrity. In addition, we observed a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the X. fastidiosa biofilm development process. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the low-resolution structure of the isolated XfTolB-XfPal complex in solution was solved for the first time. Finally, the localization of the XfTolB and XfPal polar ends was visualized via immunofluorescence labeling in vivo during bacterial cell growth. Our results highlight the major role of the components of the cell envelope, particularly the TolB-Pal complex, during the different phases of bacterial biofilm development. PMID:26049080

  2. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  3. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  4. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  5. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  6. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  7. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  8. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  10. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...— (1) reference to the publication of the name of the variety in a scientific or professional journal... use of a grape variety name found to be misleading. (e) The Administrator shall publish the list...

  11. 7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  12. Methane production from grape skins. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yunghans, W.N.

    1981-10-09

    Methane production from grape pomace was measured for a 50-day digestion period. Gas production was calculated to be 2400 ft/sup 3//10 d/ton at 53% methane content. Microorganisms particularly a fungus which grows on grape pomace and lignin was isolated. Lignin content of pomace was measured at approximately 60%. Lignin is slowly digested and may represent a residue which requires long term digestion. Research is continuing on isolation of anaerobic methane bacteria and codigestion of pomace with enzymes as cellulase and pectinase. The sewage sludge functioned adequately as a mixed source of organisms capable of digesting grape pomace. A sediment from stored grape juice produced significant amounts of methane and represents a nutrient substrate for additional studies on continuous flow methane production. 3 figs.

  13. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    each sample and put in contact with adults of D. suzukii (5 males and 5 females) for 24 hours. Infestation percentages were expressed by numbers of eggs and infected berries per sample As a preliminary results, we found a relevant infestation on the varieties "Italia" (75%) and "Scarlotta" (60%); coming form organic agriculture fields. The number of eggs collected from each berry ranged from 1 to 5. Twelve samples on a total of 19 came from conventional agriculture, five samples on a total of 23 came from organic agriculture, were found without damages. "Victoria" variety, came form a organic field located at IAMB was seen more resistant to D. suzukii than the varieties "Italia" and "Scarlotta" As a conclusion, there is the evidence that D. suzukii can become a big problem for grape cultivation in Puglia region, jeopardizing a very economically important sector of the regional agriculture Therefore, it is necessary a further investigation to understand the population dynamic and behaviour of this species as well as the possible control strategies for a control in organic agriculture. Key words: Drosophila suzukii, Vitis vinifera, Puglia, infestation, damages, organic agriculture, conventional agriculture

  14. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield.

  15. GRAPE-6 Simulations of Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Maxwell, J. E.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    We report on recent results from a long-term program of N-body simulations of dense star cluster evolution which is being done with GRAPE-6 systems at Indiana University and Purdue University Calumet. We have been simulating cases of star cluster evolution with a particular focus on the dynamical evolution of hard binary populations of varying size. Initial models with a range of mass spectra, both with and without primordial binary populations, are being investigated to points well beyond core collapse. Our goal is to better understand the evoultion of compact binary populations in collapsed-core globular clusters. Observations of collapsed-core clusters with HST and Chandra have revealed populations of hard, X-ray binaries well outside the cluster core. Our work is focused on understanding the diffusion of these dynamically hardened binaries to regions in the cluster halo and the robustness of this process in models with mass spectra versus single-mass models.

  16. Fatal and near-fatal grape aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Feltbower, Stephen; McCormack, Jon; Theilen, Ulf

    2015-06-01

    Choking remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Whole seedless grapes are a popular fruit snack to give to young children.We present 3 cases of grape aspiration, discussing the emergency care from basic life support to specialist treatment.The lessons learned will be applicable to a wide range of health professionals from frontline emergency medical service personnel to physicians and nurses working in a hospital.

  17. Morphological and phylogenetic identification of Botrytis sinoviticola, a novel cryptic species causing gray mold disease of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y J; Zhang, J; Wang, X D; Yang, L; Jiang, D H; Li, G Q; Hsiang, T; Zhuang, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five isolates of Botrytis collected from table grapes (Vitis vinifera) with gray mold symptoms in China were identified based on morpho-cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar (20 C) and/or phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, RPB2). Isolates of different species of Botrytis were compared with fenhexamid sensitivity, Bc-hch gene-RFLP haplotyping and pathogenicity to V. vinifera. The 75 isolates comprise two species, B. cinerea (63 isolates) and an undescribed Botrytis sp. (12 isolates) described here as Botrytis sinoviticola Zhang et al. sp., nov. Both B. sinoviticola (Bs) and B. cinerea (Bc) were found to have 20 C optimum for mycelial growth and 25 C for conidial germination. Sensitivity to fenhexamid was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for Bc (EC50 = 0.04 ± 0.01 μg mL(-1)) than for Bs (EC50 = 0.08 ± 0.02 μg mL(-1)). Digestion of the PCR amplicons of the Bc-hch gene with Hha I generated two haplotypes, Group I haplotype for Bs and Group II haplotype for Bc. Bs infected table grapes (leaves, berries) only through wounds, whereas Bc infected both injured and non-injured tissues of table grapes. This study suggests that Bs is a cryptic species sympatric with Bc on table grapes in China.

  18. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  19. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grape, Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Dangl, Gerald S; Prins, Bernard H; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; Walker, M Andrew; Meredith, Carole P; Simon, Charles J

    2003-06-01

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. French cultivars appeared to be distinct and showed close affinity to the wild progenitor, ssp. sylvestris from south-western France (Pyrenees) and Tunisia, probably reflecting the origin and domestication history of many of the old wine cultivars from France. There was appreciable level of differentiation between table and wine grape cultivars, and the Muscat types were somewhat distinct within the wine grapes. Contingency chi2 analysis indicated significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies among groups at all loci. The observed heterozygosities for different groups ranged from 0.625 to 0.9 with an overall average of 0.771. Genetic relationships among groups suggested hierarchical differentiation within cultivated grape. The gene diversity analysis indicated narrow divergence among groups and that most variation was found within groups (approximately 85%). Partitioning of diversity suggested that the remaining variation is somewhat structured hierarchically at different levels of differentiation. The overall organization of genetic diversity suggests that the germplasm of cultivated grape represents a single complex gene pool and that its structure is determined by strong artificial selection and a vegetative mode of reproduction.

  20. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples.

  1. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  2. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations. PMID:26925621

  3. Role of viticultural factors on stilbene concentrations of grapes and wine.

    PubMed

    Bavaresco, L

    2003-01-01

    Stilbenes are phenolics that can be found in different grapevine organs, such as berries, leaves, canes and roots. Stilbenes act as antifungal compounds since they are synthesized by the plant in response to pathogen attack. Other abiotic elicitors, such as ultraviolet rays and heavy metals, can trigger stilbene production. Many stilbenic compounds have been detected in grapes and wine (resveratrol, piceid, viniferins, astringin, etc.). The latest stilbene to be analyzed is piceatannol (or astringinin). Stilbene synthesis in grapes depends on different viticultural factors such as the grape variety, the environment and cultural practices. Concerning grape variety, red berry-grapes have higher stilbene levels than white berry-grapes. With regard to climate, preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between vineyard elevation and stilbene grape concentrations. Quality-oriented cultural practices produce grapes with high levels of stilbenes. PMID:15134373

  4. Role of viticultural factors on stilbene concentrations of grapes and wine.

    PubMed

    Bavaresco, L

    2003-01-01

    Stilbenes are phenolics that can be found in different grapevine organs, such as berries, leaves, canes and roots. Stilbenes act as antifungal compounds since they are synthesized by the plant in response to pathogen attack. Other abiotic elicitors, such as ultraviolet rays and heavy metals, can trigger stilbene production. Many stilbenic compounds have been detected in grapes and wine (resveratrol, piceid, viniferins, astringin, etc.). The latest stilbene to be analyzed is piceatannol (or astringinin). Stilbene synthesis in grapes depends on different viticultural factors such as the grape variety, the environment and cultural practices. Concerning grape variety, red berry-grapes have higher stilbene levels than white berry-grapes. With regard to climate, preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between vineyard elevation and stilbene grape concentrations. Quality-oriented cultural practices produce grapes with high levels of stilbenes.

  5. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  6. Degradation Kinetics of Grape Skin and Seed Proanthocyanidins in a Model Wine System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 degrees C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catechol. ...

  7. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-09-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu's assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower concentrations were effective compared to higher concentrations, whereas gluco-amylase enzyme did not show remarkable variations. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic contents were significantly higher in the cellulase digested grape pomace compared to the gluco-amylase digested and the not digested grape pomace. It is notable that enzymatic digestions were efficient for extracting polyphenols from grape pomace. The underutilized grape pomace polyphenols can be further used for food safety as a natural antioxidant.

  8. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  9. Characterization and pathogenicity of Alternaria spp. strains associated with grape bunch rot during post-harvest withering.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2014-09-01

    Alternaria is a fungal agent of grape bunch rot which occurs during withering, a process which produces passito style wines. Seven isolates of Alternaria spp. were characterized using morphological examination, genotypic analysis and pathogenicity. Six of these isolates produced conidiophores and conidia displaying sporulation patterns typical of the Alternaria alternata species-group. Variability in colony morphology and growth on different media was observed. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences clustered all isolates within a monophyletic clade, while intergenic spacer region (IGS)-RFLP profiles were congruent with those of A. alternata and Alternaria arborescens. RAPD-PCR proved helpful in discriminating between strains. To assay strain pathogenicity, grape berries were infected while undergoing withering conditions at different temperatures. Disease capacity was found to be strain dependent and varied consistently between the most and least aggressive strains. This study has provided interesting information on polymorphism within Alternaria spp. populations in withered grapes and on understanding the saprophytic role of this fungus during the post-harvest dehydrating process.

  10. Comprehensive lipidome profiling of Sauvignon blanc grape juice.

    PubMed

    Tumanov, Sergey; Zubenko, Yuri; Greven, Marc; Greenwood, David R; Shmanai, Vadim; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive lipidome analysis of Sauvignon blanc grape juice by combining GC-MS based fatty acid profiling with shotgun lipidomics strategy. We observed that despite grape juice being a water based matrix it contains a diverse range of lipid species, including common saturated and unsaturated free and intact fatty acids as well as odd-numbered and hydroxy fatty acids. Based on GC-MS quantitative data, we found that the total lipid content of grape juice could be as high as 2.80 g/L. The majority of lipids were present in the form of complex lipids with relatively small amount of free fatty acids (<15%). Therefore we concluded that the lipidome should be considered an important component of grape juice with the potential to impact on fermentation processes as well as on the sensorial properties of fermented products. This work serves as a hypothesis generating tool, the results of which justify follow-up studies to explore the influence of the grape juice lipidome and lipid metabolism in yeast on the aroma profile of wine.

  11. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-08-04

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  12. [Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Muzychenko, G F; Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex--catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%. PMID:26841558

  13. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  14. Comprehensive lipidome profiling of Sauvignon blanc grape juice.

    PubMed

    Tumanov, Sergey; Zubenko, Yuri; Greven, Marc; Greenwood, David R; Shmanai, Vadim; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive lipidome analysis of Sauvignon blanc grape juice by combining GC-MS based fatty acid profiling with shotgun lipidomics strategy. We observed that despite grape juice being a water based matrix it contains a diverse range of lipid species, including common saturated and unsaturated free and intact fatty acids as well as odd-numbered and hydroxy fatty acids. Based on GC-MS quantitative data, we found that the total lipid content of grape juice could be as high as 2.80 g/L. The majority of lipids were present in the form of complex lipids with relatively small amount of free fatty acids (<15%). Therefore we concluded that the lipidome should be considered an important component of grape juice with the potential to impact on fermentation processes as well as on the sensorial properties of fermented products. This work serves as a hypothesis generating tool, the results of which justify follow-up studies to explore the influence of the grape juice lipidome and lipid metabolism in yeast on the aroma profile of wine. PMID:25766825

  15. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  16. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  17. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  18. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  19. Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

  20. 77 FR 39184 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0125 to $0.0150 per 18- pound lug of grapes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order,...

  1. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  2. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  3. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2011 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.01 to $0.0125 per 18- pound lug of grapes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order,...

  4. 78 FR 28147 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... California Desert Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0150 to $0.0165 per 18-pound lug of grapes handled. The Committee locally administers...

  5. 76 FR 4254 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... raisins produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the... CFR part 989), regulating the handling of raisins produced from grapes grown in...

  6. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  7. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  8. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  9. Effect of carbendazim and physicochemical factors on the growth and ochratoxin A production of Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from grapes.

    PubMed

    Medina, Angel; Mateo, Rufino; Valle-Algarra, Francisco M; Mateo, Eva M; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2007-11-01

    Carbendazim is a systemic fungicide that is commonly used on several crops (tobacco, fruit, vegetables, cereals, etc.). This fungicide is used to control fungal infections in vineyards. It is indicated against Botrytis cinerea, Uncinula necator, Plasmopara viticola and other fungi and can be used either alone or coupled with other fungicides. However, there is a lack of in-depth studies to evaluate its effectiveness against growth of Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from grapes and OTA production. A medium based on red grape juice was used in this study. Preliminary studies were performed at 0.98 a(w) and 25 degrees C using carbendazim concentrations over a wide range (1-2000 ng/ml medium) to control both growth of a strain of A. carbonarius isolated from grape and its ability to produce OTA. As the lag phase increased considerably at levels > 1000 ng/ml of medium, detailed studies were carried out in the range 50-450 ng/ml of medium at 0.98-0.94 a(w) and 20-28 degrees C. Statistical analysis (multifactor ANOVA) of the data revealed that the three factors assayed and the interactions a(w)-carbendazim concentration and a(w)-temperature had significant effects on lag phase duration. The highest lag-times were observed at 0.94 a(w,) 20 degrees C, and with 450 ng carbendazim/ml. The three factors also had significant effects of the growth rate and there was an interaction between a(w) and temperature. The growth rate of A. carbonarius in these cultures is favoured by high water availability and relatively high temperatures. However, addition of carbendazim at the assayed levels did not significantly influenced fungal growth rate. Accumulation of OTA was studied as a function of four factors (the three previously considered, and time). All factors had significant effects on the accumulation of OTA. There were also two significant interactions (a(w)-temperature and temperature-time). On the basis of the results obtained, carbendazim does not increase the lag phase of A

  10. Effects of post-harvest treatment using chitosan from Mucor circinelloides on fungal pathogenicity and quality of table grapes during storage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to extract chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides UCP 050 grown in a corn steep liquor (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI to inhibit the post-harvest pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger URM 5162 and Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3482 in laboratory media and as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). The effect of CHI coating on some physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. The greatest amount of CHI was extracted from M. circinelloides UCP 050 grown in medium containing 7 g of CSL per 100 mL at pH 5.5 with rotation at 180 rpm. CHI from M. circinelloides UCP 050 caused morphological changes in the spores of the fungal strains tested and inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. CHI coating delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes, as well as autochthonous mycoflora during storage. CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes during storage, as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results demonstrate that edible coatings derived from M. circinelloides CHI could be a useful alternative for controlling pathogenic fungi and maintaining the post-harvest quality of table grapes. PMID:25084665

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of BigR, a transcription repressor from Xylella fastidiosa involved in biofilm formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Rosicler Lázaro; Rinaldi, Fábio Cupri; Guimarães, Beatriz Gomes Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2007-07-01

    In order to gain new insights into the protein structure and its possible interaction with a metal ion or effector ligand, BigR from X. fastidiosa was crystallized in native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. BigR (biofilm growth-associated repressor) is a novel repressor protein that regulates the transcription of an operon implicated in biofilm growth in both Xylella fastidiosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This protein binds to a palindromic TA-rich element located in the promoter of the BigR operon and strongly represses transcription of the operon. BigR contains a helix–turn–helix (HTH) domain that is found in some members of the ArsR/SmtB family of metal sensors, which control metal resistance in bacteria. Although functional studies have suggested that BigR does not act as a metal sensor, the presence of two cysteines and a methionine in its primary structure raised the possibility of BigR being a metal-ligand protein. In order to gain new insights into the protein structure and its possible interaction with a metal ion or effector ligand, BigR from X. fastidiosa was crystallized in native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from native and SeMet crystals to resolutions of 1.95 and 2.2 Å, respectively. Both crystals belong to space group P321 and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  12. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties.

  13. Resveratrol, in its natural combination in whole grape, for health promotion and disease management

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chandra K.; Liu, Xiaoqi; Ahmad, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    The grape antioxidant resveratrol has been a topic of intense research for the past three decades. Resveratrol and other grape ingredients, as well as whole-grape products, have shown considerable promise in health promotion and disease management. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a natural combination of resveratrol and other phytonutrients, as it contains several catechins, anthocyanins, polyphenols, and flavonols. Thus, the whole grape products or specific combinations of grape constituents provide us with the possibility of synergistic interactions leading to improved efficacy. Recent research has suggested that whole-grape products may help in maintaining heart health and protect against aging, aging-associated diseases, neurodegeneration, and some cancers. Based on the available recent literature, the grape or whole-grape products seem to be safer choices for better health and disease prevention. However, for advanced disease conditions, individual grape ingredients (such as resveratrol) or combinations of multiple ingredients together with existing therapies appear to be better approaches. Further clinical studies are needed to understand the benefits of grapes and their products in the prevention and management of specific diseases. PMID:26099945

  14. Resveratrol, in its natural combination in whole grape, for health promotion and disease management.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra K; Liu, Xiaoqi; Ahmad, Nihal

    2015-08-01

    The grape antioxidant resveratrol has been a topic of intense research for the past three decades. Resveratrol and other grape ingredients, as well as whole-grape products, have shown considerable promise in health promotion and disease management. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a natural combination of resveratrol and other phytonutrients, as it contains several catechins, anthocyanins, polyphenols, and flavonols. Thus, whole grape products or specific combinations of grape constituents provide us with the possibility of synergistic interactions leading to improved efficacy. Recent research has suggested that whole-grape products may help in maintaining heart health and protect against aging, aging-associated diseases, neurodegeneration, and some cancers. On the basis of available recent literature, the grape fruit or whole-grape products seem to be safer choices for better health and disease prevention. However, for advanced disease conditions, individual grape ingredients (such as resveratrol) or combinations of multiple ingredients, together with existing therapies, appear to be better approaches. Further clinical studies are needed to understand the benefits of grapes and their products in the prevention and management of specific diseases.

  15. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  16. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  17. Evaluation on home storage performance of table grape based on sensory quality and consumers' satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changyang; Fu, Zetian; Xu, Mark; Trebar, Mira; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2016-03-01

    With continuous rise of table grapes consumption and increased public awareness of food safety, the quality control of grapes in storage after purchase is not sufficiently examined. Home storage constitutes the last and important stage in grape supply chain. Literature review shows that few researches on grape quality focus on the home storage stage compared with numerous researches reported on the quality control during postharvest and transportation process. This paper reports the performance evaluation of grape quality at home storage and consumers' satisfaction using integrated sensory evaluations. The internal attributes, including Texture, Taste and Odor of the table grapes and the appearance indices, Color and Cleanliness are examined. Key results show that during home storage, all the internal attributes decrease rapidly as time goes on, and cleanliness and color appear to be deteriorating in a lower speed. A comprehensive quality index was created to measure the quality of table grape which has high correlation with the Overall acceptability perceived by consumers. PMID:27570261

  18. Asymptomatic sensitisation to grapes in a sample of workers in the wine industry

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeromitros, D; Rigopoulos, D; Gregoriou, S; Mousatou, V; Lyris, N; Papaioannou, D; Katsarou-Katsari, A

    2004-01-01

    Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were enrolled in each of four groups: grape harvesters, winery workers in selection of grapes, winery workers operating de-stemming/crushing/pressing machines, and administrative personnel. Sensitisation to grapes was examined by skin prick-to-prick tests with fresh fruit and juice. Results: Eight harvesters and five workers in grape selection had positive reaction to the grapes tested. No machine operators or administrative personnel had positive tests. The likelihood of sensitisation was estimated at 3.7% per year of occupation by logistic regression analysis. None of the employees reported symptoms associated with sensitisation to grapes. Conclusion: Asymptomatic sensitisation to grapes was detected only in workers handling the fruit, suggesting that sensitisation is more likely to occur through cutaneous exposure and/or minor wounding than through the gastrointestinal tract. Prevalence rates were high and the clinical impact needs to be further investigated. PMID:15258279

  19. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M.; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A.; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity. PMID:25883748

  20. Ensilage and bioconversion of grape pomace into fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Lee, Christopher; Yu, Chaowei; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Simmons, Christopher W; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2012-11-01

    Two types of grape pomace were ensiled with eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Both fresh grape pomace (FrGP) and fermented grape pomace (FeGP) were preserved through alcoholic fermentation but not malolactic conversion. Water leaching prior to storage was used to reduce water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol from FrGP and FeGP, respectively, to increase malolactic conversion. Leached FeGP had spoilage after 28 days of ensilage, whereas FrGP was preserved. Dilute acid pretreatment was examined for increasing the conversion of pomace to ethanol via Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation. Dilute acid pretreatment doubled the ethanol yield from FeGP, but it did not improve the ethanol yield from FrGP. The ethanol yields from raw pomace were nearly double the yields from the ensiled pomace. For this reason, the recovery of ethanol produced during winemaking from FeGP and ethanol produced during storage of FrGP is critical for the economical conversion of grape pomace to biofuel.

  1. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tartaric acid, tannins, sugars, minerals, etc., but not in the same proportions as found in grape juice... carbonated drinks and ades, beverage bases, and alcoholic beverages subject to the following restrictions: (1... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d)...

  2. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tartaric acid, tannins, sugars, minerals, etc., but not in the same proportions as found in grape juice... carbonated drinks and ades, beverage bases, and alcoholic beverages subject to the following restrictions: (1... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d)...

  3. What's Eating Gilbert Grape?: A Case Study of Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Matthew; Waxman, Dael; White, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Cinemeducation refers to the use of movies or movie clips to educate learners about the psychosocial aspects of health care. This paper describes the use of a clip from the movie, "What's Eating Gilbert Grape?" to teach medical students about chronic illness. The clip is used to set up a case study based on the lead character, Gilbert…

  4. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1...&V, AMS, USDA, is designated as the governmental inspection service for certifying the grade, size... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Creating Dramatic Monologues from "The Grapes of Wrath." [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on John Steinbeck's novel "The Grapes of Wrath," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the universal nature of Steinbeck's characters' struggles and some of the complex forces affecting their lives; and the value of primary source material in presenting an authentic picture of a given period in history.…

  6. Using the GRAPES OF WRATH in the History Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Randy

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that literary fiction may be used to enhance students' understanding of an historical period. Demonstrates how Steinbeck's GRAPES OF WRATH may be used to convey the human side of problems, sufferings, and triumphs that the United States experienced during the Great Depression. (JDH)

  7. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year screening process, 13 selections emerged with either almost complete or complete combined resistance to M. incognita Race 3, M. incognita pathotype Harmony C, M. arenaria pathotype Harmony A, and X. index, important nematode pests of grapevines. Durability of this broad resistance was tested by challenging the selections with the target nematodes in combination and with the target nematodes in combinations with species not included in the screening process. Durability of resistance of the candidate rootstocks was also tested by exposure to the nematode communities of infested field soils from different locations. Breadth of resistance was determined on the basis of their host status to non-target nematodes, including Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Paratylenchus hamatus. After a total of 204 separate trials, the rootstocks were released to the grape industry as UCD GRN1, UCD GRN2, UCD GRN3, UCD GRN4, and UCD GRN5. We provide a compilation of current knowledge of the host status of these five newly released rootstocks and of 27 other rootstock cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482972

  8. Grape juice bait for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to Zaprionus indianus in field tests conducted in south Florida. This is a highly dynamic system, and studies were conducted to determine the effect of factors including time period o...

  9. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity. PMID:25883748

  10. Solid-liquid Extraction of Phenolics from Red Grape Skins.

    PubMed

    Tomaz, Ivana; Maslov, Luna; Stupić, Domagoj; Preiner, Darko; Ašperger, Danijela; Karoglan Kontić, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    For the characterization of grape cultivars, the profile and content of flavonoids are important because these compounds have an impact on grape and wine quality. A new extraction method for the recovery of flavonoids, e.g. anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols from grape skins was developed. The optimization of solid-liquid extraction of flavonoids was conducted, with respect to the type of the organic solvent and its percentage in the extraction solvent as well as the extraction temperature and extraction time, using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions were obtained by using extraction solvent composed from acetonitrile:water:formic acid (20:79:1; v/v/v), at an extraction temperature of 50 °C, an extraction time of 1 h in a single-step extraction and with a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:80 g mL(-1) (125 mg of grape skin powder and 10 mL of extraction solvent). The new optimal extraction method is inexpensive, simple, fast, accurate and selective for the recovery of simple flavonoids. PMID:27333551

  11. Fructo-oligosaccharides in table grapes and response to storage.

    PubMed

    Blanch, María; Sanchez-Ballesta, María T; Escribano, María I; Merodio, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) have been recognized as health food ingredients with a protective effect against environmental stresses in plants. We have analyzed the profiles of individual FOS in Cardinal table grape pulp, until now undetected, and quantified their changes in response to low temperature and high CO2 levels. FOS separation and quantification was carried out using anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), and the glucose, fructose and sucrose content of the grapes was also determined. Five FOS were identified and quantified: 1-kestose, neokestose, nystose, nystose b and kestopentaose. While in non-treated table grapes the endogenous FOS remained at steady state levels during storage at 0°C, exposure to 20% CO2 for 3days significant increases the levels of 1-kestose and kestopentaose, members of the inulin series. Considering the competitive advantage afforded by CO2-treated grapes, this transitory FOS accumulation could provide protection against damage caused by low temperature storage. PMID:25212291

  12. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  13. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  14. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  15. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  16. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  17. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  18. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  19. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  20. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  1. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  2. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines.

  3. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  4. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  5. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  6. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Jianqiang; Shellie, Krista C; Wang, Hua; Qian, Michael C

    2012-09-15

    The effect of deficit irrigation and a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grapes was investigated over two growing seasons in semi-arid, south-western Idaho. Vines were provided with differential amounts of water based on their estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET(c)) throughout berry development, and particle film was applied to half of the vines in each irrigation main plot. Free and bound volatile compounds in grapes were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The concentrations of free C(6) compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol) decreased, and bound terpene alcohols (nerol and geraniol) and C(13)-norisoprenoids (β-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-β-damascenone, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and 3-oxo-α-ionol) increased in berries each year in response to severity of vine water stress. Concentrations of C(13)-norisoprenoids and bound forms of nerol and geraniol were positively correlated with their concentrations in the corresponding wines. Particle film application had minimum effect on free and bound volatile composition in the grapes, and there was no interactive effect between particle film and deficit irrigation. However, particle film application enhanced the total amount of berry anthocyanins.

  7. The diversity of yeasts associated with grapes and musts of the Strekov winegrowing region, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Nemcová, Kornélia; Breierová, Emília; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Many different yeast species have been isolated from grapes and musts worldwide. The diversity and frequency of yeasts depend on a number of factors such as the grape variety, the physical damage of the grapes, the weather conditions and the chemical composition of must. A total of 366 isolates were associated with the three grape cultivars: Blue Frankish, Green Veltliner and Sauvignon blanc over four consecutive years. Yeast cultures were isolated from the grapes and from the fermenting musts after the first and seventh days. The ascomycetous yeasts of the genera Aureobasidium, Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis together with basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Filobasidium, Rhodotorula and Sporidiobolus were associated with the three grape varieties. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii and Sporidiobolus pararoseus were found on the berries in significant amounts. P. kluyveri and P. kudriavzevii were more associated with the damaged grapes, whereas Sp. pararoseus with intact ones. H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima were present on both types of grapes almost equally. The yeast composition and quantitative representation of yeast species varied over the grape varieties and the years examined. Although the basidiomycetous species formed a significant proportion of the yeast population in some individual grape variety/year combinations, the ascomycetous species were dominant. PMID:25253264

  8. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of native North American grape species Vitis riparia Michx

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11...

  9. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  10. Fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar Agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Fiore, Concetta; Acosta, Guillermina; Romano, Patrizia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. In this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. Fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of Agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from Fiano (white) and Aglianico (red) grapes and in YPD medium (with 270 g l(-1) of glucose added) as a control. Grape yeasts exhibited a reduced performance in high-sugar agave fermentation, while both agave and grape yeasts showed similar fermentation behaviour in grape musts. Production levels of volatile compounds by grape and agave yeasts differed in both fermentations. PMID:16534541

  11. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-11-19

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  12. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  13. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (p<0.05). The results indicate that glutathione is a promising browning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma

    PubMed Central

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives. PMID:27746799

  15. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (p<0.05). The results indicate that glutathione is a promising browning inhibitor used in grape juice. PMID:24799201

  16. Chemopreventive activity of grape juice concentrate (G8000TM) on rat colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Silva, Roseane Mendes; Campanholo, Vanessa Maria de Lima Pazine; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide in both sexes, with similar geographic patterns between genders. This neoplasm has good prognosis if the disease is diagnosed at early stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red grape juice on the expression of COX-2 and Ki-67 expression following colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Thirty-five rats were randomly distributed into seven groups (n=5 per group): G1: SHAM or negative control received only saline; G2 (positive control): animals received 15 mg/kg AOM; G3: animals received 1% red grape juice 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G4: animals received 2% red grape juice 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G5: animals received 1% red grape juice 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G6: animals received 2% red grape juice 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G7: animals received only 2% red grape juice. COX-2 mRNA expression was reduced in animals treated with 1% red grape juice before AOM induction or 2% red grape juice after AOM induction. COX-2 immunoexpression was also reduced to groups treated with red grape juice at 1% before and after AOM induction or 2% red grape juice after AOM induction. Decreased immunoexpression of Ki-67 positive cells was observed in animals treated with 1% grape juice before AOM-treated animals. Taken together, grape juice concentrate is able to exert some chemopreventive activity on rat colon carcinogenesis.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2∙−) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation. PMID:27594971

  18. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2∙−) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  20. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  1. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  2. Sunlight exclusion from Muscat grape alters volatile profiles during berry development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haohao; Fan, Peige; Liu, Cuixia; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of sunlight exclusion on the volatile profiles of grapes during different stages of berry development were investigated by placing clusters of grapes in special boxes. Terpenes and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds in the ripe 'Jingxiangyu' berries. Sunlight exclusion was found to change volatile profiles at any stage. Sunlight exclusion from berries significantly inhibited the synthesis and accumulation of terpenes, which contribute to the characteristic aroma of Muscat grapes. However, sunlight exclusion during berry formation and veraison promoted the accumulation of aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones during the ripening stage. These results may provide important information regarding the metabolism of volatile compounds in grapes.

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2 (∙-)) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation. PMID:27594971

  4. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes.

  5. New grape stems-based liqueur: Physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana; Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Pinto, Joana; Cunha, Maria; Rosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A number of traditional liqueurs are obtained by maceration of red fruits in aqueous ethanol liquor, namely sloe berries or sour cherry. On the other hand, the exploration of residual plant material derived from the winery industry (grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems), which has been regarded as an interesting source of colored and uncolored (poly)phenols, could lead to an industrial alternative to the traditional distilled spirits produced, with valuable physicochemical and phytochemical properties. In the present work, vinification residues (grape stems) were used to produce a new beverage. The evaluation of the physic-chemical characteristics and phytochemical composition as well as the evolution of the determined parameters during maceration (90 and 180 days) allowed a number of interesting bioactive compounds to be identified. This new beverage is a liqueur with a high retention of phenolic compounds (ortho-diphenols, flavanols, flavonols, and anthocyanins), with interesting physic-chemical characteristics, that revealed significant antioxidant activity. PMID:26213054

  6. Rapid method for proline determination in grape juice and wine.

    PubMed

    Long, Danfeng; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Poole, Kate; Taylor, Dennis K; Warren, Tristan; Astorga, Alejandra M; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Proline is typically the most abundant amino acid present in grape juice and wine. The amount present is influenced by viticultural and winemaking factors and can be of diagnostic importance. A method for rapid routine quantitation of proline would therefore be of benefit for wine researchers and the industry in general. Colorimetric determination utilizing isatin as a derivatizing agent has previously been applied to plant extracts, biological fluids, and protein hydrolysates. In the current study, this method has been successfully adapted to grape juice and wine and proved to be sensitive to milligram per liter amounts of proline. At sugar concentrations above 60 g/L, interference from the isatin-proline reaction was observed, such that proline concentrations were considerably underestimated in grape juice and dessert wine. However, the method was robust for the analysis of fermentation samples and table wines. Results were within ±10% agreement with data generated from typical HPLC-based analyses. The isatin method is therefore considered suitable for the routine analysis required to support research into the utilization or release of proline by yeast during fermentation. PMID:22480274

  7. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  8. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  9. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ψPD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier

  10. 75 FR 47490 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand to Compute Volume...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Grape Vine Moth has recently been found in the Central Valley of California, a major and highly... shortages during harvest, and the unknown effects of the European Grape Vine Moth, may influence...

  11. Filamentation and spatiotemporal distribution of extracellular polymeric substances: role on X.fastidiosa single cell adhesion and biofilm formation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janissen, Richard; Murillo, Duber M.; Niza, Barbara; Sahoo, Prasana K.; Monteiro, Moniellen P.; César, Carlos L.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; de Souza, Alessandra A.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2016-04-01

    Biofilms can be defined as a community of microorganisms attached to a surface, living embedded in a self- produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which comprises most of the biofilm mass. We have recently used an extensive pool of microscopy techniques (confocal fluorescence, electron and scanning probe microscopies) at the micro and nanoscales in order to create a detailed temporal observation of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation, using both wild type strain and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-modified cells of this citrus phytopathogen. We have identified three different EPS compositions, as well as their spatial and temporal distribution from single cell to mature biofilm formation stages. In the initial adhesion stage, soluble-EPS (S-EPS) accumulates at cell polar regions and forms a surface layer which facilitates irreversible cell attachment and cell cluster formation. These small clusters are subsequently connected by filamentous cells; further S-EPS surface coverage facilitates cell attachment and form filaments, leading to a floating framework of mature biofilms. The important role of EPS in X.fastidiosa biology was further investigated by imunolabelling experiments to detect the distribution of XadA1 adhesin, which is expressed in early stages of biofilm formation and released in outer membrane vesicles. This protein is located mainly in S-EPS covered areas, as well as on the filaments, indicating a molecular pathway to the enhanced cell attachment previously observed. These results suggest that S-EPS may thus represent an important target for disease control, slow plant colonization by the bacteria, keeping the plant more productive in the field.

  12. Developing and testing a diagnostic probe for grape phylloxera applicable to soil samples.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Karen; Powell, Kevin; Mckay, Alan; Hartley, Di; Herdina; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Schiffer, Michele; Hoffmann, Ary

    2008-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera Phylloxeridae) is a damaging pest of grapevines (Vitis spp.) around the world, and the management of this pest requires early detection of infestations. Here, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive DNA test for grape phylloxera that can be applied to soil. Species-specific primers were developed for grape phylloxera in the internal transcribed space region 2, and their specificity was confirmed after thorough screening by using a wide range of vineyard organisms and aphid genera. Preliminary testing of the detection limits of the grape phylloxera-specific primers was conducted using field-sourced soil types spiked with a known number of grape phylloxera. The assay was converted to a real-time polymerase chain reaction format (TaqMan MGB). This assay, in combination with DNA extraction from soil, can detect phylloxera crawlers added to soil. The assay was evaluated in the field at a recently detected grape phylloxera infestation site from the Yarra Valley in Victoria, Australia. The DNA assay proved to be substantially more sensitive than a standard ground survey for detecting grape phylloxera presence on vine roots in the infested vineyard. Moreover, unlike the ground survey, the assay provided quantitative information on grape phylloxera infestations, because grape phylloxera DNA concentrations in samples from vines closely matched the numbers of grape phylloxera crawlers collected with emergence traps placed at the base of vines. Unlike other detection techniques, the method can be applied at any time of the year, and it can be potentially modified to provide specific information on the virulence levels of the particular grape phylloxera genotypes responsible for any new infestations.

  13. Dietary grape powder increases IL-1β and IL-6 production by lipopolysaccharide-activated monocytes and reduces plasma concentrations of large LDL and large LDL-cholesterol particles in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Zunino, Susan J; Peerson, Jan M; Freytag, Tammy L; Breksa, Andrew P; Bonnel, Ellen L; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Storms, David H

    2014-08-14

    Obese individuals are at an increased risk of developing CVD, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and bacterial and viral infections when compared with the normal-weight population. In a 9-week randomised, double-blind, cross-over study, twenty-four obese subjects aged between 20 and 60 years and with a BMI between 30 and 45 kg/m2 were fed grape or placebo powder for 3-week intervals to determine the effects of dietary grapes on blood lipid profiles, plasma inflammatory marker concentrations and immune cell function. Blood samples were collected on days 1 and 8 for obtaining baseline information and at weeks 3, 4, 8 and 9. Comprehensive chemistry panels, lipid profile analyses by NMR, measurement of plasma inflammatory marker concentrations, and analyses of cytokine production by activated T lymphocytes and monocytes were performed for each blood draw. Dietary grape powder reduced the plasma concentrations of large LDL-cholesterol and large LDL particles compared with the placebo powder (P< 0·05). The concentrations of interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 were measured in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies and those of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in supernatants from PBMC activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). No difference in the production of T-cell cytokines was observed between the two intervention groups. The production of IL-1β and IL-6 was increased in supernatants from LPS-activated PBMC in the grape powder group compared with the placebo powder group (P< 0·05). These data suggest that dietary grapes may decrease atherogenic lipid fractions in obese individuals and increase the sensitivity of monocytes in a population at a greater risk of developing infections.

  14. Impedance of the Grape Berry Cuticle as a Novel Phenotypic Trait to Estimate Resistance to Botrytis Cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Katja; Wind, Rolf; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Warm and moist weather conditions during berry ripening provoke Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) causing notable bunch rot on susceptible grapevines with the effect of reduced yield and wine quality. Resistance donors of genetic loci to increase B. cinerea resistance are widely unknown. Promising traits of resistance are represented by physical features like the thickness and permeability of the grape berry cuticle. Sensor-based phenotyping methods or genetic markers are rare for such traits. In the present study, the simple-to-handle I-sensor was developed. The sensor enables the fast and reliable measurement of electrical impedance of the grape berry cuticles and its epicuticular waxes (CW). Statistical experiments revealed highly significant correlations between relative impedance of CW and the resistance of grapevines to B. cinerea. Thus, the relative impedance Zrel of CW was identified as the most important phenotypic factor with regard to the prediction of grapevine resistance to B. cinerea. An ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed a R2McFadden of 0.37 and confirmed the application of Zrel of CW for the prediction of bunch infection and in this way as novel phenotyping trait. Applying the I-sensor, a preliminary QTL region was identified indicating that the novel phenotypic trait is as well a valuable tool for genetic analyses. PMID:26024417

  15. VitisGen on the road: mapping the way to the next generation of grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-NIFA VitisGen project (Award No. 2011-51181-30635) aims to optimize grape cultivar improvement through the integration of grape breeding, cutting edge genomics technology, precision phenotyping, socioeconomic research, and extension. VitisGen is a five-year project involving 25 co-PIs at 11...

  16. Application of low concentrations of ozone during the cold storage of table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of postharvest decay of table grapes, caused by Botrytis cinerea and other pathogens, by ozone was evaluated in chambers and commercial storage facilities. Ozone at 0.100 µL/L or higher inhibited the spread of gray mold among stored grapes. Ozone diffusion into many types of commercial p...

  17. Effects of box liner perforation area on methyl bromide diffusion into table grape packages during fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastic liners are used inside boxes of table grapes to retard moisture loss from the grapes and to contain sulfur dioxide gas released inside the packages to control postharvest decay. However, to control organisms of quarantine concern, regulators specify exported packages must be fumigated with m...

  18. Daily mapping of Landsat-like LAI and correlation to grape yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wine grape quality and quantity are affected by vine growing condition during some critical growing stages. In this paper, MODIS and Landsat were used to map daily LAI in the two Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX) experiment fields near Lodi, Califo...

  19. A modern amplelography: A genetic basis for leaf shape and venation patterning in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terroir, the unique interaction between genotype, environment, and culture, is highly refined in domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera). Toward cultivating terroir, the science of ampelography tried to distinguish thousands of grape cultivars without the aid of genetics. This led to sophisticated pheno...

  20. A modern ampelography: A genetic basis for leaf shape and venation patterning in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terroir, the unique interaction between genotype, environment, and culture, is highly refined in domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera). Toward cultivating terroir, the science of ampelography tried to distinguish thousands of grape cultivars without the aid of genetics. This led to sophisticated pheno...

  1. Development of table and raisin grapes with high anthocyanins using a leaf disk assay.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are considered an excellent source of antioxidant phytochemicals for health benefits. The majority of wine, table and raisin grapes have anthocyanins only in their colored skin. Anthocyanin content of grapes would be increased if their flesh also contained anthocyanins. C33-30, a see...

  2. Development of Table and Raisin Grapes With High Anthocyanins Using a Leaf Disk Assay.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are considered an excellent source of antioxidant phytochemicals for health benefits. The majority of wine, table and raisin grapes have anthocyanins only in their colored skin. Anthocyanin content of grapes would be increased if their flesh also contained anthocyanins. Rubired wine ...

  3. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  4. Methyl bromide fumigation of packed table grapes: Effect of shipping box on gas concentrations and phytotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methyl bromide schedules for table grapes to control mealybugs are approved for fruit packed in Toyon Kraft Veneer (TKV) boxes. The question arose concerning equivalence of exposure to methyl bromide if an Extruded Polystyrene (EPS) box was used in lieu of the TKV box for table grapes being ...

  5. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus.

  6. Understanding Micro-Oxygenation Techniques and the Oxidation of Grape/Wine Polyphenolics: Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin (polymer) underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 °C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catecho...

  7. 76 FR 18003 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... 25, 2011 (76 FR 4254). Copies of the proposed rule were provided to all raisin handlers by the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the committee...

  8. Generation of Valuable Nanomaterials Using Biodegradable Waste: Rags to Riches Story of Red Grape Pomace

    EPA Science Inventory

    In our sustainable research endeavors pertaining to environmental remediation, we envisioned utilizing winery waste, red grape pomace, as a primary source for the dual role of reduction of inorganic salts and capping of the ensuing nanomaterials This study shows that red grape po...

  9. 76 FR 21620 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... February 9, 2011 (76 FR 7119). Copies of the proposed rule were also mailed or sent via facsimile to all... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California... rule increases the assessment rate established for the California Desert Grape Administrative...

  10. 75 FR 76456 - Methomyl; Cancellation Order for Amendments To Terminate Use of Methomyl on Grapes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 60634) (FRL-8153-3). The comment period closed on April 21, 2008. VI. Provisions for... AGENCY Methomyl; Cancellation Order for Amendments To Terminate Use of Methomyl on Grapes AGENCY... the grape use from all product registrations. In the October 24, 2007 notice, EPA indicated that...

  11. Methyl jasmonate foliar application to Tempranillo vineyard improved grape and wine phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Portu, Javier; Santamaría, Pilar; López-Alfaro, Isabel; López, Rosa; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The importance of phenolic compounds for grape and wine quality has drawn attention to studying different practices with the aim of increasing their content. Cluster application of elicitors is a viticultural practice that has shown promising results in recent years. However, cluster application requires a previous defoliation, which is time-consuming and expensive. In the present study, methyl jasmonate was foliar applied to Tempranillo grapevines in order to study its effect on grape and wine phenolic composition. Methyl jasmonate foliar application increased anthocyanin and stilbene content in both grape and wine, besides enhancing wine flavonol content. This treatment induced the synthesis of 3-O-glucosides of petunidin and peonidin and trans-p-coumaroyl derivatives of cyanidin and peonidin. For stilbenes, trans-piceid content was considerably increased in both grape and wine. The results obtained suggest that methyl jasmonate foliar application could be a simple and accessible practice to enhance grape and wine quality. PMID:25672964

  12. Determination of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.

    PubMed

    Hoenicke, K; Simat, T J; Steinhart, H; Christoph, N; Köhler, H J; Schwab, A

    1999-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolites, especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are considered as potential precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP), an aroma compound which causes the "untypical aging off-flavor" (UTA) in Vitis vinifera white wines. In this study RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Trp and Trp-metabolites in 39 grapes, 22 grape musts and 16 wines, to which different viticultural conditions (ripeness, pruning, strip of leaves, soil condition) have been applied. A sensitive and selective determination was achieved after solid phase extraction using an anion exchange material. Only traces of Trp-metabolites could be determined in the examined grapes and grape musts, but their amounts increased significantly during fermentation, whereas the amount of Trp decreased. Different viticultural measures, besides the time of grape harvest, showed no significant influences on the amount of Trp and Trp-metabolites.

  13. Pesticides and trace metals residue in grape and home made wine in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Nasir, F; Jiries, A G; Batarseh, M I; Beese, F

    2001-02-01

    Sixty home made wine and sixty-four grape samples were collected from five territories in Jordan, where grapes and wine are mostly producted. The collected samples were analyzed for the most used organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and organophosphorous pesticides (OPP) in Jordan, as well as for four heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb). The results showed that OCPs residues were detected in 73% of the wine samples but no OPPs residue were detected which is due to generally shorter half life of the later pesticide. Grapes showed higher incident of contamination than wine, however, OCPs and OPPs with both short and long half-lives were detected. The OPPs were detected in only 8.3% of the analyzed grape samples. Heavy metals showed higher values in grapes than in the wine samples and it was attributed to removal of solids during wine preparation processes or through contamination of wine during storage. Most of the samples were below toxic limit.

  14. Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

    2002-01-30

    Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

  15. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country’s most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu’s maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species. PMID:26488600

  16. GRAPE-4: A special-purpose computer for gravitational N-body problems

    SciTech Connect

    Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    1995-12-01

    We describe GRAPE-4, a special-purpose computer for gravitational N-body simulations. In gravitational N-body simulations, almost all computing time is spent for the calculation of interaction between particles. GRAPE-4 is a specialized hardware to calculate the interaction between particles. It is used with a general-purpose host computer that performs all calculations other than the force calculation. With this architecture, it is relatively easy to realize a massively parallel system. In 1991, we developed the GRAPE-3 system with the peak speed equivalent to 14.4 Gflops. It consists of 48 custom pipelined processors. In 1992 we started the development of GRAPE-4. The GRAPE-4 system will consist of 1920 custom pipeline chips. Each chip has the speed of 600 Mflops, when operated on 30 MHz clock. A prototype system with two custom LSIs has been completed July 1994, and the full system is now under manufacturing.

  17. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  18. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  19. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  20. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and determination of PR

  2. Determination of technological maturity of grapes and total phenolic compounds of grape skins in red and white cultivars during ripening by near infrared hyperspectral image: a preliminary approach.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes during ripening were recorded using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with grape skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pre-treatments and different sets of calibration. The obtained results (RSQ and SEP, respectively) for the global model of red and white grape samples were: 0.89 and 1.23 mg g(-1) of grape skin for total phenolic concentration, 0.99 and 1.37 °Brix for sugar concentration, 0.98 and 3.88 g L(-1) for titratable acidity and for pH 0.94 and 0.12. Moreover, separate calibration models for red and white grape samples were also developed. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of these parameters in intact grapes and therefore, for a fast control of technological and phenolic maturity.

  3. Determination of technological maturity of grapes and total phenolic compounds of grape skins in red and white cultivars during ripening by near infrared hyperspectral image: a preliminary approach.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes during ripening were recorded using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with grape skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pre-treatments and different sets of calibration. The obtained results (RSQ and SEP, respectively) for the global model of red and white grape samples were: 0.89 and 1.23 mg g(-1) of grape skin for total phenolic concentration, 0.99 and 1.37 °Brix for sugar concentration, 0.98 and 3.88 g L(-1) for titratable acidity and for pH 0.94 and 0.12. Moreover, separate calibration models for red and white grape samples were also developed. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of these parameters in intact grapes and therefore, for a fast control of technological and phenolic maturity. PMID:24444979

  4. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    PubMed

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  5. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  6. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    PubMed

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries.

  7. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  8. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue.

  9. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  10. Superheated liquid and supercritical denatured ethanol extraction of antioxidants from Crimson red grape stems.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jonathan; Samaniego, Cheryl Storer; Wang, Lihua; Nelson, La'Shyla; Ketchum, Korrine; Ammerman, Michelle; Zand, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Grapes are widely known for health benefits due to their antioxidant content. In wine production, grape stems are often discarded, though they has a higher content of antioxidants than the juice. The effectiveness of using an environmentally friendly solvent, ethanol, as a superheated liquid and supercritical fluid to extract antioxidant compounds from grape stems of organically grown Crimson Seedless grapes was evaluated. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), or Folin-Ciocalteu assay, were used to quantify the antioxidant power of grape stem extracts. The extractions were performed at temperatures between 160°C and 300°C at constant density. It was found that the optimal extraction temperature was 204°C, at superheated liquid conditions, with a FRAP value of 0.670 mmol Trolox Equivalent/g of dry grape stem. The FRAP values were higher than other studies that extracted antioxidants from grape stems using single-pass batch extraction. PMID:26788298

  11. Fungal diversity in grape must and wine fermentation assessed by massive sequencing, quantitative PCR and DGGE.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; García-Fernández, David; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of fungi in grape must and during wine fermentation was investigated in this study by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Carignan and Grenache grapes were harvested from three vineyards in the Priorat region (Spain) in 2012, and nine samples were selected from the grape must after crushing and during wine fermentation. From culture-dependent techniques, 362 isolates were randomly selected and identified by 5.8S-ITS-RFLP and 26S-D1/D2 sequencing. Meanwhile, genomic DNA was extracted directly from the nine samples and analyzed by qPCR, DGGE and massive sequencing. The results indicated that grape must after crushing harbored a high species richness of fungi with Aspergillus tubingensis, Aureobasidium pullulans, or Starmerella bacillaris as the dominant species. As fermentation proceeded, the species richness decreased, and yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae successively occupied the must samples. The "terroir" characteristics of the fungus population are more related to the location of the vineyard than to grape variety. Sulfur dioxide treatment caused a low effect on yeast diversity by similarity analysis. Because of the existence of large population of fungi on grape berries, massive sequencing was more appropriate to understand the fungal community in grape must after crushing than the other techniques used in this study. Suitable target sequences and databases were necessary for accurate evaluation of the community and the identification of species by the 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons. PMID:26557110

  12. Antihypertensive and cognitive effects of grape polyphenols in estrogen-depleted, female, spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ning; Clark, John T; Prasain, Jeevan; Kim, Helen; White, C Roger; Wyss, J Michael

    2005-09-01

    Both endogenous and dietary estrogens reduce hypertension and enhance cognitive abilities in estrogen-depleted female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Many of the beneficial effects of estrogens/phytoestrogens also appear to be provided by other polyphenols (e.g., proanthocyanidins) in grape seed, which lack appreciable estrogenic receptor binding. The present study tested the hypothesis that similar to phytoestrogens, proanthrocyanidins in grape seed polyphenols reduce salt-sensitive hypertension in young, estrogen-depleted SHR. SHR were ovariectomized at 4 wk of age and placed on phytoestrogen-free diets with or without 0.5% grape seed extract added and with high (8.0%) or basal (0.6%) NaCl. After 10 wk on the diets, grape proanthrocyanidin supplementation significantly reduced arterial pressure in the rats fed the basal (10 mmHg) and high (26 mmHg)-NaCl diet, compared with the nonsupplemented controls. In vitro superoxide production was significantly reduced (23%) by the grape seed polyphenols. Spatial learning (8-arm-radial maze) in the SHR on the basal NaCl diets was improved by dietary grape seed polyphenols. These results indicate that grape seed polyphenols decrease arterial pressure in SHR, probably via an antioxidant mechanism.

  13. Etiology of UV-C-induced browning in var. Superior white table grapes.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, Rocío; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2005-07-27

    White table grapes, var. Superior, were treated with UV-C light after harvest to increase stilbenes concentration, especially trans-resveratrol (RES), because this may be of relevance to the health-promoting properties assigned to these compounds. However, irradiated grapes also developed some browning on the surface on the third day of storage at 22 degrees C, with the subsequent detriment in the sensorial quality of the fruit. Possible causes for browning development during storage were investigated. The phenolic-related oxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), were not specifically activated, and no new isoforms appeared upon UV-C treatment. UV-treated grapes had lower content of chlorophyll b than control grapes on the fourth day of storage, concomitant with the increase of pheophytins (chlorophyll degradation derived compounds). Microscopy data showed lower fluorescence emission in chloroplasts from the UV-treated samples, which may explain the decrease of chlorophylls content in the corresponding grape berries extracts. In addition, microscopy images showed cell wall thickening in the skin tissue of UV-treated grapes which could be considered as a general wound response in plant tissues. These results suggest that the development of browning in Superior white grapes after UV-C treatment is not closely related with the evolution of oxidative enzymes during storage and may be mainly due to the decrease of chlorophylls content. PMID:16028986

  14. Effects of introducing threatened falcons into vineyards on abundance of passeriformes and bird damage to grapes.

    PubMed

    Kross, Sara M; Tylianakis, Jason M; Nelson, Ximena J

    2012-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes are becoming an important focus of animal conservation, although initiatives to conserve predators to date have rarely provided economic benefits to agricultural producers. We examined whether introduction to vineyards of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae), a species listed as threatened by the New Zealand Department of Conservation, affected the abundance of 4 species of Passeriformes that are considered vineyard pests or affected the amount of economic loss due to grape (Vitis vinifera) damage. Three of the species were introduced and remove whole grapes from bunches (Blackbird [Turdus merula], Song Thrush [Turdus philomelos], and Starling [Sturnus vulgaris]), whereas the one native species (Silvereye [Zosterops lateralis]) pecks holes in grapes. The introduction of falcons to vineyards was associated with a significant decrease in the abundance of introduced passerines and with a 95% reduction in the number of grapes removed relative to vineyards without falcons. Falcon presence was not associated with a change in the number of Silvereyes, but there was a 55% reduction in the number of grapes pecked in vineyards with falcons. Our results indicate that, relative to damage in vineyards without falcons, the presence of a falcon could potentially result in savings of US$234/ha for the Sauvignon Blanc variety of grapes and $326/ha for Pinot Noir variety of grapes.

  15. Fungal diversity in grape must and wine fermentation assessed by massive sequencing, quantitative PCR and DGGE

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxiao; García-Fernández, David; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of fungi in grape must and during wine fermentation was investigated in this study by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Carignan and Grenache grapes were harvested from three vineyards in the Priorat region (Spain) in 2012, and nine samples were selected from the grape must after crushing and during wine fermentation. From culture-dependent techniques, 362 isolates were randomly selected and identified by 5.8S-ITS-RFLP and 26S-D1/D2 sequencing. Meanwhile, genomic DNA was extracted directly from the nine samples and analyzed by qPCR, DGGE and massive sequencing. The results indicated that grape must after crushing harbored a high species richness of fungi with Aspergillus tubingensis, Aureobasidium pullulans, or Starmerella bacillaris as the dominant species. As fermentation proceeded, the species richness decreased, and yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae successively occupied the must samples. The “terroir” characteristics of the fungus population are more related to the location of the vineyard than to grape variety. Sulfur dioxide treatment caused a low effect on yeast diversity by similarity analysis. Because of the existence of large population of fungi on grape berries, massive sequencing was more appropriate to understand the fungal community in grape must after crushing than the other techniques used in this study. Suitable target sequences and databases were necessary for accurate evaluation of the community and the identification of species by the 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons. PMID:26557110

  16. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES, not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) analyses. Finally, as a result of the new on-board payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  17. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  18. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients. PMID:26868559

  19. Proteomic analysis of grape berry skin responding to sunlight exclusion.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ning; Cao, Yuegang; Duan, Wei; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2013-05-15

    The most obvious effect of sunlight exclusion from grape clusters is the inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin so that no color develops. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was used to characterize the proteins isolated from berry skins that developed under sunlight exclusion versus those from sunlight-exposed berries. Among more than 1500 spots resolved in stained gels, the accumulation patterns of 96 spots differed significantly between sunlight-excluded berry skin and that of sunlight-exposed control berries. Seventy-two proteins, including 35 down-regulated and 37 up-regulated proteins, were identified and categorized. Proteins involved in photosynthesis and secondary metabolism, especially UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the key step for anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry skin, were accumulated less in the absence of sunlight. Several isoforms of heat shock proteins were also down-regulated. The proteins that were over-accumulated in sunlight-excluded berry skin were more often related to energy production, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, protein synthesis and biogenesis of cellular components. Their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance to sunlight exclusion processes.

  20. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients.

  1. Characteristics of grape seed and oil from nine Turkish cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Unver, Ahmet; Gümüş, Tuncay; Akın, Aydın

    2012-11-01

    Percentages of crude oil, protein, fibre and ash of grape seeds obtained from Turkish cultivars were of the ranges 5.40-10.79, 5.24-7.54, 17.6-27.1, and 1.2-2.6, respectively. The highest crude oil, crude protein and crude fibre were determined in Siyah pekmezlik, Karadimrit and Antep grape seeds. The energy values of seeds were established to be between 102.28 and 148.07 kcal g(-1). Potassium and calcium contents of seed samples were found to be at high levels compared to sodium. The seeds contained 686-967 ppm of Na, 2468-3618 ppm of K and 2373-4127 ppm of Ca. The refractive index, relative density, acidity, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and iodine value of seed oils were determined to be in the ranges 1.474-1.477 [Formula: see text], 0.909-0.934 25/25°C, 0.74-1.24%, 181-197, 0.91-1.66%, and 126-135, respectively. The main fatty acids were of the ranges 60.7-68.5% linoleic, 16.1-23.4% oleic and 8.0-10.2% palmitic. The highest percentages of linoleic acid (68.5%) was determined in Siyah pekmezlik seed oil. PMID:22132714

  2. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  3. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  4. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  5. Potential effects of sulfur pollutants on grape production in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Viessman, S.M.; Knudson, D.A.; Streets, D.G.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose was to design and carry out a prototype assessment of the potential effects of sulfur pollutants on a crop of local economic significance; and, to identify the adequacy of existing research data and other information for quantifying the possible extent of adverse effects of such pollutants. Grape production in New York State was selected for this prototype assessment. The prototype assessment attempts to translate the emission characteristics of sources of sulfur pollutants into ambient concentrations of the pollutants in the vicinity of grape-producing regions. The ambient data are then compared with available dose-response data to estimate the potential effects on the grape crop.

  6. Effects of grape pomace in growing lamb diets compared with vitamin E and grape seed extract on meat shelf life.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Rivas, C; Vieira, C; Rubio, B; Martínez, B; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; Manso, T

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dietary treatment (CTRL, control; VIT-E, 500 mg kg(-1) vitamin E; GSE, 50 mg grape seed extract kg(-1); GP-5, 5% dried red grape pomace kg(-1)) on shelf life of lamb meat was studied. After slaughter (27 kg LBW), m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sliced, packaged under modified atmosphere (80:20%/O2:CO2) and stored in retail conditions for 14 days. At each sampling day (0, 4, 7, 11, 14), microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were analysed. Meat from VIT-E presented lower microbial counts than CTRL, GSE and GP-5, without differences between polyphenol treatments (GSE and GP-5) and CTRL. Vitamin E reduced meat discoloration and lipid oxidation (TBARS values) from day 7 with respect to the other treatments. Although not significant, an improvement in TBARS values of about 20% was observed for GSE and GP-5, compared with CTRL, from day 7 of storage. VIT-E dietary treatment was more effective in preventing sensory spoilage than the other treatments. PMID:26908145

  7. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its Potential Impact to Wine Grapes During Harvest in Two Cool Climate Wine Grape Production Regions.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Walton, V; Dalton, D; Anfora, G; Grassi, A; Maistri, S; Mazzoni, V

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a global pest attacking various berry crops. D. suzukii lays eggs in damaged and in intact wine grape berries of the most soft-skinned varieties. Here, we describe the relative host utilization of different wine grape cultivars grown in Northern Italy and Oregon. Assessments of host berry utilization were performed in both field and laboratory settings. Results were correlated to physiological changes occurring during grape berry development starting at véraison and concluding during harvest. We found that oviposition increased with an increase in sugar content and a decrease of acidity levels. Oviposition increased with a decrease of penetration force. Penetration force, as a measure of skin hardness, is a critical component of host selection among the D. suzukii-exposed cultivars. We demonstrated that incised berries are more favorable for D. suzukii oviposition and as a nutrient substrate. Increased presence on wine grapes, as indicated by egg laying and increased longevity, was observed for flies that were exposed to incised berries as opposed to fully intact berries. D. suzukii flies can be found feeding on damaged wine grapes during the harvest period, especially when the skins of berries are negatively impacted due to cracking, disease, hail injury, and bird damage. Such an increase of feeding and oviposition may increase the likelihood of spoilage bacteria vectoring due to D. suzukii.

  8. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its Potential Impact to Wine Grapes During Harvest in Two Cool Climate Wine Grape Production Regions.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Walton, V; Dalton, D; Anfora, G; Grassi, A; Maistri, S; Mazzoni, V

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a global pest attacking various berry crops. D. suzukii lays eggs in damaged and in intact wine grape berries of the most soft-skinned varieties. Here, we describe the relative host utilization of different wine grape cultivars grown in Northern Italy and Oregon. Assessments of host berry utilization were performed in both field and laboratory settings. Results were correlated to physiological changes occurring during grape berry development starting at véraison and concluding during harvest. We found that oviposition increased with an increase in sugar content and a decrease of acidity levels. Oviposition increased with a decrease of penetration force. Penetration force, as a measure of skin hardness, is a critical component of host selection among the D. suzukii-exposed cultivars. We demonstrated that incised berries are more favorable for D. suzukii oviposition and as a nutrient substrate. Increased presence on wine grapes, as indicated by egg laying and increased longevity, was observed for flies that were exposed to incised berries as opposed to fully intact berries. D. suzukii flies can be found feeding on damaged wine grapes during the harvest period, especially when the skins of berries are negatively impacted due to cracking, disease, hail injury, and bird damage. Such an increase of feeding and oviposition may increase the likelihood of spoilage bacteria vectoring due to D. suzukii. PMID:26470240

  9. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines.

  10. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    PubMed

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. PMID:20438135

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing season by the Republic of Korea's national plant protection organization (NPPO). The NPPO will...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing season by the Republic of Korea's national plant protection organization (NPPO). The NPPO will...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing season by the Republic of Korea's national plant protection organization (NPPO). The NPPO will...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing season by the Republic of Korea's national plant protection organization (NPPO). The NPPO will...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing season by the Republic of Korea's national plant protection organization (NPPO). The NPPO will...

  16. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-05-01

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  17. Review of analytical methods for the determination of pesticide residues in grapes.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Susana; Dehouck, Pieter

    2016-02-12

    This review presents an overview of analytical methods for the analysis of pesticide residues in grapes and by-products in the last decade. The most widely used detection technique for the determination of pesticides in grapes is mass spectrometry combined with gas and/or liquid chromatography. In general, multi-residue methods with selective sample treatment methodologies have been developed for this purpose. However, this review focuses not only on these common multi-residue methods but also on specific methodologies as single-residue methods for the analysis of pesticides in grapes and by-products. Finally, the limitations of multi-residue methods, the future perspectives and the trends for pesticide residue analysis in grapes are reviewed.

  18. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability.

  19. Oxidation phenomena and color properties of grape pomace on nitrite-reduced meat emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Fatemeh; Zeynali, Fariba; Hoseini, Ebrahim; Behmadi, Homa; Savadkoohi, Sobhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of different levels of red grape pomace (1 and 2%, w/w) on the color changes, lipid oxidation (TBARS), antioxidant activity, microbial counts, total phenol content and sensory attributes of the sausages formulated with various levels of sodium nitrite (30, 60 and 120mg/kg). It was found that the addition of grape pomace (1%, w/w) in combination of reduced nitrite levels to the beef sausage samples reduced TBARS content and the degree of lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity and total phenol contents were further evaluated based on DPPH scavenging activity method. A significant reduction in lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of systems containing grape pomace was observed, following by an increase in the oxidative stability and the radical scavenging activity. Acceptability of beef sausages was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the addition of grape pomace and had relatively greater scores from a sensory point of view. PMID:27424305

  20. Population dynamics of Aspergillus section Nigri species on vineyard samples of grapes and raisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using...