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Sample records for fathering antisocial personality

  1. Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Postdivorce Noncompliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGarmo, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth…

  2. Father-Child Transmission of Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Father's Presence in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazei, Ryan W.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The effect of father's presence in the home on the child's antisocial behavior is studied to determine whether the father's presence may moderate the relationship between father and child antisociality. Results suggest that the presence of the father appears to provide some environmental influence that leads to increased child antisocial behavior.

  3. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  4. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration. PMID:26939485

  5. Love scripts of persons with antisocial personality.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Barbara

    2008-10-01

    This study compared the scripts of love among 60 prison inmates diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder and those of 40 inmates without an Antisocial Personality Disorder diagnosis but low antisocial tendencies, and a control group of 100 adult students in extramural or evening secondary schools without Antisocial Personality Disorder traits. The study focused on emotional knowledge about love of the group with Antisocial Personality Disorder, as they present lack of capacity for love. The study was done to examine how they perceive love and how much knowledge they have about love. All described their reactions to a photograph of a couple hugging each other. The content of these scripts, analyzed in terms of description of actors, their actions and emotions, and length of description, was compared among the groups. The scripts of love by antisocial inmates contained more actors' feelings and strong emotions, as well as more descriptions of actors' traits, their actions, and presumptions. The inmates with Antisocial Personality Disorder showed more focus on themselves when they described love than the other inmates and the controls. PMID:19102460

  6. Life with (or without) Father: The Benefits of Living with Two Biological Parents Depend on the Father's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Data were analyzed from an epidemiological sample of 5-year- old twins and their parents. Findings indicated that the less time fathers lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had, but only if the fathers engaged in low levels of antisocial behavior. When fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, the more…

  7. Syntax of Emotional Narratives of Persons Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawda, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…

  8. Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum.

    PubMed

    Ogloff, James R P

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those

  9. Unpacking links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems: direct, indirect, and interactive effects.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-08-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N=261) was followed from age 3 through age 9. Lagged OLS regression models assessed both short-term (1½  years) and longer-term (5½  years) prospective links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. Results supported a direct effects model: fathers' antisocial behaviors predicted growth in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, with links stronger among resident-father families. Limited evidence of indirect effects emerged, with links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems only slightly attenuated controlling for related risk factors and for parenting quality, showing limited evidence of mediation. A new interactive model was proposed and supported, with high levels of harsh discipline exacerbating negative links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's internalizing problems. Results suggest caution in policies and programs which seek to universally increase marriage or father involvement without attention to fathers' behaviors.

  10. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  11. Biology, Violence, and Antisocial Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Elizabeth

    Aggressive and antisocial behavior have persisted as significant social problems. In response, a voluminous amount of research has been generated in an attempt to discover the causes of such behavior. Previous studies have examined separately the role of perinatal biology in the etiology of violent criminal behavior and the etiology of Anti-Social…

  12. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  13. Testing Developmental Pathways to Antisocial Personality Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of antisocial personality problems (APP) in young adulthood from disruptive behaviors and internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. Parent ratings of 507 children's (aged 6-8 years) symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety, were linked to…

  14. [Legal approach of antisocial personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Stingo, Néstor Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We mention the different terms used over time to describe those behavioral disorders where prevailing selfishness, brutality, insensitivity, irresponsibility, manipulation and lack of empathy. It takes into account the biological, psychological and environmental theories. It refers to the importance of mirror neurons and its value in relation to the understanding of feelings. The criteria for the diagnosis, stressing the differences between psychopathic personalitya and antisocial personality disorder. Some sentences from different courts with various criteria are transcribed, for the apportionment or insanity of cases whose diagnosis is the psychopathic personality. Culminating with the legal approach of this type of personalities, from a civil and criminal perspective.

  15. [Legal approach of antisocial personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Stingo, Néstor Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We mention the different terms used over time to describe those behavioral disorders where prevailing selfishness, brutality, insensitivity, irresponsibility, manipulation and lack of empathy. It takes into account the biological, psychological and environmental theories. It refers to the importance of mirror neurons and its value in relation to the understanding of feelings. The criteria for the diagnosis, stressing the differences between psychopathic personalitya and antisocial personality disorder. Some sentences from different courts with various criteria are transcribed, for the apportionment or insanity of cases whose diagnosis is the psychopathic personality. Culminating with the legal approach of this type of personalities, from a civil and criminal perspective. PMID:22091452

  16. Designing an Intervention to Promote Child Development among Fathers with Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Pajarita; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Jones, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes an intervention development focusing on the early design stages of a model to improve psychosocial and behavioral health outcomes among children of fathers with incarceration and antisocial behavioral histories. Method: We use a synthesis of the literature and qualitative interviews with key informants to inform a…

  17. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization. PMID:26175389

  18. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization. PMID:26175389

  19. Antisocial personality disorder: a current review.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Johnson, Alexandria K; Raine, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) classification of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive irresponsible, delinquent, and criminal behavior. The diagnosis is highly controversial, with many researchers and clinicians arguing that the category is too heterogeneous, overinclusive, and demonstrates considerable overlap with other disorders. This review focuses on recent studies that have improved our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who fit the ASPD definition by exploring how subtypes differ and how comorbid conditions influence the presentation of ASPD. In addition, we discuss research on the etiology of ASPD that has identified genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial behavior, and brain imaging research that has improved our understanding of the relationships between ASPD and other psychopathology. Finally, we discuss promising preliminary research on treatment for this disorder.

  20. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

  1. Patients with antisocial personality disorder. Are they bad or mad?

    PubMed

    Cusack, J R; Malaney, K R

    1992-03-01

    Antisocial personality disorder is the psychiatric diagnosis most closely linked to explosive and criminal behavior. This diagnosis is easily documented but challenges a clinician's diagnostic skill because of the patient's propensity for masquerade and pathologic lying. The essential feature of antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood or early adolescence and continuing into adulthood. The differential diagnosis should include substance abuse, adult antisocial behavior, psychotic and organic illness, and other personality disorders. Suggested medical and psychiatric treatment includes rapidly establishing firm behavior limits and performing a mental status examination to evaluate thought processes and suicidal and homicidal intent.

  2. Multidimensional Model of Trauma and Correlated Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Willem H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have revealed an important relationship between psychosocial trauma and antisocial personality disorder. A multidimensional model is presented which describes the psychopathological route from trauma to antisocial development. A case report is also included that can illustrate the etiological process from trauma to severe antisocial…

  3. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  4. Antisocial personality disorder with and without antecedent childhood conduct disorder: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether prior conduct disorder increased deviance in persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. One hundred and three male inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder achieved significantly higher scores on self-report measures of criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes than 137 male inmates satisfying only the adult criteria for antisocial personality disorder and 87 male nonantisocial inmates. Inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder were also more likely to receive disciplinary infractions for misconduct than inmates in the other two conditions. The theoretical, diagnostic, and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gibbon, Simon; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods Our search included CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BIOSIS and COPAC. Selection criteria Prospective, controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a psychological intervention and a control condition (either treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment). Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies. Two authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eleven studies involving 471 participants with AsPD met the inclusion criteria, although data were available from only five studies involving 276 participants with AsPD. Only two studies focused solely on an AsPD sample. Eleven different psychological interventions were examined. Only two studies reported on reconviction, and only one on aggression. Compared to the control condition, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus standard maintenance was superior for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study, but CBT plus treatment as usual was not superior for male outpatients with recent verbal/physical violence in another. Contingency management plus standard maintenance was superior for drug misuse for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study but not in another, possibly because of differences in the behavioural intervention. However, contingency management was superior in social functioning and counselling session attendance in the latter. A multi-component intervention utilising motivational interviewing principles, the ‘Driving Whilst Intoxicated program’, plus

  6. Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance misuse, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009, week 37), CINAHL (1982 to September 2009), PsycINFO (1872 to September 2009), ASSIA (1987 to September 2009), BIOSIS (1985 to September 2009), COPAC (September 2009), National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts (1970 to July 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to September 2009), ISI-Proceedings (1981 to September 2009), Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), Social Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), SIGLE (1980 to April 2006), Dissertation Abstracts (September 2009), ZETOC (September 2009) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (September 2009). Selection criteria Controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a pharmacological intervention and a placebo control condition. Two trials comparing one drug against another without a placebo control are reported separately. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently selected studies. Two review authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria involving 394 participants with AsPD. Data were available from four studies involving 274 participants with AsPD. No study set out to recruit participants solely on the basis of having AsPD, and in only one study was the sample entirely of AsPD participants. Eight different drugs were examined in eight studies. Study quality was relatively poor. Inadequate reporting meant the

  7. 'Schizoid' personality and antisocial conduct: a retrospective case not study.

    PubMed

    Wolff, S; Cull, A

    1986-08-01

    A retrospective case not analysis for 30 boys diagnosed as having a 'schizoid' personality disorder (Asperger's syndrome) in childhood, and for 30 matched clinic attenders (with systematic follow-up data for 19 matched pairs), showed the incidence of antisocial conduct to be the same in the two groups. However, the 'schizoid' boys stole less often and had fewer alcohol problems. In this group antisocial conduct was less related to family disruption and social disadvantage, and more to an unusual fantasy life. Clinical descriptions of a series of 'schizoid' boys and girls with conspicuous antisocial conduct follow. They suggest that characteristic patterns of antisocial conduct in such children are persistent expressions of hostility and, especially in girls, pathological lying, for which environmental circumstances provide no explanation.

  8. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  9. Genetics, antisocial personality, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, S H

    1996-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that heritable biological factors play a role in the genesis of repetitive antisocial behavior. The differing conceptual frameworks of behavioral genetics and the law are described, and the implications that current research in behavioral genetics may have for assigning responsibility for unlawful behavior are discussed.

  10. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders.

  11. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  12. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. PMID:27392230

  13. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  14. The narcissistic personality disorder and the differential diagnosis of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, O F

    1989-09-01

    This article describes a dimension of antisocial behavior that links the narcissistic personality disorder with the antisocial personality disorder, with the syndrome of malignant narcissism as intermediate between the two. Starting with a critique of the DSM-III-R description of the antisocial personality disorder, the author reviews some salient contributions to the concept of the antisocial personality disorder derived from descriptive, sociologic, and psychoanalytic viewpoints. Cleckley's classic description forms the historical background for an updated description of the key characteristics of the antisocial personality disorder. What follows is a summary of the differential diagnosis of antisocial behavior as found in the antisocial personality disorder, the syndrome of malignant narcissism, the narcissistic personality disorders with antisocial behaviors, other severe personality disorders with antisocial features, neurotic personality disorders with antisocial features, symptomatic neuroses, and, finally, dissocial reactions. Prognostic and therapeutic considerations regarding the treatment of antisocial behavior are briefly summarized in the light of this differential diagnosis. A final section describes the psychodynamics of the syndrome of malignant narcissism and of the antisocial personality disorder.

  15. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    PubMed

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  16. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    PubMed

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior. PMID:8988574

  17. Sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders: relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Berger, P; Berner, W; Bolterauer, J; Gutierrez, K; Berger, K

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of sadistic personality disorder (SPD), as defined in the appendix of DSM-III-R, to other personality disorders and to sexual sadism, 70 sex offenders (27 child molesters, 33 rapists, and 10 murderers) were assessed by the International Personality Disorder Examination. In 19 subjects (27.2%) from the total sample, SPD was diagnosed. The highest overlap appeared with borderline personality disorder (31.6%) and antisocial personality disorder (42.1%). However, in four cases SPD was the only personality disorder diagnosed. Factor analysis of the antisocial and sadistic criteria resulted in four major factors--one factor with high loadings on the sadistic criteria and the violent criteria of antisocial personality disorder, two factors with different forms of adult and juvenile aggression, and a fourth factor with high loadings on the antisocial criteria covering exploitative behavior. The results do not support SPD as a discrete disorder. Nevertheless, SPD may be seen as an important subdimension of antisocial personality disorder, distinct from more exploitative forms of antisocial behavior with less violence. Of those patients with SPD, 42.1% also had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of sexual sadism, which may be the most dangerous configuration.

  18. Language of love and hate of persons diagnosed with antisocial personality.

    PubMed

    Gawda, B

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the description of two opposite feelings, i.e. love and hate, expressed in the narratives created by persons with an antisocial personality disorder. Several researchers point to the fact that persons suffering from antisocial personality disorder display an incapacity for love, that their descriptions of love are poor, and that their language related to love is poor. On the contrary, they have an ability to experience anger and hate, therefore their possibilities to describe hate and their language related to hate are developed. We focus on verifying these scientific opinions. We examined 50 prisoners diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder, 40 prisoners without antisocial personality, and 50 men outside of prison without antisocial tendencies. The participants had to describe situations presented at photographs linked to love and hate. The qualitative data (elements of narrative discourse) were analyzed concerning two feelings, using nonparametric statistics. The results show that persons with antisocial personality disorder are able to describe both love and hate feelings, and that their language is expressive and convincing. They have affective knowledge and the capacities to imagine the feelings. They were more concentrated on themselves than the control groups.

  19. Fathering: The Effect of Father-Absence and Inadequate Fathering on Children's Personality Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonrod, Debbie

    Information about the influence fathers have on their children's development is provided in this booklet. Chapter One reviews research focused on father-absence and inadequate fathering. Societal expectations for fathers, paternal deprivation, children's emotional, cognitive and social development as well as sex-role adjustment are briefly…

  20. The emotional lexicon of individuals diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without antisocial tendencies who described situations involving love, hate and anxiety depicted by photographs. The lexical choices made in the narratives were analyzed, and a comparison of the three groups revealed differences between the emotional narratives of inmates with ASPD, inmates without ASPD, and the control group. Although the narratives of the individuals with ASPD included more words describing emotions and higher levels of emotional intensity, the valence of these words was inappropriate. The linguistic characteristics of these narratives were associated with high levels of psychopathy and low emotional reactivity. PMID:23337952

  1. The emotional lexicon of individuals diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without antisocial tendencies who described situations involving love, hate and anxiety depicted by photographs. The lexical choices made in the narratives were analyzed, and a comparison of the three groups revealed differences between the emotional narratives of inmates with ASPD, inmates without ASPD, and the control group. Although the narratives of the individuals with ASPD included more words describing emotions and higher levels of emotional intensity, the valence of these words was inappropriate. The linguistic characteristics of these narratives were associated with high levels of psychopathy and low emotional reactivity.

  2. Associations between Antisocial Personality Disorder and Sex on Discounting Rates.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Riven, Levi; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies show that individuals with substance use and gambling problems discount delayed and probabilistic outcomes at different rates than controls. Few studies, however, investigated the association of discounting with antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), and none evaluated whether sex impacts these relationships. Because females with ASPD exhibit different patterns of antisocial behavior than their male counterparts, they may also differ in their decision-making tendencies. This study examined the effects of ASPD and sex on discounting in pathological gamblers. Results revealed effects of ASPD, and an interaction between ASPD and sex, on probability discounting rates. None of these variables, however, were related to delay discounting. Females with ASPD highly preferred probabilistic outcomes, suggesting that female gamblers with ASPD are particularly impulsive when it comes to probabilistic rewards. Greater understanding of sex differences in ASPD might help guide the selection of more effective sex-specific prevention and treatment programs.

  3. Antisocial personality disorder in DSM-5: missteps and missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Vachon, David D

    2012-10-01

    This paper evaluates the proposal for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Some aspects of the proposal are appealing: personality disorders will be assessed using trait criteria, and these criteria are similar to trait descriptions of DSM-IV ASPD. Other aspects of the proposal are less appealing. First, the DSM-5 will depend on a newly constructed personality trait system rather than relying on a well validated, widely studied one. Second, the trait profile of ASPD is incomplete; although this profile reflects the traits included in DSM-IV, it maps poorly onto the full personality profile of ASPD. Third, the DSM Workgroup missed an opportunity to finally unify ASPD and psychopathy; history and research suggest that these disorders have diverged mistakenly. Fourth, the newly proposed criteria of impairments in self- and interpersonal functioning are of questionable derivation and utility.

  4. Psychopathy and Pathological Narcissism: A Descriptive and Psychodynamic Formulation on the Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the Antisocial Personality Disorder within the context of a psychopathology model. Criticizes and reviews the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders approach and suggests revisions. Coins the term narcissistic-antisocial personality and reviews it within several contexts. (Author/ABB)

  5. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

  6. [Psychiatric disorders and childhood trauma in prisoners with antisocial personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Kopp, D; Spitzer, C; Kuwert, P; Barnow, S; Orlob, S; Lüth, H; Freyberger, H J; Dudeck, M

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies indicate high prevalence rates of mental disorders and trauma among prisoners. Based on a sample of 102 male German prisoners, the comorbidity and childhood trauma experiences in 72 criminals with antisocial personality disorder were investigated. Furthermore, associations of antisocial personality disorder and early traumatic experiences with the age at first conviction and the lifetime months of imprisonment were examined. Subjects had high rates of comorbid lifetime and current disorders as well as childhood trauma experiences. Physical abuse in childhood and adolescence was identified as a predictor for lifetime months of imprisonment, antisocial personality disorder was found to be a predictor for the age at first conviction. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of prisoners with antisocial personality disorder being a severely traumatized population with serious mental disorders. Traumatic childhood experiences and antisocial personality disorder are associated with criminality variables. This has important implications on preventive treatments as well as on how prison services are addressing these problems.

  7. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Blair, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marker system or the social response reversal system) are related to reactive aggression shown by patients with "acquired sociopathy" due to orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Impairment in the capacity to form associations between emotional unconditioned stimuli, particularly distress cues, and conditioned stimuli (the violence inhibition mechanism model) is related to the instrumental aggression shown by persons with developmental psychopathy.

 PMID:11723191

  8. Antisocial personality disorder--stable and unstable subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    There have been criticisms that the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are over-dependent on criminal behavior. This study aimed to identify unrelated criteria of social and behavioral problems and instability, and to investigate their associations in a representative household sample of adults in the UK. Approximately one third of adults with ASPD did not fulfill any of the criteria for instability. They were less aggressive and involved in illegal activities but expressed less remorse for their behaviors. Instability in ASPD was mediated primarily through comorbid anxiety disorders and borderline personality disorder. The concept of Secondary Psychopathy, which has not generally been applied to ASPD, demonstrated many similarities to the unstable subtype.

  9. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  10. Father's and Mother's Perceptions of Parenting Styles as Mediators of the Effects of Parental Psychopathology on Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…

  11. Developmental Factors Associated with the Formation of the Antisocial Personality: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Kent Wesley

    Research on factors which contribute to the development of antisocial personality disorder is reviewed. Methodological issues are critiqued, including major assessment instruments and frequently used research designs. Factors which current research indicates might lead to the continuation of antisocial behavior from childhood into adulthood are…

  12. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  13. Antisocial Behavior in Children and Hans Eysenck's Biosocial Theory of Personality: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper examines antisocial behavior in children and youth in relation to the biosocial personality theory of Hans Eysenck. It explains Eysenck's theory, which includes a significant role for biological factors in the development of antisocial behavior. The theory holds that three temperament traits--Psychoticism (P), Extroversion (E), and…

  14. Regional cortical thinning in subjects with violent antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Veena M; Narr, Katherine L; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2007-09-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann's areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  15. Regional Cortical Thinning in Subjects With Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Veena M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2011-01-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors’ knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann’s areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:17728428

  16. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53-3.14), P=1.9 × 10(-5)). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951-LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37-1.85), P=1.6 × 10(-9)) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder.

  17. Father's and mother's perceptions of parenting styles as mediators of the effects of parental psychopathology on antisocial behavior in outpatient children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-06-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys). Parenting style had a mediating effect on the studied relationships. Maternal psychopathology was positively associated with antisocial behavior in children, either directly or partially by parenting style, while paternal psychopathology was positively associated with offspring antisocial behavior only through the mediator role of parenting style. Child's sex did not moderate these relationships. Parenting style could be a target for prevention and intervention of antisocial behavior in the offspring of parents with mental health problems. PMID:22120423

  18. Father's and mother's perceptions of parenting styles as mediators of the effects of parental psychopathology on antisocial behavior in outpatient children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-06-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys). Parenting style had a mediating effect on the studied relationships. Maternal psychopathology was positively associated with antisocial behavior in children, either directly or partially by parenting style, while paternal psychopathology was positively associated with offspring antisocial behavior only through the mediator role of parenting style. Child's sex did not moderate these relationships. Parenting style could be a target for prevention and intervention of antisocial behavior in the offspring of parents with mental health problems.

  19. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53–3.14), P=1.9 × 10-5). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951–LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37–1.85), P=1.6 × 10−9) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder. PMID:27598967

  20. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53-3.14), P=1.9 × 10(-5)). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951-LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37-1.85), P=1.6 × 10(-9)) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder. PMID:27598967

  1. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016-0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD.

  2. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016–0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  3. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016-0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  4. Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongqin; Geddes, John R; Fazel, Seena

    2012-10-01

    The risk of antisocial outcomes in individuals with personality disorder (PD) remains uncertain. The authors synthesize the current evidence on the risks of antisocial behavior, violence, and repeat offending in PD, and they explore sources of heterogeneity in risk estimates through a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of observational studies comparing antisocial outcomes in personality disordered individuals with controls groups. Fourteen studies examined risk of antisocial and violent behavior in 10,007 individuals with PD, compared with over 12 million general population controls. There was a substantially increased risk of violent outcomes in studies with all PDs (random-effects pooled odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.5). Meta-regression revealed that antisocial PD and gender were associated with higher risks (p = .01 and .07, respectively). The odds of all antisocial outcomes were also elevated. Twenty-five studies reported the risk of repeat offending in PD compared with other offenders. The risk of a repeat offense was also increased (fixed-effects pooled OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.7) in offenders with PD. The authors conclude that although PD is associated with antisocial outcomes and repeat offending, the risk appears to differ by PD category, gender, and whether individuals are offenders or not.

  5. Rehabilitating antisocial personalities: treatment through self-governance strategies

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are widely assumed to reject psychotherapeutic intervention. Some commentators, therefore, argue that those with the disorder are better managed in the criminal justice system, where, following the introduction of indeterminate sentences, engagement with psychological treatment is coercively linked to the achievement of parole. By comparison, National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines on the management and treatment of ASPD recommend that those who are treatment seeking should be considered for admission to specialist psychiatric hospitals. The rationale is that prison-based interventions are underresourced, and the treatment of ASPD is underprioritised. The justification is that offenders with ASPD can be rehabilitated, if they are motivated. One problem, however, is that little is known about why offenders with ASPD seek treatment or what effect subsequent treatment has on their self-understanding. The aim of this paper is to address these unresolved issues. It draws on the findings of Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded qualitative study examining the experiences of sentenced male offenders admitted to a specialist personality disorder ward within the medium secure estate and the medical practitioners who treat them. The data are analysed with reference to Michel Foucault's work on governmentality and strategy in power relations. Two arguments are advanced: first, offenders with ASPD are motivated by legal coercive pressures to implement a variety of Foucauldian-type strategies to give the false impression of treatment progress. Second, and related, treatment does not result in changes in self-understanding in the resistive client with ASPD. This presupposes that, in respect of this group at least, Foucault was mistaken in his claim that resistive behaviours merely mask the effectiveness of treatment norms over time. Nevertheless, the paper concludes that specialist treatment in the

  6. Rehabilitating antisocial personalities: treatment through self-governance strategies.

    PubMed

    McRae, Leon

    2013-02-01

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are widely assumed to reject psychotherapeutic intervention. Some commentators, therefore, argue that those with the disorder are better managed in the criminal justice system, where, following the introduction of indeterminate sentences, engagement with psychological treatment is coercively linked to the achievement of parole. By comparison, National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines on the management and treatment of ASPD recommend that those who are treatment seeking should be considered for admission to specialist psychiatric hospitals. The rationale is that prison-based interventions are underresourced, and the treatment of ASPD is underprioritised. The justification is that offenders with ASPD can be rehabilitated, if they are motivated. One problem, however, is that little is known about why offenders with ASPD seek treatment or what effect subsequent treatment has on their self-understanding. The aim of this paper is to address these unresolved issues. It draws on the findings of Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded qualitative study examining the experiences of sentenced male offenders admitted to a specialist personality disorder ward within the medium secure estate and the medical practitioners who treat them. The data are analysed with reference to Michel Foucault's work on governmentality and strategy in power relations. Two arguments are advanced: first, offenders with ASPD are motivated by legal coercive pressures to implement a variety of Foucauldian-type strategies to give the false impression of treatment progress. Second, and related, treatment does not result in changes in self-understanding in the resistive client with ASPD. This presupposes that, in respect of this group at least, Foucault was mistaken in his claim that resistive behaviours merely mask the effectiveness of treatment norms over time. Nevertheless, the paper concludes that specialist treatment in the

  7. Borderline and antisocial personality scores as mediators between attachment and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Anne Marie; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Lopez, Frederick G

    2007-01-01

    Court-mandated male batterers (n = 192) attending an intervention program completed measures examining adult attachment orientations (anxious and avoidant), personality disorders (borderline and antisocial), type of violence (psychological and physical), and social desirability. Structural equation modeling was used to determine whether there were significant relationships between anxious attachment and physical and psychological violence that are mediated by either borderline or antisocial personality disorders. Social desirability was included in both models as a covariate. Results indicated that personality disorders fully mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment and physical as well as psychological violence. Personality disorders only partially mediated the relationship between anxious attachment and psychological violence. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  8. The relationship between attachment, personality and antisocial tendencies in a prison sample: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anita Lill; Waage, Leif; Eid, Jarle; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Hart, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the role of adult attachment and personality in relation to antisocial tendencies (i.e. convictions for violence and interpersonal problems in romantic relationships) in Norwegian prison inmates (N=92). Attachment styles and personality were measured using self-report questionnaires (RSQ; Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994; and NEO-FFI, Costa & McCrae, 1992a). The prison inmates scored higher on avoidant than on anxious attachment style. While age and agreeableness (negatively associated) emerged as significant predictors of violence, anxious attachment explained most of the variances in aggression in intimate relationships. The study suggests that different types of antisocial tendencies could have different attachment and general personality correlates.

  9. Offender Characteristics in Lethal Violence with Special Reference to Antisocial and Autistic Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the relationships between personality traits, lifetime psychosocial functioning, and crime scene behavior. Thirty-five male offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden (1996-2001) and assigned a main diagnosis of either antisocial personality disorder (APD) or autism spectrum disorder…

  10. Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Eysenck's Theory of Personality: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.; Kemp, Dawn E.

    2002-01-01

    Antisocial behavior in children was examined in relation to the personality theory of Hans Eysenck. The theory argues the interaction of Psychoticism, Extroversion, and Neuroticism with socialization experiences produce personality. Eysenck's instruments also contain a Lie scale. A literature review (n=11) supports the role of Psychoticism and Lie…

  11. The Rorschach and the DSM-III-R antisocial personality: a tribute to Robert Lindner.

    PubMed

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R

    1992-05-01

    This study utilized the Rorschach as a psychometric measure for understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Comprehensive System (Exner, 1986) Rorschach data for a sample of 60 ADP subjects and Rorschach object relations and defensive operations for 22 psychopathic APD (P-APD) and 21 nonpsychopathic APD (NP-APD) subjects are presented and discussed. The data support the absence of anxiety and attachment and the presence of pathological narcissism and borderline personality organization in P-APDs. The Rorschach's ability to differentiate antisocial groups based on level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985) strongly supports the need to use psychopathy as an independent measure when one is studying APD.

  12. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youths: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…

  13. Predicting Future Antisocial Personality Disorder in Males from a Clinical Assessment in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Applegate, Brooks

    2005-01-01

    It is essential to identify childhood predictors of adult antisocial personality disorder (APD) to target early prevention. It has variously been hypothesized that APD is predicted by childhood conduct disorder (CD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders. To test these competing hypotheses, the authors used data from a…

  14. Heavy Episodic Drinking in College Students: Associations with Features of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…

  15. Correspondence between Self-Report and Interview-Based Assessments of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Laura S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Edens, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of…

  16. Neurofeedback, Affect Regulation and Attachment: A Case Study and Analysis of Anti-Social Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Sebern F.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…

  17. Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits in combined antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits are prominent in both antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use disorders (SUD), but have rarely been examined collectively. The authors' results show that all three variables were elevated in adults with comorbid ASPD/SUD, relative to SUD-only and control subjects.

  18. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with MICA Disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder and Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendrick, Karen; Sullivan, Christopher; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Treatment outcomes 1 year after release from prison were compared for two subgroups of male inmates with co-occurring serious mental illness and chemical abuse (MICA) disorders, those with a diagnosis for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), and those without a diagnosis of APD. The foundation study had randomly assigned inmates to either…

  19. Treatment outlines for antisocial personality disorder. The Quality Assurance Project.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The notion of antisocial behaviour as mental disorder is reviewed and criteria to distinguish it from criminality described. The natural history and familial nature of the disorder are emphasised. The literature was searched unsuccessfully for accounts of effective treatments. The sample of practising psychiatrists and the nominated experts were agreed, in the absence of any specific remedy, about the management of such patients. There are three principles. Clarify the real reason help is being sought, treat intercurrent conditions energetically, and remember that as remission is common by mid-life what happens to the patient before then may materially affect their ability to manage later. PMID:1793424

  20. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Siever, Larry J; Goodman, Marianne; McNamara, Margaret; Hazlett, Erin A; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S

    2015-10-30

    Gender is an important variable in the study of mental health because of the actual and perceived differences between men and women. Relatively little is known how males and females differ in their manifestations of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Demographic and clinical features of 323 participants with ASPD were assessed and recorded. Women had fewer episodes of antisocial behavior involving or not involving police, higher scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and on Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ compared to men. CTQ scores positively correlated with the number of episodes of antisocial behavior involving police in men but not in women. The percentage of patients with comorbid borderline and histrionic personality disorders was higher and the percentage of participants with cocaine use disorder was lower among women compared to men. Comorbid alcohol use disorder was frequent in both groups, while a higher percentage of women had comorbid mood disorders compared to men. Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that CTQ scores, histrionic personality disorder, and antisocial behavior involving the police drive the difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that treatment of individuals with ASPD should focus on the management of comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:26296756

  1. Standardising antisocial personality disorder: the social shaping of a psychiatric technology.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn

    2012-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is one of the most influential and controversial terminological standards ever produced. As such, it continues to provide a valuable case study for sociologists of health and illness. In this article I take as my focus one particular DSM category: antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The analysis charts the shifting understandings of personality disorders associated with antisocial behaviour in the DSM and in US psychiatry more broadly from 1950 to the present day. Memos, letters and minutes produced by the DSM-III committee and held in the American Psychiatric Association (APA) archives ground the discussion. Finally, the article explores more recent constructions of antisocial personality disorder and examines the anticipatory discourse pertaining to the rewriting of this category expected in the forthcoming DSM-5. In presenting an in-depth socio-historical narrative of the development - and potential future - of standards for pathological antisociality, this analysis casts new light on the ASPD construct. In particular, by considering it as a technology, I elaborate how processes of path dependency constrain innovation and how imaginaries of users and publics are implicated in the APA debates constitutive of this.

  2. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Siever, Larry J; Goodman, Marianne; McNamara, Margaret; Hazlett, Erin A; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S

    2015-10-30

    Gender is an important variable in the study of mental health because of the actual and perceived differences between men and women. Relatively little is known how males and females differ in their manifestations of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Demographic and clinical features of 323 participants with ASPD were assessed and recorded. Women had fewer episodes of antisocial behavior involving or not involving police, higher scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and on Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ compared to men. CTQ scores positively correlated with the number of episodes of antisocial behavior involving police in men but not in women. The percentage of patients with comorbid borderline and histrionic personality disorders was higher and the percentage of participants with cocaine use disorder was lower among women compared to men. Comorbid alcohol use disorder was frequent in both groups, while a higher percentage of women had comorbid mood disorders compared to men. Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that CTQ scores, histrionic personality disorder, and antisocial behavior involving the police drive the difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that treatment of individuals with ASPD should focus on the management of comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  3. [Cognition-Emotion Interactions and Psychopathic Personality: Distinct Pathways to Antisocial and Violent Behavior].

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have long acknowledged heterogeneity among persons who exhibit antisocial and violent behaviours. The study of psychopathic personality or psychopathy can help elucidate this heterogeneity through examination of the different facets that constitute this disorder. In particular, the distinct correlates of the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy suggest at least two possible pathways to antisocial behaviours. Building on basic studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience, we provide a focused, non-comprehensive review of work identifying the biopsychological mechanisms involved in these two pathways, with special attention to studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods. In specific, a series of studies are discussed which examined affective and cognitive processes that may distinguish offenders high on psychopathic traits from other offenders, with emphasis on alterations in emotion-cognition interactions related to each factor of psychopathy. The set of findings reviewed highlight a central conclusion: Factor 1 represents a pathway involving reduced emotional responding, exacerbated by attentional abnormalities, that make for a more deliberate and emotionally insensitive offender profile. In contrast, Factor 2 characterizes a pathway marked by emotional and behavioural dysregulation and cognitive control dysfunctions, particularly in emotional contexts. Implications for identifying etiological processes and the further understanding of antisocial and violent behaviours are discussed. PMID:27570952

  4. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  5. Clarifying the role of defensive reactivity deficits in psychopathy and antisocial personality using startle reflex methodology.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hall, Jason R; Patrick, Christopher J; Bernat, Edward M

    2011-02-01

    Prior research has demonstrated deficits in defensive reactivity (indexed by potentiation of the startle blink reflex) in psychopathic individuals. However, the basis of this association remains unclear, as diagnostic criteria for psychopathy encompass two distinct phenotypic components that may reflect differing neurobiological mechanisms-an affective-interpersonal component and an antisocial deviance component. Likewise, the role of defensive response deficits in antisocial personality disorder (APD), a related but distinct syndrome, remains to be clarified. In the current study, the authors examined affective priming deficits in relation to factors of psychopathy and symptoms of APD using startle reflex methods in 108 adult male prisoners. Deficits in blink reflex potentiation during aversive picture viewing were found in relation to the affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) component of psychopathy, and to a lesser extent in relation to the antisocial deviance (Factor 2) component of psychopathy and symptoms of APD-but only as a function of their overlap with affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. These findings provide clear evidence that deficits in defensive reactivity are linked specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy and not to the antisocial deviance features represented most strongly in APD.

  6. Personality and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: an enquiry into Eysenck's and Gray's theories.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A C; Yule, W

    1995-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the hypotheses derived from Eysenck's and Gray's theories of personality regarding antisocial behavior. For this purpose the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Junior) (EPQ-Junior) and a card task aimed at measuring sensitivity to reward were used in each of the studies. The first study compared a group of juvenile delinquents with a group of nondelinquents and the second study compared a group of severely conduct-disordered children with a group of normal children. The results did not support Eysenck's claim that delinquents score higher than their normal counterparts on extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Some support was found for the hypothesis derived from Gray's theory: Children and adolescents with severe antisocial behavior were more sensitive to rewards than their normal counterparts.

  7. Physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, habitual aggression, and violence.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the existing literature on physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and persistent violence/aggression. Coverage is provided of findings from studies utilizing peripheral, electrocortical, and neuroimaging measures. The review begins with a discussion of how psychopathy and antisocial personality are defined, and how these conditions relate to one another and to violent behavior. A case is made that the relationships psychopathy and ASPD show with violent and aggressive behavior, and similarities and differences in associations of each with physiological measures of various types can be understood in terms of symptomatic features these conditions have in common versus features that distinguish them. Following this, an overview is provided of major lines of evidence emerging from psychophysiological and neuroimaging studies conducted to date on these conditions. The final section of the chapter summarizes what has been learned from these existing studies and discusses implications and directions for future research.

  8. A Rorschach investigation of attachment and anxiety in antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R

    1991-09-01

    We investigated the constructs of anxiety and attachment in a group of 42 offenders who met the DSM-III-R criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Each antisocial subject's level of psychopathy was assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL). Three Rorschach variables related to attachment, anxiety, and coping were compared between subjects scoring greater than or equal to 30 (N = 21) on the PCL and subjects scoring less than 30 (N = 21). Comparison Rorschach variables are also presented from a sample of 60 antisocial personality-disordered offenders. Moderate psychopaths (PCL score, less than 30) produced texture and diffuse shading responses at a significantly greater frequency than severe, or primary, psychopaths (PCL score, greater than or equal to 30). There was no significant difference in the two groups' propensity for producing vista responses. Although there were no significant differences between the coping index scores, the trend suggests less conflictual functioning in the severe psychopaths. A virtual absence of texture responses in the severe psychopaths, and a significantly greater frequency of diffuse shading responses in the moderate psychopaths, add construct validity to the lack of attachment in psychopaths and the role of anxiety in differentiating secondary from primary psychopathy. We view the presence of vista responses in this population as a measure of a failed grandiose self-structure, and note that it often occurs in the records of moderate psychopaths who also present achromatic color responses.

  9. The 'antisocial' person: an insight in to biology, classification and current evidence on treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This review analyses and summarises the recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of violence and empathy, taxonomical issues on defining personality disorders characterised by disregard for social norms, evidence for efficacy of different treatment modalities and ethical implications in defining 'at-risk' individuals for preventive interventions. Methods PubMed was searched with the keywords 'antisocial personality disorder', 'dissocial personality disorder' and 'psychopathy'. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999 to 2009) Results Both diagnostic manuals used in modern psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and the International Classification of Diseases published by the World Health Organization, identify a personality disorder sharing similar traits. It is termed antisocial personality disorder in the diagnostic and statistical manual and dissocial personality disorder in the International Classification of Diseases. However, some authors query the ability of the existing manuals to identify a special category termed 'psychopathy', which in their opinion deserves special attention. On treatment-related issues, many psychological and behavioural therapies have shown success rates ranging from 25% to 62% in different cohorts. Multisystemic therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy have been proven efficacious in many trials. There is no substantial evidence for the efficacy of pharmacological therapy. Currently, the emphasis is on early identification and prevention of antisocial behaviour despite the ethical implications of defining at-risk children. Conclusions Further research is needed in the areas of neuroendocrinological associations of violent behaviour, taxonomic existence of psychopathy and efficacy of treatment modalities. PMID:20604959

  10. Gender differences in contributions of emotion to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Jill E; Rogers, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of psychopathy highlight the importance of affective features as they relate to social deviance; however, little empirical research has actually investigated specific roles of emotion and emotion processing with respect to antisocial conduct. Antisocial personality disorder (APD), prevalent in forensic populations, is commonly associated with psychopathy despite the notable omission of such core affective features in its diagnosis. In this paper, we review the empirical literature on the contribution of emotion to psychopathy and APD, highlighting in particular research on emotion processing and various facets of emotional expression, including empathy and alexithymia. Research findings are discussed on gender differences in emotional functioning and their likely effects on the assessment of psychopathy and APD. Given the known gender differences in the expressions of emotion, the article concludes with recommendations to bridge research for different offender groups, including psychopathy and APD.

  11. Borderline personality organization in violent offenders: correlations of identity diffusion and primitive defense mechanisms with antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, Falk; Kunst, Heike; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Although theoretical assumptions and empirical evidence suggest an association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial behavior or even antisocial personality disorder (APD), there is no study relating the psychodynamic aspects of BPD to antisocial behavior. In this study, the authors tested the correlation between the structural criteria of borderline personality organization (BPO)--that is, identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, and reality testing--and antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems. A sample of imprisoned violent offenders (N = 91) was studied using the Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Neo-Five-Factor-Inventory (Neo-FFI), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). Significant correlations were predicted and found between the BPI scales of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, impaired reality testing, and fear of closeness and antisocial features, neuroticism, agreeableness, and interpersonal problems. The results are consistent with both object relations theory and attachment theory.

  12. One of early maladaptive schemas’ causal relationship through metacognitive beliefs with borderline and antisocial personality patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zirakbash, Amin; Naderi, Farah; Enayati, Mir Salahedin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed at determining the causal relationship of metacognitive beliefs as a mediator between one of early maladaptive schemas including (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame) and borderline and antisocial personality patterns. Materials and Methods: The study type has been relational and seeking causal modeling of path analysis has been used. The population used in this study included outpatients in counseling, psychological and psychiatric centers in 2012–2013. We randomly distributed 350 questionnaires in five centers out of three parts in Isfahan, and finally 230 valid questionnaires were evaluated and analyzed. Data collection tool has been Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III's (MCMI-III's) personality questionnaire, Yang's schema questionnaire (75 items), Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (30 items). Reliability of the Yang's Schema Questionnaire in this study was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (α =96%), and that of metacognition was calculated the same way (α =87%). Data analysis has been done using MCMI-III's software for Millon's personality questionnaire, and SPSS-16 and AMOS-18 software. We used path analysis method for testing each model in statistical data analysis. Result: The results of this study suggest a possible causal relationship between the number of one of the early maladaptive schemas and the patterns of anti-social and borderline personalities through some metacognitive beliefs. Conclusion: This study showed that cognitive beliefs can be activators of the early schema and continuation's coping behaviors in personality patterns. PMID:26430689

  13. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

  14. Possible role of a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Around half the inmates in prison institutions have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). A recent theory has proposed that a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) underlies the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present theoretical paper, based on a comprehensive database and hand search of the relevant literature, this hypothesis is extended to ASPD, which may be the predominant expression of EOS dysfunction in men, while the same pathology underlies BPD in women. According to evidence from human and animal studies, the problematic behaviours of persons with antisocial, callous, or psychopathic traits may be seen as desperate, unconscious attempts to stimulate their deficient EOS, which plays a key role in brain reward circuits. If the needs of this system are not being met, the affected persons experience dysphoric mood, discomfort, or irritability, and strive to increase binding of endogenous opioids to receptors by using the rewarding effects of aggression by exertion of physical or manipulative power on others, by abusing alcohol or substances that have the reward system as target, by creating an "endorphin rush" by self-harm, by increasing the frequency of their sexual contacts, or by impulsive actions and sensation seeking. Symptoms associated with ASPD can be treated with opioid antagonists like naltrexone, naloxone, or nalmefene. PMID:26250442

  15. Possible role of a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Around half the inmates in prison institutions have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). A recent theory has proposed that a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) underlies the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present theoretical paper, based on a comprehensive database and hand search of the relevant literature, this hypothesis is extended to ASPD, which may be the predominant expression of EOS dysfunction in men, while the same pathology underlies BPD in women. According to evidence from human and animal studies, the problematic behaviours of persons with antisocial, callous, or psychopathic traits may be seen as desperate, unconscious attempts to stimulate their deficient EOS, which plays a key role in brain reward circuits. If the needs of this system are not being met, the affected persons experience dysphoric mood, discomfort, or irritability, and strive to increase binding of endogenous opioids to receptors by using the rewarding effects of aggression by exertion of physical or manipulative power on others, by abusing alcohol or substances that have the reward system as target, by creating an "endorphin rush" by self-harm, by increasing the frequency of their sexual contacts, or by impulsive actions and sensation seeking. Symptoms associated with ASPD can be treated with opioid antagonists like naltrexone, naloxone, or nalmefene.

  16. Personality Trait Differences in Boys and Girls with Clinical or Sub-Clinical Diagnoses of Conduct Disorder versus Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested differences in personality traits measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a community sample of adolescents with definite or probable conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses that did not progress to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) by early adulthood (n=43), those with definite or probable…

  17. Fathers' encounter of support from paediatric diabetes teams; the tension between general recommendations and personal experience.

    PubMed

    Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Hanas, Ragnar; Borup, Ina

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore and discuss how fathers involved in caring for a child with type 1 diabetes experienced support from Swedish paediatric diabetes teams (PDTs) in everyday life with their child. Eleven fathers of children with type 1 diabetes, living in Sweden and scoring high on involvement on the Parental Responsibility Questionnaire, participated. Data were collected from January 2011 to August 2011, initially through online focus group discussions in which 6 of 19 invited fathers participated. Due to high attrition, the data collection continued in eight individual interviews. A semi-structured interview guide was used, and the fathers were asked to share experiences of their PDT's support in everyday life with their child. A simultaneous and constant comparison approach to data collection and analysis allowed the core category to emerge: the tension between general recommendations and personal experience. This core category illuminates how the fathers experienced tension between managing their unique everyday life with their child and balancing this to meet their PDT's expectations with regard to blood glucose levels. The core category was supported by two categories: the tension between the fathers'and their PDT's knowledge, whereby fathers reported discrepancies between their PDT's medical knowledge and their own unique knowledge of their child; and the tension between the fathers'and their PDT's goals, whereby the fathers identified differences between the family's and their PDT's goals. As a dimension of the core category, fathers felt trust or distrust in their PDT. We conclude that to achieve high-quality support for children with diabetes and to enhance their health and well-being, involved fathers' knowledge of their unique family situation needs to be integrated into the diabetes treatment.

  18. Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: an integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Patrick, Christopher J; Benning, Stephen D; Kramer, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    Antisocial behavior, substance use, and impulsive and aggressive personality traits often co-occur, forming a coherent spectrum of personality and psychopathology. In the current research, the authors developed a novel quantitative model of this spectrum. Over 3 waves of iterative data collection, 1,787 adult participants selected to represent a range across the externalizing spectrum provided extensive data about specific externalizing behaviors. Statistical methods such as item response theory and semiparametric factor analysis were used to model these data. The model and assessment instrument that emerged from the research shows how externalizing phenomena are organized hierarchically and cover a wide range of individual differences. The authors discuss the utility of this model for framing research on the correlates and the etiology of externalizing phenomena.

  19. Linking Antisocial Behavior, Substance Use, and Personality: An Integrative Quantitative Model of the Adult Externalizing Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Robert F.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Benning, Stephen D.; Kramer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Antisocial behavior, substance use, and impulsive and aggressive personality traits often co-occur, forming a coherent spectrum of personality and psychopathology. In the current research, the authors developed a novel quantitative model of this spectrum. Over 3 waves of iterative data collection, 1,787 adult participants selected to represent a range across the externalizing spectrum provided extensive data about specific externalizing behaviors. Statistical methods such as item response theory and semiparametric factor analysis were used to model these data. The model and assessment instrument that emerged from the research shows how externalizing phenomena are organized hierarchically and cover a wide range of individual differences. The authors discuss the utility of this model for framing research on the correlates and the etiology of externalizing phenomena. PMID:18020714

  20. Comparing the constructs of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C

    2006-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention.

  1. Epidemiology, Comorbidity, and Behavioral Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kimberly B.; Few, Lauren R.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is theorized as a disorder of personality and affective deficits while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis is primarily behaviorally based. While ASPD and psychopathy are similar and are highly comorbid with each other, they are not synonymous. ASPD has been well studied in community samples with estimates of its lifetime prevalence ranging from 1-4% of the general population.4,5 In contrast, psychopathy is almost exclusively investigated within criminal populations so that its prevalence in the general population has been inferred by psychopathic traits rather than disorder (1%). Differences in etiology and comorbidity with each other and other psychiatric disorders of these two disorders are also evident. The current article will briefly review the epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidity of ASPD and psychopathy, focusing predominately on research completed in community and clinical populations. This paper aims to highlight ASPD and psychopathy as related, but distinct disorders. PMID:26594067

  2. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. PMID:25705979

  3. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety.

  4. The validity and clinical utility of structured diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder with forensic patients.

    PubMed

    Marin-Avellan, Luisa E; McGauley, Gillian A; Campbell, Colin D; Fonagy, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Current DSM-based instruments for personality disorders (PDs) limit the investigation of the course and outcome of treatment of these disorders. This study examined the validity of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PD (SCID-II) in a sample of forensic PD patients. Results based on 66 participants indicated that the SWAP-200 Q-factors reduced the frequency of diagnostic comorbidity of PD categories by half compared with the SCID-II. Only the SWAP-200's Antisocial PD category showed good convergent and discriminant validity with respect to other instruments describing aspects of PD. The validity of the cutoff score for severe antisocial PD was confirmed, and this category predicted severe incidents in the hospital at 1 year of follow-up. A violence risk scale was constructed, which differentiated violent and nonviolent offenders. The results support the validity of the SWAP-200 and its potential clinical utility with forensic PD patients.

  5. Neurocognitive Deficits Associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder in Non-treatment-seeking Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katie L; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2016-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a relatively common problem, but the neuropsychological profile of affected individuals has seldom been studied outside of criminal justice recruitment settings. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29 years) were recruited from the general community by media advertisements. Participants with ASPD (n = 17), free from substance use disorders, were compared with matched controls (n = 229) using objective computerized neuropsychological tasks tapping a range of cognitive domains. Compared with controls, individuals with ASPD showed significantly elevated pathological gambling symptoms, previous illegal acts, unemployment, greater nicotine consumption, and relative impairments in response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task) and decision-making (less risk adjustment, Cambridge Gamble Task). General response speed, set-shifting, working memory, and executive planning were intact. ASPD was also associated with higher impulsivity and venturesomeness on the Eysenck Questionnaire. These findings implicate impaired inhibitory control and decision-making in the pathophysiology of ASPD, even in milder manifestations of the disorder. Future work should explore the neural correlates of these impairments and use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, antisocial behavior, and functional impairment.

  6. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in infancy to parent-infant clinical services. Fifty-six of these families had been studied longitudinally since the first year of life. In infancy, attachment disorganization and disrupted mother-infant interaction were assessed; in middle childhood, disorganized-controlling attachment behaviors were reliably rated. In kindergarten and second grade, behavior problems were assessed by teacher report. In cross-sectional analyses, maltreatment was significantly associated with ASPD features but did not account for the independent effect of early referral to parent-infant services on ASPD features. In longitudinal analyses, maternal withdrawal in infancy predicted the extent of ASPD features twenty years later, independently of childhood abuse. In middle childhood, disorganized attachment behavior and maladaptive behavior at school added to prediction of later ASPD features. Antisocial features in young adulthood have precursors in the minute-to-minute process of parent-child interaction beginning in infancy.

  7. A comparison of alternate systems for diagnosing antisocial personality disorder in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Carroll, K M; Ball, S A; Rounsaville, B J

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated rates, reliability, internal consistency, factor structure, and clinical and predictive validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASP) across three diagnostic systems which varied in emphasis on a) core sociopathic traits and b) independence of antisocial behaviors from substance use in 399 cocaine abusers. Rates of ASP ranged from 7% (Research Diagnostic Criteria) to 53% (DSM-III-R). The DSM-III-R diagnosis of ASP was more reliable at 1 month and 1 year than the Research Diagnostic Criteria. Items assessing core traits of sociopathy had very low reliability and were poorly correlated with other criteria. Across all systems, cocaine abusers with ASP had earlier onset of drug dependence, more psychosocial dysfunction, and higher rates of other psychiatric disorders. Finally, only the DSM-III-R diagnosis of ASP was associated with treatment retention and short-term prognosis. These findings suggest that current diagnostic systems which require core sociopathic traits and independence of criminal behaviors from substance use may be more unreliable and of weaker prognostic significance than less restrictive systems. PMID:8320546

  8. Facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dorothy Y Y; Liu, Amy C Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Lam, Bess Y H; Siu, Bonnie W M; Lee, Tatia M C; Cheung, Eric F C

    2016-02-28

    Impairment in facial emotion perception is believed to be associated with aggression. Schizophrenia patients with antisocial features are more impaired in facial emotion perception than their counterparts without these features. However, previous studies did not define the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) using stringent criteria. We recruited 30 participants with dual diagnoses of ASPD and schizophrenia, 30 participants with schizophrenia and 30 controls. We employed the Facial Emotional Recognition paradigm to measure facial emotion perception, and administered a battery of neurocognitive tests. The Life History of Aggression scale was used. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in facial emotion perception, and control for the effect of other neurocognitive dysfunctions on facial emotion perception. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the association between facial emotion perception and aggression. Patients with dual diagnoses performed worst in facial emotion perception among the three groups. The group differences in facial emotion perception remained significant, even after other neurocognitive impairments were controlled for. Severity of aggression was correlated with impairment in perceiving negative-valenced facial emotions in patients with dual diagnoses. Our findings support the presence of facial emotion perception impairment and its association with aggression in schizophrenia patients with comorbid ASPD.

  9. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder show attentional bias for violence-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Domes, Gregor; Mense, Julia; Vohs, Knut; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-08-30

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be characterized by a lack in emotional functioning that manifests in irritability and a lack of remorse. The proposed link between ASPD and negative emotionality led to the question of emotional processing anomalies in ASPD. Furthermore, the effect of childhood maltreatment/abuse on emotional processing was tested in the present study. Violent and sexual offenders with ASPD (n=35), without ASPD (n=34), and healthy non-criminal controls (n=24) were compared in an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) using neutral, negative, and violence-related words. Secondary analyses focused on the effect of psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatment. Offenders with ASPD showed a stronger attentional bias to violence-related and negative words as compared to controls. Comparable results were obtained when grouping offenders to high, medium, and low psychopathic subgroups. Offenders with childhood maltreatment specifically showed stronger violence-related attentional bias than non-maltreated offenders. The data suggest that enhanced attention to violence-related stimuli in adult criminal offenders is associated with adverse developmental experiences and delinquency but to a lesser extent with antisocial or psychopathic traits.

  10. Neurocognitive Deficits Associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder in Non-treatment-seeking Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katie L; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2016-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a relatively common problem, but the neuropsychological profile of affected individuals has seldom been studied outside of criminal justice recruitment settings. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29 years) were recruited from the general community by media advertisements. Participants with ASPD (n = 17), free from substance use disorders, were compared with matched controls (n = 229) using objective computerized neuropsychological tasks tapping a range of cognitive domains. Compared with controls, individuals with ASPD showed significantly elevated pathological gambling symptoms, previous illegal acts, unemployment, greater nicotine consumption, and relative impairments in response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task) and decision-making (less risk adjustment, Cambridge Gamble Task). General response speed, set-shifting, working memory, and executive planning were intact. ASPD was also associated with higher impulsivity and venturesomeness on the Eysenck Questionnaire. These findings implicate impaired inhibitory control and decision-making in the pathophysiology of ASPD, even in milder manifestations of the disorder. Future work should explore the neural correlates of these impairments and use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, antisocial behavior, and functional impairment. PMID:27236178

  11. Examining the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model operationalization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a male correctional sample.

    PubMed

    Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Sleep, Chelsea E; Wall, Tina D; Applegate, Kathryn C; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy. We also evaluated the validity of the trait-based conception more broadly in relation to measures of antisocial tendencies as well as psychopathy. Participants were 200 male inmates who were administered a battery of self-report and interview-based researcher rating measures of relevant constructs. Analyses showed that Section III ASPD outperformed Section II ASPD in predicting scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; r = .88 vs. .59). Additionally, aggregate scores for Section III ASPD performed well in capturing variance in differing ASPD and psychopathy measures. Finally, we found that the Section III ASPD impairment criteria added incrementally to the Section III ASPD traits in predicting PCL-R psychopathy and SCID-II ASPD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Examining the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model operationalization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a male correctional sample.

    PubMed

    Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Sleep, Chelsea E; Wall, Tina D; Applegate, Kathryn C; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy. We also evaluated the validity of the trait-based conception more broadly in relation to measures of antisocial tendencies as well as psychopathy. Participants were 200 male inmates who were administered a battery of self-report and interview-based researcher rating measures of relevant constructs. Analyses showed that Section III ASPD outperformed Section II ASPD in predicting scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; r = .88 vs. .59). Additionally, aggregate scores for Section III ASPD performed well in capturing variance in differing ASPD and psychopathy measures. Finally, we found that the Section III ASPD impairment criteria added incrementally to the Section III ASPD traits in predicting PCL-R psychopathy and SCID-II ASPD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26914324

  13. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to non-violent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities. PMID:20582155

  15. Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brian M; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to nonviolent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities.

  16. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. PMID:26431683

  17. HANNIBAL REVISITED: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER VERSUS PSYCHOPATHY--MEDICO-LEGAL PERSPECTIVES FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Psychopathy and its relation to criminal behaviour has been the focus of clinical research for many years. Within the context of South African criminal law, the impact of psychopathy on criminal liability has been addressed in numerous decisions with varying outcomes all indicative of the reality that psychopathy will at most serve as a factor in mitigation of sentence, but will not exonerate an accused of criminal responsibility. In this contribution, the author reflects on the diagnostic entities of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder against the backdrop of South African criminal law cases in terms of which either of these entities were raised in support of mitigation of sentence and/or as extenuating circumstances.

  18. Unique roles of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathic traits in distress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Marsha N; Daughters, Stacey B; Curtin, John J; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C W

    2011-11-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis.

  19. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression.

  20. Inhibitory control and negative emotional processing in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Sprague, Jenessa; Sadeh, Naomi

    2012-05-01

    The field of personality disorders has had a long-standing interest in understanding interactions between emotion and inhibitory control, as well as neurophysiological indices of these processes. More work in particular is needed to clarify differential deficits in offenders with antisocial personality disorder (APD) who differ on psychopathic traits, as APD and psychopathy are considered separate, albeit related, syndromes. Evidence of distinct neurobiological processing in these disorders would have implications for etiology-based personality disorder taxonomies in future psychiatric classification systems. To inform this area of research, we recorded event-related brain potentials during an emotional-linguistic Go/No-Go task to examine modulation of negative emotional processing by inhibitory control in three groups: psychopathy (n = 14), APD (n = 16), and control (n = 15). In control offenders, inhibitory control demands (No-Go vs. Go) modulated frontal-P3 amplitude to negative emotional words, indicating appropriate prioritization of inhibition over emotional processing. In contrast, the psychopathic group showed blunted processing of negative emotional words regardless of inhibitory control demands, consistent with research on emotional deficits in psychopathy. Finally, the APD group demonstrated enhanced processing of negative emotion words in both Go and No-Go trials, suggesting a failure to modulate negative emotional processing when inhibitory control is required. Implications for emotion-cognition interactions and putative etiological processes in these personality disorders are discussed.

  1. Identifying subtypes among offenders with antisocial personality disorder: a cluster-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Poythress, Norman G; Edens, John F; Skeem, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Douglas, Kevin S; Frick, Paul J; Patrick, Christopher J; Epstein, Monica; Wang, Tao

    2010-05-01

    The question of whether antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are largely similar or fundamentally different constructs remains unresolved. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), many of the personality features of psychopathy are cast as associated features of ASPD, although the DSM-IV offers no guidance as to how, or the extent to which, these features relate to ASPD. In a sample of 691 offenders who met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD, we used model-based clustering to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures of associated features (psychopathic personality traits) and other constructs with potential etiological significance for subtypes of ASPD. Two emergent groups displayed profiles that conformed broadly to theoretical descriptions of primary psychopathy and Karpman's (1941) variant of secondary psychopathy. As expected, a third group (nonpsychopathic ASPD) lacked substantial associated features. A fourth group exhibited elevated psychopathic features as well as a highly fearful temperament, a profile not clearly predicted by extant models. Planned comparisons revealed theoretically informative differences between primary and secondary groups in multiple domains, including self-report measures, passive avoidance learning, clinical ratings, and official records. Our results inform ongoing debates about the overlap between psychopathy and ASPD and raise questions about the wisdom of placing most individuals who habitually violate social norms and laws into a single diagnostic category.

  2. Schema modes and childhood abuse in borderline and antisocial personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2005-09-01

    Complex personality disorders (PDs) have been hypothesized to be characterized by alternating states of thinking, feeling and behavior, the so-called schema modes (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar (2003). Schema therapy: A practioner's guide. New York: Guilford). The present study tested the applicability of this model to borderline personality disorders (BPD) and antisocial personality disorders (APD), and related it to a presumed common etiological factor, childhood trauma. Sixteen patients with BPD, 16 patients with APD and 16 nonpatient controls (all 50% of both sexes) completed a Schema Mode Questionnaire assessing cognitions, feelings and behaviors characteristic of six schema modes. Participants were interviewed to retrace abusive sexual, physical and emotional events before the age of 18. BPD as well as APD participants were characterized by four maladaptive modes (Detached Protector, Punitive Parent, Abandoned/Abused Child and Angry Child). APD displayed most characteristics of the Bully/Attack mode, though not significantly different from BPD. The Healthy Adult mode was of low presence in BPD and of high presence in APD and the nonpatients. Frequency and severity of the three kinds of abuse were equally high in both PD groups, and significantly higher than in nonpatients.

  3. Mothers' and Fathers' Personality and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Sense of Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Amaranta D.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekoviv, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study addressed 3 key questions regarding the processes of parenting in a large community sample of mothers (n = 589) and fathers (n = 518). First, the collective impact of parental Big Five personality dimensions on overreactive and warm parenting, assessed 6 years later by adolescents, was examined. Second,…

  4. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-08-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  5. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the predictive values of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and of hostile interpretation bias, which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli in a hostile manner, were studied. The sample consisted of n = 37 male adult patients with mixed diagnoses and n = 29 male nonpatients that responded to vignettes and pictures of ambiguous situations, using both open and closed answer formats. ASPD was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II disorders (SCID-II), and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) measured RA and PA. Results showed that although both RA and PA types were predicted by ASPD traits, RA was additionally predicted by a hostile interpretation bias. These findings suggest that reducing hostile bias is a promising avenue for clinical treatment of ASPD-patients high in RA.

  6. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  7. Exploring the Effects of Antisocial Personality Traits on Brain Potentials during Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Alexopoulos, Johanna; Sailer, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170). To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88–120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies. PMID:23185597

  8. Altered spontaneous activity in antisocial personality disorder revealed by regional homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Liu, Wangyong; Chen, Jingang; Liao, Jian; Hu, Dewen; Wang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) stems from brain abnormalities. However, there are only a few studies investigating brain structure in ASPD. The aim of this study was to find regional coherence abnormalities in resting-state functional MRI of ASPD. Thirty-two ASPD individuals and 34 controls underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach was used to examine whether ASPD was related to alterations in resting-state neural activity. Support vector machine discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity/specificity characteristics of the ReHo index in discriminating between the ASPD individuals and controls. The results showed that, compared with controls, ASPD individuals show lower ReHo in the right cerebellum posterior lobe (Crus1) and the right middle frontal gyrus, as well as higher ReHo in the right middle occipital gyrus (BA 19), left inferior temporal gyrus (BA 37), and right inferior occipital gyrus (cuneus, BA 18). All alternation regions reported a predictive accuracy above 70%. To our knowledge, this study was the first to study the change in regional activity coherence in the resting brain of ASPD individuals. These results not only elucidated the pathological mechanism of ASPD from a resting-state functional viewpoint but also showed that these alterations in ReHo may serve as potential markers for the detection of ASPD.

  9. Temperament and Maltreatment in the Emergence of Borderline and Antisocial Personality Pathology during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jovev, Martina; McKenzie, Trudi; Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Chanen, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study utilized a prospective, longitudinal design to examine the role of temperament and maltreatment in predicting the emergence of borderline (BPD) and antisocial (ASPD) personality disorder symptoms during adolescence. Method: Two hundred and forty-five children aged between 11 and 13 years were recruited from primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Participants completed temperament, maltreatment, BPD and ASPD symptom measures, and approximately two years later, 206 participants were again assessed for BPD and ASPD symptoms. Results: The findings indicate that childhood neglect is a significant predictor of an increase in BPD symptoms, while childhood abuse is a significant predictor of an increase in ASPD symptoms. Moreover, abuse and neglect acted as moderators of the relationship between temperament dimensions and increase in BPD and ASPD symptoms, respectively. Abuse was associated with an increase in BPD symptoms for children with low Affiliation, while neglect was associated with an increase in ASPD symptoms for children with low Effortful Control. Conclusions: The current study contributes much needed prospective, longitudinal information on the early development of symptoms of BPD and ASPD, and supports importance of both temperamental and environmental factors in predicting the emergence of these mental health problems early in life. PMID:23970911

  10. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youth: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youth involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. This study used a stratified random sample of 1112 detained youth to examine the development of APD at a three-year follow-up interview. Nearly one fifth of male juvenile detainees later developed APD; approximately one quarter of male juvenile detainees with CD at baseline later developed APD. Significantly more males than females developed APD; no differences were found by race/ethnicity. Having five or more symptoms of CD, dysthymia, alcohol use disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder was significantly associated with developing modified APD (M-APD; APD without the CD requirement). Some disorders were strong predictors of APD; however, none were adequate screeners for identifying which detainees would later develop M-APD. The findings of this study have implications for interventions and further research in developmental psychopathology. PMID:17469880

  11. Overt versus covert conduct disorder symptoms and the prospective prediction of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Le Corff, Yann; Toupin, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown strong continuity between conduct disorder (CD) in adolescence and antisocial personality disorder (APD) in adulthood. Researchers have been trying to explain why some adolescents with CD persist into adult APD and others do not. A few studies reported that overt and covert CD symptoms have a differential predictive power for APD, with mixed results. The present study aimed to evaluate the prospective association of overt and covert CD symptoms with APD in a sample of male adolescents with CD (N = 128, mean age = 15.6, SD = 1.6). Participants were recruited at intake in Quebec Youth Centers and reassessed 3 years later (n = 73). CD and ADHD symptoms were assessed at intake with the DISC-R while APD was assessed 3 years later with the SCID-II. Logistic regression results showed that, contrary to previous prospective studies (Lahey, Loeber, Burke, & Applegate, 2005; Washburn et al., 2007), overt (OR = 2.12, 95% CI [1.29, 3.50]) but not covert (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [0.69, 1.56]) symptoms predicted later APD, controlling for ADHD symptoms and socioeconomic status. It is hypothesized that the divergence with previous studies may be explained by the higher mean number and wider range of overt CD symptoms in our sample.

  12. Comorbidity of social anxiety disorder and antisocial personality disorder in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Todd; Heimberg, Richard G; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are not often thought of as being comorbid. However, recent research suggests the existence of a SAD subtype with characteristics atypical of SAD but common to ASPD. Thus, we explored two competing hypotheses: (1) SAD and ASPD represent opposite ends of a single dimension, or (2) SAD and ASPD exist on two separate dimensions that may be positively correlated. Data were obtained from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. SAD-ASPD was related to greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity than either disorder alone. The SAD-ASPD group was also more likely to seek treatment for their SAD symptoms and to drink before/during antisocial acts than the SAD only group. The presence of SAD for individuals with ASPD (and vice versa) does not appear to provide any "protective benefits." SAD and ASPD appear to be two separate but correlated disorders.

  13. A Multivariate Twin Study of the DSM-IV Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many assessment instruments for psychopathy are multidimensional, suggesting that distinguishable factors are needed to effectively capture variation in this personality domain. However, no prior study has examined the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). METHODS Self-report questionnaire items reflecting all A criteria for DSM-IV ASPD were available from 4,291 twins (including both members of 1,647 pairs) from the Virginia Adult Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Exploratory factor analysis and twin model fitting were performed using, respectively, Mplus and Mx. RESULTS Phenotypic factor analysis produced evidence for 2 correlated factors: aggressive-disregard and disinhibition. The best-fitting multivariate twin model included two genetic and one unique environmental common factor, along with criteria-specific genetic and environmental effects. The two genetic factors closely resembled the phenotypic factors and varied in their prediction of a range of relevant criterion variables. Scores on the genetic aggressive-disregard factor score were more strongly associated with risk for conduct disorder, early and heavy alcohol use, and low educational status, whereas scores on the genetic disinhibition factor score were more strongly associated with younger age, novelty seeking, and major depression. CONCLUSION From a genetic perspective, the DSM-IV criteria for ASPD do not reflect a single dimension of liability but rather are influenced by two dimensions of genetic risk reflecting aggressive-disregard and disinhibition. The phenotypic structure of the ASPD criteria results largely from genetic and not from environmental influences. PMID:21762879

  14. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

  15. What should be done with antisocial personality disorder in the new edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-V)?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisocial personality disorder are, at the same time, being targeted by interventions at criminal justice settings. A significantly higher proportion of published articles focusing on antisocial personality concern treatment when compared to articles on psychopathy. Currently, the proposal for antisocial personality disorder for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, suggests a major change in the criteria for this disorder. While the present definition focuses mainly on observable behaviours, the proposed revision stresses interpersonal and emotional aspects of the disorder drawing on the concept of psychopathy. The present commentary suggests that developments leading to improvement in the diagnosis of this type of disorder should, rather than focusing exclusively on elements such as dangerousness and risk assessment, point us to ways in which patients can be treated for their problems. PMID:20979622

  16. What should be done with antisocial personality disorder in the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V)?

    PubMed

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-10-27

    Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisocial personality disorder are, at the same time, being targeted by interventions at criminal justice settings. A significantly higher proportion of published articles focusing on antisocial personality concern treatment when compared to articles on psychopathy. Currently, the proposal for antisocial personality disorder for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, suggests a major change in the criteria for this disorder. While the present definition focuses mainly on observable behaviours, the proposed revision stresses interpersonal and emotional aspects of the disorder drawing on the concept of psychopathy. The present commentary suggests that developments leading to improvement in the diagnosis of this type of disorder should, rather than focusing exclusively on elements such as dangerousness and risk assessment, point us to ways in which patients can be treated for their problems.

  17. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís

    2016-01-30

    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy.

  18. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís

    2016-01-30

    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy. PMID:26708441

  19. Multifinality in the Development of Personality Disorders: A Biology × Sex × Environment Interaction Model of Antisocial and Borderline Traits

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more common among females, some (e.g., Paris, 1997) have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying personality disorders in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD. PMID:19583882

  20. Implications of antisocial parents.

    PubMed

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  1. The Personality Assessment Inventory as a Proxy for the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Testing the Incremental Validity and Cross-Sample Robustness of the Antisocial Features Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Guy, Laura S.; Edens, John F.; Boer, Douglas P.; Hamilton, Jennine

    2007-01-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI's) ability to predict psychopathic personality features, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was examined. To investigate whether the PAI Antisocial Features (ANT) Scale and subscales possessed incremental validity beyond other theoretically relevant PAI scales, optimized regression…

  2. The social construction of violence among Northern Plains tribal members with antisocial personality disorder and alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Lori L; Spicer, Paul; Belcourt, Annie; Sarche, Michelle; Novins, Douglas K; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2014-02-01

    Whereas recent reports from national studies have presented extremely high rates for many personality disorders in American Indian communities, persistent concerns about the meaning of these symptoms have left many troubled by these reports. American Indians as a group are known to suffer disproportionately from a number of violent experiences, but the dynamics of this violence have received little attention. This paper examines perspectives on violence in the lives of 15 northern plains tribal members who met criteria for antisocial personality disorder and comorbid alcohol use disorder. It explores how study participants constructed and understood their own violent encounters, as well as the motivations they described (characterized here as reputation, leveling, retaliation, catharsis, and self-defense). Violence was gendered in this study, with men generally presenting as perpetrators and women as victims. Men often described themselves as ready participants in a violent world, while women were quite clear that aggression for them was often simply required as they tried to defend themselves from male violence. While this analysis does not replace clinical analyses of violence in antisocial personality disorder, it does reveal an underlying cultural logic that may play a role in shaping the recourse to violence for that minority of individuals for whom it appears to be the obvious choice.

  3. The social construction of violence among Northern Plains tribal members with antisocial personality disorder and alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jervis, Lori L.; Spicer, Paul; Belcourt, Annie; Sarche, Michelle; Novins, Douglas K.; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Whereas recent reports from national studies have presented extremely high rates for many personality disorders in American Indian communities, persistent concerns about the meaning of these symptoms have left many troubled by these reports. American Indians as a group are known to suffer disproportionately from a number of violent experiences, but the dynamics of this violence have received little attention. This paper examines perspectives on violence in the lives of 15 northern plains tribal members who met criteria for antisocial personality disorder and comorbid alcohol use disorder. It explores how study participants constructed and understood their own violent encounters, as well as the motivations they described (characterized here as reputation, leveling, retaliation, catharsis, and self-defense). Violence was gendered in this study, with men generally presenting as perpetrators and women as victims. Men often described themselves as ready participants in a violent world, while women were quite clear that aggression for them was often simply required as they tried to defend themselves from male violence. While this analysis does not replace clinical analyses of violence in antisocial personality disorder, it does reveal an underlying cultural logic that may play a role in shaping the recourse to violence for that minority of individuals for whom it appears to be the obvious choice. PMID:24045407

  4. Multifinality in the development of personality disorders: a Biology x Sex x Environment interaction model of antisocial and borderline traits.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Klein, Daniel N; Crowell, Sheila E; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline PD (BPD) is more common among females, some authors have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying PDs in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD.

  5. A Father's Interactions with His Toddler: Personal and Professional Lessons for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appl, Dolores J.; Brown, Shannon; Stone, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article a university professor, former student, and father describe the father's interactions with his toddler-age son within a parent-child playgroup. The authors discuss the important role of fathers, what they learned from observing the father interact with his son, and implications for teachers and other professionals.

  6. Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Salekin, Randall T; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    The current investigation examined the associations between personality traits representing DSM-5 Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), its psychopathy specifier, and contemporary models of psychopathic personality disorder. We used two samples consisting of university students (n = 463) and community-dwelling participants (n = 148) recruited for subclinical psychopathic proclivities. Both samples were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010), and versions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). University students also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Across both samples, the Section III ASPD traits were moderately strongly correlated with psychopathy measures, except the fearless-dominance/boldness domain. However, as would be expected, traits representing the Section III psychopathy specifier accounted for a substantial amount of variance within this domain. Furthermore, additional DSM-5 Section III personality traits augmented the characterization of psychopathy from the PPI and Triarchic perspectives.

  7. Sex differences in antisocial personality disorder: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Alegria, Analucia A; Blanco, Carlos; Petry, Nancy M; Skodol, Andrew E; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-07-01

    Despite the 3:1 prevalence ratio of men versus women with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), research on sex differences on correlates of ASPD in the general population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in childhood and adult adverse events, lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, and clinical correlates of DSM-IV ASPD. The sample included 819 men and 407 women with DSM-IV ASPD diagnosis. Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (N = 43,093). Compared to men, women with ASPD reported more frequent childhood emotional neglect (AOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.52-3.34) and sexual abuse (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 2.78-6.35), any parent-related adverse event during childhood (e.g., parental substance use disorder) (AOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.60-3.82), and adverse events during adulthood (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 2.78-6.35). Although women with ASPD present less violent antisocial behaviors and higher rates of aggressiveness and irritability (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.31-0.67), they have higher rates of victimization, greater impairment, and lower social support. Our findings suggest increased mental health needs in women with ASPD, meriting development of different treatment programs for women and men.

  8. Criminal behavior and cognitive processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without comorbid psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Riser, Rebecca E; Kosson, David S

    2013-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are 2 important syndromes with substantial utility in predicting antisocial behavior. Although prior studies have identified correlations between various factors and the presence of psychopathy or ASPD, most studies have focused on 1 syndrome or the other. Consequently, it is unclear whether the 2 syndromes reflect similar pathophysiologies, whether they are in fact 2 distinct syndromes, or whether the correlates of ASPD reflect its high comorbidity with psychopathy. The present study addressed this issue by examining the impact of ASPD with and without comorbid psychopathy (as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) on criminal offending and cognitive processing in 674 adult male inmates at a county jail in Illinois. Participants exhibited either ASPD and comorbid psychopathy, ASPD but not psychopathy, or neither ASPD nor psychopathy. Participants with and without comorbid psychopathy were characterized by more criminal behavior than controls, and inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited more severe criminal behavior than those with ASPD only. In addition, inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited a different pattern of cognitive task performance impairment than those with ASPD alone. Results replicate the findings of Kosson, Lorenz, and Newman (2006) and provide new evidence suggesting that men with ASPD and comorbid psychopathy are characterized by cognitive processing anomalies different from those seen in ASPD without comorbid psychopathy.

  9. Moral Emotion Attributions and Personality Traits as Long-Term Predictors of Antisocial Conduct in Early Adulthood: Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Asendorpf, Jens B.; Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated long-term relations between moral emotion attributions in childhood and adolescence and antisocial conduct in early adulthood while taking into account potentially confounding personality factors. Specifically, onset of prediction, unique and indirect effects of moral emotion attributions were examined. In a longitudinal…

  10. A confidant support and problem solving model of divorced fathers' parenting.

    PubMed

    Degarmo, David S; Forgatch, Marion S

    2012-03-01

    This study tested a hypothesized social interaction learning (SIL) model of confidant support and paternal parenting. The latent growth curve analysis employed 230 recently divorced fathers, of which 177 enrolled support confidants, to test confidant support as a predictor of problem solving outcomes and problem solving outcomes as predictors of change in fathers' parenting. Fathers' parenting was hypothesized to predict growth in child behavior. Observational measures of support behaviors and problem solving outcomes were obtained from structured discussions of personal and parenting issues faced by the fathers. Findings replicated and extended prior cross-sectional studies with divorced mothers and their confidants. Confidant support predicted better problem solving outcomes, problem solving predicted more effective parenting, and parenting in turn predicted growth in children's reduced total problem behavior T scores over 18 months. Supporting a homophily perspective, fathers' antisociality was associated with confidant antisociality but only fathers' antisociality influenced the support process model. Intervention implications are discussed regarding SIL parent training and social support.

  11. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  12. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions. PMID:26456397

  13. Father enrollment and participation in a parenting intervention: personal and contextual predictors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessie J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E; Millsap, Roger E

    2013-09-01

    Fathers are an important, though often underrepresented, population in family interventions. Notably, the inclusion of ethnic minority fathers is particularly scarce. An understanding of factors that promote and hinder father participation may suggest strategies by which to increase fathers' presence in studies designed to engage the family unit. The current research examined Mexican origin (MO) fathers' involvement in a family-focused intervention study. Participants included 495 fathers from eligible two-parent MO families with an adolescent child. Individual, familial, and culturally relevant predictors based on father, mother, and/or child report data were collected through pretest interviews and included in two separate logistic regression analyses that predicted the following: (1) father enrollment in the study and (2) father participation in the intervention. Results indicated that higher levels of maternal education and lower levels of economic stress and interparental conflict were associated with increased father enrollment in the study. Rates of father participation in the intervention were higher among families characterized by lower levels of interparental conflict, economic stress, and Spanish language use. Results highlight the relevancy of the familial and environmental context to MO fathers' research participation decisions. These findings as well as their implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  14. Mothers, Fathers, and Infants: The Role of Person Familiarity and Parental Involvement in Infants' Perception of Emotion Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Diane P. F.; Walker-Andrews, Arlene S.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the effect of person familiarity and parental involvement on 3.5-month-old infants' sensitivity to the dynamic emotion expressions of others. Found that infants looked differentially at mothers' expressions but not at those of fathers or unfamiliar adults, and that parent-child involvement significantly influenced infants' developing…

  15. Amygdala Reactivity and Negative Emotionality: Divergent Correlates of Antisocial Personality and Psychopathy Traits in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Luke W.; Byrd, Amy L.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat. PMID:24661171

  16. Changes in low-frequency fluctuations in patients with antisocial personality disorder revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huasheng; Liao, Jian; Jiang, Weixiong; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) is a personality disorder that is most commonly associated with the legal and criminal justice systems. The study of the brain in APD has important implications in legal contexts and in helping ensure social stability. However, the neural contribution to the high prevalence of APD is still unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of APD. Thirty-two healthy individuals and thirty-five patients with APD were recruited. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was analyzed for the whole brain of all subjects. Our results showed that APD patients had a significant reduction in the ALFF in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left temporal pole, the right inferior temporal gyrus, and the left cerebellum posterior lobe compared to normal controls. We observed that the right orbitofrontal cortex had a negative correlation between ALFF values and MMPI psychopathic deviate scores. Alterations in ALFF in these specific brain regions suggest that APD patients may be associated with abnormal activities in the fronto-temporal network. We propose that our results may contribute in a clinical and forensic context to a better understanding of APD.

  17. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits.

  18. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat.

  19. Impulsive lifestyle counseling to prevent dropout from treatment for substance use disorders in people with antisocial personality disorder: A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of treatment dropout was reduced among patients randomized to the experimental program (hazard ratio=0.63, p=.031), after controlling for age, gender, and substitution treatment status. The study supported the efficacy of the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program as a method for preventing treatment dropout for patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment. Trial registration #ISRCTN67266318.

  20. Impulsive lifestyle counseling to prevent dropout from treatment for substance use disorders in people with antisocial personality disorder: A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of treatment dropout was reduced among patients randomized to the experimental program (hazard ratio=0.63, p=.031), after controlling for age, gender, and substitution treatment status. The study supported the efficacy of the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program as a method for preventing treatment dropout for patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment. Trial registration #ISRCTN67266318. PMID:26882500

  1. Association between violent behaviour and impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle response in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Veena; Das, Mrigen; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Zachariah, Elizabeth; Barkataki, Ian; Howlett, Michael; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2005-03-01

    Violent behaviour has a strong association with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and schizophrenia. Although developments in the understanding of socio-environmental factors associated with violence should not be ignored, advances in prevention and treatment of violent behaviour would benefit by improved understanding of its neurobiological and cognitive basis. The authors, therefore, investigated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response in APD and schizophrenia in relation to a history of serious violence. The neural substrates of PPI, especially the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and basal ganglia, are implicated in violence as well as in APD and schizophrenia. The study included four groups: (i) patients with APD and a history of violence, (ii) patients with schizophrenia and a history of violence, (iii) patients with schizophrenia without a history of violence, and (iv) healthy subjects with no history of violence or a mental disorder. All subjects were assessed identically on acoustic PPI. Compared to healthy subjects, significantly reduced PPI occurred in APD, violent schizophrenia and non-violent schizophrenia patients. Although PPI did not significantly differentiate the three clinical groups, high ratings of violence were modestly associated with reduced PPI across the entire study sample. Violent patients with impulsive and premeditated violence showed comparable PPI. The association between violent behaviour and impaired PPI suggests that neural structures and functions underlying PPI are implicated in (inhibition of) violence.

  2. Admitting offenders with antisocial personality disorder to a medium secure unit: a qualitative examination of multidisciplinary team decision-making

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Leon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) looking at multidisciplinary team decisions to admit sentenced offenders with antisocial personality disorder to a medium secure unit. The aim of the study was to examine admission decision-making from a multidisciplinary perspective, and to explore the interprofessional dynamics and contextual pressures informing those decisions. The primary method of data collection was 12 semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of various multidisciplinary staff involved in pre-admission assessment and post-assessment decision-making. Data was then coded according to the dialectic of competitive and cooperative goal seeking within groups. The findings suggest that, whilst both forms of goal seeking inform admission decisions, the presence of significant resource pressures will lead to decisional solidarity among the multidisciplinary team. When minor professional disagreements arise, they are resolved by the group leader, the Responsible Clinician, in order to maximise group productivity. It is argued that the discursive-limiting effect of resource pressures on group decision-making may weaken the morale of certain front line staff, if not undermine institutional purpose. PMID:24009472

  3. Conscious knowledge influences decision-making differently in substance abusers with and without co-morbid antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mellentin, Angelina I; Skøt, Lotte; Teasdale, Thomas W; Habekost, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Decision-making impairment, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), is a consistent finding among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). We studied how this impairment is influenced by co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conscious knowledge of the task. Three groups were investigated: SUD individuals without co-morbid ASPD (n = 30), SUD individuals with co-morbid ASPD (n = 16), and healthy controls (n = 17). Both SUD and SUD+ASPD participants had poor overall IGT performance. A block-by-block analysis revealed that SUD participants exhibited slow but steady improvement across the IGT, whereas SUD+ASPD participants exhibited initial normal improvement, but dropped off during the last 40 trials. Conscious knowledge of the task was significantly correlated to performance for controls and SUD participants, but not for SUD+ASPD participants. Our findings suggest that decision-making proceeds differently in SUD and SUD+ASPD individuals due to differences in acquisition and application of conscious knowledge.

  4. Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Schulze, Lars; Rossmann, Sabine; Berger, Christoph; Vohs, Knut; Fleischer, Monika; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Keiper, Peter; Domes, Gregor; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of concurrently presented emotional stimuli on cognitive task processing in violent criminal offenders primarily characterized by affective instability. METHODS. Fifteen male criminal offenders with antisocial and borderline personality disorder (ASPD and BPD) and 17 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a working memory task with low and high working memory load. In a second experimental run, to investigate the interaction of emotion and cognition, we presented emotionally neutral, low, or high salient social scenes in the background of the task. RESULTS. During the memory task without pictures, both groups did not differ in general task performance and neural representation of working memory processes. During the memory task with emotional background pictures, however, ASPD-BPD subjects compared to healthy controls showed delayed responses and enhanced activation of the left amygdala in the presence of emotionally high salient pictures independent of working memory load. CONCLUSIONS. These results illustrate an interaction of emotion and cognition in affective instable individuals with enhanced reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli which might be an important factor regarding the understanding of aggressive and violent behaviour in these individuals.

  5. Effects of comorbid psychopathy on criminal offending and emotion processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Lorenz, Amanda R; Newman, Joseph P

    2006-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are two syndromes with substantial construct validity. To clarify relations between these syndromes, the authors evaluated 3 possibilities: (a) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy reflect a common underlying pathophysiology; (b) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy identify 2 distinct syndromes, similar in some respects; and (c) that most correlates of ASPD reflect its comorbidity with psychopathy. Participants were 472 incarcerated European American men who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for ASPD and Psychopathy Checklist criteria for psychopathy, who met the criteria for ASPD but not for psychopathy, or who did not meet diagnostic criteria for either ASPD or psychopathy (controls). Both individuals with ASPD only and those with ASPD and psychopathy were characterized by more criminal activity than were controls. In addition, ASPD with psychopathy was associated with more severe criminal behavior and weaker emotion facilitation than ASPD alone. Group differences in the association between emotion dysfunction and criminal behavior suggest tentatively that ASPD with and ASPD without prominent psychopathic features may be distinct syndromes.

  6. Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in women: a literature review on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mairead; Völlm, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Crime rates are low in women compared to men. The two disorders most commonly associated with offending behaviour, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy, are also less prevalent in female samples. However, developments in forensic psychiatry have often ignored gender, and the utility of constructs such as psychopathy and their assessment instruments in female samples remains unclear. This article presents a review of studies looking at rates of ASPD and psychopathy and on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments of these disorders in women. Gender differences in symptom patterns will be considered. The literature seems to suggest that DSM-IV criteria for ASPD may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of the disorder in women due to the requirement of childhood conduct disorder symptoms. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to identify psychopathy in women but there are gender differences in the factor structure and item loadings on this measure. Research to date seems to suggest a three-factor model may be most strongly supported in females. Preliminary evidence suggests the PCL-R may have some value in predicting future offending while the PCL:SV may be useful in predicting institutional violence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    PubMed

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  8. The Mismeasure of Morals: Antisocial Personality Traits Predict Utilitarian Responses to Moral Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…

  9. The mismeasure of morals: antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Pizarro, David A

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments and a set of dilemmas that pit utilitarian and non-utilitarian options against each other. Participants who indicated greater endorsement of utilitarian solutions had higher scores on measures of Psychopathy, machiavellianism, and life meaninglessness. These results question the widely-used methods by which lay moral judgments are evaluated, as these approaches lead to the counterintuitive conclusion that those individuals who are least prone to moral errors also possess a set of psychological characteristics that many would consider prototypically immoral. PMID:21757191

  10. The mismeasure of morals: antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Pizarro, David A

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments and a set of dilemmas that pit utilitarian and non-utilitarian options against each other. Participants who indicated greater endorsement of utilitarian solutions had higher scores on measures of Psychopathy, machiavellianism, and life meaninglessness. These results question the widely-used methods by which lay moral judgments are evaluated, as these approaches lead to the counterintuitive conclusion that those individuals who are least prone to moral errors also possess a set of psychological characteristics that many would consider prototypically immoral.

  11. Non-Residential Father-Child Involvement, Interparental Conflict and Mental Health of Children Following Divorce: A Person-Focused Approach.

    PubMed

    Elam, Kit K; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Variable-centered research has found complex relationships between child well-being and two critical aspects of the post-divorce family environment: the level of non-residential father involvement (i.e., contact and supportive relationship) with their children and the level of conflict between the father and mother. However, these analyses fail to capture individual differences based on distinct patterns of interparental conflict, father support and father contact. Using a person-centered latent profile analysis, the present study examined (1) profiles of non-residential father contact, support, and interparental conflict in the 2 years following divorce (N = 240), when children (49 % female) were between 9 and 12 years of age and (2) differences across profiles in concurrent child adjustment outcomes as well as outcomes 6 years later. Four profiles of father involvement were identified: High Contact-Moderate Conflict-Moderate Support, Low Contact-Moderate Conflict-Low Support, High Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support, and Low Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support. Concurrently, children with fathers in the group with high conflict were found to have significantly greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to all other groups. Six years later, children with fathers in the group with low contact and low support were found to have greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the high conflict group, and also greater internalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the low conflict group. These results provide insight into the complex relationship among non-residential fathers' conflict, contact, and support in child adjustment within divorcing families.

  12. Examining the Role of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Intimate Partner Violence Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers With Clinically Significant Trauma Histories.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Rita E; Schumacher, Julie A; Mota, Natalie; Coffey, Scott F

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the associations among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis, and intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of 145 substance abuse treatment-seeking men and women with positive trauma histories; sex was examined as a moderator. ASPD diagnosis significantly predicted both verbal and physical aggression; sex moderated the association between ASPD diagnosis and physical violence. PTSD symptom severity significantly predicted engaging in verbal, but not physical, aggression. Overall, these results suggest that an ASPD diagnosis may be an important risk factor for engaging in IPV among women seeking treatment for a substance use disorder.

  13. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    PubMed

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing

  14. Modeling Growth in Boys' Aggressive Behavior across Elementary School: Links to Later Criminal Involvement, Conduct Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard

    2003-01-01

    The present study used general growth mixture modeling to identify pathways of antisocial behavior development within an epidemiological sample of urban, primarily African American boys. Teacher-rated aggression, measured longitudinally from 1st to 7th grade, was used to define growth trajectories. Three high-risk trajectories (chronic high,…

  15. Relation between childhood maltreatment and severe intrafamilial male-perpetrated physical violence in Chinese community: the mediating role of borderline and antisocial personality disorder features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Yalin; Brady, Heward John; Cao, Yuping; He, Ying; Zhang, Yingli

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) features as mediators of the effects of childhood maltreatment on severe intrafamilial physical violence amongst Chinese male perpetrators. A cross-sectional survey and face-to-face interview were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment, personality disorder features, impulsivity, aggression, and severe intrafamilial physical violence in a community sample of 206 abusive men in China. The results suggest that ASPD or BPD features mediate between childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence perpetration in Chinese abusive men. These findings may yield clinical and forensic implications for assessing the psychopathology of abusive men, and may steer the intervention of intimate partner violence.

  16. Interaction between ALDH2*1*1 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1A1 genes may be associated with antisocial personality disorder not co-morbid with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ru-Band; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies on acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) focused on drinking behavior or alcoholism because the ALDH2*2 allele protects against the risk of developing alcoholism. The mechanism provides that the ALDH2 gene's protective effect is also involved in dopamine metabolism. The interaction of the ALDH2 gene with neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, is suggested to be related to alcoholism. Because alcoholism is often co-morbid with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), previous association studies on antisocial alcoholism cannot differentiate whether those genes relate to ASPD with alcoholism or ASPD only. This study examined the influence of the interaction effect of the ALDH2*1*1, *1*2 or *2*2 polymorphisms with the dopamine 2 receptor (DRD2) Taq I polymorphism on ASPD. Our 541 Han Chinese male participants were classified into three groups: antisocial alcoholism (ASPD co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial ALC; n = 133), ASPD without alcoholism (ASPD not co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial non-ALC; n = 164) and community controls (healthy volunteers from the community; n = 244). Compared with healthy controls, individuals with the DRD2 A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotypes were at a 5.39 times greater risk for antisocial non-ALC than were those with other genotypes. Our results suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 and ALDH2 genes interacted in the antisocial non-ALC group; a connection neglected in previous studies caused by not separating antisocial ALC from ASPD. Our study made this distinction and showed that these two genes may be associated ASPD without co-morbid alcoholism.

  17. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  18. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... charming Be good at flattery and manipulating other people's emotions Break the law repeatedly Disregard the safety of self and others Have problems with substance abuse Lie, steal, and fight often Not show guilt or ...

  19. DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Evidence for Taxonic Structures Among Individuals With and Without Substance Use Disorders in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The categorical-dimensional status of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a source of controversy. This study examined whether the underlying structure of DSM-IV CD and ASPD was dimensional or categorical (taxonic) among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Method: Using a national large representative survey of U.S. adults (n = 43,093), taxometric analyses of DSM-IV CD and ASPD diagnostic criteria were conducted on the total sample and among those with and without substance use disorders. Results: Results of three taxometric procedures were consistent in showing that the structures underlying DSM-IV CD and ASPD were clearly taxonic in the total sample and among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Comparison curve fit indices exceeded 0.57 for each model. Conclusions: Taxonic findings of the present study were in contrast to the dimensional results of prior taxometric research among incarcerated samples with substantial comorbidity of antisocial syndromes and substance use disorders. Results supported the categorical representation and diagnostic thresholds of ASPD and CD as defined in DSM-IV and DSM-5. That the structure of ASPD and CD may be taxonic suggests that further research on these disorders use group comparative designs in which samples with and without these disorders are compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical correlates, comorbidity, and treatment utilization. The taxonic structure of ASPD and CD may contribute to future research on causal processes through which these antisocial syndromes develop. PMID:24766762

  20. The Child is Father to the Dog. Canines and Personality Processes in an Arctic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savishinsky, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that persons concerned with personality formation might profit from an examination of the relationship between people and the domesticated animals they maintain. The Hare Indians in the Northwest Territories of Canada are discussed. (JMB)

  1. The Role of Empathy and Parenting Style in the Development of Antisocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Megan; Clark, Stephanie; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among parenting, empathy, and antisocial behavior. Two hundred forty-four undergraduate students attending an urban university completed self-report questionnaires assessing their antisocial behavior, empathy, and mothers' and fathers' parenting styles. Support was found for a model in which maternal permissive…

  2. Examining the prevalence, role and impact of evidence regarding Antisocial Personality, sociopathy and psychopathy in capital cases: a survey of defense team members.

    PubMed

    Edens, John F; Cox, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n=41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with "sociopath" and "psychopath" labels being introduced less frequently. Evidence concerning these disorders, which were assessed primarily via DSM criteria and self-report personality inventories, was most often introduced by the prosecution in the sentencing phase to address a defendant's ostensible risk of future dangerousness and/or to rebut mitigating evidence-although it was also introduced frequently in the guilt/innocence phase of these trials to rebut mental health evidence offered by the defense. Survey respondents believed that evidence concerning APD, sociopathy, and psychopathy had a considerable impact on trial outcomes. Also, although defense objections were common, such evidence was rarely ruled to be inadmissible in these cases.

  3. Triple Comorbid Trajectories of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Brook, David W.; Finch, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled triple trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods. We assessed urban African American and Puerto Rican participants (n = 816) in the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study, a psychosocial investigation, at 4 time waves (mean ages = 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). We used Mplus to obtain the 3 variable trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from time 2 to time 5 and then conducted logistic regression analyses. Results. A 5-trajectory group model, ranging from the use of all 3 substances (23%) to a nonuse group (9%), best fit the data. Membership in the trajectory group that used all 3 substances was associated with an increased likelihood of both ASPD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.83; 95% CI = 1.14, 40.74; P < .05) and GAD (AOR = 4.35; 95% CI = 1.63, 11.63; P < .001) in adulthood, as compared with the nonuse group, with control for earlier proxies of these conditions. Conclusions. Adults with comorbid tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use should be evaluated for use of other substances and for ASPD, GAD, and other psychiatric disorders. Treatment programs should address the use of all 3 substances to decrease the likelihood of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24922120

  4. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  5. MMPI Traits of Incestuous Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Karen D.; Bauer, Chris A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores of incestuous fathers and stepfathers to those of a matched control group. Analyses reflected more pathological scores for incest fathers on the psychopathic deviate scale, the psychasthenia scale and the schizophrenia scales. Results were discussed in terms of a character-disordered…

  6. Antisocial Personality Disorder Subscale (Chinese Version) of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders: validation study in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Tang, D Y Y; Liu, A C Y; Leung, M H T; Siu, B W M

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population.

  7. The role of fearless dominance in differentiating psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder: comment on Marcus, Fulton, and Edens.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Venables, Noah C; Drislane, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Comments on the original article by Marcus et al. (see record 2011-23134-001). Based on their meta-analytic review of the correlates of the two factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Fearless Dominance (FD) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (SCI), Marcus, Fulton, and Edens (this issue, pp. 70-79) raise important questions about the role of FD in diagnostic conceptualizations of psychopathy. In considering their findings, general limitations of metaanalyses (e.g., Ioannidis & Lau, 1999) should be borne in mind, along with specific limitations of their analysis. These limitations are discussed here.

  8. The mental health of preschoolers in a Norwegian population-based study when their parents have symptoms of borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders: at the mercy of unpredictability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children’s mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. Methods This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1). Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children’s symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents’ symptoms on their preschoolers’ behavioral and emotional problems. Results The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children’s behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents’ cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children’s emotional problems explained by the parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. Conclusions For the first time, it is documented that parents’ self-reported symptoms of Borderline

  9. Fathering After Marital Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  10. Fathers matter.

    PubMed

    Persson, Eva-Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a father, especially for the first time, can present changes in men's identity and in the relationship with their partner. Affinity within the family and participation in the whole process of pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period are important for fathers' sense of postnatal security. The fathers want to be already prepared before birth for the early postnatal period. Willingness to participate and take responsibility from the first day of pregnancy is important for his own sake and also for the sake of the mother's and child's wellbeing. Affinity within the family can be strengthened by midwives' empowerment and the father's interaction with the midwife. Midwives should invite fathers to participate in maternity care rather than only 'permit' participation. To enable future development of postnatal care, a specific instrument called Parents'postnatal sense of security (PPSS) has been developed in Sweden. The PPSS can be used to evaluate antenatal and postnatal care and exists in one version for fathers and one for mothers. PMID:22908499

  11. Five-year-olds punish antisocial adults.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Ben; Östh, Therese

    2015-01-01

    The human tendency to impose costs on those who have behaved antisocially towards third parties (third-party punishment) has a formative influence on societies, yet very few studies of the development of this tendency exist. In most studies where young children have punished, participants have imposed costs on puppets, leaving open the question as to whether young children punish in real third-party situations. Here, five-year-olds were given the opportunity to allocate desirable or unpleasant items to antisocial and neutral adults, who were presented as real and shown on video. Neutral individuals were almost always allocated only desirable items. Antisocial individuals were instead usually allocated unpleasant items, as long as participants were told they would give anonymously. Most participants who were instead told they would give in person did not allocate unpleasant items, although a minority did so. This indicates that the children interpreted the situation as real, and that whereas they genuinely desired to punish antisocial adults, they did not usually dare do so in person. Boys punished more frequently than girls. The willingness of preschoolers to spontaneously engage in third-party punishment, occasionally even risking the social costs of antagonizing an anti-social adult, demonstrates a deep-seated early-developing punitive sentiment in humans. PMID:26918430

  12. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications.

  13. Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design.

    PubMed

    Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.

  14. Antisocial punishment across societies.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian; Gächter, Simon

    2008-03-01

    We document the widespread existence of antisocial punishment, that is, the sanctioning of people who behave prosocially. Our evidence comes from public goods experiments that we conducted in 16 comparable participant pools around the world. However, there is a huge cross-societal variation. Some participant pools punished the high contributors as much as they punished the low contributors, whereas in others people only punished low contributors. In some participant pools, antisocial punishment was strong enough to remove the cooperation-enhancing effect of punishment. We also show that weak norms of civic cooperation and the weakness of the rule of law in a country are significant predictors of antisocial punishment. Our results show that punishment opportunities are socially beneficial only if complemented by strong social norms of cooperation.

  15. Parenting and antisocial behavior: a model of the relationship between adolescent self-disclosure, parental closeness, parental control, and adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects on parental knowledge and antisocial behavior. Parenting style (e.g., parent-child closeness), on the other hand, is directly related to adolescent self-disclosure, which in turn is positively related to parental knowledge and negatively related to adolescents' antisocial behavior. A structural equation model, which incorporated data from parents and adolescents, largely supported the hypothesized model. Gender-specific models also found some gender differences among adolescents and parents, as the hypothesized model adequately fit the subsample of mothers but not fathers. Mothers' closeness to girls predicted their knowledge of their daughters' behavior; mothers' control predicted boys' antisocial behavior.

  16. Patterns and Predictors of Growth in Divorced Fathers' Health Status and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    DeGarmo, David S.; Reid, John B.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Knutson, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Health status and substance use trajectories are described over 18 months for a county sample of 230 divorced fathers of young children aged 4 to 11. One third of the sample was clinically depressed. Health problems, drinking, and hard drug use were stable over time for the sample, whereas depression, smoking, and marijuana use exhibited overall mean reductions. Variance components revealed significant individual differences in average levels and trajectories for health and substance use outcomes. Controlling for fathers' antisociality, negative life events, and social support, fathering identity predicted reductions in health-related problems and marijuana use. Father involvement reduced drinking and marijuana use. Antisociality was the strongest risk factor for health and substance use outcomes. Implications for application of a generative fathering perspective in practice and preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:19477763

  17. The Impact of Parental Stressors on the Intergenerational Transmission of Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lovegrove, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the extent to which parental antisocial behavior is related to child antisocial behavior and, if it is, the extent to which it is mediated by parental stressors and by parenting behaviors. In particular, we examine two sources of stress -- depressive symptoms and exposure to negative life events. The study is based on data from the Rochester Intergenerational Study, a prospective multi-generation panel study. The parent sample is 75% male and 25% female and predominantly African American (69%); the child sample consists of each parent's oldest biological child. We find significant levels of intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior for mothers and for fathers who live with or supervise their child, but not for fathers who have low levels of contact with their child. Results of structural equation models of mediating pathways are similar for mothers and for supervisory fathers. Of the two stressors we examine, depressive symptoms appears to be the more consistent mediator. It, both directly and indirectly via its impact on parenting behavior, influences the child's early onset of antisocial behavior. The results imply that childhood antisocial behavior has deep roots, extending back to the parent's adolescent development. PMID:19636747

  18. Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths' antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths' antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers, and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study that follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths' antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers as well as teachers. We report two main findings. First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths' behavior on parents' knowledge was consistent across mothers', fathers', youths', and teachers' reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths' genetically influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents' knowledge of youths' activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents' antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents' knowledge of their children's activities is influenced by youths' behavior.

  19. Early Attachment Organization Moderates the Parent-Child Mutually Coercive Pathway to Children's Antisocial Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Stellern, Sarah A.; O'Bleness, Jessica J.

    2009-01-01

    This multimethod study of 101 mothers, fathers, and children elucidates poorly understood role of children's attachment security as "moderating" a common maladaptive trajectory: from parental power assertion, to child resentful opposition, to child antisocial conduct. Children's security was assessed at 15 months, parents' power assertion observed…

  20. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  1. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.

  2. Masculinities fathering and health: the experiences of African-Caribbean and white working class fathers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert Alan

    2007-01-01

    There is a developing body of research that investigates the links between masculinities and men's health experiences, but the links between masculinities and the health of fathers has been a neglected focus for research in the UK. This paper presents some of the findings drawn from a parent study which investigated African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' experiences of fathering, health and social connectedness. Data are drawn from interviews with 13 men (6 African-Caribbean and 7 White working class) living in a city in the West Midlands area of the UK. In this paper, I analyse and discuss African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' stories about the meaning of health, the influences upon their health, and their health practices. It was found that for the African-Caribbean fathers specifically, anticipated or perceived racist prejudice, abuse or discrimination influenced their health experiences. However, the meaning of health for both ethnic groups of fathers was as functional capacity, that is health was an asset that allowed fathers to meet the obligations of paid work and fathering. These obligations were also associated with a restricted sense of personal agency for the men interviewed, and the associated constraints were linked to transgressive consumption of alcohol, food and tobacco. In addition, fathers were also involved in solitary ways of dealing with their vulnerability, vulnerability that was associated with fathers' health concerns, and other difficult life experiences. Fathers' solitary experiences of vulnerability were also mediated by hegemonic forms of masculinity. Nevertheless, the experience of fathering within the lifecourse influenced men's health experiences: reflexivity and challenges to both transgressive consumption and solitary experiences were linked to fathers' perceived obligations to children. The significance of gender, ethnicity and social class for theory and future research with working class fathers and boys

  3. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals’ transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial behavior among serious juvenile offenders from 14 through 22 years of age and tested how impulse control, suppression of aggression, future orientation, consideration of others, personal responsibility, and resistance to peer influence distinguished between youths who persisted in antisocial behavior and youths who desisted. Different patterns of development in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to early adulthood, especially with respect to impulse control and suppression of aggression, distinguished among individuals who followed different trajectories of antisocial behavior. Compared with individuals who desisted from antisocial behavior, youths who persisted in antisocial behavior exhibited deficits in elements of psychosocial maturity, particularly in impulse control, suppression of aggression, and future orientation. PMID:19899922

  4. Early attachment organization moderates the parent-child mutually coercive pathway to children's antisocial conduct.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A; Stellern, Sarah A; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2009-01-01

    This multimethod study of 101 mothers, fathers, and children elucidates poorly understood role of children's attachment security as moderating a common maladaptive trajectory: from parental power assertion, to child resentful opposition, to child antisocial conduct. Children's security was assessed at 15 months, parents' power assertion observed at 25 and 38 months, children's resentful opposition to parents observed at 52 months, and antisocial conduct rated by parents at 67 months. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that in insecure dyads, parental power assertion predicted children's resentful opposition, which then predicted antisocial conduct. This mechanism was absent in secure dyads. Early insecurity acts as a catalyst for a dyad embarking on mutually adversarial path toward antisocial outcomes, whereas early security defuses this maladaptive trajectory.

  5. Expanding our lens: female pathways to antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-12-01

    Women and girls' engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women's antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women's antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological levels shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women's antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women's antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research.

  6. Neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship.

    PubMed

    Lam, B Y H; Yang, Y; Raine, A; Lee, T M C

    2015-11-03

    Prior studies have established that schizotypal personality traits (schizotypy) were associated with antisocial behavior (crime), but it is unclear what neural factors mediate this relationship. This study assessed the mediating effect that sub-regional prefrontal gray, specifically the orbitofrontal gray matter volume, has on the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Five prefrontal sub-regional (superior, middle, inferior, orbitofrontal and rectal gyral) gray matter volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 90 adults from the community, together with schizotypy and antisocial behavior. Among all five prefrontal sub-regions, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was the major region-of-interest in the present study. Mediation analyses showed that orbitofrontal gray fully mediated the association between schizotypy and antisocial behavior. After having controlled the sex, age, socio-economic statuses, whole brain volumes and substance abuse/dependence of test subjects, the orbitofrontal gray still significantly mediated the effect of schizotypy on antisocial behavior by 53.5%. These findings are the first that document a neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Findings also suggest that functions subserved by the OFC, including impulse control and inhibition, emotion processing and decision-making, may contribute to the above comorbidity.

  7. Neural mediator of the schizotypy–antisocial behavior relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lam, B Y H; Yang, Y; Raine, A; Lee, T M C

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have established that schizotypal personality traits (schizotypy) were associated with antisocial behavior (crime), but it is unclear what neural factors mediate this relationship. This study assessed the mediating effect that sub-regional prefrontal gray, specifically the orbitofrontal gray matter volume, has on the schizotypy–antisocial behavior relationship. Five prefrontal sub-regional (superior, middle, inferior, orbitofrontal and rectal gyral) gray matter volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 90 adults from the community, together with schizotypy and antisocial behavior. Among all five prefrontal sub-regions, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was the major region-of-interest in the present study. Mediation analyses showed that orbitofrontal gray fully mediated the association between schizotypy and antisocial behavior. After having controlled the sex, age, socio-economic statuses, whole brain volumes and substance abuse/dependence of test subjects, the orbitofrontal gray still significantly mediated the effect of schizotypy on antisocial behavior by 53.5%. These findings are the first that document a neural mediator of the schizotypy–antisocial behavior relationship. Findings also suggest that functions subserved by the OFC, including impulse control and inhibition, emotion processing and decision-making, may contribute to the above comorbidity. PMID:26529422

  8. Becoming an adolescent father: precursors and parenting.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Pears, K C; Capaldi, D M; Crosby, L; Leve, C S

    1998-11-01

    Precursors and outcomes of adolescent pregnancy receive considerable research attention; however, most studies deal with adolescent mothers. This study examined whether risk factors that are precursors to adolescent fatherhood would be consistent with the family coercion model (G. R. Patterson, 1976) of the development of antisocial behavior in childhood. Hypotheses were tested in the Oregon Youth Study (OYS) sample of 206 at-risk boys who were first seen at 9 or 10 years of age. At 18-20 years of age, the profiles for the 35 adolescent fathers included more arrests and substance use than the other OYS participants. At around 2 years of age, 40% of the children had no contact with their fathers. The children, compared with a normative control sample, had somewhat greater health risks. The at-risk parents, compared with a control sample, were observed to show higher levels of negative reactions when their children were working on a puzzle task. PMID:9823506

  9. Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Omer Faruk; Demirel, Aysegul; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Emül, Murat; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-30

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) were studied in some axis-I disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Aim of this study is detection of neurological soft signs in antisocial personality disorder and relation of these signs with psychopathy. The study was included 41 antisocial men and 41 healthy control subjects. Sociodemographic form, neurological evaluation scale and Hare psychopathy checklist was applied to the antisocial subjects, whereas sociodemographic form and neurological evaluation scale were applied to the controls. Antisocial men exhibited significiantly more NSS in total score and subgroups scales (p<0.05). It was shown that there was a significant association with psychopathy scores and NSS sequencing complex motor tasks (r=0.309; p=0.049) and NSS other tests subgroup scores (r=0.328; p=0.037). Similar relation was also observed in comparison between psychopathy subgroups. NSS accepted as being endophenotypes in schizophrenia, were also detected in antisocial group significantly more than controls in our study. Significant relationship between psychopathy and NSS may also hint the role of genetic mechanisms in personality development, though new extended studies with larger sample size are needed for clarification of this relationship.

  10. Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Omer Faruk; Demirel, Aysegul; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Emül, Murat; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-30

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) were studied in some axis-I disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Aim of this study is detection of neurological soft signs in antisocial personality disorder and relation of these signs with psychopathy. The study was included 41 antisocial men and 41 healthy control subjects. Sociodemographic form, neurological evaluation scale and Hare psychopathy checklist was applied to the antisocial subjects, whereas sociodemographic form and neurological evaluation scale were applied to the controls. Antisocial men exhibited significiantly more NSS in total score and subgroups scales (p<0.05). It was shown that there was a significant association with psychopathy scores and NSS sequencing complex motor tasks (r=0.309; p=0.049) and NSS other tests subgroup scores (r=0.328; p=0.037). Similar relation was also observed in comparison between psychopathy subgroups. NSS accepted as being endophenotypes in schizophrenia, were also detected in antisocial group significantly more than controls in our study. Significant relationship between psychopathy and NSS may also hint the role of genetic mechanisms in personality development, though new extended studies with larger sample size are needed for clarification of this relationship. PMID:27131626

  11. Three-Year Follow-Up of Syndromal Antisocial Behavior in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To present nationally representative findings on total antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms, major violations of others’ rights (MVOR), and violent symptoms over a 3-year follow-up in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions among adults diagnosed at Wave 1 with ASPD versus syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS, not a codable DSM-IV disorder). Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 respondents 18 years and older. Antisocial syndromes and comorbid lifetime substance use, mood, and 6 additional personality disorders were diagnosed at Wave 1 using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV Version. The Wave 2 Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV Version assessed antisocial symptoms over follow-up, lifetime attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorders, and borderline, narcissistic, and schizotypal personality disorders. Results In unadjusted analyses, respondents with ASPD reported significantly more total, MVOR, and violent symptoms over follow-up than respondents with AABS. Adjustment for baseline sociodemographics and psychiatric comorbidity attenuated these associations; after further adjustment for parallel antisocial symptom counts from age 15 to Wave 1, associations with antisocial syndromes disappeared. Independent Wave 1 predictors of persistent antisociality over follow-up included male sex, not being married or cohabiting, low income, high school or less education, and lifetime drug use disorders, additional personality disorders, and ADHD. Conclusions The distinction between ASPD and AABS holds limited value in predicting short-term course of antisocial symptomatology among adults. However, the prediction of persistent antisociality by psychiatric comorbidity argues for comprehensive diagnostic assessments, treatment of all

  12. Father Nature: Fathers as Guides to the Natural World. American Land & Life Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Paul S., Ed.; Tag, Stan, Ed.

    This book contains 19 personal essays on the role that fathers play in fostering connections between their children and the natural world. Written from the perspective of adult children or of fathers themselves, most essays show how outdoor activities, particularly hunting and fishing, are replicated across the generations and serve to foster…

  13. Father involvement: Identifying and predicting family members' shared and unique perceptions.

    PubMed

    Dyer, W Justin; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2014-08-01

    Father involvement research has typically not recognized that reports of involvement contain at least two components: 1 reflecting a view of father involvement that is broadly recognized in the family, and another reflecting each reporter's unique perceptions. Using a longitudinal sample of 302 families, this study provides a first examination of shared and unique views of father involvement (engagement and warmth) from the perspectives of fathers, children, and mothers. This study also identifies influences on these shared and unique perspectives. Father involvement reports were obtained when the child was 12 and 14 years old. Mother reports overlapped more with the shared view than father or child reports. This suggests the mother's view may be more in line with broadly recognized father involvement. Regarding antecedents, for fathers' unique view, a compensatory model partially explains results; that is, negative aspects of family life were positively associated with fathers' unique view. Children's unique view of engagement may partially reflect a sentiment override with father antisocial behaviors being predictive. Mothers' unique view of engagement was predicted by father and mother work hours and her unique view of warmth was predicted by depression and maternal gatekeeping. Taken, together finding suggests a far more nuanced view of father involvement should be considered. PMID:25000130

  14. Father involvement: Identifying and predicting family members' shared and unique perceptions.

    PubMed

    Dyer, W Justin; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2014-08-01

    Father involvement research has typically not recognized that reports of involvement contain at least two components: 1 reflecting a view of father involvement that is broadly recognized in the family, and another reflecting each reporter's unique perceptions. Using a longitudinal sample of 302 families, this study provides a first examination of shared and unique views of father involvement (engagement and warmth) from the perspectives of fathers, children, and mothers. This study also identifies influences on these shared and unique perspectives. Father involvement reports were obtained when the child was 12 and 14 years old. Mother reports overlapped more with the shared view than father or child reports. This suggests the mother's view may be more in line with broadly recognized father involvement. Regarding antecedents, for fathers' unique view, a compensatory model partially explains results; that is, negative aspects of family life were positively associated with fathers' unique view. Children's unique view of engagement may partially reflect a sentiment override with father antisocial behaviors being predictive. Mothers' unique view of engagement was predicted by father and mother work hours and her unique view of warmth was predicted by depression and maternal gatekeeping. Taken, together finding suggests a far more nuanced view of father involvement should be considered.

  15. Becoming a Father

    MedlinePlus

    ... and to participate in your child’s life What responsibilities will I have as a father? Some of the responsibilities you’ll have as a father are: The responsibility to care for your child both financially and ...

  16. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Fathers Supporting Breastfeeding Last Published: 05/26/2016 Email Updates Click ... in each of the materials. FATHERS CAN SUPPORT BREASTFEEDING Poster - FNS 354 Be a Part of the ...

  17. The Renaissance of Fathering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    Notes the resurgence of fathering over the last decade and reviews existing literature on the direct and indirect impact of fathers on children's cognitive and psychosocial development during four growth stages: infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence. (SJL)

  18. Variability in diurnal testosterone, exposure to violence, and antisocial behavior in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peckins, Melissa K; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide evidence of an association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone over 1 year, lifetime exposure to violence, and the manifestation of antisocial behavior in 135 pubertal-aged adolescents across 1 year. Adolescents' sex and lifetime history of violence exposure moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, sex-stratified analyses revealed that lifetime history of exposure to violence moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior in females only. This report is unique in that it illuminates sex differences in within-person associations among exposure to violence, individual variability in diurnal testosterone, and antisocial behavior.

  19. The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)

  20. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  1. Association of ventral striatum monoamine oxidase-A binding and functional connectivity in antisocial personality disorder with high impulsivity: A positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Dunlop, Katharine; Downar, Jonathan; Links, Paul; Bagby, R Michael; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rasquinha, Fawn; Simpson, Alexander I; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-01

    Impulsivity is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) associated with abnormal brain function and neurochemical alterations. The ventral striatum (VS) is a key region of the neural circuitry mediating impulsive behavior, and low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) level in the VS has shown a specific relationship to the impulsivity of ASPD. Because it is currently unknown whether phenotypic MAO-A markers can influence brain function in ASPD, we investigated VS MAO-A level and the functional connectivity (FC) of two seed regions, superior and inferior VS (VSs, VSi). Nineteen impulsive ASPD males underwent [(11)C] harmine positron emission tomography scanning to measure VS MAO-A VT, an index of MAO-A density, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging that assessed the FC of bilateral seed regions in the VSi and VSs. Subjects also completed self-report impulsivity measures. Results revealed functional coupling of the VSs with bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) that was correlated with VS MAO-A VT (r=0.47, p=0.04), and functional coupling of the VSi with right hippocampus that was anti-correlated with VS MAO-A VT (r=-0.55, p=0.01). Additionally, VSs-DMPFC FC was negatively correlated with NEO Personality Inventory-Revised impulsivity (r=-0.49, p=0.03), as was VSi-hippocampus FC with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 motor impulsiveness (r=-0.50, p=0.03). These preliminary results highlight an association of VS MAO-A level with the FC of striatal regions linked to impulsive behavior in ASPD and suggest that phenotype-based brain markers of ASPD have relevance to understanding brain function.

  2. Association of ventral striatum monoamine oxidase-A binding and functional connectivity in antisocial personality disorder with high impulsivity: A positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Dunlop, Katharine; Downar, Jonathan; Links, Paul; Bagby, R Michael; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rasquinha, Fawn; Simpson, Alexander I; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-01

    Impulsivity is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) associated with abnormal brain function and neurochemical alterations. The ventral striatum (VS) is a key region of the neural circuitry mediating impulsive behavior, and low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) level in the VS has shown a specific relationship to the impulsivity of ASPD. Because it is currently unknown whether phenotypic MAO-A markers can influence brain function in ASPD, we investigated VS MAO-A level and the functional connectivity (FC) of two seed regions, superior and inferior VS (VSs, VSi). Nineteen impulsive ASPD males underwent [(11)C] harmine positron emission tomography scanning to measure VS MAO-A VT, an index of MAO-A density, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging that assessed the FC of bilateral seed regions in the VSi and VSs. Subjects also completed self-report impulsivity measures. Results revealed functional coupling of the VSs with bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) that was correlated with VS MAO-A VT (r=0.47, p=0.04), and functional coupling of the VSi with right hippocampus that was anti-correlated with VS MAO-A VT (r=-0.55, p=0.01). Additionally, VSs-DMPFC FC was negatively correlated with NEO Personality Inventory-Revised impulsivity (r=-0.49, p=0.03), as was VSi-hippocampus FC with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 motor impulsiveness (r=-0.50, p=0.03). These preliminary results highlight an association of VS MAO-A level with the FC of striatal regions linked to impulsive behavior in ASPD and suggest that phenotype-based brain markers of ASPD have relevance to understanding brain function. PMID:26908392

  3. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  4. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  5. Internet addiction and antisocial internet behavior of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  6. Internet addiction and antisocial internet behavior of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail. PMID:22125466

  7. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail. PMID:22125466

  8. Early Attachment Organization Moderates the Parent-Child Mutually Coercive Pathway to Children’s Antisocial Conduct

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Stellern, Sarah A.; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2009-01-01

    This multi-method study of 101 mothers, fathers, and children elucidates poorly understood role of children’s attachment security as moderating a common maladaptive trajectory: from parental power assertion, to child resentful opposition, to child antisocial conduct. Children’s security was assessed at 15 months, parents’ power assertion observed at 25 and 38 months, children’s resentful opposition to parents observed at 52 months, and antisocial conduct rated by parents at 67 months. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that in insecure dyads, parental power assertion predicted children’s resentful opposition, which then predicted antisocial conduct. This mechanism was absent in secure dyads. Early insecurity acts as a catalyst for a dyad embarking on mutually adversarial path toward antisocial outcomes, whereas early security defuses this maladaptive trajectory. PMID:19630909

  9. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [11C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [11C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33 = 6.8, P = 0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28 = 2.7, P = 0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r = −0.50 to −0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  10. Developmental Epidemiological Courses Leading to Antisocial Personality Disorder and Violent and Criminal Behavior: Effects by Young Adulthood of a Universal Preventive Intervention in First- and Second-Grade Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kellam, Sheppard G.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Muthén, Bengt O.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Poduska, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), violent and criminal behavior, and drug abuse disorders share the common antecedent of early aggressive, disruptive behavior. In the 1985–1986 school year teachers implemented the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a classroom behavior management strategy targeting aggressive, disruptive behavior and socializing children to the student role. From first grade through middle school the developmental trajectories of 2,311 students from 19 Baltimore City Public Schools were examined. This article reports the GBG impact on these trajectories and ASPD and violent and criminal behavior by age 19–21 among the selected 768 students. Methods In five urban poor to lower-middle class predominately African American areas, three to four schools were matched and within each set randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) the GBG, 2) a program directed at reading achievement, or 3) the standard program. Classrooms and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Measures at 19–21 included self reports and juvenile court and adult incarceration records. Intervention impact was assessed via General Growth Mixture Modeling based on repeated measures of aggressive, disruptive behavior. Results Three trajectories of aggressive, disruptive behavior were identified. By young adulthood, there was significant reduction in rates of ASPD and violent and criminal behavior among GBG males in the high aggressive, disruptive trajectory. Replication A replication was implemented with the next cohort of first-grade children using the same teachers during the following school year, but with diminished mentoring and monitoring of teachers. The results showed generally non-significant effects in the same direction. PMID:18243581

  11. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity.

  12. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [11C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Michael Bagby, R; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [11C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=−0.50 to −0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  13. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lizotte, Alan J; Krohn, Marvin D; Smith, Carolyn A

    2003-04-01

    There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers.

  14. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury.

  15. Fathers keep out!

    PubMed

    Flint, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    When the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge had their baby, the new father was with his wife and baby until they left the hospital. No suggestion that he should be pushed out at this very sensitive time. Does this mean that to be given the opportunity to bond with his baby, a father must either be royal or rich? This article examines the policy of sending fathers away from their newly born baby and partner, especially when they are very young or vulnerable. The suggestion is that 24 hour visiting should apply to fathers, thus circumventing the problems with providing accommodation for them.

  16. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  17. Expanding our Lens: Female Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339

  18. Psychopathy and violence: Does antisocial cognition mediate the relationship between the PCL: YV factor scores and violent offending?

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; DeLisi, Matt

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether proactive and reactive antisocial cognition mediate the effect of Factors 1 (core personality features) and 2 (behavioral deviance) of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) on violent offending. In this study Bandura et al.'s (1996) Moral Disengagement (MD) scale and the Impulse Control (IC) scale of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI; Weinberger & Schwartz, 1990) served as proxies for proactive and reactive antisocial cognition, respectively. It was hypothesized that proactive antisocial cognition (MD) would mediate the Factor 1-violence relationship and that both proactive antisocial cognition and reactive antisocial cognition (IC) would mediate the Factor 2-violence relationship. A 3-wave path analysis of data from 1,354 adjudicated delinquents produced results consistent with the first part of the hypothesis (i.e., proactive antisocial mediation of the Factor 1-violence relationship) but inconsistent with the second part of the hypothesis (i.e., only proactive antisocial cognition mediated the Factor 2-violence relationship). Whereas the direct path from Factor 1 to violent offending was no longer significant when MD and IC were taken into account, the direct path from Factor 2 to violent offender remained significant even after MD and IC were included as mediators. This suggests that whereas proactive antisocial cognition plays a major role in mediating the Factor 1-violence relationship, the Factor 2-violence relationship is mediated by proactive antisocial cognition and variables not included or not adequately covered in the current study.

  19. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  20. Life without Father.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popenoe, David

    The increasing percentage of children living apart from their natural fathers is an unpredicted, and not widely discussed, trend. Fatherlessness is a major force behind many disturbing U.S. social problems. The institution of marriage acts as culture's chief vehicle to bind men to their children. The absence of fathers from children's lives is one…

  1. Neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter correlates in children with antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Fairchild, Graeme

    2006-11-01

    When antisocial behavior becomes a persistent pattern that affects diverse domains of children's functioning, psychiatrists refer to oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). The term disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) covers both ODD and CD. Research shows that in the absence of effective interventions, the prognosis for DBD children is relatively unfavorable: their disorder can extend into adolescence, manifest itself in delinquency, and convert into other psychiatric symptoms, such as addiction or personality disorders. Although environmental factors have traditionally attracted most attention in explaining the origin and persistence of DBDs, it is important not to overlook the vulnerability of the child in the development of antisocial behavior. Relatively few studies have been conducted on the neurobiological factors involved in the development of DBDs in children. In this paper, we explain how problems in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and serotonergic system functioning could be important factors in the behavioral problems of DBD children. Low fear of punishment and physiological underactivity may predispose antisocial individuals to seek out stimulation or take risks and may explain poor (social) conditioning and socialization. Findings consistent with this hypothesis are presented. Finally, we explain how stress in general, and adverse early life experiences in particular, could have an impact on the development of the HPA and serotonergic systems. An investigation of the neurobiological factors involved in antisocial behavior disorder might ultimately guide the development of new forms of intervention.

  2. Reading Retardation and Antisocial Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge, Claire

    1982-01-01

    Examines the association between reading retardation and antisocial behavior problems in four groups of boys (a total of 129 subjects). Subjects' current behavior and family backgrounds were compared and contrasted. Results show a strong association between the two disorders. (Author/MP)

  3. Predicting parenting behaviors from Antisocial Practices content scale scores of the MMPI-2 administered during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, M; Egeland, B

    2000-02-01

    This article examines the relation between scores on the Antisocial Practices (ASP) content scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and parenting behaviors in a sample of low-income women. During pregnancy, 141 women were administered the MMPI-2 and then placed into 1 of 3 groups: an antisocial, nonclinical, or clinical control group. When their children were 13 and 24 months old, antisocial mothers were observed to be less understanding and more hostile and harsh in their parenting styles than mothers in the other groups. The nonclinical and clinical control groups did not differ on any measures. Other MMPI-2 measures of antisocial behavior were not predictive of harsh parenting styles. These findings support the predictive and construct validity of the ASP content scale of the MMPI-2.

  4. Teen Father Handbook for Teen Fathers and Teen Fathers-To-Be: Straight Talk for Young Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybury, Karol K.

    This handbook, published by the Teen Father's Program of the Sacramento (California) YWCA, outlines options available to teen fathers-to-be, as well as adolescent males who are already fathers, and where they can find help. While the final decision about pregnancy legally rests with the mother, the father can be involved in the process by helping…

  5. Research Review: Evaluating and reformulating the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Graeme; Goozen, Stephanie HM; Calder, Andrew J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe developmental taxonomic theory proposes that there are two subtypes of antisocial behaviour. The first is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in early childhood and follows a life-course persistent course, whereas the second emerges in adolescence, remits in early adulthood and reflects peer processes such as mimicry of antisocial peers. The aim of this review was to evaluate the developmental taxonomic theory in the light of recent empirical research. MethodsWe conducted a comprehensive literature review comparing these subtypes of antisocial behaviour based on searches on PubMed and other scientific databases covering the period from 1993 to 2013. We focused on research encompassing psychiatric epidemiology, personality assessment, neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, genetics, and structural and functional neuroimaging. Sixty one empirical studies were identified that investigated one of these forms of antisocial behaviour separately or explicitly compared childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour. ResultsEmpirical research provides support for the hypothesis that life-course persistent antisocial behaviour is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in the transactions between individual vulnerabilities and environmental adversity. In contrast to the developmental taxonomic theory, however, empirical findings suggest that severe antisocial behaviour that emerges in adolescence frequently has a negative prognosis and is rarely limited to the adolescent period. In addition, both forms of antisocial behaviour are associated with emotion processing deficits, changes in brain structure and function, alterations in cortisol secretion, and atypical personality traits (such as increased callous-unemotional traits). ConclusionsWe conclude that the developmental taxonomic theory is in need of revision, as differences between life-course persistent and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour appear to be

  6. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

  7. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood. PMID:23408036

  8. Assessing empathy in antisocial youth: factor analytic and validation findings.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Ahmed; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-02-01

    Relatively few researchers have examined empathy among antisocial youth, although adolescents may differ greatly in the nature and frequency of their offending behavior. In this investigation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used (1) to derive a brief empathy scale from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Version; (2) to assess the construct validity, internal consistency, and potential clinical utility of the derived empathy subscale; and (3) to identify key sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of empathy in delinquent youth. The 707 adolescent residents of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services rehabilitation facilities had a mean age of 15.5 yr. (SD = 1.2) and most (87%) were boys. Analysis suggested that the new measure possesses adequate psychometric properties and may be a useful addition to clinical assessments of antisocial youth. PMID:23654045

  9. Assessing empathy in antisocial youth: factor analytic and validation findings.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Ahmed; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-02-01

    Relatively few researchers have examined empathy among antisocial youth, although adolescents may differ greatly in the nature and frequency of their offending behavior. In this investigation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used (1) to derive a brief empathy scale from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Version; (2) to assess the construct validity, internal consistency, and potential clinical utility of the derived empathy subscale; and (3) to identify key sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of empathy in delinquent youth. The 707 adolescent residents of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services rehabilitation facilities had a mean age of 15.5 yr. (SD = 1.2) and most (87%) were boys. Analysis suggested that the new measure possesses adequate psychometric properties and may be a useful addition to clinical assessments of antisocial youth.

  10. Father and I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Father (K. C. Yang (楊克純), 1896-1973) was a high school teacher in Anqing (安慶) in 1922 when I was born in Hefei (合肥). Anqing was then also called Huaining (懷寧). Father gave me the name Chen Ning, of which Chen was the name of my generation in our family, and Ning was derived from Huaining. Before I was one year old Father won an Anhui (安徽) Provincial Fellowship for studying in the USA. We had a family picture (Figure 1) taken in the courtyard outside our bedroom a few days before he left home. Father had on the traditional robe and coat, standing stiff and erect. He had probably up to that point never worn a western suit. Two years later he sent a picture (Figure 2) to Mother from the University of Chicago, in which his attire and bearing had both entered the twentieth century. Father was a handsome man. The exuberance and optimism of his youth were clearly captured in this photograph...

  11. The potential role of the striatum in antisocial behavior and psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Yang, Yaling

    2012-11-15

    In this review, we examine the functions of the striatum and the evidence that this brain region may be compromised in antisocial individuals. The striatum is involved in the processing of reward-related information and is thus important in reward-based learning. We review evidence from a growing number of brain imaging studies that have identified differences in the structure or functioning of the striatum either in antisocial groups or in relation to personality traits that are associated with antisocial behavior such as impulsivity and novelty seeking. Evidence from structural imaging studies suggests that the volume of the striatum is increased in antisocial populations, although evidence of localization to specific subregions is inconsistent. Functional imaging studies, which similarly tend to find increased functioning in the striatum, suggest that the striatum is not necessarily hypersensitive to the receipt of reward in antisocial individuals but instead may not be appropriately processing the absence of a reward, resulting in continuous responding to a stimulus that is no longer rewarding. This may impair the ability of individuals to flexibly respond to the environment, thus contributing to impulsivity and antisocial behavior. We conclude by discussing genetic and environmental factors that may affect the development of the striatum.

  12. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Three-Year Quality of Life Outcomes in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Smith, Sharon M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine 3-year quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among United States adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis), or no antisocial behavioral syndrome at baseline. Method Face-to-face interviews (n= 34,653). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV Version. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12v2). Other outcomes included past-year Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) scores, employment, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), welfare, and food stamps, and participation in social relationships. Results ASPD and AABS predicted poorer employment, financial dependency, social relationship, and physical health outcomes. Relationships of antisociality to SSI and food stamp receipt and physical health scales were modified by baseline age. Both antisocial syndromes predicted higher PSS-4, AABS predicted lower SF-12v2 Vitality, and ASPD predicted lower SF-12v2 Social Functioning scores in women. Conclusion Similar prediction of QOL by ASPD and AABS suggests limited utility of requiring CD before age 15 to diagnose ASPD. Findings underscore the need to improve prevention and treatment of antisocial syndromes. PMID:22375904

  13. Trajectories of desistance and continuity in antisocial behavior following court adjudication among serious adolescent offenders

    PubMed Central

    MULVEY, EDWARD P.; STEINBERG, LAURENCE; PIQUERO, ALEX R.; BESANA, MICHELLE; FAGAN, JEFFREY; SCHUBERT, CAROL; CAUFFMAN, ELIZABETH

    2010-01-01

    Because many serious adolescent offenders reduce their antisocial behavior after court involvement, understanding the patterns and mechanisms of the process of desistance from criminal activity is essential for developing effective interventions and legal policy. This study examined patterns of self-reported antisocial behavior over a 3-year period after court involvement in a sample of 1,119 serious male adolescent offenders. Using growth mixture models, and incorporating time at risk for offending in the community, we identified five trajectory groups, including a “persister” group (8.7% of the sample) and a “desister” group (14.6% of the sample). Case characteristics (age, ethnicity, antisocial history, deviant peers, a criminal father, substance use, psychosocial maturity) differentiated the five trajectory groups well, but did not effectively differentiate the persisting from desisting group. We show that even the most serious adolescent offenders report relatively low levels of antisocial activity after court involvement, but that distinguishing effectively between high-frequency offenders who desist and those who persist requires further consideration of potentially important dynamic factors related to this process. PMID:20423553

  14. Fathers absent and present.

    PubMed

    Adams, P L

    1984-04-01

    Hindering and obfuscating psychiatric scholarship about the father's role, whether he is present or absent, are several widespread notions and practices--including conceptual, assumptive, attitudinal, methodologic and technical matters. Discussed are eleven barriers to research: patriarchal ideology, preference for studying individual and dyad instead of family systems, preference for considering adults not children, overly rigid definition of parental roles, choosing not longitudinal but one-time cross-sectional study, reasoning about linear cause and effect, focus on attitudes not overt behavior, failure to control for adequate number of variables, neglect of adequate sampling procedures, confusing correlation with causation and an overemphasis on obvious pathology. The father, present or absent, may be salient or insignificant in the life of a child. If salient, the father's role may promote health and growth or may be largely pathogenic. The conclusion holds that an irreducible family unit may consist of only one pair: caretaker/child. PMID:6529713

  15. Fathers absent and present.

    PubMed

    Adams, P L

    1984-04-01

    Hindering and obfuscating psychiatric scholarship about the father's role, whether he is present or absent, are several widespread notions and practices--including conceptual, assumptive, attitudinal, methodologic and technical matters. Discussed are eleven barriers to research: patriarchal ideology, preference for studying individual and dyad instead of family systems, preference for considering adults not children, overly rigid definition of parental roles, choosing not longitudinal but one-time cross-sectional study, reasoning about linear cause and effect, focus on attitudes not overt behavior, failure to control for adequate number of variables, neglect of adequate sampling procedures, confusing correlation with causation and an overemphasis on obvious pathology. The father, present or absent, may be salient or insignificant in the life of a child. If salient, the father's role may promote health and growth or may be largely pathogenic. The conclusion holds that an irreducible family unit may consist of only one pair: caretaker/child.

  16. Fathers and abortion.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.

  17. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  18. My father's life.

    PubMed Central

    Porth, R

    1995-01-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies. Images p638-a p639-a PMID:7641162

  19. When Father Gets Custody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartz, Karen W.; Witcher, Wayne C.

    1978-01-01

    Issues that arise when fathers get custody of their children after divorce are: conditions of custody, coping with the role of parent and homemaker, adjustments which have to be made by the children, and the effect of custody on other social relationships. (CM)

  20. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  1. Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, G. Roy

    1995-01-01

    Multiple correlates and determinants of antisocial behavior within the home, community, and school are reviewed. Due to the school's pivotal role in our society, an emphasis is placed on how our schools contribute to antisocial behavior, and what educators can do to prevent anti-social behavior and related attendance problems. A variety of contextual factors and setting events within our schools appear to be major contributors to antisocial behavior, and some of the same factors identified within the schools also have been identified within the home. These setting events, rather than quick restrictive fixes, must be given more attention if we are to provide safe school environments—environments that durably prevent antisocial behavior and related attendance problems. PMID:16795877

  2. Stability of fathers' representations of their infants during the transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Maas, A Janneke B M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Braeken, Johan; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating fathers' roles in child development have focused on a range of different aspects. However, few studies have focused on the early father-infant relationship, which already emerges before the child is born. The aim of this study is to examine the concordance of fathers' representations of their children during the transition to parenthood. The influences of demographic variables, psychological wellbeing, and personality on the stability of these representations are investigated. At 26 weeks gestational age and when infants were six months old, fathers (N = 243) completed questionnaires and the Working Model of the Child Interview during a home visit. A strong association was found between fathers' prenatal and postnatal representations. First-time fathers more often had balanced representations than fathers who already had children. Furthermore, agreeable fathers were more likely to evolve from a non-balanced prenatal representation to a balanced postnatal representation. PMID:24684586

  3. Fathers Matter: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Brid

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines key areas of research in relation to the following: the nature of father involvement; factors influencing involvement; the influence of fathers on children; and social policy developments. It reviews the practice oriented research which has emerged in the UK as engaging fathers has become part of the agenda for many child…

  4. A Comparison of Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples Using the Concepts of: Individual Personality, Family Structure, Family of Origin Perception, Sexuality, and Adjustment/Adaptability To Determine Family Risk for Father Daughter Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utesch, William E.

    Father-daughter incest is more traumatic than any other type of child-sexual molestation. This study examines some of the factors which may lead to father-daughter incest. The author divided 40 Caucasian couples into three groups: (1) clinical incest group; (2) clinical non-incest group (to control for clinical status); and (3) non-clinical group.…

  5. Involving Fathers in Psychological Services for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a commentary of the special series on involving fathers in psychological services for children. The following themes are addressed: the effects of fathers on child development; benefits of father involvement in child psychology services; obstacles to father involvement; engaging fathers; specific interventions for fathers; and…

  6. How Urban Fathers Represent the Transition to Fathering: A Discourse Analysis of Fathering Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsden, Vivian; Wortham, Stanton; Wojcik, Teresa

    Noting that researchers rarely ask urban fathers about their perspectives and choices regarding fatherhood, this pilot study examined the experiences of urban fathers, focusing on their views of the challenges of fatherhood and how they accounted for both their irresponsible and their promising fathering behaviors; the study's larger goal will be…

  7. Fathers and Childbearing: New Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Tudiver, Fred

    1981-01-01

    The father has a new emerging role in pregnancy and childbirth. If he becomes an active, involved participant in pregnancy, labor, and birth, he will likely become more involved in fathering his child and will take on a more nurturing, child care role. Engrossment or father-infant interaction immediately postpartum has implications for the future father-child relationship. The paper discusses such implications and presents suggestions for enhancing the father's involvement in pregnancy and childbirth. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21289750

  8. Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

  9. Multivariate Model of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, M. Elena; Andreu, Jose M.; Grana, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the causal paths that predict antisocial behavior and the consumption of legal and illegal substances (drugs) in adolescents. The sample comprised 1,629 adolescents, 786 males and 843 females, between 14 and 18 years old. All participants provided reports of family, school, personality, and peer-group factors…

  10. Personality Profile of Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dadashzadeh, Hossein; Amiri, Shahrokh; Atapour, Ahmad; Abdi, Salman; Asadian, Mahan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was carried out aiming to identify the personality profile of parents of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods. This study is of a descriptive, analytic, cross-sectional type in which parents of 6–12-year-old children with ADHD who were referred to the Bozorgmehr Psychiatric Clinic, affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were enrolled. ADHD was diagnosed according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR and a quasi-structured diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL). The personality profile of the parents was assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. According to the findings of this study, the most common personality problems based on the assessment scales in the MCMI-III belonged to the clinical patterns of depressive personality in 43 persons (25.3%), histrionic personality in 34 persons (20%), and compulsive personality in 29 persons (17.1%). According to discriminant analysis, four scales of somatoform, sadistic, dependence, and though disorder were direct and antisocial scale was reverse significant predictors of membership in the women group. Conclusion. According to the findings of this pilot study, personality disorders are prevalent in parents of ADHD children and mothers suffer from personality disorders more than fathers. PMID:25525613

  11. Reading problems and antisocial behaviour: developmental trends in comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Maughan, B; Pickles, A; Hagell, A; Rutter, M; Yule, W

    1996-05-01

    Samples of poor and normal readers were followed through adolescence and into early adulthood to assess continuities in the comorbidity between reading difficulties and disruptive behaviour problems. Reading-disabled boys showed high rates of inattentiveness in middle childhood, but no excess of teacher-rated behaviour problems at age 14 and no elevated rates of aggression, antisocial personality disorder or officially recorded offending in early adulthood. Increased risks of juvenile offending among specifically retarded-reading boys seemed associated with poor school attendance, rather than reading difficulties per se. Reading problems were associated with some increases in disruptive behaviour in their teens in girls.

  12. How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Samantha; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child's autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2-13 years) with autism spectrum disorder living in an urban center in Western Canada participated in in-depth interviews about their parenting successes and challenges. We found fathers speak of universal fathering experiences yet articulate their own sense of loss and efforts to come to terms with unanticipated demands associated with autism spectrum disorder. Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder feel "pangs of jealousy" toward fathers of typically developing children, yet they are keenly attentive to their own child's development and convey a sense of gratitude for their child's capabilities and personality amidst an appreciation for trials and triumphs of fathering in general and fathering a child with autism spectrum disorder in particular.

  13. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  14. Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: the role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ken; Lonsdale, Chris

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling coaching style) and person factors (i.e., autonomous vs. controlled motivation) outlined in self-determination theory (SDT) were related to prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. We also investigated moral disengagement as a mediator of these relationships. Athletes' (n = 292, M = 19.53 years) responses largely supported our SDT-derived hypotheses. Results indicated that an autonomy-supportive coaching style was associated with prosocial behavior toward teammates; this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation was associated with antisocial behavior toward teammates and antisocial behavior toward opponents, and these two relationships were mediated by moral disengagement. The results provide support for research investigating the effect of autonomy-supportive coaching interventions on athletes' prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  15. Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: the role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ken; Lonsdale, Chris

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling coaching style) and person factors (i.e., autonomous vs. controlled motivation) outlined in self-determination theory (SDT) were related to prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. We also investigated moral disengagement as a mediator of these relationships. Athletes' (n = 292, M = 19.53 years) responses largely supported our SDT-derived hypotheses. Results indicated that an autonomy-supportive coaching style was associated with prosocial behavior toward teammates; this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation was associated with antisocial behavior toward teammates and antisocial behavior toward opponents, and these two relationships were mediated by moral disengagement. The results provide support for research investigating the effect of autonomy-supportive coaching interventions on athletes' prosocial and antisocial behavior. PMID:21808078

  16. Predictive Validity of Callous-unemotional Traits Measured in Early Adolescence with Respect to Multiple Antisocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Robert J.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2-years post-high school; self-reported serious crimes through 2-years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records through 1-year post-high school; and antisocial personality disorder symptoms and diagnosis at 2-years post-high school. CU traits measured in 7th grade were highly predictive of five of the six antisocial outcomes: general delinquency, juvenile and adult arrests, and early adult antisocial personality disorder criterion count and diagnosis, over and above prior and concurrent conduct problem behavior (i.e., criterion counts of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) and ADHD (criterion count). Incorporating a CU traits specifier for those with a diagnosis of conduct disorder improved the positive prediction of antisocial outcomes, with a very low false positive rate. There was minimal evidence of moderation by sex, race, or urban/rural status. Urban/rural status moderated one finding, with being from an urban area associated with stronger relations between CU traits and adult arrests. Findings clearly support the inclusion of CU traits as a specifier for the diagnosis of CD, at least with respect to predictive validity. PMID:20939651

  17. Pathways and Predictors of Antisocial Behaviors in African American Adolescents from Poor Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nan S.; Lee, Beom S.; Sun, Fei; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial behavior among youth remains a serious personal and social problem in the United States. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the shape and number of developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in a sample of poor, inner-city African American youth, and (2) test predictors of group membership and the developmental course of antisocial behaviors. Using growth mixture modeling, we examined predictors of antisocial behavior pathways and the likelihood of arrest in a sample of 566 poor, urban African American adolescents (ages 11 to 16). Three distinct trajectory classes of antisocial behavior were identified over a period of six years: one low-risk group (low steady) and two high-risk groups (incremental and high starter). The conditional probabilities for being arrested during ages 14-16 were 0.18 for the low steady class, 0.68 for the incremental class, and 0.31 for high starter class. Prevention strategies for adolescents at high risk are discussed. PMID:20161497

  18. Achalasia in father and son.

    PubMed

    Mackler, D; Schneider, R

    1978-11-01

    Achalasia has not been previously reported in father and son. A man, age 38, and his father, age 66, presented two years apart with symptoms of dysphagia and aspiration. The diagnosis of achalasia was made on the basis of x-ray and endoscopic findings and on esophageal motility studies performed on the father. Both responded well to pneumatic dilatation and have been asymptomatic for 24 months and 6 months, respectively. These cases again suggest a genetic basis for achalasia.

  19. [Laennec's father and slavery].

    PubMed

    Valentin, Michel

    2003-01-01

    In the legend which grows about Laennec, and also in the remote remembrance preserved in his family, the fame of his father Théophile-Marie remained very unfavorable, appearing to have been a light-headed man unable to do anything. However the studies of Madame Le Douget, magistrate in Quimper, show nevertheless a courageous and efficient judge, opponent to the social plague which was the slavery of black peoples, during a process before the court of justice of Admiralty after a shipwreck. It is the story of this episode concluding to a sort of rehabilitation that we have related in these pages.

  20. Externalizing Symptoms among Children of Alcoholic Parents: Entry Points for an Antisocial Pathway to Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, A.M.; Wirth, R.J.; Edwards, M.C.; Curran, P.J.; Chassin, L.A.; Zucker, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined heterogeneity in risk for externalizing symptoms in children of alcoholic parents as it may inform the search for entry points into an antisocial pathway to alcoholism. Specifically, we tested whether the number of alcoholic parents in a family, the comorbid subtype of parent alcoholism, and the gender of the child predicted trajectories of externalizing symptoms over the early life course as assessed in high-risk samples of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls. Through integrative analyses of two independent, longitudinal studies, we showed that children with either antisocial alcoholic parents or two alcoholic parents were at greatest risk for externalizing symptoms. Moreover, children with a depressed alcoholic parent did not differ from those with an antisocial alcoholic parent in reported symptoms. These findings were generally consistent across mother-, father- and adolescent-reports of symptoms, child gender and child age (ages 2 through 17), and the two independent studies examined. Multi-alcoholic and comorbid-alcoholic families may thus convey a genetic susceptibility to dysregulation along with environments that both exacerbate this susceptibility and provide few supports to offset it. PMID:17696709

  1. Trajectories of Antisocial Behaviour towards Siblings Predict Antisocial Behaviour towards Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Marks, Alex; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young siblings' antisocial behaviour is common yet its impact has received relatively little research attention. Methods: We examined trajectories of antisocial behaviour for a socially diverse sample (n = 99, 58 boys and 41 girls) who were filmed with their older siblings (52 boys and 47 girls) at ages 3 and 6 and with unfamiliar…

  2. Maternal Antisocial Behavior, Parenting Practices, and Behavior Problems in Boys at Risk for Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Wasserman, Gail A.; Verdelli, Lena; Greenwald, Steven; Miller, Laurie S.; Davies, Mark

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the independent contributions of maternal history of antisocial behavior and parenting practices to the worsening course of sons' behavior problems in a sample of young urban boys at risk for antisocial behavior. Mothers reported on boys' behavior problems at baseline and one year later, as well as on their own history of…

  3. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  4. Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorvine, Benjamin J.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, fathers have been underexamined relative to mothers in research on parenting. Fathers in poverty, as well as stepfathers and nonresidential fathers, have been a particularly understudied group. This study explores Head Start fathers' involvement with their children. Fathers are defined to include stepfathers as well as…

  5. Fathers sharing about early parental support in health-care - virtual discussions on an Internet forum.

    PubMed

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Eriksson, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Becoming a father is a life changing event and this transition is associated with various emotions. Educational activities aimed at new parents are important in healthcare parental support (HCPS). HCPS has been critiqued for its predominant focus on mothers, while the needs of fathers seem to have been downplayed. As a result, fathers often turn to Internet-based forums for support. As virtual discussions and mutual support among fathers take place in cyberspace, it is important to monitor these forums to observe the ways in which the fathers discuss HCPS. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which new fathers visiting an Internet-based forum for fathers communicated their experiences of HCPS. A netnographic method consisting of six steps was used to gather and analyse the data. The findings show that fathers shared with one another their experiences of the attitudes expressed by HCPS workers as well as their own attitudes towards HCPS. The attitudes of HCPS workers that were directed towards the fathers were perceived as highly personal and individual, while fathers described their attitudes towards the HCPS in general terms, towards HCPS as a system. Overall, the fathers described HCPS as a valuable confirmatory support that eased their worries concerning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), colic, weight gain, fever and teething. Although the fathers expressed gratitude towards HCPS, they also shared their negative experiences, such as feeling invisible, disregarded and insulted. In fact, the twofold attitudes that exist in the relationship between the fathers and HCPS can act as a barrier rather than being a confirmatory support. We recommend that HCPS adopts a broader approach using more targeted and strategic didactic methods for supporting fathers in the growth of their own personal awareness, as such an approach would offer a competitive and professional alternative to the support offered in informal experience-based Internet forums. PMID

  6. The Father Christmas worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  7. Antisocial thinking in adolescents: further psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS).

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking.

  8. Saturday night's alright for fighting: antisocial traits, fighting, and weapons carrying in a large sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Cricket Meehan, D

    2010-12-01

    The current study examines risk and protective factors for youth antisocial personality and behavior from a multivariate format. It is hoped that this research will elucidate those risk and protective factors most important for focus of future prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examines multiple factors associated with youth antisocial traits and behavior in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the strongest and most consistent risk or protective factors. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System's (YRBSS) school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency, drug use and negative community influences as predictive of antisocial traits. Schools and families functioned as protective factors. Youth who fought frequently tended to be male, antisocial, dug using, depressed, and associated with delinquent peers. Weapons carrying was most common among drug using, antisocial males. Television and video game use were not predictive of antisocial, fighting or weapons carrying outcomes. Developmental patterns across age ranges regarding the relative importance of specific risk factors were also examined. Strategies for intervention and prevention of youth violence that focus on peers, neighborhoods, depression, and families may be particularly likely to bear fruit.

  9. Saturday night's alright for fighting: antisocial traits, fighting, and weapons carrying in a large sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Cricket Meehan, D

    2010-12-01

    The current study examines risk and protective factors for youth antisocial personality and behavior from a multivariate format. It is hoped that this research will elucidate those risk and protective factors most important for focus of future prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examines multiple factors associated with youth antisocial traits and behavior in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the strongest and most consistent risk or protective factors. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System's (YRBSS) school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency, drug use and negative community influences as predictive of antisocial traits. Schools and families functioned as protective factors. Youth who fought frequently tended to be male, antisocial, dug using, depressed, and associated with delinquent peers. Weapons carrying was most common among drug using, antisocial males. Television and video game use were not predictive of antisocial, fighting or weapons carrying outcomes. Developmental patterns across age ranges regarding the relative importance of specific risk factors were also examined. Strategies for intervention and prevention of youth violence that focus on peers, neighborhoods, depression, and families may be particularly likely to bear fruit. PMID:20405321

  10. Empathy Impairments in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators With Antisocial and Borderline Traits: A Key Factor in the Risk of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators. PMID:26830110

  11. Empathy Impairments in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators With Antisocial and Borderline Traits: A Key Factor in the Risk of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators.

  12. Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…

  13. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  14. Covert antisocial behavior, peer deviancy training, parenting processes, and sex differences in the development of antisocial behavior during childhood.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James J; Schrepferman, Lynn P; Bullard, Lisha; McEachern, Amber D; Patterson, Gerald R

    2012-08-01

    Two longitudinal studies were used to examine the occurrence and consequences of peer deviancy training during childhood and the relative role of early covert antisocial behavior in risk for antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Peer deviancy training was apparent in a sample of at-risk first grade children, and it showed persistence and increased prevalence across the school year. Peer deviancy training, peer rejection, and unskilled parenting made additive contributions to the development of antisocial behavior during kindergarten and first grade and to antisocial behavior in fourth grade. Skilled parenting partially mitigated the association of peer deviancy training with antisocial behavior for boys. The appearance and growth of covert antisocial behavior was a predictor of fourth grade antisocial for boys and girls, more so than aggressive and overt antisocial behavior. Peer deviancy training and early covert antisocial behavior were key pathways to girls' antisocial behavior in fourth grade, and they complemented the roles of peer rejection and overt antisocial behavior for boys. The relationships of parenting and peer processes to trajectories of antisocial behavior were similar for boys and girls; but boys showed higher levels of antisocial behavior, were more involved in peer deviancy training, and were more likely to experience peer rejection.

  15. Fathers and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  16. Antisocial and callous behaviour in children.

    PubMed

    Viding, Essi; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-01-01

    Antisocial behaviour is one of the most common reasons for a childhood referral to mental health and educational services and represents a substantial public health cost. Callous-unemotional traits can be used to distinguish children who are capable of pre-meditated antisocial behaviour and violence from those whose antisocial behaviour and violence are primarily impulsive and threat reactive. Decades of developmental psychopathology research have shown that children with antisocial behaviour are thus a heterogeneous group and, for interventions to be successful, it is critical that distinct subgroups of children receive services that best match their profile of vulnerabilities and strengths. Recent advances in genetic and brain imaging research in the field have made important contributions to our understanding of the developmental vulnerability that callous-unemotional traits represent. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current evidence base with regard to genetic and neuroscience findings of callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behaviour with callous-unemotional traits. We also discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and intervention, and finish by outlining what we consider are necessary directions for future research.

  17. Antisocial and callous behaviour in children.

    PubMed

    Viding, Essi; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-01-01

    Antisocial behaviour is one of the most common reasons for a childhood referral to mental health and educational services and represents a substantial public health cost. Callous-unemotional traits can be used to distinguish children who are capable of pre-meditated antisocial behaviour and violence from those whose antisocial behaviour and violence are primarily impulsive and threat reactive. Decades of developmental psychopathology research have shown that children with antisocial behaviour are thus a heterogeneous group and, for interventions to be successful, it is critical that distinct subgroups of children receive services that best match their profile of vulnerabilities and strengths. Recent advances in genetic and brain imaging research in the field have made important contributions to our understanding of the developmental vulnerability that callous-unemotional traits represent. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current evidence base with regard to genetic and neuroscience findings of callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behaviour with callous-unemotional traits. We also discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and intervention, and finish by outlining what we consider are necessary directions for future research. PMID:24357438

  18. Antisocial behavior and affiliation with deviant peers.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Hillary J; Toro, Paul A; Urberg, Kathryn A

    2004-06-01

    We examined the associations among gender, antisocial behavior, and peer-group affiliation in a high-risk sample of 401 homeless and matched housed adolescents (139 boys and 262 girls). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (Version 2.3, 1991; Costello, Edelbrock, Kalas, Kessler, & Klaric, 1982) yielded 2 measures of adolescent antisocial behavior: symptoms of conduct disorder and substance abuse or dependence. Various deviant behaviors of friends were assessed based on adolescent self-report. Results indicated that, for both boys and girls, having many deviant peers was associated with more antisocial behavior, regardless of the number of boys in the peer network. Furthermore, findings suggest that the relation between number of deviant peers and antisocial behavior may be stronger for boys and homeless adolescents than for girls and housed adolescents, respectively. The results of prior studies indicating that antisocial behavior is a function of affiliation with male peers may be due to the higher frequencies of maladaptive behaviors evidenced in boys in normative samples.

  19. Psychopathy and the Prediction of Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression: The Roles of Impulsive Antisociality and Fearless Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Birkley, Erica L.; Giancola, Peter R.; Lance, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that individual difference factors modulate aggression under the acute effects of alcohol. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that one core dimension of psychopathy, Impulsive Antisociality, would modulate intoxicated aggression, whereas another dimension, Fearless Dominance, would not. Methods Participants were 516 young social drinkers (253 men and 263 women). Psychopathy was measured using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996). Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, aggression was measured with a task in which participants administered and received electric shocks to/from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Results Hierarchical regression analyses supported our hypothesis: Impulsive Antisociality predicted aggression under alcohol, whereas Fearless Dominance did not. Conclusions Persons who tend to endorse antisocial and impulsive externalizing behaviors appear to be at greater risk for aggression under the acute influence of alcohol. PMID:22959485

  20. Impact of Father Absence During Childhood on College Age Females' Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. R.; Parish, T. S.

    This study was carried out with a group of 98 female volunteers. The control group consisted of 27 who had not lost their fathers; the experimental group consisted of 71 who had lost their fathers due to death or divorce. All subjects were administered two checklists to measure personal adjustment and security. Results revealed that fatherless…

  1. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: Evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about mechanisms of their impact. We examined early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children’s affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in Family Study and maternal responsiveness in Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps that led children to believe they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationship moderated the future developmental trajectory: Children’s attenuated tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in Family Study indicated that the links between low tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by parental stronger discipline pressure. By influencing indirectly future developmental sequelae, early relationship may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes. PMID:24280347

  2. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  3. Antisocial punishment in two social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Fatas, Enrique; Mateu, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of sanctions on cooperation depends on social and cultural norms. While free riding is kept at bay by altruistic punishment in certain cultures, antisocial punishment carried out by free riders pushes back cooperation in others. In this paper we analyze sanctions in both a standard public goods game with a linear production function and an otherwise identical social dilemma in which the minimum contribution determines the group outcome. Experiments were run in a culture with traditionally high antisocial punishment (Southern Europe). We replicate the detrimental effect of antisocial sanctions on cooperation in the linear case. However, we find that punishment is still widely effective when actions are complementary: the provision of the public good significantly and substantially increases with sanctions, participants punish significantly less and sanctions radically transform conditional cooperation patterns to generate significant welfare gains.

  4. Antisocial punishment in two social dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Fatas, Enrique; Mateu, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of sanctions on cooperation depends on social and cultural norms. While free riding is kept at bay by altruistic punishment in certain cultures, antisocial punishment carried out by free riders pushes back cooperation in others. In this paper we analyze sanctions in both a standard public goods game with a linear production function and an otherwise identical social dilemma in which the minimum contribution determines the group outcome. Experiments were run in a culture with traditionally high antisocial punishment (Southern Europe). We replicate the detrimental effect of antisocial sanctions on cooperation in the linear case. However, we find that punishment is still widely effective when actions are complementary: the provision of the public good significantly and substantially increases with sanctions, participants punish significantly less and sanctions radically transform conditional cooperation patterns to generate significant welfare gains. PMID:25972793

  5. Antisocial punishment in two social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Fatas, Enrique; Mateu, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of sanctions on cooperation depends on social and cultural norms. While free riding is kept at bay by altruistic punishment in certain cultures, antisocial punishment carried out by free riders pushes back cooperation in others. In this paper we analyze sanctions in both a standard public goods game with a linear production function and an otherwise identical social dilemma in which the minimum contribution determines the group outcome. Experiments were run in a culture with traditionally high antisocial punishment (Southern Europe). We replicate the detrimental effect of antisocial sanctions on cooperation in the linear case. However, we find that punishment is still widely effective when actions are complementary: the provision of the public good significantly and substantially increases with sanctions, participants punish significantly less and sanctions radically transform conditional cooperation patterns to generate significant welfare gains. PMID:25972793

  6. Stress and coping in fathers of newborns: comparisons of planned versus unplanned pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clinton, J F; Kelber, S T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to identify stresses and coping styles in fathers of newborns, and to explore if these vary according to pregnancy planning. Data from 69 subjects were collected using the Ireton Personal Inventory and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. The most common and least often sources of stress or worry were reported. Fathers' predominant mode of coping was problem oriented. Compared to fathers with planned pregnancies, fathers with unplanned pregnancies were found to be significantly more stressed about numerous issues as well as feeling powerless in adapting to the arrival of a new infant. Implications for practice and research are explored. PMID:8225809

  7. Early Identification and Treatment of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. PMID:27565364

  8. Intergenerational and partner influences on fathers' negative discipline.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kerr, David C R; Owen, Lee D

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found significant but relatively modest associations in parenting across generations, suggesting additional influences on parenting beyond experiences in the family of origin. The present prospective, cross-generational study of at-risk men (Oregon Youth Study) focuses on fathers' negative discipline practices with their 2- to 3-year-old children. The theoretical model is based on a dynamic developmental systems approach to problematic family functioning, which points to the importance of developmental systems, including family risk context and key influential social interactional systems, and emphasizes influence that is directly pertinent to the outcome of interest. Path modeling indicated that the men's poor and harsh discipline practices were predicted by partners' problem behavior (substance use and antisocial behavior) and negative discipline practices, as well as by poor discipline experienced in the family of origin; men's own problem behavior, ages at which they became fathers, and family socioeconomic status were controlled. Findings indicate the importance of focusing on influence dynamics across parents.

  9. Corporal punishment and the growth trajectory of children's antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2005-08-01

    Despite considerable research, the relationship between corporal punishment and antisocial behavior is unclear. This analysis examined (a) the functional form of this relationship, (b) the correlation of initial antisocial behavior and changes in antisocial behavior, (c) differences in the relationship of corporal punishment and antisocial behavior by race, and (d) whether this relationship could be accounted for by unmeasured characteristics of children and their families. Data from 6,912 children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed using hierarchical linear models. Findings suggested that corporal punishment has a relationship with children's initial antisocial behavior and with changes in antisocial behavior. No evidence was found for differences in the effect of corporal punishment across racial groups. The relationship between corporal punishment and antisocial behavior persists even when accounting for unmeasured time invariant characteristics of children and families. The findings suggest that corporal punishment is not a preferable technique for disciplining children.

  10. The Father's Impact on Mother and Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, Alison

    This study investigates the father's contribution to child development in the context of a triadic family constellation, integrating data that parallel previous investigations of fathers: differences in children's behavior to mother and father, differences in mothers' and fathers' behavior to the child, and correlations between parental and child…

  11. IMPACT OF FATHERS' ALCOHOLISM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PARENT-INFANT ATTACHMENT STABILITY FROM 12 TO 18 MONTHS.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Eiden, Rina D; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2004-11-01

    This study examined short-term attachment stability and sought to identify predictors of stability and change within a sample characterized by fathers' alcoholism. Results suggest moderate stability of attachment classifications (60% for mothers, 53% for fathers) from 12 to 18 months. Higher paternal and maternal alcohol symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal antisocial behavior were found in families with stable insecure mother-infant attachment compared to those who were stable secure. Mother-infant stable insecurity was associated with higher levels of maternal negative affect expression during play. Father-infant stable insecurity was associated with lower levels of paternal positive affect expression and decreased sensitivity during play. Stable insecure children also had higher levels of negative affect during parent-infant interactions and higher negative emotionality during other episodes compared to stable secure children. Results indicate that infants who were insecure at both time points had the highest constellation of family risk characteristics.

  12. The Father Involvement and Nurturant Fathering Scales: Retrospective Measures for Adolescent and Adult Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Gordon E.; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides preliminary psychometric data for two fathering measures, the existing Nurturant Fathering Scale and the newly developed Father Involvement Scale. Both measures are completed from the adolescent or adult child's retrospective point of view. The Nurturant Fathering Scale assesses the affective quality of fathering that young…

  13. Antisocial Behavior and Affiliation With Deviant Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Urberg, Kathryn A.; Heinze, Hillary J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the associations among gender, antisocial behavior, and peer-group affiliation in a high-risk sample of 401 homeless and matched housed adolescents (139 boys and 262 girls). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (Version 2.3, 1991; Costello, Edelbrock, Kalas, Kessler, & Klaric, 1982) yielded 2 measures of adolescent antisocial…

  14. Young Infants Prefer Prosocial to Antisocial Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, J. Kiley; Wynn, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The current study replicates and extends the finding (Hamlin, Wynn & Bloom, 2007) that infants prefer individuals who act prosocially toward unrelated third parties over those who act antisocially. Using different stimuli from those used by Hamlin et al. (2007), somewhat younger subjects, and 2 additional social scenarios, we replicated the…

  15. Mediation of Sensation Seeking and Behavioral Inhibition on the Relationship between Heart Rate and Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expected that the relationship between HR and…

  16. Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Criterion-Related Validity and Relationship to the BIS/BAS and Five-Factor Models of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Scott R.; Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Thompson, Angela; Thurston, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that includes interpersonal-affective and antisocial deviance features. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) contains two underlying factors (fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality) that may differentially tap these two sets of features. In a mixed-gender sample of undergraduates and prisoners,…

  17. Interaction between Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin Receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B), may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism’s heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. Methods We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC) group (n = 120) and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC) group (n = 153)] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Conclusion Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan’s Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism. PMID:22550993

  18. [Dis-social personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

    2006-05-01

    Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary.

  19. "The Father Says No?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In order to account for several puzzling, if not inexplicable, things that happened to the author while researching the life and times of Wovoka, also known as Jack Wilson, 1890 Ghost Dance prophet, he proposes the neologism "extraordinary personal experience" (EPE). An EPE, simply put, references events and circumstances that occur during and…

  20. Evidence for Association Between Low Frequency Variants in CHRNA6/CHRNB3 and Antisocial Drug Dependence.

    PubMed

    Kamens, Helen M; Corley, Robin P; Richmond, Phillip A; Darlington, Todd M; Dowell, Robin; Hopfer, Christian J; Stallings, Michael C; Hewitt, John K; Brown, Sandra A; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2016-09-01

    Common SNPs in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRN genes) have been associated with drug behaviors and personality traits, but the influence of rare genetic variants is not well characterized. The goal of this project was to identify novel rare variants in CHRN genes in the Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) and Genetics of Antisocial Drug Dependence (GADD) samples and to determine if low frequency variants are associated with antisocial drug dependence. Two samples of 114 and 200 individuals were selected using a case/control design including the tails of the phenotypic distribution of antisocial drug dependence. The capture, sequencing, and analysis of all variants in 16 CHRN genes (CHRNA1-7, 9, 10, CHRNB1-4, CHRND, CHRNG, CHRNE) were performed independently for each subject in each sample. Sequencing reads were aligned to the human reference sequence using BWA prior to variant calling with the Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK). Low frequency variants (minor allele frequency < 0.05) were analyzed using SKAT-O and C-alpha to examine the distribution of rare variants among cases and controls. In our larger sample, the region containing the CHRNA6/CHRNB3 gene cluster was significantly associated with disease status using both SKAT-O and C-alpha (unadjusted p values <0.05). More low frequency variants in the CHRNA6/CHRNB3 gene region were observed in cases compared to controls. These data support a role for genetic variants in CHRN genes and antisocial drug behaviors.

  1. Personality.

    PubMed

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  2. Personalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…

  3. Disentangling the relative contribution of parental antisociality and family discord to child disruptive disorders.

    PubMed

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention.

  4. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  5. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    CALKINS, SUSAN D.; KEANE, SUSAN P.

    2009-01-01

    Early antisocial behavior has its origins in childhood behavior problems, particularly those characterized by aggressive and destructive behavior. Deficits in self-regulation across multiple domains of functioning, from the physiological to the cognitive, are associated with early behavior problems, and may place children at greater risk for the development of later antisocial behavior. Data are presented from a longitudinal study of early self-regulation and behavior problems, the RIGHT Track Research Project, demonstrating that children at greatest risk for early and persistent problem behavior display patterns of physiological and emotional regulation deficits early in life. Parenting behavior and functioning have also been examined as predictors of trajectories of early problem behavior, and some data support the interaction of parenting and self-regulation as significant predictors of patterns of problematic behavior and ongoing problems with the regulation of affect. Peer relationships also affect and are affected by early self-regulation skills, and both may play a role in academic performance and subsequent school success. These data provide evidence that the social contexts of early family and peer relationships are important moderators of the more proximal mechanism of self-regulation, and both types of processes, social and biobehavioral, are likely implicated in early antisocial tendencies. Implications of these findings on self-regulation and early behavior problems are discussed in terms of future research and treatment approaches. PMID:19825259

  6. Fathers' Frightening Behaviours and Sensitivity with Infants: Relations with Fathers' Attachment Representations, Father-Infant Attachment, and Children's Later Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Nancy L.; McFarland, Laura; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 125 families investigated whether negative child outcomes related to fathers' frightening (FR) behaviours with infants would be mitigated if fathers were also sensitive. Results indicated that children whose fathers were frightening and insensitive with them during infancy showed the highest emotional under-regulation at…

  7. Comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity and mental health service utilization by female inmates: testing the worst of both worlds hypothesis with the PAI.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Magaletta, Philip R

    2015-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether female inmates with comorbid proclivity for antisocial behavior and substance misuse, as measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 2007), use more mental health-related services than female inmates with either antisocial or substance misuse proclivity alone. A second purpose was to determine whether the effect of comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity on mental health service utilization is cumulative or interactive. In a survey of 421 female federal prison inmates, it was noted that proclivity for both antisocial behavior and substance misuse was associated with significantly greater subsequent use of mental health services in female inmates than either proclivity alone, even after preexisting mental health diagnoses and treatment were controlled. In addition, the effect was additive rather than interactive. These findings provide further support for the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis, which holds that comorbid antisocial and substance involvement/proclivity portend poorer future outcomes than either antisocial or substance involvement/proclivity alone. The implications of these results for development of a comprehensive training model that provides mental health professionals with the skills to properly screen and effectively treat female inmates are discussed, along with the need to clarify the theory behind the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis.

  8. Father's Alcoholism and Children's Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lee N.; And Others

    This paper presents some results from a group of St. Louis born black males aged 31-36 who were systematically interviewed during the year 1965-66. The sample in this report is deemed a high risk population because the fathers are at very high risk for alcoholism and the children are at high risk for unfavorable school and legal outcomes…

  9. Nonresident Fathering and School Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menning, Chadwick L.

    2006-01-01

    Does involvement by nonresident fathers affect adolescents' propensity to remain in school? If so, is some involvement necessarily better than none, and are changes in involvement with time associated with changes in the odds of school failure? What aspects of involvement matter the most? This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study…

  10. Do Late Adolescent Fathers Have More Depressive Symptoms than Older Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Fagan, Jay; Chen, Wan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Although fathers are increasingly a focus of attention in research, there is a dearth of research on depressive symptoms among fathers, especially young fathers with toddlers. This study used longitudinal data to examine what risk factors, including the age status of fathers (e.g., late adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood), may be…

  11. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-12-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  12. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  13. Father Involvement in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Christine Winquist

    Until recently, fathers were the hidden parents in research on children's well-being. Research stimulated by the new interest in fathers suggests that fathers' involvement in their children's schools does make a difference in their children's education. Using data from the 1996 National Household Education Survey (NHES:96), this Digest looks at…

  14. Mandating Father Involvement: Implications for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillie, Timothy

    This paper examines issues concerning mandated father involvement with their children, especially as this involvement affects children with special needs. The paper examines four points: (1) the history of the status of fathers, how it has changed, and why father involvement is an issue; (2) current regulations at the federal level which…

  15. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  16. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of…

  17. Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S., Ed.; Cabrera, Natasha, Ed.

    Despite an unprecedented surge of research on fathers, progress in the study of father involvement generally occurs within rather than across disciplines. This handbook highlights the challenges facing researchers of father involvement across disciplines. Following an introduction, the chapters of the book are as follows: 1) "Methodological,…

  18. An Enriched Father and Son Combo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibulsky, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Recounts the experiences of an infant and his primary caregiver father. Focuses on the daily routines of the father and son and how the child benefited from having a highly nurturing father. Considers the conveniences of extra physical strength to do routine caregiving tasks and the variability among parents in their tolerance of their child's…

  19. Toward a new understanding of legacy of early attachments for future antisocial trajectories: evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2012-08-01

    Early parent-child attachment has been extensively explored as a contributor to children's future adaptive or antisocial outcomes, but the specific developmental mechanisms remain to be fully understood. We examined long-term indirect developmental sequelae of early security in two longitudinal community samples followed from infancy to early school age: the Family Study (102 mothers, fathers, and infants) and the Parent-Child Study (112 mothers and infants). Constructs at multiple levels (child characteristics, parent-child security, parental discipline, and child antisocial outcomes) were assessed using a range of methods (extensive behavioral observations in a variety of settings, informants' ratings). Both studies supported the proposed model of infant attachment as a potent catalyst that moderates future developmental socialization trajectories, despite having few long-term main effects. In insecure dyads, a pattern of coercion emerged between children who were anger prone as toddlers and their parents, resulting in parents' increased power-assertive discipline. Power assertion in turn predicted children's rule-breaking conduct and a compromised capacity to delay in laboratory paradigms, as well as oppositional, disruptive, callous, and aggressive behavior rated by parents and teachers at early school age. This causal chain was absent in secure dyads, where child anger proneness was unrelated to power assertion, and power assertion was unrelated to antisocial outcomes. Early insecurity appeared to act as a catalyst for the parent-child dyad embarking on a mutually adversarial path toward antisocial outcomes, whereas security defused such a maladaptive dynamic. The possible mechanisms of those effects were proposed.

  20. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Effective Communication of Spouse and Father-Child Relationship (Test Pattern Causes to Education Parents)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ataeifar, Robabeh; Amiri, Sholeh; Ali Nadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research is targeted with the plan of father-child model or effective relationship mediating of spouses or investigating attachment style, personality traits, communication skills, and spouses' sexual satisfaction. Based on this, 260 people (father and child) were selected through random sampling method based on share. Participants were…

  2. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  3. Anti-Social Behaviour: Children, Schools and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Under Prime Minister Tony Blair's New Labour government, increased criminalisation of previously non-criminal behaviour, anti-social behaviour and greater accountability of children and parents for their behaviour were evident. The article provides an overview of anti-social behaviour legislation and the implications for children, schools and…

  4. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  5. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  6. Towards a New Explicative Model of Antisocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justicia, Fernando; Benitez, Juan Luis; Pichardo, Maria Carmen; Fernandez, Eduardo; Fernandez, Trinidad Garcia y Maria

    2006-01-01

    Antisocial behavior has been the object of investigation in many studies seeking to establish its etiological factors as well as risk factors which help to perpetuate such behavior over the course of the individual's life. In this paper, we seek to classify and clarify risk factors underlying the origin and development of antisocial behaviors from…

  7. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  8. Low-income, nonresident fathers' coparenting with multiple mothers and relatives: Effects on fathering.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jay; Levine, Ethan Czuy; Kaufman, Rebecca; Hammar, Colin

    2016-09-01

    Low-income, nonresident fathers are often involved in complex coparenting networks that may involve multiple mothers, relatives, and other adults. However, the coparenting literature has often obscured this complexity through limiting attention to father-mother relationships. The current study used family systems theory to examine the effects of fathers' coparenting with mothers and relatives on fathers' parenting self-efficacy, father-child closeness, and father-child conflict. Predictors included the number of fathers' coparenting mothers and relatives, the quality of those coparenting relationships, and coparenting alliances specifically between fathers and the biological mother of a target child. Approximately 19% of a community sample of fathers (N = 401) reported more than 1 mother in their coparenting network, and 63% reported at least 1 relative. Overall, fathers who reported having more-cooperative coparenting relatives in their networks reported higher parenting self-efficacy and father-child closeness. We further noted a race or ethnicity interaction effect for closeness and conflict, such that having more-cooperative coparenting relatives was associated with increased closeness for non-Hispanic Black fathers but not for non-Hispanic White fathers. Amount of cooperation with coparenting relatives was associated with increased conflict for non-Hispanic Black fathers but not for Hispanic fathers. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27513285

  9. Punishment insensitivity and parenting: temperament and learning as interacting risks for antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Dadds, Mark R; Salmon, Karen

    2003-06-01

    We review ideas about individual differences in sensitivity or responsiveness to common disciplinary behaviors parents use to correct aggressive and antisocial behavior in children. At extremes, children may be seen as "punishment-insensitive," an heuristic with some value relevant to models of the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior disorders. Literature from diverse fields, such as psychopathy, child temperament, socialization and the development of moral conscience, conditioning theory, and personality theory, have all utilized the idea that humans differ in their sensitivity to aversive stimuli and the cues that signal their occurrence, as well as their ability to inhibit reward-driven behavior, in the presence of punishment cues. Contemporary thinking places these dispositions squarely as basic biological aspects of temperament that moderate the effects of the environment (e.g., parenting) on outcomes (e.g., mental health). We review a largely forgotten literature that shows clearly that sensitivity to punishment is also reliably influenced by the environment itself. An attempt is then made to model the interactional processes by which parenting and punishment sensitivities in children magnify or diminish each other's progress toward healthy or antisocial development. Implications for parenting of children with low responsiveness to punishment strategies are discussed.

  10. Unstructured Youth Recreation Centre Participation and Antisocial Behaviour Development: Selection Influences and the Moderating Role of Antisocial Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Stattin, Hakan; Lord, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This study involves a two-year longitudinal investigation of adolescent participation in unstructured youth recreation centres and the development of antisocial behaviour. Participants were 1163 adolescents who represented 92% of all eighth-grade students in the town of Orebro, Sweden, during the fall of 1999. Antisocial young people and those…

  11. Early Concern and Disregard for Others as Predictors of Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P.; Boeldt, Debra L.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John. K.; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Young, Susan E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prediction of antisocial behavior is important, given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and…

  12. Facilitating nurturant fathering behavior in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Novak, J C

    1990-09-01

    Many of the roles required of the father of a NICU infant are new and unfamiliar, difficult to carry out, unrehearsed, and yet called for in an unexpected crisis. At a time when they too need nurturing, fathers of high-risk infants are expected to adapt readily and be models of self-control. It is apparent from this investigation that the primary nurse is in a strategic position to assist the new father in his acquaintance with and early adjustment to his infant. Although some of the fathers will become actively involved with their children, others prefer less involvement in infant care taking and display minimal nurturant behaviors. A nurse must be able to recognize these differences and support a father's (and mother's) choice. A couple's sociocultural ideology and perceptions of the father's role, as well as the family dynamics and values, need to be given primary consideration in planning nursing care. In order for the nurse to fulfill an important teaching role for the fathers (parents) of NICU infants, the nurse must meet the needs of each individual father in relation to the family system. This requires systematic and nonjudgmental assessment and caring facilitation of paternal role development and early father-infant and father-mother-infant interactions.

  13. Cultural sensitivity and work with Latino teen fathers.

    PubMed

    Mena, M

    1989-01-01

    An understanding of basic historical and cultural concepts is a prerequisite to effective work with Latino teen fathers. The fundamental structure of the Latino family is especially important to consider in working toward solutions that are consistent with the young Latino father's cultural context. The Latino client's understanding of his personal needs is strongly linked to family concerns and pressures. Unlike the Anglo-American family, where linear movement toward increased individuation and independence is stressed, the Latino family model places a higher value on continued involvement in an extended family network. The Latino culture's familial orientation can be a strength, in that there are so many functionally connected people to form a supportive network, yet it can also present problems for service delivery because of the importance of loyalty and privacy in the family. Other important cultural values in the Latino community include the centrality of the father as a power figure and respect for the rights of others. Also essential is sensitivity to the Latino's personalized way of relating. Social workers have found that rapport can be established more readily with Latino males if self-disclosure is used to foster a personal connection. Given the power that young fathers have over the young mother's future plans, it is essential that they be included in family planning program design and outreach. Cultural sensitivity--a willingness to learn about, understand, and accept the social context of human behavior--must be a cornerstone of agency programs seeking to enlist the participation of young Latino males. PMID:12315501

  14. Bivariate Trajectories of Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior: Associations with Emerging Adult Outcomes in a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Trim, Ryan S.; Worley, Matthew J.; Wall, Tamara L.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Hewitt, John K.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and antisocial behavior are complex, interrelated behaviors. The current study identified model trajectory classes defined by concurrent substance use and antisocial behavior and examined trajectory associations with emerging adult outcomes. Participants from a high-risk sample of youth (n=536; 73% male) completed interviews at baseline (mean age= 16.1 years) and followup (mean age= 22.6 years). Latent class growth analyses identified five trajectory classes based on alcohol/drug use (AOD) and antisocial behavior (ASB): Dual Chronic, Increasing AOD/Persistent ASB, Persistent AOD/Adolescent ASB, Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB, and Resolved. Many individuals (56%) exhibited elevated/increasing AOD, and most (91%) reported ASB decreases. Those associated with the Dual Chronic class had the highest rates of substance dependence, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and negative psychosocial outcomes. There were no differences in adult role attainment across classes. Conjoint examination of these behaviors provides greater detail regarding clinical course and can inform secondary prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26889401

  15. Population density and youth antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol; Turkheimer, Eric; Rodgers, Joseph L; Waldman, Irwin D; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2009-08-01

    Theoretical models concerning how neighborhood contexts adversely influence juvenile antisocial behavior frequently focus on urban neighborhoods; however, previous studies comparing urban and rural areas on the prevalence of youth antisocial behavior have yielded mixed results. The current study uses longitudinal data on the offspring of a nationally representative sample of mothers (N = 4,886) in the US. There was no relation between density and mother-reported child conduct problems across ages 4-13 years, but youth living in areas of greater population density exhibited more youth self-reported delinquency across 10-17 years. Families often moved to counties with greater or lesser population density, but longitudinal analyses treating population density as a time-varying covariate did not support the hypothesis that living in densely populated counties influenced youth delinquency. Rather, the association between population density and delinquency appears to be due to unmeasured selection variables that differ between families who live in more or less densely populated counties.

  16. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  17. Adolescent fathers: an approach for intervention.

    PubMed

    Joshi, N P; Battle, S F

    1990-01-01

    Many myths exist concerning the needs and problems confronting adolescent fathers. Research on adolescent pregnancy has proliferated in the last decade. We now have a substantial body of empirically-based findings in this area. Unfortunately, few substantive findings are available on adolescent fathers, yet the magnitude of this problem has reached epidemic proportion. This article will provide an overview of current research on adolescent fathers and their needs and offer suggestions for appropriate intervention. PMID:10112200

  18. Adolescent fathers: an approach for intervention.

    PubMed

    Joshi, N P; Battle, S F

    1990-01-01

    Many myths exist concerning the needs and problems confronting adolescent fathers. Research on adolescent pregnancy has proliferated in the last decade. We now have a substantial body of empirically-based findings in this area. Unfortunately, few substantive findings are available on adolescent fathers, yet the magnitude of this problem has reached epidemic proportion. This article will provide an overview of current research on adolescent fathers and their needs and offer suggestions for appropriate intervention.

  19. [Fathers' childbirth experience and nursing interventions].

    PubMed

    Liukkonen, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the childbirth experience of fathers and nursing interventions used during labour and delivery. The data were collected by questionnaires from fathers attending delivery room during one month (n = 137). Five fathers refused to participate. The return rate was 81% out of 132 fathers. Data analysis included cross tabulations, factor analysis as well as content analysis for open ended questions. Nursing interventions which fathers found supportive were infant care, getting information and attention from the staff. Most of the respondents felt they got encouragement to take care of the infant. They also got information of the delivery and newborn's welfare. However, about half felt they got little encouragement to show their own feelings. Fathers found that being present at the delivery was an important part of their fatherhood. The best moments were attached to enjoyment of taking care of the newborn. Fathers felt themselves unable to help their partner enough. They felt very difficult to see their partner in pain. Most of the father were quite satisfied with nursing interventions used during labour. They wanted more attention to be paid to pain management. Fathers would like to get more advice during labour.

  20. Recognising Fathers: A National Survey of Fathers Who Have Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The "Recognising Fathers" research began in 2005 in response to hearing from mothers and fathers that fathers often felt marginalised in the process of arranging care and support for their children with learning disabilities. At the same time it was apparent that national family policy was indicating a growing recognition of the important…

  1. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  2. Giving Fathers a Voice: Towards Father Involvement in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely recognised that fathers can play a key role in the development and well-being of young children. In many cases, however, fathers still have limited involvement in the early years education of their children and their voices are as yet unheard. This study examined the beliefs and practices of Jordanian fathers of kindergarten…

  3. The Relationship between Academic Stress and Two Aspects of Father Involvement among University Student Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciadrelli, Brian P.; Milardo, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between academic stress experienced by university student fathers and the behavioral and cognitive involvement these fathers had with their children. Fifty-three fathers enrolled in university classes and residing with at least one child less than 12 years of age responded to questionnaire measures of…

  4. Aggravation and Stress in Parenting: Associations with Coparenting and Father Engagement among Resident Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison; Carrano, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a sample of 2,139 resident biological fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing surveys (baseline and 12-month follow-up), to examine whether paternal aggravation and stress in parenting is associated with father engagement and coparenting and whether this association differs by father's socioeconomic status. Results of…

  5. Father Involvement with Three-to-Four-Year Olds at Home: Giving Fathers a Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betawi, Iman Amy; Abdel Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil; AL Jabery, Mohammad. A.; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim; Al-Shboul, Muhannad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined fathers' perceptions regarding their home-based activities (HBA) and the influence of fathers' demographic characteristics on their perceptions and practices at home. A total of 396 fathers completed a survey questionnaire describing their demographic information, perceptions and their practices regarding their…

  6. Building Blocks for Father Involvement: Building Block 1--Appreciating How Fathers Give Children a Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, Head Start Bureau, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, leading child psychologist Michael E. Lamb reminded us that fathers are the "forgotten contributors to child development." Since then, much work has been done to explore the ways fathers uniquely contribute to the healthy development of their children. Scholars now know that boys and girls who grow up with an involved father,…

  7. Commentary: personality disorders and criminal law.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The history of the personality-disorder diagnosis in law and psychiatry-in particular, the antisocial personality disorder-is recounted along with the arguments of renowned forensic psychiatrists as well as public opinion. Jurisdictions around the world are divided on the impact of the diagnosis on criminal responsibility or on sentencing.

  8. Mothers' and fathers' differential expectancies and behaviors: parent x child gender effects.

    PubMed

    Moon, Michelle; Hoffman, Charles D

    2008-09-01

    In 3 studies using 6 subscales, the authors investigated (a) others' parenting expectancies for mothers and fathers and (b) parents' reports of the frequency of their parenting behaviors with their 3- to 6-year-old sons and daughters. Mothers rated higher for physical care and emotional support than did fathers, and mothers reported engaging in the parenting behaviors assessed more frequently than did fathers across subscales. In each study, the authors obtained Parent x Child Gender interactions only for personal-interaction parenting (e.g., hugging their child) and found the lowest scores for fathers with daughters. These findings and the relations between parents' ratings of appropriateness and of their own behaviors support the view that gender-based expectancies prescribe gender differences in parenting. PMID:18788327

  9. Antisocial sport behaviors survey: instrument development and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Miranda P; Hoar, Sharleen

    2015-04-01

    The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.

  10. Age differences in the impact of employment on antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    While research suggests that working more than 20 hr weekly is associated with greater antisocial behavior among middle- and upper-class youth, some have argued that employment benefits at-risk youth and leads to desistance from crime among youthful offenders. This study investigates the relation between hours worked, school attendance, and employment characteristics on antisocial behavior in a sample of approximately 1,300 juvenile offenders (ages 14-17 at baseline) tracked over 5 years. The combinations of high-intensity employment and irregular school attendance, unemployment and irregular school attendance, and unemployment and not being enrolled in school are associated with significantly greater antisocial behavior, particularly during early adolescence. High-intensity employment diminishes antisocial behavior only when accompanied by attending school. PMID:23278700

  11. School factors as moderators of the relationship between physical child abuse and pathways of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-03-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ), which are hypothesized to change the course of antisocial behavior from childhood into the adult years. Results show an association between physical child abuse and early antisocial behavior. Early antisocial behavior predicts antisocial behavior in adolescence, and that, in turn, predicts antisocial behavior in adulthood. Child IQ moderated the relationship between child physical abuse and antisocial behavior in childhood. However, no other moderation effects were observed. Limitations and implications for future research and prevention are discussed.

  12. Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: A latent variable approach

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation program in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours, and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Results Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 8 genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all 8 genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid, and cholinergic signaling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. Conclusions This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential “co-action” of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the etiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may

  13. Genetic risks and ADHD symptomatology: exploring the effects of parental antisocial behaviors in an adoption-based study.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Nedelec, Joseph L; Rowland, Meghan W; Schwartz, Joseph A

    2012-04-01

    A great deal of research has examined the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptomatologies. Genetic factors are consistently shown to explain a significant proportion of variance in measures of ADHD. The current study adds to this body of research by examining whether genetic liabilities for criminality and alcoholism have effects on the development of ADHD symptomatologies. Analyses based on a sample of adoptees drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed that ADHD symptomatologies were elevated among adoptees who had biological mothers and fathers who had been arrested or who were alcoholics. These results suggest that part of the covariation between ADHD and antisocial behaviors may be the result of genetic factors that have general effects across a range of maladaptive outcomes.

  14. Fathers' Involvement in Their Children's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Christine Winquist; And Others

    Noting the relatively few studies that have examined the individual contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling, this study examined the extent to which resident (excluding foster) and nonresident fathers are involved in their children's schools, and the influence their involvement has on how their children are doing…

  15. Social Fathers and Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bzostek, Sharon H.

    2008-01-01

    Many young children born to unwed parents currently live with their biological mothers and their mothers' new partners (social fathers). This study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (N = 1,350) to assess whether involvement by resident social fathers is as beneficial for child well-being as involvement by resident…

  16. 76 FR 36853 - Father's Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-15780 Filed 6-21-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... June 22, 2011 Part VI The President Proclamation 8690--Father's Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8690 of June 17, 2011 Father's Day, 2011...

  17. 75 FR 35947 - Father's Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-15403 Filed 6-22-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Proclamation 8537--Father's Day, 2010 Proclamation 8538--World Refugee Day, 2010 Memorandum of June 18, 2010... ] Proclamation 8537 of June 18, 2010 Father's Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America...

  18. "I Know Your Father Very, Very Well"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Brian L., II

    2012-01-01

    Many a young boy wishes to grow up to be like his father someday. The author's father, Brian L. Talbott, was named superintendent of Educational Service District 105 in Yakima, Washington, the same year he entered 1st grade. He continued in this position through his elementary years. His stomping grounds changed during the summer between 6th and…

  19. Adult responses to child behavior and attitudes toward fathering: gay and nongay fathers.

    PubMed

    Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B

    1992-01-01

    This study examines gay and nongay fathers' responses to instruments measuring parenting style and orientation to the fathering role. Fifty-three respondents (24 gay and 29 nongay fathers) completed two surveys, and responses to each were analyzed. Both groups of fathers were found to have a developmental orientation toward their role as fathers, and no discernible parenting style could be found to distinguish one group from the other. Thus, gay and nongay fathers were found to be more similar than different with regard to parenting styles and attitudes toward fathering. This finding supports previous work (Bigner & Jacobsen, 1989a, 1989b) and expands the available knowledge based on the parenting styles of homosexual parents.

  20. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems. PMID:25218772

  1. Paths from Mother-Child and Father-Child Relationships to Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Differing in Electrodermal Reactivity: a Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Age 10

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L.; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children’s SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children’s SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N=81), as a moderator of the links between parent–child socialization history and children’s externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent–child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers’ power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems. PMID:25218772

  2. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems.

  3. Father's brain is sensitive to childcare experiences

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Eyal; Hendler, Talma; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Although contemporary socio-cultural changes dramatically increased fathers' involvement in childrearing, little is known about the brain basis of human fatherhood, its comparability with the maternal brain, and its sensitivity to caregiving experiences. We measured parental brain response to infant stimuli using functional MRI, oxytocin, and parenting behavior in three groups of parents (n = 89) raising their firstborn infant: heterosexual primary-caregiving mothers (PC-Mothers), heterosexual secondary-caregiving fathers (SC-Fathers), and primary-caregiving homosexual fathers (PC-Fathers) rearing infants without maternal involvement. Results revealed that parenting implemented a global “parental caregiving” neural network, mainly consistent across parents, which integrated functioning of two systems: the emotional processing network including subcortical and paralimbic structures associated with vigilance, salience, reward, and motivation, and mentalizing network involving frontopolar-medial-prefrontal and temporo-parietal circuits implicated in social understanding and cognitive empathy. These networks work in concert to imbue infant care with emotional salience, attune with the infant state, and plan adequate parenting. PC-Mothers showed greater activation in emotion processing structures, correlated with oxytocin and parent-infant synchrony, whereas SC-Fathers displayed greater activation in cortical circuits, associated with oxytocin and parenting. PC-Fathers exhibited high amygdala activation similar to PC-Mothers, alongside high activation of superior temporal sulcus (STS) comparable to SC-Fathers, and functional connectivity between amygdala and STS. Among all fathers, time spent in direct childcare was linked with the degree of amygdala-STS connectivity. Findings underscore the common neural basis of maternal and paternal care, chart brain–hormone–behavior pathways that support parenthood, and specify mechanisms of brain malleability with

  4. Father's brain is sensitive to childcare experiences.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eyal; Hendler, Talma; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-07-01

    Although contemporary socio-cultural changes dramatically increased fathers' involvement in childrearing, little is known about the brain basis of human fatherhood, its comparability with the maternal brain, and its sensitivity to caregiving experiences. We measured parental brain response to infant stimuli using functional MRI, oxytocin, and parenting behavior in three groups of parents (n = 89) raising their firstborn infant: heterosexual primary-caregiving mothers (PC-Mothers), heterosexual secondary-caregiving fathers (SC-Fathers), and primary-caregiving homosexual fathers (PC-Fathers) rearing infants without maternal involvement. Results revealed that parenting implemented a global "parental caregiving" neural network, mainly consistent across parents, which integrated functioning of two systems: the emotional processing network including subcortical and paralimbic structures associated with vigilance, salience, reward, and motivation, and mentalizing network involving frontopolar-medial-prefrontal and temporo-parietal circuits implicated in social understanding and cognitive empathy. These networks work in concert to imbue infant care with emotional salience, attune with the infant state, and plan adequate parenting. PC-Mothers showed greater activation in emotion processing structures, correlated with oxytocin and parent-infant synchrony, whereas SC-Fathers displayed greater activation in cortical circuits, associated with oxytocin and parenting. PC-Fathers exhibited high amygdala activation similar to PC-Mothers, alongside high activation of superior temporal sulcus (STS) comparable to SC-Fathers, and functional connectivity between amygdala and STS. Among all fathers, time spent in direct childcare was linked with the degree of amygdala-STS connectivity. Findings underscore the common neural basis of maternal and paternal care, chart brain-hormone-behavior pathways that support parenthood, and specify mechanisms of brain malleability with caregiving

  5. Neural connectivity during reward expectation dissociates psychopathic criminals from non-criminal individuals with high impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Dirk E M; von Borries, Katinka; Volman, Inge; Bulten, Berend Hendrik; Cools, Roshan; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2016-08-01

    Criminal behaviour poses a big challenge for society. A thorough understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying criminality could optimize its prevention and management. Specifically,elucidating the neural mechanisms underpinning reward expectation might be pivotal to understanding criminal behaviour. So far no study has assessed reward expectation and its mechanisms in a criminal sample. To fill this gap, we assessed reward expectation in incarcerated, psychopathic criminals. We compared this group to two groups of non-criminal individuals: one with high levels and another with low levels of impulsive/antisocial traits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify neural responses to reward expectancy. Psychophysiological interaction analyses were performed to examine differences in functional connectivity patterns of reward-related regions. The data suggest that overt criminality is characterized, not by abnormal reward expectation per se, but rather by enhanced communication between reward-related striatal regions and frontal brain regions. We establish that incarcerated psychopathic criminals can be dissociated from non-criminal individuals with comparable impulsive/antisocial personality tendencies based on the degree to which reward-related brain regions interact with brain regions that control behaviour. The present results help us understand why some people act according to their impulsive/antisocial personality while others are able to behave adaptively despite reward-related urges. PMID:27217111

  6. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood and Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment over Three-Year Follow-Up: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, but more help seeking, for alcohol use disorders (AUDs); however, associations of ASPD with AUD treatment in the general population have not been studied prospectively. Objective To examine prediction of treatment over 3-year follow-up among adults with AUDs by baseline ASPD and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Method Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 respondents to the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, of whom 3875 had prevalent AUDs between Waves 1 and 2 and ASPD, AABS, or no antisocial syndrome at Wave 1. Results In unadjusted analyses, baseline ASPD predicted AUD treatment but AABS did not. After adjustment for additional need, predisposing, and enabling factors, antisocial syndromes did not predict treatment. Baseline predictors of treatment included more past-year AUD symptoms, and past-year nicotine dependence and AUD treatment. Conclusions That baseline antisocial syndrome did not predict AUD treatment may reflect strong associations of antisociality with previously identified predictors of help seeking. PMID:20838468

  7. PARENTAL FAMILISM AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIORS: DEVELOPMENT, GENDER AND POTENTIAL MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) with youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method Sample: Puerto Rican children aged 5-13 years at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n=1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas, Puerto Rico (n=1,353) and followed up over 2 waves one year apart from 2000 to 2003. Measures Parental familism was assessed using an adaptation of Sabogal’s Familism Scale. Level of youth past year antisocial behaviors was measured by the antisocial behavior index (ASBI). The association between familism and ASBI over three waves was examined through mixed models stratified by age and gender, adjusted by site (South Bronx or San Juan), propensity scores reflecting site differences in family income, maternal age and education, plus environmental and child risk factors. Specific family processes were examined as potential mediators. Results Parental familism was protective against antisocial behaviors among girls [estimate(SE)=-0.11(0.03), p<0.001 for 5-9 year-old; estimate(SE)=-0.15(0.03), p<0.0001 for 10 or older]. For boys, parental familism was only protective among 5-9 year-olds [estimate (SE) =-0.09(0.03), p=0.0008]. The protective effect of parental familism on antisocial behaviors operated mostly through parent-child relationships for 5-9 year old children and parental attitudes/behaviors towards youth high-risk behaviors for both age groups. Conclusions Familism may protect youth against increasing levels of antisocial behaviors (except for boys who are 10 years or older). Incorporating familism as part of therapeutic approaches addressing antisocial behaviors for youth may be helpful. PMID:21515196

  8. Father regression. Clinical narratives and theoretical reflections.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth

    2006-08-01

    The author deals with love-hate enthrallment and submission to a primitive paternal object. This is a father-son relationship that extends through increasing degrees of 'primitiveness' or extremeness, and is illustrated through three different constellations that constitute a continuum. One pole of the continuum encompasses certain male patients who show a loving, de-individuated connection to a father experienced as trustworthy, soft, and in need of protection. Further along the continuum is the case of a transsexual patient whose analysis revealed an intense 'God-transference', a bondage to an idealized, feared, and ostensibly protective father-God introject. A great part of this patient's analysis consisted in a fierce struggle to liberate himself from this figure. The other end of the continuum is occupied by religious terrorists, who exemplify the most radical thralldom to a persecutory, godly object, a regressive submission that banishes woman and enthrones a cruel superego, and that ends in destruction and self-destruction. Psychoanalytic thinking has traditionally dealt with the oedipal father and recently with the nurturing father, but there is a gap in thinking about the phallic, archaic father, and his relations with his son(s). The author aims at filling this gap, at the same time as she also raises the very question of 'What is a father?' linking it with literary and religious themes. PMID:16877249

  9. Bender Gestalt Signs and Anti-Social Acting Out Tendencies in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Benowity, Martin L.

    1975-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between performance on the Bender-Gestalt test and antisocial acting out tendencies in adolescents. Results indicate that uneven figure size and exaggerated curvature are the best indicators of antisocial acting out tendencies. (Author)

  10. Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

  11. Antisocial pool rewarding does not deter public cooperation.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-10-01

    Rewarding cooperation is in many ways expected behaviour from social players. However, strategies that promote antisocial behaviour are also surprisingly common, not just in human societies, but also among eusocial insects and bacteria. Examples include sanctioning of individuals who behave prosocially, or rewarding of free-riders who do not contribute to collective enterprises. We therefore study the public goods game with antisocial and prosocial pool rewarding in order to determine the potential negative consequences on the effectiveness of positive incentives to promote cooperation. Contrary to a naive expectation, we show that the ability of defectors to distribute rewards to their like does not deter public cooperation as long as cooperators are able to do the same. Even in the presence of antisocial rewarding, the spatial selection for cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas is enhanced. Since the administration of rewards to either strategy requires a considerable degree of aggregation, cooperators can enjoy the benefits of their prosocial contributions as well as the corresponding rewards. Defectors when aggregated, on the other hand, can enjoy antisocial rewards, but due to their lack of contributions to the public good they ultimately succumb to their inherent inability to secure a sustainable future. Strategies that facilitate the aggregation of akin players, even if they seek to promote antisocial behaviour, thus always enhance the long-term benefits of cooperation. PMID:26400746

  12. Antisocial pool rewarding does not deter public cooperation.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-10-01

    Rewarding cooperation is in many ways expected behaviour from social players. However, strategies that promote antisocial behaviour are also surprisingly common, not just in human societies, but also among eusocial insects and bacteria. Examples include sanctioning of individuals who behave prosocially, or rewarding of free-riders who do not contribute to collective enterprises. We therefore study the public goods game with antisocial and prosocial pool rewarding in order to determine the potential negative consequences on the effectiveness of positive incentives to promote cooperation. Contrary to a naive expectation, we show that the ability of defectors to distribute rewards to their like does not deter public cooperation as long as cooperators are able to do the same. Even in the presence of antisocial rewarding, the spatial selection for cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas is enhanced. Since the administration of rewards to either strategy requires a considerable degree of aggregation, cooperators can enjoy the benefits of their prosocial contributions as well as the corresponding rewards. Defectors when aggregated, on the other hand, can enjoy antisocial rewards, but due to their lack of contributions to the public good they ultimately succumb to their inherent inability to secure a sustainable future. Strategies that facilitate the aggregation of akin players, even if they seek to promote antisocial behaviour, thus always enhance the long-term benefits of cooperation.

  13. Male Chauvinism in Colonial America: Attitudes of Some of our Founding Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, John L.

    1979-01-01

    Takes exception to the general historical presentation of the founding fathers as individuals possessing a collective eighteenth century liberalism regarding women's rights. Presents case studies of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams as persons who practiced male chauvinism. Also presents a case study of Thomas Paine, who favored…

  14. Re:Membering Fatherhood: Evaluating the Impact of a Group Intervention on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Colvin, Geordie; Popova, Svetlana; Regehr, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The Re:Membering Fatherhood Program is designed for men wanting to address and improve their fathering experience. The primary focus is to enhance the personal parenting capacity of each individual, not to develop or inculcate a specific set of parenting skills. This exploratory study evaluated the efficacy of an eight-week, manualized…

  15. Exploring Transactions between Thriving Toddler Girls and Their Fathers and Grandfathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; Pinto, Giuliana; Hancock, Roger; Tapanya, Sombat

    2014-01-01

    Fathers' interactions with their young children are understudied. Variations between families in the masculine nurturance of toddlers can be expected, depending on personal characteristics, gender, family structures, and cultural contexts in which they are situated. This is a qualitative study, focusing on probing the nature of the exchanges…

  16. Perceptions of Father Involvement among Turkish Fathers with Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare father involvement among fathers with children in pre-school in terms of their status of having only one or more than one child. The study sample consisted of fathers of 3-5 year-old children who were enrolled in pre-schools in the district of Altieylül, Balikesir. Data pertaining to the involvement of…

  17. The Hen or the Egg? Which Comes First--Antisocial Emotional Disorders or Reading Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Paquita

    1979-01-01

    The sequential relationship of antisocial emotional disorders and reading difficulties was examined in a longitudinal study of 198 boys in their first two years in school. Antisocial deviance was shown to precede reading difficulties, calling into question the suggestion that reading backwardness leads to antisocial emotional disorders. (Author/KC)

  18. Heterogeneity in Antisocial Behaviours and Comorbidity with Depressed Mood: A Behavioural Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.; Hosang, Georgina M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour is often comorbid with depressed mood but is itself a collection of heterogeneous behaviours. Using a genetically informative design, we examine heterogeneity in antisocial behaviour and overlaps between different forms of antisocial behaviour with depressed mood. Methods: Data were drawn from the G1219 large-scale…

  19. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  20. Teen Childbearing, Single Parenthood, and Father Involvement

    MedlinePlus

    ... SINGLE PARENTHOOD, AND FATHER INVOLVEMENT By Alison Stewart Ng and Kelleen Kaye Reducing teen pregnancy can improve ... is absent. 20 About the Authors Alison Stewart Ng is a Research Assistant and Kelleen Kaye is ...

  1. Profiles of disciplinary behaviors among biological fathers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Kim, Jinseok; Taylor, Catherine A; Perron, Brian E

    2011-02-01

    This study assesses fathers' discipline of their 3-year-old child. Data are from 1,238 mother and father participants in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Latent class analysis (LCA) of nonaggressive and aggressive behaviors, as reported by mothers, indicated four distinct paternal disciplinary profiles: low discipline, low aggression, moderate physical aggression, and high physical and psychological aggression. Serious forms of psychological aggression directed toward the child were uncommon but may identify those fathers most in need of intervention. Use of nonaggressive discipline was high and nearly equivalent among the parenting profiles. However, child aggressive behavior increased as the child's exposure to paternal aggression increased, even when aggressive discipline was combined with high levels of nonaggressive discipline. Fathers who exhibited more aggression toward their child had higher levels of alcohol use, used more psychological aggression toward the child's mother, and were more likely to spank their child.

  2. Supporting fathers in the transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Halle, Claire; Dowd, Toni; Fowler, Cathrine; Rissel, Karin; Hennessy, Kathy; MacNevin, Regina; Nelson, Marie Ann

    2008-12-01

    Knowledge of the experience of parenthood is usually from a woman's perspective. The resulting outcome is that knowledge about the experience of fatherhood has been limited. Fathers are starting to change this situation by sharing their experience as is evidenced by the overall response of 267 fathers to this study. This paper focuses on the exploration of 22 men's feelings and beliefs about fatherhood; and their expectations and views about parenting. The paper will also investigate how fathers' antenatal expectations matched the reality of early family life including emotional well-being, attitudes to parenting, adjustment to family life and sources of support. The quantitative and qualitative data of the 22 fathers who responded to both the antenatal and postnatal questionnaires used within this paper are drawn from a larger Queensland survey of women and men during the antenatal and postnatal period.

  3. How Involved Are Fathers in Their Children's Schools? Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Christine Winquist

    Until recently fathers were the hidden parents in research on children's well-being. Research stimulated by the new interest in fathers suggests that fathers' involvement in their children's schools does make a difference in their children's education. This issue brief looks at the extent to which fathers are involved in their kindergartners'…

  4. Neighborhood Disorder and Paternal Involvement of Nonresident and Resident Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Saijun; Fuller, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Using data of 775 nonresident father families and 1,407 resident father families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined whether neighborhood disorder was associated with fathers' supportive involvement in child care. Bivariate analysis indicated that mothers and children of nonresident father families were more…

  5. Fathers, Families, and the Future: A Plethora of Plausible Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.

    2004-01-01

    This commentary focuses on new directions in the study of fathers and families. Several topics that are ripe for more theoretical and empirical scrutiny are outlined. These include the biological determinants of fathering, cultural constraints on fathers, the impact of becoming a father on men?s development as adults, and an intergenerational…

  6. Self-concept and anxiety of adolescent and adult fathers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B E; Barret, R L

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the age of unmarried fathers and their self-concept and anxiety level. A total of 24 unmarried fathers (12 adolescents and 12 adults) comprised the sample. No significant differences were found between adolescent and adult fathers on self-concept or anxiety level. Findings are discussed with regard to the current status of research on adolescent fathers.

  7. Understanding Differences in Fathering Activities across Race and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Jeffrey K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differences in self-reported fathering activities of men who were reported to be a residential biological father or father figure. Specifically, this study examines self-reported fathering activities which include physical play activities, social skills activities, cognitive activities, and caregiving activities across…

  8. The Effect of Parenting Stress on Fathers' Availability and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halme, Nina; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu; Nummi, Tapio; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to shed light on the relation between parenting stress, father's alcohol use, child characteristics and father's engagement and availability. The study cohort comprised 821 fathers of preschool children in Finland. Parenting stress and child's mood, acceptability and demandingness were related to father's engagement…

  9. Expectant fathers at risk for couvade.

    PubMed

    Clinton, J F

    1986-01-01

    A repeated measures survey design was used to monitor the physical and emotional health of 81 expectant fathers at lunar month intervals throughout their partners' pregnancy and the early postpartum period. The data set consisted of 515 repeated measures. The backward elimination regression procedure was used to identify six factors that partially explained health events experienced by expectant fathers: affective involvement in pregnancy, number of previous children, income, ethnic identity, perceived stress, and recent health prior to expectant fatherhood.

  10. The evolution of antisocial punishment in optional public goods games.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation, where one individual incurs a cost to help another, is a fundamental building block of the natural world and human society. It has been suggested that costly punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, with the threat of punishment deterring free-riders. Recent experiments, however, have revealed the existence of 'antisocial' punishment, where non-cooperators punish cooperators. While various theoretical models find that punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, these models a priori exclude the possibility of antisocial punishment. Here we extend the standard theory of optional public goods games to include the full set of punishment strategies. We find that punishment no longer increases cooperation, and that selection favours substantial levels of antisocial punishment for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we conduct behavioural experiments, showing results consistent with our model predictions. As opposed to an altruistic act that promotes cooperation, punishment is mostly a self-interested tool for protecting oneself against potential competitors.

  11. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct.

    PubMed

    Tamatea, Armon J

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined.

  12. Antisociality, underarousal and the validity of the Concealed Information Polygraph Test.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; De Clercq, Armand

    2007-03-01

    The Concealed Information Polygraph Test has been advocated as the preferred method for the physiological detection of deception. In this study, we further examined the validity of the Concealed Information Test in antisocial individuals. Physiological responding to concealed information was assessed in 48 male prisoners, and compared with responding in 31 male community volunteers. Based upon the association between antisociality and autonomic hyporesponsivity, lower detection rates were expected in the prisoners. Participants were questioned on five personally significant items (e.g., day of birth), instructed to deny recognition of this information, and promised a financial reward when able to hide recognition. Prisoners showed reduced autonomic reactivity in comparison to the community volunteers. This hyporesponsivity had little impact on the sensitivity of the Concealed Information Test. Detection efficiency in the prisoners was significantly above chance (d=2.67; a=0.82; 79%), and did not differ significantly from that obtained in the community volunteers (d=3.04; a=0.85; 87%). The present data support the validity of the Concealed Information Test in criminal populations.

  13. The Influence of Father Education Programs on the Levels of Father Involvement with Children: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Necdet; Erkan, Semra

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the effects of father education programs on the levels of their involvement with their children aged 2 to 9. The study group comprised 14 fathers who participate in a father education program. The study employed the pre-test-posttest design. Data were collected by using Father Interview Forms. The independent variable of…

  14. Interactive Reading Experiences of African American Fathers and Social Fathers and Their 4- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Clarissa R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate the patterns of book choice and interaction during book reading sessions of six African American fathers and social fathers and their 4- to 5-year-old children. The fathers/social fathers selected and read aloud expository text, narrative text, and poetry to their children while…

  15. Childhood-Limited versus Persistent Antisocial Behavior: Why Do Some Recover and Others Do Not? The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Possible differences between childhood-limited antisocial youth and their stable high-antisocial counterparts were examined. Children were 11 years old at wave 1 (T1) and 13.5 at wave 2 (T2). At both waves, the same parent, teacher, and self-reports of antisocial behavior were used. Stable highs and childhood-limited antisocial youth differed…

  16. Fathering at the Margins of Society: Reflections from Young, Minority, Crime-Involved Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Deanna L.; Magora, Amanda; Garcia, Marie; Khurana, Atika

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to broaden researchers' understanding of fatherhood by focusing on an understudied population of young, urban, minority, crime-involved fathers. Using 115 qualitative life history interviews, the authors examine fatherhood expectations, role participation, and ideals. Study fathers described very similar ideals for being fathers…

  17. Selecting Children's Picture Books with Diverse Jewish Fathers and Father Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Craig; Heller, Hannah M.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the image of Jewish fathers as portrayed in children's picture books, discussing themes, trends, and significant works, and suggesting guidelines for selecting and evaluating such books. Annotations and discussion of nearly 50 books show fathers in a variety of religious and secular roles and demonstrate the diversity existing within…

  18. Fathers Matter: Involving and Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare System Process

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christian A; Howard, Douglas; Rayford, Brett S; Gordon, Derrick M

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that children with involved and engaged fathers tend to have more positive outcomes relative to physical, cognitive, and social emotional health. Of children who become involved in the child welfare system, involving multiple parents in the case (e.g. mother and father) often results in a greater chance of a child returning home, fewer placement episodes, and reduced trauma that may be caused by separation anxiety. With the rise of single parenting homes (which are mostly maternal) in the United States, child welfare agencies are examining the efficacy of engaging multiple caregivers (esp. fathers) in the child welfare process. Research suggests that in order to involve fathers in child welfare processes, practices and policies must be intentional in implementing systems and protocols that encourage involvement of all parents regardless of relationship status of the parents. However, few child welfare agencies are required to inquire about fathers or involve fathers in the child's case. The purpose of this paper is to highlight efforts of the Connecticut Comprehensive Outcome Review (CCOR) process and discuss challenges and lessons learned from interviews and listening forums/focus groups that included social workers and fathers who are involved in the child welfare system in the state of Connecticut. Recommendations and considerations on engaging and involving fathers are discussed. PMID:25866428

  19. Father Involvement in Urban Low-Income Fathers: Baseline Associations and Changes Resulting from Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienks, Shauna L.; Wadsworth, Martha E.; Markman, Howard J.; Einhorn, Lindsey; Etter, Erica Moran

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates father involvement among a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income men participating in a randomized controlled trial of a 14-hour relationship education program that teaches skills and principles for healthy relationships. Utilizing data from 137 fathers, we examined contextual, individual, and coparental relationship…

  20. Resident Black Fathers' Involvement: A Comparative Analysis of Married and Unwed, Cohabitating Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Armon R.; Harmon, Dana K.; Leeper, James

    2012-01-01

    Increasing fathers' involvement with their children has become a priority in recent years. Marriage promotion programs have been offered as the primary vehicles for increasing paternal involvement. Although marriage is likely to provide fathers with increased access and opportunity for paternal involvement, much less is known about the ways in…

  1. A Single Father's Shopping Bag: Purchasing Decisions in Single-Father Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1980 to 2003 panels of the Consumer Expenditure Survey, this article examines purchasing decisions in father-headed single-parent families. Single-father expenditures are compared to both married-parent expenditures and single-mother expenditures on 17 broad categories of household-level goods and services. Multivariate…

  2. Relationships between Fathers and Children Who Live Apart: The Father's Role after Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    Used data from 1987-88 National Survey of Families to describe components of nonresident fathers' involvement and participation in childrearing decisions. Data suggest stability in definition of father role after separation when family characteristics were controlled. For most children born outside of marriage or whose parents divorced, father…

  3. Father Beliefs as a Mediator between Contextual Barriers and Father Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harry; Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    Fathers' beliefs were examined as mediators between multiple risk factors and involvement practices with children age zero to five enrolled in Head Start or Early Head Start. A diverse sample of 101 fathers, living in rural Midwestern communities of the USA completed questionnaires assessing "mediators" (i.e. parenting efficacy, role beliefs, and…

  4. The Impact of a Family-Centered Intervention on the Ecology of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Modeling Developmental Sequelae and Trajectories During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    VAN RYZIN, MARK J.; DISHION, THOMAS J.

    2012-01-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youth and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18–19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18–19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12–15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior, in turn, was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. Dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were many and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research. PMID:22781876

  5. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.

  6. Fathers and families: forging ties that bind.

    PubMed

    Lurie, T

    1992-01-01

    26% of all babies in the US are born to unmarried mothers and nearly 50% of all families headed by a single mother live in poverty. A growing number of programs across the US are seeking the most effective ways to help young unmarried fathers take legal, financial, and emotional responsibility for their children. For example, the Ford Foundation is supporting research and pilot projects that improve the employment opportunities of unwed mothers and fathers of children on welfare. A major obstacle to responsible fatherhood is that many men lack the education, training, and jobs they need to provide for their children. Often, young men are ordered to pay a child support amount that does not take into account their fluctuating employment history. Many programs are providing low-income fathers with the education and job opportunities they need to become consistent providers. Before they can become good fathers, many young men require guidance in dealing with feelings of anger and low self-esteem. Support groups connected with these programs address topics such as male-female relationships, child rearing, decision-making, racism, how to control anger, and what it means to take responsibility for your life. Evaluations are underway to determine what happens to young fathers once they leave these programs.

  7. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  8. Trajectories of Youthful Antisocial Behavior: Categories or Continua?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…

  9. Parental Familism and Antisocial Behaviors: Development, Gender, and Potential Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) and youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method: Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n = 1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas,…

  10. Continuities in Antisocial Behavior and Parenting across Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.; Farrington, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that there are intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior, and that parenting patterns play a role in these continuities. Very few studies, however, enable assessment across two generations of children at comparable ages, employing independent reporters and comparable measurements. The present…

  11. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  12. Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions from Birth through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Tremblay, Richard E., Ed.

    A variety of approaches to preventing antisocial behavior in children have ranged from infant schools to residential treatment centers, from social training to psychological therapies, with evaluations that have typically been little more than testimonials to current fashions. By introducing experimental approaches to the study of intervention…

  13. Age Differences in the Impact of Employment on Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    While research suggests that working more than 20 hr weekly is associated with greater antisocial behavior among middle- and upper-class youth, some have argued that employment benefits at-risk youth and leads to desistance from crime among youthful offenders. This study investigates the relation between hours worked, school attendance, and…

  14. A Study of Antisocial Student Organization in a Nigerian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opigo, Grace Bomo

    2013-01-01

    The actions of antisocial student organizations or "cults" have become problematic for students, educators, parents, and the general public in Nigeria. Many university communities have erupted with violence due to these organizations. This survey design study addressed safety concerns, levels of fear, experiences, and perceptions of…

  15. Aggressive versus Nonaggressive Antisocial Behavior: Distinctive Etiological Moderation by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has supported the existence of distinct behavioral patterns, demographic correlates, and etiologic mechanisms for aggressive (AGG) versus nonaggressive but delinquent (DEL) antisocial behavior. Though behavioral genetic studies have the potential to further crystallize these dimensions, inconsistent results have limited their…

  16. Association of candidate genes with antisocial drug dependence in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Robin P.; Zeiger, Joanna S.; Crowley, Thomas; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Lessem, Jeffrey; McQueen, Matthew B.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Smolen, Andrew; Stallings, Michael C.; Young, Susan E.; Krauter, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) is using several research designs and strategies in its study of the genetic basis for antisocial drug dependence in adolescents. This study reports Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) association results from a Targeted Gene Assay (SNP chip) of 231 Caucasian male probands in treatment with antisocial drug dependence and a matched set of community controls. The SNP chip was designed to assay 1500 SNPs distributed across 50 candidate genes that have had associations with substance use disorders and conduct disorder. There was an average gene-wide inter-SNP interval of 3000 base pairs. After eliminating SNPs with poor signals and low minor allele frequencies, 60 nominally significant associations were found among the remaining 1073 SNPs in 18 of 49 candidate genes. Although none of the SNPs achieved genome-wide association significance levels (defined as p < .000001), two genes probed with multiple SNPs (OPRM1 and CHRNA2) emerged as plausible candidates for a role in antisocial drug dependence after gene-based permutation tests. The custom-designed SNP chip served as an effective and flexible platform for rapid interrogation of a large number of plausible candidate genes. PMID:18384978

  17. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  18. Antisocial Behavior and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…

  19. Parents and Peers as Social Influences to Deter Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Henson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Growth curve analyses were used to investigate parents' and peers' influence on adolescents' choice to abstain from antisocial behavior in a community-based sample of 416 early adolescents living in the Southeastern United States. Participants were primarily European American (91%) and 51% were girls. Both parents and peers were important…

  20. Nature-Nurture Integration: The Example of Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the interplay between nature and nurture using antisocial behavior as the example, and discusses key genetic concepts and key environmental concepts. The final section considers the nature-nurture interaction in relation to passive, evocative, and active gene-environment correlations and calls for research into the effects of the…

  1. Social Motives Underlying Antisocial Behavior across Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaana; Ho, Alice Y.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether social motives (social mimicry, mutual attraction, and unreciprocated attraction) predict changes in antisocial behavior across middle school grades. The 2,003 initial participants (55% girls) were drawn from a larger longitudinal study of urban public school students: 44% Latino, 26% African-American,…

  2. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  3. Moral Cognition: Explaining the Gender Difference in Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…

  4. Personality Disorders Classification and Symptoms in Cocaine and Opioid Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Robert M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which personality disorders and associated symptom criteria were found among 117 cocaine- and opioid-dependent men in drug dependence treatment unit. Drug groups were distinguished by higher rates of antisocial and borderline symptomatology rather than by features associated with other personality disorders. Different…

  5. Three phases of father involvement in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, K A

    1982-01-01

    A field study focusing on men's experiences of first-time expectant fatherhood, including intensive interviews with 20 expectant couples, short field interviews with 80 additional fathers, participant observation in prenatal classes and clinics, and content analysis of popular literature was conducted for the purpose of description and generation of substantive theory. Interview and field data were analyzed using constant comparative analytic technique for qualitative data. Evidence suggest a characteristic pattern of development of subjective emotional involvement in pregnancy among first-time expectant fathers. This pattern consists of three phases: an announcement phase, a moratorium and a focusing phase. The length of the second phase appears to be related to the man's perception of his own readiness for pregnancy. The father's speed of progression though these phases may affect later adjustment to fatherhood. Further testing and validation of these findings is indicated.

  6. The Causal Effects of Father Absence

    PubMed Central

    McLanahan, Sara; Tach, Laura; Schneider, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. We review studies that have responded to this critique by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including studies using lagged dependent variable models, growth curve models, individual fixed effects models, sibling fixed effects models, natural experiments, and propensity score matching models. Our assessment is that studies using more rigorous designs continue to find negative effects of father absence on offspring well-being, although the magnitude of these effects is smaller than what is found using traditional cross-sectional designs. The evidence is strongest and most consistent for outcomes such as high school graduation, children’s social-emotional adjustment, and adult mental health. PMID:24489431

  7. Social mobility in the context of fathering: the intergenerational link in parenting among co-resident fathers.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Christina J

    2014-09-01

    Intergenerational transmissions extend across a number of family-related behaviors, including marriage timing, fertility, and divorce. Surprisingly, few studies investigate the link between the fathering men experience and the fathering they ultimately engage in. I use data on the grandfathers and fathers of the 2001 U.S. birth cohort - measured in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N=4050) - to test whether men's perception of the parenting they received influences their subsequent paternal self-assessments and behaviors. I find a nonlinear association between experiencing warm fathering and men's self-assessed parenting quality and stress. Men with particularly warm fathers are more likely to report being good fathers themselves. Those who report having the harshest fathers also exhibit better paternal self-perceptions and lower stress. Perceptions of paternal warmth show similar associations with men's fathering engagement. This research sheds light on the significance of family dynamics and how a legacy of fathering may contribute to inequality.

  8. Predictors of Involvement and Warmth of Custodial Fathers in Israel: Comparison with Married and Noncustodial Divorced Fathers.

    PubMed

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the levels and predictors of paternal warmth and involvement of 218 custodial fathers to 222 married fathers and 105 noncustodial (NC) divorced fathers in Israel. The examined predictors were fathers' perceptions of their own fathers; their own caregiving behaviors and parental self-efficacy; and child characteristics and coparental coordination. Results indicated that being a custodial father was associated with more involvement than being a married or NC divorced father. Regression analyses revealed that experience of care with own father predicted fathers' involvement, whereas own father control was related to lower paternal warmth. Lower avoidant caregiving and high paternal self-efficacy predicted both paternal involvement and warmth, whereas perceiving the child as more difficult predicted lower paternal warmth. Higher levels of coparental coordination were associated with more paternal involvement, whereas low coparental coordination was associated with less involvement, primarily among NC divorced fathers. These interactions highlight the distinct paternal behavior of custodial fathers. Unlike married and NC divorced fathers, they showed more warmth, regardless of their avoidant caregiving. Results are discussed in light of the different roles played by fathers in the three groups.

  9. Father by law: effects of joint legal custody on nonresident fathers' involvement with children.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, J A

    1998-05-01

    Family membership and household composition do not always coincide. Joint legal custody after divorce formalizes the relationship between fathers and children who live apart. Policymakers hope that explicit acknowledgment of nonresident fathers' rights and responsibilities will increase their involvement with their children. I use prospective data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the association between joint legal custody and two aspects of nonresident fathers' contributions to their children--the frequency of visits between fathers and children and child-support payments. The analysis examines approximately 160 families in which parents divorced between interviews conducted for Wave 1 (1987-1988) and Wave 2 (1992-1994) of the survey. I investigate the effects of joint legal custody holding constant physical custody or replacement by restricting the analysis to children who live with their mothers most of the year. Controlling for socioeconomic status and the quality of family relationships before separation, fathers with joint legal custody see their children more frequently and have more overnight visits than do other fathers. The positive effect of joint legal custody on frequency of visits persists once unobserved differences among families are taken into account. Although fathers with joint legal custody pay more child support than those without joint legal custody, this difference lacks statistical significance when other family characteristics are taken into account. These findings support the view that joint legal custody may encourage some aspects of paternal involvement after divorce.

  10. Personality disorders: review and clinical application in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Angstman, Kurt B; Rasmussen, Norman H

    2011-12-01

    Personality disorders have been documented in approximately 9 percent of the general U.S. population. Psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and brief interventions designed for use by family physicians can improve the health of patients with these disorders. Personality disorders are classified into clusters A, B, and C. Cluster A includes schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. Cluster B includes borderline, histrionic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C disorders are more prevalent and include avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Many patients with personality disorders can be treated by family physicians. Patients with borderline personality disorder may benefit from the use of omega-3 fatty acids, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Patients with antisocial personality disorder may benefit from the use of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Other therapeutic interventions include motivational interviewing and solution-based problem solving.

  11. From the father's point of view: how father's representations of the infant impact on father-infant interaction and infant development.

    PubMed

    Hall, R A S; De Waard, I E M; Tooten, A; Hoffenkamp, H N; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2014-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that fathers uniquely contribute to the development of their infants, relatively few studies have focused on the father-infant relationship during early infancy. In the present longitudinal study we included 189 fathers and examined whether their early attachment representations of the infant predicted future quality of father-infant interaction. We also investigated whether these representations were related to the infant's development. Paternal attachment representations were assessed by the Working Model of Child Interview (WMCI) at 6 months post-partum and classified fathers' representations as 'balanced' or 'unbalanced' (disengaged or distorted). At 24 months, father-infant interaction was videotaped and analyzed by the NICHD coding scales. Further, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) was administered to evaluate the infant's verbal development. Results revealed that fathers' early attachment representations of the infant predict the quality of future father-infant interaction, with balanced representations more strongly associated with more favorable behaviors in fathers and infants. In addition, paternal interactive behavior appears an important mechanism through which paternal representations influence the development of the infant. These results underline the importance of early identification of fathers with unbalanced attachment representations, and we therefore recommend that more attention should be directed to the quality of the early father-infant relationship in clinical settings.

  12. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents. PMID:23100999

  13. The Effects of Father Presence and Absence Upon Maternal Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsella, Anthony J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) was administered to 34 wives of nuclear submarine personnel under counterbalanced conditions of father presence and absence. Significant differences were found on seven subscales as a function of the father's status. (Author/SDH)

  14. Why Fathers Matter to Their Children's Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Research in the last three decades has established a clear link between parental involvement and children's educational attainment (e.g. Fan and Chen, 2001; Desforges and Abouchaar, 2003). While most of what people know is based on mother-child interactions (Waldfogel, 2006), increased attention has been paid to the specific influences fathers and…

  15. 77 FR 37259 - Father's Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-15294 Filed 6-20-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8839 of June 15, 2012 Father's Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, ordinary Americans...

  16. 78 FR 37429 - Father's Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-14970 Filed 6-19... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8996 of June 14, 2013 Father's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each day, men from every walk of life pour themselves into the...

  17. Infancy to Age Five: Predicting Fathers' Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William T.

    Four years after a study of paternal involvement among intact, middle-class families with an infant, a follow-up was conducted of 26 of the still intact families to determine the stability of paternal involvement and the psychological predictors of fathers' behavior at the time. Paternal involvement was assessed at both times in terms of care,…

  18. Are Fathers Necessary in Parent Training Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Philip; And Others

    This report describes an attempt to implement a cost-effective social learning intervention program for home use in which behavior modification techniques were taught to parents of 12 conduct-problem children (ages between 3 and 11 years) by psychologists at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Mother and father and mothers-only treatment…

  19. Humanistic Treatment of Father-Daughter Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarretto, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Following a case study of father-daughter incest, the author comments on the prevalence of incest and describes Santa Clara County's Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program (CSATP). The founding of CSATP, its treatment model for incestuous families, and its preliminary results are covered. (SJL)

  20. Impact of Father Loss on the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; Kappes, Bruno M.

    1980-01-01

    Parents from families broken by divorce were more negatively evaluated than were parents from either intact families or families where the father had died. These findings held regardless of whether or not the mother had remarried and regardless of the sex of students doing the evaluations. (Author)

  1. Physically Abusive Fathers and Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict recidivism among families in which the father is the perpetrator of physical abuse and to compare these factors to the factors that investigators believe are related to higher risk. Method: A case-comparison design was used to understand risk among 137 predominantly Caucasian…

  2. Fathers and HIV: considerations for families

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fathers are intricately bound up in all aspects of family life. This review examines fathers in the presence of HIV: from desire for a child, through conception issues, to a summary of the knowledge base on fathers within families affected by HIV. Methods A mixed-methods approach is used, given the scarcity of literature. A review is provided on paternal and male factors in relation to the desire for a child, HIV testing in pregnancy, fatherhood and conception, fatherhood and drug use, paternal support and disengagement, fatherhood and men who have sex with men (MSM), and paternal effects on child development in the presence of HIV. Literature-based reviews and systematic review techniques are used to access available data Primary data are reported on the issue of parenting for men who have sex with men. Results Men with HIV desire fatherhood. This is established in studies from numerous countries, although fatherhood desires may be lower for HIV-positive men than HIV-negative men. Couples do not always agree, and in some studies, male desires for a child are greater than those of their female partners. Despite reduced fertility, support and services, many proceed to parenting, whether in seroconcordant or serodiscordant relationships. There is growing knowledge about fertility options to reduce transmission risk to uninfected partners and to offspring. Within the HIV field, there is limited research on fathering and fatherhood desires in a number of difficult-to-reach groups. There are, however, specific considerations for men who have sex with men and those affected by drug use. Conception in the presence of HIV needs to be managed and informed to reduce the risk of infection to partners and children. Further, paternal support plays a role in maternal management. Conclusions Strategies to improve HIV testing of fathers are needed. Paternal death has a negative impact on child development and paternal survival is protective. It is important to

  3. Adolescents’ Text Message Communication and Growth in Antisocial Behavior across the First Year of High School

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Underwood, Marion K.; Ackerman, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents communicate about antisocial topics and behaviors via text messaging and how adolescents’ antisocial text message communication relates to growth in rule-breaking and aggression as reported by youth, parents, and teachers. Participants (n = 172; 82 girls) received BlackBerry devices configured to capture all text messages sent and received. Four days of text messages during the 9th grade year were coded for discussion of antisocial activities. The majority of participants engaged in at least some antisocial text message communication. Text messaging about antisocial activities significantly predicted increases in parent, teacher, and self-reports of adolescents’ rule-breaking behavior, as well as teacher and self-reports of adolescents’ aggressive behavior. Text message communication may provide instrumental information about how to engage in antisocial behavior and reinforce these behaviors as normative within the peer group. PMID:24014161

  4. Working Dads: Final Report on the Fathers at Work Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Shayne; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Wallace, Dee

    2009-01-01

    Noncustodial fathers have an essential role to play--both financially and emotionally--in the lives of their children. However, of the 11 million noncustodial fathers in the US, two thirds do not pay any formal child support. Many of these fathers are poor themselves and face multiple barriers, including low education levels, limited work…

  5. Associations between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed…

  6. Fathers' Knowledge of Their Youth's Unsafe Behaviors on the Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneman, Zolinda; Jinnah, Hamida Amirali; Rains, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    The study discussed in this article examined the extent to which fathers were aware of unsafe farm behaviors engaged in by their youth. Fathers and youth provided information about the youth's behaviors on the farm, particularly related to tractors/large equipment. Fathers indicated whether they were familiar with the North American Guidelines for…

  7. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  8. Fathering Attitudes and Practices: Influences on Children's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Jeffrey; Robinson, Joann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined direct and indirect influences of fathers' reported parenting beliefs and practices on children's development. Participants included 525 fathers and mothers of toddlers enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project in 14 communities across the United States. Results show that fathers' modernity defined as…

  9. New Measure for Fathers of Children with Developmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, A. R.; Goldberg, W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a relative lack of measures tailored to the study of fathers of children with developmental challenges (DCs). The goal of the current study was to create and validate a brief measure designed to capture the perceptions and experiences of these fathers. The Fathers of Children with Developmental Challenges (FCDC) questionnaire…

  10. African American Father Involvement and Preschool Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    A developmental ecological model was used to identify child attributes, father characteristics, and familial factors associated with multidimensional father involvement with preschool children enrolled in Head Start. The relations between father involvement and children's school readiness were also investigated. Eighty-five African American…

  11. Troubled Relationships: High-Risk Latina Adolescents and Nonresident Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored 18 high-risk adolescent Latinas' perceptions of their relationships with nonresident fathers. A number of interrelated factors--early childhood memories, mothers' interpretations, and fathers' behaviors--shaped girls' perceptions, which in turn, influenced how they interacted with fathers. Some girls struggled to…

  12. Fathers' Activities with Their Kids. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.; Michelsen, Erik A.; Halle, Tamara G.; Moore, Kristin A.

    One of the critical elements of children's healthy development is the participation of parents in important activities in their children's lives. This research brief reports on the involvement of fathers in their children's lives. The brief focuses on the involvement of fathers who live with their children, including single fathers raising their…

  13. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers…

  14. Factors Associated with Unmarried, Nonresident Fathers' Perceptions of Their Coparenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of 522 biological, never-married, nonresident fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines the factors associated with fathers' coparenting 36 months after a birth. Ordinary least squares regression models indicate never-married, nonresident fathers are less likely to perceive high…

  15. Involvement among Resident Fathers and Links to Infant Cognitive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Carrano, Jennifer; Horowitz, Allison; Kinukawa, Akemi

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of resident fathers in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (9-month Father Study), this study examined how father involvement is associated with infant cognitive outcomes in two domains (babbling and exploring objects with a purpose). Results from a series of logistic regression models indicate that varied aspects of…

  16. Parent-Child Interactions in Families with Alcoholic Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Theodore; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Observed adolescent offspring (n=121) of alcoholic, depressed, and nondistressed fathers during problem-solving discussions with fathers, mothers, and both parents together. Found that nondistressed father-child dyads differed from clinical samples in showing higher rates of congeniality and problem solving, whereas impact of alcohol consumption…

  17. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…

  18. Interactive Silences within Spontaneous Early Infant-Father "Dialogues"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinaki, Theano

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to investigate infants' and fathers' facial expressions of emotions during pauses preceding and following spontaneous early infant-father conversation. Studying emotional expressions in the course of pauses in early infant-father interaction is important because it may extend our knowledge on…

  19. College Student Perceptions of the Content of Father Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troilo, Jessica; Coleman, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    This study used a three-step procedure to examine 663 Midwestern university students' perceptions of the content of social stereotypes related to seven types of fathers. Married and adoptive fathers were the most positively stereotyped groups, and divorced residential fathers were also viewed quite positively. There were relatively neutral views…

  20. Organizational Patterns in Problem Solving Among Mayan Fathers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavajay, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the social organization of Guatemalan Mayan fathers' engagement with school-age children in a group problem-solving task. Twenty-nine groups of Mayan fathers varying in extent of Western schooling and 3 related school-age children (ages 6-12 years) constructed a puzzle together. Groups with fathers with 0 to 3 grades more often…

  1. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  2. Fathers' views on their financial situations, father-child activities, and preventing child injuries.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lise L; Oliffe, John L; Brussoni, Mariana; Creighton, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading public health problem for children, particularly among those living at lower socioeconomic levels. Parents play an important preventive role, and the aim of this study was to examine fathers' views on the role of their family financial situation in preventing children's injuries. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 fathers of children 2 to 7 years living in western Canada. Questions solicited fathers' views about their financial situation and their child injury prevention efforts. Data analysis was underpinned by masculinity theory and guided by constant comparative grounded theory methods. Findings included that fathers living with fewer financial limitations emphasized use of safety equipment and aligned themselves with provider and protector masculine ideals. Fathers with moderate financial constraint described more child-centered safety efforts and efforts to manage finances. Those facing greatest constraint demonstrated aspects of marginalized masculinities, whereby they acknowledged their economic provider limitations while strongly aligning with the protector role. These findings hold relevance for development of interventions aimed at reducing child injury risk inequities. Taking into account how masculinities may shape their beliefs and practices can inform design of father-centered interventions for men living at different points on the socioeconomic spectrum.

  3. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  4. How Community College African American Students with or without a Father or Male Surrogate Presence at Home Develop Their Personal Identity, Academic Self-Concept, Race Theory, Social Sensitivity, Resiliency, and Vision of Their Own Success and the Influence on Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, A'lon Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on African American students' academic achievement and the role mothers play in their child's academic development, few studies (Carter, 2008; Fordham, 1988) examined the role fathers play in the development of their child's academic achievement. The primary aim of this study was to examine how…

  5. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  7. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  8. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Predicting antisocial behavior among latino young adolescents: an ecological systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Mulder, Cray

    2005-01-01

    The authors used data from a national sample of 420 Latino young adolescents to examine multiple predictors of antisocial behavior within an ecological systems framework. They found that boys and youths who lived a higher proportion of their life in poverty exhibited higher levels of antisocial behavior, and mothers' acculturation was associated with lower levels. Neighborhood and school environments, exposure to deviant peer pressure, and 3 parenting practices--parent-youth attachment, physical punishment, and mothers' monitoring--were related to Latino youth antisocial behavior. Neighborhood quality and peer pressure explained the relation between poverty and an increased risk for antisocial behavior.

  10. Fathers Speak: The Lived Experiences of Fathers of Adolescents with Autism Regarding Transition Planning for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvisotis, Stathene

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of fathers of adolescent sons with autism spectrum disorders as they transitioned out of school and into the postsecondary environment. Current research is lacking regarding the experiences of fathers; some researchers have described fathers as an afterthought when discussing the…

  11. Low-Income Adolescent Fathers: Risk for Parenthood and Risky Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    The authors report findings from the Father Involvement with Toddlers Study (FITS) of low-income fathers. The study sought to learn about biological fathers and father figures of children eligible for Early Head Start (EHS). FITS data suggest that, compared to older fathers, teen fathers are more highly invested in their children, enjoy…

  12. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms.

    PubMed

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes.

  13. Hispanic Fathers and Risk for Maltreatment in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Shair, Sarah R.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The Hispanic population is the fastest growing segment of U.S. population. However, risks for child maltreatment in the foreign-born and native-born Hispanic populations are largely understudied. To address this knowledge gap, we explore the association of sociodemographic factors, psychosocial parenting factors, and nativity status with Hispanic fathers’ aggression toward their young children (3 to 5 years). Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and the follow-up In-Home Longitudinal Study of Pre-School Aged Children, we examine data for 372 foreign-born (FB; n = 155) and native-born (NB; n = 217) Hispanic biological fathers residing in the home when the study target child was 3 years old. Results of analysis at the bivariate level show FB Hispanic fathers engage in fewer aggressive behaviors than NB Hispanic, White, or Black fathers. Time-lagged path models of Hispanic fathers show FB Hispanic fathers use less aggression than NB Hispanic fathers. Length of time in the United States was not associated with parenting aggression. Path models also examine paternal psychosocial factors such as alcohol use, depression, parenting stress, and involvement in caregiving, and control for the child’s aggressive behavior. Results suggest one reason Hispanic children do not face heightened risk for child welfare involvement, despite socioeconomic risks, is that FB Hispanic fathers use less aggression toward their young children. An implication of this finding is that socioeconomic and parenting behavior risks must be considered separately when practitioners are considering issues related to the representation of minority children in the child welfare system. PMID:22624074

  14. Organizational patterns in problem solving among Mayan fathers and children.

    PubMed

    Chavajay, Pablo

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the social organization of Guatemalan Mayan fathers' engagement with school-age children in a group problem-solving task. Twenty-nine groups of Mayan fathers varying in extent of Western schooling and 3 related school-age children (ages 6-12 years) constructed a puzzle together. Groups with fathers with 0 to 3 grades more often constructed the puzzle through shared multiparty collaboration involving a common agenda, whereas groups with fathers with 12 or more grades more often structured their contributions through a division of labor. Groups involving fathers with 6 to 9 grades demonstrated patterns of coordination that fell between the other two types of schooling groups. Fathers with greater schooling were also found to propose more explicit division-of-labor plans to children than were fathers with no to little schooling. The results indicate that Western schooling may be gradually transforming the collaborative social organization of group problem solving of indigenous Mayan families.

  15. Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Peter; Hohoff, Carsten; Dunkelmann, Bettina; Schürenkamp, Marianne; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Neuhuber, Franz; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Men age and die, while cells in their germline are programmed to be immortal. To elucidate how germ cells maintain viable DNA despite increasing parental age, we analysed DNA from 24 097 parents and their children, from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We chose repetitive microsatellite DNA that mutates (unlike point mutations) only as a result of cellular replication, providing us with a natural ‘cell-cycle counter’. We observe, as expected, that the overall mutation rate for fathers is seven times higher than for mothers. Also as expected, mothers have a low and lifelong constant DNA mutation rate. Surprisingly, however, we discover that (i) teenage fathers already set out from a much higher mutation rate than teenage mothers (potentially equivalent to 77–196 male germline cell divisions by puberty); and (ii) ageing men maintain sperm DNA quality similar to that of teenagers, presumably by using fresh batches of stem cells known as ‘A-dark spermatogonia’. PMID:25694621

  16. Legacies and Memorializations in the Intergenerational Transmission of Psychic Life: Psychoanalytic Notes on Some of the Ways in Which Sons Assume Their Father's Mantle.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2016-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of psychic life has been difficult to explore psychoanalytically given that a treatment of both parent and child is rarely, if ever, feasible. Here the issue is explored in terms of father-son relationships. Three legendary fathers (Abraham, Laius, Shiva) are discussed as illustrating the filicidal legacy they imposed psychically and corporeally on their sons. Three contemporary case vignettes are then presented, indicating ways in which sons ambivalently memorialize their fathers. This material provides a model as to some of the ways in which sons assume the mantle of the father's conscious and unconscious dynamics in the course of their personal history. Paternal legacies generate "memorializations" that express profound and poignant conflicts animating the son's psychic life. In the context of this investigation, the significance of the distinction between actual fathers or father figures (who are mortal, who possess some sort of gendered qualities, and who may be present or absent, emotionally and physically) and the "symbolic father" (who is the locus of the phallus that organizes the possibility of representational discourse) is discussed. It is suggested that boys and men typically develop in terms of confusions around this distinction. The oedipal conundrum and challenge of the boy's passage into manhood is then formulated as follows: Masculinity involves both the integration of patricidal desire (in response to the paternal legacy) and the mourning of actual fathers or father figures. It also involves the acceptance of the human condition, which is both that of mortality and of our "castratedness" in relation to the "symbolic father" as the locus of the phallus (the only one who knows whereof "He" speaks and acts, and who can neither be mourned nor surpassed). PMID:27042981

  17. Legacies and Memorializations in the Intergenerational Transmission of Psychic Life: Psychoanalytic Notes on Some of the Ways in Which Sons Assume Their Father's Mantle.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2016-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of psychic life has been difficult to explore psychoanalytically given that a treatment of both parent and child is rarely, if ever, feasible. Here the issue is explored in terms of father-son relationships. Three legendary fathers (Abraham, Laius, Shiva) are discussed as illustrating the filicidal legacy they imposed psychically and corporeally on their sons. Three contemporary case vignettes are then presented, indicating ways in which sons ambivalently memorialize their fathers. This material provides a model as to some of the ways in which sons assume the mantle of the father's conscious and unconscious dynamics in the course of their personal history. Paternal legacies generate "memorializations" that express profound and poignant conflicts animating the son's psychic life. In the context of this investigation, the significance of the distinction between actual fathers or father figures (who are mortal, who possess some sort of gendered qualities, and who may be present or absent, emotionally and physically) and the "symbolic father" (who is the locus of the phallus that organizes the possibility of representational discourse) is discussed. It is suggested that boys and men typically develop in terms of confusions around this distinction. The oedipal conundrum and challenge of the boy's passage into manhood is then formulated as follows: Masculinity involves both the integration of patricidal desire (in response to the paternal legacy) and the mourning of actual fathers or father figures. It also involves the acceptance of the human condition, which is both that of mortality and of our "castratedness" in relation to the "symbolic father" as the locus of the phallus (the only one who knows whereof "He" speaks and acts, and who can neither be mourned nor surpassed).

  18. Longitudinal Follow-up of Adolescents with Late-Onset Antisocial Behavior: A Pathological yet Overlooked Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Antisocial behavior that begins in mid- to late adolescence does not fit into commonly accepted taxonomies of antisocial behavior, yet it clearly exists. This study examined how this course of antisocial behavior compares with persisting (beginning by early adolescence and continuing through late adolescence) and desisting (stopping by…

  19. Friday on My Mind: The Relation of Partying with Antisocial Behavior of Early Adolescents. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2010-01-01

    The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N = 1,076; M age = 13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antisocial behavior depends on the way the need to…

  20. Rates of Student-Reported Antisocial Behavior, School Suspensions, and Arrests in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Mathers, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few methodologically rigorous international comparisons of student-reported antisocial behavior have been conducted. This paper examines whether there are differences in the frequency of both antisocial behavior and societal responses to antisocial behavior in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. These 2 states were…