Science.gov

Sample records for fat blends analysis

  1. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  2. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    PubMed

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour.

  3. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB.

  4. Reducing saturated fat with oleogel/shortening blends in a baked product.

    PubMed

    Mert, Behic; Demirkesen, Ilkem

    2016-05-15

    Short dough cookie structure, characterized by its aerated and tender texture, depends on the presence of solid fat during kneading. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of Candelilla wax (CDW) containing oleogels for partial replacement of the shortening in cookies. Oleogels were prepared with different amounts of CDW and blended with a commercial bakery shortening. After crystallizing the oleogel/shortening blends by using a pilot scale crystallization unit, the blends were evaluated in a cookie formulations. When the shortening was completely replaced with oleogel softer products were obtained compared to liquid oil, but they were harder than the shortening containing products. On the other hand, partial replacement of shortening with oleogels provided much more acceptable dough and cookie characteristics. Results suggest that gradual replacement of shortening with oleogels may be a suitable approach for reduction of saturated fat in short dough products.

  5. Physicochemical characteristics of phytonutrient retained red palm olein and butter-fat blends and its utilization for formulating chocolate spread.

    PubMed

    Prasanth Kumar, P K; Jeyarani, T; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2016-07-01

    Phytonutrients retained palm olein (PRPOL) was prepared and blended into butterfat at different ratios. The physicochemical characteristics and the phytonutrient composition of blends, as well as its utilization in the preparation of functional chocolate spread were evaluated. The results showed that the redness, yellowness, slip melting point, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol increased while lightness, saponification value, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased upon incorporation of increased quantities of PRPOL into butterfat. The incorporation affected short chain, medium chain and long chain fatty acids content along with variation in the palmitic, stearic, oleic acids content of the blends as compared to butterfat alone. Improvement in carotenoids (6-27 fold), phytotosterols (3-15 fold), tocopherols and tocotrienols (4-17 fold), and squalene (1-6 fold) in blends was observed upon incorporation of PRPOL. Cholesterol level in the blends was reduced (10-50 %) as compared to the butterfat. The blends showed an intermediate solid fat content of PRPOL and butterfat. Moreover, radical scavenging activity of the blends increased with increase in PRPOL quantity. Prepared chocolate spreads showed similar fat, moisture, colour components (L*, a* and b*) and better emulsion stability. The hardness of the spreads was increased upon increasing quantity of PRPOL. The sensory evaluation showed that chocolate prepared by replacing butterfat with 20 % PRPOL had acceptable sensory attributes.

  6. Biodiesel/ULSD blend ratios by analysis of fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodiesel is often blended with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD; 15 mg/kg maximum sulfur content) in volumetric ratios (VBD) of up to 20 vol% (B20). Government tax credits and other regulatory requirements may depend on ac...

  7. Optimization of solid fat content and crystal properties of a trans-free structured lipid by blending with palm midfraction.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

    2008-10-08

    The optimization of solid fat content (SFC) and crystal properties of trans-free structured lipids (SL) synthesized by incorporating stearic acid into canola oil was investigated. The SLs were blended with varying amounts of palm midfraction (PMF). The SFC and crystal polymorphism were improved. The addition of sucrose stearate (S-170), sorbitan tristearate (STS), and distilled monoglycerides (DMG) to one of the blends, SL40:PMF (70:30, w/w), did not improve crystal polymorphism but had significant effects on crystal morphology. The emulsifiers significantly delayed crystal growth, resulting in smaller crystal sizes as compared to the control. They were unable to inhibit the formation of granular crystals (30-140 microm), which are undesirable in margarine, after 4 weeks of storage at 0 degrees C. Blends treated with S-170 and STS showed many small evenly distributed crystals interspersed with large crystal aggregates (after 4 weeks of storage), whereas the blend treated with DMG and the control showed irregularly shaped globular crystals, also interspersed with large crystal aggregates. However, these crystal aggregates were not observed upon visual and physical examination and may therefore not impart the sensory properties of the finished products negatively.

  8. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  9. Quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats by triacylglycerol analysis using gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

    2007-05-02

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profiles of 310 genuine milk fat samples from 21 European countries and 947 mixtures thereof with chocolate fats was created under a strict quality control scheme using 26 triacylglycerol reference standards for calibration purposes. Out of the individual triacylglycerol fractions obtained, 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PSB) was selected as suitable marker compound for the determination of the proportion of milk fat in chocolate fats. By using PSB values from the standardized database, a calibration function using simple linear regression analysis was calculated to be used for future estimations of the milk fat content. A comparison with the widely used butyric acid method, which is currently used to determine the milk fat content in nonmilk fat mixtures, showed that both methods were equivalent in terms of accuracy. The advantage of the presented approach is that for further applications, i.e., determination of foreign fats in chocolate fats, just a single analysis is necessary, whereas for the same purpose, the C4 method requires two different analytical methods.

  10. Physicochemical analysis of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat artisan-style goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Fresno, M; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-delaNuez, A; Alvarez, S; Argüello, A

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical properties of cheese elaborated via traditional artisan methods using goat milk containing 5, 1.5, or 0.4% fat and ripened for 1, 7, 14, or 28 d. Seventy-two cheeses were produced (2 batches x 3 fat levels x 4 ripening times x triplicate). Proximal composition, pH, texture analysis, and color were recorded in each cheese. Protein and moisture were increased in cheese, and fat and fat in DM were decreased with decreasing fat in milk. Internal and external pH was higher in low-fat and reduced-fat cheese, and pH values decreased during the first 2 wk of ripening but increased slightly on d 28. Cheese fracturability, cohesiveness, masticability, and hardness increased with decreasing fat, whereas elasticity and adhesiveness decreased. Cheese lightness and red and yellow indexes decreased with decreasing fat content; during ripening, lightness decreased further but yellow index increased.

  11. Analysis of thermoplastic polyimide + polymer liquid crystal blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalanarayanan, Bhaskar

    Thermoplastic polyimides (TPIs) exhibit high glass transition temperatures (Tsbgs), which make them useful in high performance applications. Amorphous and semicrystalline TPIs show sub-Tsbg relaxations, which can aid in improving strength characteristics through energy absorption. The alpha relaxation of both types of TPIs indicates a cooperative nature. The semicrystalline TPI shows thermo-irreversible cold crystallization phenomenon. The polymer liquid crystal (PLC) used in the blends is thermotropic and with longitudinal molecular structure. The small heat capacity change (Delta Csb{p}) associated with the glass transition indicates the PLC to be rigid rod in nature. The PLC shows a small endotherm associated with the melting. The addition of PLC to the semicrystalline TPI does not significantly affect the Tsbg or the melting point (Tsbm). The cold crystallization temperature (Tsbc) increases with the addition of the PLC, indicating channeling phenomenon. The addition of PLC also causes a negative deviation of the Delta Csb{p}, which is another evidence for channeling. The TPI, PLC and their blends show high thermal stability. The semicrystalline TPI absorbs moisture; this effect decreases with the addition of the PLC. The absorbed moisture does not show any effect on the degradation. The addition of PLC beyond 30 wt.% does not result in an improvement of properties. The amorphous TPI + PLC blends also show the negative deviation of Delta Csb{p} from linearity with composition. The addition of PLC causes a decrease in the thermal conductivity in the transverse direction to the PLC orientation. The thermomechanical analysis indicates isotropic expansivity for the amorphous TPI and a small anisotropy for the semicrystalline TPI. The PLC shows large anisotropy in expansivity. Even 5 wt.% concentration of PLC in the blend induces considerable anisotropy in the expansivity. Thus, blends show controllable expansivity through PLC concentration. Amorphous TPI + PLC

  12. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values.

  13. Effects of Blending Alcohols with Poultry Fat Methyl Esters on Cold Flow Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol in a linear fashion with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols t...

  14. Who Pays for Blended Learning? A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taplin, Ross H.; Kerr, Rosemary; Brown, Alistair M.

    2013-01-01

    Using cost-benefit analysis, the purpose of this study is to analyse the monetary value students place on having access, via the internet, to recorded lectures in a blended learning context. The principal results are that the average price students are willing to pay to download iLectures is approximately $30 per equivalent full time student.…

  15. Lipid composition analysis of milk fats from different mammalian species: potential for use as human milk fat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Yuanfa; Cheong, Lingzhi; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2013-07-24

    The lipid compositions of commercial milks from cow, buffalo, donkey, sheep, and camel were compared with that of human milk fat (HMF) based on total and sn-2 fatty acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid, and phospholipid fatty acid compositions and melting and crystallization profiles, and their degrees of similarity were digitized and differentiated by an evaluation model. The results showed that these milk fats had high degrees of similarity to HMF in total fatty acid composition. However, the degrees of similarity in other chemical aspects were low, indicating that these milk fats did not meet the requirements of human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs). However, an economically feasible solution to make these milks useful as raw materials for infant formula production could be to modify these fats, and a possible method is blending of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) enriched fats and minor lipids based on the corresponding chemical compositions of HMF.

  16. Detection and analysis of FAT10 modification.

    PubMed

    Aichem, Annette; Groettrup, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    FAT10 plays a role in many cellular processes. Nevertheless, only one substrate could be identified so far to which FAT10 becomes covalently attached via a nonreducible isopeptide bond. The identification of additional substrates as well as interaction partners is therefore of great interest. Due to the absence of potent anti-FAT10 antibodies, the detection and identification of interaction partners was hindered so far. We have recently described the generation of a novel monoclonal FAT10 antibody that is suitable for immunoprecipitation of endogenous FAT10 and describe in this chapter the detection of endogenous as well as of His-3×FLAG-tagged FAT10 interacting proteins and conjugates by immunoprecipitation using either this novel anti-FAT10 antibody 4FI or an anti-FLAG affinity gel.

  17. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  18. Quantification of animal fat biodiesel in soybean biodiesel and B20 diesel blends using near infrared spectroscopy and synergy interval support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Paulo Roberto; Alves, Júlio Cesar L; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2014-02-01

    In this work, multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) and support vector regression (SVR) using the whole spectrum and variable selection by synergy interval (siPLS and siSVR) were applied to NIR spectra for the determination of animal fat biodiesel content in soybean biodiesel and B20 diesel blends. For all models, prediction errors, bias test for systematic errors and permutation test for trends in the residuals were calculated. The siSVR produced significantly lower prediction errors compared to the full spectrum methods and siPLS, with a root mean squares error (RMSEP) of 0.18%(w/w) (concentration range: 0.00%-69.00%(w/w)) in the soybean biodiesel blend and 0.10%(w/w) in the B20 diesel (concentration range: 0.00%-13.80%(w/w)). Additionally, in the models for the determination of animal fat biodiesel in blends with soybean diesel, PLS and SVR showed evidence of systematic errors, and PLS/siPLS presented trends in residuals based on the permutation test. For the B20 diesel, PLS presented evidence of systematic errors, and siPLS presented trends in the residuals.

  19. Translating Knowledge through Blended Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Face-to-Face and Blended Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.; Karpur, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the impact of traditional face-to-face training contrasted with a blended learning approach, as it relates to improving skills, knowledge and attitudes for enhancing practices for achieving improved employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities. The study included two intervention groups: one…

  20. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%).

  1. Analysis of Fat Intake Based on the US Department of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Fat Intake Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report). For this report, the EPA conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the U.S. population based on data derived from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and EPA's Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID). Percentiles of fat consumption were calculated on the basis of total mass and on a per-unit body-weight basis for 12 food categories and 98 demographic cohorts. In addition, dietary breakdown and fat intake percentiles were calculated for a subset of the sample population whose consumption of animal fats exceeded the 90th percentile within its age group. Many chemicals found in the environment tend to accumulate in fatty tissue. Assessing risks from these chemicals requires knowledge of dietary habits and the amount of fat present in various types of foods.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

  3. Got Tools? The Blended Learning Analysis and Design Expediter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenheimer, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Blended learning is an approach to instructional design that seeks to maximize learning potential by applying the most effective form of instruction for a given program element. The term "blended learning" should not refer to just the mixing of training delivery methods (as it is often defined) but to the orchestrated application and integration…

  4. Collaborative Inquiry: Expert Analysis of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on findings of a university focus group exploring blended learning in higher education. It first describes the findings regarding the amorphous definition of blended learning as well as whether and how universities might engage in the practice. This paper then explains the administrative, instructor, and student variables that…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

  6. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

    2010-04-19

    Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

  7. Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends

    SciTech Connect

    Salleh, Mohd Nazry; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan

    2013-11-27

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

  8. Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Mohd Nazry; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan

    2013-11-01

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

  9. Molecular rheological analysis on binary blends of perfluoropolyether lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seung Chung, Pil; Hari Vemuri, Sesha; Park, Sejoon; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    The molecular rheology of PFPE becomes critically important in designing optimal lubricants that control the friction/wear and air-bearing by tuning elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the hard disk drive. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of nano blended PFPEs including storage (elastic) and loss (viscous) moduli (G' and G″), by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing binary blend of nonfunctional and functional PFPEs, we control the degree of liquid/solid-like behavior using the rheology as a complementary tool for design criteria by tuning molecular conformation and diffusion with nano blend ratio.

  10. A behavioral economic analysis of fat appetite in rats.

    PubMed

    Freed, D E; Green, L

    1998-12-01

    A behavioral economic analysis of rats' consumption of various fat and sweet solutions was conducted in order to assess whether rats' fat appetite is readily modifiable. According to economic demand theory, changes in the price of a reinforcer will produce substantial changes in its consumption under conditions in which a substitutable reinforcer is available. Results from income-compensated price changes revealed that sucrose, mineral oil and saccharin solutions substituted for a corn oil solution: increases in the price of the corn oil led to large decreases in its consumption and sizable increases in consumption of these alternatives. On the other hand, plain water did not substitute for the corn oil solution: increasing the price of the corn oil did not result in nearly as marked a change in its consumption nor in consumption of the water. Neither the strength of preference for the corn oil under baseline conditions nor the caloric content of the alternative solution predicted whether the alternative reinforcer substituted for the corn oil. Rather, palatability appeared to be a dimension along which substitution was based. These results suggest that fat appetite is modified when palatable alternatives are available, independent of how strongly the fat is preferred.

  11. NOAA In Situ - Satellite Blended Analysis of Surface Salinity (BASS): Prototype Algorithm and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Boyer, T.; Bayler, E. J.; Xue, Y.; Byrne, D. A.; Reagan, J. R.; Locarnini, R. A.; Kumar, A.

    2012-12-01

    A prototype analysis of monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) has been constructed on a 1olat/lon grid over the global ocean by blending information from in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Three data sets are included as inputs to the blended analysis, i.e., in situ SSS measurements aggregated and quality controlled by NOAA/NODC, and the passive microwave (PMW) retrievals from the Aquarius/SAC-D and SMOS satellites, received and post-processed at NOAA/STAR. The in situ SSS measurements used here are mainly from the Argo program, but also include those from the tropical moored buoy array (TAO/TRITON, PIRATA, RAMA) data and CTDs and glider data. The blended analysis is defined in two sequential steps. First, the bias in the satellite retrievals is removed through PDF matching against the co-located in situ measurements. The final blended analysis is then defined through the optimal interpolation (OI), where the analysis for the previous time step is used as the first guess while the in situ measurements and the bias-corrected satellite retrievals are employed as the observations to update the first guess. Cross-validations tests are conducted by comparing the blended analysis against the withdrawn SSS measurements from the PIRATA arrays. Results showed improved quantitative accuracy of the blended analysis compared to the satellite estimates and the in situ data alone analysis in the tropical Atlantic. The blended analysis, constructed from January 2010 to the present, is used to examine the co-variability among the SSS, E-P, SST, SSH, and surface wind stress in the annual cycle over the tropical Atlantic and to estimate the SSS bias in the NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) . Results will be reported at the meeting.

  12. An in situ-satellite blended analysis of global sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Boyer, T.; Bayler, E.; Xue, Y.; Byrne, D.; Reagan, J.; Locarnini, R.; Sun, F.; Joyce, R.; Kumar, A.

    2014-09-01

    The blended monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) analysis, called the NOAA "Blended Analysis of Surface Salinity" (BASS), is constructed for the 4 year period from 2010 to 2013. Three data sets are employed as inputs to the blended analysis: in situ SSS measurements aggregated and quality controlled by NOAA/NODC, and passive microwave (PMW) retrievals from both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aquarius/SAC-D and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture-Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites. The blended analysis comprises two steps. First, the biases in the satellite retrievals are removed through probability distribution function (PDF) matching against temporally spatially colocated in situ measurements. The blended analysis is then achieved through optimal interpolation (OI), where the analysis for the previous time step is used as the first guess while the in situ measurements and bias-corrected satellite retrievals are employed as the observations to update the first guess. Cross validations illustrate improved quality of the blended analysis, with reduction in bias and random errors over most of the global oceans as compared to the individual inputs. Large uncertainty, however, remains in high-latitude oceans and coastal regions where the in situ networks are sparse and current-generation satellite retrievals have limitations. Our blended SSS analysis shows good agreements with the NODC in situ-based analysis over most of the tropical and subtropical oceans, but large differences are observed for high-latitude oceans and along coasts. In the tropical oceans, the BASS is shown to have coherent variability with precipitation and evaporation associated with the evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  13. An Analysis of Students' Opinions about Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul; Ozdemir, Soner Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    This study examines views of students related to Blended Learning Environment (BLE). The sample group of the study consisted of 36 students enrolled in social science teacher education programme at Ahi Evran University, Education Faculty during the 2006/07 Fall Semester. This approach has been carried out both online and face to face (F2F)…

  14. Blended Learning in Biochemistry Education: Analysis of Medical Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardenski, Rosilaine de Fatima; de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Tais Rabetti

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for…

  15. Blended learning for reinforcing dental pharmacology in the clinical years: A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eachempati, Prashanti; Kiran Kumar, K. S.; Sumanth, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student’s reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3rd and 4th year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke. Results: The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions. Conclusions: Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology. PMID:28031603

  16. Fat stigmatization on YouTube: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Mallory; Frazier, Savannah; Thompson, J Kevin

    2011-01-01

    YouTube.com is an internet website that is viewed by two billion individuals daily, and thus may serve as the source of images and messages regarding weight acceptance or weight bias. In the current study, a targeted sample of YouTube videos that displayed fat stigmatization were content rated on a variety of video characteristics. The findings revealed that men were the target of fat stigmatization (62.1%) almost twice as often as women (36.4%). When there was an antagonist present in the video, the great majority of the time, the aggressor was male (88.5%) rather than female (7.7%). These findings indicate that men were the antagonist 11.5 times the rate of women, but they were only 1.7 times more often stigmatized. Future research avenues, including an experimental analysis of viewing stigmatizing videos on body image, are recommended.

  17. Comparison of effects of dietary coconut oil and animal fat blend on lactational performance of Holstein cows fed a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Beede, D K

    2012-03-01

    Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (C(8:0) through C(12:0)) are researched for their potential to reduce enteric methane emissions and to increase N utilization efficiency in ruminants. We aimed to 1) compare coconut oil (CNO; ~60% medium-chain fatty acids) with a source of long-chain fatty acids (animal fat blend; AFB) on lactational responses in a high-starch diet and 2) determine the effect of different dietary concentrations of CNO on dry matter intake (DMI). In experiment 1, the control diet (CTRL) contained (dry basis) 40% forage (71% corn silage, and alfalfa hay and haylage), 26% NDF, and 35% starch. Isonitrogenous treatment diets contained 5.0% of AFB (5%-AFB), CNO (5%-CNO), or a 1-to-1 mixture of AFB and CNO (5%-AFB-CNO) and 0.8% corn gluten meal in place of corn grain. Thirty-two multiparous dairy cows (201 ± 46 d postpartum; 42.0 ± 5.5 kg/d 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield) were adapted to CTRL, blocked by milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment diets for 21 d with samples and data collected from d 15 through 21. Treatment 5%-CNO decreased DMI markedly and precipitously and was discontinued after d 5. In wk 3, 5%-AFB and especially 5%-AFB-CNO lowered total-tract NDF digested vs. CTRL (2.6 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.1 kg/d, respectively), likely because fat treatments reduced DMI and 5%-AFB-CNO impaired total-tract NDF digestibility. Milk fat concentrations were 3.10% (CTRL), 2.51% (5%-AFB), and 1.97% (5%-AFB-CNO) and correlated negatively to concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis-12) in milk fat. Additionally, 5%-AFB and 5%-AFB-CNO tended to lower milk yield and decreased yields of solids-corrected milk and milk protein compared with CTRL. Fat treatments decreased milk lactose concentration, but increased milk citrate concentration. Moreover, cows fed 5%-AFB-CNO produced less solids-corrected milk than did cows fed 5%-AFB. In experiment 2, diets similar to CTRL contained 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0% CNO. Fifteen multiparous cows (219 ± 42 d postpartum; 42.1 ± 7.0 kg

  18. Image Analysis, Microscopic, and Spectrochemical Study of the PVC Dry Blending Process,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The dry blending process used in the production of electrical grade pvc formulations has been studies using a combination of image analysis , microscopic...by image analysis techniques. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess morphological differences. Spectrochemical techniques were used to indicate chemical changes.

  19. Capillary Condensation in Polymer Blends: an Analysis of Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina C.; Jira, Nicholas C.; Evans, Ian R.; Cohen, Matthew; D'Rozario, Julia R.; Romano, Marie T.; Sabirianov, Ildar

    We explore herein the capillary condensation for various geometries. Capillary condensation is studied in the presence of van der Waals forces. We derive the grand free energy, and we analyze the phase transitions, the absorption isotherms and the triple point. Phase transitions between full, empty and two films are investigated and the shape of the liquid is calculated. We also analyze an important application of wetting phenomena and capillary condensation in binary polymer blends and investigate the type of wetting transitions presented and the phase diagram. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant, NSF Noyce Grant.

  20. Dielectric behavior of gelatine-glycosaminoglycans blends: an impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, Ivy; Fathima, Nishter Nishad; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava

    2013-05-01

    The dielectric behavior of the gelatine-GAGs based blend systems has been studied to understand the dynamic behavior of the water at the protein-GAGs interfaces which are relevant for tissue engineering application. Impedance (Z) and phase have been measured as a function of frequencies from 0.01 Hz to 100 kHz. GAGs tunes the ionic charge drift which initiates polarization mechanisms through charge accumulation at structural interfaces and creates conduction currents. The admittance results showed that at high frequency, the conductivity increases with increasing GAGs concentration indicating changes in hydration shell of the gelatine by the GAGs.

  1. Blended learning in biochemistry education: analysis of medical students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Wardenski, Rosilaine; de Espíndola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Taís Rabetti

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for complementing course Modules I, II, and IV, using different resources and activities. Forty-nine students (46%) took part in the study. Results show that, in general, students gave positive evaluations to their experiences with BL, indicating that the VLEs have not only motivated but also facilitated learning. Most of the students reported that access to resources in the three modules provided a more in-depth approach to Biochemistry education and greater study autonomy. Students suggested that the VLEs could be better used for promoting greater communication among participants.

  2. Laser Raman, XRD, DSC and Ac-Impedance Analysis of Polymer Blend Electrolyte Based on Eco-Friendly Pva-Pvp Blend with NH4NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, N.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Prabaharan, S. R. S.; Kawamura, J.; Iwai, Y.; Karthikeyan, S.

    2013-07-01

    Proton conducting polymer blend electrolytes have attractive interest because of their advantages such as processability, flexibility, electrochemical stability, easy handling and their applications to a variety of electrochemical devices such as fuel cells, chemical sensor and electrochemical displays. In the present work, the films of 50PVA-50PVP blend with different MWt% concentrations of NH4NO3 have been prepared by solution casting techniques using distilled water as a solvent. The prepared films have been investigated by different techniques such as XRD, DSC, Laser Raman and AC Impedance spectroscopy. XRD studies reveal the amorphous nature of the polymer blend-salt complexes. The glass transition temperature has been calculated from the DSC analysis. From the AC Impedance spectroscopy, the high conductivity of the 30MWt% of NH4NO3 doped 50PVA-50PVP polymer complex has been found to be the order of 1.41 × 10-3S cm-1 at room temperature.

  3. Evaluation of Gas Chromatographic Methods for Analysis of Gasoline/Oxygenate Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    determination of various oxygenated compounds in gasoline by gas chromotography have been developed.(3-6) These include gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the...ID-Ai33 0i6 EVALUATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS FOR ANALYSIS i/t OF GASOLINE/OXYGEN.. (U) SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS...0 EVALUATION OF GAS -CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE/OXYGENATE BLENDS INTERIM REPORT

  4. Interactions of coal gangue and pine sawdust during combustion of their blends studied using differential thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhu, Mingming; Cheng, Fangqin; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-08-01

    The interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust during the combustion process were studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of the blending ratio, oxygen concentration and heating rate on the weight loss (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (TGA) profiles was examined. The TG and DTG curves of the blends were not additives of those of the individual materials, suggesting that interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust had occurred during the combustion, especially in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Kinetic analysis confirmed that the combustion of coal gangue, pine sawdust and their blends was chemical reaction controlled. Further analysis revealed that the interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust were primarily due to thermal effects rather than structural changes, with the thermal inertia of coal gangue dominating over the behaviour of the blends. The interactions decreased with decreasing the coal gangue ratio in the blend, oxygen concentration and heating rate.

  5. Impact of triacylglycerol composition on shear-induced textural changes in highly saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Sandra B; Andersen, Morten D; Hammershøj, Marianne; Wiking, Lars

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates a strong interaction between triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and effects of shear rate on the microstructure and texture of fats. Cocoa butter alternatives with similar saturated fat content, but different major TAGs (PPO-, PSO-, SSO-, POP- and SOS-rich blends) were evaluated. Results show how shear can create a harder texture in fat blends based on symmetric monounsaturated TAGs (up to ∼200%), primarily due to reduction in crystal size, whereas shear has little effect on hardness of asymmetric monounsaturated TAGs. Such differences could not be ascribed to differences in the degree of supercooling, but was found to be a consequence of differences in the crystallisation behaviour of different TAGs. The fractal dimension was evaluated by dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier transformation of microscopy images. However, the concept of fractal patterns was found to be insufficient to describe microstructural changes of fat blends with high solid fat content.

  6. Analysis of yellow ``fat'' deposits on Inuit boots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Stern, Ben; Burgio, Lucia; Kite, Marion

    2009-08-01

    Irregular residues of a yellow deposit that was assumed to be seal fat used for waterproofing were observed in the creases of the outer surface of a pair of Inuit boots from Arctic Canada. A sample of this deposit detached from one of these areas on these boots was examined initially by FT-Raman microscopy, from which interesting and rather surprising results demanded further analysis using FT-IR and GC-MS. The non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis yielded spectra which indicated the presence of a tree resin from the Pinaceae sp. The Raman spectra were also characteristic of a well-preserved keratotic protein and indicative of adherent skin. Subsequent FT-IR spectroscopic analysis supported the attribution of a Pinaceae resin to the yellow deposit. GC-MS analysis of the same deposits identified the presence of pimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, all indicative of an aged Pinaceae resin. These results confirmed that the Inuit people had access to tree resins which they probably used as a waterproofing agent.

  7. New Analysis Methods Estimate a Critical Property of Ethanol Fuel Blends

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    To date there have been no adequate methods for measuring the heat of vaporization of complex mixtures. This research developed two separate methods for measuring this key property of ethanol and gasoline blends, including the ability to estimate heat of vaporization at multiple temperatures. Methods for determining heat of vaporization of gasoline-ethanol blends by calculation from a compositional analysis and by direct calorimetric measurement were developed. Direct measurement produced values for pure compounds in good agreement with literature. A range of hydrocarbon gasolines were shown to have heat of vaporization of 325 kJ/kg to 375 kJ/kg. The effect of adding ethanol at 10 vol percent to 50 vol percent was significantly larger than the variation between hydrocarbon gasolines (E50 blends at 650 kJ/kg to 700 kJ/kg). The development of these new and accurate methods allows researchers to begin to both quantify the effect of fuel evaporative cooling on knock resistance, and exploit this effect for combustion of hydrocarbon-ethanol fuel blends in high-efficiency SI engines.

  8. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  9. A laboratory efficient method for intramuscular fat analysis.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Lopez-Bote, C J

    2014-02-15

    A new procedure to extract intramuscular fat (IMF) was developed to minimize sample amount, solvent use and time of analysis. Lyophilised samples (200mg) were accurately weighed in a safe-lock micro test tube, homogenized in 1.5 mL dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and mixed in a mixer mill (MM400, Retsch technology). The final biphasic system was separated by centrifugation (8 min, 10,000 rpm). The extraction was repeated three times. Solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Results from 64 determinations were compared to those obtained with other referred method and showed a linear response over the whole range of IMF content (1.6-6.9 g/100 g sample). Moreover, the analysis with different methodology of six replica from the same sample showed lowest variability (standard deviation intra-method) for the new methodology proposed over a wide range of IMF content. A cost and time efficient lipid extraction procedure was developed without loss of precision and accuracy and with a fatty acid profile comparable to other protocols.

  10. Teaching Blended Content Analysis and Critically Vigilant Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The semester-long activity described herein uses an integrated instructional approach to media studies to introduce students to the research method of qualitative content analysis and help them become more critically vigilant media consumers. The goal is to increase students' media literacy by guiding them in the design of an exploratory…

  11. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value.

  12. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  13. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  14. Dietary fat intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenlong; Lu, Heng; Qi, Yana; Wang, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies assessing the association of dietary fat and risk of ovarian cancer yield discrepant results. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a PubMed search from inception to December 2015. Sixteen independent case-control and nine cohort studies on dietary fat intake were included, with approximately 900,000 subjects in total. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were assessed; subgroup analysis and analysis stratified by EOC histology were conducted. The reported studies showed a significant increase of ovarian cancer risk with high consumption of total-, saturated-, and trans-fats, while serous ovarian cancer was more susceptible to dietary fat consumption than other pathological subtypes. No evidence of positive association between dietary fat intake and ovarian cancer risk was provided by cohort studies. Menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy times, modified the objective associations. In conclusion, the meta-analysis findings indicate that high consumption of total, saturated and trans-fats increase ovarian cancer risk, and different histological subtypes have different susceptibility to dietary fat. PMID:27119509

  15. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  16. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard.

  17. Scaling analysis of fat-link irrelevant clover fermion actions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamleh, Waseem; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2008-01-01

    The fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action is a variant of the O(a)-improved Wilson action where the irrelevant operators are constructed using smeared links. While the use of such smearing allows for the use of highly improved definitions of the field strength tensor F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}, we show that the standard 1-loop clover term with a mean field improved coefficient c{sub sw} is sufficient to remove the O(a) errors, avoiding the need for nonperturbative tuning. This result enables efficient dynamical simulations in QCD with the fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action.

  18. Development and analysis of educational technologies for a blended organic chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael James

    Blended courses incorporate elements of both face-to-face and online instruction. The extent to which blended courses are conducted online, and the proper role of the online components of blended courses, have been debated and may vary. What can be said in general, however, is that online tools for blended courses are typically culled together from a variety of sources, are often very large scale, and may present distractions for students that decrease their utility as teaching tools. Furthermore, large-scale educational technologies may not be amenable to rigorous, detailed study, limiting evaluation of their effectiveness. Small-scale educational technologies run from the instructor's own server have the potential to mitigate many of these issues. Such tools give the instructor or researcher direct access to all available data, facilitating detailed analysis of student use. Code modification is simple and rapid if errors arise, since code is stored where the instructor can easily access it. Finally, the design of a small-scale tool can target a very specific application. With these ideas in mind, this work describes several projects aimed at exploring the use of small-scale, web-based software in a blended organic chemistry course. A number of activities were developed and evaluated using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains survey, and data from the activities were analyzed using quantitative methods of statistics and social network analysis methods. Findings from this work suggest that small-scale educational technologies provide significant learning benefits for students of organic chemistry---with the important caveat that instructors must offer appropriate levels of technical and pedagogical support for students. Most notably, students reported significant learning gains from activities that included collaborative learning supported by novel online tools. For the particular context of organic chemistry, which has a unique semantic language (Lewis

  19. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  20. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  1. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  2. Hybrid Blends of Non-Traditional Safety and Reliability Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1999-04-21

    Traditional safety and reliability analysis methods are applicable to many standard problems, including those examples illustrated in most formal courses. However, there are many real-world situations for which non-traditional methods appear to be more appropriate, mainly because most practical problems involve substantial subjectivity about the inputs and models used. This paper surveys some of the most applicable approaches found in a recent research study. Each approach is developed individually and is illuminated by selecting example situations of apparent applicability. Then, the combinational blending of the approaches with each other and with traditional methodology is discussed.

  3. An Analysis of High Impact Scholarship and Publication Trends in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Lisa R.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Drysdale, Jeffery S.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning is a diverse and expanding area of design and inquiry that combines face-to-face and online modalities. As blended learning research matures, numerous voices enter the conversation. This study begins the search for the center of this emerging area of study by finding the most cited scholarship on blended learning. Using Harzing's…

  4. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: acceptability and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2002-01-01

    Prices of four low fat foods were reduced about 25% and prices of three high fat foods were increased about 10% to determine the impact on food purchases in a Midwestern suburban high school cafeteria to explore the impact of price on purchases. Low fat foods averaged about 13% of total sales. Sensitivity analysis was used to estimate that low fat foods would probably have averaged about 9% of total sales without the reduced price.

  5. Analysis of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat After Gastric Balloon Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gustavo L.; de Melo, Rayssa A. B.; de Moura, Fernanda M.; Leite, Ana Paula D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This project is a continuation of a larger project entitled “Treatment with intragastric balloon (IGB) in patients with overweight and obesity in Recife” developed by Professor Dr. Gustavo Lopes de Carvalho. It is a project studying the effectiveness of treatment with IGB evaluating the loss of weight and body mass index and its impact on blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. It also assesses the lifestyle of patients studying whether treatment with IGB interferes in smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and physical exercises performed by patients. The present study added a larger project, the separate evaluation of the different types of abdominal fat—visceral fat and subcutaneous cell tissue fat — and was conducted to discover which of the 2 types of fat undergoes the greater reduction after IGB treatment. To measure these 2 types of fat, we used the ultrasonography technique, because it has been shown to be accurate and noninvasive. Methods: Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of IGB treatment. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 20 to 61 years, with 60% being 40 years of age or older. The majority (72%) were women. All variables (weight, body mass index [BMI], VF, and SCTF) showed a significant reduction (P < .05) in mean values after treatment. The difference was highest in the SCTF (17.5%) and ranged from an 11.4% to an 11.6% reduction in all other variables. The average loss of SCTF was highest among the patients who had lost up to 10.0% of their initial weight (19.2% for the ≤10.0% group vs 15.9% for the >10.0% group); however, the difference was not significant (P = .66). The average loss of VF was higher in the subgroup of patients who had lost >10.0% of their initial weight (16.2% vs 6.3%; P = .003). The Pearson correlation between the reductions in SCTF vs VF was negative, low, and nonsignificant (−0.17; P = .41). Conclusions: After 6

  6. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals. PMID:26426396

  7. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

  8. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  9. Effects of Saturated Fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate on Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Micha, Renata; Wu, Jason H. Y.; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of major dietary macronutrients on glucose-insulin homeostasis remain controversial and may vary by the clinical measures examined. We aimed to assess how saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and carbohydrate affect key metrics of glucose-insulin homeostasis. Methods and Findings We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, BIOSIS, Web-of-Knowledge, CAB, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SIGLE, Faculty1000) for randomised controlled feeding trials published by 26 Nov 2015 that tested effects of macronutrient intake on blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in adults aged ≥18 years. We excluded trials with non-isocaloric comparisons and trials providing dietary advice or supplements rather than meals. Studies were reviewed and data extracted independently in duplicate. Among 6,124 abstracts, 102 trials, including 239 diet arms and 4,220 adults, met eligibility requirements. Using multiple-treatment meta-regression, we estimated dose-response effects of isocaloric replacements between SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and carbohydrate, adjusted for protein, trans fat, and dietary fibre. Replacing 5% energy from carbohydrate with SFA had no significant effect on fasting glucose (+0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI = -0.01, +0.04; n trials = 99), but lowered fasting insulin (-1.1 pmol/L; -1.7, -0.5; n = 90). Replacing carbohydrate with MUFA lowered HbA1c (-0.09%; -0.12, -0.05; n = 23), 2 h post-challenge insulin (-20.3 pmol/L; -32.2, -8.4; n = 11), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-2.4%; -4.6, -0.3; n = 30). Replacing carbohydrate with PUFA significantly lowered HbA1c (-0.11%; -0.17, -0.05) and fasting insulin (-1.6 pmol/L; -2.8, -0.4). Replacing SFA with PUFA significantly lowered glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, and HOMA. Based on gold-standard acute insulin response in ten trials, PUFA significantly improved insulin secretion capacity (+0.5 pmol/L/min; 0.2, 0

  10. Effects of canola oil dilution on anhydrous milk fat crystallization and fractionation behavior.

    PubMed

    Wright, A J; Batte, H D; Marangoni, A G

    2005-06-01

    Blends of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and canola oil (CO) were cooled from 35 to 5 degrees C at 0.1 degrees C/min, held for 24 h, and centrifuged to separate the liquid and crystalline fractions. The blends' crystallization behaviors and microstructures depended on the level of CO present. Onset and half times of crystallization reflected a slower crystallization mechanism at higher levels of CO dilution. These differences were accompanied by a change in microstructure from large spherulites to smaller particles. The biggest change occurred between the 1:4 and 1:5 blends. Canola oil dilution also influenced the polymorphism of milk fat. Whereas only the beta' polymorph was observed in the crystallized 1:2 blend, the beta polymorph predominated in the 1:8 blend. Some solubilization of AMF solids into CO was observed. This increased gradually with increasing CO concentration. Compositional analysis revealed the exchange of AMF and CO species between the liquid and crystalline fractions. The crystalline fractions were slightly enriched in AMF triacylglycerols, particularly with the more dilute blends (1:7 and 1:8). Large amounts of oil were trapped in the crystalline fractions, particularly for the concentrated AMF:CO blends where the beta' crystals and spherulitic microstructures were observed. Although the solid fat content profiles of the fractionated blends were marginally higher than those of the starting blends, the samples were very soft and oily. This strategy of using CO to fractionate milk fat was limited by the poor separation of solids and liquid during centrifugation.

  11. Screening analysis to detect adulteration in diesel/biodiesel blends using near infrared spectrometry and multivariate classification.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; Silva, Alinne Girlaine Brito

    2011-09-30

    This paper proposes an analytical method to detect adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends based on near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) coupled with the successive projections algorithm (SPA) have been employed to build screening models using three different optical paths and the following spectra ranges: 1.0mm (8814-3799 cm(-1)), 10mm (11,329-5944 cm(-1) and 5531-4490 cm(-1)) and 20mm (11,688-5952 cm(-1) and 5381-4679 cm(-1)). The method is validated in a case study involving the classification of 140 diesel/biodiesel blend samples, which were divided into four different classes, namely: diesel free of biodiesel and raw vegetal oil (D), blends containing diesel, biodiesel and raw oils (OBD), blends of diesel and raw oils (OD), and blends containing a fraction of 5% (v/v) of biodiesel in diesel (B5). LDA-SPA models were found to be the best method to classify the spectral data obtained with optical paths of 1.0 and 20mm. Otherwise, PLS-DA shows the best results for classification of 10mm cell data, which achieved a correct prediction rate of 100% in the test set.

  12. Analysis, Design and Optimization of Non-Cylindrical Fuselage for Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Kosaka, I.; Quinn, G.; Charpentier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Initial results of an investigation towards finding an efficient non-cylindrical fuselage configuration for a conceptual blended-wing-body flight vehicle were presented. A simplified 2-D beam column analysis and optimization was performed first. Then a set of detailed finite element models of deep sandwich panel and ribbed shell construction concepts were analyzed and optimized. Generally these concepts with flat surfaces were found to be structurally inefficient to withstand internal pressure and resultant compressive loads simultaneously. Alternatively, a set of multi-bubble fuselage configuration concepts were developed for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls. An outer-ribbed shell was designed to prevent buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. Initial results from finite element analysis appear to be promising. These concepts should be developed further to exploit their inherent structurally efficiency.

  13. Property Analysis of Ethanol--Natural Gasoline--BOB Blends to Make Flex Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, Teresa L.; Yanowitz, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Ten natural gasolines were analyzed for a wide range of properties, including Reid vapor pressure (RVP), benzene, sulfur, distillation, stability, metals, and aromatic content, to determine their quality. Benzene and sulfur content were sufficiently low in all but one of the samples that they could be blended without further upgrading. Four of these samples were selected to blend with blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) and ethanol to produce E51, E70, and E83 blends, targeting 7.8 and 9.0-psi finished fuels. The volume of each component in the blend was estimated using the Reddy model, with the assumption that the BOB and natural gasoline blend linearly and behave as a single component in the model calculations. Results show that the Reddy model adequately predicts the RVP of the finished blend for E51 and E70, but significantly underpredicts the RVP of E83 blends by nearly 2 psi. It is hypothesized that the underprediction is a function of the very low aromatic content of the E83 blends, even compared to the E51 and E70 blends.

  14. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  15. Chemical and physical properties of butterfat-vegetable oil blend spread prepared with enzymatically transesterified canola oil and caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

    2005-06-15

    Structured Lipid was synthesized from canola oil and caprylic acid with sn-1,3 specific lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Cold spreadable butter was made by blending butterfat with the SL at a weight ratio of 80:20. Its chemical and physical properties were compared with pure butter and butterfat-canola oil 80:20 blend spread. The butterfat-SL blend had lower contents of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (FAs) and the lowest atherogenic index (AI) as compared to the others. Melting and crystallization behaviors of butterfat-SL blend were similar to those of butterfat-canola oil blend above 0 degrees C. It showed solid fat contents (SFCs) similar to butterfat-canola oil blend but lower than pure butterfat. The butterfat-SL blend was shown to crystallize in the beta' form. There were no differences between the hardness of butterfat-SL blend spread and butterfat-canola oil blend spread. Rheological analysis showed that butterfat-SL blend spread lost its elastic behavior at 5 degrees C, a lower temperature than pure butter.

  16. Analysis and Toxicity of Plain (PMP) and Blended (PMT) Indian Pan Masala (PM)

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Suresh Kumar; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Betel leaf combined with areca nut is known as betel quid pan masala (PM), and tobacco with areca nut, catechu and lime is pan masala (PMT) blended with gulkhand. These narcotics are popular among young and old individuals. A prima facia chemical analysis and a toxicity assessment of PM in mice were conducted to study the relationship between longtime consumption of PM and health hazards. Materials and Methods: Chemical analysis of different types of PM was done employing HPLC, GLC, AAS, ES, TLC, GCMS and sequential extraction for PAH, pesticides, metals and minerals, electrolytes, drugs and xenobiotics. Ethanolic PM extracts were tested by IP and PO routes in inbred Swiss mice. Results: PAH, which are known xenobiotics for pre-cancerous lesions, were significantly high (p<0.01) in Rajaniganda and Pan Parag Zarda. Isomers of DDT and BHC, which principally act on nerves and muscles, were also high (p<0.01) in PM. The enhanced metal and mineral content of PM results in massive oral fibrosis. There is a high level of narcotics in PM, especially nicotine, a potentially cancerous agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: Experimental studies with different extracts of plain and blended PM in mice fed for 16 and 90 days revealed no effect on blood and organ weights (kidney, heart, spleen and liver), but we did observe attenuated testis. However, in the bone marrow of the mice, chromosomes were most affected in the mice fed PM-Zarda blend for 3 months. The chromosomal abnormalities included ploidy, loss, breaks, gaps, deletions and exchanges in ring chromosomes. The PM caused sperm head anomalies (narrow, blunt, triangular and banana shapes), and the sperm were irregular, amorphous, tailless and rudimentary, with the maximum effect among the groups fed PM for 3 months. Significantly higher levels (p<0.01) of testis glycogen, cholesterol and protein were found. The group fed for 16 days showed no change in red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Blended Learning and Technology Use in Higher Education: From the General to the Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Schmid, Richard F.; Tamim, Rana M.; Abrami, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper serves several purposes. First and foremost, it is devoted to developing a better understanding of the effectiveness of blended learning (BL) in higher education. This is achieved through a meta-analysis of a sub-collection of comparative studies of BL and classroom instruction (CI) from a larger systematic review of technology…

  18. Blending of the eyelid-cheek junction and removal of protruding fat: an intraoral approach to blepharoplasty of the lower eyelid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haizhong; Liu, Chunming; Peng, Chen; Zhu, Kai; Bu, Rongfa; Liu, Hongchen

    2009-10-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most common aesthetic procedures done today. The protruding fat and lid-cheek junction are the most conspicuous signs of aging that need attention. During zygomatic reduction by an intraoral approach we found occasionally that the orbital fat can be exposed through the perforated periosteum at the inferior obital rim. We therefore developed a new blepharoplasty procedure using an oral approach. Seventeen patients aged from 26 to 38 years, of whom six had had a previous unsuccessful blepharoplasty and one had a history of injury to the lower lid, were studied. The operation was done under an infraorbital nerve block and local anaesthesia through an intraoral incision at the upper vestibular groove. The periosteum was raised on the surface of the maxilla to the infraorbital rim, and the infraorbital nerve preserved. The periosteum and the orbital septum were incised along the whole length of the infraorbital rim. The fat that was exposed through the incision was either removed or preserved and fixed to the outer soft tissue with sutures. Cosmetic results were good and the oral incision healed without infection. Six patients developed numbness in the infraorbital region, five of whom recovered within 3 months; the other recovered by 6 months postoperatively.

  19. Prompt gamma ray evaluation for chlorine analysis in blended cement concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Kalakada, Zameer; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2014-12-01

    Single prompt gamma ray energy has been evaluated to measure chlorine concentration in fly ash (FA), Super-Pozz (SPZ) and blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete specimens using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) setup. The gamma ray yield data from chloride concentration measurement in FA, SPZ and BFS cement concretes for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays were analyzed to identify a gamma ray with common slope (gamma ray yield/Cl conc. wt%) for the FA, BFS and SPZ cement concretes. The gamma ray yield data for FA and SPZ cement concretes with varying chloride concentration were measured previously using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. In the current study, new data have been measured for chlorine detection in the BFS cement concrete using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup for 2.86-3.10, 5.72, and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays. The minimum detection limit of chlorine in BFS cement concrete (MDC) was found to be 0.034±0.010, 0.032±0.010, 0.033±0.010 for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV gamma ray, respectively. The new BFS cement concrete data, along with the previous measurements for FA and SPZ cement concretes, have been utilized to identify a gamma ray with a common slope to analyze the Cl concentration in all of these blended cement concretes. It has been observed that the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray has a common slope of 5295±265 gamma rays/wt % Cl concentration for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in blended cement concrete was measured to be 0.033±0.010wt % for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA. Thus, the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray can be used for chlorine analysis of blended cement concretes.

  20. Blended Learning in Design Education: An Analysis of Students' Experiences within the Disciplinary Differences Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pektas, Sule Tasli; Gürel, Meltem Ö.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning has already become an indispensable part of education in many fields. However, the majority of existing research on blended learning has assumed homogeneity of disciplines. This study suggests that research highlighting disciplinary effects and differences is much needed to effectively develop courses and tools consonant with the…

  1. An Analysis of Research Trends in Dissertations and Theses Studying Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Jeffery S.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Halverson, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the research of 205 doctoral dissertations and masters' theses in the domain of blended learning. A summary of trends regarding the growth and context of blended learning research is presented. Methodological trends are described in terms of qualitative, inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, and combined approaches…

  2. Exercise and ectopic fat in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sabag, A; Way, K L; Keating, S E; Sultana, R N; O'Connor, H T; Baker, M K; Chuter, V H; George, J; Johnson, N A

    2017-02-02

    Ectopic adipose tissue surrounding the intra-abdominal organs (visceral fat) and located in the liver, heart, pancreas and muscle, is linked to cardio-metabolic complications commonly experienced in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of exercise on ectopic fat in adults with type 2 diabetes. Relevant databases were searched to February 2016. Included were randomised controlled studies, which implemented≥4 weeks of aerobic and/or resistance exercise and quantified ectopic fat via magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy or muscle biopsy before and after intervention. Risk of bias and study quality was assessed using Egger's funnel plot test and modified Downs and Black checklist, respectively. Of the 10,750 studies retrieved, 24 were included involving 1383 participants. No studies were found assessing the interaction between exercise and cardiac or pancreas fat. One study assessed the effect of exercise on intramyocellular triglyceride concentration. There was a significant pooled effect size for the meta-analysis comparing exercise vs. control on visceral adiposity (ES=-0.21, 95% CI: -0.37 to -0.05; P=0.010) and a near-significant pooled effect size for liver steatosis reduction with exercise (ES=-0.28, 95% CI: -0.57 to 0.01; P=0.054). Aerobic exercise (ES=-0.23, 95% CI: -0.44 to -0.03; P=0.025) but not resistance training exercise (ES=-0.13, 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.12; P=0.307) was effective for reducing visceral fat in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that exercise effectively reduces visceral and perhaps liver adipose tissue and that aerobic exercise should be a key feature of exercise programs aimed at reducing visceral fat in obesity-related type 2 diabetes. Further studies are required to assess the relative efficacy of exercise modality on liver fat reduction and the effect of exercise on pancreas, heart, and intramyocellular

  3. [Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of FatB genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb and its substitutes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou-yong; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Min; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Shu-fang; Wu, Zhi-gang

    2012-10-01

    A FatB unigene was obtained from the transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Full-length FatB cDNA was cloned from buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera japonica Thunb. var. chinensis (Wats.) Bak., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. and Lonicera dasystyla Rehd. using RT-PCR technology, and named as LJFatB, LHFatB, LJCFatB and LDFatB. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB and Arabidopsis thaliana AtFatB had a closely relationship. Nucleotide sequences and protein secondary structure of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB are different and their proteins had conserved FatB substrate binding sites and catalytic activity sites. Transcriptive level of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB in bud was not significantly different. Therefore, LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB could have the same biological function as AtFatB.

  4. Rapid analysis of acylglycerols in low molecular weight milk fat fractions.

    PubMed

    Craven, R J; Lencki, R W

    2007-05-01

    A suitable analytical method was required to facilitate development of an industrial-scale short-path distillation (SPD) process. Short-path distillation produces milk fat distillates (MFD) enriched in low molecular weight milk fat components-viz. free fatty acids, monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, cholesterol and low molecular weight triacylglycerols. In this case, solid-phase extraction (SPE) was considered a better alternative than thin-layer chromatography for separating polar and apolar lipid components in MFD samples due to its speed and near-complete recoveries. Solid-phase extraction of MFDs yielded two fractions, both of which are sufficiently pure for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. This procedure provided rapid and complete chemical characterization (including mass balances) of low-molecular weight milk-fat fractions.

  5. Rapid determination of moisture and fat in meats by microwave and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis--PVM 1:2003.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Jimmy T; Hafley, Brian S; Eddy, Sarah M; Moser, Cindy R; McManus, Bobbie J; Leffler, Timothy P

    2003-01-01

    A peer-verified method is presented for the determination of percent moisture and fat in meat products by microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The method involves determining the moisture content of meat samples by microwave drying and using the dried sample to determine the fat content by NMR analysis. Both the submitting and peer laboratories analyzed 5 meat products by using the CEM SMART system (moisture) and the SMART Trac (fat). The samples, which represented a range of products that meat processors deal with daily in plant operations, included the following: (1) fresh ground beef, high-fat; (2) deboned chicken with skin; (3) fresh pork, low-fat; (4) all-beef hot dogs; and (5) National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material. The results were compared with moisture and fat values derived from AOAC-approved methods, 950.46 (Forced Air Oven Drying) and 960.39 (Soxhlet Ether Extraction).

  6. Miscibility study of hexanoyl chitosan in blend with epoxidized natural rubber by viscometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, Asheila; Chan, C. H.; Muhammad, F. H.; Winie, Tan

    2015-08-01

    Miscibility of blends of hexanoyl chitosan and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% epoxidation level (ENR25) was investigated by dilute solution viscometry (DSV). Experimental results obey the Huggins' equation in the concentration range under investigation. Intrinsic viscosities are found to vary linearly with blend composition. The difference between experimental and ideal Huggins coefficients, κ =K12-√{K1ṡK2 } is proposed to evaluate the miscibility behavior of the blends. Negative deviations from the ideal behavior indicated immiscibility between hexanoyl chitosan and ENR25.

  7. Comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (cAEDA) of Fat from Tainted Boars, Castrated Male Pigs, and Female Pigs.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christoph; Leppert, Jan; Santiuste, Alicia Chamarro; Pfeiffer, Anne; Boeker, Peter; Wüst, Matthias

    2017-01-12

    The aroma profile of porcine fat from tainted boars, female pigs, and castrated male pigs was investigated by application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) on a SAFE distillate of volatiles prepared from porcine back fat samples. The AEDA resulted in a total of 16 aroma active compounds for boar fat with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 2 to 2048, whereas 12 aroma active compounds were found in fat of female pigs and 14 in fat of castrated male pigs, both with FD factors ranging from 2 to 32. Odor activity values (OAVs) of key components for each fat were identified: In boar fat androstenone, skatole, indole, and 2-aminoacetophenone showed highest OAVs, whereas 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,4-decadienal, and δ-decalactone showed highest OAVs in fat of female pigs. Fat of castrated male pigs showed highest OAVs for skatole, indole, 1-octen-3-ol and methional. Finally, the off-flavor attributes of boar fat were successfully simulated by a recombinant of all odorants at their natural concentration level in deodorized sunflower oil.

  8. Non-invasive Quantitative Analysis of Specific Fat Accumulation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues using Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meksiarun, Phiranuphon; Andriana, Bibin B.; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and fat beneath the dermis layer were investigated using a ball lens top hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP). Hamsters were fed with trilinolein (TL) and tricaprin (TC) for six weeks and measurements were carried out every two weeks. The BHRP with an 800 μm diameter fused-silica ball lens was able to obtain information on the subcutaneous fat in a totally non-invasive manner. Changes in the concentration of TL and TC during the treatment were analyzed, and the relationship between fat accumulation and dietary fat was studied. It was found that SAT had, in general, a higher degree of unsaturation than VAT. The accumulation rate of TC found in SAT and VAT was 0.52 ± 0.38 and 0.58 ± 0.4%, respectively, while the TL accumulation rate was 4.45 ± 1.6 and 4.37 ± 2.4%, respectively. The results suggest different metabolic pathways for TC, a typical medium-chain fatty acid, and TL, a long-chain unsaturated fatty acid. Raman subsurface spectra were successfully obtained and used to analyze the subcutaneous fat layer. The accumulation rates of TL and TC found in skin fat were 5.01 ± 3.53% and 0.45 ± 0.36%, respectively. The results demonstrate the high feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive analysis of adipose tissue. PMID:27845402

  9. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  10. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  11. Being fat and smart: A comparative analysis of the fat-brain trade-off in mammals.

    PubMed

    Heldstab, Sandra A; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Humans stand out among non-aquatic mammals by having both an extremely large brain and a relatively large amount of body fat. To understand the evolution of this human peculiarity we report a phylogenetic comparative study of 120 mammalian species, including 30 primates, using seasonal variation in adult body mass as a proxy of the tendency to store fat. Species that rely on storing fat to survive lean periods are expected to be less active because of higher costs of locomotion and have increased predation risk due to reduced agility. Because a fat-storage strategy reduces the net cognitive benefit of a large brain without reducing its cost, such species should be less likely to evolve a larger brain than non-fat-storing species. We therefore predict that the two strategies to buffer food shortages (storing body fat and cognitive flexibility) are compensatory, and therefore predict negative co-evolution between relative brain size and seasonal variation in body mass. This trade-off is expected to be stronger in predominantly arboreal species than in more terrestrial ones, as the cost of transporting additional adipose depots is higher for climbing than for horizontal locomotion. We did, indeed, find a significant negative correlation between brain size and coefficient of variation (CV) in body mass in both sexes for the subsample of arboreal species, both in all mammals and within primates. In predominantly terrestrial species, in contrast, this correlation was not significant. We therefore suggest that the adoption of habitually terrestrial locomotor habits, accompanied by a reduced reliance on climbing, has allowed for a primate of our body size the unique human combination of unusually large brains and unusually large adipose depots.

  12. Determination of moisture and fat in meats by microwave and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Timothy P; Moser, Cindy R; McManus, Bobbie J; Urh, John J; Keeton, Jimmy T; Claflin, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Ten laboratories participated in a collaborative study to determine the total moisture and fat in raw and processed meat products by microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Meat products were prepared following the AOAC Method and analyzed using CEM Corp.'s SMART Trac Moisture and Fat Analysis system. SMART Trac provides moisture results by measuring the weight loss on drying by microwave energy. The dried sample is then analyzed by NMR spectrometry for fat content. Moisture and fat results are displayed and reported by the SMART Trac as a percentage (g/100 g). Microwave drying is an AOAC-approved reference method (Method 985.14), Moisture in Meat and Poultry Products. NMR spectrometry is a secondary technique used to determine the concentration of various constituents in biological, organic, or chemical samples. The study design was based on Youden's matched pair principle for collaborative tests. For the purposes of this study, 10 laboratories each tested 10 Youden matched pairs, for a total of 20 samples. The study samples represented a range of products processed daily in plant operations. Included were raw meat samples (beef, pork, chicken, and turkey) as well as processed meats (beef hot dog, pork sausage, and ham). The total moisture content of the undiluted samples, as received for the purposes of this study, was determined by AOAC Method 950.46 and ranged from 54.03 to 74.99%. The total fat content of the undiluted samples was determined by AOAC Method 960.39 and ranged from 1.00 to 29.79%. Statistical analysis of study results for total moisture yielded a relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) range of 0.14 to 0.95% and a relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) range of 0.26 to 0.95%. Statistical analysis for total fat yielded similar RSDr and RSDR range of 0.74 to 4.08%. Results for turkey had higher RSDr and RSDR values, both at 12.6%, due to low fat content and possibly to the separation of the

  13. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  14. Static and dynamic headspace analysis of instant coffee blends by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Gaysinsky, Sylvia; Czepa, Andreas; Del Pulgar, José Sanchez; Cappellin, Luca; Biasioli, Franco

    2015-09-01

    Instant coffee is a widespread product, generally related to a high consumer acceptability, also because of its ease of preparation. The present work addresses the characterization of the headspace of freshly brewed instant coffees resulting from different blends, during and immediately after preparation. The sample set consisted of 10 coffees, obtained by mixing three different blends in different proportions. The employment of Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) allowed for direct and real-time sampling from the headspace, under conditions that mimic those that are encountered above the cup during and right after brewing. Different coffee brews were separated on the basis of the respective volatile profiles, and data showed good consistency with the respective blend compositions. When the headspace evolution was monitored during preparation, similar results were obtained in terms of blend separation; moreover, different blends displayed different and reproducible 'signatures' in terms of time evolution. A straightforward method for the prediction of headspace composition is proposed, allowing to predict the volatile profiles of two-component and three-component blends on the basis of the respective parent components. Overall, the results constitute a successful example of the applicability of PTR-MS as a tool for product development in food science. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Prompt gamma analysis of fly ash, silica fume and Superpozz blended cement concrete specimen.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Garwan, M A; Maslehuddin, M; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M

    2009-09-01

    Preventive measures against corrosion of reinforcing steel require making the concrete dense by adding pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash, silica fume, Superpozz, blast furnace slag, etc. to Portland cement. In order to obtain the desired strength and durability of concrete, it is desirable to monitor the concentration of the pozzolan in the blended cement concrete. Addition of pozzolan to blended cement changes the overall concentration of calcium and silicon in the blended cement concrete. The resulting variation in calcium and silicon gamma-ray yield ratio from blended cement concrete has found to have an inverse correlation with concentration of fly ash, silica fume, Superpozz, blast furnace slag in the blended cement concrete. For experimental verification of the correlation, intensities of calcium and silicon prompt gamma-ray due to capture of thermal neutrons in blended cement concrete samples containing 5-80% (by weight of cement) silica fume, fly ash and Superpozz were measured. The gamma-ray intensity ratio was measured from 6.42 MeV gamma-rays from calcium and 4.94 MeV gamma-ray from silicon. The experimentally measured values of calcium to silicon gamma-ray yield ratio in the fly ash, silica fume and Superpozz cement concrete specimens agree very well with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Comments on "Multifractal analysis of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene blends"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroudiani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    I read interest the article "Multifractal analysis of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene blends" by Chuang Liu et al. published in Applied Surface Science (vol. 255, pp. 4239-4245, 2009; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.11.014). I found a number of problems and limitations in this article that I believe have significant impact on its quality and validity. I would like to make the following comments and draw the attention of the authors to certain concerns, listed below: In the Introduction section, it was stated "can offer some unique properties that conventional foams do not possess, such as higher impact strength, higher toughness, higher stiffness-to-weight ratio, higher fatigue life, higher thermal stability, lower dielectric constant, and lower thermal conductivity" and was cited to references 3-6. The authors needed to provide specific reference for each item in the sentence-bulk citation is not effective and clear. Moreover, the provided references are about supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent for processing of polymer melts, not about fatigue and toughness matters of cellular solids. The authors could easily find papers directly related to these subjects [1,2]. The same problem was observed in the next sentence.

  17. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Willer, Cristen J.; Herrera, Blanca M.; Jackson, Anne U.; Lim, Noha; Scheet, Paul; Soranzo, Nicole; Amin, Najaf; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Chambers, John C.; Drong, Alexander; Luan, Jian'an; Lyon, Helen N.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sanna, Serena; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Zhao, Jing Hua; Almgren, Peter; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Amanda J.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Cooper, Cyrus; Crawford, Gabriel; Doering, Angela; Dominiczak, Anna; Doney, Alex S. F.; Ebrahim, Shah; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Guido; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Groves, Christopher J.; Grundy, Scott; Guiducci, Candace; Hadley, David; Hamsten, Anders; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hofman, Albert; Holle, Rolf; Holloway, John W.; Illig, Thomas; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Leonie C.; Jameson, Karen; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karpe, Fredrik; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lathrop, G. Mark; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meitinger, Thomas; Morken, Mario A.; Morris, Andrew P.; Munroe, Patricia; Narisu, Narisu; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Payne, Felicity; Peden, John F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Renström, Frida; Ruokonen, Aimo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Scott, Laura J.; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Song, Kijoung; Yuan, Xin; Stringham, Heather M.; Swift, Amy J.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Walters, G. Bragi; Weedon, Michael N.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Zhang, Cuilin; Zhang, Weihua; Caulfield, Mark J.; Collins, Francis S.; Davey Smith, George; Day, Ian N. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hu, Frank B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kong, Augustine; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Laakso, Markku; Lakatta, Edward; Mooser, Vincent; Morris, Andrew D.; Peltonen, Leena; Samani, Nilesh J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Strachan, David P.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia, Hugh; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Groop, Leif; Hunter, David J.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schlessinger, David; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Frayling, Timothy M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Stefansson, Kari; Mohlke, Karen L.; Barroso, Inês; McCarthy for the GIANT consortium, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9×10−11) and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9×10−9). A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6×10−8). The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity. PMID:19557161

  19. [Analysis of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat by capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Shen, Xiangzhen; Han, Hangru; Zhao, Ruqian; Chen, Jie

    2006-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a term representing a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with a conjugated double bond system. Conjugated linoleic acid has attracted a great deal of interest among nutritionists because it is a natural fat component that appears to have a number of health improvement properties. The cis-9, trans-11-CLA is the major CLA isomer found in dairy products accounting for 75% to 90% of the total CLA in milk fat. A capillary gas chromatographic method equipped with a flame ionization detector for the analysis of the cis-9, trans-11-CLA in milk fat was developed. The cis-9, trans-11-CLA was extracted with hexane-isopropanol, methylated with methanol-sodium methylate and cis-9, trans-11-CLA was separated and quantified using gas chromatography. Retention time of the peaks was used for qualitative analysis, while external standard method was used for quantitative analysis. The recovery of the cis-9, trans-11-CLA was 100.26%. The relative standard deviation was 1.9% (n = 6). This method presented is advantageous for high precision, high sensitivity analysis with smaller sample size and simpler pretreatment. It would be of significance for analyzing the contents of other fatty acids in the milk and milk products.

  20. Anterior mediastinal fat in Behçet's disease: qualitative and quantitative CT analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yub; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, Hui Joong; Choi, Sun Ju; Hahm, Myong Hun; Yoon, Sung Won

    2013-12-01

    The fat-rich anterior mediastinum could be a sensitive window for monitoring minute changes in vascularity induced by systemic vasculitis. To evaluate this hypothesis, an analysis of anterior mediastinal fat in patients with Behçet's disease and a control group was conducted. This study included 43 patients diagnosed with Behçet's disease within the last 11 years who underwent CT scan; 55 patients were selected as a control population. Mediastinal fat was classified according to CT morphology. Comparison of serum inflammatory markers was performed for evaluation of disease activity according to morphologic types, and average Hounsfield unit of the anterior mediastinum was measured. Significantly higher mean CT attenuation was observed in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the control group (-48.5 ± 33.5 vs. -67.7 ± 18.7, respectively, P < 0.05). Mediastinal fat types were classified as follows: pure fatty tissue (2 vs. 31 % [Behçet's disease vs. control group]), diffuse soft tissue infiltration (16 vs. 29 %), tubular structures (21 vs. 4 %), mixed infiltration with tubular structures (42 vs. 15 %), and evident thymic tissue (19 vs. 22 %). The value for mean mediastinal attenuation was significantly higher in the group with a high level of C-reactive protein than in the normal level group. The mean CT attenuation of anterior mediastinal fat is significantly higher in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the normal group. Although pathologic confirmation is needed, the cause is postulated to be either inflammatory neovascularization or minimal thymic hyperplasia induced by Behçet's disease.

  1. Comparative spectral analysis of commercial fuel-ethanol blends using a low-cost prototype FT-Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Meyrueis, Patrick; Javahiraly, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    The use of bio-fuels and fuel blends, specially in automotive industry, has been increasing substantially in recent years due to market prices and trends on sustainable development policies. Different spectral analysis techniques for quality control, production, purity, and counterfeit detection have been reported as non-invasive, fast, and price accessible. Raman spectra from three different commercial binary E10 fuel-ethanol blends has been obtained by using a low-cost Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman). Qualitative comparison between the commercial fuel blends and a laboratory-prepared fuel blend have been performed. The characteristic Raman lines from some additives contained in the commercial gasoline have been also observed. The spectral information is presented in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a resolution of 1.66 cm-1. These Raman spectra shows reduced frequency deviation (less than 0.4 cm-1 when compared to standard Raman spectra from cyclohexane and toluene without compensation for instrumental response). Higher resolution values are possible, since the greater optical path lengths of the FT-Raman are achievable before the instrumental physical effects appear. The robust and highly flexible FT-Raman prototype proposed for the spectral analysis, consisting mainly of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter, is able to deliver high resolution and precise Raman spectra with no additional complex hardware or software control. The mechanical and thermal disturbances affecting the FT-Raman system are mathematically compensated by extracting the optical path information from the generated interference pattern of a λ=632.8 nm Helium-Neon laser (HeNe laser), which is used at the spectrum evaluation.

  2. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  3. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael; Elgowainy, Amgad; DiVita, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  4. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    Abundant miRNAs have been identified in milk and mammary gland tissues of different species. Typically, RNA in milk can be extracted from different fractions including fat, whey and cells and the mRNA transcriptome of milk could serve as an indicator of the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue. However, it has not been adequately validated if the miRNA transcriptome of any milk fraction could be representative of that of mammary gland tissue. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the miRNA expression spectra from three milk fractions- fat, whey and cells; (2) compare miRNome profiles of milk fractions (fat, whey and cells) with mammary gland tissue miRNome, and (3) determine which milk fraction miRNome profile could be a better representative of the miRNome profile of mammary gland tissue. Milk from four healthy Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation was collected and fractionated. Total RNA extracted from each fraction was used for library preparation followed by small RNA sequencing. In addition, miRNA transcripts of mammary gland tissues from twelve Holstein cows in our previous study were used to compare our data. We identified 210, 200 and 249 known miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells, respectively, with 188 universally expressed in the three fractions. In addition, 33, 31 and 36 novel miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells were identified, with 28 common in the three fractions. Among 20 most highly expressed miRNAs in each fraction, 14 were expressed in common and 11 were further shared with mammary gland tissue. The three milk fractions demonstrated a clear separation from each other using a hierarchical cluster analysis with milk fat and whey being most closely related. The miRNome correlation between milk fat and mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.866) was significantly higher than the other two pairs (p < 0.01), whey/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.755) and milk cell/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.75), suggesting that milk fat could be an

  5. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    Abundant miRNAs have been identified in milk and mammary gland tissues of different species. Typically, RNA in milk can be extracted from different fractions including fat, whey and cells and the mRNA transcriptome of milk could serve as an indicator of the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue. However, it has not been adequately validated if the miRNA transcriptome of any milk fraction could be representative of that of mammary gland tissue. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the miRNA expression spectra from three milk fractions- fat, whey and cells; (2) compare miRNome profiles of milk fractions (fat, whey and cells) with mammary gland tissue miRNome, and (3) determine which milk fraction miRNome profile could be a better representative of the miRNome profile of mammary gland tissue. Milk from four healthy Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation was collected and fractionated. Total RNA extracted from each fraction was used for library preparation followed by small RNA sequencing. In addition, miRNA transcripts of mammary gland tissues from twelve Holstein cows in our previous study were used to compare our data. We identified 210, 200 and 249 known miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells, respectively, with 188 universally expressed in the three fractions. In addition, 33, 31 and 36 novel miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells were identified, with 28 common in the three fractions. Among 20 most highly expressed miRNAs in each fraction, 14 were expressed in common and 11 were further shared with mammary gland tissue. The three milk fractions demonstrated a clear separation from each other using a hierarchical cluster analysis with milk fat and whey being most closely related. The miRNome correlation between milk fat and mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.866) was significantly higher than the other two pairs (p < 0.01), whey/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.755) and milk cell/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.75), suggesting that milk fat could be an

  6. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Health Professions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue

    2016-01-01

    Background Blended learning, defined as the combination of traditional face-to-face learning and asynchronous or synchronous e-learning, has grown rapidly and is now widely used in education. Concerns about the effectiveness of blended learning have led to an increasing number of studies on this topic. However, there has yet to be a quantitative synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge acquisition in health professions. Objective We aimed to assess the effectiveness of blended learning for health professional learners compared with no intervention and with nonblended learning. We also aimed to explore factors that could explain differences in learning effects across study designs, participants, country socioeconomic status, intervention durations, randomization, and quality score for each of these questions. Methods We conducted a search of citations in Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ERIC through September 2014. Studies in any language that compared blended learning with no intervention or nonblended learning among health professional learners and assessed knowledge acquisition were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners and intervention (study design, exercises, interactivity, peer discussion, and outcome assessment). Results We identified 56 eligible articles. Heterogeneity across studies was large (I2 ≥93.3) in all analyses. For studies comparing knowledge gained from blended learning versus no intervention, the pooled effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.77; P<.001; n=20 interventions) with no significant publication bias, and exclusion of any single study did not change the overall result. For studies comparing blended learning with nonblended learning (pure e-learning or pure traditional face-to-face learning), the pooled effect size was 0.81 (95% CI 0.57-1.05; P<.001; n=56 interventions), and

  7. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS IN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in gasoline specifications worldwide affect demand for all major gasoline-blending components. The purpose of this study is to compare different gasoline formulations based on the accounting of the environmental impacts due to hydrocarbon emissions during the gasoline pro...

  9. An Analysis of Sound Blending Skills in Reading and Articulation Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Ruth Smith

    Analyzed was the performance of 36 third grade children with various reading and articulation skills in blending selected syllables across three modes of presentation. Ss were divided into three groups: one with normal reading and speech skills, one with below grade-level reading skills and normal speech skills, and one with grade-level reading…

  10. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  11. Multivariate statistical analysis treatment of DSC thermal properties for animal fat adulteration.

    PubMed

    Dahimi, Omar; Rahim, Alina Abdul; Abdulkarim, S M; Hassan, Mohd Sukri; Hashari, Shazamawati B T Zam; Mashitoh, A Siti; Saadi, Sami

    2014-09-01

    The adulteration of edible fats is a kind of fraud that impairs the physical and chemical features of the original lipid materials. It has been detected in various food, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the robust thermo-analytical machine that permits to fingerprint the primary crystallisation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) molecules and their transition behaviours. The aims of this study was to assess the cross-contamination caused by lard concentration of 0.5-5% in the mixture systems containing beef tallow (BT) and chicken fat (CF) separately. TAGs species of pure and adulterated lipids in relation to their crystallisation and melting parameters were studied using principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that by using the heating profiles the discrimination of LD from BT and CF was very clear even at low dose of less than 1%. Same observation was depicted from the crystallisation profiles of BT adulterated by LD doses ranging from 0.1% to 1% and from 2% to 5%, respectively. Furthermore, CF adulterated with LD did not exhibit clear changes on its crystallisation profiles. Consequently, DSC coupled with PCA is one of the techniques that might use to monitor and differentiate the minimum adulteration levels caused by LD in different animal fats.

  12. Fat composition of vegetable oil spreads and margarines in the USA in 2013: a national marketplace analysis.

    PubMed

    Garsetti, Marcella; Balentine, Douglas A; Zock, Peter L; Blom, Wendy A M; Wanders, Anne J

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide, the fat composition of spreads and margarines ("spreads") has significantly changed over the past decades. Data on fat composition of US spreads are limited and outdated. This paper compares the fat composition of spreads sold in 2013 to that sold in 2002 in the USA. The fat composition of 37 spreads representing >80% of the US market sales volume was determined by standard analytical methods. Sales volume weighted averages were calculated. In 2013, a 14 g serving of spread contained on average 7.1 g fat and 0.2 g trans-fatty acids and provided 22% and 15% of the daily amounts recommended for male adults in North America of omega-3 α-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid, respectively. Our analysis of the ingredient list on the food label showed that 86% of spreads did not contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) in 2013. From 2002 to 2013, based on a 14 g serving, total fat and trans-fatty acid content of spreads decreased on average by 2.2 g and 1.5 g, respectively. In the same period, the overall fat composition improved as reflected by a decrease of solid fat (from 39% to 30% of total-fatty acids), and an increase of unsaturated fat (from 61% to 70% of total-fatty acids). The majority of US spreads no longer contains PHVO and can contribute to meeting dietary recommendations by providing unsaturated fat.

  13. The establishment and external validation of NIR qualitative analysis model for waste polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Wen-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Liang; Tang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    A series of 354 polyester-cotton blend fabrics were studied by the near-infrared spectra (NIRS) technology, and a NIR qualitative analysis model for different spectral characteristics was established by partial least squares (PLS) method combined with qualitative identification coefficient. There were two types of spectrum for dying polyester-cotton blend fabrics: normal spectrum and slash spectrum. The slash spectrum loses its spectral characteristics, which are effected by the samples' dyes, pigments, matting agents and other chemical additives. It was in low recognition rate when the model was established by the total sample set, so the samples were divided into two types of sets: normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set, and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively. After the of models were established the model's spectral region, pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results, and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately. The results showed that the model recognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively, the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation. RC (relation coefficient of calibration) values of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively, RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively, SEC (standard error of calibration) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively, SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively. A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively. It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

  14. A Co-Association Network Analysis of the Genetic Determination of Pig Conformation, Growth and Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Oliveras, Anna; Ballester, Maria; Corominas, Jordi; Revilla, Manuel; Estellé, Jordi; Fernández, Ana I.; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Folch, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several QTLs have been identified for major economically relevant traits in livestock, such as growth and meat quality, revealing the complex genetic architecture of these traits. The use of network approaches considering the interactions of multiple molecules and traits provides useful insights into the molecular underpinnings of complex traits. Here, a network based methodology, named Association Weight Matrix, was applied to study gene interactions and pathways affecting pig conformation, growth and fatness traits. Results The co-association network analysis underpinned three transcription factors, PPARγ, ELF1, and PRDM16 involved in mesoderm tissue differentiation. Fifty-four genes in the network belonged to growth-related ontologies and 46 of them were common with a similar study for growth in cattle supporting our results. The functional analysis uncovered the lipid metabolism and the corticotrophin and gonadotrophin release hormone pathways among the most important pathways influencing these traits. Our results suggest that the genes and pathways here identified are important determining either the total body weight of the animal and the fat content. For instance, a switch in the mesoderm tissue differentiation may determinate the age-related preferred pathways being in the puberty stage those related with the miogenic and osteogenic lineages; on the contrary, in the maturity stage cells may be more prone to the adipocyte fate. Hence, our results demonstrate that an integrative genomic co-association analysis is a powerful approach for identifying new connections and interactions among genes. Conclusions This work provides insights about pathways and key regulators which may be important determining the animal growth, conformation and body proportions and fatness traits. Molecular information concerning genes and pathways here described may be crucial for the improvement of genetic breeding programs applied to pork meat production. PMID:25503799

  15. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  16. Sensitivity analysis for linear structural equation models, longitudinal mediation with latent growth models and blended learning in biostatistics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Adam John

    In chapter 1, we consider the biases that may arise when an unmeasured confounder is omitted from a structural equation model (SEM) and sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for such biases. We give an analysis of which effects in an SEM are and are not biased by an unmeasured confounder. It is shown that a single unmeasured confounder will bias not just one but numerous effects in an SEM. We present sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for biases in total, direct, and indirect effects when using SEM analyses, and illustrate these techniques with a study of aging and cognitive function. In chapter 2, we consider longitudinal mediation with latent growth curves. We define the direct and indirect effects using counterfactuals and consider the assumptions needed for identifiability of those effects. We develop models with a binary treatment/exposure followed by a model where treatment/exposure changes with time allowing for treatment/exposure-mediator interaction. We thus formalize mediation analysis with latent growth curve models using counterfactuals, makes clear the assumptions and extends these methods to allow for exposure mediator interactions. We present and illustrate the techniques with a study on Multiple Sclerosis(MS) and depression. In chapter 3, we report on a pilot study in blended learning that took place during the Fall 2013 and Summer 2014 semesters here at Harvard. We blended the traditional BIO 200: Principles of Biostatistics and created ID 200: Principles of Biostatistics and epidemiology. We used materials from the edX course PH207x: Health in Numbers: Quantitative Methods in Clinical & Public Health Research and used. These materials were used as a video textbook in which students would watch a given number of these videos prior to class. Using surveys as well as exam data we informally assess these blended classes from the student's perspective as well as a comparison of these students with students in another course, BIO 201

  17. Morphological analysis of Polyethersulfone/polyvinyl Acetate blend membrane synthesized at various polymer concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, S. H. A. A.; Mannan, H. A.; Mukhtar, H.; Shaharun, M. S.; Murugesan, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of varying polymer concentration i.e. solvent/polymer ratio on the morphology and gas transport behaviour of polyethersulfone/polyvinyl acetate blend membrane. The solvent used was dimethylformamide, while the manipulated variable was polymer concentration. The concentrations were varied from 75-90 weight % solvent. A homogeneous surface with dense cross-section structure membranes were successfully developed as deduced from FESEM images. The permeability of CO2 and CH4 gases increased with increasing polymer concentration and an improved CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed. These observation made from the characterization justified the applicability of the blend to be synthesized as membrane for gas separation.

  18. Emissions analysis on diesel engine fuelled with cashew nut shell biodiesel and pentanol blends.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, BeemKumar

    2017-04-06

    The present work is intended to investigate the emission characteristics of neat cashew nut shell methyl ester (CNSME100) by adding pentanol at two different proportions and compared with the baseline diesel. CNSME100 is prepared by the conventional transesterification process. CNSME100 is chosen due to its non-edible nature. Pentanol is chosen as an additive because of its higher inbuilt oxygen content and surface to volume ratio which reduces the drawbacks of neat CNSME100. Emission characteristics were carried out in single cylinder naturally aspirated CI engine fuelled with neat cashew nut shell methyl ester (CNSME), cashew nut shell methyl ester and pentanol by 10% volume (CNSME90P10), cashew nut shell methyl ester and pentanol by 20% volume (CNSME80P20), and diesel. This work also aims to investigate the feasibility of operating an engine fuelled with neat methyl ester and alcohol blends. Experimental results showed that by blending higher alcohol to neat cashew nut shell methyl ester reduces the emissions significantly. It is also found that the emission from neat methyl ester and pentanol blends is lesser than diesel at all loads.

  19. Determination of Crude Fat in Food Products by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Gravimetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Nicholas H.; Dunn, Maureen; Patel, Sohita

    1997-09-01

    The use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), a recently developed analytical extraction method, in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is demonstrated. Specifically, the extraction and gravimetric analysis of the fats from a common commercial confection was performed by several groups of undergraduates, and the extraction recoveries were evaluated. The percentage of fat by weight in the candy bar sample was determined to be 21 +/- 2 %, a value found to be in agreement with the product labeling. Under the extraction conditions used, complete extraction required 400-700 mL of supercritical carbon dioxide, applied to a 1.0 g sample of candy in several extraction steps. Data relating extraction recovery to the volume of carbon dioxide used for extraction is shown. SFE is shown to be a versatile addition to the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory, requiring a minimum of training and supervision. Finally, SFE can be extended to myriad physical and analytical measurements in the undergraduate laboratories. Examples derived from the current analytical literature are proposed.

  20. 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis of Monovarietal EVOOs as a Tool for Modulating Coratina-Based Blends

    PubMed Central

    Del Coco, Laura; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Coratina cultivar-based olives are very common among 100% Italian extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Often, the very spicy character of this cultivar, mostly due to the high polyphenols concentration, requires blending with other “sweetener” oils. In this work, monovarietal EVOO samples from the Coratina cultivar (Apulia, Italy) were investigated and compared with monovarietal EVOO from native or recently introduced Apulian (Italy) cultivars (Ogliarola Garganica, Ogliarola Barese, Cima di Mola, Peranzana, Picholine), from Calabria (Italy) (Carolea and Rossanese) and from other Mediterranean countries, such as Spain (Picual) and Greece (Kalamata and Koroneiki) by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis (PCA)). In this regard, NMR signals could allow a first qualitative evaluation of the chemical composition of EVOO and, in particular, of its minor component content (phenols and aldehydes), an intrinsic behavior of EVOO taste, related to the cultivar and geographical origins. Moreover, this study offers an opportunity to address blended EVOOs tastes by using oils from a specific region or country of origin. PMID:28234316

  1. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - saturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - saturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - saturated fat; Coronary artery disease - saturated fat; ...

  2. Ultrasound image texture analysis for characterizing intramuscular fat content of live beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, N; Amin, V; Wilson, D; Rouse, G; Udpa, S

    1998-07-01

    The primary factors in determining beef quality grades are the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat percentage (IMFAT). Texture analysis was applied to ultrasound B-mode images from ribeye muscle of live beef cattle to predict its IMFAT. We used wavelet transform (WT) for multiresolutional texture analysis and second-order statistics using a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) technique. Sets of WT- and GLCM-based texture features were calculated from ultrasonic images from 207 animals and linear regression methods were used for IMFAT prediction. WT-based features included energy ratios, central moments of wavelet-decomposed subimages and wavelet edge density. The regression model using WT features provided a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.44 for prediction of IMFAT using validation images, while that of GLCM features provided an RMSE of 1.90. The prediction models using the WT features showed potential for objective quality evaluation in the live animals.

  3. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Blended Versus Face-to-Face Delivery of Evidence-Based Medicine to Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Nicklen, Peter; Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ooi, Ying Ying; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blended learning describes a combination of teaching methods, often utilizing digital technologies. Research suggests that learner outcomes can be improved through some blended learning formats. However, the cost-effectiveness of delivering blended learning is unclear. Objective This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a face-to-face learning and blended learning approach for evidence-based medicine training within a medical program. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the evidence-based medicine (EBM) competency of medical students who participated in two different modes of education delivery. In the traditional face-to-face method, students received ten 2-hour classes. In the blended learning approach, students received the same total face-to-face hours but with different activities and additional online and mobile learning. Online activities utilized YouTube and a library guide indexing electronic databases, guides, and books. Mobile learning involved self-directed interactions with patients in their regular clinical placements. The attribution and differentiation of costs between the interventions within the RCT was measured in conjunction with measured outcomes of effectiveness. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated comparing the ongoing operation costs of each method with the level of EBM proficiency achieved. Present value analysis was used to calculate the break-even point considering the transition cost and the difference in ongoing operation cost. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that it costs 24% less to educate a student to the same level of EBM competency via the blended learning approach used in the study, when excluding transition costs. The sunk cost of approximately AUD $40,000 to transition to the blended model exceeds any savings from using the approach within the first year of its implementation; however, a

  4. Analysis of raw meats and fats of pigs using polymerase chain reaction for Halal authentication.

    PubMed

    Aida, A A; Che Man, Y B; Wong, C M V L; Raha, A R; Son, R

    2005-01-01

    A method for species identification from pork and lard samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a conserved region in the mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b (cyt b) gene has been developed. Genomic DNA of pork and lard were extracted using Qiagen DNeasy(®) Tissue Kits and subjected to PCR amplification targeting the mt cyt b gene. The genomic DNA from lard was found to be of good quality and produced clear PCR products on the amplification of the mt cyt b gene of approximately 360 base pairs. To distinguish between species, the amplified PCR products were cut with restriction enzyme BsaJI resulting in porcine-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The cyt b PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of pig species. It is a potentially reliable technique for detection of pig meat and fat from other animals for Halal authentication.

  5. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. Results The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. Conclusions The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. PMID:27547428

  6. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  7. The effects of adding fat to diets of lactating dairy cows on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weld, K A; Armentano, L E

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49.4% ± 9.3, mean ± standard deviation) and DMI (21.3 kg/d ± 3.5). Observations were summarized as the difference between the treatment means for fat-supplemented diets minus their respective low-fat control means. Additionally, those differences were divided by the difference in diet fatty acid (FA) concentration between the treatment and control diets. Treatment means were categorized by the type of fat supplement. Supplementing 3% FA in the diet as medium-chain fats (containing predominately 12- and 14-carbon saturated FA) or unsaturated vegetable oil decreased ttNDFd by 8.0 and 1.2 percentage units, respectively. Adding 3% calcium salts of long-chain FA or saturated fats increased ttNDFd by 3.2 and 1.3 percentage units, respectively. No other fat supplement type affected ttNDFd. Except for saturated fats and animal-vegetable fats, supplementing dietary fat decreased DMI. When the values for changes in ttNDFd are regressed on changes in DMI there was a positive relationship, though the coefficient of determination is only 0.20. When changes in ttNDFd were regressed on changes in DMI, within individual fat supplement types, there was no relationship within calcium salt supplements. There was a positive relationship between changes in ttNDFd and changes in DMI for saturated fats. Neither relationship suggested that the increased ttNDFd with calcium salts or saturated FA was due to decreased DMI for these fat sources. A subset of the means

  8. Analysis of Fat Intake Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Fat Intake Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report). For this report, the EPA conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the U.S. population based on data derived...

  9. The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different outcomes of the effect of catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementation on energy expenditure and fat oxidation have been reported in short-term studies. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate whether catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementatio...

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of fat mass and obesity-associated gene in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jinyi; Jing, Wenqian; Jiang, Yunliang

    2013-12-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene codes for a nuclear protein of the AlkB related nonhaem iron and 2-oxoglutaratedependent oxygenase superfamily, and is involved in animal fat deposition and human obesity. In this work, the molecular characterization and expression features of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) FTO cDNA were analysed. The rabbit FTO cDNA with a size of 2158 bp was cloned, including 1515 bp of the open reading frame that encoded a basic protein of 504 amino acids. Homologous comparison indicated that the rabbit FTO shared 36.36-91.88% identity with those from other species and phylogenetic analysis showed that the rabbit FTO is closely related to human, but more distantly related to zebrafish. The New Zealand rabbit FTO mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest levels found in the spleen and the lowest found in the kidney. However, no significant differences were seen in cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex of commercial adult rabbits. Moreover, mRNA levels of FTO in liver tissues were significantly increased in lactating New Zealand rabbits compared with 70-day-old, 90-day-old and gestating rabbits (P < 0.05). In contrast, FTO mRNA levels were significantly lower in longissimus dorsi muscle of 90-day-old New Zealand rabbits than in 70-day-old rabbits (P <0.05). However, the expression levels of FTO in mammary gland and ovary of gestating and lactating rabbits were not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  11. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  12. When Going Hybrid Is Not Enough: Statistical Analysis of Effectiveness of Blended Courses Piloted within Tempus BLATT Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Jankovic, Anita; Jovanovic, Snezana Markovic; Peric, Vladan; Vitosevic, Biljana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the delivery of the courses in the framework of the project implementation and presents the effect the change in the methodology had on student performance as measured by final grade. Methodology: University of Pristina piloted blended courses in 2013 under the framework of the Tempus BLATT project. The blended learning…

  13. Teaching Phoneme Segmenting and Blending as Critical Early Literacy Skills: An Experimental Analysis of Minimal Textual Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Edward J., III; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Persampieri, Michael; Bonfiglio, Christine M.; LaFleur, Kristy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine blending and segmenting of phonemes as an instance of small, textual response classes that students learn to combine to produce whole word reading. Using an A/B/A/B design, a phoneme segmenting and blending condition that included differential reinforcement for response classes at the level of…

  14. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students’ course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Methods Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Results Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale “quality of teaching” directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students’ peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students’ examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. Conclusion The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools. PMID:25610011

  15. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  16. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  17. Elucidating fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy sheep: Milk somatic cell transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Toral, Pablo G.; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Hervás, Gonzalo; Arranz, Juan José; Frutos, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    In this study, RNA sequencing was used to obtain a comprehensive profile of the transcriptomic changes occurring in the mammary gland of lactating sheep suffering from fish oil-induced milk fat depression (FO-MFD). The milk somatic cell transcriptome analysis of four control and four FO-MFD ewes generated an average of 42 million paired-end reads per sample. In both conditions, less than 220 genes constitute approximately 89% of the total counts. These genes, which are considered as core genes, were mainly involved in cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins and electron transport chain pathways. In total, 117 genes were upregulated, and 96 genes were downregulated in FO-MFD samples. Functional analysis of the latter indicated a downregulation of genes involved in the SREBP signaling pathway (e.g., ACACA, ACSL, and ACSS) and Gene Ontology terms related to lipid metabolism and lipid biosynthetic processes. Integrated interpretation of upregulated genes indicated enrichment in genes encoding plasma membrane proteins and proteins regulating protein kinase activity. Overall, our results indicate that FO-MFD is associated with the downregulation of key genes involved in the mammary lipogenesis process. In addition, the results also suggest that this syndrome may be related to upregulation of other genes implicated in signal transduction and codification of transcription factors. PMID:28378756

  18. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. PMID:26978397

  19. Elucidating fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy sheep: Milk somatic cell transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Toral, Pablo G; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Hervás, Gonzalo; Arranz, Juan José; Frutos, Pilar

    2017-04-05

    In this study, RNA sequencing was used to obtain a comprehensive profile of the transcriptomic changes occurring in the mammary gland of lactating sheep suffering from fish oil-induced milk fat depression (FO-MFD). The milk somatic cell transcriptome analysis of four control and four FO-MFD ewes generated an average of 42 million paired-end reads per sample. In both conditions, less than 220 genes constitute approximately 89% of the total counts. These genes, which are considered as core genes, were mainly involved in cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins and electron transport chain pathways. In total, 117 genes were upregulated, and 96 genes were downregulated in FO-MFD samples. Functional analysis of the latter indicated a downregulation of genes involved in the SREBP signaling pathway (e.g., ACACA, ACSL, and ACSS) and Gene Ontology terms related to lipid metabolism and lipid biosynthetic processes. Integrated interpretation of upregulated genes indicated enrichment in genes encoding plasma membrane proteins and proteins regulating protein kinase activity. Overall, our results indicate that FO-MFD is associated with the downregulation of key genes involved in the mammary lipogenesis process. In addition, the results also suggest that this syndrome may be related to upregulation of other genes implicated in signal transduction and codification of transcription factors.

  20. Extensive analysis of milk fatty acids in two fat-tailed sheep breeds during lactation.

    PubMed

    Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Ghadimi, D; Marín, A L Martínez

    2016-12-01

    The profile of fatty acids (FA) in the milk fat of two Iranian fat-tailed sheep breeds, Sanjabi and Mehraban, was compared during lactation. Eight ewes of each breed, balanced in parity and carrying one foetus, were selected before parturition. Ewes were kept separated in individual pens during the experimental period, under the same management practices and fed the same diet, in order to eliminate any confounding effects on milk FA profile. Milk was sampled at biweekly intervals up to 10 weeks of lactation, starting 2 weeks after parturition. More than 100 FA were determined in milk fat by means of gas chromatography. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes contained more cis-9 18:1, that of Mehraban ewes was richer in 10:0, 12:0 and 14:0, and no differences were found for 16:0 and 18:0. No breed differences were found for most branched-chain FA. Mehraban ewes showed a higher presence of vaccenic and rumenic acids in their milk fat. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes had a lower atherogenicity index and n-6/n-3 FA ratio. The contents of several FA showed time-dependent changes, so breed differences were more apparent or disappeared as lactation progressed. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes showed a better FA profile from the human health point of view.

  1. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel.

  2. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  4. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  5. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; ...

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  6. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of oxygenates in middle distillates I. Determination of the nature of biodiesels blend in diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Coupard, Vincent; Charon, Nadège; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2008-04-04

    In the current energetic context (increasing consumption of vehicle fuels, greenhouse gas emission etc.) government policies lead to mandatory introduction in fossil fuels of fuels resulting from renewable sources of energy such as biomass. Blending of fatty acid alkyl esters from vegetable oils (also known as biodiesel) with conventional diesel fuel is one of the solutions technologically available; B5 blends (up to 5%w/w esters in fossil fuel) are marketed over Europe. Therefore, for quality control as well as for forensic reasons, it is of major importance to monitor the biodiesel origin (i.e. the fatty acid ester distribution) and its content when it is blend with petroleum diesel. This paper reports a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) method that was developed for the individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in middle distillates matrices. Several first and the second dimension columns have been investigated and their performances to achieve (i) a group type separation of hydrocarbons and (ii) individual identification and quantitation of fatty acid ester blend with diesel are reported and discussed. Finally, comparison of quantitative GC x GC results with reference methods demonstrates the benefits of GC x GC approach which enables fast and reliable individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in one single run. Results show that under developed chromatographic conditions, quantitative group type analysis of hydrocarbons is also possible, meaning that simultaneous quantification of hydrocarbons and fatty acid esters can be achieved in one single run.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of a plant sterol containing low-fat margarine for cholesterol reduction.

    PubMed

    Gerber, A; Evers, T; Haverkamp, H; Lauterbach, K W

    2006-12-01

    For decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) it has been proposed to enrich food such as margarine with plant sterol esters which have been shown to reduce total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, two of the major risk factors. A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and benefits of consuming a low-fat plant sterol containing margarine (PS margarine). A health insurer's perspective was taken with a time frame of 10 years. Transition probabilities for CHD and CHD-related death were calculated on the basis of the Framingham risk equations. These were applied to a representative sample of the German population. The alteration in cholesterol levels after intake of PS margarine was estimated based on a meta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials with parallel or crossover design that found a reduction of 5.7% in total cholesterol. Average annual costs of CHD were assumed to be at 3,000 euro. Costs for "no CHD" and "CHD-related death" were set to 0 euro since the intervention would solely be paid by the consumers. Sensitivity analyses were performed with regard to annual costs, risk estimation, PS margarine reduction in total cholesterol, discount factor, and risk of CHD-related death. The 10-year CHD risks are 6.1% (PS margarine) vs. 6.5% (control). Thus expected 10-year CHD costs are 696 euro (PS margarine) vs. 748 euro (control). The cost savings of 52 euro varied between 32 euro and 74 euro in the sensitivity analysis. A projection at the level of the population for which evidence (randomized controlled trials) exists that plant sterols lower cholesterol (25.35 million) leads to a reduction of 117,000 CHD cases over 10 years and a cost reduction of 1.3 billion euro for this time period (sensitivity analysis 0.8-1.9 billion euro).

  8. Simultaneous chromatographic analysis of eight fat-soluble vitamins in plasma.

    PubMed

    Po, E S; Ho, J W; Gong, B Y

    1997-03-27

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous analysis of eight fat-soluble vitamins including A acid, retinol and retinal, vitamins D2 and D3 together with menadione (vitamin K3) is described. The eight vitamins extracted from plasma were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection at 245 nm. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and ethanol (85:15, v/v) with 0.1% triethylamine. The extraction efficiency of different solvents, namely, dichloromethane, benzene, methanol, ethanol, chloroform and hexane, with or without the addition of detergents was studied. There is no single solvent system that could extract all eight vitamins in one step. A recovery study of the vitamins was performed using rabbit plasma. An average recovery for individual vitamins was about 40% or more with the described extraction methods. The absorbance response was linear at the nanogram level. The present method may be broadly applied with alternative extraction methods for the eight vitamins from different sources.

  9. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  10. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  11. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at week-2 of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations were assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week-2 but not at birth. Compared to the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0.01kg with 2SD limits of agreement (LOA) (0.18, −0.20). Prediction explained 88.9% of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared to simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population and age appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  12. Analysis of phospholipids in bio-oils and fats by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viidanoja, Jyrki

    2015-09-15

    A new, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of Phospholipids (PLs) in bio-oils and fats. This analysis employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (HILIC-sMRM) with a ZIC-cHILIC column. Eight PL class selective internal standards (homologs) were used for the semi-quantification of 14 PL classes for the first time. More than 400 scheduled MRMs were used for the measurement of PLs with a run time of 34min. The method's performance was evaluated for vegetable oil, animal fat and algae oil. The averaged within-run precision and between-run precision were ≤10% for all of the PL classes that had a direct homologue as an internal standard. The method accuracy was generally within 80-120% for the tested PL analytes in all three sample matrices.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic and ultrasound analysis for in-process characterization of high-density polyethylene/polypropylene blends during melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S E; Brown, E C; Sibley, M G; Edwards, H G M; Scowen, I J; Coates, P D

    2005-05-01

    Spectroscopic techniques such as Raman, mid-infrared (MIR), and near-infrared (NIR) have become indispensable analytical tools for rapid chemical quality control and process monitoring. This paper presents the application of in-line Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and ultrasound transit time measurements for in-line monitoring of the composition of a series of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/polypropylene (PP) blends during single-screw extrusion. Melt composition was determined by employing univariate analysis of the ultrasound transit time data and partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis of the data from both spectroscopic techniques. Each analytical technique was determined to be highly sensitive to changes in melt composition, allowing accurate prediction of blend content to within +/- 1% w/w (1sigma) during monitoring under fixed extrusion conditions. FT-NIR was determined to be the most sensitive of the three techniques to changes in melt composition. A four-factor PLS model of the NIR blend spectra allowed determination of melt content with a standard prediction error of +/- 0.30% w/w (1sigma). However, the NIR transmission probes employed for analysis were invasive into the melt stream, whereas the single probes adopted for Raman and ultrasound analysis were noninvasive, making these two techniques more versatile. All three measurement techniques were robust to the high temperatures and pressures experienced during melt extrusion, demonstrating each system's suitability for process monitoring and control.

  14. Topological and morphological analysis of gamma rays irradiated chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) blends using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Rinkesh; Bisen, D. S.; Bajpai, R.; Bajpai, A. K.

    2017-04-01

    In the present communication, binary blends of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CS) were prepared by solution cast method and the roughness parameters of PVA, native CS and CS-PVA blend films were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, the changes in the morphology of the samples were also investigated after irradiation of gamma rays at absorbed dose of 1 Mrad and 10 Mrad for the scanning areas of 5×5 μm2, 10×10 μm2 and 20×20 μm2. Amplitude, statistical and spatial parameters, including line, 3D and 2D image profiles of the experimental surfaces were examined and compared to un-irradiated samples. For gamma irradiated CS-PVA blends the larger waviness over the surface was found as compared to un-irradiated CS-PVA blends but the values of average roughness for both the films were found almost same. The coefficient of skewness was positive for gamma irradiated CS-PVA blends which revealed the presence of more peaks than valleys on the blend surfaces.

  15. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  16. A Mathematical Analysis of Semantic Maps, with Theoretical and Applied Implications for Blended Learning Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Michael; David, Hyerle; Byrne, Roxanne; Tran, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a mathematical (Boolean) analysis a set of cognitive maps called Thinking Maps[R], based on Albert Upton's semantic principles developed in his seminal works, Design for Thinking (1961) and Creative Analysis (1961). Albert Upton can be seen as a brilliant thinker who was before his time or after his time depending on the future of…

  17. [Efficiency of FibroScan and FibroTouch in liver stiffness measurement and fat quantification: a comparative analysis].

    PubMed

    Zeng, J; Sun, W L; Chen, G Y; Pan, Q; Yan, S Y; Sun, C; Xu, Z J; Fan, J G

    2016-09-20

    Objective: To investigate the efficiency of FibroScan(FS)and FibroTouch(FT)in liver stiffness measurement(LSM)and fat quantification through a comparative analysis. Methods: The outpatients or hospitalized patients who underwent LSM and fat quantification using FS and FT were enrolled. The differences in success rate and detecting parameters between FS and FT were analyzed, as well as the correlation between FS and FT values. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and a one-way analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison between multiple groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups. Results: A total of 1621 patients were enrolled. The success rates of FT and FS were 100% and 94.96%, respectively, and the success rate of FS was influenced by sex, age, body mass index, and biochemical markers of liver function. FT has a significantly shorter duration of single detection and a significantly lower number of times of single detection than FS(duration of single detection: 190.21±38.78 s vs 220.89±68.36 s, P < 0.01; number of single detection times: 10.31±1.32 vs 11.81±3.76, P < 0.01), as well as a significantly lower ratio of interquartile range to median of fat quantification in the same patient(5.39%±4.81% vs 17.18%±14.07%, P < 0.01). The LSM and fat quantification of FS were significantly correlated with those of FT(r = 0.645 and 0.620, both Based on the duration and number of times of single detection, success rate, and stability of fat quantification, FT seems to have a better detection efficiency than FS. The detection values of FT and FS can be calculated with regression equations < 0.01). The equations of linear regression were LSM(FT)= 4.435+0.477×LSM(FS); CAP(FT)= 134.71+0.456×CAP(FS). Conclusion: Based on the duration and number of times of single detection, success rate, and stability of fat

  18. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the effects of chitosan on the hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high-fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Sicong; Wang, Xiaoya; Yang, Shuo; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Xia, Wenshui

    2017-04-03

    Transcriptome analysis was performed to investigate the alterations in gene expression after chitosan (CS) treatment on the liver of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results showed that the body weight, the liver weight and the epididymal fat mass of HFD mice, which were 62.98%, 46.51% and 239.37%, respectively, higher than those of control mice, could be significantly decreased by chitosan supplementation. Also, high-fat diet increased both plasma lipid and liver lipid as compared with the control mice. Chitosan supplementation decreased the plasma lipid and liver lipid, increased the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activity, increased T-AOC and decreased MDA in the liver and the epididymis adipose as compared with the HFD mice. Transcriptome analysis indicated that increased Mups, Lcn2, Gstm3 and CYP2E1 expressions clearly indicated HFD induced lipid metabolism disorder and oxidative damage. Especially, chitosan treatment decreased the Mup17 and Lcn2 expressions by 64.32% and 82.43% respectively as compared with those of HFD mice. These results indicated that chitosan possess the ability to improve the impairment of lipid metabolism as strongly associated with increased Mups expressions and gene expressions related to oxidative stress.

  20. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  1. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA; Cholesterol - polyunsaturated fat; Atherosclerosis - polyunsaturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - polyunsaturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - polyunsaturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - polyunsaturated ...

  2. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  3. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations of co-combustion of hazelnut hull and coal blends: Data-driven modeling and response surface optimization.

    PubMed

    Buyukada, Musa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the thermogravimetric behaviour of the co-combustion of hazelnut hull (HH) and coal blends using three approaches: multi non-linear regression (MNLR) modeling based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) (1), optimization based on response surface methodology (RSM) (2), and probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation as a function of blend ratio, heating rate, and temperature (3). The response variable was predicted by the best-fit MNLR model with a predicted regression coefficient (R(2)pred) of 99.5%. Blend ratio of 90/10 (HH to coal, %wt), temperature of 405°C, and heating rate of 44°Cmin(-1) were determined as RSM-optimized conditions with a mass loss of 87.4%. The validation experiments with three replications were performed for justifying the predicted-mass loss percentage and 87.5%±0.2 of mass loss were obtained under RSM-optimized conditions. The probabilistic uncertainty analysis were performed by using Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  5. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  6. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine. PMID:22163879

  7. Rapid analysis of water- and fat-soluble vitamins by electrokinetic chromatography with polymeric micelle as pseudostationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinjiong; Xing, Xiaoping; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2014-11-28

    A novel polymeric micelle, formed by random copolymer poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)) has been used as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) for simultaneous and rapid determination of 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in this work. The running buffer consisting of 1% (w/v) P(SMA-co-MAA), 10% (v/v) 1-butanol, 20% (v/v) acetonitrile, and 30 mM Palitzsch buffer solution (pH 9.2) was applied to improve the selectivity and efficiency, as well as to shorten analysis time. 1-Butanol and acetonitrile as the organic solvent modifiers played the most important roles for rapid separation of these vitamins. The effects of organic solvents on microstructure of the polymeric micelle were investigated. The organic solvents swell the polymeric micelle by three folds, lower down the surface charge density and enhance the microenviromental polarity of the polymeric micelle. The 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated within 13 min. The method was applied to determine water- and fat-soluble vitamins in commercial vitamin sample; the recoveries were between 93% and 111% with the relative standard derivations (RSDs) less than 5%. The determination results matched the label claim.

  8. Characterization of polypropylene-polyethylene blends by temperature rising elution and crystallization analysis fractionation.

    PubMed

    Monrabal, Benjamín; del Hierro, Pilar

    2011-02-01

    The introduction of single-site catalysts in the polyolefins industry opens new routes to design resins with improved performance through multicatalyst-multireactor processes. Physical combination of various polyolefin types in a secondary extrusion process is also a common practice to achieve new products with improved properties. The new resins have complex structures, especially in terms of composition distribution, and their characterization is not always an easy task. Techniques like temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) or crystallization analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF) are currently used to characterize the composition distribution of these resins. It has been shown that certain combinations of polyolefins may result in equivocal results if only TREF or CRYSTAF is used separately for their characterization.

  9. The Incorporation of Hands-On Tasks in an Online Course: An Analysis of a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Thomas; Park, Yoon Soo; Levin, Karen L.; Morse, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and evaluation of a blended online/face-to-face course completed by more than 6000 learners throughout the United States of America and internationally. The educational impact was monitored using a variety of evaluation strategies. The results, in terms of achieved knowledge and overall satisfaction, indicate that…

  10. Suitability of full fat and defatted rice brain obtained from Indian rice for use in food products.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Sekhon, K S; Singh, N

    1995-04-01

    The effect of blending different types of rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological, pasting and baking properties is reported. Dough development time and strength as measured through farinograph decreased with the blending of unstabilized full fat and defatted bran; whereas, blending of stabilized full fat and defatted bran improved the dough strength. Pasting properties revealed an increase in gelatinization temperature and decrease in paste viscosities and set-back values with the blending of various types of rice bran. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased with blending of different types of rice bran; however, the decrease was more pronounced with the defatted bran. Muffin volume improved with the blending of rice bran. Stabilized full fat rice bran up to 20% level and unstabilized full fat or stabilized defatted rice bran up to 10% was found suitable in various food products.

  11. Efficacy of specific gravity as a tool for prediction of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blend ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of volumetric biodiesel/petrodiesel blend ratio (VBD) from specific gravity (SG) data was the subject of the current investigation. Fatty acid methyl esters obtained from soybean, palm, and rapeseed oils along with chicken fat (SME-1, SME-2, PME, RME, and CFME) were blended (0 to 20 volum...

  12. Classification of biodiesel and fuel blends using gas chromatography - differential mobility spectrometry with cluster analysis and isolation of C18:3 me by dual ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Dedeepya; Eiceman, Gary A; Pierce, Karisa M

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) were determined at 10-100mg/L in biodiesel and blends with petrodiesel without sample pre-treatment using gas chromatography with a tandem differential mobility detector. Selectivity was provided through chromatographic separations and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization reactions in the detector with mobility characterization of gas ions. Limits of detection were ~0.5ng with an average of 2.98% RSD for peak area precision, ≤1.3% RSD for retention time precision, and ≤9.2% RSD for compensation voltage precision. Biodiesel blends were classified using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Unsupervised cluster analysis captured 52.72% of variance in a single PC while supervised analysis captured 71.64% of variance using Fisher ratio feature selection. Test set predictions showed successful clustering according to source or feedstock when regressed onto the training set model. Detection of the regulated substance methyl linolenate (C18:3 me) was achieved in 6-10s with a 1m long capillary column using dual ion filtering in the tandem differential mobility detector.

  13. Comparative analysis of the liver tissue transcriptomes of Mongolian and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Zhao, S G; Yue, Y; Liu, Z; Li, H W; Wu, J P

    2016-05-20

    Research on gene regulation has been made possible with the help of RNA sequencing applications such as RNA-Seq technology for high-throughput sequencing platforms. Recent studies have explored the transcriptomes from different tissues of domestic animals using RNA-Seq technology, but little research has been done to study the transcriptomes of breeds of sheep having different adipose tissue deposition mechanisms, such as Mongolian and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep. In this study, Mongolian and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep were selected as experimental breeds, and six libraries (three libraries per breed) were constructed. A total of 286 Mb of high-quality reads was obtained, and three-quarters of the reads were mapped to the reference genome per library. In addition, there were 16,257, 16,186, 16,254, 16,827, 16,437, and 15,761 known reference genes in the six constructed libraries (LCL1, LCL2, LCL3, MCL1, MCL2, and MCL3, respectively). Seven genes were differentially expressed: four were upregulated and three were downregulated in liver tissue between the MCL and LCL groups; 65,303, 65,442, 63,426, 76,267, 69,853, and 57,439 potential cSNPs were detected in the six libraries, respectively, with the G/R substitution occurring most commonly. There were 24,239, 22,283, 22,457, 26,635, 27,093, and 18,700 alternate splicing (AS) events in the six libraries. Intron retention was the most common AS event, followed by alternative 3' splice sites. These results indicate that there are many differences in the liver transcriptomes of Mongolian and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep breeds. Such results may provide fundamental information for further research on defining the sheep genome.

  14. Longitudinal analysis of short-term high-fat diet on endothelial senescence in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiang; Hornsby, Peter J; Meng, Qinghe; VandeBerg, Jane F; VandeBerg, John L

    2013-01-01

    A high-fat diet is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. We conducted a longitudinal investigation to determine whether vascular endothelial senescence is involved in the mechanism by which a high-fat diet promotes atherogenesis. We challenged 10 baboons (Papio sp.) with a high-cholesterol high-fat (HCHF) diet for 7 weeks. In addition to multiple changes in plasma lipid profiles, inflammatory status, and endothelial functions in each individual, we found that levels of total serum cholesterol (TSC) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were negatively and significantly correlated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels in endothelial cells while the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly correlated with nitric oxide levels in plasma within this time window. Most important, we observed that senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activities in endothelial cells harvested at 7 weeks after initiation of HCHF diet were significantly elevated by comparison with cells isolated from the same animals prior to dietary challenge. The SA-β-gal activities correlated significantly with the elevations of TSC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and IL-8 after 7 weeks of HCHF diet and with the changes of TSC and TNF-α levels after 3 weeks of HCHF diet. Our data indicate that the HCHF diet caused hyperlipidemia and prominent inflammation, which subsequently will cause endothelial dysfunction and promote senescence. The present study is the first to demonstrate the sequential and interactive changes as a consequence of an HCHF dietary challenge and establish a potential mechanism underlying the etiology of diet-induced atherogenesis in a nonhuman primate. PMID:23991345

  15. Fat stigma and public health: a theoretical framework and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Desiree

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding fat stigma and its impact on people's well-being. It argues that stigma should never be used as a tool to achieve public health ends. Drawing on Bruce Link and Jo Phelan's 2001 conceptualization of stigma as well as the works of Hilde Lindemann, Paul Benson, and Margaret Urban Walker on identity, positionality, and agency, this paper clarifies the mechanisms by which stigmatizing, oppressive conceptions of overweight and obesity damage identities and diminish moral agency, arguing that the use of obesity-related stigma for public health ends violates the bioethics principles of nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice.

  16. Spectroscopic analysis and mechanical properties of electron beam irradiated polypropylene/epoxidized natural rubber (PP/ENR) polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senna, Magdy M. H.; Abdel-Fattah, Atef A.; Abdel-Monem, Y. K.

    2008-06-01

    Polymer blends based on different ratios of polypropylene (PP) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) were prepared by melt extrusion into sheets. The PP/ENR blends were exposed to various dose of accelerated electrons. The formation of free radicals during and after electron beam irradiation was illustrated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Also, the effect of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical and structural morphology was investigated by stress-strain behavior and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ESR spectra indicated the formation of alkyl and allyl radicals during electron beam irradiation and peroxyl radicals during the post effect. The rate of radical decay was found to be second-order kinetics. The improvement in mechanical properties and structural morphology was confirmed to be due to the effect of electron beam irradiation.

  17. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  18. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  19. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, C. R.; Grimson, M. J.; Smith, B. G.; Wills, P. R.

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Low-Fat Diet in the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    BÓS, ANTÔNIO M.; HOWARD, BARBARA V.; BERESFORD, SHIRLEY A. A.; URBAN, NICOLE; TINKER, LESLEY F.; WATERS, HUGH; BÓS, ÂNGELO J.; CHLEBOWSKI, ROWAN; ENNIS, JACQUELINE M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Results of the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial (WHI-DM) suggest that a low-fat diet may be associated with beneficial health outcomes for specific groups of women. Objective The objective is to assess how cost-effective the WHI-DM would be if implemented as a public health intervention and under the sponsorship of private health insurers and Medicare. Breast and ovarian cancers are the health outcomes of interest. Participants Two groups of WHI-DM participants form the target population for this analysis: participants consuming >36.8% of energy from fat at baseline, and participants at high risk for breast cancer with 32% or more of energy from fat at baseline. Methods This study uses Markov cohort modeling, following societal and health care payer perspectives, with Monte Carlo simulations and one-way sensitivity analyses. WHI-DM records, nationally representative prices, and published estimates of medical care costs were the sources of cost information. Simulations were performed for hypothetical cohorts of women aged 50, 55, 60, 65, or 70 years at the beginning of the intervention. Effectiveness was estimated by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the main outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Following the societal perspective, the ICERs for the 50-year old cohort are $13,773/QALY (95% confidence interval $7,482 to $20,916) for women consuming >36.8% of energy from fat at baseline and $10,544/QALY ($2,096 to $23,673) for women at high risk for breast cancer. The comparable ICER from a private health care payer perspective is $66,059/QALY ($30,155 to $121,087) and from a Medicare perspective, it is $15,051/QALY ($6,565 to $25,105). Conclusions The WHI-DM is a cost-effective strategy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancers in the target population, from both societal and Medicare perspectives. Private health care payers have a relative short time-frame to

  1. Proteomic analysis of duck fatty liver during post-mortem storage related to the variability of fat loss during cooking of "foie gras".

    PubMed

    Theron, Laetitia; Fernandez, Xavier; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Chambon, Christophe; Viala, Didier; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Astruc, Thierry; Molette, Caroline

    2013-01-30

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main problem for both manufacturers and consumers. Despite the efforts of the processing industry to control fat loss, the variability of fatty liver cooking yields remains high and uncontrolled. To understand the biochemical effects of postslaughter processing on fat loss during cooking, this study characterizes for the first time the protein expression of fatty liver during chilling using a proteomic approach. For this purpose the proteins were separated according to their solubility: the protein fraction soluble in a buffer of low ionic strength (S) and the protein fraction insoluble in the same buffer (IS). Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the S fraction and mass spectrometry for the identification of spots of interest. This analysis revealed 36 (21 identified proteins) and 34 (26 identified proteins) spots of interests in the low-fat-loss and high-fat-loss groups, respectively. The expression of proteins was lower after chilling, which revealed a suppressive effect of chilling on biological processes. The shot-gun strategy was used to analyze the IS fraction, with the identification of all the proteins by mass spectrometry. This allowed identification of 554 and 562 proteins in the low-fat-loss and high-fat-loss groups, respectively. Among these proteins, only the proteins that were up-regulated in the high-fat-loss group were significant (p value = 3.17 × 10(-3)) and corresponded to protein from the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that the variability of technological yield observed in processing plants could be explained by different aging states of fatty livers during chilling, most likely associated with different proteolytic patterns.

  2. Analysis of the early stages of lipid oxidation in freeze-stored pork back fat and mechanically recovered poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elisabeth; Vogt, Gjermund; Ekeberg, Dag; Sandbakk, Marit; Pettersen, Jan; Nilsson, Astrid

    2005-01-26

    An analytical method that can detect low levels of oxidation in food earlier than a sensory panel would be a valuable tool for food manufacturers as well as research institutes. Two model matrixes, pork back fat and mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM), were freeze-stored in air at -20 degrees C for 26 weeks. Peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, volatiles analyzed with dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a gas-sensor array technique (electronic nose), chemiluminescence, and front-face fluorescence were evaluated against sensory analysis with regard to detection of early oxidation and correlation with sensory data. Fluorescence and GC-MS could detect oxidative changes in pork back fat earlier than the sensory panel and the electronic nose at the same time. The three methods were highly correlated with sensory attributes (r = 0.8-0.9). GC-MS gave the best results with regard to detection of small oxidative changes in MRPM.

  3. A minimally invasive technique for the detection and analysis of pulmonary fat embolism: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Filograna, Laura; Bolliger, Stephan A; Kneubuehl, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Hatch, Gary M; Thali, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the feasibility of postmortem percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) for obtaining pulmonary samples adequate for the study of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). Samples of both lungs were obtained from 26 cadavers via two different methods: (i) PNB and (ii) the double-edged knife technique, the gold standard at our institute. After water storage and Sudan III staining, six forensic pathologists independently examined all samples for the presence and severity of PFE. The results were compared and analyzed in each case regarding the vitality of the PFE and its relationship to the cause of death. The results showed that PFE was almost identically diagnosed and graded on the samples obtained via both methods. The discrepancies between the two techniques did not affect the diagnoses of vitality or cause of death related to PFE. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the PNB sampling method for the diagnosis and interpretation of PFE in the postmortem setting.

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging Analysis of Partially Miscible PMMA-PEG Blends Using Two-Dimensional Disrelation Mapping.

    PubMed

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2016-09-28

    A novel technique called disrelation spectroscopic imaging describes the process of identifying an area where a coordinated or out-of-phase change in pattern of spectral absorbance occurs. Disrelation mapping can be viewed as a spatial filter based on the well-established two-dimensional (2D) correlation function to highlight specific areas where disrelated variation occurs between ν1 and ν2 Disrelation intensity develops only if the spectral absorbance measured at ν1 and ν2 vary out of phase with each other within a specific spatial area. The disrelation mapping locates regions where absorbance varies in a dissimilar manner because of the contribution from species of different physical or chemical origins. Consequently, it becomes possible to probe onset of molecular interactions or presence of intermediate forms between components, which is not fully detected by the conventional visualizations based on a single wavenumber. Data analysis using disrelation mapping applied to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic images is presented in this study. Data sets of FT-IR spectroscopic images of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were subjected to the disrelation mapping. It was found that the disrelation intensity between 1730 and 1714 cm(-1) becomes especially acute around the spatial boundary between PMMA and PEG domains within the studied blend sample. Thus the band at 1730 cm(-1) most likely represents the C=O stretching mode of the C=O···H-O species due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PMMA and PEG. The appearance of such disrelation is more noticeable in the PEG-rich region, for the PEG with low molecular weight. Consequently, it suggests that the blends of PMMA and PEG are partially miscible at the molecular level and these intermolecular interactions are affected by the quantity of the terminal -OH groups of the PEG.

  5. Combustion characteristics of blended coal of bituminous and anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Shon, E.K.; Choi, S.I.; Lee, S.H.; Hyun, J.S.; Park, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    Blending coals as a means of meeting air emission standards and controlling coal quality is receiving increased attention as both the demand for and the cost of suitable fuels increases. In some countries, the objectives of blending coals are to reduce SO{sub 2} emission, to decrease slagging and fouling problems, to control coal quality, and to reduce the cost of fuels. Comprehensive research on ignition, burnout and slagging characteristics of 2 kinds of Korean anthracite coal (Dongwon, Jangsung) and 1 imported bituminous coal (Ulan) and their blended coals with different blended ratios have been performed with thermogravimetry analysis technique, a drop-tube furnace and a P/C test furnace. The optimum blended ratios have been determined by means of a case by case experiment of 10%, 20% and 30% blending ratio, which provides an engineering basis for the design and operation of power station using the blended coal.

  6. Interchain coupled chain dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in blends with poly(methyl methacrylate): Coupling model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, K. L.; Wang, Li-Min

    2011-11-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation data from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends found that for short times the self-dynamics of PEO chain follows the Rouse model, but at longer times past tc = 1-2 ns it becomes slower and departs from the Rouse model in dependences on time, momentum transfer, and temperature. To explain the anomalies, others had proposed the random Rouse model (RRM) in which each monomer has different mobility taken from a broad log-normal distribution. Despite the success of the RRM, Diddens et al. [Eur. Phys. Lett. 95, 56003 (2011)] extracted the distribution of friction coefficients from the MD simulations of a PEO/PMMA blend and found that the distribution is much narrower than expected from the RRM. We propose a simpler alternative explanation of the data by utilizing alone the observed crossover of PEO chain dynamics at tc. The present problem is just a special case of a general property of relaxation in interacting systems, which is the crossover from independent relaxation to coupled many-body relaxation at some tc determined by the interaction potential and intermolecular coupling/constraints. The generality is brought out vividly by pointing out that the crossover also had been observed by neutron scattering from entangled chains relaxation in monodisperse homopolymers, and from the segmental α-relaxation of PEO in blends with PMMA. The properties of all the relaxation processes in connection with the crossover are similar, despite the length scales of the relaxation in these systems are widely different.

  7. Interchain coupled chain dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in blends with poly(methyl methacrylate): coupling model analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngai, K L; Wang, Li-Min

    2011-11-21

    Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation data from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends found that for short times the self-dynamics of PEO chain follows the Rouse model, but at longer times past t(c) = 1-2 ns it becomes slower and departs from the Rouse model in dependences on time, momentum transfer, and temperature. To explain the anomalies, others had proposed the random Rouse model (RRM) in which each monomer has different mobility taken from a broad log-normal distribution. Despite the success of the RRM, Diddens et al. [Eur. Phys. Lett. 95, 56003 (2011)] extracted the distribution of friction coefficients from the MD simulations of a PEO/PMMA blend and found that the distribution is much narrower than expected from the RRM. We propose a simpler alternative explanation of the data by utilizing alone the observed crossover of PEO chain dynamics at t(c). The present problem is just a special case of a general property of relaxation in interacting systems, which is the crossover from independent relaxation to coupled many-body relaxation at some t(c) determined by the interaction potential and intermolecular coupling/constraints. The generality is brought out vividly by pointing out that the crossover also had been observed by neutron scattering from entangled chains relaxation in monodisperse homopolymers, and from the segmental α-relaxation of PEO in blends with PMMA. The properties of all the relaxation processes in connection with the crossover are similar, despite the length scales of the relaxation in these systems are widely different.

  8. Tuning the Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    "Tuning the blend" is a phrase that educators hear a lot these days. It refers to finding the correct balance of online activities and face-to-face instruction in hybrid--or blended--courses. Finding a mix that meets the needs of both faculty and students requires experimentation, experience, and constant tweaking. And, as with coffee, the same…

  9. A thermodynamic analysis of native point defect and dopant solubilities in zinc-blende III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hurle, D. T. J.

    2010-06-15

    A thermodynamic model is used to analyze available experimental data relevant to point defects in the binary zinc-blende III-V compounds (Ga,In)-(P,As,Sb). The important point defects and their complexes in each of the materials are identified and included in the model. Essentially all of the available experimental data on dopant solubility, crystal density, and lattice parameter of melt and solution grown crystals and epilayers are reproduced by the model. It extends an earlier study [Hurle, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6957 (1999)] devoted solely to GaAs. Values for the enthalpy and entropy of formation of both native and dopant related point defects are obtained by fitting to experimental data. In undoped material, vacancies, and interstitials on the Group V sublattice dominate in the vicinity of the melting point (MP) in both the phosphides and arsenides, whereas, in the antimonides, vacancies on both sublattices dominate. The calculated concentrations of the native point defects are used to construct the solidus curves of all the compounds. The charged native point defect concentrations at the MP in four of the six materials are significantly higher than their intrinsic carrier concentrations. Thus the usually assumed high temperature 'intrinsic' electroneutrality condition for undoped material (n=p) is not valid for these materials. In GaSb, the Ga{sub Sb} antisite defect appears to be grown-in from the melt. This contrasts with the As{sub Ga} defect in GaAs for which the concentration grown-in at the MP is negligibly small. Compensation of donor-doped material by donor-Group III vacancy complexes is shown to exist in all the compounds except InP where Group VI doped crystals are uncompensated and in InSb where there is a lack of experimental data. The annealing effects in n{sup +} GaAs, including lattice superdilation, which were shown in the earlier paper to be due to Group III vacancy undersaturation during cooling, are found to be present also in GaSb and In

  10. A thermodynamic analysis of native point defect and dopant solubilities in zinc-blende III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurle, D. T. J.

    2010-06-01

    A thermodynamic model is used to analyze available experimental data relevant to point defects in the binary zinc-blende III-V compounds (Ga,In)-(P,As,Sb). The important point defects and their complexes in each of the materials are identified and included in the model. Essentially all of the available experimental data on dopant solubility, crystal density, and lattice parameter of melt and solution grown crystals and epilayers are reproduced by the model. It extends an earlier study [Hurle, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6957 (1999)] devoted solely to GaAs. Values for the enthalpy and entropy of formation of both native and dopant related point defects are obtained by fitting to experimental data. In undoped material, vacancies, and interstitials on the Group V sublattice dominate in the vicinity of the melting point (MP) in both the phosphides and arsenides, whereas, in the antimonides, vacancies on both sublattices dominate. The calculated concentrations of the native point defects are used to construct the solidus curves of all the compounds. The charged native point defect concentrations at the MP in four of the six materials are significantly higher than their intrinsic carrier concentrations. Thus the usually assumed high temperature "intrinsic" electroneutrality condition for undoped material (n=p) is not valid for these materials. In GaSb, the GaSb antisite defect appears to be grown-in from the melt. This contrasts with the AsGa defect in GaAs for which the concentration grown-in at the MP is negligibly small. Compensation of donor-doped material by donor-Group III vacancy complexes is shown to exist in all the compounds except InP where Group VI doped crystals are uncompensated and in InSb where there is a lack of experimental data. The annealing effects in n+ GaAs, including lattice superdilation, which were shown in the earlier paper to be due to Group III vacancy undersaturation during cooling, are found to be present also in GaSb and InAs. Results for native

  11. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  12. Truck loading rack blending

    SciTech Connect

    Boubenider, E.

    1995-12-01

    Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

  13. Fat quantification and analysis of lung transplant patients on unenhanced chest CT images based on standardized anatomic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Caiyun; Christie, Jason; Lederer, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Chest fat estimation is important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS) is presented. The goal of this paper is to seek answers to the following questions related to chest fat quantification on single slice versus whole volume CT, which have not been addressed in the literature. What level of correlation exists between total chest fat volume and fat areas measured on single abdominal and thigh slices? What is the anatomic location in the chest where maximal correlation of fat area with fat volume can be expected? Do the components of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have the same area-to-volume correlative behavior or do they differ? The SAS approach includes two steps: calibration followed by transformation which will map the patient slice locations non-linearly to SAS. The optimal slice locations found for SAT and VAT based on SAS are different and at the mid-level of the T8 vertebral body for SAT and mid-level of the T7 vertebral body for VAT. Fat volume and area on optimal slices for SAT and VAT are correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. The correlation of chest fat volume with abdominal and thigh fat areas is weak to modest.

  14. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ...

  15. Efficient Fractionation and Analysis of Fatty Acids and their Salts in Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposits.

    PubMed

    Benecke, Herman P; Allen, Sara K; Garbark, Daniel B

    2017-02-01

    A fractionation methodology of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits was developed based on the insolubility of fatty acid salts in dichloromethane (DCM) and the relatively high solubility of fatty acids and triglycerides in DCM. Using this method, coupled with spectral analysis, it was shown that fatty acids rather than fatty acid salts were the predominant species in FOG deposits obtained from three metropolitan locations in the United States and that fatty acid triglycerides were either not detected or were present in very small concentrations. This solubility-based fractionation approach also revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing compounds that had not been previously detected in FOG deposits including peptides and (or) proteins. The comparison of the ratios of stearic acid salts to stearic acid versus the ratio of palmitic acid salts to palmitic acid in FOG deposits may indicate that the initial step in FOG deposit formation is the preferential precipitation of stearic acid salts.

  16. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  17. Association between physical activity and body fat percentage, with adjustment for BMI: a large cross-sectional analysis of UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenji; Armstrong, Miranda E G; Key, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine if, in the general population, physically active adults have less body fat after taking body mass index (BMI) into account. Design A cross-sectional analysis of participants recruited into UK Biobank in 2006–2010. Setting UK Biobank assessment centres throughout the UK. Participants 119 230 men and 140 578 women aged 40–69 years, with complete physical activity information, and without a self-reported long-term illness, disability or infirmity. Exposures Physical activity measured as excess metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week, estimated from a combination of walking, and moderate and vigorous physical activity. BMI from measured height and weight. Main outcome measure Body fat percentage estimated from bioimpedance. Results BMI and body fat percentage were highly correlated (r=0.85 in women; r=0.79 in men), and both were inversely associated with physical activity. Compared with <5 excess MET-hours/week at baseline, ≥100 excess MET-hours/week were associated with a 1.1 kg/m2 lower BMI (27.1 vs 28.2 kg/m2) and 2.8 percentage points lower body fat (23.4% vs 26.3%) in men, and 2.2 kg/m2 lower BMI (25.6 vs 27.7 kg/m2) and 4.0 percentage points lower body fat (33.9% vs 37.9%) in women. For a given BMI, greater physical activity was associated with lower average body fat percentage (for a BMI of 22.5–24.99 kg/m2: 2.0 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.2), percentage points lower body fat in men and 1.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.0) percentage points lower body fat in women, comparing ≥100 excess MET-hours per week with <5 excess MET-hours/week). Conclusions In this sample of middle-aged adults, drawn from the general population, physical activity was inversely associated with BMI and body fat percentage. For people with the same BMI, those who were more active had a lower body fat percentage. PMID:28341684

  18. Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40 kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

  19. Dietary consequences of recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context: a secondary analysis with practical implications for registered dietitians.

    PubMed

    Nolan-Clark, Deborah; Mathers, Elizabeth; Probst, Yasmine; Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Tapsell, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Replacing full-fat dairy products with reduced-fat varieties is a dietetic strategy for reducing energy intake while maintaining nutritional adequacy. This study aimed to explore the dietary outcomes of this recommendation in the context of weight loss. This study involved a secondary analysis of diet-history data for 86 adults (23 males and 63 females; body mass index=31.1±3.4) who had completed 3 months of a weight-loss trial in 2009, including advice to consume reduced-fat dairy products. Dairy food intake was categorized using the Australian 1995 National Nutrition Survey food hierarchy. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests determined dairy product consumption change after dietetic intervention. Total fat and energy per day from dairy products decreased significantly, from 14.1±1.2 g to 5.8±0.6 g and 283±20 kcal to 223±14 kcal, respectively, and total carbohydrate from dairy products increased significantly (P=0.04). Only 19.7% of participants met their dietary target of two to three servings of dairy foods per day at 3 months. When analyzed by sex, males decreased their intake of dairy products significantly, from 377.63±62.3 g/day to 357.3±46.7 g/day. Despite consuming less fat from dairy products, females did not significantly reduce energy intake from these foods (P=0.05). This study indicated that men and women responded differently to advice to change from regular to reduced-fat dairy products. Of more concern, however, is that in a weight-loss context, both men and women might choose to consume fewer servings of this food category with significant nutritional implications. Overall, this research highlights the need to consider the impact of sex and the background diet when recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context.

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. PMID:27175015

  1. Longitudinal analysis of intervention effects on temptations and stages of change for dietary fat using parallel process latent growth modeling.

    PubMed

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Yang, Si; Harlow, Lisa L; Redding, Colleen A; Prochaska, James O

    2016-11-25

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend a 20-35 percent daily intake of fat. Resisting the temptation to eat high-fat foods, in conjunction with stage of readiness to avoid these foods, has been shown to influence healthy behavior change. Data (N = 6516) from three randomized controlled trials were pooled to examine the relationships among direct intervention effects on temptations and stage of change for limiting high-fat foods. Findings demonstrate separate simultaneous growth processes in which baseline level of temptations, but not the rate of change in temptations, was significantly related to the change in readiness to avoid high-fat foods.

  2. New Methods for the Analysis of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Don

    2016-01-01

    The AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) defined fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) to include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The levels of FSVs have been closely scrutinized because of a number of factors, including nutrition value especially in foods used to provide sole-source nutrition and the potential for health risks associated with content both below and above recommended levels. Stricter scrutiny and emphasis on nutrient-level compliance with regulatory requirements placed an increased demand on analytical methods that were fit-for-purpose, provided accurate and precise results. Over time, compendial methods have been developed and published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Committee for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the International Organization for Standardization, among others. In general, these methods have shown adequate precision for regulatory compliance based on example food matrixes for which they were designed. However, method evaluation for infant formulas and adult nutritional products was limited to very few matrixes within these categories. As such, method applicability gaps were noted and correlated with more complicated or diverse product matrixes. AOAC undertook the task of modernizing test methods for the determination of nutrients in infant formulas and in adult nutritional products formulated specifically for both healthy adults and those requiring specific nutritional intake. Composition of products in this category continued to evolve, which in turn presented increasing and new challenges to analytical methodology. A summary of a new generation of candidate compendial methods for determination of FSVs in these matrixes, identified by SPIFAN, is presented here.

  3. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  4. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer.

  5. Why Blended Will Win.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenger, Jack; Uehlein, Curt

    2001-01-01

    Electronic learning and traditional learning not only can coexist, but can merge to create something far better. A blended solution has the following characteristics: integrated instructional design, consistent framework and nomenclature, each method delivering its best, flexibility, and variety. (JOW)

  6. Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC × GC-TOF/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baocheng; Li, Peiwu; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiuping; Matthäus, Bertrand; Chen, Ran; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on the cholesterol level was developed to detect the presence of animal fats in virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the sterols in VCO and animal fats was separated using conventional one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Compared with 1D GC, the GC×GC system could obtain a complete baseline separation of the sterol trimethylsilyl ethers derived from cholesterol and cholestanol, so that the cholesterol content in pure VCO and false VCO adulterated with animal fats could be accurately determined. Cholesterol, a main sterol found in animal fats, represented less than 5mg/kg of VCO. The study demonstrated that the determination of the cholesterol level in VCO could be used for reliable detection of the presence of lard, chicken fat, mutton tallow, beef tallow, or their mixture in VCO at a level as little as 0.25%.

  7. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senna, Magdy M.; Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B.; Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M.

    2016-11-01

    Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  8. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  9. Sucrose behenate as a crystallization enhancer for soft fats.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; da Silva, Thaís Lomonaco Teodoro; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Chiu, Ming Chih; Gonçalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2016-02-01

    The addition of sucrose behenate for the modification of the physical properties of soft fats, such as soybean oil-based interesterified fat, refined palm oil, and palm mid fraction was studied. The addition of sucrose behenate was verified to affect the crystalline network of fats, changing the hardness and solids profile. The isothermal crystallization behaviors of the fat blends with 1% sucrose behenate were analyzed at 20 and 25 °C. Temperature had a greater effect on the speed of crystallization (k) than the presence of the emulsifier. Sucrose behenate did, however, influence the crystallization mechanism, with changes observed in the Avrami exponent (n). These changes were also observed in the microstructure of the fats. Changes in the polymorphic behavior were observed with the addition of sucrose behenate, such as a possible delay in the α → β transition for interesterified fat, and the initial formation of the β polymorph in palm oil.

  10. Preparation and characterization of chitosan - polystyrene polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenhas, N. P.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Goveas, J. J.; Shetty, T. C. S.; Crasta, V.

    2016-05-01

    To enhance the physical and mechanical properties of Chitosan (CS) and to improve the functionality of CS towards some specific applications, we have blended CS with polystyrene (PS) to form blended films. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been performed on the prepared films to confirm functional groups and formation of the blends. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) is carried out to study thermal stability of the blended films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the material reveals amorphous nature and hence it may be used for adsorption process. The versatility of the blends, such as film-forming ability, hydrophilicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility are comparable with the existing blends.

  11. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors.

  12. Descriptive sensory analysis of meat from broilers fed diets containing vitamin E or beta-carotene as antioxidants and different supplemental fats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J A; Guerrero, L; Arnau, J; Guardia, M D; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat (lard, sunflower oil, and olive oil) and supplementation of alpha-tocopheryl acetate or beta-carotene on descriptive sensory changes in broiler leg meat as evaluated by a trained panel. Twenty-five descriptors were analyzed from chicken leg meat: 11 in raw meat and 14 in cooked meat. Rancid values were very low, possibly because samples were consumed between 1 and 4 d after slaughter, which maybe insufficient time for oxidative processes to decrease meat sensory quality. However, samples supplemented with vitamin E showed lower rancidity levels, although the differences were only significant when compared to a beta-carotene diet, whereas the control treatment showed intermediate scores. Beta-carotene modified texture scores compared to the control diet, although the differences were only significant in initial juiciness and teeth adhesion compared to the vitamin E treatment and in tenderness compared to the control. In addition, juiciness and tenderness were positively correlated according to the principal component analysis of sensory attributes. The effect of dietary fat on analyzed attributes was lower than the effect of dietary antioxidant. The most important effect of fat type was on hardness of internal fat. Chickens whose diets were supplemented with lard had higher scored values than chickens whose diets were supplemented with vegetable oils. However, type of fat added to diet did not significantly influence rancidity values. These results indicate that an increase in the degree of unsaturation of fat in meat does not cause an increase in the oxidation levels detected by the panel under the conditions of short-term storage.

  13. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  14. The relationship between epicardial fat and indices of obesity and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-02-01

    Epicardial fat (epicardial adipose tissue, EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between EAT and generalized obesity, central or visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and the components of the metabolic syndrome--systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)--that are linked to CAD. A systematic review of the literature, following meta-analysis guidelines, was conducted until May, 2013, using the search strategy "Obesity" OR "abdominal obesity" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "metabolic syndrome X" AND "epicardial fat". Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria. There was a highly significant (P<0.00001) correlation between EAT and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or VAT. The correlation between EAT and VAT was significantly (P<0.0001) greater than the correlation between EAT and WC, which in turn was significantly greater than the correlation between EAT and BMI. Overall, EAT was 7.5 ± 0.1 mm in thickness in the metabolic syndrome (n=427) compared to 4.0 ± 0.1 mm in controls (n=301). EAT correlated significantly (P<0.0001) with SBP, TGs, HDL, and FBG, but the strength of the association was less than one-half of the relationship of EAT to indices of obesity. The results of multivariate analysis were less consistent but show a relationship between EAT and metabolic syndrome independent of BMI. In summary, the very strong correlation between EAT and VAT suggests a relationship between these two adipose tissue depots. Measurement of EAT can be useful to indicate VAT. Whereas EAT correlates significantly with each of the components of the metabolic syndrome- SBP, TGs, HDL, or FBG-the magnitude of the relationship is considerably and significantly less than the relationship of EAT to BMI. These data show the strong relationship between EAT and BMI but especially with WC and VAT

  15. Miscible polymer blend dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Jai Avinash

    The segmental and terminal dynamics of miscible polymer blends have been systematically investigated with pointed experiments to test dichotomous literature ideas on the origin of dynamic heterogeneity in these systems. Segmental dynamics have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy, while terminal dynamics have been studied by oscillatory shear rheology. It has been found that when composition fluctuations are suppressed, dynamic heterogeneities, such as the failure of time-temperature superposition (tTS), are also suppressed. This observation lends credence to the ideas of Fischer and Kumar that spontaneous composition fluctuations in miscible blends profoundly affect their segmental dynamics. In addition, data acquired in this study on two model weakly-interacting miscible polyolefin blends, were combined with literature data to show that breakdown of tTS worsens with increasing dynamic asymmetry (intrinsic differences in component dynamics) in weakly-interacting miscible blends. This observation is adduced as evidence for the role of dynamic asymmetry in miscible blend dynamics, in addition to the role of composition fluctuations. Finally, attempts were made to use information on component segmental dynamics, as obtained from the composition fluctuation model of Kumar, to predict terminal dynamics in miscible blends. In this regard, the composition fluctuation model was first used to model segmental dynamics in a model weakly-interacting blend. Then, experimental segmental and terminal dynamics data were used to identify a possible segmental time-scale which may control terminal relaxation of a chain in a blend. This timescale was found to lie on the long-time end of the distribution of segmental relaxation times for each component. It was calculated from the segmental relaxation time distribution for each component of a miscible blend as the average-longest segmental time experienced by the monomers of a given chain. Using the Doi-Edwards tube model, the

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) in the pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Xie, P; Zhang, A T; Wang, C; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in transporting long-chain fatty acids. In the current study, a full-length cDNA of FAT/CD36 was first cloned from the intestine of White King pigeon by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length cDNA of pigeon FAT/CD36 was 2,282 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 224 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 642 bp, and an open reading frame of 1,416 bp encoding a protein of 471 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 52.7 kDa. Sequence comparison indicated that FAT/CD36 of pigeon had high identity with other avian FAT/CD36. Using quantitative real-time PCR, expression of FAT/CD36 was the greatest in the duodenum at 28 d posthatch, and in the jejunum, the expression of FAT/CD36 at 14 d posthatch was greater than at 8 d but the same as 28 d posthatch. However, in the ileum, expression of FAT/CD36 peaked at embryonic d 15 and 8 d posthatch. The effects of long-chain fatty acids on pigeon FAT/CD36 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA expression were also investigated in vitro. It showed that a low concentration (5 μM) of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid can significantly increase FAT/CD36 and PPARγ mRNA level in pigeon jejunum. However, for linolenic acid or arachidonic acid, the induction of both gene expressions needed a higher concentration (50 μM or 250 μM). Two hundred and 50 μM palmitic acid was shown to suppress FAT/CD36 gene expression. The results suggest that FAT/CD36 may be a representative of intestine development in pigeon, and it could be regulated by long-chain fatty acids via PPARγ pathway.

  17. Damage initiated self-healing in ionomer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Penco, Maurizio; Spagnoli, Gloria; Peroni, Isabella; Ramorino, Giorgio; Sartore, Luciana; Bignotti, Fabio; Landro, Luca Di

    2012-07-01

    The development and understanding of self-healing mechanisms have been investigated in blends of ionomers (Poly(ethyelene-co-methacrylic acid), sodium & zinc ions) (EMNa & EMZn) containing both elastomers (Epoxidized natural rubbers (ENR) and cis-1,4-Polyisoprene (PISP)) and crystalline component (Poly(vinly alcohol-co-ethylene) [PVAcE]) as secondary phases. All the blends were prepared by melt-blending and self-healing behavior was studied in ballistic puncture tests. Self-healing behavior of each material was evaluated by observing the impact zones under a stereo-optical microscope and the micrographic results were further supported by the fluid flow test in the punctured zones. Interestingly, ENR50 blends of sodium ion containing ionomers exhibited complete self-repairing behavior while zinc ion containing ionomer showed limited mending but EMNa/ENR25 and EMNa/PISP blends did not show any self-healing behavior following the damage. On the other hand, a composition dependent healing behavior was observed in the EMNa/PVAcE blends where healing was observed up to 30wt% PVAcE containing blends. The chemical structure studied by FTIR analysis showed that both ion content of ionomer and functionality of ENR have significant influence on the self-repairing behavior of blends. TEM analysis revealed that self-healing occurs in the blends when the dispersed phase has a dimension of 100 to 400 nm.

  18. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan; Daik, Rusli

    2015-09-25

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  19. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Daik, Rusli; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan

    2015-09-01

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  20. Effect of Intermittent Sub-Maximal Exercise on Percent Body Fat Using Leg-To-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    PubMed Central

    L. Andreacci, Joseph; B. Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L. Goss, Fredric

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr-1, 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr-1, 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr-1, 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key Points LBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise. The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations. Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates PMID:24353460

  1. Effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat using leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis in children.

    PubMed

    L Andreacci, Joseph; B Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L Goss, Fredric

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr(-1), 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key PointsLBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise.The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations.Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates.

  2. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    PubMed

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of copy number variations reveals that aging processes influence body fat distribution in Korea Associated Resource (KARE) cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Young; Shin, Dong Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Seo, Kang-Seok; Kim, Heebal

    2012-11-01

    Many anthropometric measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and subcutaneous fat thickness, are used as indicators of nutritional status, fertility and predictors of future health outcomes. While BMI is currently the best available estimate of body adiposity, WHR and skinfold thickness at various sites (biceps, triceps, suprailiac, and subscapular) are used as indices of body fat distribution. Copy number variation (CNV) is an attractive emerging approach to the study of associations with various diseases. In this study, we investigated the dosage effect of genes in the CNV genome widely associated with fat distribution phenotypes in large cohorts. We used the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP Array 5.0 data of 8,842 healthy unrelated adults in KARE cohorts and identified CNVs associated with BMI and fat distribution-related traits including WHR and subcutaneous skinfold thickness at suprailiac (SUP) and subscapular (SUB) sites. CNV segmentation of each chromosome was performed using Golden Helix SVS 7.0, and single regression analysis was used to identify CNVs associated with each phenotype. We found one CNV for BMI, 287 for WHR, 2,157 for SUP, and 2,102 for SUB at the 5% significance level after Holm-Bonferroni correction. Genes included in the CNV were used for the analysis of functional annotations using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID v6.7b) tool. Functional gene classification analysis identified five significant gene clusters (metallothionein, ATP-binding proteins, ribosomal proteins, kinesin family members, and zinc finger proteins) for SUP, three (keratin-associated proteins, zinc finger proteins, keratins) for SUB, and one (protamines) for WHR. BMI was excluded from this analysis because the entire structure of no gene was identified in the CNV. Based on the analysis of genes enriched in the clusters, the fat distribution traits of KARE cohorts were related to the fat redistribution

  4. Validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating fat-free mass in children including overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Megumi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Hikihara, Yuki; Masuo, Yoshihisa; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Torii, Suguru; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance (BI) analysis for predicting the fat-free masses (FFMs) of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals. The FFM and impedance (Z) values of arms, trunk, legs, and whole body were determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and segmental BI analyses, respectively, in 149 boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years, who were divided into model-development (n = 74), cross-validation (n = 35), and overweight (n = 40) groups. Simple regression analysis was applied to (length)(2)/Z (BI index) for each of the whole-body and 3 segments to develop the prediction equations of the measured FFM of the related body part. In the model-development group, the BI index of each of the 3 segments and whole body was significantly correlated to the measured FFM (R(2) = 0.867-0.932, standard error of estimation = 0.18-1.44 kg (5.9%-8.7%)). There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted FFM values without systematic error. The application of each equation derived in the model-development group to the cross-validation and overweight groups did not produce significant differences between the measured and predicted FFM values and systematic errors, with an exception that the arm FFM in the overweight group was overestimated. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is useful for predicting the FFM of each of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals, although the application for estimating arm FFM in overweight individuals requires a certain modification.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Muscle Transcriptome between Pig Genotypes Identifies Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms Associated to Growth, Fatness and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ayuso, Miriam; Fernández, Almudena; Núñez, Yolanda; Benítez, Rita; Isabel, Beatriz; Barragán, Carmen; Fernández, Ana Isabel; Rey, Ana Isabel; Medrano, Juan F.; Cánovas, Ángela; González-Bulnes, Antonio; López-Bote, Clemente; Ovilo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Iberian ham production includes both purebred (IB) and Duroc-crossbred (IBxDU) Iberian pigs, which show important differences in meat quality and production traits, such as muscle growth and fatness. This experiment was conducted to investigate gene expression differences, transcriptional regulation and genetic polymorphisms that could be associated with the observed phenotypic differences between IB and IBxDU pigs. Nine IB and 10 IBxDU pigs were slaughtered at birth. Morphometric measures and blood samples were obtained and samples from Biceps femoris muscle were employed for compositional and transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq technology. Phenotypic differences were evident at this early age, including greater body size and weight in IBxDU and greater Biceps femoris intramuscular fat and plasma cholesterol content in IB newborns. We detected 149 differentially expressed genes between IB and IBxDU neonates (p < 0.01 and Fold-Change > 1. 5). Several were related to adipose and muscle tissues development (DLK1, FGF21 or UBC). The functional interpretation of the transcriptomic differences revealed enrichment of functions and pathways related to lipid metabolism in IB and to cellular and muscle growth in IBxDU pigs. Protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis and immune system were functions enriched in both genotypes. We identified transcription factors potentially affecting the observed gene expression differences. Some of them have known functions on adipogenesis (CEBPA, EGRs), lipid metabolism (PPARGC1B) and myogenesis (FOXOs, MEF2D, MYOD1), which suggest a key role in the meat quality differences existing between IB and IBxDU hams. We also identified several polymorphisms showing differential segregation between IB and IBxDU pigs. Among them, non-synonymous variants were detected in several transcription factors as PPARGC1B and TRIM63 genes, which could be associated to altered gene function. Taken together, these results provide information about candidate

  6. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  7. Effect of blend moisture and extrusion temperature on physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, P; Kasprzak, M; Rzedzicki, Z; Sobota, A; Wirkijowska, A; Sykut-Domańska, E

    2015-10-01

    The effect of everlasting pea in combination with wheat on physical properties and microstructure of extrudates were studied. The share of everlasting pea (Lathyrus sativus) was variable, at 35, 50 and 65 %, respectively. The everlasting pea-wheat mixtures were moistened to the required level (18, 21, and 24 %), homogenized, conditioned and extruded in twin-screw extruder with counter-rotating conical screws. All of the obtained extrudates were characterised by a slow degree of radial expansion and high specific density. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant linear Pearson correlation (p < 0.05) between chemical compositions of the blends and physical properties of the extrudates. The expansion ratio increased as the concentration of the fibers and proteins increased, while specific density and hardness decreased. Inverse relationship was observed for crude fat. The microstructure of the extrudates was determined by both the moisture of the blend and the process temperature. The differences observed in the size, number of air cells and in the cell wall shapes and thickness indicate possibilities of the modification of physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates. The extrudates produced from everlasting pea-wheat blends (50:50) at higher barrel temperature (110/140/180/170/130 °C) were characterised by more numerous air cells of smaller diameters. Increasing moisture content of extruded blends results in extrudates with a higher porosity. No significant effect was shown in the chemical compositions on the level of metal contamination in the extrudates. The application of a counter-rotating twin-screw extrusion-cooker in the study permitted the production of compact, hard everlasting pea-wheat extrudates for use in vegetarian lunch dishes.

  8. Computed tomography analysis of the association between the SH2B1 rs7498665 single-nucleotide polymorphism and visceral fat area.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kikuko; Kitamoto, Takuya; Kitamoto, Aya; Mizusawa, Seiho; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakata, Yoshio; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Ochi, Hidenori; Kamohara, Seika; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Kotani, Kazuaki; Komatsu, Ryoya; Itoh, Naoto; Mineo, Ikuo; Wada, Jun; Yoneda, Masato; Nakajima, Atsushi; Funahashi, Tohru; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Katsuto; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Ueno, Takato; Chayama, Kazuaki; Hamaguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Kentaro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Oikawa, Shinichi; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Sakata, Toshiie; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Sekine, Akihiro

    2011-10-01

    Visceral fat accumulation has an important role in increasing morbidity and mortality rate by increasing the risk of developing several metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. New genetic loci that contribute to the development of obesity have been identified by genome-wide association studies in Caucasian populations. We genotyped 1279 Japanese subjects (556 men and 723 women), who underwent computed tomography (CT) for measuring visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA), for the following single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): NEGR1 rs2815752, SEC16B rs10913469, TMEM18 rs6548238, ETV5 rs7647305, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265 and rs925946, MTCH2 rs10838738, SH2B1 rs7498665, MAF rs1424233, and KCTD15 rs29941 and rs11084753. In the additive model, none of the SNPs were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). The SH2B1 rs7498665 risk allele was found to be significantly associated with VFA (P=0.00047) but not with BMI or SFA. When the analysis was performed in men and women separately, no significant associations with VFA were observed (P=0.0099 in men and P=0.022 in women). None of the other SNPs were significantly associated with SFA. Our results suggest that there is a VFA-specific genetic factor and that a polymorphism in the SH2B1 gene influences the risk of visceral fat accumulation.

  9. Identification by proteomic analysis of early post-mortem markers involved in the variability in fat loss during cooking of mule duck "foie gras".

    PubMed

    Theron, Laetitia; Fernandez, Xavier; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Chambon, Christophe; Viala, Didier; Astruc, Thierry; Molette, Caroline

    2011-12-14

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main quality issue for both processors and consumers. Despite the efforts of the processing industry to control fat loss, the variability of fatty liver cooking yield remains high and uncontrolled. To better understand the biological basis of this phenomenon, a proteomic study was conducted. To analyze the protein fraction soluble at low ionic strength (LIS), we used bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for the identification of spots of interest. To analyze the protein fraction not soluble at low ionic strength (NS), we used the shotgun strategy. The analysis of data acquired from both protein fractions suggested that at the time of slaughter, livers with low fat loss during cooking were still in anabolic processes with regard to energy metabolism and protein synthesis, whereas livers with high fat loss during cooking developed cell protection mechanisms. The variability in the technological yield observed in processing plants could be explained by a different physiological stage of liver steatosis.

  10. Evolving window zone selection method followed by independent component analysis as useful chemometric tools to discriminate between grapefruit juice, orange juice and blends.

    PubMed

    Cuny, M; Le Gall, G; Colquhoun, I J; Lees, M; Rutledge, D N

    2007-08-06

    This study investigates the use of high resolution 1H NMR as a suitable alternative to the standard chromatographic method for the determination of adulteration of orange juice (Citrus sinensis) with grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi) based on flavonoid glycoside content. Fifty-nine orange juices (OJ), 23 grapefruit juices (GJ) and 10 blends (OG), obtained from local retail outlets were used to assess the performance of the 1H NMR method. The work presented here introduces the Evolving Window Zone Selection (EWZS) function that holds promise for the automatic detection of spectral regions tailored to discriminate predefined groups. This technique was applied on the pre-processed 1H NMR spectra of the 92 juices. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a good alternative to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for recovering linearly-mixed unobserved multidimensional independent signals and has been used in this study to build supervised models that classify the samples into three categories, OJ, GJ, OG. The regions containing the known flavonoid glycoside markers were selected as well as another zone containing the signals of sucrose, alpha-glucose and other components that were tentatively attributed. ICA was applied on three different groups of selected variables and showed good results for both discrimination and interpretation of the signals. Up to 97.8% of the juices were correctly attributed. This method gave better results than the commonly used PCA method. In addition, the time required to carry out the 1H NMR analysis was less than half the time of the standard chromatographic method.

  11. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  12. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  13. PHA-rubber blends: synthesis, characterization and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Rachana; Shah, Dishma; Patel, K C; Trivedi, Ujjval

    2008-07-01

    Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) and different rubbers; namely natural rubber, nitrile rubber and butadiene rubber were blended at room temperature using solution blending technique. Blends constituted 5%, 10% and 15% of mcl-PHA in different rubbers. Thermogravimetric analysis of mcl-PHA showed the melting temperature of the polymer around 50 degrees C. Thermal properties of the synthesized blend were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry which confirmed effective blending between the polymers. Blending of mcl-PHA with natural rubber led to the synthesis of a different polymer having the melting point of 90 degrees C. Degradation studies of the blends were carried out using a soil isolate, Pseudomonas sp. 202 for 30 days. Extracellular protein concentration as well as OD660 due to the growth of Pseudomonas sp. 202 was studied. The degradation of blended plastic material, as evidenced by % weight loss after degradation and increase in the growth of organism correlated with the amount of mcl-PHA present in the sample. Growth of Pseudomonas sp. 202 resulted in 14.63%, 16.12% and 3.84% weight loss of PHA:rubber blends (natural, nitrile and butadiene rubber). Scanning electron microscopic studies after 30 days of incubation further confirmed biodegradation of the films.

  14. Do corticosteroids reduce the risk of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long-bone fractures? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bederman, S. Samuel; Bhandari, Mohit; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a potentially lethal condition most commonly seen in polytrauma patients with multiple long-bone fractures. Treatment has centred around supportive care and early fracture fixation. Several small clinical trials have suggested corticosteroids benefit patients with FES, but this treatment remains controversial. Our objective was to determine the effect of corticosteroids in preventing FES in patients with long-bone fractures. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of patients with long-bone fractures who were randomly assigned to groups receiving corticosteroids or standard treatment for the prevention of FES (1966–2006). Data were extracted on quality, population, intervention and outcomes. Our primary outcome was the development of FES. We used random-effects models to pool results across studies, assessing for study heterogeneity. Results Of the 104 studies identified, 7 met our eligibility criteria. Overall, the quality of the trials was poor. Our pooled analysis of 389 patients found that corticosteroids reduced the risk of FES by 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43%–92%) and that only 8 patients needed to be treated (95% CI 5–13 patients) to prevent 1 case of FES. Similarly, corticosteroids significantly reduced the risk of hypoxia. We found no differences in the rates of mortality or infection. Rates of avascular necrosis were not reported in any of these studies. Conclusion Evidence suggests that corticosteroids may be beneficial in preventing FES and hypoxia but not mortality in patients with long-bone fractures. The risk of infection is not increased with the use of cortisosteroids. However, methodological limitations of these trials necessitate a large confirmatory randomized trial. PMID:19865573

  15. An update on potato crisps contents of moisture, fat, salt and fatty acids (including trans-fatty acids) with special emphasis on new oils/fats used for frying.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Albuquerque, Tânia; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Santos, Lèlita; Costa, Helena S

    2012-09-01

    Eighteen brands of potato crisps, frequently consumed, were analyzed to establish their nutritional value in relation to salt, fat and fatty acid (FA) composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine moisture, total fat, salt contents and FA profiles (including trans-FAs), and to identify the oil/fat used for frying of the 18 brands of potato crisps. Our results show that salt content ranged from 0.127 to 2.77 g/100 g and total fat content of potato crisps varied between 20.0 and 42.8 g/100 g. With respect to FAs analysis, palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the major FAs found in the analyzed potato crisps. It is clear from our work that nowadays most potato crisps are currently produced using oils with high contents in unsaturated FAs, which can be considered as healthier from a nutritional point of view. Nevertheless, some brands of potato crisps still use palm oil or a blend of palm oil and other fats/oils, which are very rich in saturated FAs.

  16. Fitness vs. fatness on all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barry, Vaughn W; Baruth, Meghan; Beets, Michael W; Durstine, J Larry; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the joint association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and weight status on mortality from all causes using meta-analytical methodology. Studies were included if they were (1) prospective, (2) objectively measured CRF and body mass index (BMI), and (3) jointly assessed CRF and BMI with all-cause mortality. Ten articles were included in the final analysis. Pooled hazard ratios were assessed for each comparison group (i.e. normal weight-unfit, overweight-unfit and -fit, and obese-unfit and -fit) using a random-effects model. Compared to normal weight-fit individuals, unfit individuals had twice the risk of mortality regardless of BMI. Overweight and obese-fit individuals had similar mortality risks as normal weight-fit individuals. Furthermore, the obesity paradox may not influence fit individuals. Researchers, clinicians, and public health officials should focus on physical activity and fitness-based interventions rather than weight-loss driven approaches to reduce mortality risk.

  17. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  18. Analysis of the Human Proteome in Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lingling; Kojima, Kyoko; Zhou, Lihua; Crossman, David K; Mobley, James A; Grams, Jayleen

    2015-01-01

    No longer regarded as simply a storage depot, fat is a dynamic organ acting locally and systemically to modulate energy homeostasis, glucose sensitivity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory pathways. Here, mass spectrometry was used to survey the proteome of patient matched subcutaneous fat and visceral fat in 20 diabetic vs 22 nondiabetic patients with morbid obesity. A similar number of proteins (~600) were identified in each tissue type. When stratified by diabetic status, 19 and 41 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in subcutaneous fat and omentum, respectively. These proteins represent pathways known to be involved in metabolism. Five of these proteins were differentially abundant in both fat depots: moesin, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, protein cordon-bleu, zinc finger protein 611, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1. Three proteins, decorin, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1, and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, were further tested for validation by western blot analysis. Investigation of the proteins reported here is expected to expand on the current knowledge of adipose tissue driven biochemistry in diabetes and obesity, with the ultimate goal of identifying clinical targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, this study is the first to survey the global proteome derived from each subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue obtained from the same patient in the clinical setting of morbid obesity, with and without diabetes. It is also the largest study of diabetic vs nondiabetic patients with 42 patients surveyed. PMID:26472921

  19. Interactions of monensin with dietary fat and carbohydrate components on ruminal fermentation and production responses by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mathew, B; Eastridge, M L; Oelker, E R; Firkins, J L; Karnati, S K R

    2011-01-01

    Variation in milk fat percentage resulting from monensin supplementation to lactating dairy cows could be due to altered ruminal fermentation with interactions of monensin with ruminal biohydrogenation of fat and ruminal carbohydrate availability. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding monensin as Rumensin (R) in diets differing in starch availability (ground or steam-flaked corn), effective fiber (long or short alfalfa hay, LAH or SAH), and 4% fat (F) from distillers grains, roasted soybeans, and an animal-vegetable blend on ruminal fermentation characteristics and milk production in lactating dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a balanced 6×6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. The cows were fed 6 diets: (1) C=control diet with ground corn and LAH, (2) CR=C plus R, (3) CRFL=CR plus F, (4) CRFS=ground corn, R, F, and SAH, (5) SRFL=steam-flaked corn, R, F, and LAH, and (6) SRFS=steam-flaked corn, R, F, and SAH. Mean particle size of LAH was 5.00 mm and 1.36 mm for SAH. All diets were formulated to have 21% forage NDF and 40% NFC. The R tended to decrease DMI, decreased milk fat yield, and numerically lowered milk fat percentage (3.41 vs. 2.98%). Addition of F to R diets did not affect milk fat percentage. By feeding diets containing R and F, SAH tended to increase milk fat percentage for the ground-corn diet, but SAH tended to decrease milk fat percentage with steam-flaked corn (CRFL+SRFS vs. CRFS+SRFL). The steam-flaked corn increased total-tract NDF digestibility (CRFL + CRFS vs. SRFL+SRFS; 51.1 vs. 56%). Addition of F with R decreased total VFA concentration and increased rumen pH. Fat addition with R decreased rumen NH3N and MUN (12.8 vs. 13.9 mg/dL), and SFC decreased NH3N concentration compared with ground corn. Although R caused milk fat depression, addition of F did not further exacerbate milk fat depression. Fatty acid analysis did not implicate any particular biohydrogenation

  20. Comparison of the long-term effects of high-fat v. low-fat diet consumption on cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2014-06-28

    The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the long-term effects (≥ 12 months) of high-fat (HF) v. low-fat (LF) diet consumption on the indicators of glycaemic control as well as cardiovascular risk factors in pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals. Literature search was carried out using the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Trial Register until November 2013. Study-specific weighted mean differences (MD) were pooled using a random-effects model of the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.1 and Stata 12.0 was used for meta-regressions. A total of fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria and a maximum of 1753 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. HF regimens were found to result in a significant decrease in TAG levels (MD -0·19 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·23, -0·14, P< 0·001; I² = 0 %, P= 0·58) and diastolic blood pressure (MD -1·30 mmHg, 95 % CI -1·73, -0·87, P< 0·001; I² = 0 %, P= 0·60) and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol levels (MD 0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·08, P= 0·01; I² = 57 %, P= 0·01). In addition, MD in the reductions of fasting glucose levels (-0·41 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·74, -0·08, P= 0·01; I² = 56 %, P= 0·02) were significantly high in patients with type 2 diabetes adhering to a HF diet. HF and LF diets might not be of equal value in the management of either pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes, leading to emphasis being placed on the recommendations of HF diets.

  1. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  2. Physico-mechanical analysis data in support of compatibility of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte films achieved by ascorbic acid, and the thermal degradation theory of κ-carrageenan influencing the properties of its blends.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mahdiyar; Ettelaie, Rammile; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir

    2016-12-01

    This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation. We present further data on water resistance, water barrier property, mechanical parameters, scanning electron micrograph, as well as contact angle image dataset of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The physical data were collected by water solubility and water permeability assays, with a view to elucidate the role of ascorbic acid in the compatibility of polyelectrolyte blends. The mechanical data is obtained from a stress-strain curve for evaluation of tensile strength and elongation at break point of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The microstructure observations were performed using scanning electron micrograph. These dataset confirm fabrication of a soft film in the presence of ascorbic acid, with reduced heterogeneities in the polyelectrolyte film structure. The κ-carrageenan was also treated by a thermal process, prior to inclusion into the chitosan solution, to investigate the impact of this on the mechanical and structural features of the resulting blend. We present the required data and the theoretical analysis supporting the thermal chain degradation of a polymer and its effects on behavior of the film. Additional information, characterizing the hydrophobicity of the surface of the blend layers is obtained by measuring water contact angles using a contact anglemeter.

  3. Analysis and field evaluation of volatile blend emitted by calling virgin females of beet armyworm moth,Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Yu, H S

    1990-12-01

    The volatile blend emitted by calling virgin beet armyworm females was collected and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Five compounds were detected and identified in this blend: (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z,Z)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z)-l 1-hexadecenyl acetate. They were emitted in a ratio of 47.9 ∶4.0∶40.2 ∶6.5 ∶ 1.7, respectively. This five-component blend and several other blends with one or more components deleted were formulated on rubber septa to release the components in about the same ratios as the females. Field tests of these formulations in bucket traps indicated that a blend of (Z)-9 tetradecen-1-ol, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z)-l 1-hexadecenyl acetate was most effective for trapping beet armyworm males and that (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate actually decreased trap captures. Blends that did not contain both (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate were ineffective as trap baits.

  4. Comparative Blended Learning Practices and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Eugenia M. W., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of new technologies, more convenient and effective ways of learning are being adopted. However, despite the growing advancements there remains a lack of literature in applications of using these technology teaching approaches. This book offers in-depth analysis of new technologies in blended learning that promote creativity,…

  5. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chiang, Li-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hao; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. PMID:27775642

  6. Apparatus for blending small particles

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-08-26

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment. (auth)

  7. Dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett’s esophagus risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Pu, Zhongshu; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Pengfei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett’s esophagus (BE) risk remain inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence on these issues. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from inception through October 2015. A total of eight studies were included in this analysis. Fruit intake was not associated with BE risk (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.37–1.13), but vegetable intake was strongly associated with BE risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29–0.71). Saturated fat, red meat and processed meat intakes were not associated with BE risk with OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82–1.91), OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.61–1.17) and OR = 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73–1.46), respectively. Dietary vegetable not fruits intake may be associated with decreased BE risk. Fat and red and processed meat intakes may not contribute to an increased BE risk. Well-designed, large prospective studies with better established dose-response relationships are needed to further validate these issues. PMID:27256629

  8. [Blending powdered antineoplastic medicine in disposable ointment container].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    On dispensing powdered antineoplastic medicines, it is important to prevent cross-contamination and environmental exposure. Recently, we developed a method for blending powdered medicine in a disposable ointment container using a planetary centrifugal mixer. The disposable container prevents cross-contamination. In addition, environmental exposure associated with washing the apparatus does not arise because no blending blade is used. In this study, we aimed to confirm the uniformity of the mixture and weight loss of medicine in the blending procedure. We blended colored lactose powder with Leukerin(®) or Mablin(®) powders using the new method and the ordinary pestle and mortar method. Then, the blending state was monitored using image analysis. Blending variables, such as the blending ratio (1:9-9:1), container size (35-125 mL), and charging rate (20-50%) in the container were also investigated under the operational conditions of 500 rpm and 50 s. At a 20% charging rate in a 35 mL container, the blending precision of the mixtures was not influenced by the blending ratio, and was less than 6.08%, indicating homogeneity. With an increase in the charging rate, however, the blending precision decreased. The possible amount of both mixtures rose to about 17 g with a 20% charging rate in a 125 mL container. Furthermore, weight loss of medicines with this method was smaller than that with the pestle and mortar method, suggesting that this method is safer for pharmacists. In conclusion, we have established a precise and safe method for blending powdered medicines in pharmacies.

  9. Quantification of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta in roasted and ground coffee blends.

    PubMed

    Cagliani, Laura Ruth; Pellegrino, Gloria; Giugno, Graziella; Consonni, Roberto

    2013-03-15

    This study reports direct quantification of arabica in roasted and ground coffee blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta. (1)H-NMR analysis of water extracts of coffee blends were combined with multivariate statistical analysis to obtain an OPLS model with high predictive capability. This approach allowed to evaluate the composition of coffee blends of unknown arabica and robusta content, on the basis of multiple chemical components. Differences in geographical origin of the analyzed samples did not affected the compositional determination of coffee blends. This approach represents a valid tool in authentication procedures of arabica and robusta blends of roasted and ground coffee.

  10. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  11. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.

    PubMed

    Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

    2009-09-01

    Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability

  12. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid intake on plasma and urinary sex hormone...associated with reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16...candidate in September, 2007. • Preliminary data from plasma sex hormone analysis supports low fat, high omega -3 fatty acid diet in prevention of breast

  13. Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) Blended with Poly (vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene for the Formation of Anion Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    polymerization, then blended with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) at different compositions, and solution cast to prepare a series of blend...compositions, and solution cast to prepare a series of blend films. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the PVBC-b-PS and PVBC-b-PS blended...different compositions, and solution cast to prepare a series of blend films. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the PVBC-b-PS and PVBC-b-PS

  14. Multi-model blending

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Hwang, Youngdeok; van Kessel, Theodore G.; Khabibrakhmanov, Ildar K.; Muralidhar, Ramachandran

    2016-10-18

    A method and a system to perform multi-model blending are described. The method includes obtaining one or more sets of predictions of historical conditions, the historical conditions corresponding with a time T that is historical in reference to current time, and the one or more sets of predictions of the historical conditions being output by one or more models. The method also includes obtaining actual historical conditions, the actual historical conditions being measured conditions at the time T, assembling a training data set including designating the two or more set of predictions of historical conditions as predictor variables and the actual historical conditions as response variables, and training a machine learning algorithm based on the training data set. The method further includes obtaining a blended model based on the machine learning algorithm.

  15. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (P<0.05) in the myristic, palmitic and stearic acid composition was observed during the repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran oil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  16. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  17. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  18. Blended learning in ethics education: a survey of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ling

    2011-05-01

    Nurses are experiencing new ethical issues as a result of global developments and changes in health care. With health care becoming increasingly sophisticated, and countries facing challenges of graying population, ethical issues involved in health care are bound to expand in quantity and in depth. Blended learning rather as a combination of multiple delivery media designed to promote meaningful learning. Specifically, this study was focused on two questions: (1) the students' satisfaction and attitudes as members of a scenario-based learning process in a blended learning environment; (2) the relationship between students' satisfaction ratings of nursing ethics course and their attitudes in the blended learning environment. In total, 99 senior undergraduate nursing students currently studying at a public nursing college in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted in this study. The participants were asked to fill out two Likert-scale questionnaire surveys: CAAS (Case Analysis Attitude Scale), and BLSS (Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale). The results showed what students felt about their blended learning experiences - mostly items ranged from 3.27-3.76 (the highest score is 5). Another self-assessment of scenario analysis instrument revealed the mean scores ranged from 2.87-4.19. Nearly 57.8% of the participants rated the course 'extremely helpful' or 'very helpful.' This study showed statistically significant correlations (r=0.43) between students' satisfaction with blended learning and case analysis attitudes. In addition, results testified to a potential of the blended learning model proposed in this study to bridge the gap between students and instructors and the one between students and their peers, which are typical of blended learning, and to create meaningful learning by employing blended pedagogical consideration in the course design. The use of scenario instruction enables students to develop critical

  19. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  20. Fatness of female field hockey players: Comparison of estimates with different methods.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Konarski, J M; Malina, R M; Rachwalski, K; Leszczyński, P; Ziółkowska-Łajp, E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare relative body fat (% fat) in female field hockey players using several methods with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. Participants were 31 Polish hockey players 16-30 years of age, 17 national and 14 youth level. Percent body fat was estimated by DXA (reference method), conventional and segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and predicted from skinfolds (SKF). National and youth team members did not differ in estimated body fat. Correlations between BIA and skinfold estimates of % fat and DXA % fat though significant, were moderate. Both % fat SKF and % fat SBIA differed significantly from % fat DXA, while estimated % fat BIA and % fat DXA did not differ. Limits of agreement were narrow for conventional BIA (-1.20 to 1.71% fat), followed by segmental BIA (3.72-6.09% fat) and broadest for SKF (5.97-9.28% fat). Differences between DXA % fat and estimated % fat with SKF and SBIA increased from the leanest to fattest athletes, whereas conventional BIA overestimated % fat relative to DXA in the small sample of individuals with low relative fatness and underestimated % fat in individuals with elevated relative fatness. Estimated % fat from conventional BIA most closely approximated DXA % fat in this sample of female field hockey players suggesting that the method may be suitable for field surveys to monitor body composition during the season.

  1. Transcription analysis of genes involved in lipid metabolism reveals the role of chromium in reducing body fat in animal models.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Najaf Panah, Mohammad Javad; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. The recent studies indicated that the addition of supra nutritional amounts of chromium to the diet can only be considered as having pharmacological effects. However, the precise mechanism through which chromium acts on lipid, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid metabolism are relatively poor studied. To uncover, at least partially, the role of chromium in lipid metabolism, in this study, we evaluated the expression status of eight important genes, involved in fat biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, in four different tissue types (liver, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and longissimus muscle) in domestic goat kids feeding on three different chromium levels. The quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was established for expression analyses with HSP90 gene was used as reference gene. The results showed that supplementation of goats with 1.5mg/day chromium significantly decreases the expression of the ACC1, DGAT1, FABP4, FAS, HSL, LEP genes, but does not affect the expression of the LPL and SCD1 genes in all studied tissues. This study highlights, for the first time, the role of supra nutritional levels of chromium in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. These findings are of especial importance for improving meat quality in domestic animals.

  2. Inductive Double-Contingency Analysis of UO2 Powder Bulk Blending Operations at a Commercial Fuel Plant (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Skiles, S. K.

    1994-12-22

    An inductive double-contingency analysis (DCA) method developed by the criticality safety function at the Savannah River Site, was applied in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) of five major plant process systems at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation`s Commercial Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-Cola.). The method emphasizes a thorough evaluation of the controls intended to provide barriers against criticality for postulated initiating events, and has been demonstrated effective at identifying common mode failure potential and interdependence among multiple controls. A description of the method and an example of its application is provided.

  3. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... have plenty of fat. They include nuts, oils, butter, and meats like beef. The name — fat — may ... you reach that goal. It includes a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, milk, and an apple. The ...

  4. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ...

  5. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  6. Saturated fats (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in saturated fats.

  7. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink low-fat or skim milk. Doing the Math How much fat should you eat? Experts say ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  8. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed…

  9. Comparative Analysis of Structural Responses of Rat Subcutaneous Fat on the Implantation of Samples of Polymethyl Methacrylate with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surface.

    PubMed

    Kudasova, E O; Vlasova, L F; Semenov, D E; Lushnikova, E L

    2017-03-31

    Morphological analysis of the subcutaneous fat was performed in rats after subcutaneous implantation of basic dental plastic materials with different hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. It was shown that subcutaneous implantation of dental plastics with mostly hydrophobic surface and low biocompatibility induced destructive and inflammatory processes of various intensities, sometimes with allergic component; morphological signs of processes persisted for 6 weeks. Modification of basic plastics using glow-discharge plasma and enhancement of their hydrophilicity and biocompatibility significantly reduced the intensity of destructive and inflammatory processes and ensured more rapid (in 2 weeks) repair of the destroyed tissues with the formation of fibrous capsule around the implant.

  10. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  11. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  12. Compressibility study of quaternary phospholipid blend monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Leide P; Tho, Ingunn; Konovalov, Oleg; Fossheim, Sigrid; Brandl, Martin

    2011-07-01

    The mechanical properties of liposome membranes are strongly dependent on type and ratio of lipid compounds, which can have important role in drug targeting and release processes when liposome is used as drug carrier. In this work we have used Brewster's angle microscopy to monitor the lateral compression process of lipid monolayers containing as helper lipids either distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) or dioleoyl phophatidylethanolamine (DOPE) molecules on the Langmuir trough. The compressibility coefficient was determined for lipid blend monolayers containing the helper lipids above, cholesterol, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and pegylated-DSPE at room temperature. Two variables, the cholesterol fraction and the ratio ρ between the helper lipid (either DSPE or DOPE) and the reference lipid DSPC, were studied by multivariate analysis to evaluate their impact on the compressibility coefficient of the monolayers. The cholesterol level was found to be the most significant variable for DSPE blends while the ratio ρ was the most significant one for DOPE blend monolayers. It was also found that these two variables can exhibit positive interaction and the same compressibility value can be obtained with different blend compositions.

  13. Porous Polyolefin Films via Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macosko, Chris

    Porous polymer films have broad application including battery separators, membrane supports and filters. Polyolefins are attractive for these applications because of their solvent resistance, low electrical and thermal conductivity, easy fabrication and cost. We will describe fabrication of porous films using cocontinuous blends of a polyolefin with another polymer which can be readily removed with a solvent. Methods to image and control the cocontinuous morphology will be presented.Bell, J. R., K. Chang, C. R. Lopez-Barron, C. W. Macosko, and D. C. Morse, ''Annealing of cocontinuous polymer blends: effect of block copolymer molecular weight and architecture,'' Macromolecules 43, 5024-5032 (2010).Lopez-Barron, C. R., and C. W. Macosko, ''Direct measurement of interface anisotropy of bicontinuous structures via 3D image analysis,'' Langmuir 26, 14284-14293 (2010).Trifkovic, M., A. T. Hedegaard, K. Huston, M. Sheikhzadeh, and C. W. Macosko, ''Porous films via PE/PEO cocontinuous blends,'' Macromolecules 45, 6036-6044 (2012).Hedegaard, A.T., L.L. Gu and C. W. Macosko, ``Effect of Extensional Viscosity on Cocontinuity of Immiscible Polymer Blends'' J. Rheol. 59, 1397-1417 (2015).

  14. Predicting percent composition of blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and partial least squares analysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Karisa M; Schale, Stephen P

    2011-01-30

    The percent composition of blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel from a variety of retail sources were modeled and predicted using partial least squares (PLS) analysis applied to gas chromatography-total-ion-current mass spectrometry (GC-TIC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-total-ion-current mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TIC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) separations of the blends. In all four cases, the PLS predictions for a test set of chromatograms were plotted versus the actual blend percent composition. The GC-TIC plot produced a best-fit line with slope=0.773 and y-intercept=2.89, and the average percent error of prediction was 12.0%. The GC-MS plot produced a best-fit line with slope=0.864 and y-intercept=1.72, and the average percent error of prediction was improved to 6.89%. The GCxGC-TIC plot produced a best-fit line with slope=0.983 and y-intercept=0.680, and the average percent error was slightly improved to 6.16%. The GCxGC-MS plot produced a best-fit line with slope=0.980 and y-intercept=0.620, and the average percent error was 6.12%. The GCxGC models performed best presumably due to the multidimensional advantage of higher dimensional instrumentation providing more chemical selectivity. All the PLS models used 3 latent variables. The chemical components that differentiate the blend percent compositions are reported.

  15. Comparison of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, proton density fat fraction and histological analysis in the quantification of liver steatosis in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Michele; Pacifico, Lucia; Bezzi, Mario; Di Miscio, Rossella; Sacconi, Beatrice; Chiesa, Claudio; Catalano, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To establish a threshold value for liver fat content between healthy children and those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with liver biopsy serving as a reference standard. METHODS The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their legal guardians before the study began. Twenty-seven children with NAFLD underwent liver biopsy to assess the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The assessment of liver fat fraction was performed using MRI, with a high field magnet and 2D gradient-echo and multiple-echo T1-weighted sequence with low flip angle and single-voxel point-resolved ¹H MR-Spectroscopy (¹H-MRS), corrected for T1 and T2* decays. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cut-off value. Lin coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between histology, MRS and MRI-PDFF. A Mann-Whitney U-test and multivariate analysis were performed to analyze the continuous variables. RESULTS According to MRS, the threshold value between healthy children and those with NAFLD is 6%; using MRI-PDFF, a cut-off value of 3.5% is suggested. The Lin analysis revealed a good fit between the histology and MRS as well as MRI-PDFF. CONCLUSION MRS is an accurate and precise method for detecting NAFLD in children. PMID:27818597

  16. Analysis of volatile compounds in beef fat by dynamic-headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Ueda, Y; Higuchi, M; Shiba, N

    2008-06-01

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique has been applied to the determination of the volatile compounds, including diterpenoids and lactones, in cooked beef fat. The ability of static-headspace SPME to extract lactones was disappointing, regardless of the type of SPME fiber or the temperature used. Dynamic-headspace SPME extraction with 50-/30-microm divinylbenzene-Carboxen on a polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 100 degrees C, by contrast, enabled the analysis of volatiles, including delta-lactones, gamma-lactones, and diterpenoids, with 50-/30-microm divinylbenzene-Carboxen on a polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 100 degrees C. Fifty-three compounds were identified from only 0.20 g of rendered beef fat, and 76% of these showed reliable peak size repeatability: the coefficient of variation was less than 10% on the total ion chromatograms obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Some lactones showed higher CV values (>10%), but single-ion mode GC-MS analysis reduced them to 10% or less. In a study of beef samples available to the Japanese market, our analytical procedure revealed significantly higher levels of 1-hexanol, octadecane, ethyl tetradecanoate, gamma-nonalactone, but lower levels of delta-decalactone, delta-dodecalactone, and neophytadiene, in Japanese Black cattle than in beef imported from Australia.

  17. Comparison of reducing epicardial fat by exercise, diet or bariatric surgery weight loss strategies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, S W; Campbell, H

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to determine whether epicardial fat (EAT) is subject to modification, and whether various strategies accomplish this end point and the relationship between weight loss and EAT. A systematic review of the literature following meta-analysis guidelines was conducted using the search strategy 'epicardial fat' OR 'epicardial adipose tissue' AND 'diet' OR 'exercise' OR 'bariatric surgery (BS)' OR 'change in body weight' limited to humans. Eleven articles were identified with 12 intervention approaches of which eight studies showed a statistically significant reduction in EAT. A random-effects meta-analysis suggests an overall significant reduction of 1.12 standardized units (95% CI = [-1.71, -0.54], P value < 0.01). While there is a large amount of heterogeneity across study groups, a substantial amount of this variability can be accounted for by considering intervention type and change in body mass index (BMI). These variables were incorporated into a random-effects meta-regression model. Using this analysis, significant EAT reduction occurred with diet and BS but not with exercise. BMI reductions correlated significantly with EAT reductions for diet-based interventions, i.e. for some but not all interventions. In conclusion, EAT, a factor that is significantly associated with coronary artery disease, can be modified. The type of intervention, in addition to the amount of weight loss achieved, is predictive of the amount of EAT reduction.

  18. A quick, optimized method for routine analysis of essential and trans-octadecenoic acids in edible fats and oils by GLC.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Calvo, María Visitación; Fontecha, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A gas chromatography procedure using a 30-m capillary column (VF-23ms) has been optimized for quick analysis (run time less than 20 min). The method is suitable for routine analysis of the fatty acid composition of edible fat and oil samples (milk, fish, vegetal and synthetic origin). The results were comparable with those obtained with a 100-m-long CP-Sil 88 column (run times between 60 and more than 100 min) in the analysis of geometric and positional isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The achieved resolution of compounds from 4 to 26 carbon atoms with 0-6 double bonds, as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, major trans-octadecenoic isomers and conjugated linoleic acid isomers, was higher than those reported in other proposed and reference methods for similar samples using short-length columns. The response factors obtained from the fatty acid composition of reference milk fat exhibited high feasibility and the inter-assay (VF23ms versus CP-Sil 88) and intra-assays based on relative standard deviation showed good accuracy, because they were lower than 10%.

  19. [Physico-chemical evaluation of products extruded with sorghum-corn-soybean blends].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, R R; Gómez, M H

    1988-03-01

    Yellow corn grits (M), brown sorghum (SM), white sorghum (SB) and full fat soy flour (S) blends were extruded in an autogenous Brady Crop Cooker extruder at 195-200 degrees C and 11% moisture content. Binary blends (70:30) made up of M:S, SM:S and SB:S; and ternary blends (30:40:30) made up of SM:M:S and SB:M:S were extruded. Under these conditions, extrudates contained about 19% protein and 6% fat, which are within the specifications given for cereal/oil seed blends. Raw and extruded samples were analyzed for ES, WQI, WSI, MD and paste viscosity. All blends underwent modifications in the starch fraction at granular and molecular level. Brown sorghum extrudates presented higher degradation than those of white sorghum and corn:soy blends, although the last ones gave similar responses to analitical techniques. Extrudates greatly increased their ES, SWI and MD values, suggesting that degradation products, like dextrins, were present. Cooked paste low viscosities (50 degrees C) and micrographs support these findings. Because of their functional characteristics, extrudates could be used in beverages.

  20. The LC-MS method for the simultaneous analysis of selected fat-soluble vitamins and their metabolites in serum samples obtained from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Kaźmierska, Katarzyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic diseases in children and affects mainly respiratory and digestive system functions. Despite the prolonged supplementation of vitamins, malnutrition manifested by poor growth and weight loss in children is a major complication in CF related to pancreatic insufficiency and difficulty in absorbing fat-soluble vitamins. In the present study, we have developed and validated a sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of three fat-soluble vitamins (A, E and K1) and two vitamin D3 active metabolites: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in serum samples obtained from pediatric patients with CF. In optimized conditions, the LC-MS method was highly sensitive and presented excellent linearity with a regression coefficient higher than 0.999. The accuracy was in the range of 87.55-95.58 % for all analytes. The precision of the method, expressed as% RSD, ranged from 1.36 % to 3.74 % as the intra-day variability and from 2.35 % to 7.98 % as the inter-day precision for all the studied compounds. Sample preparation included a protein precipitation step with the use of methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. The statistical analysis (t-test and principal component analysis (PCA)) of the obtained results revealed significant changes in the plasma level of the analyzed compounds, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, vitamin E and K1 present at extremely low concentrations in patients with cystic fibrosis in comparison to healthy controls. The elaborated method reached the expectations for the fast and reliable assessment of fat-soluble vitamin status in children with cystic fibrosis in order to diagnose the disease and monitor the treatment process.

  1. A Blended Approach to Learning: Added Value and Lessons Learnt from Students' Use of Computer-Based Materials for Neurological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alison; Ramsay, Jill; Lindfield, Helen; Couperthwaite, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines BSc Physiotherapy students' experiences of developing their neurological observational and analytical skills using a blend of traditional classroom activities and computer-based materials at the University of Birmingham. New teaching and learning resources were developed and supported in the School of Health Sciences using Web…

  2. An Analysis of the Visual and Auditory Aspects of Sound Blending Including Central Auditory Integration as Measured on the Maid. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Judith Lynn

    Analyzed was the performance of 30 children with normal reading and speech skills on various blending tasks. There were three groups of ten Ss each with each group receiving one of three modes of presentation: auditory, visual, or auditory visual. The stimuli consisted of 150 consonant-vowel (CV), vowel-consonant (VC), and…

  3. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  4. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  5. Performance and emission analysis on blends of diesel, restaurant yellow grease and n-pentanol in direct-injection diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, J; Saravanan, S

    2017-02-01

    Yellow grease from restaurants is typically waste cooking oil (WCO) free from suspended food particles with free fatty acid (FFA) content less than 15%. This study proposes an approach to formulate a renewable, eco-friendly fuel by recycling WCO with diesel (D) and n-pentanol (P) to improve fuel-spray characteristics. Three ternary blends (D50-WCO45-P5, D50-WCO40-P10 and D50-WCO30-P20) were selected based on the stability tests and prepared with an objective to substitute diesel by 50% with up to 45% recycled component (WCO) and up to 20% bio-component (n-pentanol) by volume. The fuel properties of these ternary blends were measured and compared. The emission impacts of these blends on a diesel engine were analysed in comparison with diesel and D50-WCO50 (50% of diesel + 50% of WCO) under naturally articulated and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) approaches. Doping of n-pentanol showed improved fuel properties when compared to D50-WCO50. Viscosity is reduced up to 45%. Cetane number and density were comparable to that of diesel. Addition of n-pentanol to D50-WCO50 presented improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for all ternary blends. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of D50-WCO30-P20 blend is comparable to diesel due to improved atomization. Smoke opacity reduced, HC emissions increased and CO emissions remained unchanged with doping n-pentanol in the WCO. NOx emission increases with increase in n-pentanol and remained lower than diesel and all load conditions. However, NOx can be decreased by up to threefold using EGR. By adopting this approach, WCO can be effectively reused as a clean energy source by negating environmental hazards before and after its use in diesel engines, instead of being dumped into sewers and landfills.

  6. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianhua; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Morikawa, Hideaki; Aojima, Kazuki; Zhang, Guangyu; Miura, Mikihiko

    2011-08-01

    Silk sericin (SS)/silk fibroin (SF) blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters of the SS/SF (75/25, 50/50, and 25/75) blend nanofibers were much thicker than that of SS and SF nanofibers. The SS/SF (100/0, 75/25, and 50/50) blend nanofibers were easily dissolved in water, while the SS/SF (25/75 and 0/100) blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in water. The SS/SF blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in methanol. The SS/SF blend nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and differential thermal analysis. FTIR showed that the SS/SF blend nanofibers possessed a random coil conformation and ß-sheet structure.

  7. Experimental and Computational Analysis of a Large Protein Network That Controls Fat Storage Reveals the Design Principles of a Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Zinn, Kai

    2015-01-01

    An approach combining genetic, proteomic, computational, and physiological analysis was used to define a protein network that regulates fat storage in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A computational analysis of this network shows that it is not scale-free, and is best approximated by the Watts-Strogatz model, which generates “small-world” networks with high clustering and short path lengths. The network is also modular, containing energy level sensing proteins that connect to four output processes: autophagy, fatty acid synthesis, mRNA processing, and MAP kinase signaling. The importance of each protein to network function is dependent on its Katz centrality score, which is related both to the protein’s position within a module and to the module’s relationship to the network as a whole. The network is also divisible into subnetworks that span modular boundaries and regulate different aspects of fat metabolism. We used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to simultaneously block output from multiple network nodes. The phenotypic results of this blockage define patterns of communication among distant network nodes, and these patterns are consistent with the Watts-Strogatz model. PMID:26020510

  8. Experimental and computational analysis of a large protein network that controls fat storage reveals the design principles of a signaling network.

    PubMed

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Arpp, Patrick; Gerges, Sherif; Ormerod, Christopher; Olsman, Noah; Zinn, Kai

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining genetic, proteomic, computational, and physiological analysis was used to define a protein network that regulates fat storage in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A computational analysis of this network shows that it is not scale-free, and is best approximated by the Watts-Strogatz model, which generates "small-world" networks with high clustering and short path lengths. The network is also modular, containing energy level sensing proteins that connect to four output processes: autophagy, fatty acid synthesis, mRNA processing, and MAP kinase signaling. The importance of each protein to network function is dependent on its Katz centrality score, which is related both to the protein's position within a module and to the module's relationship to the network as a whole. The network is also divisible into subnetworks that span modular boundaries and regulate different aspects of fat metabolism. We used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to simultaneously block output from multiple network nodes. The phenotypic results of this blockage define patterns of communication among distant network nodes, and these patterns are consistent with the Watts-Strogatz model.

  9. Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalima; Dangwal, Kiran Lata

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning is an innovative concept that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI). Blended learning needs rigorous efforts, right…

  10. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education.

  11. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staker, Heather; Horn, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning in the K-12 sector is occurring both remotely through virtual schools and on campuses through blended learning. In emerging fields, definitions are important because they create a shared language that enables people to talk about the new phenomena. The blended-learning taxonomy and definitions presented in this paper…

  12. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  13. Simultaneous microemulsion liquid chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations: optimization using genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Momenbeik, Fariborz; Roosta, Mostafa; Nikoukar, Ali Akbar

    2010-06-11

    An environmentally benign and simple method has been proposed for separation and determination of fat-soluble vitamins using isocratic microemulsion liquid chromatography. Optimization of parameters affecting the separation selectivity and efficiency including surfactant concentration, percent of cosurfactant (1-butanol), and percent of organic oily solvent (diethyl ether), temperature and pH were performed simultaneously using genetic algorithm method. A new software package, MLR-GA, was developed for this purpose. The results indicated that 73.6mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 13.64% (v/v) 1-butanol, 0.48% (v/v) diethyl ether, column temperature of 32.5 degrees C and 0.02M phosphate buffer of pH 6.99 are the best conditions for separation of fat-soluble vitamins. At the optimized conditions, the calibration plots for the vitamins were obtained and detection limits (1.06-3.69microgmL(-1)), accuracy (recoveries>94.3), precision (RSD<3.96) and linearity (0.01-10mgmL(-1)) were estimated. Finally, the amount of vitamins in multivitamin syrup and a sample of fish oil capsule were determined. The results showed a good agreement with those reported by manufactures.

  14. Effect of the addition of a cocoa butter-like fat enzymatically produced from olive pomace oil on the oxidative stability of cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Ciftçi, Ozan Nazim; Kowalski, Bolesław; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Fadiloğlu, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    A cocoa butter (CB)-like fat was produced in a packed bed enzyme reactor using sn-1,3 specific lipase, and its blends with CB were prepared at different ratios (CB: CB-like fat; 100: 0, 90: 10, 80: 20, 70: 30, 60: 40, 50: 50, 0: 100). The oxidation kinetics of CB: CB-like fat blends was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Samples were heated in DSC at different temperatures (130, 140, 150, 160 degrees C) under 100 mL/min oxygen. From DSC exotherms, oxidation induction times (OIT) were determined and used for the assessment of the oxidative stabilities of the blends. Oxidation kinetics parameters (activation energy, E(a); preexponential factor, Z; and oxidation rate constant, k) were calculated. In general, it has been observed that above 110 degrees C increasing the ratio of CB-like fat in the blend increased the k value with increasing temperature. It has been observed that for all blends the increase in k value with temperature was significant (P < 0.05). Increasing CB-like fat ratio in the blend decreased the content of major TAGs (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POP]; 1[3]-palmitoyl-3[1]stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POS]; 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [SOS]), and decreased the oxidative stability of the blends.

  15. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    PubMed

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  16. Effect of deep-fat frying on fat oxidation in soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Goburdhun, D; Jhurree, B

    1995-11-01

    The frying performance and stability of pure soybean oil (PSBO), soybean oil blended with palm kernel olein and PSBO with an antioxidant mixture of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate and citric acid were compared. The oils were subjected to intermittent frying (up to 15 fryings, without any 'topping up') of potato slices, at 180 degrees C for a period of and 337 min. Analytical determinations on the oils included the peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), free fatty acid (FFA) value, saponification value (SV) and the refractive index (RI). Changes in the product at the sensory level were also assessed. Results showed that (1) fat oxidation hence, reduction of unsaturated fatty acids, as indicated by changes in the IV, was non-significant in the treated oils, (2) hydrolysis of fats, as shown by changes in the FFA value from the first to last frying, was lowest in the blended oil but highest in PSBO, (3) the same trend as above was observed for PV, an indicator of fat oxidation and rancidity, (4) changes in SV were non-significant in the treated soya oils while PSBO with the antioxidant showed the least change in RI, (5) treated oils exhibited no visual increase in viscosity or turbidity and (6) PSBO with the antioxidant had the lightest colour at the end of the frying period. Taste panellists were unable to discriminate between products fried in the treated oils and in PSBO. Sensory assessment showed an improved quality of the chips fried in the blend. Chips fried in PSBO scored the lowest ratings. Thus, the overall results showed an improved behaviour and quality of the treated oils in terms of themal stability during frying.

  17. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rotondo, Floriana; Romero, María del Mar; Ho-Palma, Ana Cecilia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown. Experimental Design Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h. Non-adipocyte cells were also recovered and their sizes (and those of adipocytes) were measured. The presence of non-nucleated cells (erythrocytes) was also estimated. Results Cell numbers and sizes were correlated from all fractions to intact WAT. Tracing the lipid content, the recovery of adipocytes in the final, metabolically active, preparation was in the range of 70–75%. Cells showed even higher metabolic activity in the second than in the first day of incubation. Adipocytes were 7%, erythrocytes 66% and other stromal (nucleated cells) 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT. Conclusions The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the “live cell mass” of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination). These data translate (with respect to the

  18. Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

    2014-09-01

    In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

  19. The use of scanning probe microscopy to characterize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, T.; Yao, L.; Beatty, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scanning probe microscopy for the examination of atomic scale phenomena in polymers has been well documented, but the use of scanning probe microscopy to examine submicron scale structures has not been well documented. The purpose of this project was to examine the structure of polymer blends on a submicron scale. Two different systems were studied; a blend of recycled thermoplastics and a blend of ground rubber tire particles in a polystyrene matrix. Topographical images, z modulation plots, internal sensor measurements, and lateral force microscopy images were obtained for both systems. The plots were compared to the structures that we were expected to obtain. A second method of mathematical analysis, fractal dimension measurement, was also performed on the topographical images. Fractal dimension measurement has been correlated to fracture toughness in homopolymers, but the correlation has not been established for polymer blends. Comparison of both methods will be shown.

  20. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian’An; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Gräßler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Wright, Alan F; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; North, Kari E; O’connell, Jeffrey R; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Assimes, Themistocles L; Wichmann, H-Erich; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Stefansson, Kari; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; McCarthy, Mark I; Fox, Caroline S; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2011-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10−9 to P = 1.8 × 10−40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10−3 to P = 1.2 × 10−13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  1. Effect of frying on the rheological and chemical properties of palm oil and its blends.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Bazlul Mobin; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Ahmad, Anees; Ayob, Afizah; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Ak, Mohd Omar

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the changes in the physicochemical properties of palm oil and its blends by FTIR and rheological measurements. Application of heat produces some chemical compounds as impurities and even toxic compounds in oils and fats that give absorbance at different region. FTIR spectra of pure palm olein shows an absorbance at 3002 cm(-1) whereas other pure oils show maximum absorption at around 3007 cm(-1) due to C-H stretching vibration of cis-double bond (=C-H). By blending of high unsaturated oils with palm olein, a clear shift of 3007 cm(-1) band to 3005 cm(-1) occurs. Viscosity of palm olein was found higher among all oils while it subsequently and substantially reduced by blending with other oils. Since it is a function of temperature, viscosity of pure oils and their blends decreases with the increase of temperature. The loss modulus (G''), for all oil blends before and after frying, in rheological experiment was found higher for all oils than the storage modulus (G'), therefore, the viscous property was found higher than elastic property of oils and blends. However, the critical stress for all oil blends was found higher than that of pure oils.

  2. Water resistance and thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol-starch fiber blend film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, M. S. N.; Nor, N. N. Mohamed; Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. Syed

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention of starch fiber (SF) has led to the innovation of Polyvinyl Alcohol-SF (PVA-SF) blends. This blend is regarded as the biodegradable material which aims to reduce the accumulation of synthetic polymer solid waste derived from petroleum. In this study, the thermal blending characterizations of PVA-SF were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The water resistance of the blend was also evaluated to study the polarity of the blends. The blend was prepared by plasticizing the polyvinyl alcohol with glycerol and distilled water with the addition of starch fiber. The incorporation of SF to the blends was at 10 wt% to 50 wt% composition. Based on the thermal analysis, PVA-SF blends were suitable for processing at high temperatures, which can be seen by the shifted onset degradation temperature to a higher temperature. This is because cyclic hemiacetals which were provided by SF can act to prevent the thermal attacks. Conversely, increasing the starch fiber proportion to the film blend reduce the endothermic peak amplitude in the DSC thermogram. It was found that PVA-SF blend at the higher composition of SF had the highest water resistance. This may be attributed to the content of fibre in SF which is hydrophilic.

  3. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  4. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the blends increased significantly with increasing the concentration of PHA. Blending PLA with soy protein aims at reducing production cost, as well as accelerating the biodegradation rate in soil medium. In this work, the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the blends were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile tests.

  5. Blended Course Design: Where's the Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Blended or hybrid course design is generally considered to involve a combination of online and classroom activities. However defining blended courses solely based on delivery mode suggests there is nothing more to a blended course than where students meet and how they use technology. Ultimately there is a risk that blended courses defined in this…

  6. Blends of zein and nylon-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of zein and nylon-6(55k)were used to produce solution cast films and electrospun fibers. Zein was blended with nylon-6 in formic acid solution. When the amount of nylon-6 was 8% or less a compatible blend formed. The blend was determined to be compatible based on physical property measurement...

  7. Lipophilicity of oils and fats estimated by TLC.

    PubMed

    Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica D; Sârbu, Costel

    2013-04-01

    A representative series of natural toxins belonging to alkaloids and mycotoxins classes was investigated by TLC on classical chemically bonded plates and also on oils- and fats-impregnated plates. Their lipophilicity indices are employed in the characterization and comparison of oils and fats. The retention results allowed an accurate indirect estimation of oils and fats lipophilicity. The investigated fats and oils near classical chemically bonded phases are classified and compared by means of multivariate exploratory techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis, or fuzzy-principal component analysis. Additionally, a concrete hierarchy of oils and fats derived from the observed lipophilic character is suggested. Human fat seems to be very similar to animal fats, but also possess RP-18, RP-18W, and RP-8.

  8. Determinants of exercise-induced fat oxidation in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2010-03-01

    Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.

  9. In situ orientation studies of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blend by rheo-optical fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Unger, Miriam; Siesler, Heinz W

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the orientation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) blend was monitored during uniaxial elongation by rheo-optical Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and analyzed by generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The dichroism of the delta(CH(2)) absorption bands of PHB and PCL was employed to determine the polymer chain orientation in the PHB/PCL blend during the elongation up to 267% strain. From the PHB and PCL specific orientation functions it was derived that the PCL chains orient into the drawing direction while the PHB chains orient predominantly perpendicular to the applied strain. To extract more detailed information about the polymer orientation during uniaxial elongation, 2D-COS analysis was employed for the dichroic difference of the polarization spectra recorded during the drawing process. In the corresponding synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation plots, absorption bands characteristic of the crystalline and amorphous regions of PHB and PCL were separated. Furthermore, the 2D-COS analysis revealed that during the mechanical treatment the PCL domains orient before the PHB domains.

  10. Analysis of oil used in late Roman oil lamps with different mass spectrometric techniques revealed the presence of predominantly olive oil together with traces of animal fat.

    PubMed

    Kimpe, K; Jacobs, P A; Waelkens, M

    2001-12-07

    The lipid fraction of residues in ancient oil lamps found at the archaeological site of Sagalassos (south-west Turkey) was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). The identification of plant sterols and long chain alcohols suggested that a vegetable oil was used in these lamps. The lipid sample was also analysed with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The identification of TAG's detected with LC-APCI-MS showed that predominantly olive oil was used as a fuel for the antique oil lamps. The presence of large quantities of multiply unsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) and traces of saturated TAG indicated that also other oils and animal fat were added. Summarizing, the analysis of TAG's with LC-APCI-MS in lipid extracts of ancient ceramics proved to be a valuable method to reconstitute the original contents.

  11. Origin Story: Blended Wing Body

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Bo...

  12. Genome-wide association of pericardial fat identifies a unique locus for ectopic fat.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; White, Charles C; Lohman, Kurt; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Cohen, Paul; Zhang, Yingying; Johnson, Andrew D; Emilsson, Valur; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Y-D Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Allison, Matthew; Budoff, Matthew; Rotter, Jerome I; Carr, J Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Udo; Ding, Jingzhong; Cupples, L Adrienne; Liu, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    Pericardial fat is a localized fat depot associated with coronary artery calcium and myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that genetic loci would be associated with pericardial fat independent of other body fat depots. Pericardial fat was quantified in 5,487 individuals of European ancestry from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of pericardial fat adjusted for age, sex, weight, and height. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted, and validation was obtained in an additional 3,602 multi-ethnic individuals from the MESA study. We identified a genome-wide significant signal in our primary meta-analysis at rs10198628 near TRIB2 (MAF 0.49, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)). This SNP was not associated with visceral fat (p = 0.17) or body mass index (p = 0.38), although we observed direction-consistent, nominal significance with visceral fat adjusted for BMI (p = 0.01) in the Framingham Heart Study. Our findings were robust among African ancestry (n = 1,442, p = 0.001), Hispanic (n = 1,399, p = 0.004), and Chinese (n = 761, p = 0.007) participants from the MESA study, with a combined p-value of 5.4E-14. We observed TRIB2 gene expression in the pericardial fat of mice. rs10198628 near TRIB2 is associated with pericardial fat but not measures of generalized or visceral adiposity, reinforcing the concept that there are unique genetic underpinnings to ectopic fat distribution.

  13. Molecular cloning, expression pattern analysis of porcine Rb1 gene and its regulatory roles during primary dedifferentiated fat cells adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoming; Luo, Pei; Peng, Xuewu; Song, Tongxing; Zhou, Yuanfei; Wei, Hongkui; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2015-04-01

    Adipocytes are the main constituent of adipose tissue and are considered to be a corner stone in the homeostatic control of whole body metabolism. Recent reports evidenced that retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) gene plays an important role in fat development and adipogenesis in mice. Here, we cloned the partial cDNA sequences of the porcine Rb1 gene which contains the complete coding sequences (CDS) of 2820bp encoding a protein of 939 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the CDS of porcine Rb1 was highly identical with those of cattle, human and mice. The porcine Rb1 has three typical conserved structural domains, including Rb-A pocket domain, CYCLIN domain and C-terminus domain, and the phylogenetic tree indicates a closer genetic relationship with cattle and human. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Rb1 expression appeared to be ubiquitously in various tissues, being higher in heart, liver, muscle, and stomach. Furthermore, significant downregulation of Rb1 was found at the initial stage of dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells adipogenic differentiation. With the knockdown of the Rb1 expression by siRNA, the number of DFAT cells recruited to white rather than brown adipogenesis was promoted, and mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as PPARγ, aP2, LPL and adiponectin and protein expression of PPARγ and adiponectin were increased after hormone stimulation. The underlying mechanisms may be that knockdown of Rb1 promotes the mitotic clonal expansion and PPARγ expression by derepressing the transcriptional activity of E2F so as to facilitate the first steps of adipogenesis. In summary, we cloned and characterized an important negative regulator in adipogenic commitment of porcine DFAT cells.

  14. Partially Blended Constrained Rational Cubic Trigonometric Fractal Interpolation Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, A. K. B.; Tyada, K. R.

    2016-08-01

    Fractal interpolation is an advance technique for visualization of scientific shaped data. In this paper, we present a new family of partially blended rational cubic trigonometric fractal interpolation surfaces (RCTFISs) with a combination of blending functions and univariate rational trigonometric fractal interpolation functions (FIFs) along the grid lines of the interpolation domain. The developed FIFs use rational trigonometric functions pi,j(θ) qi,j(θ), where pi,j(θ) and qi,j(θ) are cubic trigonometric polynomials with four shape parameters. The convergence analysis of partially blended RCTFIS with the original surface data generating function is discussed. We derive sufficient data-dependent conditions on the scaling factors and shape parameters such that the fractal grid line functions lie above the grid lines of a plane Π, and consequently the proposed partially blended RCTFIS lies above the plane Π. Positivity preserving partially blended RCTFIS is a special case of the constrained partially blended RCTFIS. Numerical examples are provided to support the proposed theoretical results.

  15. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  16. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  17. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  18. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  19. Multicomponent analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins and auxiliary substances in multivitamin preparations by qNMR.

    PubMed

    Eiff, Julia; Monakhova, Yulia B; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2015-04-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was tested to control 12 vitamins and accompanying substances in multivitamin preparations. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) varied in the 9.0-77.0 mg/kg and in the 34.5-93.5 mg/kg range, respectively. The coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged between 0.9% and 12%. The (1)H NMR spectra showed linearity for the 140-260 mg sample weight (R(2) > 0.918). The NMR spectra of multivitamin preparations showed the presence of different degradation products of ascorbic acid. The NMR method was applied to 13 different multivitamin preparations including tablets, capsules, and effervescent tablets with average recovery rates between 85% and 132%. A number of accompanying substances (citric acid, mannitol, saccharin, cyclamate, sum of steviol glycosides, and butylhydroxytoluene) were additionally identified and quantified. NMR was found to be suitable for the simultaneous qualitative measurement of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and accompanying substances and shows some promise for quantitative determination of at least 5 vitamins (B1, B3, B5, B6, and E) in multivitamin preparations.

  20. Local friction in polyolefin blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2005-07-01

    Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. The friction experienced by a short chain segment depends on both small-scale chain properties and on the local environment of the segment. As a consequence, the (monomeric) friction coefficients of the two components of a binary polymer blend will, in general, differ from each other and from the friction coefficients of the corresponding melts. In this work, we investigate local friction in polyolefin blends with the aid of a small-scale simulation approach. The polymer chains, in united atom representation, are assumed to occupy the sites of a partially filled simple cubic lattice. The simulation focuses on short chain sections with straight backbones and enumerates all possible binary contacts and relative movements of such sections. By evaluating the exact enumeration results in conjunction with equations of state for the blends, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficients with local chain architecture and thermodynamic state (temperature, pressure, and composition). We calculate relative values of friction coefficients at temperatures well above the glass transition for blends of PEP, an alternating copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene, with polyethylene and polyisobutylene and for blends of polyethylene and atactic polypropylene. We also investigate a blend of PEP with head-to-head polypropylene and compare our results with experimental data.

  1. Co-carbonization of two anthracites with a fat coal or two pitches

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.; Wang, Z.Z.

    2006-04-15

    The blends of two anthracite powders (YQ and JC) with a fat coal (C4) or a petroleum pitch (PP) or a coal tar pitch (CTP) in different proportions were co-carbonized at 3{sup o}C/min up to 1000{sup o}C in an experimental 1 kg coke oven. Coke yield, coke particulate size, coke micro-strength and coke cracking strength were measured respectively. Coke optical textures were watched under a microscope. The results show that as anthracite proportion increases, coke yields of all blends improve; > 0.8 mm lump coke yields of blends with CTP or PP decline slightly, blends with C4 drop heavily; coke microstrengths do not change sharply, and coke cracking strength of blends with C4 or PP decrease more than blends with CTP. C4 produces fine-grained mosaics, and two anthracites are mainly fusinite and fragments, PP is coarse-grained mosaics, and CTP is chiefly flow or domain textures. Independent optical textures were observed in cokes. There exist evident borders between the two contact optical textures which were produced by different components, and a few phenomena that domain or flow textures penetrating into fusinite appeared in the blends. It seems that CTP is the best adhesives for blending with anthracites for producing high quality cokes.

  2. Electrospun cellulose nitrate and polycaprolactone blended nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nartker, Steven; Hassan, Mohamed; Stogsdill, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Pure cellulose nitrate (CN) and blends of CN and polycaprolactone were electrospun to form nonwoven mats. Polymers were dissolved in a mixed solvent system of tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethylformamide. The concentrations were varied to obtain sub-micron and nanoscale fiber mats. Fiber mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The fiber morphology, surface chemistry and contact angle data show that these electrospun materials are suitable for applications including biosensing, biomedical and tissue engineering.

  3. Advanced materials based on polymer blends/polymer blend nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikaleska, A. V.; Pavlovska, F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Processability, morphology, mechanical properties and rheological behavior of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC)/poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) blends and PVC/PEMA/montmorillonite (MMT) composites, prepared by melt processing in a brabender mixer, were studied. Samples were characterized using SEM, mechanical testing, DMTA and a parallel plate rheometer. Plastograms show that there is noticeable drop of fusion times and increase in melt viscosity torque of both, polymer blend and polymer blend nanocomposite, in comparison with those of neat PVC. SEM images show that homogenous dispersions are obtained. Tensile tests indicate that PVC/PEMA and PVC/PEMA/MMT samples have greater tensile strength and elastic modulus and lower elongation compared to PVC. When solid viscoelastic properties are considered (DMTA), slightly higher storage moduli are obtained whereas more prominent increase of storage modulus is observed when nanoclay particles are added in a PVC/PEMA matrix. From the calculated area of tandelta peak of all tested samples, nanocomposites exhibit the lowest damping behavior. Oscillatory measurements in a molten state were used for determining the frequency dependencies of storage G' and loss G" moduli. It was found that G" curves of neat PVC lie above those of G' suggesting that PVC behaves like viscoelastic liquid. Similar results, but with significantly higher values of G' and G" over the whole frequency range for PVC/PEMA blends were obtained. Steady shear measurements show that the presence of PEMA and nanoclay particles increases the shear stress and shear viscosity of neat PVC. In order to define the rheological equations of state the three material functions were determined. According to these functions all samples exhibit shear thinning behavior and the curves obey the power law equation. As rheological behaviour was found to be strongly dependent on blend's micro and macro structure and it is one of the main factors defining the end properties, attempt was

  4. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  5. The Relationship between Farming Activities, Physical Fitness and Body Fat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Military training, *Military personnel, *Research management, *Physical fitness, *Measurement, National Guard, Statistical analysis, Mean, Fat cells, Human body , Questionnaires, Field tests, Test methods, Variables, Scoring

  6. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From ... some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and be sure to check out Face ...

  7. Impact modification of polyamide 11 by the reactive blending with epoxy group modified polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Oono, Yuko; Li, Yongjin; Nakayama, Kazuo; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Polyamide 11 (PA11) and epoxy group modified polyethylene (EGMA) were melt-blended in a segment mixer at 230 degrees C. The reactive nature of the blend is reflected in the mixing torque behavior of the blend at different compositions. The dynamic mechanical analysis reveals shifted glass transition temperatures for both PAl 1 and EGMA, indicating the improved miscibility by the reactive blending. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that EGMA is precisely dispersed in PAl 1 matrix with the domain size of several hundred nanometers for the reactive blends. The mechanical properties were also measured for the obtained material and it exhibits greatly improved impact strength as compared with the neat PA11. In addition, the toughening mechanism for the blend system was also studied.

  8. Network reconstruction via graph blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Rolando

    2016-05-01

    Graphs estimated from empirical data are often noisy and incomplete due to the difficulty of faithfully observing all the components (nodes and edges) of the true graph. This problem is particularly acute for large networks where the number of components may far exceed available surveillance capabilities. Errors in the observed graph can render subsequent analyses invalid, so it is vital to develop robust methods that can minimize these observational errors. Errors in the observed graph may include missing and spurious components, as well fused (multiple nodes are merged into one) and split (a single node is misinterpreted as many) nodes. Traditional graph reconstruction methods are only able to identify missing or spurious components (primarily edges, and to a lesser degree nodes), so we developed a novel graph blending framework that allows us to cast the full estimation problem as a simple edge addition/deletion problem. Armed with this framework, we systematically investigate the viability of various topological graph features, such as the degree distribution or the clustering coefficients, and existing graph reconstruction methods for tackling the full estimation problem. Our experimental results suggest that incorporating any topological feature as a source of information actually hinders reconstruction accuracy. We provide a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon and suggest several avenues for improving this estimation problem.

  9. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  10. Joint analysis of additive, dominant and first-order epistatic effects of four genes (IGF2, MC4R, PRKAG3 and LEPR) with known effects on fat content and fat distribution in pigs.

    PubMed

    López-Buesa, P; Burgos, C; Galve, A; Varona, L

    2014-02-01

    LEPR, MC4R, IGF2 and PRKAG3 are genes with known effects on fat content and distribution in pig carcass and pork. In a study performed with Duroc × Landrace/Large White pigs, we have found that IGF2 has strong additive effects on several carcass conformational traits and on fatty acid composition in several anatomical locations. MC4R shows additive effects on saturated fatty acid content in several muscles. On the other side, almost no additive effect has been found for PRKAG3 and very few for LEPR. In this work, no dominant effect has been found for any of the four genes. Using a Bayesian Lasso approach, we have been able now to find first-order epistatic (mainly dominant-additive) effects between LEPR and PRKAG3 for intramuscular fat content and for saturated fatty acid content in L. dorsii, B. femoralis, Ps. major and whole ham. The presence of interactions between genes in the shaping of traits of such importance as intramuscular fat content and composition highlights the complexity of heritable traits and the difficulty of gene-assisted selection for such traits.

  11. Impact of blend ratio on the co-firing of a commercial torrefied biomass and coal via analysis of oxidation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Jillian L; Liu, Chao

    2013-12-01

    Incorporation of torrefied biomass into coal-fired power plants could potentially lower the SOx and net CO2 emissions resulting from electricity generation. However, concerns over lower heating values and slightly higher ash content of torrefied biomass suggest that blending it with coal in industrial boilers may be preferable to complete fuel transition. By studying the oxidation kinetics of coal-torrefied biomass blends in a thermogravimetric analyzer at a heating rate of 100°C/min, we find an additive nature among the fuels for peak mass loss rates and enthalpies of combustion. The activation energy required to initiate decomposition decreases from 132.6 to 77.6 kJ/mol as the torrefied biomass increases from 0 to 100 wt%, with a sharp decrease between 0 and 40 wt%. Data suggest that incorporation of torrefied biomass into coal-fired boilers is dependent on the ability to sacrifice heating value for the lower emissions of SOx and net CO2 garnered using bio-coal.

  12. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  13. Cross Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies of organic bulk heterojunction blends for local morphology and electrical behavior analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Le Borgne, D.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I.; Moineau Chane-Ching, K. I.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.

    2015-02-07

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices performances depend on the relative organization and physical properties of the electron-donor and -acceptor materials. In this paper, BHJs of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) associated with an electron acceptor material, 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C6 (PCBM) or [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}], are studied in terms of morphology, ordering, and electrical properties. First, comparison between the two BHJs performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman characterizations shows that P3HT structuration is improved by blending with [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}]. Then, the relationship between charges trapping, electrical properties, and film morphology is investigated using conductive AFM and Kelvin Force Microscopy. Measurements in dark condition and under solar cell simulator provide complementary information on electrical phenomena in these organic nanostructures. Finally, time dependent measurement highlights the influence of charges stacking on conduction. Specifically, we demonstrate that charge accumulation initiated by illumination remains valid after switching off the light, and induces the modification in current versus voltage characteristic of P3HT: PCBM blend. Finally, we observe a current increasing which can be attributed to the energy barrier decreasing due to charges trapping in PCBM.

  14. Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our work was to compare two methods, both based on direct transmethylation with different reagents, BF3/MeOH (boron trifluoride in methanol) or HCl/MeOH (hydrochloride acid in methanol), in acid catalysis, without prior extraction, to find the fast, non-expensive but enough precise method for 9 principal fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arahidic and behenic acids) analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content (forage from grassland), for nutrition and agrochemical studies. Results Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05). The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters. Conclusion The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions. PMID:22269394

  15. Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results from Histopathology Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Patrik; Forsgren, Mikael F; Ignatova, Simone; Dahlström, Nils; Cedersund, Gunnar; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Norén, Bengt; Ekstedt, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Kechagias, Stergios

    2017-03-09

    It is possible to estimate hepatic triglyceride content by calculating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), instead of collecting and analyzing liver biopsies to detect steatosis. However, the current PDFF cut-off value (5%) used to define steatosis by magnetic resonance was derived from studies that did not use histopathology as the reference standard. We performed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of (1)H-MRS PDFF in measurement of steatosis using histopathology analysis as the standard. We collected clinical, serologic, (1)H-MRS PDFF, and liver biopsy data from 94 adult patients with increased levels of liver enzymes (6 months or more) referred to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden from 2007 through 2014. Steatosis was graded using the conventional histopathology method and fat content was quantified in biopsy samples using stereological point counts (SPCs). We correlated (1)H-MRS PDFF findings with SPCs (r = 0.92; P <.001). (1)H-MRS PDFF results correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.87; P <.001), and SPCs correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.88; P <.001). All 25 subjects with PDFF values of 5.0% or more had steatosis based on histopathology findings (100% specificity for PDFF). However, of 69 subjects with PDFF values below 5.0% (negative result), 22 were determined to have steatosis based on histopathology findings (53% sensitivity for PDFF). Reducing the PDFF cut-off value to 3.0% identified patients with steatosis with 100% specificity and 79% sensitivity; a PDFF cut-off value of 2.0% identified patients with steatosis with 94% specificity and 87% sensitivity. These findings might be used to improve non-invasive detection of steatosis.

  16. A new high-performance ionic polymer–metal composite based on Nafion/polyimide blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jungsoo; Hwang, Taeseon; Kim, Kwang Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan

    2017-03-01

    For the first time, we report ion-exchange membranes based on Nafion and polyimide (PI, Kapton) blends to fabricate ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs). Polyamic acid [PAA, poly(pyromellitic dianhydride-co-4,4‧-oxydianiline), as a precursor of PI] solution was blended with Nafion solution using physical blending method to provide PAA–Nafion blend membrane. This work demonstrates that, by simple physical blending method, the thermal and mechanical properties of Nafion can be improved while maintaining the excellent actuating performance. After thermal imidization, PAA converted into PI, resulting in PI–Nafion blend membrane. Optimum conditions to cast PAA–Nafion blends and thermal imidization have been established, and blend membranes with PI wt% of 6, 12, 18, and 30 were prepared. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation of PI in the Nafion matrix. Thermal decomposition unique to the PI became more noticeable as the content of PI increased, which was measured by thermogravimetric analysis. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the storage modulus (E‧) increased as a function of PI content while loss modulus (E″) exhibited only a minor change, which resulted in the decrease in the damping properties (tan δ). The blend membranes were fabricated into IPMCs by deposition of platinum electrode onto the membrane surface through electroless plating process. Among tested, NPI-18 IPMC actuator, which has 18 wt% of PI in Nafion, showed comparable electromechanical performance to the commercially available Nafion 117 IPMC actuator.

  17. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  18. Blending chitosan with polycaprolactone: effects on physicochemical and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Sarasam, Aparna R; Krishnaswamy, Raj K; Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2006-04-01

    Chitosan is a well sought-after polysaccharide in biomedical applications and has been blended with various macromolecules to mitigate undesirable properties. However, the effects of blending on the unique antibacterial activity of chitosan as well as changes in fatigue and degradation properties are not well understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-bacterial properties and changes in physicochemical properties of chitosan upon blending with synthetic polyester poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL). Chitosan and PCL were homogeneously dissolved in varying mass ratios in a unique 77% acetic acid in water mixture and processed into uniform membranes. When subjected to uniaxial cyclical loading in wet conditions, these membranes sustained 10 cycles of predetermined loads up to 1 MPa without break. Chitosan was anti-adhesive to Gram-positive Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans bacteria. Presence of PCL compromised the antibacterial property of chitosan. Four-week degradation studies in PBS/lysozyme at 37 degrees C showed initial weight loss due to chitosan after which no significant changes were observed. Molecular interactions between chitosan and PCL were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which showed no chemical bond formations in the prepared blends. Investigation by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) indicated that the crystal structure of individual polymers was unchanged in the blends. Dynamic mechanical and thermal analysis (DMTA) indicated that the crystallinity of PCL was suppressed and its storage modulus increased with the addition of chitosan. Analysis of surface topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a significant increase in roughness of all blends relative to chitosan. Observed differences in biological and anti-bacterial properties of blends could be primarily attributed to surface topographical changes.

  19. Thermoset Blends of an Epoxy Resin and Polydicyclopentadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Brian J.; Le, Kim Mai; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan L.

    2016-12-13

    The mechanical properties of two chemically distinct and complementary thermoset polymers were manipulated through development of thermoset blends. The thermoset blend system was composed of an anhydride-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin, contributing high tensile strength and modulus, and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD), which has a higher toughness and impact strength as compared to other thermoset polymers. Ultra-small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis explored the morphology of concurrently cured thermoset blends, revealing a macroscopically phase separated system with a surface fractal structure across blended systems of varying composition. The epoxy resin rich and PDCPD rich phases exhibited distinct glass transitions (Tg’s): the Tg observed at higher temperature was associated with the epoxy resin rich phase and was largely unaffected by the presence of PDCPD, whereas the PDCPD rich phase Tg systematically decreased with increasing epoxy resin content due to inhibition of dicyclopentadiene ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The mechanical properties of these phase-separated blends were in reasonable agreement with predictions by the rule of mixtures for the blend tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the tensile and fracture specimen fracture surfaces showed an increase in energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crazing, shear banding, and surface roughness, as the fraction of the more ductile component, PDPCD, increased. These results present a facile method to tune the mechanical properties of a toughened thermoset network, in which the high modulus and tensile strength of the epoxy resin can be largely retained at high epoxy resin content in the blend, while increasing the fracture toughness.

  20. Investigation of the association between the test day milk fat-protein ratio and clinical mastitis using a Poisson regression approach for analysis of time-to-event data.

    PubMed

    Zoche-Golob, V; Heuwieser, W; Krömker, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the milk fat-protein ratio and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis including repeated cases of clinical mastitis to determine the usefulness of this association to monitor metabolic disorders as risk factors for udder health. Herd records from 10 dairy herds of Holstein cows in Saxony, Germany, from September 2005-2011 (36,827 lactations of 17,657 cows) were used for statistical analysis. A mixed Poisson regression model with the weekly incidence rate of clinical mastitis as outcome variable was fitted. The model included repeated events of the outcome, time-varying covariates and multilevel clustering. Because the recording of clinical mastitis might have been imperfect, a probabilistic bias analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the misclassification of clinical mastitis on the conventional results. The lactational incidence of clinical mastitis was 38.2%. In 36.2% and 34.9% of the lactations, there was at least one dairy herd test day with a fat-protein ratio of <1.0 or >1.5, respectively. Misclassification of clinical mastitis was assumed to have resulted in bias towards the null. A clinical mastitis case increased the incidence rate of following cases of the same cow. Fat-protein ratios of <1.0 and >1.5 were associated with higher incidence rates of clinical mastitis depending on week in milk. The effect of a fat-protein ratio >1.5 on the incidence rate of clinical mastitis increased considerably over the course of lactation, whereas the effect of a fat-protein ratio <1.0 decreased. Fat-protein ratios <1.0 or >1.5 on the precedent test days of all cows irrespective of their time in milk seemed to be better predictors for clinical mastitis than the first test day results per lactation.

  1. Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.

    PubMed

    Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ≤ 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ≤ 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes.

  2. Assessment of transesterified palm olein and Moringa oleifera oil blends as vanaspati substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Rahman, Fazal

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suitability of Moringa oleifera oil and palm olein blends as vanaspati substitutes on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Blends were prepared either by blending Moringa oleifera oil or palm olein at 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100 ratios, transesterified by Rhizopus miehei, compared with market vanaspati, designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The blends were filled in 3-layer polyethylene pouch packs, stored at ambient temperature, sampled at every at 0, 90 and 180-days for the assessment of storage stability. The melting point and iodine value of T2 and control were 36.8, 37.2 °C and 62.2, 51.8, with no effect on free fatty acids content, peroxide, anisidine values and color of the deodorized stuffs. C18:1 content of T2 was 59.7 % with no trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acid content of the market vanaspati was 22.9 %. The addition of Moringa oleifera oil improved the induction period of the blends strongly inhibited the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The overall acceptability score of French fries prepared in T2 was 81 % of the total score (9). Blend containing 50 % palm olein and 50 % Moringa oleifera oil can be used in the formulation of a functional shelf stable fat that can be used as a vanaspati substitute.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of porcine M. semimembranosus divergent in intramuscular fat as a consequence of dietary protein restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is positively correlated with aspects of pork palatability, including flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. The ratio of energy to protein in the finishing diet of growing pigs can impact on IMF content with consequences for pork quality. The objective of this study was to compare gene expression profiles of Musculus semimembranosus (SM) of animals divergent for IMF as a consequence of protein dietary restriction in an isocaloric diet. The animal model was derived through the imposition of low or high protein diets during the finisher stage in Duroc gilts. RNA was extracted from post mortem SM tissue, processed and hybridised to Affymetrix porcine GeneChip® arrays. Results IMF content of SM muscle was increased on the low protein diet (3.60 ± 0.38% versus 1.92 ± 0.35%). Backfat depth was also greater in animals on the low protein diet, and average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were lower, but muscle depth, protein content and moisture content were not affected. A total of 542 annotated genes were differentially expressed (DE) between animals on low and high protein diets, with 351 down-regulated and 191 up-regulated on the low protein diet. Transcript differences were validated for a subset of DE genes by qPCR. Alterations in functions related to cell cycle, muscle growth, extracellular matrix organisation, collagen development, lipogenesis and lipolysis, were observed. Expression of adipokines including LEP, TNFα and HIF1α were increased and the hypoxic stress response was induced. Many of the identified transcriptomic responses have also been observed in genetic and fetal programming models of differential IMF accumulation, indicating they may be robust biological indicators of IMF content. Conclusion An extensive perturbation of overall energy metabolism in muscle occurs in response to protein restriction. A low protein diet can modulate IMF content of the SM by altering gene pathways

  4. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Setting and population Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. Results In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world’s adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega

  5. A novel partially biobased PAN-lignin blend as a potential carbon fiber precursor.

    PubMed

    Seydibeyoğlu, M Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Blends of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and lignin were prepared with three different lignin types by solution blending and solution casting. Among three types of lignin, one type was chosen and different blend concentrations were prepared and casted. The casted blend films were characterized chemically with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermally with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mechanical properties of the blends were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). FTIR analysis shows an excellent interaction of PAN and lignin. The interaction of the lignins and PAN was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DMA results reveal that the lignin enhance the mechanical properties of PAN at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The blend structure and morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images show that excellent polymer blends were prepared. The results show that it is possible to develop a new precursor material with a blend of lignin and PAN. These studies show that the side product of paper and cellulosic bioethanol industries, namely, lignin can be used for new application areas.

  6. Introducing Blended Learning: An Experience of Uncertainty for Students in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Linzi J.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance is analysed in this study of an introduction to blended learning for international students. Content analysis was conducted on the survey narratives collected from three cohorts of management undergraduates in the United Arab Emirates. Interpretation of certainty with blended learning was found in:…

  7. What Are Solid Fats?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick margarine shortening hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils* coconut oil* palm and palm kernel oils* * The starred items are ... and from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for ...

  8. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in avocados and olive, peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated ... saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in commercial baked goods. ...

  9. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  10. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered. This is a better evaluation of fat digestion and absorption. There are two reasons for this: ... normally and that the person may have impaired digestion or malabsorption . Malabsorption is seen with a wide ...

  11. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  12. Fats and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Reduce Your Intake Public Health Concerns Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar Fiber Added Sugar in the Diet Low-Carbohydrate Diets Sustainability Healthy Weight Measuring Fat The Best ...

  13. Long-term effects of low-fat diets either low or high in protein on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses of short-term studies indicate favorable effects of higher protein vs. lower protein diets on health outcomes like adiposity or cardiovascular risk factors, but their long-term effects are unknown. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Register) were searched up to August 2012 with no restriction to language or calendar date. A random effect meta-analysis was performed using the Software package by the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager 5.1. Sensitivity analysis was performed for RCTs with a Jadad Score ≥3, and excluding type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D). Results 15 RCTs met all objectives and were included in the present meta-analysis. No significant differences were observed for weight, waist circumference, fat mass, blood lipids (i.e. total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols), C-reactive protein, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. In contrast, improvements of fasting insulin was significantly more pronounced following high protein diets as compared to the low protein counterparts (weighted mean difference: -0.71 μIU/ml, 95% CI -1.36 to -0.05, p = 0.03). Sensitivity analysis of high quality RCTs confirmed the data of the primary analyses, while exclusion of studies with diabetic subjects resulted in an additional benefit of high-protein diets with respect to a more marked increase in HDL-cholesterol. Conclusion According to the present meta-analysis of long-term RCTs, high-protein diets exerted neither specific beneficial nor detrimental effects on outcome markers of obesity, cardiovascular disease or glycemic control. Thus, it seems premature to recommend high-protein diets in the management of overweight and obesity. PMID:23587198

  14. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  15. Class definition and mixture class definition by means of construction of convex hull boundaries: application to analysis for animal fat adulteration.

    PubMed

    Thielemans, A; de Brabander, H; Massart, D L

    1989-01-01

    A visual classification technique based on the construction of convex hull boundaries in combination with a principal component analysis is described. This combined technique was evaluated in the situation in which a distinction has to be made between 2 pure animal fat classes and the corresponding mixture class. In the first instance, a principal component analysis is carried out to ensure the 2-dimensional and thus visual aspect of the technique. Convex hulls are then constructed in the 2-dimensional principal component plane to delimit the boundaries of the different classes to be defined. The effectiveness of the constructed hull boundaries in the definition of class-membership was investigated by means of the classification of different simulated test samples. The results show that, at least for the tested applications, the technique is valid, although some false positive classifications occur. The detection of outliers especially seemed to pose problems. Therefore, some propositions are made of how to refine the developed hull technique to enhance the classification results.

  16. Simultaneous analysis for water- and fat-soluble vitamins by a novel single chromatography technique unifying supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kaori; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2014-10-03

    Chromatography techniques usually use a single state in the mobile phase, such as liquid, gas, or supercritical fluid. Chromatographers manage one of these techniques for their purpose but are sometimes required to use multiple methods, or even worse, multiple techniques when the target compounds have a wide range of chemical properties. To overcome this challenge, we developed a single method covering a diverse compound range by means of a "unified" chromatography which completely bridges supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography. In our method, the phase state was continuously changed in the following order; supercritical, subcritical and liquid. Moreover, the gradient of the mobile phase starting at almost 100% CO2 was replaced with 100% methanol at the end completely. As a result, this approach achieved further extension of the polarity range of the mobile phase in a single run, and successfully enabled the simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins with a wide logP range of -2.11 to 10.12. Furthermore, the 17 vitamins were exceptionally separated in 4min. Our results indicated that the use of dense CO2 and the replacement of CO2 by methanol are practical approaches in unified chromatography covering diverse compounds. Additionally, this is a first report to apply the novel approach to unified chromatography, and can open another door for diverse compound analysis in a single chromatographic technique with single injection, single column and single system.

  17. Characterization of Mode I Fracture and Morphological Properties of PLLA Blends with Addition of Lysine Triisocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannaladsaysy, Vilay; Todo, Mitsugu

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was toughened by blending with three different ductile biopolymers such as poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-e-caprolactone) (PBSC), poly (butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) (PBSL). The blend ratio was fixed to 50:50. Lysine triisocyanate (LTI) was added to the blends as a compatibilizer. Characterizations such as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), and mode I fracture test were used to characterize the effectiveness of LTI on the mechanical and morphological properties of various PLLA blends. It was found that PLLA/PCL blend shows the highest toughness energy among the binary blends. On the other hand, addition of LTI in PLLA/PBSC blend exhibits the best toughness property. Based on the FE-SEM observation, fractured surfaces of PLLA blends with LTI indicate ductile fracture with dense elongated fibrils. The largest damage zone is generated in the vicinity of crack-trip, suggesting that high energy dissipation occurred in the crack-trip region. FT-IR analysis also suggested that the NCO groups of LTI were acted as a compatibilizer, as the results of interaction between the two phases of the polymer blends.

  18. Analysis of Flame Retardancy in Polymer Blends by Synchrotron X-ray K-edge Tomography and Interferometric Phase Contrast Movies.

    PubMed

    Olatinwo, Mutairu B; Ham, Kyungmin; McCarney, Jonathan; Marathe, Shashidhara; Ge, Jinghua; Knapp, Gerry; Butler, Leslie G

    2016-03-10

    Underwriters Laboratories 94 test bars have been imaged with X-ray K-edge tomography between 12 and 32 keV to assess the bromine and antimony concentration gradient across char layers of partially burnt samples. Phase contrast tomography on partially burnt samples showed gas bubbles and dark-field scattering ascribed to residual blend inhomogeneity. In addition, single-shot grating interferometry was used to record X-ray movies of test samples during heating (IR and flame) intended to mimic the UL 94 plastics flammability test. The UL 94 test bars were formulated with varying concentrations of a brominated flame retardant, Saytex 8010, and a synergist, Sb2O3, blended into high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). Depending on the sample composition, samples will pass or fail the UL 94 plastics flammability test. Tomography and interferometry imaging show differences that correlate with UL 94 performance. Key features such as char layer, gas bubble formation, microcracks, and dissolution of the flame retardant in the char layer regions are used in understanding the efficiency of the flame retardant and synergist. The samples that pass the UL 94 test have a thick, highly visible char layer as well as an interior rich in gas bubbles. Growth of gas bubbles from flame-retardant thermal decomposition is noted in the X-ray phase contrast movies. Also noteworthy is an absence of bubbles near the burning surface of the polymer; dark-field images after burning suggest a microcrack structure between interior bubbles and the surface. The accepted mechanism for flame retardant activity includes free radical quenching in the flame by bromine and antimony species. The imaging supports this as well as provides a fast inspection of other parameters, such as viscosity and surface tension.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of biodiesel blends on Benzo[a]pyrene and main emissions using MOVES: A case study in Temuco, Chile.

    PubMed

    Pino-Cortés, Ernesto; Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Cubillos, Francisco; Fu, Joshua S; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-12-15

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke polluted cities in Chile; however, the diesel mobile sources are growing very fast in the past 10 years and so far very few studies have been done. The main goal of this research was to develop a 2013 emission inventory of criteria pollutants and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to evaluate the use of six biodiesel blends of 0%, 1%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 20% by volume of fuel in diesel motors from the vehicle fleet within the mentioned areas using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). Input parameters for the base year 2005 were estimated to implement and adapt the model in Chile, while results of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NH3, CO2 equivalent and SO2 were compared with the Chilean Emission Inventory estimated by the model "Methodology for the Calculation of Vehicle Emissions." The 2013 emissions reduced with respect to 2005, in the majority of the contaminants analyzed, despite the 47% increase in the annual miles traveled. Using biodiesel blends, an emission reduction was estimated at up to 15% in particulate matter, BaP, and CO for the year 2013, as well as an increment of 2% in NOx emissions, attributed to low sulfur content (50 ppm) in the diesel and the antiquity of the vehicle fleet. The results obtained gave evidence of the influence of the biodiesel use in the pollutant emissions to improve the Chilean air quality, as well as providing a strategy for this air quality management.

  20. Pressure sensitive conductive rubber blends

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H.H. ); Abdel-Bary, E.M. ); El-Mansy, M.K.; Khodair, H.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) was blended with polychloroprene (CR) according to standard techniques. The blend was mixed with different concentrations of ZnO. The vulcanized sample was subjected to electrical conductivity ({sigma}) measurements while different values of static pressure were applied on the sample. It was found that samples containing 7.5 phr ZnO showed a reasonable pressure sensitive increase of {sigma}. Furthermore, the {sigma} vs pressure relationship of rubber blend mixed with different concentrations of Fast Extrusion Furnace black (FEF) was investigated. It was found that rubber vulcanizate containing 40 phr FEF resulted in a negative value of the pressure coefficient of conductivity {approx equal} {minus} 4.5 KPa{sup {minus}1}.

  1. Incorporating soy protein into a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Dunn, A V

    2000-10-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends including four servings of at least 6.25 g each (25 g/day) of soy protein into a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol to reduce the risk of heart disease. Patients are more likely to comply with this dietary change if they have their physician's support. The author discusses how the clinician can help patients incorporate soy protein into a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet. A meta-analysis found that soy protein consumption achieved an average 9.3% decrease in total cholesterol, a 12.9% decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and a 10.5% decrease in triglycerides. Soy pills and supplements such as isoflavone are not recommended. The cholesterol-lowering benefit has only been observed when the intact soy protein is used. Soy milk can be used in place of milk in coffee or over breakfast cereal, as well as in milkshakes and other blended drinks. Soy milk can be substituted for milk in many recipes.

  2. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  3. Transcriptome analysis on the inflammatory cell infiltration of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in bama minipigs induced by a long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jihan; Yuan, Jing; Xin, Leilei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Siyuan; Chen, Yaoxing; Yang, Shulin; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months. The pigs exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome and developed steatohepatitis with greatly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes (2.27-fold, P<0.05), Kupffer cells (2.59-fold, P<0.05), eosinophils (1.42-fold, P<0.05) and neutrophils (2.77-fold, P<0.05). High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to explore the systemic transcriptome of the pig liver during inflammation. Approximately 18.2 gigabases of raw sequence data were generated, and over 303 million high-quality reads were assembled into 21,126 unigenes. RNA-seq data analysis showed that 822 genes were differentially expressed in liver (P<0.05) between the HFHSD and control groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that the process of inflammation involved the inflammatory signal transduction-related toll-like receptor, MAPK, and PPAR signaling pathways; the cytokine-related chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL12 signaling pathways; the leukocyte receptor signaling-related T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell signaling pathways; inflammatory cell migration and invasion- related pathways; and other pathways. Moreover, we identified several differentially expressed inflammation-related genes between the two groups, including FOS, JUN, TLR7, MYC, PIK3CD, VAV3, IL2RB and IL4R, that could be potential targets for further investigation. Our study suggested that long-term HFHSD induced obesity and liver inflammation, providing basic insight into the molecular mechanism of this condition and laying the

  4. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  5. Starch-Poly(Hydroxylalkanoate) Composites and Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes research on starch-polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) blends and composites. Efforts to increase compatibility, characterize mechanical and biodegradation properties are described. A range of blend products have been prepared including molded plastics, films and foams. Finally, futu...

  6. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  7. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  8. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    DOEpatents

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  9. Blended Identities: Identity Work, Equity and Marginalization in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikoop, Will

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical study of the self-presentation strategies employed by higher education students online; it examines student identity work via profile information and avatars in a blended learning environment delivered through social networking sites and virtual worlds. It argues that students are faced with difficult choices when…

  10. Miscibility of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) solvent polymer blends and nanofibers made by solution blow spinning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The miscibility of blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in polymer solutions by dilute solution viscometry and in solution blow spun nanofibers by microscopy (SEM, TEM) and by thermal and spectral analysis. Three blends of PLA and PEO were solution blended in...

  11. Blending at Small Colleges: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying-Hsiu; Tourtellott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Implementing blended accelerated learning programs or courses requires a systematic approach, not just the addition of new technologies. Small colleges face challenges when they move toward blended learning because of already-constrained resources. In this article, we will survey issues faced by small colleges in moving to blended learning,…

  12. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blend. 989.16 Section 989.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  13. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy.

    PubMed

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy's RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4phpDatabase URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php.

  14. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy’s RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php. Database URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php PMID:28077564

  15. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  16. A multi-trait, meta-analysis for detecting pleiotropic polymorphisms for stature, fatness and reproduction in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V-1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of silkworm fat body after knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene: a novel insight into cross-talk between tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanmei; Ma, Zhengang; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhiqing; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Sanyuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-09-01

    Cross-talk between tissues plays key roles in development of organisms; however, there are few researches on cross-talk between tissues in insects. Our previous studies showed that the pupal body weight was elevated after knocking out the fibroin heavy chain gene (BmFib-H), whereas the gene specifically expressed in silk glands of silkworm. Hence, the mutant is a good material for studying the cross-talk between tissues. It is considered that the fat body of silkworm during larval stage is used to store nutrients for pupal development. Herein, comparative proteomic of fat body on the 5th day of fifth instar was performed between BmFib-H gene knock-out Bombyx mori line (FGKO) and its wide-type Dazao. These results revealed that a single gene knock-out in silk gland triggered large-scale metabolic pathways changes in fat body. The levels of proteins involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and glycine-serine biosynthetic pathway were down-regulated in the FGKO fat body. In contrast, the abundances of many proteins participating in protein synthesis, including ribosomal proteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, and elongation factor, were up-regulated. Moreover, the concentrations of glycogen and proteins in the FGKO fat body were greatly increased. These findings provided a novel insight into the cross-talk between silk gland and fat body in silkworm, and the presence of cross-talk between silk gland and fat body could regulate the redistribution of nutrients in the FGKO fat body leading to the increase of the pupal weight.

  18. Characterization of plastic blends made from mixed plastics waste of different sources.

    PubMed

    Turku, Irina; Kärki, Timo; Rinne, Kimmo; Puurtinen, Ari

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies the recyclability of construction and household plastic waste collected from local landfills. Samples were processed from mixed plastic waste by injection moulding. In addition, blends of pure plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene were processed as a reference set. Reference samples with known plastic ratio were used as the calibration set for quantitative analysis of plastic fractions in recycled blends. The samples were tested for the tensile properties; scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis of the blend surfaces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used for the quantification of plastics contents.

  19. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  20. Building Effective Blended Learning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of electronic learning and Web-based learning focuses on blended learning programs which can include offline and online learning; self-paced and live, collaborative learning; structured and unstructured learning; and custom content and off-the-shelf content. Describes a model, called Khan's Octagonal Framework, which can be used to…

  1. Neighborhood School Blends In Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Design considerations for the Haverhill Elementary School in Fort Wayne (Indiana) were that it blend in with the residential neighborhood and be extremely energy effective. By dividing the building into four pods with low hip roofs, and by the extensive use of insulation, both requirements were met. (Author/MLF)

  2. Building a Blended Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    "Online learning" often serves as an umbrella term that includes the subcategory of blended learning, which might also be referred to as hybrid learning, and comprises some combination of online and face-to-face time. Spurred in part by a 2009 U.S. Department of Education study, "Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning," which…

  3. Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification of Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil and Walnut Oil to Produce a Fat Base with Adequate Nutritional and Physical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Farfán, Mariel; Álvarez, Alfredo; Gárate, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterification of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40) were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose- -type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3) content and with zero trans-fatty acids. PMID:27904370

  4. Short communication: Diet-induced variations in milk fatty acid composition have minor effects on the estimated melting point of milk fat in cows, goats, and ewes: Insights from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Chilliard, Y; Glasser, F

    2013-02-01

    In ruminants, the ability to maintain milk fat melting point within physiological values could play a role in the regulation of milk fat secretion when milk fatty acid (FA) composition varies, such as in response to feeding factors. However, the relationship between milk fat fluidity and changes in milk FA composition is difficult to study experimentally. A meta-analysis was therefore conducted to compare the magnitude of diet-induced variations in milk FA composition and the calculated melting point of milk FA (used as a proxy to estimate the variations in the melting point of milk fat) in 3 dairy ruminant species (cow, goat, and sheep). The coefficient of variation (CV), a scale-free measure of statistical dispersion, was used to compare the variability of criteria differing in their order of magnitude. The analysis of a database of milk FA profiles from cows, goats, and sheep fed different dietary treatments (unsupplemented diets and diets supplemented with lipids rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, or C20-22 polyunsaturated FA) revealed that the variability of the calculated melting point of milk FA was narrow (CV of 5%) compared with the variability of milk FA percentages (CV of 18 to 72%). The regulation of the melting point of milk fat is thus probably involved in the control of diet-induced variations in milk fat secretion. The calculated melting point of ewe milk FA was approximately 3°C lower than that of goats or cows across all types of diets, which might be linked to differences in milk fat content (higher in sheep) or the structure of milk triacylglycerides among these species. Lipid supplementation increased the calculated melting point of C18 FA in milk, whereas that of total FA was significantly reduced by supplements rich in oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids but not C20-22 polyunsaturated FA. However, the slight effects of dietary treatments on the calculated melting point of milk FA did not differ between cows, goats, and ewes.

  5. Influence of salt on the quality of reduced fat cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Mistry, V V; Kasperson, K M

    1998-05-01

    Cream was homogenized in a two-stage homogenizer (17.25 MPa in the first stage and 3.43 MPa in the second stage); blended with skim milk to produce milk containing 1.25% fat, which was pasteurized (63 degrees C for 30 min); and then manufactured into reduced fat Cheddar cheese. After milling, the curd was divided into three equal portions of 13 kg each. Three salting rates, 2.3, 3.8, and 5%, yielded cheeses with 1.3, 1.7, and 2.0% salt and 2.7, 3.7, and 4.5% salt in the moisture phase. Cheese moisture contents ranged from 45% (2.0% salt) to 47.7% (1.3% salt), and fat contents ranged from 14.6 to 15.1%. In the texture profile analysis, the hardness and fracturability of the cheeses increased as the salt content increased. Both parameters decreased during ripening, but cheeses with 4.5% salt in the moisture phase remained the hardest. Cheeses with the most salt had the least desirable body characteristics, but there were no differences in flavor. Intensity of bitterness was lowered as the amount of salt in cheese increased. During ripening, the number of lactic acid bacteria decreased more slowly in cheese with 2.7% salt in the moisture phase than in those with 3.7 or 4.5% salt in the moisture phase. As the salt content increased, proteolysis and the general rate of ripening decreased. Degradation of alpha s-casein was reduced by higher percentages of salt, but no differences were found in the degradation of beta-casein.

  6. Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Nik Norulaini, N A; Sahena, F; Abedin, M Z; Mohamed, A; Mohd Omar, A K

    2014-07-01

    The blending effects of mango seed fat (MSF), extracted using supercritical fluid, and palm stearin (PS) to formulate hard cocoa butter replacers (CBRs), were investigated. The triglycerides (TG), thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC) of the formulated blends were determined using different chromatographic and thermal techniques. All the blends had three main TGs; namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) (8.6-17.7%), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) (12.6-19.6%), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) (37.2-31.4%), with SOS being the major component. The melting peak temperatures gradually increased and shifted towards higher temperatures with PS. The crystallization onset temperatures increased, while the offset decreased with PS. The SFC did not drop to 0% at 37.5°C, which was shifted to 0% at and above 40°C for some blends. The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries.

  7. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of <20% of total energy intake; twenty subjects or more per group; the subjects were previously healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol.

  8. Fat chance for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429–440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ω-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ω-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  9. Stereological Analysis of Liver Biopsy Histology Sections as a Reference Standard for Validating Non-Invasive Liver Fat Fraction Measurements by MRI

    PubMed Central

    St. Pierre, Tim G.; House, Michael J.; Bangma, Sander J.; Pang, Wenjie; Bathgate, Andrew; Gan, Eng K.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Clouston, Andrew; Olynyk, John K.; Adams, Leon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Validation of non-invasive methods of liver fat quantification requires a reference standard. However, using standard histopathology assessment of liver biopsies is problematical because of poor repeatability. We aimed to assess a stereological method of measuring volumetric liver fat fraction (VLFF) in liver biopsies and to use the method to validate a magnetic resonance imaging method for measurement of VLFF. Methods VLFFs were measured in 59 subjects (1) by three independent analysts using a stereological point counting technique combined with the Delesse principle on liver biopsy histological sections and (2) by three independent analysts using the HepaFat-Scan® technique on magnetic resonance images of the liver. Bland Altman statistics and intraclass correlation (IC) were used to assess the repeatability of each method and the bias between the methods of liver fat fraction measurement. Results Inter-analyst repeatability coefficients for the stereology and HepaFat-Scan® methods were 8.2 (95% CI 7.7–8.8)% and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.5)% VLFF respectively. IC coefficients were 0.86 (95% CI 0.69–0.93) and 0.990 (95% CI 0.985–0.994) respectively. Small biases (≤3.4%) were observable between two pairs of analysts using stereology while no significant biases were observable between any of the three pairs of analysts using HepaFat-Scan®. A bias of 1.4±0.5% VLFF was observed between the HepaFat-Scan® method and the stereological method. Conclusions Repeatability of the stereological method is superior to the previously reported performance of assessment of hepatic steatosis by histopathologists and is a suitable reference standard for validating non-invasive methods of measurement of VLFF. PMID:27501242

  10. Preparation and characterization of collagen/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blend film.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cuicui; Zhang, Min; Li, Guoying

    2015-03-30

    This study aimed to prepare and characterize the collagen/HPMC blend film (1/1). Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the thermal properties of the film. Both thermal decomposition temperature and denaturation temperature of the blend film were higher than those of the collagen film due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between collagen and HPMC, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, the morphologies, mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of films were examined. The blend film exhibited a more homogeneous and compact structure compared with that of the collagen film, as observed from scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The tensile strength, ultimate elongation and hydrophilicity of the blend film were superior to those of the pure collagen film. Furthermore, the introduction of polyethylene glycol 1500 had almost no influence on the thermal properties of the blend film but obviously improved its stretch-ability and smoothness.

  11. Effect of polyfunctional monomers on properties of radiation crosslinked EPDM/waste tire dust blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Sajid; Nho, Young-Chang; Ahmad, Rashid

    2012-04-01

    In this study, waste tire dust is recycled as filler and blended with ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber. Three different polyfuntional monomers (PFMs) are incorporated into the standard formulation and irradiated under electron beam at different doses up to maximum of 100 kGy. The combined effects of PFMs and absorbed dose on the physical properties of EPDM/WTD blend are measured and compared with sulfur crosslinked formulation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that radiation developed better crosslinked network with higher thermal stability than sulfur crosslinked structure. The physical properties of radiation crosslinked blend are similar to the sulfur crosslinked blend. The absence of toxic chemicals/additives in radiation crosslinked blends made them an ideal candidate for many applications such as roof sealing sheets, water retention pond, playground mat, sealing profile for windows etc.

  12. Crosslinked bicontinuous biobased PLA/NR blends via dynamic vulcanization using different curing systems.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Daosheng; Chen, Kunling; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Zhonghua; Chen, Yukun

    2014-11-26

    In this study, blends of entirely biosourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and natural rubber (NR), were prepared through dynamic vulcanization using dicumyl peroxide (DCP), sulphur (S) and phenolic resin (2402) as curing agents, respectively. The crosslinked NR phase was found to be a continuous structure in all the prepared blends. The molecular weight changes of PLA were studied by gel permeation chromatography. Interfacial compatibilization between PLA and NR was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of blends were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis instrument. It was found that the molecular weight of PLA and interfacial compatibilizaion between PLA and NR showed a significant influence on the mechanical and thermal properties of blends. The PLA/NR blend (60/40 w/w) by DCP-induced dynamic vulcanization owned the finest mechanical properties and thermal stability.

  13. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and canola oils. Sources of polyunsaturated fats include soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil and foods like ... and polyunsaturated fats like olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and corn oil. Need More ...

  14. Effects of nicotinamide on milk composition and production in dairy cows fed supplemental fat.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Smith, T R; Young, J W

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two cows, averaging 112 DIM, were assigned to four dietary treatments: 1) control, 2) Ca salts of fatty acids, 3) nicotinamide, and 4) Ca salts of fatty acids blended with nicotinamide during manufacture. Preliminary studies showed that nicotinamide survives blending with Ca salts of fatty acids during manufacture and that a blended mixture of nicotinamide and Ca salts of fatty acids gave results similar to those from nicotinamide plus Ca salts of fatty acids supplemented separately. Calcium salts of fatty acids increased milk fat percentage, decreased milk protein percentage, but had no effect on production of milk, FCM, fat, or protein. Nicotinamide increased production of milk and protein, decreased fat percentage, but had no effect on either production of FCM and protein or percentage of protein. Calcium salts of fatty acids increased NEFA in blood, and dietary nicotinamide increased concentrations of nicotinamide in blood, but glucose and BHBA in blood were unaffected by either dietary ingredient. Therefore, in these midlactation cows, the decreased milk protein percentage caused by supplemental dietary fat was prevented by nicotinamide. Supplementation with only nicotinamide increased total production of milk protein.

  15. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-10-04

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields.

  16. Fabrication of chitosan/polyacrylonitrile blend and semi-IPN hydrogel with epichlorohydrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aijaz, Muhammad Omer; Haider, Sajjad; Al Mubddel, Fahad S.; Al Masry, Waheed. A.

    2015-05-01

    The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan (CS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blend and semi-interpenetrating polymer network (sIPN). Blend CS/PAN hydrogel films (HFs) were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. CS in the blend was crosslinked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare sIPN. The developed CS/PAN blend and sIPN hydrogels were characterized with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermagravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The result showed good miscibility between CS and PAN and crosslinking of CS in the blend. The swelling of the different blended and sIPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature (Tr). Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (˜2400%) and fair degree of stability (˜28% until 96 h), whereas sIPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (˜244%) and high degree of aqueous (˜85 % until 96 h), and thermal (onset temperature 304°C) stabilities

  17. Fabrication of chitosan/polyacrylonitrile blend and semi-IPN hydrogel with epichlorohydrin

    SciTech Connect

    Aijaz, Muhammad Omer; Haider, Sajjad Al Mubddel, Fahad S.; Al Masry, Waheed A.

    2015-05-22

    The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan (CS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blend and semi-interpenetrating polymer network (sIPN). Blend CS/PAN hydrogel films (HFs) were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. CS in the blend was crosslinked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare sIPN. The developed CS/PAN blend and sIPN hydrogels were characterized with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermagravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The result showed good miscibility between CS and PAN and crosslinking of CS in the blend. The swelling of the different blended and sIPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature (T{sub r}). Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (∼2400%) and fair degree of stability (∼28% until 96 h), whereas sIPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (∼244%) and high degree of aqueous (∼85 % until 96 h), and thermal (onset temperature 304°C) stabilities.

  18. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene and polydimethylsiloxane blend as acetabular cup material.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, M T; Zaghiyan, M; Mirzadeh, H

    2005-03-25

    An acetabular cup shock absorber implant is formed from a composite of polymer materials. The cup consists of three zones such as the articulating surface of the implant is 100% ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (zone 1) and shock absorber of the cup contains of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) (zone 3). Zone 2 which is designed for better adhesion between zone 1 and zone 2 consists of a blend of UHMWPE and PDMS is a cushion that from one side adheres to zone 1 and the other side to zone 2. PDMS and UHMWPE have been blended under conditions of shear and elevated temperature in order to form uniform, thermoplastic blends. When blends compared to pure UHMWPE, the blends show lowered tensile modulus and lowered mixing energies. The UHMWPE crystals are increased in quantity or else become more regular, even 50% blend shows no rubbery stage. The morphology and dynamic mechanical behavior of the blends were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanic thermal analysis (DMTA). In this study, the biocompatibility have evaluated in vitro the interaction of UHMWPE, silicone and PDMS/UHMWPE blends with L929 fibroblast cells.

  19. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  20. Cross-mode bioelectrical impedance analysis in a standing position for estimating fat-free mass validated against dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Chun; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Hsiao, An-Chi; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used to assess body composition. Cross-mode (left hand to right foot, Z(CR)) BIA presumably uses the longest current path in the human body, which may generate better results when estimating fat-free mass (FFM). We compared the cross-mode with the hand-to-foot mode (right hand to right foot, Z(HF)) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. We hypothesized that when comparing anthropometric parameters using stepwise regression analysis, the impedance value from the cross-mode analysis would have better prediction accuracy than that from the hand-to-foot mode analysis. We studied 264 men and 232 women (mean ages, 32.19 ± 14.95 and 34.51 ± 14.96 years, respectively; mean body mass indexes, 24.54 ± 3.74 and 23.44 ± 4.61 kg/m2, respectively). The DXA-measured FFMs in men and women were 58.85 ± 8.15 and 40.48 ± 5.64 kg, respectively. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to construct sex-specific FFM equations. The correlations of FFM measured by DXA vs. FFM from hand-to-foot mode and estimated FFM by cross-mode were 0.85 and 0.86 in women, with standard errors of estimate of 2.96 and 2.92 kg, respectively. In men, they were 0.91 and 0.91, with standard errors of the estimates of 3.34 and 3.48 kg, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement of -6.78 to 6.78 kg for FFM from hand-to-foot mode and -7.06 to 7.06 kg for estimated FFM by cross-mode for men, and -5.91 to 5.91 and -5.84 to 5.84 kg, respectively, for women. Paired t tests showed no significant differences between the 2 modes (P > .05). Hence, cross-mode BIA appears to represent a reasonable and practical application for assessing FFM in Chinese populations.

  1. Relationships between milks differentiated on native milk fat globule characteristics and fat, protein and calcium compositions.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have shown that milk fat globule (MFG) diameter varies in dairy cows in relation to diet and/or breed. However, the mechanisms governing the size of the fat globules remain hypothetical. Our objective was to determine the variable biochemical characteristics (fat, protein, fatty acids (FA), casein and calcium (Ca) contents) between individual milk which differed in both MFG diameter and membrane content, in order to speculate about the links between milk synthesis and MFG secretion. With this aim, we built five databases of individual milk samples from 21 experiments performed between 2003 and 2011. Three of them grouped data from trials dealing with breed/diet effects and included information about: (i) MFG size/membrane, fat and protein contents (n=982), (ii) previous parameters plus FA profile (n=529) and (iii) previous parameters plus true protein composition and calcium contents (n=101). A hierarchical clustering analysis performed on these three databases yielded four groups differing in the MFG characteristics. We observed significant differences among groups for the following parameters: (i) fat content and fat : protein ratio; (ii) de novo and polyunsaturated FA contents; (iii) Ca contents. These relationships could result from potential process regulating the synthesis and secretion of MFG: (i) the apical membrane turnover for MFG secretion and (ii) cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation in the lactocyte during its migration from the basal to the apical pole. The two other databases grouped data from trials dealing with milking frequency (n=211), milking kinetics and milk type (residual v. cisternal) (n=224). They were used to study the relationships between the size of the MFG and milk composition for high native fat contents (from 60 up to 100 g/kg in residual milks). We observed curvilinear relationships between the size of the MFG and fat content, as well as with the fat : protein ratio. This result suggests that MFG diameter reaches a

  2. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  3. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  4. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/24327023 . US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. Trans fat . Updated June 15, 2015. www.fda.gov/food/populartopics/ucm292278.htm . Accessed May 5, 2015. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. 2015 - 2020 ...

  5. Two paths to fat.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan D

    2015-04-01

    Excess caloric intake leads to both the growth of existing fat cells and the generation of new adipocytes. New findings show that PI3K-Akt2 signalling is involved in the differentiation of adult adipose precursor cells—a pathway not required for adipogenesis in the embryo.

  6. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  7. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian W.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW) >41 kg [90 lb]) to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg). We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82–84 megabases (Mb) and 101–104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4) gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1) at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5’UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1. PMID:28257443

  8. Assignment of Milk Fat Fatty Acid Propyl Esters by GC-FID Analysis with the Aid of Ag-ion Solid-phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Umezawa, Masatoshi; Tsukahara, Satoru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Sato, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yomi

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of short-chain fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat (MF) is improved when the analysis of the FA composition of MF by gas chromatography (GC) is conducted with the propyl or butyl ester derivatives, instead of the methyl esters. However, this approach complicates the detection of minor FAs, such as the minor positional isomers of 16:1, which represent <0.2% of the total content. In addition, the standards of these minor esters are not commercially available. In this study, with the aim to identify minor FAs, the fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) of MF were fractionated by Ag-ion solid phase extraction (Ag(+)-SPE) and analyzed by GC using a DB-23 capillary column. FAPEs were successfully fractionated mainly according to the degree of unsaturation by adjusting the elution conditions of the Ag(+)-SPE, and the minor FAPEs were easily determined without the aid of standard compounds. For example, by comparison of the GC profile of the saturated Ag(+)-SPE fraction with that of the original MF, minor FAs, such as iso-, anteiso-, and saturated FAs of 15:0 and 17:0, were expected to be eluted in this order. In addition, 16:1 propyl ester was co-eluted with iso 17:0 propyl ester under the GC conditions used in this study, as confirmed by the detection of the corresponding molecular ions (296 and 312, respectively) by GC-MS. Moreover, 9c,11t-conjugated linoleic acid was found to elute between 18:3 and 20:0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that the peak observed before that of cis-12:1 corresponds to trans-12:1. In conclusion, Ag(+)-SPE fractionation of FAPEs contributed to the identification of minor FAs in MF without the use of standard compounds.

  9. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness.

    PubMed

    Plassais, Jocelyn; Rimbault, Maud; Williams, Falina J; Davis, Brian W; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW) >41 kg [90 lb]) to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg). We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82-84 megabases (Mb) and 101-104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4) gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1) at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5'UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1.

  10. Kin selection under blending inheritance.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy

    2011-09-07

    Why did Darwin fail to develop his insights on kin selection into a proper theory of social adaptation? One suggestion has been that his inadequate understanding of heredity kept the problem out of focus. Here, I determine whether it is possible to develop a quantitative theory of kin selection upon the assumption of blending inheritance. I find that, whilst Hamilton's rule of kin selection can be readily derived under the assumption of blending inheritance, this mechanism complicates the computation of relatedness coefficients, and can even cause them to fluctuate over generations. Nevertheless, I show that the ultimate criterion for selection to favour any social trait - i.e. a time-average of Hamilton's rule - remains the same as under particulate inheritance. By eliminating the gene from the theory of kin selection, I clarify the role that it plays in the theory of social adaptation.

  11. Phonemic carryover perseveration: word blends.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S

    2004-11-01

    This article will outline and describe the aphasic disorder of recurrent perseveration and will demonstrate how it interacts with the retrieval and production of spoken words in the language of fluent aphasic patients who have sustained damage to the left (dominant) posterior temporoparietal lobe. We will concentrate on the various kinds of sublexical segmental perseverations (the so-called phonemic carryovers of Santo Pietro and Rigrodsky) that most often play a role in the generation of word blendings. We will show how perseverative blends allow the clinician to better understand the dynamics of word and syllable production in fluent aphasia by scrutinizing the "onset/rime" and "onset/superrime" constituents of monosyllabic and polysyllabic words, respectively. We will demonstrate to the speech language pathologist the importance of the trochee stress pattern and the possibility that its metrical template may constitute a structural unit that can be perseverated.

  12. Global Seasonal Climatologies of Ocean Chlorophyll: Blending In situ and Satellite Data for the CZCS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.

    1999-01-01

    The historical archives of in situ (National Oceanographic Data Center) and satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) chlorophyll data were combined using the blended analysis method of Reynolds [1988] in an attempt to construct an improved climatological seasonal representation of global chlorophyll distributions. The results of the blended analysis differed dramatically from the CZCS representation: global chlorophyll estimates increased 8-35% in the blended analysis depending upon season. Regional differences were even larger, up to 140% in the equatorial Indian Ocean in summer (during the southwest monsoon). Tropical Pacific chlorophyll values increased 25-41%. The results suggested that the CZCS generally underestimates chlorophyll. Regional and seasonal differences in the blended analysis were sufficiently large as to produce a different representation of global chlorophyll distributions than otherwise inferred from CZCS data alone. Analyses of primary production and biogeochemical cycles may be substantially impacted by these results.

  13. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed.

  14. Noninvasive Submental Fat Compartment Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: KYBELLA, ATX-101, is an injectable form of sodium deoxycholic acid. It is currently the only Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable drug for the reduction of submental fat. Objectives: A literature review and discussion of the treatment of submental fat. Results: KYBELLA is a well-tolerated alternative for the treatment of submental fat. Conclusions: KYBELLA is a safe and efficacious, first in class, injectable drug for the reduction of submental fat. PMID:28018773

  15. Identification of cellulosic fibers and determination of their blend ratio using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurabayashi, Toru; Shuhama, Hayato; Yodokawa, Shinichi; Kosaka, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for identifying fabric fibers and their blend ratio using terahertz spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of cellulosic fibers are discriminative due to the types of crystallized cellulose in each type of fiber when the samples are prepared by cutting the fibers to 0.2 mm lengths. The blend ratio of two different fibers was quantified using principal component analysis of the first derivative of the spectra, followed by multiple classification analysis.

  16. Postprandial lipoprotein composition in pigs fed diets differing in type and amount of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Faidley, T D; Beitz, D C

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effects of diet on postprandial lipoprotein composition, growing pigs were fed diets containing 20 or 40% of energy as soybean oil, tallow or a 50:50 blend of soybean oil and tallow. At the end of wk 6, a blood sample was drawn from pigs fasted for 12 h. Pigs were then fed, and blood samples were drawn 1 and 4 h later. In LDL, concentrations of free and total cholesterol were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.02). Pigs fasted for 12 h had lesser concentrations of triacylglycerol and greater concentrations of phospholipid in LDL and HDL than did pigs fasted for 1 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). In HDL, total cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). A greater concentration of triacylglycerol was found in VLDL of pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). Amount of dietary fat had a greater effect than did type of dietary fat on composition of lipoproteins from postprandial pigs.

  17. Effect of castor oil enrichment layer produced by reaction on the properties of PLA/HDI-g-starch blends.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhu; Zhang, Lisheng; Ma, Songqi; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Chuanzhi; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2013-04-15

    Blends of entirely bio-sourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and starch, have been melt-compounded by lab-scale co-extruder with castor oil (CO) as a plasticizer. The enrichment of castor oil on starch had great effect on the properties of the blends. If the castor oil was mainly dispersed in PLA matrix, the properties of the blends were poor, but when the hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) was grafted on starch granules the ready reactions between the hydroxyl on CO and the isocyante on the HDI-grafted starch (HGSTs) brought CO molecules enriched on starch particles. DSC analysis shows that the CO layer on starch has a positive effect on the crystallization of PLA in the ternary blend. The accumulation of CO on starch greatly improves the toughness and impact strength of PLA/starch blends. The grafting content of HDI on the starch granules primarily determined the compatibility and properties of the resulted blends.

  18. On the coarsening of immiscible polymer blends with cocontinuous morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Barron, Carlos Rene

    Cocontinuous blends are used in a number of applications, including porous media for filtration, dessicant entrained polymers and substrates for drug delivery devices. A major drawback of these materials is that they are thermodynamically unstable, which implies that their morphology evolves into coarser structures when they are above their glass transition (or melting) temperatures. The mechanisms involved in the coarsening process are not fully understood yet. Three aspects of the coarsening process were addressed in this work: (1) thorough characterization of the microstructure during coarsening via the implementation of novel 3D imaging techniques, (2) modification of interfacial properties via addition of block copolymers in order to hinder the coarsening, and (3) determination of the connection between morphology and viscoelastic response during the coarsening process. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to image fluorescently labeled polystyrene (FLPS)/styrene-ran-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) blends. A methodology to obtain 3D micrographs of the blends and analyzed them to extract information of the geometry (size and local curvatures), topology (connectivity) and anisotropy (normal vectors) was implemented. From the analysis of the time evolution of the size and local curvature of the interface, two regimes of coarsening were identified: an early regime, where the characteristic size grows linearly with time and the interface evolves in a self-similar manner, and a late regime where the surface growth is neither linear nor self-similar. The measured decrease of the interface curvature was used to explain this regime transition. Symmetric diblock copolymers (BC) made of polystyrene (PS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used to compatibilize the blends. A dramatic decrease in the rate of coarsening was observed after adding just 1% of BC. The stabilization was particularly good for BC with an intermediate molecular weight. This result

  19. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  20. Characteristics and Feasibility of Trans-Free Plastic Fats through Lipozyme TL IM-Catalyzed Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Akebia trifoliata Variety Australis Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shi-Qiang; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Bai, Chun-Qing; Peng, Hai-Long; Xiong, Hua; Hu, Ju-Wu; Zhao, Qiang

    2014-03-31

    Akebia trifoliata var. australis seed oil (ASO) was used as an edible oil in China. However, in-depth research studies on ASO have yet to be conducted for production of plastic fats in food industry. In this work, an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL IM) was employed to catalyze palm stearin (PS) with different ratios of ASO in a laboratory-scale operation at 60 °C. The physical properties [e.g., fatty acid profile, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), polymorphic form, and microstructure] of physical blends (PBs) were analyzed and compared with those of the interesterified products (IPs). Results showed that SMPs of IPs (33.20-37.60 °C) decreased compared with those of PBs (48.03-49.30 °C). Meanwhile, IPs showed a good SFC range from 16.11% to 28.29% at 25 °C with mostly β' polymorphic forms determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFAs) were detected in any products, suggesting much more health-benefits of IPs. Texture tests showed that PBs (3318.19 ± 86.67 g) were markedly harder than IPs (557.02 ± 12.75 g). Conclusively, our study demonstrated that ASO can be utilized to produce trans-free plastic fats with good qualities through lipase-catalyzed interesterification.

  1. Ethanol-diesel fuel blends -- a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alan C; Zhang, Qin; Lyne, Peter W L

    2005-02-01

    Ethanol is an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol-diesel blends.

  2. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  3. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    PubMed

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  4. Predicting the composition of red wine blends using an array of multicomponent Peptide-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Eman; Hopfer, Helene; Navarro, Andrea; Ritzer, Maxwell S; Mahmood, Lina; Fredell, Morgan; Cubley, Ashley; Bolen, Jessica; Fattah, Rabia; Teasdale, Katherine; Lieu, Linh; Chua, Tedmund; Marini, Federico; Heymann, Hildegarde; Anslyn, Eric V

    2015-05-20

    Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine.

  5. Fabrication of antibacterial blend film from poly (vinyl alcohol) and quaternized chitosan for packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Dongying; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • HTCC/PVA blend films were prepared through a simple mixing method. • The blend films had greater elongation at break and good optical transmittance. • The blend films had low oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability. • The films had good activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Blend films from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HTCC) were prepared via a simple mixing and casting method. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible measurements (UV–vis). The effects of HTCC amount on mechanical properties, oxygen permeability, water vapor permeation, and antibacterial properties against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) of the films were investigated. FTIR and XRD analysis show that HTCC and PVA in the blend films interacted by hydrogen bonding. SEM and UV–vis analysis reveal the good compatibility between HTCC and PVA. Compared with pure PVA film, the blend films had greater elongation at break, lower water permeability, and higher antibacterial activity. The HTCC addition decreased the tensile strength and the light transmittance. The results suggest that HTCC/PVA blend films have a potential as packaging materials.

  6. Assessment of powder blend uniformity: Comparison of real-time NIR blend monitoring with stratified sampling in combination with HPLC and at-line NIR Chemical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Barbara; Weimer, Marco; Hauck, Gerrit; Reich, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    attributed to differences in effective sample size and thief sampling errors. This conclusion was supported by HPLC and NIRCI analysis of tablets manufactured from powder blends after different blending times. In summary, the study clearly demonstrates the ability to develop efficient and robust quantitative calibrations for real-time NIR powder blend monitoring with a reduced set of powder blends while avoiding any bias caused by physical sampling.

  7. Prediction of fat percentage within marbling score on beef longissimus muscle using 3 different fat determination methods.

    PubMed

    Dow, D L; Wiegand, B R; Ellersieck, M R; Lorenzen, C L

    2011-04-01

    Consumers are concerned with fat consumption from meat products, and the ability to determine fat has changed with recent technological advances. The objective of this study was to predict fat percentage within marbling scores and compare 3 fat analysis procedures. Steaks (n = 119) were selected by USDA grading system using an E + V Vision Grading camera at a commercial beef plant during 1 d. Two samples per carcass were cut from the 13th rib, both sides, and transported to the University of Missouri meat laboratory. The sample from the right side of the carcass was allotted to Warner-Bratzler shear force, and the sample from the left side, which was graded by the camera, was allotted to fat extraction. Warner-Bratzler shear force samples were cut into 2.54-cm steaks and aged for 14 d. Steaks allotted to fat extraction were trimmed of all external fat and twice ground using 8- and 4-mm grinding plates. The finely ground beef was then split into its allotted fat-extraction methods. The 3 methods used in fat extraction were 2:1 chloroform/methanol (Folch), ether-extractable fat (ether), and microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (CEM). Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not different between marbling scores (P > 0.05). Regardless of fat extraction method, fat percentage increased as marbling score increased (P < 0.05). All regression equations for fat percentage, regardless of extraction method, were linear. Prediction equation for fat percentage using CEM was -3.46 + 0.016 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.824 (P < 0.0001). Prediction equation for fat percentage using ether was -3.08 + 0.017 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.859 (P < 0.0001). Prediction equation for fat percentage using Folch was -3.42 + 0.019 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.816 (P < 0.0001). When the CEM, Folch, and ether methods were compared, CEM and Folch regression lines had different slopes (P < 0.05). The slope of the regression line for ether was not different (P > 0.05) from CEM or Folch

  8. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh)

    PubMed Central

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P < 0.001) all chemical attributes except moisture and nitrogen-free extract, and fat level significantly impacted moisture, fat, protein, ash, acidity, and magnesium contents of Labneh. Type of milk significantly affected apparent modulus, hardness, hardness work done, and adhesive force, whereas fat level significantly affected hardness. Type of milk significantly affected the sensory attributes of syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture. PMID:24804075

  9. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh).

    PubMed

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-03-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P < 0.001) all chemical attributes except moisture and nitrogen-free extract, and fat level significantly impacted moisture, fat, protein, ash, acidity, and magnesium contents of Labneh. Type of milk significantly affected apparent modulus, hardness, hardness work done, and adhesive force, whereas fat level significantly affected hardness. Type of milk significantly affected the sensory attributes of syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture.

  10. Biocompatibility and biodegradation of polycaprolactone-sebacic acid blended gels.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Christiane L; Sanchez, Elisabete M S; Zavaglia, Cecília A C; Granja, Pedro L

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at creating biological body parts as an alternative for transplanting tissues and organs. A current new approach for such materials consists in injectable biodegradable polymers. Their major advantages are the ability to fill-in defects, easy incorporation of therapeutic agents or cells, and the possibility of minimal invasive surgical procedures. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a promising biodegradable and elastic biomaterial, with the drawback of low-degradation kinetics in vivo. In this work a biodegradable injectable gel of PCL blended with sebacic acid (SA) was prepared, to improve the degradation rate of the biomaterial. SA is known for its high degradation rate, although in high concentrations it could originate a pH decrease and thus disturb the biocompatibility of PCL. Degradation tests on phosphate buffered saline were carried out using 5% of SA on the blend and the biomaterial stability was evaluated after degradation using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamical mechanical analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy. After degradation the elastic properties of the blend decreased and the material became more crystalline and stiffer, although at a lower extent when compared with pure PCL. The blend also degraded faster with a loss of the crystalline phase on the beginning (30 days), although its thermal and mechanical properties remained comparable with those of the pure material, thus showing that it achieved the intended objectives. After cell assays the PCL-SA gel was shown to be cytocompatible and capable of maintaining high cell viability (over 90%).

  11. Teachers' experiences of teaching in a blended learning environment.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Pirkko; Mikkonen, Irma

    2013-11-01

    This paper considers teachers' experiences of teaching undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment. The basic idea of the study programme was to support students to reflect on theory and practice, and provide with access to expert and professional knowledge in real-life problem-solving and decision making. Learning was organised to support learning in and about work: students worked full-time and this provided excellent opportunities for learning both in practice, online and face-to-face sessions. The aim of the study was to describe teachers' experiences of planning and implementing teaching and learning in a blended-learning-based adult nursing programme. The research method was qualitative, and the data were collected by three focus group interviews, each with four to six participants. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the blended learning environment constructed by the combination of face-to-face learning and learning in practice with technology-mediated learning creates challenges that must be taken into consideration when planning and implementing blended teaching and learning. However, it provides good opportunities to enhance students' learning in and about work. This is because such programmes support student motivation through the presence of "real-life" and their relevance to the students' own places of work. Nevertheless, teachers require knowledge of different pedagogical approaches; they need professional development support in redesigning teaching and learning.

  12. Thermal profiles, crystallization behaviors and microstructure of diacylglycerol-enriched palm oil blends with diacylglycerol-enriched palm olein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yayuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Zhen; Dong, Cao

    2016-07-01

    To elucidate the possible interaction mechanisms between DAG-enriched oils, this study investigated how mixtures of DAG-enriched palm-based oils influenced the phase behavior, thermal properties, crystallization behaviors and the microstructure in binary fat blends. DAG-enriched palm oil (PO-DAGE) was blended with DAG-enriched palm olein (POL-DAGE) in various percentages (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, 100%). Based on the observation of iso-solid diagram and phase diagram, the binary mixture of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE showed a better compatibility in comparison with their corresponding original blends. DSC thermal profiles exhibited that the melting and crystallization properties of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE were distinctively different from corresponding original blends. Crystallization kinetics revealed that PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends displayed a rather high crystallization rate and exhibited no spherulitic crystal growth. From the results of polarized light micrographs, PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends showed more dense structure with very small needle-like crystals than PO/POL. X-ray diffraction evaluation revealed when POL-DAGE was added in high contents to PO-DAGE, above 30%, β-polymorph dominated, and the mount of β' forms crystals was decreasing.

  13. Structural, Optical and Mechanical properties of PVC/PMMA Polymer Blend by Spectroscopic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Gaurang; Sureshkumar, M. B.; Patel, Purvi

    2011-10-01

    PVC/PMMA polymer blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS Spectroscopy and mechanical analysis. The changes in mechanical properties are reflected by the changes in the IR spectrum. The mechanical properties of such poly blends revealed a substantial increase in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength after initial drop at 10% of PMMA. Optical properties such as the absorption coefficient, optical (Direct/Indirect) energy gap were calculated. The effects of different blending percentage on these parameters have been discussed and their results are co-related with IR study.

  14. Characterization of HPMC/PVP polymer blend films using WAXS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Y.; Somashekarappa, H.; Parameswara, P.; Demappa, T.; Somashekar, R.

    2012-06-01

    Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer blend films were prepared and investigated using X-ray line profile analysis method. Here an attempt has been made to study the changes in the crystallite size and lattice strain in HPMC with the increase in concentration of PVP. Decrease in these microcrystalline parameters implies increase in the amorphous nature of the film giving more flexibility, degradability and good miscibility. Micro structural parameters reveals that the blend films have more amorphous nature than virgin HPMC. This further justified by SEM images which indicate better miscibility of the two polymers in the blend matrix.

  15. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  16. Partial Fat Replacement by Boiled Quinoa on the Quality Characteristics of a Dry-Cured Sausage.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Diez, Ana; Caro, Irma; Castro, Amaya; Salvá, Bettit K; Ramos, Daphne D; Mateo, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage. Three types of sausages were prepared: a control (C; no fat replacement; 30% of pork back-fat), a quinoa half-fat (50% of fat replacement; 15% of pork back-fat), and a quinoa low-fat (LF; 85% of fat replacement; 4.5% of pork back-fat) sausage. Sausages were analyzed for proximate and microbial composition, volatile compounds, and instrumental texture and color. Descriptive and hedonic sensory analyses were also performed. Fat reduction resulted in higher aw , protein content, hardness, chewiness and redness values and spice-derived volatile levels, and in lower cohesiveness values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the descriptive sensory analysis showed a higher pungent flavor and lower juiciness in LF sausages than in C sausages (P < 0.05). In spite of those differences, fat reduction did not result in a decreased overall acceptance of the sausages by consumers.

  17. Assessment of Fat Taste in Individuals With and Without Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Schebendach, Janet E.; Klein, Diane A.; Mayer, Laurel E.S.; Devlin, Michael J.; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Avoidance of dietary fat is a highly characteristic eating behavior of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). To date, no study has determined whether these individuals are better able to perceive the fat content of foods than individuals without AN. The goal of this study was to compare blinded taste ratings of fat free, low fat, and regular cream cheese in patients with AN and in normal controls (NC). Methods AN (n=25) and control (NC; n=25) participants were presented with a series of nine cream cheese samples of three differing fat contents and asked to taste and rate each sample from very low to very high fat. Results Repeated measures ANOVA found no significant main effect of fat content and no interaction between fat content and diagnosis; however, a significant three-way interaction between fat content, diagnosis, and trial was observed. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant fat content by trial interaction within the AN group, suggesting a significant trial effect for the fat free samples only with improving ability to detect fat-free samples over repeated trials. Conclusions The current study suggests that individuals with AN do not have a markedly greater ability to taste fat than NC, and that; therefore, fat avoidance is likely primarily based on cognitive factors. PMID:24282163

  18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  19. Microscopic and rheological studies of fat crystal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narine, Suresh S.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    1999-03-01

    This talk discusses the quantification of microstructure in fat crystal networks by using the relationship of the elastic moduli ( G') to the solid fat content (SFC) via the fractal dimension (D) of the network. Results from application of a scaling theory developed for colloidal gels [W.H. Shih et al., Phys. Rev. A 42 (1990) 4772] to chemically and enzymatically interesterified and non-interesterified butterfat/canola oil mixtures and to cocoa butter and Salatrim TM are presented and discussed. In situ images from confocal laser microscopy and polarized light microscopy of the crystal network of butterfat and butterfat-canola oil blends yielded fractal dimensions of D=1.88 and D=2.02±2% respectively, which are in good agreement. The use of rheological measurements to calculate a fractal dimension of the crystal network of butterfat-canola oil blends yielded D=1.99, in good agreement with D calculated from the confocal laser microscopy and the polarized light microscopy images.

  20. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Oxide blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for commercial use

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the oxide blending HEU disposition option. This option provides for a yearly HEU throughput of 1 0 metric tons (MT) of uranium metal with an average U235 assay of 50% blended with 165 MT of natural assay triuranium octoxide (U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) per year to produce 177 MT of 4% U235 assay U{sub 3} O{sub 8}, for LWR fuel. Since HEU exists in a variety of forms and not necessarily in the form to be blended, worst case scenarios for preprocessing prior to blending will be assumed for HEU feed streams.

  1. Pricing and Promotion Effects on Low-Fat Vending Snack Purchases: The CHIPS Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Story, Mary; Breitlow, Kyle K.; Baxter, Judith S.; Hannan, Peter; Snyder, M. Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines set up at secondary schools and worksites in Minnesota. Analysis of sales data indicated that reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was very effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both settings. (SM)

  2. Phase morphology and orientation development of polymer blends in melt processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinhai

    In this dissertation, we studied phase morphology development of various polymer blends in both extrusion and melt spinning using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assisted with appropriate etching techniques. Various processing conditions, for example shear or elongation rate, shear or elongation stress, and extrusion die length/diameter ratio were considered. The effects of material characteristics, such as viscosity ratio, miscibility and interfacial tension, were studied. To do this, polymer blends were carefully selected. One isotactic polypropylene was blended with two ethylene butene copolymers (EBM), which had different butene contents. One of the blends was miscible and the other was immiscible. The polypropylene was also blended two ethylene octene copolymers (EOM). The above blends had low interfacial tension and different viscosity ratios. One EBM was blended with two polyamide 12 (PA12) materials. These blends had high interfacial tension and different viscosity ratios. One maleic anhydride grafted ethylene octene copolymer was added into the EBM/PA12 blends to decrease their interfacial tension. Studies were focused on a phenomenon that the dispersed phases in these blends could coalesce into a surface layer in both extrusion and melt spinning. This process was controlled by viscosity ratio, interfacial tension and processing conditions. The orientation development of melt spun fibers of these blends was studied by both wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and birefringence techniques. The orientation was affected by both blend morphologies and solidification order of the blend individual phases. The phase, which solidifies later in the spinline, did not affect the orientation of the first solidified phase. However, the first solidified phase, if it was continuous phase, could largely suppress the orientation of the second solidified phase. Composite stress analysis explained the different orientation behaviors. Extrusion of a PA12 material through a

  3. Electromechanical behavior of polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under static, dynamic and time-dependent strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhilesan, S.; Lakshmana Rao, C.; Varughese, S.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the experimentally observed electrical conductivity enhancement in polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under uniaxial tensile loading. Polyaniline (PANI) is an intrinsically conducting polymer, which does not form stretchable free-standing films easily and hence its electromechanical characterization is a challenge. Blending of PANI with other insulating polymers is a good choice to overcome the processability problem. We report the electromechanical response of solution blended and HCl doped PANI/PVA blends subjected to uniaxial, static, dynamic and time-dependent tensile loading. The demonstrated viscoelastic and morphological contributions of the component polymers to the electrical conductivity behavior in these blends could lead to interesting applications in strain sensors and flexible electronics. The reversibility of the electromechanical response under dynamic strain is found to increase in blends with higher PANI content. Time-dependent conductivity studies during mechanical stress relaxation reveal that variations in the micro-domain ordering and the relative relaxation rate of the individual polymer phases can give rise to interesting electrical conductivity changes in PANI blends. From morphological and electrical conductivity studies, we show that PANI undergoes primary and secondary agglomeration behavior in these blends that contributes to the changes in conductivity behavior during the deformation. A 3D variable range hopping (VRH) process, which uses a deformable core and shell concept based on blend morphology analysis, is used to explain the experimentally observed electromechanical behavior.

  4. Preparation and Effect of Gamma Radiation on The Properties and Biodegradability of Poly(Styrene/Starch) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. E.; Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable blends based on Poly(styrene/starch) Poly(Sty/Starch) were prepared by the casting method using different contents of starch in the range of 0-20 wt% aiming at preparing disposable packaging materials. The prepared bio-blends were Characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), swelling behavior, mechanical properties, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the swelling behavior slightly increased with increasing starch content and not exceeding 7.5%. The results showed that by increasing irradiation dose up to 5 kGy, the mechanical properties of the prepared PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film modified than other blend films, and hence it is selected. Also the water resistant increased, by irradiation of the selected PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between Starch and PSty of the PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film promote a more homogenous blend film as shown in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared Poly(Sty/Starch) blends with different compositions and the selected irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch blend were subjected to biodegradation in soil burial tests for 6 months using two different types of soils; agricultural and desert soils, then analyzed gravimetrically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results suggested that there is a possibility of using irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch at a dose of 5 kGy as a potential candidate for packaging material.

  5. Prediction of Percent Body Fat for U.S. Navy Women from Body Circumferences and Height

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S. NAVY WOMEN FROII BODY CIRCUMFERENCES AND HEIGHT James A. Hodgdon Marcie B. Beckett Naval Health Research Center...22, including those having body fat above the 301 Navy body fat standard. It was decided to develop an alternative equation. o Factor analysis of the...is reconinended that this new equation be adopte’d for the determination of 1BF for female Navy personnel. -.. PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S

  6. Dual Processing of FAT1 Cadherin Protein by Human Melanoma Cells Generates Distinct Protein Products*

    PubMed Central

    Sadeqzadeh, Elham; de Bock, Charles E.; Zhang, Xu Dong; Shipman, Kristy L.; Scott, Naomi M.; Song, Chaojun; Yeadon, Trina; Oliveira, Camila S.; Jin, Boquan; Hersey, Peter; Boyd, Andrew W.; Burns, Gordon F.; Thorne, Rick F.

    2011-01-01

    The giant cadherin FAT1 is one of four vertebrate orthologues of the Drosophila tumor suppressor fat. It engages in several functions, including cell polarity and migration, and in Hippo signaling during development. Homozygous deletions in oral cancer suggest that FAT1 may play a tumor suppressor role, although overexpression of FAT1 has been reported in some other cancers. Here we show using Northern blotting that human melanoma cell lines variably but universally express FAT1 and less commonly FAT2, FAT3, and FAT4. Both normal melanocytes and keratinocytes also express comparable FAT1 mRNA relative to melanoma cells. Analysis of the protein processing of FAT1 in keratinocytes revealed that, like Drosophila FAT, human FAT1 is cleaved into a non-covalent heterodimer before achieving cell surface expression. The use of inhibitors also established that such cleavage requires the proprotein convertase furin. However, in melanoma cells, the non-cleaved proform of FAT1 is also expressed at the cell surface together with the furin-cleaved heterodimer. Moreover, furin-independent processing generates a potentially functional proteolytic product in melanoma cells, a persistent 65-kDa membrane-bound cytoplasmic fragment no longer in association with the extracellular fragment. In vitro localization studies of FAT1 showed that melanoma cells display high levels of cytosolic FAT1 protein, whereas keratinocytes, despite comparable FAT1 expression levels, exhibited mainly cell-cell junctional staining. Such differences in protein distribution appear to reconcile with the different protein products generated by dual FAT1 processing. We suggest that the uncleaved FAT1 could promote altered signaling, and the novel products of alternate processing provide a dominant negative function in melanoma. PMID:21680732

  7. Transplantation of a mammary stromal cell line into a mammary fat pad: development of the site-specific in vivo analysis system for mammary stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Hajime; Aoki, Naohito; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between mammary epithelial and stromal tissue is considered to be important in breast tissue development. In this study, we developed a transplantation procedure for the mammary stromal fibroblastic cell line (MSF) to examine its life in vivo. First we established MSF cells which stably expressed lacZ (lacZ/MSF) and had characteristics of mammary stromal cells. The lacZ/MSF cells were then transplanted into a cleared mammary fat pad of syngenic mice with and without mammary primary epithelial organoids. Whole mount X-gal and carmine staining of the transplants revealed that a number of undifferentiated lacZ/MSF cells survived around the mammary epithelial tissue when transplanted with organoids. These results indicate that transplantation of MSF cells into mammary fat pad was accomplished by co-transplantation with primary mammary organoids. Finally, we discuss the application of transplantation procedure for in vivo studies of the mammary stromal tissue development and stromal-epithelial interactions.

  8. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  9. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section 24.198 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural...

  10. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  11. Preparing Teachers for Emerging Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin M.; Stallings, Dallas T.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning environments that merge learning strategies, resources, and modes have been implemented in higher education settings for nearly two decades, and research has identified many positive effects. More recently, K-12 traditional and charter schools have begun to experiment with blended learning, but to date, research on the effects of…

  12. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  13. Improving Curriculum through Blended Learning Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darojat, Ojat

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a study of blended learning pedagogy in open and distance learning (ODL), involving two universities in Southeast Asia, STOU Thailand and UT Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to understand the issues related to the implementation of blended-learning pedagogy. Qualitative case study was employed to optimize my understanding of…

  14. Meeting Diverse Learner Needs with Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a 40-week Computer, Research Skills, and Projects (CRSP) blended learning course designed and implemented at Dubai Men's College. The learning employed a design using socio-constructivist principles in the blended approach to cater to the learning preferences of students. (Contains 2 figures and 1 footnote.)

  15. Blended Learning in Personalized Assistive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinagi, Catherine; Skourlas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the special needs/requirements of disabled students and cost-benefits for applying blended learning in Personalized Educational Learning Environments (PELE) in Higher Education are studied. The authors describe how blended learning can form an attractive and helpful framework for assisting Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (D-HH) students to…

  16. Battery Separator from Polyphenylquinoxaline Polymer Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    This work was performed to determine if polyphenylquinoxaline blends with polymers such as polyvinylacetate, cellulose acetate , can be made into...polymeric membranes useful as battery separators. It was found that polyphenylquinoxaline and cellulose acetate blends offer the best membrane useful as battery separators. (Author)

  17. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  18. Combustion characteristics of blends of lignite and bituminous coal with different binder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    2000-05-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of blends of a Turkish lignite and a Siberian bituminous coal with and without binder materials were investigated. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and molasses were used as binder materials. The combustion curves of the coal and binder material samples and of the blends were obtained using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The differences observed in the DTA curves of the samples are discussed in detail.

  19. A Comparative Characteristic Study of Jatropha and Cardanol Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugazhenthi, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Muthuraman, R. K.; Vivek, P.; Parthiban, A.

    2017-03-01

    The demand in fuel needs and the depleting fossil fuels raised the need towards bio-fuels. The emerging trend in research field is highly focused on biodiesel production and their characteristic analysis. Since pollution is a major threat to the environment, emission parameter analyses are much important to be concentrated. As the entire world contains plenty of biofuels, it is necessary to explore them for its efficiency and analyze their parameters. In this experimental work jatropha and cashew nut shell biodiesel (Cardanol) was extracted and they were blended with diesel. The characteristics of jatropha and cardanol biodiesel were studied in the DI diesel engine by varying the load at the same speed. In brief, this experimental analysis is carried out to compare the emission characteristics between Jatropha biodiesel at 20% (B20) and 40% (B40) and Cardanol biodiesel blends at 20% (C20) and 40% (C40).

  20. A dark brown roast coffee blend is less effective at stimulating gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers compared to a medium roast market blend.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Coffee consumption sometimes is associated with symptoms of stomach discomfort. This work aimed to elucidate whether two coffee beverages, containing similar amounts of caffeine, but differing in their concentrations of (β) N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), trigonelline, and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) have different effects on gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers. The intragastric pH after administration of bicarbonate with/without 200 mL of a coffee beverage prepared from a market blend or dark roast blend was analyzed in nine healthy volunteers. Coffee beverages were analyzed for their contents of C5HT, N-MP, trigonelline, CGAs, and caffeine using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of N-MP for the dark brown blend (87 mg/L) compared to the market blend coffee (29 mg/L), whereas concentrations of C5HT (0.012 versus 0.343 mg/L), CGAs (323 versus 1126 mg/L), and trigonelline (119 versus 343 mg/L) were lower, and caffeine concentrations were similar (607 versus 674 mg/mL). Gastric acid secretion was less effectively stimulated after administration of the dark roast blend coffee compared to the market blend. Future studies are warranted to verify whether a high ratio of N-MP to C5HT and CGAs is beneficial for reducing coffee-associated gastric acid secretion.

  1. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction.

  2. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development

    PubMed Central

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A.; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D.; McNeill, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction. PMID:26209645

  3. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monfort-Pires, Milena; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, José; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea

    2016-01-01

    Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation. PMID:27657122

  4. Advances in the engineering science of immiscible polymer blends: A powder route for delicate polymer precursors and a highly renewable polyamide/terephthalate blend system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancola, Giorgiana

    Powder processing of thermoplastic polymer composites is an effective way to achieve a high level of component homogenization in raw blends prior to melt processing, thus reducing the thermal and shear stress on the components. Polymer blends can be prepared that would otherwise not be possible due to thermodynamic incompatibility. Evaluation of this concept was conducted by processing PMMA and HDPE micron sized powders which were characterized using DSC and rheology. Optical microscopy and SEM, showed that high-quality, fine domain sized blends can be made by the compression molding process. Silica marker spheres were used to qualitatively assess the level dispersive mixing. EDS chemical analysis was effective in providing image contrast between PMMA and HDPE based on the carbonyl and ester oxygen. EDS image maps, combined with secondary electron images show that compression molding of blended powder precursors produces composites of comparable homogeneity and domain size as extrusion processing. FTIR proved valuable when assessing the intimacy of the constituents at the interface of the immiscible domains. The formation of an in-situ, PMMA nano-network structure resulting from solvent extraction and redeposition using DMF was uniquely found on the surface of these immiscible polymer blends. This work has shown that powder processing of polymers is an effective means to melt processed fragile polymers to high quality blends. Recently, efforts towards the development of sustainable materials have evolved due in part to the increase in price and limited supply of crude oil. Immiscible polymer blending is a paradigm that enables synergistic material performance in certain instances where the composite properties are superior to the sum of the constituents. The addition of PA6,10 to PTT offers an opportunity to increase the bio-based content of PTT while simultaneously maintaining or improving mechanical properties. PA6,10 and PTT are immiscible polymers that can be

  5. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  6. Fitting Photometry of Blended Microlensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christian L.; Griest, Kim

    2006-03-01

    We reexamine the usefulness of fitting blended light-curve models to microlensing photometric data. We find agreement with previous workers (e.g., Woźniak & Paczyński) that this is a difficult proposition because of the degeneracy of blend fraction with other fit parameters. We show that follow-up observations at specific point along the light curve (peak region and wings) of high-magnification events are the most helpful in removing degeneracies. We also show that very small errors in the baseline magnitude can result in problems in measuring the blend fraction and study the importance of non-Gaussian errors in the fit results. The biases and skewness in the distribution of the recovered blend fraction is discussed. We also find a new approximation formula relating the blend fraction and the unblended fit parameters to the underlying event duration needed to estimate microlensing optical depth.

  7. Characteristic of blended fuel properties and engine cycle-to-cycle variations with butanol additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Obed M.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, Nik R.; Abdullah, Abdul Adam

    2015-05-01

    Biodiesel fuel characteristics are one of the most important parameters that limited their application in diesel engines. Though biodiesel-diesel blended fuel can replace diesel satisfactorily at low blending ratios up to 20%, problems related to fuel property persist at high blending ratio. Hence, in the present study, the feasibility of biodiesel-diesel blended fuel B30 was investigated with respect to its properties and engine cyclic variations with increasing butanol additive. The blended fuel with additive were tested experimentally in a diesel engine and the in-cylinder pressure data were collected and analyzed using the coefficient of variation and wavelet power spectrum to evaluate the engine cyclic variations compared to diesel fuel engine test results. The fuel property test results showed slight improvement in density and acid value with significant reduction in viscosity when increasing butanol additive. Furthermore, the blended fuel pour point was reduced to -6 °C at 8% butanol additive. On the other hand, the energy content slightly affected with increasing butanol additive in the blend. From the wavelet power spectrum, it is observed that the short-period oscillations appear intermittently in pure blended fuel, while the long and intermediate-term periodicities tends to appear with increasing additive ratio. Moreover, the spectral power increased with an increase in the additive ratio indicating that the additive has a noticeable effect on increasing the cycle to cycle variation. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure for B30 were found to be the lowest and increases with increasing additive ratios. Both the wavelet analysis and coefficient of variation results reveals that blended fuel B30 has engine cyclic variations comparable to diesel fuel with increasing butanol additive up to 4%.

  8. Physical-biopolymer characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) blended with natural rubber latex

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntanoo, K.; Promkotra, S.; Kaewkannetra, P.

    2015-03-30

    A biopolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is blended with bio-based materials, natural rubber latex, to improve their microstructures. The various ratios between PHBV and natural rubber latex are examined to develop their mechanical properties. In general, physical properties of PHBV are hard, brittle and low flexible while natural rubber (NR) is presented itself as high elastic materials. Concentrations of the PHBV solution are constituted at 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v). The mixtures of their PHBV solutions to natural rubber latex are produced the blended films in three different ratios of 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4, respectively. They are characterized by appearance analyses which are the scanning electron microscope (SEM), universal testing machine (UTM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SEM photomicrographs of the blended films and the controlled PHBV can provide the void distribution in the range of 12-14% and 19-21%, respectively. For mechanical properties of the blended films, the various elastic moduli of 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) PHBV are the average of 773, 956 and 1,007 kPa, respectively. The tensile strengths of the blends increase with the increased concentrations of PHBV, similarly trend to the elastic modulus. The crystallization and melting behavior of unmixed PHBV and the blends are determined by DSC. Melting transition temperatures (T{sub m}) of the unmixed PHBV are stated two melting peak at 154°C and 173°C. Besides, the melting peaks of the blends alter in the range of 152-156°C and 168-171°C, respectively. According to morphology of the blends, the void distribution decreases twice compared to the unmixed PHBV. The results of mechanical properties and thermal analysis indicate that the blended PHBV can be developed their properties by more resilient and wide range of temperature than usual.

  9. Physical-biopolymer characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) blended with natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntanoo, K.; Promkotra, S.; Kaewkannetra, P.

    2015-03-01

    A biopolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is blended with bio-based materials, natural rubber latex, to improve their microstructures. The various ratios between PHBV and natural rubber latex are examined to develop their mechanical properties. In general, physical properties of PHBV are hard, brittle and low flexible while natural rubber (NR) is presented itself as high elastic materials. Concentrations of the PHBV solution are constituted at 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v). The mixtures of their PHBV solutions to natural rubber latex are produced the blended films in three different ratios of 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4, respectively. They are characterized by appearance analyses which are the scanning electron microscope (SEM), universal testing machine (UTM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SEM photomicrographs of the blended films and the controlled PHBV can provide the void distribution in the range of 12-14% and 19-21%, respectively. For mechanical properties of the blended films, the various elastic moduli of 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) PHBV are the average of 773, 956 and 1,007 kPa, respectively. The tensile strengths of the blends increase with the increased concentrations of PHBV, similarly trend to the elastic modulus. The crystallization and melting behavior of unmixed PHBV and the blends are determined by DSC. Melting transition temperatures (Tm) of the unmixed PHBV are stated two melting peak at 154°C and 173°C. Besides, the melting peaks of the blends alter in the range of 152-156°C and 168-171°C, respectively. According to morphology of the blends, the void distribution decreases twice compared to the unmixed PHBV. The results of mechanical properties and thermal analysis indicate that the blended PHBV can be developed their properties by more resilient and wide range of temperature than usual.

  10. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  11. Factors affecting metacognition of undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2014-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the influence of demographic, learning involvement and learning performance variables on metacognition of undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment. A cross-sectional, correlational survey design was adopted. Ninety-nine students invited to participate in the study were enrolled in a professional nursing ethics course at a public nursing college. The blended learning intervention is basically an assimilation of classroom learning and online learning. Simple linear regression showed significant associations between frequency of online dialogues, the Case Analysis Attitude Scale scores, the Case Analysis Self Evaluation Scale scores, the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale scores, and Metacognition Scale scores. Multiple linear regression indicated that frequency of online dialogues, the Case Analysis Self Evaluation Scale and the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale were significant independent predictors of metacognition. Overall, the model accounted for almost half of the variance in metacognition. The blended learning module developed in this study proved successful in the end as a catalyst for the exercising of metacognitive abilities by the sample of nursing students. Learners are able to develop metacognitive ability in comprehension, argumentation, reasoning and various forms of higher order thinking through the blended learning process.

  12. Does dietary fat influence insulin action?

    PubMed

    Storlien, L H; Kriketos, A D; Jenkins, A B; Baur, L A; Pan, D A; Tapsell, L C; Calvert, G D

    1997-09-20

    blunt instruments, requiring large numbers that are very often not feasible if a greater depth of understanding of the biological processes is to be incorporated. There may be benefit in turning to the clinical case study as a framework for a more comprehensive analysis of the links between dietary fats and insulin action. The real challenge is to keep the depth of analysis rigorous enough to be able to explain and accommodate individual variation (i.e., the diversity of both environmental and genetic backgrounds) while at the same time satisfying the cultural need to provide appropriate overall dietary guidelines. Finally, David Kritchevsky brought to our attention a delightful quote from Mark Twain: "There is something fascinating about science. One gets such a wholesale return of conjecture for such a trifling investment of fact." In the field of dietary fats and the Metabolic Syndrome, this quotation is, unfortunately, apt. Much more research is necessary to define how dietary fats really work to affect insulin action. Well designed, long-term studies in "free range" humans must be undertaken if dietary guidelines for the Metabolic Syndrome are to be based on anything more than a "trifling" amount of "fact."

  13. Left Ventricular Mass: Correlation with Fatness, Hemodynamics and Renal Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. Material/Methods 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Conclusions Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon. PMID:25436020

  14. Palm olein in infant formula: absorption of fat and minerals by normal infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S E; Rogers, R R; Frantz, J A; Ziegler, E E

    1996-09-01

    Palm olein, a low-melting fraction of palm oil, and soy oil can be combined to obtain fat blends with proportions of palmitic and oleic acids similar to those of human milk. We compared the absorption of fat and calcium by infants fed a formula containing a blend of palm olein (53%) and soy oil (47%) (Formula PO/S) with that by infants fed a formula containing a blend of soy oil (60%) and coconut oil (40%) (Formula S/C). In a randomized crossover design, one study was performed with each formula in each of 11 normal infants ranging in age from 27 to 161 d. Six of the infants were admitted for 72-h metabolic balance studies. In the other five infants, feces (with some admixture of urine) were collected at home for 96 h by using acid-washed cloth diapers. Mean (+/- SD) absorption of fat was 90.6 +/- 1.6% of intake when Formula PO/S was fed and 95.2 +/- 1.1% of intake when Formula S/C was fed; the difference was significant (P < 0.001). The difference in excretion of fat by infants fed the two formulas was explained by the difference in excretion of palmitic acid. Absorption of calcium averaged 39.0 +/- 8.3% of intake with Formula PO/S and 48.4 +/- 10.3% with Formula S/C; the difference was significant (P < 0.01). We conclude that fat is less well absorbed from a mixture of 53% palm olein and 47% soy oil than from a mixture of 60% soy oil and 40% coconut oil, and that absorption of calcium is less from a formula containing palm olein, presumably because of the formation of insoluble calcium soaps of unabsorbed palmitic acid.

  15. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream.

  16. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  17. Practice and Evaluation of Blended Learning with Cross-Cultural Distance Learning in a Foreign Language Class: Using Mix Methods Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugie, Satoko; Mitsugi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) utilization in Chinese as a "second" foreign language has mainly been focused on Learning Management System (LMS), digital material development, and quantitative analysis of learners' grammatical knowledge. There has been little research that has analyzed the effectiveness of…

  18. The properties of poly(lactic acid)/starch blends with a functionalized plant oil: tung oil anhydride.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhu; Li, Chao; Ma, Songqi; Feng, Jianxian; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Ruoyu; Zhu, Jin

    2013-06-05

    Bio-sourced polymers, polylactide (PLA) and starch, have been melt-blended by lab-scale co-extruder with tung oil anhydride (TOA) as the plasticizer. The ready reaction between the maleic anhydride on TOA and the hydroxyl on starch led TOA molecules to accumulate on starch and increased the compatibility of PLA/starch blends, which was confirmed by FT-IR analyses and SEM. The TOA could change the mechanical properties and physical behaviors of PLA/starch blends. DSC and DMA analysis show that the TOA layer on starch has an effect on the thermal behavior of PLA in the ternary blend. The enrichment of TOA on starch improves the toughness and impact strength of the PLA/starch blends. The adding amount of TOA in PLA/starch blends primarily determined the compatibility and mechanical properties of the resulted ternary blends. The tensile and impact fracture modes of the PLA/starch blend with or without TOA has also been investigated by SEM analysis.

  19. Preparation, characterization and surface p Ka values of poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/chitosan blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Serkan; Alaslan, Ali; Caykara, Tuncer

    2009-03-01

    Blend films of poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and chitosan (CTS) were prepared by casting method from acetic acid solutions. All blend films obtained are optically clear to the naked eye. The structure and physical properties of the blend films were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical testing (Instron) and contact-angle measurements. The ATR-FTIR results indicated that there is no detectable band shifts at 1650 cm -1. From TGA studies, it was found that the onset degradation temperature of the blends almost unchanged due to the presence of a weak interaction between PVP and CTS chains. The DSC analysis showed a single glass transition temperature for all the blends, indicating that these polymers are miscible over the entire composition range. The mechanical properties of the blends, such as breaking stress and elongation at break and Young modulus were greatly affected with increase of CTS content. In addition, we found that the blends exhibit well defined contact angle titration curves from which the surface p Ka values were determined. In conclusion, these experimental findings provide fundamental knowledge for the preparation of bioreactive surfaces of controlled reactivity on CTS based blends.

  20. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on performance and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Faulkner, D B; Retallick, K M; Shike, D W

    2014-12-01

    Angus×Simmental crossbred heifers (n=150) and steers (n=100) were used to evaluate 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) a corn-based growing diet (CRN); 2) a high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; 3) a high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend; 4) a low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; and 5) a low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend in a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Low-protein and low-fat diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isofat to CRN (16.0% CP and 3.0% fat), and high-protein and high-fat diets were formulated to have 20.0% CP and 5.0% fat, respectively. Calves were weaned at 85±1.2 d, blocked by weight, and allotted to pens (10 calves/pen) within sex (10 pens of steers and 15 pens of heifers). The objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of protein or fat or their interaction in coproducts used in growing diets fed to early-weaned calves affects feedlot performance or carcass composition. Starting on d 0, calves (141±1.2 d of age) were fed experimental diets for 112 d and then fed a common feedlot diet for an additional 112 d. Body weight, hip height, and ultrasound data were collected at the end of each 112-d feeding phase. Carcass data included HCW, LM area (LMA), 12th-rib back fat (BF), marbling score (MS), KPH, and USDA quality grade. There was no fat×protein interaction (P≥0.27); therefore, only main effects are discussed. No effects (P≥0.47) of CRN, protein, or fat were detected for BW at d 112 or 224. Increased dietary protein resulted in greater (P=0.04) ADG at d 112 compared to calves fed low protein. Feeding cattle CRN decreased (P=0.04) DMI and increased (P<0.01) G:F during the growing phase compared to coproducts. High-fat diets increased (P=0.05) BF in calves at d 112 compared to low-fat diets. High-protein diets decreased (P=0.02) ultrasound MS at d 112 compared to low-protein diets. Carcasses from cattle fed high-fat diets had greater (P=0.03) MS compared to those from cattle fed low-fat diets. No differences (P

  1. Analysis and modification of defective surface aggregates on PCDTBT:PCBM solar cell blends using combined Kelvin probe, conductive and bimodal atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Hanaul; Diaz, Alfredo J

    2017-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic systems comprising donor polymers and acceptor fullerene derivatives are attractive for inexpensive energy harvesting. Extensive research on polymer solar cells has provided insight into the factors governing device-level efficiency and stability. However, the detailed investigation of nanoscale structures is still challenging. Here we demonstrate the analysis and modification of unidentified surface aggregates. The aggregates are characterized electrically by Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), whereby the correlation between local electrical potential and current confirms a defective charge transport. Bimodal AFM modification confirms that the aggregates exist on top of the solar cell structure, and is used to remove them and to reveal the underlying active layer. The systematic analysis of the surface aggregates suggests that the structure consists of PCBM molecules. PMID:28382247

  2. Characterization of proton conducting blend polymer electrolyte using PVA-PAN doped with NH4SCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premalatha, M.; Mathavan, T.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Genova, F. Kingslin Mary; Umamaheswari, R.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes with proton conductivity based on blend polymer using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly acrylo nitrile (PAN) doped with ammonium thiocyanate have been prepared by solution casting method using DMF as solvent. The complex formation between the blend polymer and the salt has been confirmed by FTIR Spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the blend polymer electrolytes have been confirmed by XRD analysis. The highest conductivity at 303 K has been found to be 3.25 × 10-3 S cm-1 for 20 mol % NH4SCN doped 92.5PVA:7.5PAN system. The increase in conductivity of the doped blend polymer electrolytes with increasing temperature suggests the Arrhenius type thermally activated process. The activation energy is found to be low (0.066 eV) for the highest conductivity sample.

  3. Energy transfer and dynamics studies of photoluminescence of polythiophene derivative in blend thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Han; Lee, Haiwon; Cui, Hai-Ning

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of the blend luminescent poly 3-(2-(5-chlorobenzotriazolo)ethyl) thiophene (PCBET) with poly-(p-(methyl)-phenylmethacrylate) (PMPMA), polyvinylcarzole (PVK), and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were deposited by spin coating. Systematic studies on optical properties, the concentration effect, and energy transfer of these conjugated polymers within the blend films are discussed. Fluorescence lifetimes of excited state in the blend films were investigated by nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopy, UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL), synchronous PL spectra. These results and analysis suggest that energy transfer, from good matrix material (PMPMA and PVK) with active chromophores to PCBET, leads to the enhancement of PL emission of PCBET in a blend system.

  4. Component morphology, size, and compositional impact on pharmaceutical powder blend flowability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, David; Nakagawa, Hirotaka; Conway, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Through analysis of particle morphology, particle size, and compositional influences, we present experimental case studies revealing unexpected transitions in flowability and cohesion of pharmaceutical powder blends. We explore interactions between the needle-like API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) and the more spherical remaining components (excipients) in the blend to explain these transitions, and optimal concentrations are identified. A range of particle sizes, aspect ratios (for API), and compositions were examined. Surprisingly, under certain conditions, a blend with a low API concentration exhibits less cohesive flowability properties than a placebo blend containing no API. Effective volume and coordination number models are tested by investigation of particle geometry, particle contact, and Van der Waals force factors. These results should translate both to the improved understanding of mixed component morphology systems and to a novel approach towards pharmaceutical product formulation optimization.

  5. Poly(lactic acid) / Poly(ethylene glycol) blends: Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijarimi, M.; Ahmad, S.; Rasid, R.; Khushairi, M. A.; Zakir, M.

    2016-04-01

    The poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt blended with linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to increase the toughness of PLA. Melt blending was carried out in an internal mixer at 180 °C mixing temperature with 50 rpm for 15 minutes. The blends were characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. It was found that tensile and flexural strength, stiffness and notched Izod impact strength decreased significantly when the PEG was added to the PLA matrix at 2.5-10% of PEG concentrations. Both glass transition and melting temperatures (Tg and Tm) lowered as the concentration of PEG was increased. Moreover, it was noted that the PLA/PEG blends showed a lower onset and peak degradation temperatures but with lower final degradation temperature as compared to the neat PLA. The morphological analysis revealed that the PEG was dispersed as droplets in the PLA matrix with a clear boundary between PLA matrix and PEG phases.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethane-cellulose acetate blend membrane for chromium (VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Tabinda; Ahmad, Adnan; Saleemi, Sidra; Adrees, Muhammad; Jamshed, Fahad; Hai, Abdul Moqeet; Jamil, Tahir

    2016-11-20

    Blended membranes of polyurethane and cellulose acetate were prepared, characterized and investigated for their performance. Various ratios of cellulose acetate were employed to prepare four different blend membranes. The characteristics of both pure and blend membranes were investigated and results were compared to distinguish their properties. Functional group analysis was carried out by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of pure and blend samples. Contact angle measurement and water content were evaluated to determine the membrane hydrophilicity. Moreover, the membrane morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The membrane permeation properties and ability to reject chromium (VI) ions were tested at various pH and pressure by utilizing different salt concentrations.

  7. Breast MRI at Very Short TE (minTE): Image Analysis of minTE Sequences on Non-Fat-Saturated, Subtracted T1-Weighted Images.

    PubMed

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Geppert, Christian; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Hartmann, Arndt; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael

    2017-02-01

    resolution for a better in-flow curve.. · Dynamic breast MRI with a shorter TE time is possible without relevant loss of information.. · Possible decrease of the overall scan time.. Citation Format · Wenkel E, Janka R, Geppert C et al. Breast MRI at Very Short TE (minTE): Image Analysis of minTE Sequences on Non-Fat-Saturated, Subtracted T1-Weighted Images. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 137 - 145.

  8. Electron beam irradiation induced compatibilization of immiscible polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) blends: Mechanical properties and morphology stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entezam, Mehdi; Aghjeh, Mir Karim Razavi; Ghaffari, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Gel content, mechanical properties and morphology of immiscible PE/EVA blends irradiated by high energy electron beam were studied. The results of gel content measurements showed that the capability of cross-linking of the blend samples increased with an increase of the EVA composition. Also, the gel content for most compositions of the blends displayed a positive deviation from the additive rule. The results of mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of the samples increased and decreased, respectively, with irradiation dose. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of the irradiated blends also depicted a positive deviation from additive rule contrary to the un-irradiated blends. A synergistic effect observed for the mechanical properties improvement of the irradiated blends and it was attributed to the probable formation of the PE-graft-EVA copolymers at the interface of the blends during the irradiation process. A theoretical analysis revealed that irradiation induced synergistic effect was more significant for EVA-rich blends with weaker interfacial interaction as compared to PE-rich blends. The morphological analysis indicated that the blend morphology was not affected obviously, whereas it was stabilized by irradiation.

  9. Effects of plasticization and shear stress on phase structure development and properties of soy protein blends.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinwen

    2010-11-01

    In this study, soy protein concentrate (SPC) was used as a plastic component to blend with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). Effects of SPC plasticization and blend composition on its deformation during mixing were studied in detail. Influence of using water as the major plasticizer and glycerol as the co-plasticizer on the deformation of the SPC phase during mixing was explored. The effect of shear stress, as affected by SPC loading level, on the phase structure of SPC in the blends was also investigated. Quantitative analysis of the aspect ratio of SPC particles was conducted by using ImageJ software, and an empirical model predicting the formation of percolated structure was applied. The experimental results and the model prediction showed a fairly good agreement. The experimental results and statistic analysis suggest that both SPC loading level and its water content prior to compounding had significant influences on development of the SPC phase structure and were correlated in determining the morphological structures of the resulting blends. Consequently, physical and mechanical properties of the blends greatly depended on the phase morphology and PBAT/SPC ratio of the blends.

  10. Comparative analysis of mediastinal fat-associated lymphoid cluster development and lung cellular infiltration in murine autoimmune disease models and the corresponding normal control strains.

    PubMed

    Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Ichii, Osamu; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We previously discovered mediastinal fat-associated lymphoid clusters (MFALCs) as novel lymphoid clusters associated with mediastinal fat tissue in healthy mice. However, no data about their morphology in immune-associated disease conditions, and their relationship with lung infiltration, is available to date. In the present study, we compared the morphological features of MFALCs in 4-month-old male murine autoimmune disease models (MRL/MpJ-lpr mice and BXSB/MpJ-Yaa mice) with those of the corresponding control strains (MRL/MpJ and BXSB/MpJ, respectively). In addition, we analysed their correlation with lung infiltration. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for CD3, B220, Iba1, Gr1 and BrdU was performed to detect T cells and B cells, macrophages, granulocytes and proliferating cells, respectively. The spleen weight to body weight ratios and anti-double-stranded DNA autoantibody titres were found to be significantly higher in the autoimmune models than in the control strains. Furthermore, the autoimmune model presented prominent MFALCs, with a significantly greater ratio of lymphoid cluster area to total mediastinal fat tissue area, and more apparent diffused cellular infiltration into the lung lobes than the other studied strains. Higher numbers of T and B cells, macrophages and proliferating cells, but fewer granulocytes, were observed in the autoimmune models than in the control strains. Interestingly, a significant positive Pearson's correlation between the size of the MFALCs and the density of CD3-, B220- and Iba1-positive cells in the lung was observed. Therefore, our data suggest a potentially important role for MFALCs in the progression of lung disease. However, further investigation is required to clarify the pathological role of MFALCs in lung disease, especially in inflammatory disorders.

  11. Reductions in body weight and percent fat mass increase the vitamin D status of obese subjects: a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Poonam K; Zhao, Yun; Soares, Mario J

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to confirm a volumetric dilution of vitamin D in obesity. It was based on the hypothesis that weight loss, particularly fat loss, would increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the obese. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 21 years and included human trials that reported changes in 25OHD, weight, or body composition after weight loss. Study arms were excluded if vitamin D was supplemented, dietary intake exceeded 800 IU/d, or extreme sun exposure was reported. Eighteen of 23 trials that met our criteria documented an increase in vitamin D status with weight loss. Metaregression analyses indicated a marginally significant effect of weight loss on unadjusted weighted mean difference of 25OHD (β = -0.60 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -1.24 to +0.04] nmol/L; P = .06) and after adjustment for study quality (Jadad score ≥3) (β = -0.64 [95% CI, -1.28 to +0.01] nmol/L; P = .05). The effect of percent fat mass on weighted mean difference of 25OHD was also marginally significant before (β = -0.91 [95% CI, -1.96 to +0.15] nmol/L; P = .08) and after adjustment of study quality (β = -1.05 [95% CI, -2.18 to +0.08] nmol/L; P = .06). Collectively, these outcomes support a volumetric dilution of vitamin D. The slopes of the respective regression lines, however, indicate a smaller increase in 25OHD than would be expected from a direct mobilization of stores into the circulation. Hence, sequestration of 25OHD and its conversion to inactive metabolites would also play a role. Future studies could relate changes in body fat compartments to the enzymatic regulation of 25OHD in response to weight loss.

  12. Inclusion of phytogenic blends in different nutrient density diets of meat-type ducks.

    PubMed

    Gheisar, Mohsen Mohammadi; Im, Yong Woon; Lee, Hae Hyoung; Choi, Yang Il; Kim, In Ho

    2015-12-01

    A total of 160 1-day-old ducklings (average initial body weight of 53 g), were used in a 42-d feeding trial to evaluate the effects of reducing nutrient density of diets, and supplementing the diets with a phytogenic blend (quillaja, anise, and thyme) on their growth, carcass quality, and nutrient digestibility. After checking body weight on d 1, the birds were sorted into pens with 5 birds/pen and 8 pens/treatment. The treatments were: T1, Basal diet; T2, T1+150 ppm phytogenic blend; T3, T1-(1% CP, 0.04% Lys, 0.05% Met+Cys, 0.02% Ca, and 0.02% P, and 50 kcal ME); T4, T3+150 ppm phytogenic blend. The results indicated that reducing nutrient density of the diets had an adverse effect (P<0.05) on body weight gain (BWG) on d 1 to 21, d 21 to 42, and the overall experimental period. Supplementing the diets with the phytogenic blend improved (P<0.05) BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) on d 21 to 42 and the overall experimental period. Feed intake was not affected by treatments. Low nutrient density diets increased (P<0.05) the cooking loss percentage of breast meat. Supplementing the diets with the phytogenic blend decreased (P<0.05) the lightness of breast meat. The percentage of drip loss was influenced (P<0.05) by nutrient density and the phytogenic blend on d 1 and d 7. The relative weights of breast meat, abdominal fat, gizzard, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius, pH, and TBARS values were not affected by the treatments. The digestibility of dry matter, energy, nitrogen, ADF, and NDF was decreased (P<0.05) by reducing nutrients density of the diets, but addition of the phytogenic blend alleviated (P<0.05) the negative effects of lowering the nutrient density. The results indicated that the ducks fed high nutrient density diets supplemented with the phytogenic blend showed higher BWG and nutrient digestibility and lower FCR, cooking loss, drip loss, and TBARS value, without any negative effect on meat quality and relative organs weights.

  13. Long term exposure of metals to hydrazine nitrate blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Clifford M.; Blue, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    A long term testing program is being conducted to determine the effects of materials in contact with a hydrazine nitrate blend for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion systems which can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. Analysis of this data indicates that some aluminum alloys are acceptable for use with the particular blend of fuel used. Titanium alloy was identified as being acceptable for 10-year applications. Corrosion resistant steels, however, were found to have excessive corrosion rates and are therefore considered unacceptable for long-term use. There is also some evidence that the propellant decomposed at a rate far in excess of the acceptable rate of 0.1 percent per year when in contact with stainless steel.

  14. Electrospinning polymer blends for biomimetic scaffolds for ACL tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Vanessa Lizeth

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common knee injuries. Current ACL reconstructive strategies consist of using an autograft or an allograft to replace the ligament. However, limitations have led researchers to create tissue engineered grafts, known as scaffolds, through electrospinning. Scaffolds made of natural and synthetic polymer blends have the potential to promote cell adhesion while having strong mechanical properties. However, enzymes found in the knee are known to degrade tissues and affect the healing of intra-articular injuries. Results suggest that the natural polymers used in this study modify the thermal properties and tensile strength of the synthetic polymers when blended. Scanning electron microscopy display bead-free and enzyme biodegradability of the fibers. Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the natural and synthetic polymers in the scaffolds while, amino acid analysis present the types of amino acids and their concentrations found in the natural polymers.

  15. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  16. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  17. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2014-06-28

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  18. Segmentation and Representation of Consonant Blends in Kindergarten Children's Spellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the growth of children's segmentation and representation of consonant blends in the kindergarten year and to evaluate the extent to which linguistic features influence segmentation and representation of consonant blends. Specifically, the roles of word position (initial blends, final blends),…

  19. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  20. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...