Science.gov

Sample records for fatigue daily activity

  1. Autonomic nervous alterations associated with daily level of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a common symptom in both sick and healthy people. We examined autonomic nervous alterations associated with fatigue to clarify the mechanisms underlying fatigue. Methods The study group consisted of 19 healthy participants who performed a 2-back test for 30 min as a fatigue-inducing mental task session. Before and after the session, they completed the advanced trail making test (ATMT) for 30 min for mental fatigue evaluation, subjective scales to measure fatigue sensation, and underwent electrocardiography to allow assessment of autonomic nerve activities. Results After the fatigue-inducing task, the total error counts on the ATMT tended to increase (P = 0.076); the ATMT for total trial counts (P = 0.001), the subjective level of fatigue (P < 0.001), and the % low-frequency power (%LF) (P = 0.035) increased significantly; and the % high-frequency power (%HF) decreased compared with before the fatigue-inducing task although this did not reach the statistical significance (P = 0.170). Although LF measured in absolute units did not change significantly before and after the fatigue-inducing task (P = 0.771), and HF measured in absolute units decreased after the task (P = 0.020). The %LF and LF/HF ratio were positively associated with the daily level of fatigue evaluated using Chalder's fatigue scale. In addition, %HF was negatively associated with the fatigue score. Conclusions Increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic activity may be characteristic features of both acute and daily levels of fatigue. Our findings provide new perspectives on the mechanisms underlying fatigue. PMID:22032726

  2. Beneficial effect of brewers' yeast extract on daily activity in a murine model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takashi; Yu, Fei; Zhu, Shi-Jie; Moriya, Junji; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE) on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA) antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW) and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW), SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  3. Wear, delamination, and fatigue resistance of melt-annealed highly crosslinked UHMWPE cruciate-retaining knee inserts under activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Oludele O; Yao, Jian Q; Johnson, Todd S; Blanchard, Cheryl R

    2010-09-01

    The wear, delamination, and fatigue resistance of artificially aged gamma irradiation-sterilized conventional polyethylene (CPE) and gas-plasma-sterilized melt-annealed highly crosslinked polyethylene tibial inserts (HXPE) were compared. Six CPE and 12 HXPE (six irradiated at 58 kGy and six at 72 kGy) left knee inserts were wear tested for 5.5 million cycles (Mc) under loads and motions that mimic activities of daily living, such as walking, chair rise, stair ascent, and deep squatting. Another six HXPE (72 kGy) and six CPE inserts were also tested under conditions that could produce severe delamination for 8 Mc. Ten other knees (five 72 kGy HXPE and five CPE) were subjected to posterior edge loading fatigue testing for 5 Mc. The HXPE inserts had an average wear rate reduction of about 80% relative to their CPE counterparts during all activities. All of the CPE inserts delaminated and fractured during high cycle deep squat (152 degrees flexion) motions, while all the HXPE remained intact. None of the HXPE inserts delaminated after 8 Mc, while all of the CPE inserts developed delamination damage within 1.5-5.8 Mc of delamination testing. All CPE inserts developed subsurface cracks and delamination within 2.8 Mc during posterior edge loading fatigue studies, while none of the HXPE inserts showed cracking or delamination after 5 Mc. These results show that aged HXPE has higher wear and fatigue resistance than aged CPE, and offers potential long-term advantages for young active patients with sustained activities of daily living.

  4. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  5. Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent fatigue that is not alleviated by rest. The lack of a clearly identified underlying mechanism has hindered the development of effective treatments. Studies have demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory factors in patients with CFS, but findings are contradictory across studies and no biomarkers have been consistently supported. Single time-point approaches potentially overlook important features of CFS, such as fluctuations in fatigue severity. We have observed that individuals with CFS demonstrate significant day-to-day variability in their fatigue severity. Methods Therefore, to complement previous studies, we implemented a novel longitudinal study design to investigate the role of cytokines in CFS pathophysiology. Ten women meeting the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS and ten healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched women underwent 25 consecutive days of blood draws and self-reporting of symptom severity. A 51-plex cytokine panel via Luminex was performed for each of the 500 serum samples collected. Our primary hypothesis was that daily fatigue severity would be significantly correlated with the inflammatory adipokine leptin, in the women with CFS and not in the healthy control women. As a post-hoc analysis, a machine learning algorithm using all 51 cytokines was implemented to determine whether immune factors could distinguish high from low fatigue days. Results Self-reported fatigue severity was significantly correlated with leptin levels in six of the participants with CFS and one healthy control, supporting our primary hypothesis. The machine learning algorithm distinguished high from low fatigue days in the CFS group with 78.3% accuracy. Conclusions Our results support the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of CFS. PMID:23570606

  6. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  7. Activity and post-polio fatigue.

    PubMed

    Packer, T L; Martins, I; Krefting, L; Brouwer, B

    1991-11-01

    Fatigue was studied in 12 subjects with post-polio sequelae (PPS). Results of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) demonstrated a mean score of 4.8 +/- 1.6 (non-disabled scores = 2.3 +/- 0.7). The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was not sensitive enough to measure fatigue. Fifty percent of subjects scored below the first percentile based on age and sex matched norms. The Activity Record (ACTRE) results revealed that subjects spent 5% of their time resting and 1% in planning or preparation activities. Fatigue peaked in the late morning or early afternoon and was relieved by rest periods. Use of energy conservation and work simplification skills along with frequent rest periods was suggested as a possible method for managing PPS fatigue.

  8. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  9. Subjective but Not Actigraphy-Defined Sleep Predicts Next-Day Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J.; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A.; Kyle, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Methods: Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Results: Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. Conclusions: For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. Citation: Russell C, Wearden AJ, Fairclough G, Emsley RA, Kyle SD. Subjective but not actigraphy-defined sleep predicts next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective daily diary study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):937–944. PMID:26715232

  10. Fatigue in inflammatory bowel diseases: relationship with age and disease activity.

    PubMed

    Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Caserta, Violetta; Candilio, Giuseppe; De Fatico, G Serena; Gagliardi, Silvana; Landino, Isabella; Patturelli, Marta; Riegler, Gabriele; Di Caprio, Ester Livia; Canonico, Silvestro; Gritti, Paolo; Selvaggi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A higher rate of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are reported to experience the symptom of fatigue compared with general population. Fatigue can impair quality of life of IBD patients by limiting their daily functioning. However, this problem is poorly understood and addressed. Our aim was to investigate the impact of fatigue in IBD patients compared with controls, and to seek for relation between age and disease activity. IBD patients aged between 16 and 75 years observed at our Unit from June 2011 through June 2012 were evaluated for fatigue. Patients were asked to fill the fatigue impact scale (FIS) questionnaire. A cohort of age- and sex-matched patients observed for other-than-IBD diseases were prospectively enrolled to act as controls. Patients diagnosed with malignancies were excluded from evaluation. Each group included 16 patients, of whom half aged over 65 years. Fatigue was more severe in IBD patients than in controls (p = 0.02), irrespective of age and disease activity. IBD patients with moderate to severe disease activity showed worse fatigue compared with controls at any age (p < 0.0001). Young IBD patients with low disease activity showed a trend toward worse FIS score when compared with old IBD counterparts (p = 0.06). IBD significantly impacted on fatigue in our series. Considering IBD patients in remission, younger patients may experience worse fatigue. Further studies are needed to explore the effects of fatigue on quality of life and the potential of appropriate intervention strategies.

  11. Evaluation of cognition and fatigue in multiple sclerosis: daily practice and future directions.

    PubMed

    Penner, I-K

    2016-09-01

    The so-called hidden symptoms or soft signs of multiple sclerosis comprise cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, depression and anxiety. From a patient's perspective, these symptoms are rated as exerting much more negative impact on quality of life and daily functioning than their physical symptoms. Despite this knowledge, the symptoms remain disregarded by many neurologists in clinical practice. This missing awareness can be attributed to several reasons. First, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms determining occurrence and severity of the different symptoms are still unclear. Second, there is uncertainty in how to reliably assess them. It is undeniable that assessment can be difficult as the hidden symptoms seldom appear isolated but more often highly interact. Third, if standardized, fast and cost-effective assessment to quantify and monitor the evolution of the hidden symptoms would be feasible, the question still remains how to treat these aspects. The present article will give an overview on symptom background and assessment strategies for clinical practice. PMID:27580902

  12. Cognitive and Physical Fatigue Tasks Enhance Pain, Cognitive Fatigue and Physical Fatigue in People with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Dana L; Keffala, Valerie J; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread muscle pain and fatigue. The primary objective of this study was to determine if pain, perceived cognitive fatigue, and perceived physical fatigue were enhanced in participants with fibromyalgia compared to healthy controls during a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task and a dual fatigue task. Methods Twenty four people with fibromyalgia and 33 healthy controls completed pain, fatigue and function measures. A cognitive fatigue task (Controlled Oral Word Association Test) and physical fatigue task (Valpar peg test) were done individually and combined for a dual fatigue task. Resting pain, perceived cognitive fatigue and perceived physical fatigue were assessed during each task using visual analogue scales. Function was assessed with shoulder range of motion and grip. Results People with fibromyalgia had significantly higher increases in pain, cognitive fatigue and physical fatigue when compared to healthy controls after completion of a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task, or a dual fatigue task (p<0.01). People with fibromyalgia performed equivalently on measures of physical performance and cognitive performance on the physical and cognitive fatigue tasks, respectively. Conclusions These data show that people with fibromyalgia show larger increases in pain, perceived cognitive fatigue and perceived physical fatigue to both cognitive and physical fatigue tasks compared to healthy controls. The increases in pain and fatigue during cognitive and physical fatigue tasks could influence subject participation in daily activities and rehabilitation. PMID:25074583

  13. Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help you find out what's causing your fatigue and recommend ways to relieve it. Fatigue itself is not a disease. Medical problems, treatments, and personal habits can add to fatigue. These include Taking certain medicines, such as antidepressants, ...

  14. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Managing Activities and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Managing Activities and Exercise On this Page Avoiding Extremes Developing an Activity ... recent manageable level of activity. Strength and Conditioning Exercises Strength and conditioning exercises are an important component ...

  15. Egocentric daily activity recognition via multitask clustering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-10-01

    Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of daily living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods. PMID:26067371

  16. Compensatory Neural Activity in Response to Cognitive Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Samuel, Immanuel Babu Henry; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged continuous performance of a cognitively demanding task induces cognitive fatigue and is associated with a time-related deterioration of objective performance, the degree of which is referred to cognitive fatigability. Although the neural underpinnings of cognitive fatigue are poorly understood, prior studies report changes in neural activity consistent with deterioration of task-related networks over time. While compensatory brain activity is reported to maintain motor task performance in the face of motor fatigue and cognitive performance in the face of other stressors (e.g., aging) and structural changes, there are no studies to date demonstrating compensatory activity for cognitive fatigue. High-density electroencephalography was recorded from human subjects during a 160 min continuous performance of a cognitive control task. While most time-varying neural activity showed a linear decline over time, we identified an evoked potential over the anterior frontal region which demonstrated an inverted U-shaped time-on-task profile. This evoked brain activity peaked between 60 and 100 min into the task and was positively associated with better behavioral performance only during this interval. Following the peak and during subsequent decline of this anterior frontal activity, the rate of performance decline also accelerated. These findings demonstrate that this anterior frontal brain activity, which is not part of the primary task-related activity at baseline, is recruited to compensate for fatigue-induced impairments in the primary task-related network, and that this compensation terminates as cognitive fatigue further progresses. These findings may be relevant to understanding individual differences in cognitive fatigability and developing interventions for clinical conditions afflicted by fatigue. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fatigue refers to changes in objective performance and subjective effort induced by continuous task performance. We examined the neural

  17. Measurement Reactivity and Fatigue Effects in Daily Diary Research with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Robles, Theodore F.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2016-01-01

    Methodological challenges associated with measurement reactivity and fatigue were addressed using diary data collected from mothers (n = 47), fathers (n = 39), and children (n = 47; 8-13 years) across 56 consecutive days. Demonstrating the feasibility of extended diary studies with families, on-time compliance rates were upward of 90% for all…

  18. Physical activity buffers fatigue only under low chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Strahler, Jana; Doerr, Johanna M; Ditzen, Beate; Linnemann, Alexandra; Skoluda, Nadine; Nater, Urs M

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported complaints in the general population. As physical activity (PA) has been shown to have beneficial effects, we hypothesized that everyday life PA improves fatigue. Thirty-three healthy students (21 women, 22.8 ± 3.3 years, 21.7 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) completed two ambulatory assessment periods. During five days at the beginning of the semester (control condition) and five days during final examination preparation (examination condition), participants repeatedly reported on general fatigue (awakening, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm and 9 pm) by means of an electronic diary, collected saliva samples for the assessment of cortisol and α-amylase immediately after providing information on fatigue and wore a triaxial accelerometer to continuously record PA. Self-perceived chronic stress was assessed as a moderator. Using hierarchical linear modeling, including PA, condition (control vs. examination), sex and chronic stress as predictors, PA level during the 15 min prior to data entry did not predict momentary fatigue level. Furthermore, there was no effect of condition. However, a significant cross-level interaction of perceived chronic stress with PA was observed. In fact, the (negative) relationship between PA and fatigue was stronger in those participants with less chronic stress. Neither cortisol nor α-amylase was significantly related to physical activity or fatigue. Our study showed an immediate short-term buffering effect of everyday life PA on general fatigue, but only when experiencing lower chronic stress. There seems to be no short-term benefit of PA in the face of higher chronic stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering chronic stress when evaluating the effectiveness of PA interventions in different target populations, in particular among chronically stressed and fatigued subjects.

  19. Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    Bennett RM. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 274. Thames TA, Karrh ...

  20. Episode-Specific Drinking-to-Cope Motivation, Daily Mood, and Fatigue-Related Symptoms Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Armeli, Stephen; O’Hara, Ross E; Ehrenberg, Ethan; Sullivan, Tami P; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine whether within-person, episode-specific changes in drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation from the previous evening were associated with concurrent daily mood and fatigue-related symptoms among college student drinkers (N = 1,421; 54% female). Method: We conducted an Internet-based daily diary study in which students reported over 30 days on their previous night’s drinking level and motivation and their current mood (i.e., sadness, anxiety, anger/hostility, and positive mood) and fatigue-related symptoms. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear models in which the current day’s outcome was predicted by last night’s levels of DTC motivation and drinking, controlling for drinking to enhance motivation, sex, current day’s physical symptoms and drinking, and yesterday’s level of the outcome. Subsequent models also predicted outcomes 2 days following the drinking event. Results: Relative increases in previous night’s DTC motivation were associated with higher levels of current day negative mood and fatigue-related symptoms and lower levels of positive mood. Also, the association between episode-specific DTC motivation and negative mood was stronger in the positive direction when individuals reported higher levels of nonsocial drinking from the previous night. Last, episode-specific DTC showed similar associations with sadness and anger/hostility 2 days after the drinking event. Conclusions: The results are generally consistent with the posited attention allocation and ego-depletion mechanisms. Findings suggest that the deleterious effects of repeated episodes of DTC, over time, could help to explain the increased likelihood of alcohol-related problems seen in prior studies PMID:25208194

  1. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  2. A daily process analysis of intentions and physical activity in college students.

    PubMed

    Conroy, David E; Elavsky, Steriani; Doerksen, Shawna E; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2013-10-01

    Social-cognitive theories, such as the theory of planned behavior, posit intentions as proximal influences on physical activity (PA). This paper extends those theories by examining within-person variation in intentions and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as a function of the unfolding constraints in people's daily lives (e.g., perceived time availability, fatigue, soreness, weather, overeating). College students (N = 63) completed a 14-day diary study over the Internet that rated daily motivation, contextual constraints, and MVPA. Key findings from multilevel analyses were that (1) between-person differences represented 46% and 33% of the variability in daily MVPA intentions and behavior, respectively; (2) attitudes, injunctive norms, self-efficacy, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted daily changes in intention strength; and (3) daily changes in intentions, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted day-to-day changes in MVPA. Embedding future motivation and PA research in the context of people's daily lives will advance understanding of individual PA change processes. PMID:24197717

  3. 38 CFR 4.88a - Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chronic fatigue syndrome... Deficiencies § 4.88a Chronic fatigue syndrome. (a) For VA purposes, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome requires: (1) new onset of debilitating fatigue severe enough to reduce daily activity to less than...

  4. 38 CFR 4.88a - Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chronic fatigue syndrome... Deficiencies § 4.88a Chronic fatigue syndrome. (a) For VA purposes, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome requires: (1) new onset of debilitating fatigue severe enough to reduce daily activity to less than...

  5. 38 CFR 4.88a - Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chronic fatigue syndrome... Deficiencies § 4.88a Chronic fatigue syndrome. (a) For VA purposes, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome requires: (1) new onset of debilitating fatigue severe enough to reduce daily activity to less than...

  6. 38 CFR 4.88a - Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chronic fatigue syndrome... Deficiencies § 4.88a Chronic fatigue syndrome. (a) For VA purposes, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome requires: (1) new onset of debilitating fatigue severe enough to reduce daily activity to less than...

  7. 38 CFR 4.88a - Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chronic fatigue syndrome... Deficiencies § 4.88a Chronic fatigue syndrome. (a) For VA purposes, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome requires: (1) new onset of debilitating fatigue severe enough to reduce daily activity to less than...

  8. Ruminative self-focus in daily life: associations with daily activities and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the situations and conditions in which ruminative self-focus is less likely to occur in daily life. Previous researchers have described a mood-brightening effect of depression, where depressed individuals exhibit greater positive emotional reactivity to positive daily events than do nondepressed individuals. To better understand this paradoxical effect, we investigated the moderating role of depression in the relationship between daily activities and ruminative thinking. Forty-one Japanese undergraduates (9 women and 32 men) recorded their thought contents and the type and subjective appraisals of activities that they engaged in 8 times a day for a week at semirandom intervals. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that subjectively pleasant activities were associated with improved mood states and reduced ruminative thinking. However, some of these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms, suggesting that individuals with higher levels of depression showed a greater reduction of ruminative thinking during pleasant activities. These results imply that daily activities are important for reducing rumination, particularly for individuals with higher levels of depression, and that the brightening effect of depression is evident for cognitive as well as emotional activities. The cognitive basis of this paradoxical effect is discussed. PMID:23527502

  9. Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.; And Others

    Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in daily living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of daily living (ADL) skills,…

  10. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  15. Age Differences in Daily Social Activities

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Christopher Steven

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which older and younger people do different activities when they are with others and when they are alone is examined in this article. I leverage interpersonal data in combination with information on activities from the American Time Use Survey to shed light on the long held finding that older people have less social contact than younger people. The results show that, net of intervening factors, age is associated with declines in time spent with others for virtually all types of time use. However, the variety of activities that older and younger people do also differs. Using leisure activities to probe this finding reveals that, when older people spend time with others it tends to be during activities that are sui generis social activities—such as attending parties—but that this is not necessarily the case for younger people. The literature on time use and aging is discussed in light of these findings and a new hypothesis on agency in the life course is proposed. PMID:25190898

  16. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions.

  17. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    PubMed

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (p<0.05). In contrast, we observed that both SLA and Tb were higher during the dark-phase (p<0.01). Notably, the correlation analysis between the amount of SLA and the running capacity observed at each phase of the daily cycle revealed that, regardless of the time of the day, both types of locomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, p<0.01) without a direct relationship between them. This finding provides further support for the existence of specific control mechanisms for each type of physical activity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the relationship between the body temperature and different types of physical activity might be affected by the light/dark cycle. These results mean that, although exercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  18. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-06-25

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  19. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  20. Symptomatic fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Freal, J E; Kraft, G H; Coryell, J K

    1984-03-01

    Symptomatic fatigue has not been investigated previously in a multiple sclerosis population. Potential subjects were the 78% of 656 individuals with multiple sclerosis who indicated in a previous study that they experienced symptomatic fatigue. Three hundred nine subjects (60%) returned a follow-up questionnaire on symptomatic fatigue. Ninety percent described fatigue as "tiredness or the need to rest," but 43% of them indicated that "sleepiness" was part of the symptomatology. In 48% fatigue made other MS symptoms worse. Fatigue tended to occur in the late afternoon and evening. It occurred almost daily for more than 66% of the subjects. In 47% of the subjects fatigue usually subsided within a few hours; in other subjects occurrences were of variable length (40%) or lasted between 6 and 24 hours (8%). Ninety percent said that fatigue was worse at warmer environmental temperatures. Fatigue was worse for 83% after "vigorous exercise" and for 64% after "moderate exercise" although 15% reported that moderate exercise helped to reduce fatigue. Meditation, some drugs, and cooling with water reduced fatigue in a majority of the small proportion of the population trying these techniques. A planned daily schedule of activity and rest seemed to be a partially effective response to symptomatic fatigue for the majority of subjects studied.

  1. Daily and seasonal activity patterns in blackheaded munia.

    PubMed

    GuptA, Neelu Jain

    2014-05-01

    To test the circadian clock characteristics, activity behaviour of male blackheaded munia was recorded. Two experiments were performed. In experiment 1A, activity of munia was recorded under long days, LD (14L: 10D); and short days, SD (10L: 14D). Locomotor activity of two groups of munia exposed to equinox (12L: 12D) daylength followed by transfer of one group each to continuous dimlight (DD) and continuous bright light (LL) was recorded in experiment 1B. Experiment 2 aimed to describe seasonal trend in daily pattern of activity/rest cycle under natural illumination conditions (NDL). Hourly activity during daytime was more under SD than under LD. Munia did not exhibit bimodality in daily activity pattern; activity during morning, M (2h) was more than evening, E. A free-running activity rhythm was recorded in munia under DD; the same was arrhythmic under LL. The seasonal pattern in daily activity profiles under NDL corresponds to the seasonal changes in daylength. Daylength regulates daily and seasonal activity patterns in blackheaded munia. PMID:24851413

  2. Effects of motor fatigue on human brain activity, an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, Hiske; Renken, Remco; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of motor fatigue on brain activation in humans, using fMRI. First, we assessed brain activation that correlated with muscle activity during brief contractions at different force levels (force modulation). Second, a similar analysis was done for sustained contractions inducing motor fatigue. Third, we studied changes in brain activation due to motor fatigue over time. And fourth, we investigated cross-over effects of fatigue by comparing brain activation before and after the fatiguing condition during simple and high-order motor tasks (reaction time tasks). Several motor areas in the brain showed increased activity with increased muscle activity, both during force modulation and motor fatigue. Interestingly, the cerebellum showed a smaller increase in activation, during compensatory activation due to fatigue, while additional activation was found in the pre-supplementary motor area and in a frontal area. During motor fatigue, there was a decrease in force production, an increase in force variability, and an increase in muscle activity. Brain areas comparable with the aforementioned areas also showed stronger activation over time. After fatigue, reaction time task performance remained the same (compared to before fatigue), while increased activation in orbitofrontal areas was found. Furthermore, there was a reduction in subjects' maximal voluntary contraction force, accompanied by a decrease in activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA). These results suggest that especially the activity in the SMA and frontal areas is affected by motor fatigue.

  3. Sesame Lignans and Vitamin E Supplementation Improve Subjective Statuses and Anti-Oxidative Capacity in Healthy Humans With Feelings of Daily Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Daisuke; Yasutake, Yoko; Tomimori, Namino; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Junichi

    2015-03-25

    Sesamin has anti-oxidative functions in vivo. Fatigue is caused in part by oxidative stress. We evaluated whether sesame lignans (sesamin/episesamin=1/1, 10 mg) with vitamin E (55 mg of alpha-tocopherol) (SVE) could improve subjective statuses and anti-oxidative capacity in humans using questionnaires on fatigue, sleep and physical appearance, as well as low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted with subjects experiencing daily fatigue. After a run-in period, subjects were administered oral SVE or a placebo (P) for 8 weeks. A questionnaire regarding fatigue, sleep and physical appearance was conducted at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time was measured as an indicator of anti-oxidative capacity. The per-protocol analysis revealed significant improvements in fatigue status at 4 and 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks in both groups (p<0.01), and sleep and physical appearance at 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks only in the SVE group (p<0.01). There were no significant differences observed between the groups. According to the 72-subject subgroup analysis (aged 40 and over), the sleep and physical appearance significantly improved compared to the P group (p<0.05), and fatigue status showed a tendency for improvement compared to the P group. Anti-oxidative capacity in the SVE group significantly increased compared to the P group (p<0.01). No adverse events relating to SVE supplementation were confirmed. These results suggest SVE supplementation could safely alleviate daily fatigue and oxidative stress.

  4. Sesame Lignans and Vitamin E Supplementation Improve Subjective Statuses and Anti-Oxidative Capacity in Healthy Humans With Feelings of Daily Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Daisuke; Yasutake, Yoko; Tomimori, Namino; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin has anti-oxidative functions in vivo. Fatigue is caused in part by oxidative stress. We evaluated whether sesame lignans (sesamin/episesamin=1/1, 10 mg) with vitamin E (55 mg of alpha-tocopherol) (SVE) could improve subjective statuses and anti-oxidative capacity in humans using questionnaires on fatigue, sleep and physical appearance, as well as low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted with subjects experiencing daily fatigue. After a run-in period, subjects were administered oral SVE or a placebo (P) for 8 weeks. A questionnaire regarding fatigue, sleep and physical appearance was conducted at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time was measured as an indicator of anti-oxidative capacity. The per-protocol analysis revealed significant improvements in fatigue status at 4 and 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks in both groups (p<0.01), and sleep and physical appearance at 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks only in the SVE group (p<0.01). There were no significant differences observed between the groups. According to the 72-subject subgroup analysis (aged 40 and over), the sleep and physical appearance significantly improved compared to the P group (p<0.05), and fatigue status showed a tendency for improvement compared to the P group. Anti-oxidative capacity in the SVE group significantly increased compared to the P group (p<0.01). No adverse events relating to SVE supplementation were confirmed. These results suggest SVE supplementation could safely alleviate daily fatigue and oxidative stress. PMID:26153159

  5. Daily Physical Activity and Alcohol Use Across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Coffman, Donna L.; Lorek, Amy E.; Rebar, Amanda L.; Roche, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In contrast to proposals that physical activity (PA) can be a substitute for alcohol use, people who engage in greater overall PA generally consume more alcohol on average than less-active peers. Acknowledging that both PA and alcohol use vary considerably from day-to-day, this study evaluated whether established associations reflect daily behavioral coupling within-person, are an artifact of procedures that aggregate behavior over time, or both. Methods A lifespan sample of 150 adults (aged 19–89 years) completed three 21-day measurement bursts of a daily diary study. At the end of each day, they reported on their PA and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed in a negative binomial multilevel regression. Results As expected, both behaviors exhibited limited between-person variation. After controlling for age, sex, and seasonal and social calendar influences, daily deviations in PA were significantly associated with daily total alcohol use. Once the within-person process linking PA and alcohol use was controlled, usual PA and total alcohol use were not associated. Conclusions The established between-person association linking PA and alcohol use reflects the aggregation of a daily process that unfolds within-people over time. Further work is needed to identify mediators of this daily association and to evaluate causality, as well as to investigate these relations in high-risk samples. PMID:25222084

  6. Acoustic fatigue: Overview of activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixson, John S.; Roussos, Louis A.

    1987-04-01

    A number of aircraft and spacecraft configurations are being considered for future development. These include high-speed turboprop aircraft, advanced vertical take-off and landing fighter aircraft, and aerospace planes for hypersonic intercontinental cruise or flight to orbit and return. Review of the acoustic environment expected for these vehicles indicates levels high enough that acoustic fatigue must be considered. Unfortunately, the sonic fatique design technology used for current aircraft may not be adequate for these future vehicles. This has resulted in renewed emphasis on acoustic fatigue research at the NASA Langley Research Center. The overall objective of the Langley program is to develop methods and information for design of aerospace vehicles that will resist acoustic fatigue. The program includes definition of the acoustic loads acting on structures due to exhaust jets of boundary layers, and subsequent determination of the stresses within the structure due to these acoustic loads. Material fatigue associated with the high frequency structural stress reversal patterns resulting from acoustic loadings is considered to be an area requiring study, but no activity is currently underway.

  7. Acoustic fatigue: Overview of activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Roussos, Louis A.

    1987-01-01

    A number of aircraft and spacecraft configurations are being considered for future development. These include high-speed turboprop aircraft, advanced vertical take-off and landing fighter aircraft, and aerospace planes for hypersonic intercontinental cruise or flight to orbit and return. Review of the acoustic environment expected for these vehicles indicates levels high enough that acoustic fatigue must be considered. Unfortunately, the sonic fatique design technology used for current aircraft may not be adequate for these future vehicles. This has resulted in renewed emphasis on acoustic fatigue research at the NASA Langley Research Center. The overall objective of the Langley program is to develop methods and information for design of aerospace vehicles that will resist acoustic fatigue. The program includes definition of the acoustic loads acting on structures due to exhaust jets of boundary layers, and subsequent determination of the stresses within the structure due to these acoustic loads. Material fatigue associated with the high frequency structural stress reversal patterns resulting from acoustic loadings is considered to be an area requiring study, but no activity is currently underway.

  8. Active and Passive Fatigue in Simulated Driving: Discriminating Styles of Workload Regulation and Their Safety Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, Dyani J.; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S.; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Neubauer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PMID:24041288

  9. Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2008-07-01

    Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

  10. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIANQING; DU, CONGXIN; WANG, YIFEI; YU, ZHIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HEP) is a notable medicinal fungus grown in China and other oriental countries. Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of HEP in a mouse model. After one week of acclimation, mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose HEP-treated group, a moderate-dose HEP-treated group, and a high-dose HEP-treated group. The treated groups received HEP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received saline solution. Following treatment for 28 days, the mice performed a forced swimming test until they were exhausted, then the exhaustive swimming time was recorded along with certain biochemical parameters related to fatigue, including blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), tissue glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These results suggested that HEP has significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, as well as increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provided theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition. PMID:25574220

  11. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  12. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects. PMID:26506612

  13. Physical activity type and intensity among rural breast cancer survivors: patterns and associations with fatigue and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, Stephen J.; Courneya, Kerry S.; McAuley, Edward; Verhulst, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Our study aims were to describe physical activity patterns and associations with fatigue and depressive symptoms among rural breast cancer survivors. Methods Population-based, mailed survey of 483 rural breast cancer survivors including the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results With regard to type and intensity, domestic/gardening and moderate intensity accounted for the largest percentage of total energy expenditure (i.e., 60% and 69%, respectively). MET-mins/week variables were categorized as 0, > 0 to < 500, and ≥ 500 to reflect sedentary, insufficient, and meets current public health recommendations. After adjustment, fatigue was significantly associated with domestic/gardening (mean fatigue for sedentary, insufficient, and meets recommendations were 18.9, 16.4, and 13.4, respectively; p=.0019), leisure activity (means were 16.0, 14.5, and 11.8, respectively; p=.047), moderate intensity (means were 18.4, 16.7, and 13.7, respectively; p=.011), and daily minutes sitting (means for ≤ 120 min, > 120 to ≤ 360 min, and > 360 min of sitting were 12.5, 14.2, and 17.2, respectively; p=.0029). Fatigue was not associated with occupational, transportation, walking, or vigorous activity. After adjustment, only leisure activity was associated with depressive symptoms (means for sedentary, insufficient, and meets recommendations were 7.8, 7.7, and 6.2, respectively; p=.039). Conclusions Physical activity measurement tools that do not include domestic/gardening activities may underestimate physical activity in rural breast cancer populations. Physical activity associations with fatigue and depressive symptoms differed based on physical activity type and intensity suggesting hypotheses related to exercise effects on fatigue and depressive symptoms. PMID:21110134

  14. Daily physical activity patterns of children with delayed eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette R; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Allison, Kelly; Tremblay, Angelo; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

    2013-10-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a delayed pattern of energy intake. It is unknown if symptoms associated with this syndrome are accompanied by a delayed pattern of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between physical activity patterns and delayed eating behaviors in children. Children from the QUALITY cohort (n = 269, 45% female, aged 8-11 y) completed the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), which measures NES symptoms on a continuous scale and identifies single NES symptoms. Daily accelerometer data were transformed into mean counts per wear-time minute for each hour of the day. Children with high NEQ scores had higher levels of daily (p < 0.001) and evening physical activity (p = 0.05) and reached 75% of their total daily physical activity 20 minutes later than children with low NEQ scores (p < 0.05). Excessive evening snacking and a strong urge to eat in the evening or at night were the symptoms most related to these physical activity patterns. Children with delayed eating behaviors had higher levels of physical activity in the late morning and evening and a delayed physical activity pattern compared to children with no or fewer symptoms. Future research is needed to determine if physical activity plays a role in the onset or maintenance of night eating.

  15. Activities of Daily Living of Spanish-Speaking Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailinger, Rita L.

    This anthropological study reports on some of the activities of daily living (ADL's) of 19 Spanish-speaking families living in a low income suburb of Washington, D.C. ADL's are defined as those functions which are performed on a usual day. Generically they include eating, sleeping, communicating, working, and recreating. In this paper, they…

  16. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  17. Daily Social Enjoyment Interrupts the Cycle of Same-day and Next-day Fatigue in Women with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ellen W.; Davis, Mary C.; Aiken, Leona S.; Tennen, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a debilitating symptom of fibromyalgia (FM) that has limited treatment options. Some evidence, however, has linked positive social engagement with reduced within-day fatigue. Purpose This study elaborated longitudinal within-day and across-day relations between FM fatigue and social enjoyment. Methods 176 women with FM completed 21-day automated diaries assessing morning and end-of-day fatigue, and both afternoon social enjoyment and stress within two social domains: non-spousal and spousal. Results In the non-spousal domain, analysis supported a mediational path from lower morning fatigue to higher afternoon social enjoyment, which predicted lower end-of-day fatigue, and subsequently, lower next-morning fatigue. Enjoyment exerted a greater impact on within-day fatigue than did stress. Patterns in the spousal domain were similar, but the mediated path was nonsignificant. Conclusions Positive social engagement offers relief from FM fatigue that carries over across days and may provide an additional target to enhance the effectiveness of current interventions. PMID:25380634

  18. Youth activity spaces and daily exposure to tobacco outlets.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Morrison, Christopher; Grube, Joel W; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    We explored whether exposure to tobacco outlets in youths' broader activity spaces differs from that obtained using traditional geographic measures of exposure to tobacco outlet within buffers around homes and schools. Youths completed an initial survey, daily text-prompted surveys, and carried GPS-enabled phones for one week. GPS locations were geocoded and activity spaces were constructed by joining sequential points. We calculated the number of tobacco outlets around these polylines and around homes and schools. Results suggest that activity spaces provide a more accurate measure of tobacco outlet exposures than traditional measures. Assessing tobacco outlet exposure within activity spaces may yield significant information to advance the field.

  19. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  20. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  1. Oxygen saturation during daily activities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Soguel Schenkel, N; Burdet, L; de Muralt, B; Fitting, J W

    1996-12-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently develop nocturnal oxygen desturation because of alveolar hypoventilation, worsening of ventilation-perfusion mismatch, and sometimes obstructive sleep apnoeas. In contrast, little is known about their oxygen status during the various activities of daily life. The aim of this study was to compare the oxygen saturation profile during day and night, and to assess the influence of different daily activities in COPD. During a rehabilitation programme, we studied 30 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (median forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 37% of predicted), without marked hypoxaemia (median arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) 9.1 kPa). Arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,O2) was assessed by pulse oximetry during night (8 h) and day (10.5 h). The mean and minimal Sa,O2 were calculated, and desaturations were defined as Sa,O2 falls > 4%.h-1. Daily activities were identified by the patients as resting, eating, washing, nebulization therapy and walking. Mean Sa,O2 was lower during the night (88%) than during the day (89%). In contrast, minimal Sa,O2 was lower during the day (69%) than during the night (72%), and the number of desaturations was higher during the day (8.6 desaturations.h-1) than during the night (6.8 desaturations.h-1). Mean Sa,O2 was 88% during walking, which was lower than during resting (90%), nebulization (90%), and meals (89%). The number of desaturations was higher during walking (13.1 desaturations.h-1), washing (12.6 desaturations.h-1), and eating (9.2 desaturations.h-1) than during resting (5.3 desaturations.h-1). We conclude that daily activities, such as walking, washing and eating, are associated with transient oxygen desaturation in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even without marked resting hypoxaemia.

  2. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth’s daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers’, fathers’, and two adolescent-age siblings’ cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for education achievement) were collected, along with data on youth risky behavior and depressive symptoms. In 7 nightly phone calls, youth reported on their day’s free time activities (i.e., sports, academics, religious activities, television viewing, and hanging out). Analyses revealed that youth who spent more time in unsupervised hanging out reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, and those who spent more time in academic activities reported less risky behavior. Results also indicated that more Anglo-oriented youth spent more time in sports, that more Mexican-oriented youth spent more time watching television, that fathers’ familism values were related to youth’s time in religious activities, and that parents’ educational values were linked to youth’s time in academic activities. Some evidence indicated that parents’ cultural practices and values, particularly fathers’, moderated the links between daily activities and youth adjustment. PMID:19636760

  3. Effect of supplement with lactic-acid producing bacteria on fatigue and physical activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Åsa; Nord, Carl E; Evengård, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances in intestinal microbial ecology and in the immune system of the host have been implicated as a part of the pathogenesis in chronic fatigue syndrome. Probiotic lactic acid producing bacteria have been shown to prevent and alleviate gastrointestinal disturbances and to normalize the cytokine profile which might be of an advantage for patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFB 1748 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on fatigue and physical activity in CFS patients. Fifteen patients fulfilling the criteria set by international researchers in the field at the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in 1994 for chronic fatigue syndrome, were included in the study. The patients had high fatigue severity scores and high disability scores. During the first two weeks baseline observations without treatment were assessed, succeeded by four weeks of intake of a probiotic product and a four-week follow-up period. The fatigue, health and physical activity was assessed by the use of the Visual Analogue Scales and the SF-12 Health Survey. Faecal samples were collected and the normal microflora was analysed. Neurocognitive functions improved during the study period while there were no significant changes in fatigue and physical activity scores. No major changes occurred in the gastrointestinal microflora. At the end of the study 6 of 15 patients reported that they had improved according to the assessment described. The findings in this study that improvement of health is possible to achieve should encourage further studies with interventions with probiotics in patients with CFS. PMID:19171024

  4. Effect of supplement with lactic-acid producing bacteria on fatigue and physical activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Asa; Nord, Carl E; Evengård, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances in intestinal microbial ecology and in the immune system of the host have been implicated as a part of the pathogenesis in chronic fatigue syndrome. Probiotic lactic acid producing bacteria have been shown to prevent and alleviate gastrointestinal disturbances and to normalize the cytokine profile which might be of an advantage for patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFB 1748 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on fatigue and physical activity in CFS patients. Fifteen patients fulfilling the criteria set by international researchers in the field at the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in 1994 for chronic fatigue syndrome, were included in the study. The patients had high fatigue severity scores and high disability scores. During the first two weeks baseline observations without treatment were assessed, succeeded by four weeks of intake of a probiotic product and a four-week follow-up period. The fatigue, health and physical activity was assessed by the use of the Visual Analogue Scales and the SF-12 Health Survey. Faecal samples were collected and the normal microflora was analysed. Neurocognitive functions improved during the study period while there were no significant changes in fatigue and physical activity scores. No major changes occurred in the gastrointestinal microflora. At the end of the study 6 of 15 patients reported that they had improved according to the assessment described. The findings in this study that improvement of health is possible to achieve should encourage further studies with interventions with probiotics in patients with CFS. PMID:19171024

  5. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  6. Daily activities and sleep quality in college students.

    PubMed

    Carney, Colleen E; Edinger, Jack D; Meyer, Björn; Lindman, Linda; Istre, Tai

    2006-01-01

    There is growing evidence that social rhythms (e.g., daily activities such as getting into or out of bed, eating, and adhering to a work schedule) have important implications for sleep. The present study used a prospective measure of daily activities to assess the relation between sleep and social rhythms. College students (n=243) 18 to 39 yrs of age, completed the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM) each day for 14 d and then completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The sample was divided into groups of good or poor sleepers, according to a PSQI cut-off score of 5 points and was compared on the regularity, frequency, timing, and extent of social engagement during activities. There was a lower frequency and less regularity of social rhythms in poor sleepers relative to good sleepers. Good sleepers engaged more regularly in activities with active social engagement. Earlier rise time, first consumption of a beverage, going outdoors for the first time, and bedtime were associated with better sleep. Greater variability in rise time, consuming a morning beverage, returning home for the last time, and bedtime were associated with more disturbed sleep. The results are consistent with previous findings of reduced regularity in bedtime and rise time schedules in undergraduates, other age groups, and in clinical populations. Results augment the current thought that regulating behavioral zeitgebers may be important in influencing bed and rise times, and suggest that engaging in activities with other people may increase regularity.

  7. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: effects on memory activation in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Nicolson, Nancy A; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cortisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were scanned (functional magnetic resonance imaging) during memory encoding and recognition tasks in fatigue and control conditions. A group of 15 'responders' showed significantly higher cortisol levels in the fatigue condition than 12 'non-responders'. Responders showed higher subjective fatigue and reduced encoding and recognition activation than non-responders in the fatigue condition. An interaction in activation changes in the right hippocampus during encoding reflected decreased activation in responders, but somewhat increased activation in non-responders in the fatigue compared to control condition. Moreover, decreased hippocampal activation in responders was associated with increased subjective fatigue. Findings are consistent with a central role for the hippocampus in differences between responders and non-responders and also implicate the right hippocampus in individual differences in induced cognitive fatigue effects.

  8. Daily rhythms of activity and temperature of Macaca nemestrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Sickles, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity and temperature rhythms of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) maintained in LD 16:8 at 25 C in specially designed restraint chairs have been examined. Activity was monitored via a sensor that was attached to the restraint chair. Temperature was monitored at the axilla, ankle and ear. All variables showed prominent day-night variations, and except for ankle temperature, had highest values during the daytime. These results show that the regulation of the daily rhythm of body temperature involves anatomical sites that are utilized in a temporally distinct fashion.

  9. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction.

  10. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  11. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  12. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Li J.; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J.; Cheng, Jia L.; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  13. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  14. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  15. Factors affecting daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Cheng-ye; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun-feng; Zou, Chang-lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability. This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction so as to take interventional measures earlier to improve their daily activities. METHODS: A total of 149 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction were recruited into this prospective study. They were admitted to the Encephalopathy Center, Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College in Zhejiang Province from August 2008 to December 2008. The baseline characteristics of the patients and cerebral infarction risk factors on the first day of admission were recorded. White blood cell (WBC) count, plasma glucose (PG), and many others of laboratory targets were collected in the next morning. Barthel index (BI) was calculated at 2 weeks and 3 months respectively after onset of the disease at the outpatient clinic or by telephone call. Lung infection, urinary tract infection and atrial fibrillation if any were recorded on admission. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and the GCS scores were recorded within 24 hours on and after admission, at the second week, and at the third month after the onset of cerebral infarction respectively. RESULTS: The factors of BI at 2 weeks and 3 months after onset were the initial PG level, WBC count and initial NIHSS scores. Besides, urinary tract infection on admission was also the factor for BI at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Active measures should be taken to control these factors to improve the daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25214953

  16. Thermally activated processes of fatigue crack growth in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Fujii, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Fatigue crack growth rates in steels at high and low temperatures have been investigated using Paris curves. The fatigue crack growth rates at high temperatures are quite different from those at low temperatures. Arrhenius plots between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and test temperatures at constant stress intensity factor range (ΔKI) indicate a difference of the rate-controlling process for fatigue crack growth with temperature. Slip deformation at the crack tip governs fatigue crack growth at high temperatures, while hydrogen diffusion is associated with crack growth at low temperatures.

  17. Interplay between patient global assessment, pain, and fatigue and influence of other clinical disease activity measures in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2015-07-01

    The interplay between patient-reported outcome measures in rheumatology is not well clarified. The objective of the study was to examine associations on the group level and concordance on the individual patient level between patient global assessment (PaGl), pain, and fatigue as scored on visual analog scales (VAS) in the daily clinic by patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Associations with other measures of disease activity were also examined. Traditional disease activity data on 221 RA patients with active disease planned to initiate biological treatment were extracted from the Danish DANBIO registry. Associations between VAS PaGl, pain, and fatigue (0-100) were examined using multiple regression analysis. Concordance between the VAS scores was expressed as the bias (mean difference between intra-individual scores) and the 95% lower and upper limits of agreement (LLoA; ULoA) according to the Bland-Altman method. Mean age was 57 ± 14 years, mean Disease Activity Score (DAS28-CRP4) 5.0 ± 0.9, and mean PaGl 63.6 ± 22.6. PaGl was most strongly predicted by pain and fatigue, pain by PaGl and fatigue, and fatigue by PaGl and pain (beta ranging from 0.17 to 0.69, p < 0.01-0.0001). More objective measures were not or far less predictive. LLoA;ULoA [bias] for PaGl vs. pain was -19.1; 29.5 [5.2], for PaGl vs. fatigue -22.8; 28.6 [2.9], and for fatigue vs. pain -29.2; 33.8 [2.3]. In conclusion, PaGl, pain, and fatigue were most strongly explained by each other, not by more objective clinical measures of disease activity and were nearly identical on the group level. On the individual patient level, however, differences between the scores varied considerably. The findings highlight the challenge of understanding and dealing with traditional patient-reported VAS measures when it comes to individual RA patients in the daily clinic.

  18. Physical activity, smoking, and exercise-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Crow, R S; Jacobs, D R; Mittelmark, M B; Leon, A S

    1984-06-01

    This study determined whether persons with coronary risk factors have increased fatigue during or after exercise. Ratings of perceived exertion were first shown to be a valid measure of fatigue; i.e., ratings of perceived exertion correlated with heart rate both during and after exercise and at each of three exercise tests (all within-subjects r greater than 0.88). Physical inactivity and smoking were associated with increased fatigue. Inactive men and smokers had higher levels of fatigue during both exercise and recovery conditions and at each of three exercise test. The increased fatigue of men who were inactive and smoked was not entirely due to their lower level of fitness. The risk factors of age, Type A behavior pattern, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein, and obesity were not associated with increased fatigue. The increased fatigue experienced by inactive persons and smokers may account for their decreased compliance to exercise programs.

  19. Detecting daily activity of solitary living elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2015-01-01

    We report on an activity monitoring system for elderly persons living alone. Caregivers would like to know whether the person is talking during their daily activity. Our monitoring system consists of a recorder and a personal computer. The recorder, attached to the subject's chest, employs two microphones, a tri-axis accelerometer, two low-power amplifiers, a low-power microcomputer (MC) and a 2GB micro SD Memory Card (SDMC). One of the microphones is set in the direction of the chest for recording the person's voice, and the other microphone is set to the opposite side for recording surrounding sound. The microphone outputs and the accelerometer outputs are sent to the MC’s 10 bit analog to digital converters and sampled at 4000Hz and 50Hz, respectively. The MC detects the length of the conversation time from the microphone outputs, and the posture and behavior are detected from the accelerometer outputs every 5 seconds. The detected time, posture and behavior are stored in the SDMC. The data can be downloaded from the memory card and sent to appropriate stations. The system is used to monitor the health and physical conditions during daily life of elderly persons living alone.

  20. Activity Pacing Self-Management in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Eupen, Inge; Meirte, Jill; Van Cauwenbergh, Deborah; Moorkens, Greta; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activity pacing self-management (APSM) intervention in improving performance of daily life activities in women with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHOD. A total of 33 women with CFS (age 41.1 ± 11.2 yr) were randomly allocated to APSM (experimental group; n = 16) or relaxation (control group; n = 17). Main outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM; primary) and Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). RESULTS. COPM scores changed significantly over time in both groups (p = .03). The change in Satisfaction scores showed a significant difference in favor only of APSM (effect size = 0.74 [0.11, 1.4]). CIS scores decreased significantly in the experimental group only (p < .01). CONCLUSION. APSM was found to be feasible and effective in optimizing participation in desired daily life activities in women with CFS. Replication in a larger sample with long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26356665

  1. Activities of Daily Living Scale in Hoarding Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Hristova, Veselina; Steketee, Gail; Tolin, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Research on hoarding over the last two decades has shown that hoarding disorder appears to be a distinct disorder that burdens the individual, the community and the families of people who hoard. Although hoarding clearly interferes with the daily functioning, especially in the context of extensive clutter, no validated measures of this interference have been developed. The present research examined the psychometric properties of the Activities of Daily Living in Hoarding scale (ADL-H) in two large samples of individuals with significant hoarding problems, one identified through the internet (n=363) and a second through clinical diagnostic interviews (n=202). The ADL-H scale test-retest (1–12 weeks), interrater and internal reliabilities ranged from 0.79 to 0.96. Convergent and discriminant validity were established through analyses of correlational data collected for measures of hoarding severity and non-hoarding psychopathology (obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD], mood state, attention deficit, and perfectionism/uncertainty), as well as through comparisons of scores among individuals with hoarding, hoarding plus OCD, OCD without hoarding, and community controls. The ADL-H scale appears to have strong psychometric properties and to be useful in clinical and research settings. Suggestions are made for expansion of the scale, and study limitations are noted. PMID:23482436

  2. Fatigue, pain and patient global assessment responses to biological treatment are unpredictable, and poorly inter-connected in individual rheumatoid arthritis patients followed in the daily clinic.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ole Rintek; Egsmose, Eva Marie

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate relations on group level and agreements on the individual patient level between changes in fatigue, pain and patient global assessment (PaGl) assessed on visual analogue scales (VAS) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after initiating or switching biological treatment. Associations with other disease measures were also examined. Traditional disease activity data on 177 patients with RA registered before and after 6-month treatment were extracted from the Danish DANBIO registry. Associations were examined using multiple regression analysis. Agreement between the VAS score changes (∆) was expressed as the bias (mean difference) and the 95 % lower and upper limits of agreement (LoA). All disease measures improved significantly. ∆fatigue, ∆pain and ∆PaGl were independently associated with each other (r partial range 0.38-0.81, p < 0.0001), but not to a significant degree with changes in other measures. Lower and upper LoA [bias] for ∆fatigue versus ∆pain was -44.0 and 51.8 [3.9], for ∆fatigue versus ∆PaGl -38.2 and 52.4 [4.2], and for ∆PaGl versus ∆pain -34.3 and 34.3 [0.0]. ∆fatigue, ∆pain and ∆PaGl were independently but weakly predicted by their own baseline values (r partial range -0.30 to -0.46, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, changes in fatigue, pain and PaGl were independently associated and nearly identical on group level but agreements were poor in individual patients. The changes were poorly explained by other potential predictor variables and by baseline values. The results expose the unpredictable nature of patient-reported VAS scores in individual patients with RA. PMID:27449345

  3. Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADL) Limitation Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation This measure ... Age Group Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living Limitation by Age Group ...

  4. Exercise and Cancer-related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M; Peppone, Luke J; Palesh, Oxana G; Janelsins, Michelle C; Mohile, Supriya G; Purnell, Jason Q; Darling, Tom V

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue is the most common side effect reported by cancer patients during and after treatment. Cancer-related fatigue significantly interferes with a patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living and maintain functional independence and quality of life. Cancer-related fatigue can also interfere with a patient’s ability to complete treatments. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of cancer-related fatigue, its pathopsychophysiology, and the role of exercise in the management of this side effect. PMID:21853012

  5. Adolescents' daily activities and the restorative niches that support them.

    PubMed

    Roe, Jenny J; Aspinall, Peter A

    2012-09-01

    This paper explores wellbeing from the perspective of the psychological dynamics underlying adolescents' relationship with place. It uses a dynamic model of wellbeing called personal project analysis (PPA) which captures the concept of 'flourishing', defined as functioning well in your activities, strivings and interactions with the world [1]. Using PPA methods we identified adolescents' daily activities and the 'restorative niches' that best support them. A series of settings (including home, urban and natural outdoor places) were explored using PPA with 45 young people (aged 11-13) living in Edinburgh, Central Scotland. Participants were asked to think of eight projects of current importance to them, to say where the project took place and to rate each project against a series of core wellbeing dimensions measuring project meaning, manageability, support and affect (how much fun, stress etc.). Latent class analysis was carried out to explore clusters-or sub-groups-in the data and to identify the significant discriminators between clusters. A three-cluster model produced the best fit with project type, project place and wellbeing indicators (fun and stress) significantly discriminating between the three clusters. The three clusters were labeled by their dominant environmental context, 'faraway' (e.g., beach, national parks, hills), 'everyday' (e.g., home, school, local streets) and 'citywide' (e.g., sport settings, urban town context). 'Faraway' and 'citywide' clusters had a significantly higher wellbeing content, especially for fun and stress; the 'everyday' cluster indicated local environs remain a dominant project place for this age group, but are associated with greater stress. We compare findings with adults and suggest that outdoor settings further afield from home have greater significance within adolescent project systems, but that support is needed to facilitate access to these places.

  6. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs.

  7. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs. PMID:25896955

  8. The effect of leg muscle activation state and localized muscle fatigue on tibial response during impact.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Adriana M; Andrews, David M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of voluntarily manipulating muscle activation and localized muscle fatigue on tibial response parameters, including peak tibial acceleration, time to peak tibial acceleration, and the acceleration slope, measured at the knee during unshod heel impacts. A human pendulum delivered consistent impacts to 15 female and 15 male subjects. The tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were examined using electromyography, thus allowing voluntary contraction to various activation states (baseline, 15%, 30%, 45%, and 60% of the maximum activation state) and assessing localized muscle fatigue. A skin-mounted uniaxial accelerometer, preloaded medial to the tibial tuberosity, allowed tibial response parameter determination. There were significant decreases in peak acceleration during tibialis anterior fatigue, compared to baseline and all other activation states. In females, increased time to peak acceleration and decreased acceleration slope occurred during fatigue compared to 30% and 45%, and compared to 15% through 60% of the maximum activation state, respectively. Slight peak acceleration and acceleration slope increases, and decreased time to peak acceleration as activation state increased during tibialis anterior testing, were noted. When examining the lateral gastrocnemius, the time to peak acceleration was significantly higher across gender in the middle activation states than at the baseline and fatigue states. The acceleration slope decreased at all activation states above baseline in females, and decreased at 60% of the maximum activation state in males compared to the baseline and fatigue states. Findings agree with localized muscle fatigue literature, suggesting that with fatigue there is decreased impact transmission, which may protect the leg. The relative effects of leg stiffness and ankle angle on tibial response need to be verified.

  9. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary C.; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H.; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E.; Orii, Koji O.; Mason, Robert W.; Montaño, Adriana M.; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: “Movement,” “Movement with cognition,” and “Cognition.” Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10 years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of “Movement” and “Movement with cognition.” Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10 years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5 years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10 years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls. PMID:27161890

  10. Protocol for the "four steps to control your fatigue (4-STEPS)" randomised controlled trial: a self-regulation based physical activity intervention for patients with unexplained chronic fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unexplained Chronic Fatigue is a medical condition characterized by the presence of persistent, severe and debilitating medically unexplained fatigue, leading to impaired functioning and lower quality of life. Research suggests that physical activity can contribute to the reduction of fatigue and other somatic symptoms and can thus significantly improve physical functioning and quality of life in these patients. Based on the self-regulation (SR) theory of behaviour change, we developed a brief physical activity program for patients suffering from unexplained chronic fatigue which focuses on the training of self-regulation skills, the "4-STEPS to control your fatigue" program. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) that will be carried out in local primary care centres and at the Portuguese Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients Association. Patients aged between 18 and 65 and fulfilling operationalized criteria for Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue (ICF) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) will be recruited and randomly allocated to standard care (SC) or standard care plus a self-regulation based physical activity program (4-STEPS). Patients will be assessed at baseline, after the intervention (3 months) and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is fatigue severity. Discussion The results of the RCT will provide information about the effectiveness of a brief self-regulation intervention for promoting physical activity in patients with unexplained chronic fatigue. If the program proves to be effective, it may be considered as an adjunctive treatment for these patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN70763996 PMID:22429404

  11. Physical Activity and Fatigue in Breast Cancer and Multiple Sclerosis: Psychosocial Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; White, Siobhan M.; Rogers, Laura Q.; Motl, Robert W.; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of self-efficacy and depression as potential pathways from physical activity to fatigue in two study samples: breast cancer survivors (BCS; N=192) and individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS; N=292). Methods We hypothesized that physical activity would be indirectly associated with fatigue through its influence on self-efficacy and depressive symptomatology. A cross-sectional path analysis (BCS) and a longitudinal panel model (MS) were conducted within a covariance modeling framework. Results Physical activity had a direct effect on self-efficacy, and in turn, self-efficacy had both a direct effect on fatigue and an indirect effect through depressive symptomatology in both samples. In the MS sample, physical activity also had a direct effect on fatigue. All model fit indices were excellent. These associations remained significant when controlling for demographics and health status indicators. Conclusions Our findings suggest support for at least one set of psychosocial pathways from physical activity to fatigue, an important concern in chronic disease. Subsequent work might replicate such associations in other diseased populations and attempt to determine whether model relations change with physical activity interventions, and the extent to which other known correlates of fatigue such as impaired sleep and inflammation can be incorporated into this model. PMID:19949160

  12. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity.

    PubMed

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203

  13. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    PubMed Central

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203

  14. Can Cognitive Activities during Breaks in Repetitive Manual Work Accelerate Recovery from Fatigue? A Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M.; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may

  15. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may be

  16. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people.

  17. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. PMID:27224647

  18. Instantaneous quantification of skeletal muscle activation, power production, and fatigue during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Coelho, A C; Cannon, D T; Cao, R; Porszasz, J; Casaburi, R; Knorst, M M; Rossiter, H B

    2015-03-01

    A rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling allows the velocity-specific decline in maximal power to be measured, i.e., fatigue. We reasoned that, should the baseline relationship between isokinetic power (Piso) and electromyography (EMG) be reproducible, then contributions to fatigue may be isolated from 1) the decline in muscle activation (muscle activation fatigue); and 2) the decline in Piso at a given activation (muscle fatigue). We hypothesized that the EMG-Piso relationship is linear, velocity dependent, and reliable for instantaneous fatigue assessment at intolerance during and following whole body exercise. Healthy participants (n = 13) completed short (5 s) variable-effort isokinetic bouts at 50, 70, and 100 rpm to characterize baseline EMG-Piso. Repeated ramp incremental exercise tests were terminated with maximal isokinetic cycling (5 s) at 70 rpm. Individual baseline EMG-Piso relationships were linear (r(2) = 0.95 ± 0.04) and velocity dependent (analysis of covariance). Piso at intolerance (two legs, 335 ± 88 W) was ∼45% less than baseline [630 ± 156 W, confidence interval of the difference (CIDifference) 211, 380 W, P < 0.05]. Following intolerance, Piso recovered rapidly (F = 44.1; P < 0.05; η(2) = 0.79): power was reduced (P < 0.05) vs. baseline only at 0-min (CIDifference 80, 201 W) and 1-min recovery (CIDifference 13, 80 W). Activation fatigue and muscle fatigue (one leg) were 97 ± 55 and 60 ± 50 W, respectively. Mean bias ± limits of agreement for reproducibility were as follows: baseline Piso 1 ± 30 W; Piso at 0-min recovery 3 ± 35 W; and EMG at Piso 3 ± 14%. EMG power is linear, velocity dependent, and reproducible. Deviation from this relationship at the limit of tolerance can quantify the "activation" and "muscle" related components of fatigue during cycling.

  19. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP. PMID:26506375

  20. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-21

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  1. Two types of mental fatigue affect spontaneous oscillatory brain activities in different ways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatigue has a multi-factorial nature. We examined the effects of two types of mental fatigue on spontaneous oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, crossover fashion to perform two types of mental fatigue-inducing experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30-min fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back test session and two evaluation sessions performed just before and after the fatigue-inducing mental task session. Results After the 0-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right angular gyrus and increased levels in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right medial frontal gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left inferior parietal and superior parietal lobules, right parahippocampal gyrus, right uncus, left postcentral gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. For beta power, increased power following the 0-back test was indicated in the left middle temporal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left precentral gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased power was suggested in the left superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule. Some of these brain regions might be associated with task performance during the fatigue-inducing trials. Conclusions Two types of mental fatigue may produce different alterations of the spontaneous oscillatory MEG activities. Our findings would provide new perspectives on the neural mechanisms underlying mental fatigue. PMID:23305089

  2. Unstimulated cortisol secretory activity in everyday life and its relationship with fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review and subset meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel J H; Liossi, Christina; Moss-Morris, Rona; Schlotz, Wolff

    2013-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a psychoneuroendocrine regulator of the stress response and immune system, and dysfunctions have been associated with outcomes in several physical health conditions. Its end product, cortisol, is relevant to fatigue due to its role in energy metabolism. The systematic review examined the relationship between different markers of unstimulated salivary cortisol activity in everyday life in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fatigue assessed in other clinical and general populations. Search terms for the review related to salivary cortisol assessments, everyday life contexts, and fatigue. All eligible studies (n=19) were reviewed narratively in terms of associations between fatigue and assessed cortisol markers, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), circadian profile (CP) output, and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS). Subset meta-analyses were conducted of case-control CFS studies examining group differences in three cortisol outcomes: CAR output; CAR increase; and CP output. Meta-analyses revealed an attenuation of the CAR increase within CFS compared to controls (d=-.34) but no statistically significant differences between groups for other markers. In the narrative review, total cortisol output (CAR or CP) was rarely associated with fatigue in any population; CAR increase and DCS were most relevant. Outcomes reflecting within-day change in cortisol levels (CAR increase; DCS) may be the most relevant to fatigue experience, and future research in this area should report at least one such marker. Results should be considered with caution due to heterogeneity in one meta-analysis and the small number of studies.

  3. Muscle Activity Adaptations to Spinal Tissue Creep in the Presence of Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Nougarou, François

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify adaptations in muscle activity distribution to spinal tissue creep in presence of muscle fatigue. Methods Twenty-three healthy participants performed a fatigue task before and after 30 minutes of passive spinal tissue deformation in flexion. Right and left erector spinae activity was recorded using large-arrays surface electromyography (EMG). To characterize muscle activity distribution, dispersion was used. During the fatigue task, EMG amplitude root mean square (RMS), median frequency and dispersion in x- and y-axis were compared before and after spinal creep. Results Important fatigue-related changes in EMG median frequency were observed during muscle fatigue. Median frequency values showed a significant main creep effect, with lower median frequency values on the left side under the creep condition (p≤0.0001). A significant main creep effect on RMS values was also observed as RMS values were higher after creep deformation on the right side (p = 0.014); a similar tendency, although not significant, was observed on the left side (p = 0.06). A significant creep effects for x-axis dispersion values was observed, with higher dispersion values following the deformation protocol on the left side (p≤0.001). Regarding y-axis dispersion values, a significant creep x fatigue interaction effect was observed on the left side (p = 0.016); a similar tendency, although not significant, was observed on the right side (p = 0.08). Conclusion Combined muscle fatigue and creep deformation of spinal tissues led to changes in muscle activity amplitude, frequency domain and distribution. PMID:26866911

  4. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  5. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis is associated with abnormal cortical activation to voluntary movement--EEG evidence.

    PubMed

    Leocani, L; Colombo, B; Magnani, G; Martinelli-Boneschi, F; Cursi, M; Rossi, P; Martinelli, V; Comi, G

    2001-06-01

    Converging evidence is consistent with the view that fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis is independent from pyramidal tract involvement, suggesting a possible involvement of frontal areas. During voluntary movement, changes of the EEG rhythms can be observed over sensorimotor areas. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of the 10 and 20 Hz frequency bands occurs during motor planning and execution and is followed after movement termination by event-related synchronization (ERS), expressing cortical idling or inhibition. We evaluated the pattern of cortical activation to voluntary movement in MS patients complaining of fatigue assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Fifteen MS patients complaining of fatigue, 18 MS patients without fatigue, and 14 normal controls were studied. The two patients groups were similar for age, sex, disease duration, and were not disabled (score <1.5 at the Expanded Disability Status Scale). Twenty-nine channel EEG was recorded during about 60 self-paced extensions of the right thumb. The onset latency and amount of the contralateral sensorimotor (C3 electrode) 10 and 18--22 Hz ERD were similar in the three groups. ERD was more widespread anteriorly in the fatigue group compared with normal controls (P < 0.01 over Fz electrode). Postmovement contralateral sensorimotor 18--22 Hz ERS was significantly lower in fatigue MS patients compared with normal subjects (P < 0.005) and with nonfatigue MS patients (P = 0.02). These findings are consistent with a central origin of fatigue in MS and indicate cortical dysfunction even during a simple motor task, resulting in hyperactivity during movement execution and failure of the inhibitory mechanisms intervening after movement termination. PMID:11352624

  6. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of sufu with fortification of isoflavones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunxian; Zhou, Yun; Nirasawa, Satoru; Tatsumi, Eizo; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Lite

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sufu is a traditional Chinese fermented soybean food. Isoflavones are abundant in soybean and products incorporated with isoflavones exert many health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-fatigue effect of sufu fortified with isoflavones. Materials and Methods: In vivo anti-fatigue activity of sufu with fortification of isoflavones (IF) was investigated in this study via exhaustive swimming test using ICR mice and determination of biochemical parameters. Factors relating to fatigue, including hepatic glycogen, blood lactic acid (BLA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined. The isoflavone composition in the IF sufu was also determined to explore the anti-fatigue activity of isoflavones. Results: During fermentation, isoflavone glucosides were converted into aglycones and both sufu with and without fortification of IF prolonged the exhaustive swimming time of ICR mice. Intake of sufu also increased the hepatic glycogen content, while it decreased the levels of both the blood lactic acid (BLA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) content. A dose-response relationship was observed in both exhaustive swimming and BLA clearance test, with medium dose (1%) fortification of IF revealing the highest activity. Conclusion: IF sufu could possess high anti-fatigue activity. PMID:25210327

  7. Daily Oxygen/O3 Treatment Reduces Muscular Fatigue and Improves Cardiac Performance in Rats Subjected to Prolonged High Intensity Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, C.; Trotta, M. C.; Maisto, R.; Siniscalco, D.; Luongo, M.; Mascolo, L.; Alfano, R.; Accardo, M.; Rossi, C.; Ferraraccio, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2015-01-01

    Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (−13%), the heart rate (−6%), the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p < 0.05) and more effective (+14%) at a dose of 300 μg/kg oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 dose-dependently increased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx1 and of eNOS compared to the exercised O2 rats. The same doses resulted in decrease of LDH levels, CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise. PMID:26265981

  8. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  9. Throwing and catching movements exhibit post-activation potentiation effects following fatigue.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    Many sport and exercise activities require powerful movements of the upper body. Despite their importance, there is a paucity of research examining stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) activities occurring in the upper limbs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue on throwing performance (height of throw) and biomechanical factors of the upper limbs (reactive strength index; hand contact time) using a specially constructed sledge apparatus for the upper body. Ten male subjects aged between 19 and 21 years performed a series of rebound throws (RBT) in a non-fatigued state to obtain a maximal baseline throw score. Subjects then performed a RBT fatiguing protocol on the upper body sledge followed by further RBT, at 15, 45, 120 and 300-seconds post fatigue. Markers on the subjects' limb and the sledge were analysed using Motion Analysis Corporation 3-D kinematic analysis system (200 Hz). Throwing height, contact time and reactive strength index were determined. Mean throwing height and reactive strength index showed significant decreases following fatigue and increases during recovery (p < 0.05). The results confirm the presence ofpost-activation potentiation (PAP) in RBT performance. This finding could be useful when optimising recovery periods in training or implementing complex training methods.

  10. Evaluation of fatigue cracks using nonlinearities of acousto-ultrasonic waves acquired by an active sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Qiang; Cheng, Li

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic (AU) waves to detect damage onset (e.g., micro-fatigue cracks) due to their high sensitivity to damage with small dimensions. However, most existing approaches are able to infer the existence of fatigue damage qualitatively, but fail to further ascertain its location and severity. A damage characterization approach, in conjunction with the use of an active piezoelectric sensor network, was established, capable of evaluating fatigue cracks in a quantitative manner (including the co-presence of multiple fatigue cracks, and their individual locations and severities). Fundamental investigations, using both experiment and enhanced finite element analysis dedicated to the simulation of nonlinear AU waves, were carried out to link the accumulation of nonlinearities extracted from high-order AU waves to the characteristic parameters of a fatigue crack. A probability-based diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed, facilitating an intuitive presentation of identification results in images. The approach was verified experimentally by evaluating multi-fatigue cracks near rivet holes of a fatigued aluminum plate, showing satisfactory precision in characterizing real, barely visible fatigue cracks. Compared with existing methods, this approach innovatively (i) uses permanently integrated active sensor networks, conducive to automatic and online health monitoring; (ii) characterizes fatigue cracks at a quantitative level; (iii) allows detection of multiple fatigue cracks; and (iv) visualizes identification results in intuitive images.

  11. Fatigue behavior of a thermally-activated NiTiNb SMA-FRP patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tahan, M.; Dawood, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the details of an experimental study that was conducted to characterize the fatigue behavior of a thermally-activated shape memory alloy (SMA)/carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) patch that can be used to repair cracked steel members. A total of 14 thermally-activated patches were fabricated and tested to evaluate the stability of the prestress under fatigue loading. The parameters considered in this study are the prestress level in the nickel-titanium-niobium SMA wires and the applied force range. An empirical model to predict the degradation of the prestress is also presented. The results indicate that patches for which the maximum applied loads in a fatigue cycle did not cause debonding of the SMA wires from the CFRP sustained two million loading cycles with less than 20% degradation of the prestress.

  12. Voluntary activation deficits of the infraspinatus present as a consequence of pitching-induced fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Jaipal; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Hurd, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis Neuromuscular inhibition of the infraspinatus would be greater and external rotation muscle force would be lower after a simulated game compared with pregame values. Materials and methods The sample included 21 uninjured, asymptomatic high school–aged baseball pitchers. Maximum volitional shoulder external rotation strength was assessed before and after a simulated game with a clinical dynamometer. Voluntary activation of the infraspinatus was assessed during strength testing by a modified burst superimposition technique. Performance-related fatigue was assessed by monitoring pitch velocity, and global fatigue was assessed by subject self-report before and after the game. Statistical testing included paired and independent t tests, with α ≤ 05. Results There was no difference between throwing and non-throwing shoulder external rotation strength (P = .12) or voluntary infraspinatus activation (P = .27) before the game. After the game, voluntary activation was significantly lower in the throwing limb compared with pregame activation levels (P = .01). Lower external rotation strength after the game approached statistical significance (P =.06). Pitch velocity was lower in the final inning compared with first-inning velocity (P = .01), and fatigue was significantly greater after the game (P = .01). Conclusions Voluntary infraspinatus muscle activation is a mechanism contributing to external rotation muscle weakness in the fatigued pitcher. Understanding mechanisms contributing to muscle weakness is necessary to develop effective injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. Treatment techniques that enhance neuromuscular activation may be a useful strategy for enhancing strength in this population. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Kinesiology Study. PMID:21831667

  13. Reliability of burst superimposed technique to assess central activation failure during fatiguing contraction.

    PubMed

    Dousset, Erick; Jammes, Yves

    2003-04-01

    Recording a superimposed electrically-induced contraction at the limit of endurance during voluntary contraction is used as an indicator of failure of muscle activation by the central nervous system and discards the existence of peripheral muscle fatigue. We questioned on the reliability of this method by using other means to explore peripheral muscle failure. Fifteen normal subjects sustained handgrip at 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until exhaustion. During sustained contraction, the power spectrum analysis of the flexor digitorum surface electromyogram allowed us to calculate the leftward shift of median frequency (MF). A superimposed 60 Hz 3 s pulse train (burst superimposition) was delivered to the muscle when force levelled off close to the preset value. Immediately after the fatigue trial had ended, the subject was asked to perform a 5 s 60% MVC and we measured the peak contractile response to a 60 Hz 3 s burst stimulation. Recordings of the compound evoked muscle action potential (M-wave) allowed us to explore an impairment of neuromuscular propagation. A superimposed contraction was measured in 7 subjects in their two forearms, whereas it was absent in the 8 others. Despite these discrepancies, all subjects were able to reproduce a 3 s 60% MVC immediately after the fatigue trial ended and there was no post-fatigue decrease of contraction elicited by the 60 Hz 3 s burst stimulation, as well as no M-wave decrease in amplitude and conduction time. Thus, there was no indication of peripheral muscle fatigue. MF decrease was present in all individuals throughout the fatiguing contraction and it was not correlated with the magnitude of superimposed force. These observations indicate that an absence of superimposed electrically-induced muscle contraction does not allow us to conclude the existence of a sole peripheral muscle fatigue in these circumstances.

  14. (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of…

  15. Daily Variation in Adolescents' Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…

  16. [Functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental or domestic activities of daily living in the elderly living at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Serge; Bayala, Éric; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, various studies have been conducted on severe disability in activities of daily living, instrumental or domestic activities. These studies have reported different rates without describing the social context for understanding their results. This study was conducted in Burkina Faso to fill the gaps in scientific information on disability in these areas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Bobo-Dioulasso among the older population, aged 60 and above. Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done with the help of Stata. A systematic random sample of 351 aging adults was interviewed. Moderate to severe functional disability or the need for supervision or assistance was present in 7% in activities of daily living and 86% in instrumental or domestic activities of daily living. This need for assistance varied according to the different activities or items in each domain. The proportions of disability found in this study are higher than those of previous studies that measured the often severe disabilities. All persons with disability claimed to have stable human resources which help them to manage their disabilities. The social context instrumental or domestic activities of daily living are divided by generation and/or by sex. That explains some results. With this division, it's inacceptable in some family that elders and/or old men do instrumental or domestic activities of daily living as prepare meals, do laundry, carry water to wash. The variation of this division from one family to another complicates the assessment of functional disability. To best manage elders disabilities, strategies must develop to: 1) retard the resignation of the family in care of its elderly in functional disability, 2) anticipate the preparation of formal social networks, public structures to support the elderly. PMID:26707555

  17. A survey of daily asthmatic activity patterns in Cincinnati

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A survey was undertaken in Cincinnati to obtain information on the activity patterns of asthmatics. Because studies have demonstrated symptomatic responses to elevated levels of SO[sub 2] only during outdoor exercise, information on the behavioral patterns of asthmatics is vital for the accurate estimation of risk due to air pollution exposures. In particular, data detailing the actual likelihood of asthmatics being engaged in strenuous outdoor activity at any given time of day is essential for an accurate appraisal of response probability. This, in turn, is necessary for an accurate estimate of risk. In the absence of such activity data, those concerned with the setting of short-term SO[sub 2] regulations are required to use purely subjective judgment to estimate how many asthmatics are engaged in strenuous outdoor exercise when SO[sub 2] levels are high enough to affect them. The activity pattern data give an indication of how much such an assumption would overestimate the true response and thus the true risk associated with SO[sub 2]. Lack of information on the activity patterns of asthmatics has thus been a critical gap in the SO[sub 2] risk assessment process. The primary purpose of this survey was to fill that gap.

  18. Changes in Muscle Activity and Kinematics of Highly Trained Cyclists During Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Dingwell, Jonathan B.; Joubert, Jason E.; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Trinity, Joel D.

    2010-01-01

    Muscle fatigue may alter kinematics and contribute to repetitive strain injuries. This study quantified how both localized muscle fatigue and movement kinematics change over time during exhaustive cycling. Seven highly trained cyclists rode a stationary bicycle ergometer at 100% of their VO2max until voluntary exhaustion. Cycling kinematics and EMG activity from select lower extremity muscles were recorded. Cross-correlations were computed to quantify how EMG median frequencies (MDF) changed with changes in movement kinematics. All athletes maintained both cadence and power output for ~90% of the trial duration. Significant sustained muscle fatigue occurred in 18 of 28 muscles tested, most prominently in the biceps femoris (p = 0.020) and gastrocnemius (p = 0.018). Kinematics and MDF both fluctuated non-monotonically as subjects fatigued. Changes in MDF significantly preceded changes in mean trunk lean (p = 0.009) and hip angles (p = 0.025), and trunk lean range of motion (p = 0.029). Fluctuations in MDF were positively correlated with fluctuations in mean trunk lean (p = 0.009) and knee splay angles (p = 0.011), and with trunk lean (p = 0.002) and ankle (p = 0.001) range of motion. These results therefore establish a direct link between changes in muscle fatigue state and subsequent changes in movement kinematics during cycling.. PMID:18990638

  19. Nonwoven fabric active electrodes for biopotential measurement during normal daily activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Ho; Merritt, Carey R; Grant, Edward; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Nagle, H Troy

    2008-01-01

    Body movement is responsible for most of the interference during physiological data acquisition during normal daily activities. In this paper, we introduce nonwoven fabric active electrodes that provide the comfort required for clothing while robustly recording physiological data in the presence of body movement. The nonwoven fabric active electrodes were designed and fabricated using both hand- and screen-printing thick-film techniques. Nonstretchable nonwoven (Evolon 100) was chosen as the flexible fabric substrate and a silver filled polymer ink (Creative Materials CMI 112-15) was used to form a transducer layer and conductive lines on the nonwoven fabrics. These nonwoven fabric active electrodes can be easily integrated into clothing for wearable health monitoring applications. Test results indicate that nonwoven textile-based sensors show considerable promise for physiological data acquisition in wearable healthcare monitoring applications.

  20. Metabolic Myopathies and Physical Activity: When Fatigue Is More Than Simple Exertion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    When patients experience fatigue and muscle cramps beyond exercise adaptation, physicians should consider metabolic myopathies. The most common conditions seen in active patients are myoadenylate deaminase deficiency and disorders such as McArdle's disease. Targeted family histories and basic laboratory studies help rule out conditions mimicking…

  1. Anxiety's Effect on Muscle Activation and Fatigue in Trumpet Players: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, Hannah E; Aggarwal, Sahil; Hobson, Erin M; Park, Jeeyn; Pidcoe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Due to the high percentage of musicians who suffer from musculoskeletal disorders, there is a need for more research in the field of music and medicine. The purpose of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between anxiety, muscle activation, and muscle fatigue in undergraduate trumpet players. Assessment tools included surface electromyography (sEMG) data, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) of perceived anxiety. Data were collected from 27 undergraduate music students across five universities (22 males, 5 females) aged 18 to 24 years. The three muscles targeted by the sEMG were the upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and masseter muscles. Participants were randomly divided into two single-blinded groups: (1) anxiety-induction and (2) control. The anxiety-induction group was instructed to play as accurately as possible and informed that mistakes were being counted and evaluated, while the control group was instructed to play without any concern for possible mistakes. The anxiety-induction group was shown to have more masseter muscle activation than the control; the anxiety-induction group also displayed a higher fatigue rate in all three muscles versus the controls. Subjects with high perceived-anxiety (as measured by VAS) displayed higher masseter activation and higher fatigue rates in the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid than non-anxious participants. Despite these notable trends, there was no statistical significance for any of the muscle groups for muscle activation or fatigue. PMID:26614974

  2. Shoulder External Rotation Fatigue and Scapular Muscle Activation and Kinematics in Overhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mithun; Thigpen, Charles A.; Bunn, Kevin; Karas, Spero G.; Padua, Darin A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Glenohumeral external rotation (GH ER) muscle fatigue might contribute to shoulder injuries in overhead athletes. Few researchers have examined the effect of such fatigue on scapular kinematics and muscle activation during a functional movement pattern. Objective: To examine the effects of GH ER muscle fatigue on upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and infraspinatus muscle activation and to examine scapular kinematics during a diagonal movement task in overhead athletes. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: Our study included 25 overhead athletes (15 men, 10 women; age = 20 ± 2 years, height = 180 ± 11 cm, mass = 80 ± 11 kg) without a history of shoulder pain on the dominant side. Interventions: We tested the healthy, dominant shoulder through a diagonal movement task before and after a fatiguing exercise involving low-resistance, high-repetition, prone GH ER from 0° to 75° with the shoulder in 90° of abduction. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity for the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and infraspinatus. An electromyographic motion analysis system was used to assess 3-dimensional scapular kinematics. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (phase × condition) were used to test for differences. Results: We found a decrease in ascending-phase and descending-phase lower trapezius activity (F1,25 = 5.098, P = .03) and an increase in descending-phase infraspinatus activity (F1,25 = 5.534, P = .03) after the fatigue protocol. We also found an increase in scapular upward rotation (F1,24 = 3.7, P = .04) postfatigue. Conclusions: The GH ER muscle fatigue protocol used in this study caused decreased lower trapezius and increased infraspinatus activation concurrent with increased scapular upward rotation range of motion during the functional task. This highlights the interdependence of scapular

  3. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  4. Influence of mental practice on upper limb muscle activity and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of mental practice on muscle activity of the upper extremity and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this research, mental practice was conducted by 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Mental practice was conducted 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week, for 2 weeks. Evaluation was conducted 4 times before and after intervention. Muscle activity was measured using a surface electromyogram test, and the Modified Barthel Index was used to measure changes in the ability to carry out daily activities. [Results] Both the muscle activity of the upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities showed improved outcomes after mental practice was conducted. [Conclusion] Through this research, mental practice was proven to be effective in improving the muscle activity of upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. PMID:27134412

  5. Problem-Based Learning Revisited, Introduction of Active and Self-Directed Learning to Reduce Fatigue among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Moust, Jos H. C.; Meijer, Andre W. M.; Schroder-Back, Peter; Roebertsen, Herma

    2012-01-01

    Despite several years of successfully applying problem-based learning at Maastricht University, the Faculty of Medicine observed a slow erosion of problem-based practices and "PBL fatigue" among themselves and students. In response to this fatigue and new research into the development of the young adult brain, Active Self-Directed Learning was…

  6. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury. PMID:26955753

  7. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury. PMID:27622498

  8. Development and Initial Testing of the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura; Siderowf, Andrew; Rubright, Jonathan D.; Rick, Jacqueline; Dahodwala, Nabila; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard; Stern, Matthew; Xie, Sharon X.; Rennert, Lior; Karlawish, Jason; Shea, Judy A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to describe the development and psychometric analysis of the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire. The questionnaire is an item response theory-based tool for rating cognitive instrumental activities of daily living in PD. Methods Candidate items for the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire were developed through literature review and focus groups of patients and knowledgeable informants. Item selection and calibration of item-response theory parameters were performed using responses from a cohort of PD patients and knowledgeable informants (n = 388). In independent cohorts of PD patients and knowledgeable informants, assessments of test-retest reliability (n = 50), and construct validity (n = 68) of the questionnaire were subsequently performed. Construct validity was assessed by correlating questionnaire scores with measures of motor function, cognition, an existing activities of daily living measure, and directly observed daily function. Results Fifty items were retained in the final questionnaire item bank. Items were excluded owing to redundancy, difficult reading level, and when item-response theory parameters could not be calculated. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97; P < 0.001). The questionnaire correlated strongly with cognition (r = 0.68; P < 0.001) and directly observed daily function (r = 0.87; P < 0.001), but not with motor impairment (r = 0.08; P = 0.53). The questionnaire score accurately discriminated between PD patients with and without dementia (receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.85–0.97). Conclusions The Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire shows strong evidence of reliability and validity. Item response theory-based psychometric analysis suggests that this questionnaire can discriminate across a range of daily functions. PMID:26249849

  9. Values of activities of daily living. A survey of stroke patients and their home therapists.

    PubMed

    Chiou, I I; Burnett, C N

    1985-06-01

    People's values influence their actions and efforts. Based on the assumption that a patient's values can be a guide to successful rehabilitation, the values of 15 activities of daily living as perceived by stroke patients and their home therapists were studied. Twenty-six stroke patients living at home and their 10 visiting occupational and physical therapists participated in the study. The study results indicated that the relative importance of each activity of daily living perceived by the patient group and by the therapist group was similar. Among the 29 therapist-patient pairs, however, only 1 pair showed significantly similar views regarding the values of these activities to the patient. Patients' age, gender, income level, duration since onset of stroke, impaired body side, and independence level in activities were significantly related to their values of certain activities of daily living. The relative value stroke patients living at home place on each activity of daily living could serve as a guide for sequencing learning steps during activities of daily living training in a hospital or rehabilitation setting. Determining patient rehabilitation goals as influenced by personal values may shorten rehabilitation time, be more cost-effective, and aid in the retention of gains made in the rehabilitation setting. PMID:4001168

  10. The Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Active Engagement as Compared to Passive Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannuzzelli, Jena; England, Eileen M.

    Daily activities and social contact were studied as influences on the life satisfaction of elderly people. It was considered that all activities might not be equal and that individuals who participate in more active activities and who have more active social contacts would score higher in life satisfaction than those who engage in inactive…

  11. Anti-fatigue activity of a novel polysaccharide conjugates from Ziyang green tea.

    PubMed

    Chi, Aiping; Li, Hong; Kang, Chenzhe; Guo, Huanhuan; Wang, Yimin; Guo, Fei; Tang, Liang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides from Ziyang green tea. Polysaccharides were isolated from Ziyang green tea and its physicochemical properties were analyzed. Meanwhile, a 4-week weight-loaded swimming test of mice was established and polysaccharides were orally administrated during exercise. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue were determined, such as exhaustive time, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood lactate acid (Bla) levels and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in serum, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glycogen levels in skeletal muscle. The results demonstrated that polysaccharide from Ziyang green tea was a selenium-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (Se-TP), and Se-TP administration significantly prolonged exhaustive time and increased glycogen level and GSH-Px activity in muscle, in addition, markedly decreased BUN, Bla levels and LDH activity in serum and MDA level in muscle. In conclusion, Se-TP treatment can significantly improve exercise-induced fatigue and decrease the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

  12. Fatigue of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tara L; Gibson, Lorna J

    2003-12-01

    Fatigue loading of bone, from the activities of daily living in the elderly, or from prolonged exercise in the young, can lead to increased risk of fracture. Elderly patients with osteoporosis are particularly prone to fragility fractures of the vertebrae, where load is carried primarily by trabecular bone. In this study, specimens of bovine trabecular bone were loaded in compressive fatigue at four different normalized stresses to one of six maximum strains. The resulting change in modulus and residual strain accumulation were measured over the life of the fatigue test. The number of cycles to reach a given maximum compressive strain increased with decreasing normalized stress. Modulus reduction and specimen residual strain increased with increasing maximum compressive strain, but few differences were observed between specimens loaded to the same maximum strain at different normalized stresses.

  13. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  14. Daily Physical Activity for Children and Youth: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    A Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Initiative was implemented in all schools in Alberta starting in September 2005. The expected outcome of the DPA Initiative is to increase the activity levels and healthy habits of students and, in part, address related issues such as chronic disease. As part of the first tier of the DPA Initiative evaluation study,…

  15. The Daily Lives of Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Discretionary Time Use and Activity Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the daily lives, particularly discretionary time, of adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe the activities and activity partners of adolescents, the factors associated with their discretionary time use, and the impact of time use on their autism symptoms. Mothers of 103 adolescents with an ASD completed…

  16. Fatigue from multiple host-seeking activity of Aedes albopictus and its effects on bloodfeeding behavior and deet repellency.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-06-01

    A decrease in host-seeking activity in female Aedes albopictus was observed after exposure to a human hand tested in an olfactometer in the laboratory. The increased treatment times resulted in a decreasing response to a human hand. Fatigued/exhausted female mosquitoes after multiple host-seeking activities did prolong the blood engorgement time, compared with untreated nonfatigued mosquitoes. Also, fatigued mosquitoes showed a significant reduction in human host-attacking rates. The mean duration of protection from mosquito bites of human hand treated with 25% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) was higher in fatigued than unfatigued mosquitoes. PMID:25102594

  17. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Fatigue - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... help* daily life for: positive-mom* The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? ...

  18. Impacts of vigorous and non-vigorous activity on daily energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2003-08-01

    Activity intensity is a potential determinant of activity-induced energy expenditure. Tri-axial accelerometery is the most objective measurement technique for the assessment of activity intensity, in combination with doubly-labelled water for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. Data on the effects of subject characteristics, including body size and age, and exercise training on the relationship between activity intensity and daily energy expenditure are reviewed. Average daily metabolic rate and non-basal energy expenditure are positively related to body size. The duration and intensity of physical activities do not need to be equivalent to the energy spent on activity. Obese subjects spend more energy on physical activity but can perform fewer activities, especially high-intensity (weight-bearing) activities, because of their higher body weight. Physical activity generally declines gradually from about 60 years of age onwards. Most subjects > 80 years have an activity level well below the level defined for sedentary middle-aged adults. Spending relatively more time on low-intensity activities has a negative effect on the mean physical activity level. To obtain a higher physical activity level does not necessarily imply high-intensity activities. In an average subject 25% of the activity-induced energy expenditure may be attributed to high-intensity activities. Exercise training, as a form of high-intensity activity, affects the physical activity level more in younger subjects than in elderly subjects.

  19. Evaluation of anti-fatigue activity of total saponins of Radix notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    Yong-xin, Xu; Jian-jun, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several biological activities of total saponins of Radix notoginseng (TSRN), a trational Chinese medicine have been reported. The present study was carried out to investigate anti-fatigue activity of TSRN in male Kunming mice. Methods: Mice were divided into four groups. The first group designated as control group was administered with distilled water by gavage every day. The second, third and fourth groups designated as TSRN treatment groups were administered with TSRN of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The treatment continued for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactate and tissue glycogen contents of mice after swimming were determined. Results: TSRN extended exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively delayed the increase of lactate in the blood, as well as increased the tissue glycogen contents. Interpretation & conclusions: TSRN showed promising anti-fatigue activity in animal model. However, further study is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the effect of TSRN on fatigue. PMID:23481065

  20. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  1. ESR1 and ESR2 differentially regulate daily and circadian activity rhythms in female mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Yasui, N; Kondilis, A G; Lord, S V; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Mahoney, M M

    2014-07-01

    Estrogenic signaling shapes and modifies daily and circadian rhythms, the disruption of which has been implicated in psychiatric, neurologic, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease, among others. However, the activational mechanisms contributing to these effects remain poorly characterized. To determine the activational impact of estrogen on daily behavior patterns and differentiate between the contributions of the estrogen receptors ESR1 and ESR2, ovariectomized adult female mice were administered estradiol, the ESR1 agonist propylpyrazole triol, the ESR2 agonist diarylpropionitrile, or cholesterol (control). Animals were singly housed with running wheels in a 12-hour light, 12-hour dark cycle or total darkness. Estradiol increased total activity and amplitude, consolidated activity to the dark phase, delayed the time of peak activity (acrophase of wheel running), advanced the time of activity onset, and shortened the free running period (τ), but did not alter the duration of activity (α). Importantly, activation of ESR1 or ESR2 differentially impacted daily and circadian rhythms. ESR1 stimulation increased total wheel running and amplitude and reduced the proportion of activity in the light vs the dark. Conversely, ESR2 activation modified the distribution of activity across the day, delayed acrophase of wheel running, and advanced the time of activity onset. Interestingly, τ was shortened by estradiol or either estrogen receptor agonist. Finally, estradiol-treated animals administered a light pulse in the early subjective night, but no other time, had an attenuated response compared with controls. This decreased phase response was mirrored by animals treated with diarylpropionitrile, but not propylpyrazole triol. To conclude, estradiol has strong activational effects on the temporal patterning and expression of daily and circadian behavior, and these effects are due to distinct mechanisms elicited by ESR1 and ESR2 activation.

  2. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijay R.; Chuang, Yi-fang; Harris, Gregory C.; Tan, Erwin J.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor (SAM) on 92, non-demented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared to the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult sample. Findings suggest the importance of better

  3. A pilot study to examine the relationships of dyspnoea, physical activity and fatigue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, K

    2000-07-01

    A descriptive-correlational design was used to examine the relationships between dyspnoea, physical activity, and fatigue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping provided a framework to guide the study. Dyspnoea was measured by a vertical visual analogue scale, fatigue by the Fatigue subscale of the Profile of Mood States, and physical activity by the six-minute walk (6 MW) test and an open-ended question. A convenience sample of seven male and 15 female patients with COPD provided data for analysis. The sample was characterized by relatively high forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) indicating mild lung impairment and high mean levels of fatigue and dyspnoea. No significant gender difference was found in the ratings of dyspnoea and fatigue and the 6 MW distance. Dyspnoea, physical activities, and fatigue were all significantly inter-related (P < 0.001). Results indicated that the higher the dyspnoea scores, the shorter the 6 MW distance walked, and the higher the fatigue scores. Limitations and suggestions for nursing practice and future research are presented.

  4. A framework for daily activity monitoring and fall detection based on surface electromyography and accelerometer signals.

    PubMed

    Juan Cheng; Xiang Chen; Minfen Shen

    2013-01-01

    As an essential branch of context awareness, activity awareness, especially daily activity monitoring and fall detection, is important to healthcare for the elderly and patients with chronic diseases. In this paper, a framework for activity awareness using surface electromyography and accelerometer (ACC) signals is proposed. First, histogram negative entropy was employed to determine the start- and end-points of static and dynamic active segments. Then, the angle of each ACC axis was calculated to indicate body postures, which assisted with sorting dynamic activities into two categories: dynamic gait activities and dynamic transition ones, by judging whether the pre- and post-postures are both standing. Next, the dynamic gait activities were identified by the double-stream hidden Markov models. Besides, the dynamic transition activities were distinguished into normal transition activities and falls by resultant ACC amplitude. Finally, a continuous daily activity monitoring and fall detection scheme was performed with the recognition accuracy over 98%, demonstrating the excellent fall detection performance and the great feasibility of the proposed method in daily activities awareness.

  5. Self-Selected Walking Speed is Predictive of Daily Ambulatory Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Addie; Fulk, George D; Beets, Michael W; Herter, Troy M; Fritz, Stacy L

    2016-04-01

    Daily ambulatory activity is associated with health and functional status in older adults; however, assessment requires multiple days of activity monitoring. The objective of this study was to determine the relative capabilities of self-selected walking speed (SSWS), maximal walking speed (MWS), and walking speed reserve (WSR) to provide insight into daily ambulatory activity (steps per day) in community-dwelling older adults. Sixty-seven older adults completed testing and activity monitoring (age 80.39 [6.73] years). SSWS (R2 = .51), MWS (R2 = .35), and WSR calculated as a ratio (R2 = .06) were significant predictors of daily ambulatory activity in unadjusted linear regression. Cutpoints for participants achieving < 8,000 steps/day were identified for SSWS (≤ 0.97 m/s, 44.2% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, 10.28 +LR, 0.58 -LR) and MWS (≤ 1.39 m/s, 60.5% sensitivity, 78.3% specificity, 2.79 +LR, 0.50 -LR). SSWS may be a feasible proxy for assessing and monitoring daily ambulatory activity in older adults. PMID:26371593

  6. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  7. Limitations in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living capacity in a representative sample: disentangling dementia- and mobility-related effects.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Hans-Ulrich; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2007-01-01

    A representative sample of the Leipzig population aged 75 years and older showed 61.8% of the participants with relevant deficits in their capacity for independent living, according to a combined activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL) scale. The quantity and quality of care needed almost exponentially increases above 85 years of age. Looking at potential reasons for ADL/IADL limitations, 44% of variance in single ADL/IADL activities and 75% of the combined ADL/IADL sum score could come from a minimal set of predictor variables. Most important are dementia- or mobility-related declines, but living conditions also explain small but significant amounts of variance. These seem initially impressive, yet analyses showed about half the explained variances shared among the mobility and dementia indicators, limiting the use not only of ADL/IADL sum scores but of many single ADL/IADL items as well. Before deriving specific conclusions from variations in ADL/IADL instruments, one must note that the data suggest that interpretations of covariations--whether for health/mobility or dementia--are useful and substantial only if both indicators/predictors are verified. The information given captures the mobility- and dementia-related variance if ADL/IADL items, facilitating more specific scale developments.

  8. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  9. Daily and seasonal variations in radon activity concentration in the soil air.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Bulko, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentration in the soil air in the area of Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics (FMPI) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, has been continuously monitored since 1994. Long-term measurements at a depth of 0.8 m and short-term measurements at a depth of 0.4 m show a high variability in radon activity concentrations in the soil. The analysis of the data confirms that regular daily changes in radon activity concentration in the soil air depend on the daily changes in atmospheric pressure. It was also found that the typical annual courses of the radon activity concentration in the soil air (with summer minima and winter maxima) were disturbed by mild winter and heavy summer precipitation. Influence of precipitation on the increase in the radon activity concentration in the soil air was observed at a depth of 0.4 m and subsequently at a depth of 0.8 m.

  10. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  11. Hand function and performance of daily activities in systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Malcus Johnsson, P; Sandqvist, G; Nilsson, J-Å; Bengtsson, A A; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O

    2015-07-01

    This clinical study was performed to investigate hand problems in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in comparison with healthy controls, and to explore problems in the performance of daily activities related to these hand problems, in order to objectify findings from a previous mail survey. We also investigated whether a simple hand test could detect hand problems in SLE. All individuals, 71 with SLE and 71 healthy controls, were examined for manifestations in body structures and body functions of the hands with a study-specific protocol. The simple hand test was performed by all the individuals and the arthritis impact measurement scale (AIMS 2) questionnaire was completed by the SLE individuals. In the SLE group, 58% had some kind of difficulty in the simple hand test, compared with 8% in the control group. Fifty percent of the SLE individuals experienced problems in performing daily activities due to hand deficits. Pain in the hands, reduced strength and dexterity, Raynaud's phenomenon and trigger finger were the most prominent body functions affecting the performance of daily activities. Deficits in hand function are common in SLE and affect the performance of daily activities. The simple hand test may be a useful tool in detecting hand problems.

  12. Who Will Present It during the Broadcast? A Case Study at a Daily Activity Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an investigation of a daily activity centre (DA). The overall aim was to build a grounded theory that could explain why this particular DA deviated from the norms of Swedish group homes and DAs described in previous studies. These studies have suggested that the staff stuck to old routines, such as letting the participants…

  13. Brief Daily Writing Activities and Performance on Major Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Haley C.; Bliss, Stacy L.; Hautau, Briana; Carroll, Erin; Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Williams, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although past research indicates that giving brief quizzes, administered either regularly or randomly, may lead to improvement in students' performance on major exams, negligible research has targeted daily writing activities that require the processing of course information at a deeper level than might result from simply reading course materials…

  14. Seasonal and Daily Variation in Physical Activity among Three-Year-Old Finnish Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Tammelin, Tuija; Sääkslahti, Arja; Watt, Anthony; Villberg, Jari; Kettunen, Tarja; Mehtälä, Anette; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess seasonal, daily, and gender variations in children's physical activity (PA). ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers were used to record the three-year-old children's PA levels for five consecutive days in autumn and winter. Complete data for both seasons were obtained for 47 children. Despite a…

  15. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  16. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  17. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  18. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE - Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  19. Relationship of fatigued run and rapid stop to ground reaction forces, lower extremity kinematics, and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Nyland, J A; Shapiro, R; Stine, R L; Horn, T S; Ireland, M L

    1994-09-01

    Fatigue may be related to lower extremity injury. The effect of lower extremity fatigue on ground reaction force production, lower extremity kinematics, and muscle activation during the landing phase of a run and rapid stop was investigated. Subjects were 19 female, Division 1 collegiate basketball and volleyball players (mean age = 20.8 +/- 1.8 years, mean weight = 71.7 +/- 6.9 kg, mean height = 174 +/- 5 cm). Dominant leg ground reaction and muscle activation data were sampled at 2,000 Hz. Lower extremity kinematic data were sampled at 200 Hz, and three-dimensional analysis was performed. Knee extensor/flexor muscle activation tended to be delayed during fatigue (p < or = .08). Maximum knee flexion tended to occur earlier during fatigue (p < or = .09). Step-wise multiple regression suggested that the knee may be the primary site of force attenuation following fatigue. During fatigue, biodynamical compensations in the mechanical properties of the knee extensor musculature, as evidenced by differences in knee kinematics and muscle activation times, may occur to enhance knee stability.

  20. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Nuri Firat; Min, Cheol-Hong; Tewfik, Ahmed; Vanderpool, David

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  1. Persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease managing daily activities via verbal instruction technology.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; La Martire, Maria L; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G

    Four studies assessed the effectiveness of verbal instructions presented via technology in helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. The first 2 studies were replication efforts concerning morning bathroom routine and table setting and included 4 and 2 participants, respectively. The third study targeted coffee preparation with 3 participants. The fourth study assessed maintenance and generalization of morning bathroom routine and dressing with 1 participant. Nonconcurrent multiple baseline designs served for the first 3 studies and a 5-month postintervention data collection for the fourth study. Verbal instructions for the activity steps presented via technology were effective in helping the participants of the first 3 studies reacquire basic daily activities and the participant of the fourth study retain the reacquired activities across time and settings. These results suggest that the approach reported may be a useful strategy for helping persons with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19106276

  2. Tension-type headache: pain, fatigue, tension, and EMG responses to mental activation.

    PubMed

    Bansevicius, D; Westgaard, R H; Sjaastad, O M

    1999-06-01

    Twenty patients with tension-type headache (14 chronic and 6 episodic) and 20 group-matched controls were selected for this study. They participated in a 1-hour, complex, two-choice, reaction-time test, as well as 5-minute pretest and 20-minute posttest periods. Subjects reported any pain in the forehead, temples, neck, and shoulders, as well as any feelings of fatigue and tension during the pretest, and every 10 minutes during the test and posttest by visual analog scales. Superficial electromyography was recorded simultaneously from positions representing the frontal and temporal muscles, neck (mostly splenius), and trapezius muscles. The location of pain corresponded to the position of the electrodes, but extended over a larger area. The test provoked pain in the forehead, neck, and shoulders of patients, i.e., pain scores from these regions increased significantly during the test. The pain scores continued to increase posttest. In patients, the EMG response of the trapezius (first 10 minutes of the test) was elevated relative to pretest. In controls, only the frontal muscles showed an EMG test response. Patients showed significantly higher EMG responses than controls in the neck (whole test period) and trapezius (first 10 minutes of the test period). There were significant differences in pain and fatigue scoring between patients and controls in all three periods and in tension scoring posttest. Fatigue correlated with pain, with increasing significance for all locations examined, while tension was mainly associated with the neck pain. The meaning of the variables "tension" and "fatigue" in headache, and their association with recorded muscle activity in various regions is discussed. The EMG response of the trapezius muscle to the test is discussed in comparison with similar responses observed in patients with other pain syndromes.

  3. Momentary Affective States Are Associated with Momentary Volume, Prospective Trends, and Fluctuation of Daily Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kanning, Martina K.; Schoebi, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal) were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57%) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 h. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45 min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends, and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 min periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-min assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 min. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 min, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported positive affective valence. The

  4. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  5. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  6. Daily activity during stability and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During most COPD exacerbations, patients continue to live in the community but there is little information on changes in activity during exacerbations due to the difficulties of obtaining recent, prospective baseline data. Methods Patients recorded on daily diary cards any worsening in respiratory symptoms, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the number of steps taken per day measured with a Yamax Digi-walker pedometer. Exacerbations were defined by increased respiratory symptoms and the number of exacerbations experienced in the 12 months preceding the recording of daily step count used to divide patients into frequent (> = 2/year) or infrequent exacerbators. Results The 73 COPD patients (88% male) had a mean (±SD) age 71(±8) years and FEV1 53(±16)% predicted. They recorded pedometer data on a median 198 days (IQR 134–353). At exacerbation onset, symptom count rose by 1.9(±1.3) and PEF fell by 7(±13) l/min. Mean daily step count fell from 4154(±2586) steps/day during a preceding baseline week to 3673(±2258) step/day during the initial 7 days of exacerbation (p = 0.045). Patients with larger falls in activity at exacerbation took longer to recover to stable level (rho = −0.56; p < 0.001). Recovery in daily step count was faster (median 3.5 days) than for exacerbation symptoms (median 11 days; p < 0.001). Recovery in step count was also faster in untreated compared to treated exacerbation (p = 0.030). Daily step count fell faster over time in the 40 frequent exacerbators, by 708 steps/year, compared to 338 steps/year in 33 infrequent exacerbators (p = 0.002). Conclusions COPD exacerbations reduced physical activity and frequent exacerbations accelerate decline in activity over time. PMID:24885188

  7. Metabolic Cost of Daily Activities and Effect of Mobility Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knaggs, Jeffrey D; Larkin, Kelly A; Manini, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There is a shortage of information on metabolic costs of daily physical activities in older adults and the effect of having mobility impairments. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic equivalent (MET) values on common daily tasks in men and women aged > 70 years compared to normative criteria. A secondary purpose was to determine the effect of having mobility impairments. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING University based research clinic PARTICIPANTS Forty-five participants aged 70 to 90 years of age (mean: 76.3 ± 5.1) volunteered to complete 17 daily activities, each lasting 10 minutes. MEASUREMENTS Oxygen consumption (VO2 = ml•kg−1•min−1) was measured through a mask by a portable gas analyzer and MET values were calculated as measured VO2/3.5 ml•kg−1•min−1. Values were compared to both normative values and between participants with and without mobility impairments. RESULTS Compared to the established normative criteria, measured METs were different in 14 of 17 tasks performed. Compared to measured METs, normative values underestimated walking leisurely (0.87 ± 0.12 METs) walking briskly (0.87 ± 0.12 METs ), and bed making (1.07 ± 0.10 METs ), but overestimated gardening (1.46 ± 0.12 METs) and climbing stairs (0.73 ± 0.18). Participants with impairments had significantly lower METs while gardening, vacuuming/sweeping, stair climbing, and walking briskly. However, when METs were adjusted for performance speed the metabolic costs were 16–27% higher for those with mobility impairments. CONCLUSION Compared to normative values, metabolic costs of daily activities are substantially different in older adults and having mobility impairments increases this metabolic cost. These results may have implications for practitioners to appropriately prescribe daily physical activities for healthy and mobility impaired older adults. PMID:22091979

  8. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  9. EMG activities and ground reaction forces during fatigued and nonfatigued sprinting.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Rusko, H; Mero, A

    1994-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate EMG activities and ground reaction forces during fatigued and nonfatigued running. Ten male sprint runners volunteered to run a maximal 20-m speed test, a 400-m time trial, and submaximal 20-m runs at the average speed of the first 100 m of the 400 m. During the latter stage of each run, ground reaction forces and EMG activity of four leg muscles were recorded. EMG activities were time averaged during three phases of running: preactivation, braking, and propulsion phase. The resultant ground reaction forces both in the braking (P < 0.001) and in the propulsion phase (P < 0.01) were greater in the maximal and submaximal 20 m than at the end of the 400 m. The averaged EMG during the braking phase (P < 0.01) and during the total ground phase (P < 0.05) was smaller in the submaximal 20 m than at the end of the 400 m. On the other hand the averaged EMG was greater during the maximal 20 m than at the end of the 400 m during the propulsion phase (P < 0.001) and during the total ground phase (P < 0.05). In addition, the more the preactivity increased the less the resultant ground reaction force decreased in the braking phase during the 400 m run (r = 0.77, P < 0.05). It was concluded that the role of the increased neural activation was to compensate for muscular fatigue and the preactivation had an important role in maintaining force production during the 400-m run. In addition, the fatigue was different in each working muscle. PMID:8007809

  10. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P < 0.001). After a 2-min knee flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P < 0.01). After the contralateral (left) MVC (experiment 3; n = 8), mean voluntary activation of the right leg was similar with or without ischemia (92 ± 6% vs. 93 ± 4%; P = 0.65). After fatiguing exercise, activity in group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents. PMID:25525208

  11. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P < 0.001). After a 2-min knee flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P < 0.01). After the contralateral (left) MVC (experiment 3; n = 8), mean voluntary activation of the right leg was similar with or without ischemia (92 ± 6% vs. 93 ± 4%; P = 0.65). After fatiguing exercise, activity in group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents.

  12. Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

  13. Wrist activity in a woman: daily, weekly, menstrual, lunar, annual cycles?

    PubMed

    Binkley, S

    1992-09-01

    Wrist activity was monitored continuously for one year in a woman who went about her normal life. The year of data were analyzed for changes and rhythms--daily, weekly, menstrual, lunar, annual. For each day, average motions/5 minutes, activity onset, activity offset, alpha (duration of activity), and acrophase were measured. Periodograms and average daily wave forms were calculated. Well-defined, entrained, daily rest-activity cycles were observed throughout the year with periods close to 24 hours. There was weekend delay (0.7 hours) in onset, weekend decrease in alpha (1.0 hours), and weekend advance of acrophase (0.4 hours). Motions/5 minutes decreased 9%, onsets were 0.3 hours later, and alphas were 0.4 hours shorter on menstrual cycle days 8 through 18 which should have encompassed the time of ovulation. Lunar phase had no effect. Annual changes in onset (1.1 hours), offset (1.2 hours), and acrophase (1.1 hours) were attributed to the 1-hour change between standard and daylight savings time.

  14. The Effects of Daily Weather on Accelerometer-measured Physical Activity among Adults with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Feinglass, Joe; Lee, Julia; Dunlop, Dorothy; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pam; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study analyzes Chicago-area weather effects on objectively measured physical activity over a three year period among a cohort of 241 participants in an on-going arthritis physical activity trial. Methods Uniaxial accelerometer counts and interview data were analyzed for up to six weekly study waves involving 4823 days of wear. The effects of temperature, rainfall, snowfall and daylight hours were analyzed after controlling for participant characteristics, day of the week, and daily accelerometer wear hours in a mixed effects linear regression model. Results Daylight hours, mean daily temperature <20 or ≥ 75 degrees and light or heavy rainfall (but not snowfall) were all significantly associated with lower physical activity after controlling for the significant effects of weekends, accelerometer wear hours, age, sex, type of arthritis, employment, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and SF36 physical and mental health scores. Conclusions The cumulative effects of weather are reflected in a 38.3% mean monthly difference in daily counts between November and June, reflecting over three additional hours of sedentary time. Physical activity promotion programs for older persons with chronic conditions need lifestyle physical activity plans adapted to weather extremes. PMID:21885884

  15. Dependence for basic and instrumental activities of daily living after hip fractures.

    PubMed

    González-Zabaleta, Jorge; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Zabaleta, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine basic activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and instrumental activities of daily living (Lawton-Brody Index) before and after hip fracture. Follow-up study of patients (n=100) with hip fracture, operated at Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (Spain). Period January/2009-December/2011. Demographic characteristic of the patients, Charlson Index, Glomerular filtration rate, Barthel index, Lawton index, type of proximal femur fracture and surgical treatment delay were recorded. Multivariate regression was performed. Informed patient consent and ethical review approval were obtained. Before fracture were independent for activities of daily living (ADL) a 38.0%, at 90 days were 15.4%. The Barthel index score decreased from 75.2±28.2 to 56.5±31.8) (p<0.0001). If we consider the age, gender, comorbidity (Charlson index), renal function, fracture type and surgical delay objectify the only independent variable to predict dependency effect is age. If we also consider the Barthel score objectify the variable that significantly modifies that score at 90 days is the baseline value of the index. The prevalence of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) at the baseline moment is 11% and at 90 days is decreased to 2.2%. There is a decrease in the independence effect in all activities. The variable predictor of independence for all activities after taking into consideration age, sex, comorbidity, fracture type, surgical delay and renal function is the baseline score of the Barthel and Lawton index.

  16. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus).

    PubMed

    Everts, Lammina G; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Hut, Roelof A; Hoffmann, Ilse E; Millesi, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Aboveground activity started on average 3.9 h (SD 0.6 h, n = 37 days) after civil twilight at dawn and ended on average 3.2 h (SD 0.9 h, n = 37 days) before civil twilight at dusk. Between onset and offset of activity, 54% was spent aboveground, of which 73% was spent foraging. Activity patterns were influenced by photoperiod, rainfall, and by reproductive state. During mating, reproductively active males started activity earlier than females and reproductively inactive males. For females, time spent foraging was high during lactation. The midpoint of daily activity was at 12:16 h (SD 0.37 h, n = 37 days). Activity patterns of European ground squirrels thus appear robustly positioned in the middle of the photoperiod. PMID:15129824

  17. Muscle activation and knee biomechanics during squatting and lunging after lower extremity fatigue in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Longpré, Heather S; Acker, Stacey M; Maly, Monica R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle activations and knee joint loads were compared during squatting and lunging before and after lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue. Electromyographic activations of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, and the external knee adduction and flexion moments were collected on 25 healthy women (mean age 23.5 years, BMI of 23.7 kg/m(2)) during squatting and lunging. Participants were fatigued through sets of 50 isotonic knee extensions and flexions, with resistance set at 50% of the peak torque achieved during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Fatigue was defined as a decrease in peak isometric knee extension or flexion torque ≥25% from baseline. Co-activation indices were calculated between rectus femoris and biceps femoris; and between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. Fatigue decreased peak isometric extension and flexion torques (p<0.05), mean vastus lateralis activation during squatting and lunging (p<0.05), and knee adduction and flexion moments during lunging (p<0.05). Quadriceps activations were greater during lunging than squatting (p<0.05). Thus, fatigue altered the recruitment strategy of the quadriceps during squatting and lunging. Lunging challenges quadriceps activation more than squatting in healthy, young women.

  18. Muscle fatigue during cross country sprint assessed by activation patterns and electromyographic signals time-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Zory, R; Molinari, F; Knaflitz, M; Schena, F; Rouard, A

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: (i) analysis of activation patterns during the spurt of two heats of a cross country skiing sprint with the double poling technique and (ii) quantification of muscle fatigue of the investigated muscles. Eight elite skiers were tested and surface electromyographic signals (EMG) were recorded from seven muscles of the upper and lower limbs. For each subject and each muscle, the activation intervals were calculated for relying on a double-threshold statistical detector and the average rectified value was calculated on each activation interval. The detected activations were processed by a time-frequency algorithm in order to assess the progression of muscle fatigue. The EMG activation patterns and EMG amplitude highlighted no significant difference between the two spurts, despite a generally lower speed in the second spurt. The frequency analysis showed that upper body muscles are the first to be affected by fatigue and that clear signs of muscle fatigue appear right from the first spurt of the sprint simulation (i.e., biceps and triceps brachii) with a decrease in the instantaneous mean frequency. Biceps brachii activations and fatigue demonstrated the involvement of this muscle in propulsion.

  19. Fatigue Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Morris, James M.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue (or stress) fracture of bone in military recruits has been recognized for many years. Most often it is a metatarsal bone that is involved but the tarsal bones, calcaneus, tibia, fibula, femur, and pelvis are occasionally affected. Reports of such fractures in the ribs, ulna and vertebral bodies may be found in the literature. In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the occurrence of fatigue fractures in the civilian population. Weekend sportsmen, athletes in an early phase of training, and persons engaged in unaccustomed, repetitive, vigorous activity are potential victims of such a fracture. The signs and symptoms, roentgenographic findings, treatment and etiology of fatigue fractures are dealt with in this presentation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:5652745

  20. Influence of Time-of-Day on Maximal Exercise Capacity Is Related to Daily Thermal Balance but Not to Induced Neuronal Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Frederico S. M.; Fóscolo, Daniela R. C.; Poletini, Maristela O.; Coimbra, Cândido C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the daily fluctuations of internal body temperature (Tb) and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) interact with the thermal and neuronal adjustments induced by high-intensity aerobic exercise until fatigue. The body temperature and SLA of adult Wistar rats (n = 23) were continuously recorded by telemetry for 48 h. Then, the rats were subjected to a protocol of graded exercise until fatigue or rest on the treadmill during light and dark-phases. Tb, tail skin temperature and ambient temperature during each experimental session were recorded. At the end of the last experimental session, the animals were anaesthetized; the brains were perfused and removed for immunohistochemical analysis of c-fos neuronal activation. The daily rhythms of SLA and Tb were strongly correlated (r = 0.88 and p < 0.001), and this was followed by a daily oscillation in both the ratio and the correlation index between these variables (p < 0.001). Exercise capacity was associated with a lower resting Tb (p < 0.01) and was higher in the light-phase (p < 0.001), resulting in an increased capacity to accumulate heat during exercise (p < 0.01). Independent of time-of-day, high intensity exercise strongly activated the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the supra-optic nucleus (SON) and the locus coeruleus (LC) (p < 0.001) but not the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Taken together, our results points toward a role of the circadian system in a basal activity control of the thermoregulatory system as an important component for the onset of physical activities. In fact, rather than directly limiting the adjustments induced by exercise the present study brings new evidence that the effect of time-of-day on exercise performance occurs at the threshold level for each thermoregulatory system effector activity. This assumption is based on the observed resilience of the central clock to high-intensity exercise and the similarities in exercise

  1. An analysis of the daily radial activity of 7 boreal tree species, northwestern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Tardif, J; Flannigan, M; Bergeron, Y

    2001-01-01

    In the 'Des Vieux Arbres' ecological reserve situated within northwestern Quebec, 40 band dendrometers were installed on 7 of the major boreal tree species. The late Spring-early Summer daily radial activity registered in 1997 was related to daily weather variables. For each tree species, the daily mean i) cumulative radial increment and ii) radial activity indexed series obtained by first-difference standardization were analyzed. The results indicate the existence of strong similarities among the 7 species. All showed strong synchronous fluctuations in radius during late winter and early spring. This period ended with a short but sharp increase in radial increments that marked the passage of water into the stem. This initial swelling, less obvious in Pinus species was followed by a prolonged period of little change in radial activity. Meteorological data indicated that air temperature was positively related to stem swelling during the late winter-early spring period. Both air and soil temperatures became negatively related to radial expansion once the passage of water has occurred in the stem. Starting in early June, all species registered a sustained increase in radial increments possibly associated with active cell division. After this, radial expansion was negatively related to air temperature and positively to rainfall. PMID:11339696

  2. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  3. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  4. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patterns of Participation in Daily Physical and Play Activities

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Panahi, Nekoo; Ranjbar, Elaheh; Moshayedi, Pouria; Shafiei, Masih; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates several neurodevelopmental impairments which may end in impairments in motor or physical activities. Daily physical activity involvement was investigated in a total of 83 children (52 boys and 31 girls) with ASD aged 6–15 years. Results indicated that only 10 (12%) of children with ASD were physically active. Children were predominantly engaged in solitary play rather than social play activities. Gender, family income, and household structure were found to be associated with activity scores. Financial burden and lack of opportunities were noted as the leading barriers to physical activities. In conclusion, findings indicated a low rate of physical activity participation in children with ASD that is closely associated with sociodemographic variables. PMID:26171247

  5. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  6. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  7. Home Accidents and Assistance in Daily Activities of Older Women in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Sahin, Hande

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the relation between incidents of at-home accidents and the assistance in daily activities of women age of 65+ living in the area of Dikmen Akpinar Health Care Unit in Ankara-Turkey. Of the women, 49.2% had experienced a home accident in the last 12 months. More than half of these accidents were caused by falling. Women over…

  8. Isolation and characterization of muscle fatigue substance with anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Ruben M; Han, Haiyong; Tegeler, Tony; Petritis, Konstantinos; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Hoffman, Stanley A

    2013-01-01

    Research during the 1950's indicated that exercise played a role in the reduction of tumor growth. In the 1960's our studies confirmed that tumor-bearing rats, exercised to fatigue, demonstrated tumor inhibition. Our further studies isolated an extract (Fatigue Substance, or F-Substance) from rectus femoris muscles of rats which had been electrically stimulated to fatigue. This extract significantly inhibited growth of transplanted rat tumors. Research continued until 1978 when it became apparent the methodology at that time was not able to further identify the substance's active components. Using current technology, we now report on the further isolation and characterization of F-Substance. In cell proliferation assays, extracts from electrically stimulated rat rectus femoris muscles had more significant inhibitory effect on the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 than those isolated from unstimulated muscles. To identify the molecule(s) responsible for the antitumor activity, a rat cytokine antibody array was used to profile the cytokines in the substances. Among the 29 different cytokines contained on the array, 3 showed greater than 3-fold difference between the substances isolated from the stimulated and unstimulated muscles. LIX (also known as CXCL5) is 6-fold higher in the substances isolated from stimulated muscles than those from the unstimulated muscles. TIMP-1 is 4.6 fold higher and sICAM is 3.6 fold higher in the substances from the stimulated muscles. Our results indicated that cytokines released from contracting muscles might be responsible for the antitumor effect of F-Substance.

  9. Task-related oxygen uptake and symptoms during activities of daily life in CHF patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Martijn A; Wouters, Emiel F M; Eterman, Rose-Mieke A; Meijer, Kenneth; Wagers, Scott S; Stakenborg, Koen H P; Uszko-Lencer, Nicole H M K

    2011-08-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have a significantly lower peak aerobic capacity compared to healthy subjects, and, may therefore experience more inconvenience during the performance of domestic activities of daily life (ADLs). To date, the extent to which task-related oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation and symptoms during the performance of ADLs in CHF patients is different than in healthy subjects remains uncertain. General demographics, pulmonary function, body composition and peak aerobic capacity were assessed in 23 CHF outpatients and 20 healthy peers. In addition, the metabolic requirement of five simple self-paced domestic ADLs was assessed using a mobile oxycon. Task-related oxygen uptake (ml/min) was similar or lower in CHF patients compared to healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with CHF performing ADLs consumed oxygen at a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity than healthy subjects (p < 0.05). For example, getting dressed resulted in a mean task-related oxygen uptake of 49% of peak aerobic capacity, while sweeping the floor resulted in a mean task-related oxygen uptake of 52% of peak aerobic capacity, accompanied by significantly higher Borg symptom scores for dyspnea and fatigue (p < 0.05). Patients with CHF experience use a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity, peak ventilation and peak heart rate during the performance of simple self-paced domestic ADL than their healthy peers. These findings represent a necessary step in improving our understanding of improving what troubles patients the most-not being able to do the things that they could when they were healthy.

  10. Effects of mental practice on stroke patients’ upper extremity function and daily activity performance

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung; Lee, Nayun; Cho, Milim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mental practice on stroke patients’ upper extremity function and activities of daily living (ADL). [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 29 stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups: an experimental group (n=14) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed 10 minutes of mental practice once a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks in combination with conventional rehabilitation therapy. For the control group, general rehabilitation therapy was provided during the same sessions as the experimental group. The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Fugl-Myer assessment (FMA) were used to measure upper extremity function, and the Modified Bathel Index (MBI) was used to measure daily activity performance. [Results] After the intervention, the mental practice group showed significant improvements in upper extremity function on the affected side and ADL scores compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrate mental practice intervention is effective at improving stroke patients’ upper extremity function and daily activity performance. In follow-up studies, securing a greater number of experimental subjects, and evaluation of the intervention’s therapeutic durability are required. PMID:25995560

  11. Neural correlates of reduced awareness in instrumental activities of daily living in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Amanzio, Martina; D'Agata, Federico; Palermo, Sara; Rubino, Elisa; Zucca, Milena; Galati, Antonello; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Castellano, Giancarlo; Rainero, Innocenzo

    2016-10-01

    A decline in instrumental activities of daily living has been described as the earliest functional deficit in patients with neurodegenerative disease. It embraces specific competencies such as: "recalling the date and telephone calls, orienting to new places, remembering the location of objects at home, understanding conversation and the plot of a movie, keeping belongings in order, doing mental calculations and handling money, remembering appointments and shopping lists and performing clerical work". Since changes in instrumental daily living activities are one of the descriptors of behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, we decided to investigate the neural correlates of a reduced awareness in this specific domain in twenty-three consecutive behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia patients. Gray matter volume changes associated with a reduced awareness for the instrumental domain, assessed using a validated caregiver-patient discrepancy questionnaire, were examined. Interestingly, we found disabilities in instrumental daily living activities and a reduced awareness of these to be related to medial prefrontal cortex atrophy, where the mid-cingulate cortices, dorsal anterior insula and cuneous play an important role. Importantly, if the executive system does not function correctly, the comparator mechanism of action self-monitoring does not detect mismatches between the current and previous performance states stored in the personal database, and produces a reduced awareness for the instrumental domain. PMID:27534380

  12. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p < 0.05). According to the results of somatosensory perception tests, significant differences were found in kinesthesia, manual form perception, finger identification, figure-ground perception, localization of tactile stimuli, double tactile stimuli perception (p < 0.05). Control group was better in motor planning (p < 0.05). Comprehension, expression, social communication, problem solving, and memory skills were significant in favor of the control group (p < 0.05). Graphestesia and self-care domain was found to be correlated (r = 0,491, p = 0.002) between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder. PMID:22546072

  13. Effect of Two Types of Active Recovery on Fatigue and Climbing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Pedro L.; de la Villa, Pedro; Ferragut, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Performing intra-session recovery is important in rock climbing due to the multiple efforts that climbers are required to make in competitions, as well as repeated climbing trials that they carry out during training sessions. Active recovery has been shown to be a better option than passive recovery. However, the type of active recovery that should be done and the influence of the type and quantity of muscle mass activated are not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of recovering with easy climbing (CR) or walking (WR) on markers of fatigue and climbing performance. For this purpose, 14 subjects participated in this randomly assigned crossover protocol completing three two-minute climbing trials separated by two minutes of active recovery with the assigned method. Seven days later participants carried out the same protocol with the other recovery method. Blood lactate (La-), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were analyzed as markers of fatigue and recovery, while meters climbed (MC) and handgrip force (HF) were analyzed for performance. La- values before the last climbing trial (p < 0.05; d = 0.69) and Peak La- values (p < 0.05; d = 0.77) were lower for CR than for WR. Climbers were able to ascend more meters in the set time when following the CR protocol (p < 0.01; d = 0.6), which shows the important role of the active recovery method carried out on climbing performance. There were no differences in HR, HF or RPE between protocols. A more sport-specific recovery protocol, in addition to moving great muscle mass (e.g. lower limbs), seems to enhance recovery and to facilitate lactate removal. For this reason, CR appears to be a more effective active recovery method than WR in sport rock climbing. Key points Climbing recovery improved lactate removal in comparison with walking recovery. Subjects were able to climb more meters in a determined time when easy climbing instead of walking during recoveries. Activating both great

  14. The Promise of mHealth: Daily Activity Monitoring and Outcome Assessments by Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.; Dorsch, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

  15. The promise of mHealth: daily activity monitoring and outcome assessments by wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Dobkin, Bruce H; Dorsch, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

  16. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Alvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-10-23

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  17. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Álvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:19857242

  18. The Daily Activity Report (DAR) a Novel Measure of Functional Outcome for Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Velligan, Dawn I.; Mintz, Jim; Sierra, Cynthia; Martin, Mona L.; Fredrick, Megan; Maglinte, Gregory A.; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of real-world functional outcomes in clinical trials for medications targeting negative symptoms and cognitive impairment is extremely important. We tested the psychometric properties of the Daily Activity Report (DAR), a novel assessment of productive daily activity. We administered the DAR and additional assessments of functional outcome, functional capacity, cognition and symptomatology to 50 individuals with schizophrenia at 2 time points, 1 month apart and to 25 healthy controls. The DAR records a person’s daily activity for 7 consecutive days based upon phone calls made 3 times a day. A total score and scores in 3 domains; instrumental activities (ie, independent living), social and work or school related activities are generated for the DAR. Inter-item consistency was high 0.89–0.94 for each domain and 0.88 overall. Test–retest reliability across 1 month for the total DAR score was 0.67, P < .0001. The total DAR score as well as scores for social activity and nondomestic work/school differed significantly between control and patient participants (P < .0001). DAR domain scores were associated with negative symptoms and functional outcomes, but the primary score related to these measures was the work/school dimension of the DAR. DAR scores were only weakly and nonsignificantly related to positive symptoms. This study provides preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the DAR using interviewer administration. The development of a patient reported version of the DAR using smart phone technology with automatic scoring is the next step. PMID:26712856

  19. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children <10 years) completed measures of motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. PMID:25001232

  20. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children <10 years) completed measures of motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants.

  1. In-vivo three-dimensional knee kinematics during daily activities in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Jones, Stephen C; Lewis, Daniel D; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Tremolada, Giovanni; Abbasi, Abdullah Z; Coggeshall, Jason D; Pozzi, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    The canine knee is morphologically similar to the human knee and thus dogs have been used in experimental models to study human knee pathology. To date, there is limited data of normal canine 3D knee kinematics during daily activities. The objective of this study was to characterize 3D in-vivo femorotibial kinematics in normal dogs during commonly performed daily activities. Using single-plane fluoroscopy, six normal dogs were imaged performing walk, trot, sit, and stair ascent activities. CT-generated bone models were used for kinematic measurement using a 3D-to-2D model registration technique. Increasing knee flexion angle was typically associated with increasing tibial internal rotation, abduction and anterior translation during all four activities. The precise relationship between flexion angle and these movements varied both within and between activities. Significant differences in axial rotation and coronal angulation were found at the same flexion angle during different phases of the walk and trot. This was also found with anterior tibial translation during the trot only. Normal canine knees accommodate motion in all planes; precise kinematics within this envelope of motion are activity dependent. This data establishes the characteristics of normal 3D femorotibial joint kinematics in dogs that can be used as a comparison for future studies. PMID:25982776

  2. A Study of Activities of Daily Living and Employment in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Yu, Shu-Ning; Yu, Ya-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    Research on daily living activities and employment levels of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Taiwan is limited. The aims of the study were to investigate outcomes related to functional independence and employment among people with ASD in Taiwan. We investigated the daily living activities and the employment status of 81 adults (age…

  3. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  4. Depressive state and chronic fatigue in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Akaishi, Tetsuya; Nakashima, Ichiro; Misu, Tatsuro; Fujihara, Kazuo; Aoki, Masashi

    2015-06-15

    Depression and chronic fatigue are frequently present in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the prevalence rates have not been investigated in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Thirty-nine consecutive NMO and 75 MS patients were compared using self-rating questionnaires for depressive states, daily activity, and fatigue, as well as serum carnitine levels. A subgroup of patients with low carnitine levels were re-evaluated regarding depression and fatigue after levocarnitine treatment. Depression and fatigue were equally prevalent in MS and NMO and were strongly correlated with one another. Measurement of the serum carnitine levels and the administration of levocarnitine did not appear to be beneficial.

  5. Prediction of correlates of daily physical activity in Spanish children aged 8-9 years.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, J M; Escalante, Y; Domínguez, A M; García-Hermoso, A; Hernández-Mocholí, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to examine the associations between the daily physical activity (PA) of 8- to 9-year-old children and their parents, and (b) to examine what effect the child's daily PA has on its cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The sample consisted of 1021 persons [351 children (8.73 ± 0.69 years in age) and 670 parents]. Pedometers were used to evaluate PA in parents and their children over the course of 4 days (Thursday-Sunday), with the instructions on how to wear the pedometers for 24 h a day. Also evaluated were height, weight, BMI, CRF (via the maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test), and HRQoL (via the EQ-5D-Y questionnaire). Associations between these variables were studied using path model techniques. The father's PA predicts his child's daily PA. This in turn predicts the child's lower BMI, CRF, and perceived quality of life. The findings suggest that the role model of a physically active father positively influences the child's PA habits, and hence that the family environment can have an important part to play in promoting health.

  6. A Predictive Model of Daily Seismic Activity Induced by Mining, Developed with Data Mining Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the development and evaluation of a predictive classification model of daily seismic energy emissions induced by longwall mining in sector XVI of the Piast coal mine in Poland. The model uses data on tremor energy, basic characteristics of the longwall face and mined output in this sector over the period from July 1987 to March 2011. The predicted binary variable is the occurrence of a daily sum of tremor seismic energies in a longwall that is greater than or equal to the threshold value of 105 J. Three data mining analytical methods were applied: logistic regression,neural networks, and stochastic gradient boosted trees. The boosted trees model was chosen as the best for the purposes of the prediction. The validation sample results showed its good predictive capability, taking the complex nature of the phenomenon into account. This may indicate the applied model's suitability for a sequential, short-term prediction of mining induced seismic activity.

  7. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrent'eva, E. V.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Chzhun, Yu.; Semenova, E. V.; Semenov, V. M.; Namsaraev, B. B.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2009-08-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic fertilizers alone) in a microfield experiment. The regular oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity were revealed and confirmed by the harmonic (Fourier) analysis. The oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity had a self-oscillatory nature and was not directly caused by the disturbing impacts of both the uncontrolled (natural) changes in the temperature and moisture (rainfall) and the controlled ones (the application of different fertilizers). The disturbing impacts affected the oscillation amplitude of the cellulase activity but not the frequency (periods) of the oscillations. The periodic oscillations of the cellulase activity were more significant in the soil under the high-input management compared to the soil under the biological farming system.

  8. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on daily activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, daily rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the daily activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average temperature and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of temperature and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of temperature on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant temperatures (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant temperature (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower temperatures. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and temperature modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular

  9. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  10. Daily locomotor activity and melatonin rhythms in Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Bayarri, M J; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; López-Olmeda, J F; Vera, L M; Rol de Lama, M A; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2004-06-01

    The daily locomotor and melatonin rhythms of the Senegal sole, a benthonic species of increasing interest in aquaculture, are still unknown, despite the fact that such knowledge is of prime importance for optimising its production. The aim of the present research was therefore to investigate the daily rhythms of locomotor activity and melatonin in the Senegal sole. For this purpose, the individual locomotor activity rhythms of fish were registered using a photocell. Plasma and ocular melatonin rhythms were studied in animals reared in circular tanks placed in earth under an LD 12:12 light regime and 16-18 degrees C temperature range (spring equinox). Blood and eye samples were taken every 3 h during a complete 24-h cycle. The impact of a light pulse in the middle of the dark period (MD) on plasma melatonin was also studied. Locomotor activity was mainly nocturnal, with 84.3% of the total activity occurring during darkness. The levels of plasma melatonin were higher at night (55 pg/ml) than during the day (2 pg/ml), while ocular melatonin levels appeared to be arrhythmic. Both weight and melatonin content were found to be significantly higher in the left eye in relation to the right eye. A light pulse in MD provoked a significant decrease in plasma melatonin levels. In summary, photoperiod is a key factor in synchronizing locomotor activity and melatonin rhythms in the Senegal sole, whose nocturnal habits should be taken into account for their rearing by aquaculture. PMID:15178150

  11. Sensory modulation disorder: a risk factor for participation in daily life activities.

    PubMed

    Bar-Shalita, Tami; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Parush, Shula

    2008-12-01

    Participation in childhood daily functional performance was examined in 78 children: 44 with sensory modulation disorder (SMD); (33 males, 11 females; mean age 7y 6mo [SD 1.20]) and 34 without SMD (18 males, 16 females; mean age 7y 8mo [SD 1.33]). Group classification was determined using two measures: the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and the Full-form Sensory Profile. Parents completed a battery of caregiver questionnaires. Children with SMD scored significantly lower on all three participation scales than the control group. A high correlation was observed between level of activity performance of the Participation in Childhood Occupations Questionnaire (PICO-Q) and the SSP, and a moderate correlation was observed between the Enjoyment of Performance of the PICO-Q and the SSP. A low correlation was observed between Frequency of Performance of the PICO-Q and the SSP. Logistic regression indicated that all three participation scales (level of activity performance, level of enjoyment of the activity, and frequency of performance of the activity) are significantly associated with group classification, with odds ratios of 3.13, 2.05, and 1.73 respectively. These findings are the first, to our knowledge, to confirm claims of limited participation in daily activities among children with SMD. Our results have significant clinical implications and provide support for the need for practitioners and caregivers of children with SMD to facilitate participation.

  12. Amount and intensity of daily living activities in Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A patients

    PubMed Central

    Menotti, Federica; Laudani, Luca; Damiani, Antonello; Macaluso, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A (CMT1A) patients show a reduction of spontaneous activities of daily living measured by means of questionnaires or pedometers, which are quite inaccurate compared to recent measurement techniques. Aim The study aimed at quantifying daily living activities in CMT1A patients by means of inertial sensors, which give information not only on the amount but also on the intensity of these activities. Materials and methods Time and count (amount), and velocity and power (intensity) of 24 h daily living activities were measured in eight patients (20–48 years; Barthel >90; Tinetti >20) and eight healthy individuals, matched for age and gender, by means of a wearable inertial sensor device. Results There were no differences between patients and controls in the 24-h distance covered and count of steps. However, count of step climbing and sit to stand were lower in patients than in controls (139.93 ± 141.66 vs. 341.06 ± 164.07 n and 58.23 ± 7.82 vs. 65.81 ± 4.75 n, respectively; P < 0.05) as well as mean daily step-climbing and walking velocities (1.07 ± 0.17 vs. 1.21 ± 0.10 m/sec and 1.16 ± 0.31 vs. 1.87 ± 0.50 m/sec, respectively; P < 0.05). In CMT1A patients there was a positive correlation between strength of the knee extensor muscles and both count of steps climbed (R = 0.80) and sit to stand (R = 0.79). Discussion and conclusion The reduced ability of CMT1A patients to carry out activities at high intensity, which was correlated with strength, suggests that strength training might be a rehabilitation tool for improving the 1 ability to carry out these activities. PMID:24653950

  13. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

  14. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Julie S; Branecky, Katrina L; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits.

  15. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  16. Patients' experiences of physical limitations in daily life activities when suffering from chronic heart failure; a phenomenographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Emma; Fridlund, Bengt; Mårtensson, Jan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe how patients suffering from chronic heart failure conceived their physical limitations in daily life activities. An explorative and qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach was chosen, a total of 15 patients were interviewed. The findings indicate that participants perceived a variety of structural aspects pertaining to physical limitations in activities of daily life which resulted in four referential aspects. Need of finding practical solutions in daily life focused on how life had to be changed and other ways of performing activities of daily life had to be invented. Having realistic expectations about the future was characterised by belief that the future itself would be marked by change in physical functioning, but an incentive to maintain functions and activities ensured good quality of or even increased capacity in daily life. Not believing in one's own ability included the perception of having no opportunity to improve ability to perform activities of daily life. There were perceptions of undesired passivity, undefined fear of straining themselves or performing activities that could endanger their health in addition to uncertainty about the future. In Losing one's social role in daily life, participants described losing their social network and their position in society and family because of limited physical capacity. A lack of important issues, mental and physical, occurred when physical capacity was lost. In conclusion, patients suffering from chronic heart failure found new solutions to manage activities in daily life, including willingness to change focus and identify other ways of doing important things. Patients had an incentive to maintain functions and activities to ensure a good quality of and strengthen their physical capacity in daily life. Inability to trust in their physical capacity in combination with experienced limitations in daily life prevented patients from attempting to increase activities

  17. Assessment of mental fatigue during car driving by using high resolution EEG activity and neurophysiologic indices.

    PubMed

    Borghini, G; Vecchiato, G; Toppi, J; Astolfi, L; Maglione, A; Isabella, R; Caltagirone, C; Kong, W; Wei, D; Zhou, Z; Polidori, L; Vitiello, S; Babiloni, F

    2012-01-01

    Driving tasks are vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation and mental fatigue, diminishing driver's ability to respond effectively to unusual or emergent situations. Physiological and brain activity analysis could help to understand how to provide useful feedback and alert signals to the drivers for avoiding car accidents. In this study we analyze the insurgence of mental fatigue or drowsiness during car driving in a simulated environment by using high resolution EEG techniques as well as neurophysiologic variables such as heart rate (HR) and eye blinks rate (EBR). Results suggest that it is possible to introduce a EEG-based cerebral workload index that it is sensitive to the mental efforts of the driver during drive tasks of different levels of difficulty. Workload index was based on the estimation of increase of EEG power spectra in the theta band over prefrontal areas and the simultaneous decrease of EEG power spectra over parietal areas in alpha band during difficult drive conditions. Such index could be used in a future to assess on-line the mental state of the driver during the drive task.

  18. Consequences of acne on stress, fatigue, sleep disorders and sexual activity: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Amici, Jean-Michel; Maghia, Rémi; Brenaut, Emilie; Cazeau, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Taïeb, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Acne is a common disease among young people, which could have a serious impact on quality of life. Based on a survey using the quotas method on a large sample of the French population, we studied the impact of acne on feelings of stress, fatigue upon waking, sleep disorders and sexual activity. We did not establish any relationship to sleep disorders, but clearly ascertained that people with acne (n = 1,375) feel more stressed and have less sexual intercourse. Hence, 18% of people from acne group declared to be stressed every day (13.9% in control group) and 37.5% had no sexual intercourse (20.4% in control group; n = 891). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that fatigue upon waking is strongly associated with the presence of acne (65.4% versus 58.4%). This study emphasises the fact that acne could have a deep resounding impact on the lives of people suffering from the disease.

  19. Severity of symptom flare after moderate exercise is linked to cytokine activity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, Andrea T; Light, Alan R; Hughen, Ronald W; Bateman, Lucinda; Martins, Thomas B; Hill, Harry R; Light, Kathleen C

    2010-07-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients often report symptom flare (SF) for >24 h after moderate exercise (post-ex). We hypothesized that SF is linked to increases in circulating cytokines and CD40 Ligand (CD40L). In 19 CFS patients and 17 controls, mental and physical fatigue and pain symptom ratings were obtained together with serum for 11 cytokines and CD40L before and at 0.5, 8, 24, and 48 h post-ex. Before exercise, CFS had lower CD40L (p<.05) but similar cytokines versus controls. In subgroups based on SF at 48 h, high SF patients (n=11) increased in IL-1beta, IL-12, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 (p<.05) 8 h post-ex. Low SF patients (n=8) showed post-ex decreases in IL-10, IL-13, and CD40L, and controls decreased in IL-10, CD40L, and TNFalpha (p<.05). Thus, in CFS, cytokine activity may vary directly with SF, which may explain prior inconsistent findings.

  20. Age- and sex-related differences for electromyography gaps during daily activity and a discrete task.

    PubMed

    Harwood, B; Edwards, D L; Jakobi, J M

    2011-05-01

    Temporal patterns of quiescent electromyography termed 'gaps' were investigated in young and old men and women for a discrete task and daily activity. Gaps in women (1.3±3.2) and old adults (1.5±3.4) were fewer compared with men (4.7±6.7) and young adults (4.6±6.9) for the discrete task (p<0.001). Gap duration was shorter for women (0.1±0.2s) and old adults (0.1±0.3s) compared with men (0.2±0.3s) and young adults (0.2±0.2s) (p<0.01). For daily activity, gap number was similar with age, but gap duration and percentage of total time occupied by gaps were less in old compared with young adults (50%), and in women compared with men (43%) (p<0.001). Results suggest gap activity is sensitive to type and duration of activity and that old adults and women demonstrate less quiescent electromyography than young adults and men.

  1. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2014-04-25

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  2. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  3. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use. PMID:27635252

  4. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  5. Characterization of Activities of Daily Living in Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Byerly, Laura K.; Vanderhill, Susan; Lambe, Susan; Wong, Sarah; Ozonoff, Al; Karlawish, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) differ from cognitively normal (NC) older adults on traditional and novel informant-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) and to identify cognitive correlates of ADLs among participants with MCI. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University medical setting. Participants Seventy-seven participants (NC: N = 39; MCI: N = 38), 60 to 90 years old (73.5 ± 6.6 years; 53% female). Measurements Neuropsychological and ADL measures. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administered to NC and MCI participants. Informants completed the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, including instrumental (IADL) and basic ADL (BADL) scales, as well as the Functional Capacities for Activities of Daily Living (FC-ADL), an error-based ADL measure. Results No statistically or clinically significant between-group differences emerged for the BADL or IADL subscales. However, a robust difference was noted for the FC-ADL scale (MCI errors > NC errors; F(1,75) = 13.6, p <0.001; d = 0.84). Among MCI participants, correlations revealed that a measure of verbal learning was the only neuropsychological correlate of FC-ADL total score (r =-0.39, df = 36, p = 0.007). No neuropsychological measures were significantly associated with the IADL or BADL subscale score. Conclusion Traditional measures assessing global ADLs may not be sensitive to early functional changes related to MCI; however, error-based measures may capture the subtle evolving functional decline associated with MCI. Among MCI participants, early functional difficulties are associated with verbal learning performance, possibly secondary to the hallmark cognitive impairment associated with this cohort. PMID:18332397

  6. Low cycle fatigue properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels after high-dose neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaganidze, E.; Petersen, C.; Aktaa, J.; Povstyanko, A.; Prokhorov, V.; Diegele, E.; Lässer, R.

    2011-08-01

    This paper focuses on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated to a displacement damage dose of up to 70 dpa at 330-337 °C in the BOR 60 reactor within the ARBOR 2 irradiation programme. The influence of neutron irradiation on the fatigue behaviour was determined for the as-received EUROFER97, pre-irradiation heat-treated EUROFER97 HT and F82H-mod steels. Strain-controlled push-pull loading was performed using miniaturized cylindrical specimens at a constant temperature of 330 °C with total strain ranges between 0.8% and 1.1%. Comparison of the LCF behaviour of irradiated and reference unirradiated specimens was performed for both the adequate total and inelastic strains. Neutron irradiation-induced hardening may have various effects on the fatigue behaviour of the steels. The reduction of inelastic strain in the irradiated state compared with the reference unirradiated state at common total strain amplitudes may increase fatigue lifetime. The increase in the stress at the adequate inelastic strain, by contrast, may accelerate fatigue damage accumulation. Depending on which of the two effects mentioned dominates, neutron irradiation may either extend or reduce the fatigue lifetime compared with the reference unirradiated state. The results obtained for EUROFER97 and EUROFER97 HT confirm these considerations. Most of the irradiated specimens show fatigue lifetimes comparable to those of the reference unirradiated state at adequate inelastic strains. Some irradiated specimens, however, show lifetime reduction or increase in comparison with the reference state at adequate inelastic strains.

  7. Daily rhythms of digestive enzyme activity and gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Mata-Sotres, José Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In order to identify daily changes in digestive physiology in developing gilthead seabream larvae, the enzyme activity (trypsin, lipases and α-amylase) and gene expression (trypsinogen-try, chymotrypsinogen-ctrb, bile salt-activated lipase-cel1b, phospholipase A2-pla2 and α-amylase-amy2a) were measured during a 24h cycle in larvae reared under a 12h light/12h dark photoperiod. Larvae were sampled at 10, 18, 30 and 60days post-hatch. In each sampling day, larvae were sampled every 3h during a complete 24h cycle. The enzyme activity and gene expression exhibited a marked dependent behavior to the light/darkness cycle in all tested ages. The patterns of activity and expression of all tested enzymes were compared to the feeding pattern found in the same larvae, which showed a rhythmic feeding pattern with a strong light synchronization. In the four tested ages, the activities of trypsin, and to a lesser extent lipases and amylase, were related to feeding activity. Molecular expression of the pancreatic enzymes tended to increase during the night, probably as an anticipation of the forthcoming ingestion of food that will take place during the next light period. It follows that the enzymatic activities are being regulated at translational and/or post-translational level. The potential variability of enzyme secretion along the whole day is an important factor to take into account in future studies. A particularly striking consequence of the present results is the reliability of studies based in only one daily sample taken at the same hour of the day, as those focused to assess ontogeny of digestive enzymes.

  8. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  9. Assessment of Activities of Daily Living, Self-Care, and Independence.

    PubMed

    Mlinac, Michelle E; Feng, Michelle C

    2016-09-01

    Activities of daily living (ADL) comprise the basic actions that involve caring for one's self and body, including personal care, mobility, and eating. In this review article, we (1) review useful clinical tools including a discussion on ways to approach ADL assessment across settings, (2) highlight relevant literature evaluating the relationship between cognitive functioning and ADLs, (3) discuss other biopsychosocial factors affecting ADL performance, (4) provide clinical recommendations for enhancing ADL capacity with an emphasis on self-care tasks (eating, grooming, dressing, bathing and toileting), and (5) identify interventions that treatment providers can implement to reduce the burden of ADL care. PMID:27475282

  10. RemoTable: Sharing Daily Activities and Moods Using Smart Furniture.

    PubMed

    Wallbaum, Torben; Heuten, Wilko; Boll, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Social Interaction and the feeling of emotional closeness to beloved ones is mainly driven by the communication with each other. For patients suffering from a serious disease due to intense mood changes, it is difficult to keep regular contact with relatives. This affects the need for direct and verbal communication with relatives. To continue the participation in each others lives, we have developed a concept to share daily activities, current moods and presence information using a smart living room table. A first lab study with a prototype showed promising results with regard to expressiveness, joy of use, and usability. PMID:27534325

  11. Detection of daily activities and sports with wearable sensors in controlled and uncontrolled conditions.

    PubMed

    Ermes, M; Pärkka, J; Mantyjarvi, J; Korhonen, I

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity has a positive impact on people's well-being, and it may also decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases. Activity recognition with wearable sensors can provide feedback to the user about his/her lifestyle regarding physical activity and sports, and thus, promote a more active lifestyle. So far, activity recognition has mostly been studied in supervised laboratory settings. The aim of this study was to examine how well the daily activities and sports performed by the subjects in unsupervised settings can be recognized compared to supervised settings. The activities were recognized by using a hybrid classifier combining a tree structure containing a priori knowledge and artificial neural networks, and also by using three reference classifiers. Activity data were collected for 68 h from 12 subjects, out of which the activity was supervised for 21 h and unsupervised for 47 h. Activities were recognized based on signal features from 3-D accelerometers on hip and wrist and GPS information. The activities included lying down, sitting and standing, walking, running, cycling with an exercise bike, rowing with a rowing machine, playing football, Nordic walking, and cycling with a regular bike. The total accuracy of the activity recognition using both supervised and unsupervised data was 89% that was only 1% unit lower than the accuracy of activity recognition using only supervised data. However, the accuracy decreased by 17% unit when only supervised data were used for training and only unsupervised data for validation, which emphasizes the need for out-of-laboratory data in the development of activity-recognition systems. The results support a vision of recognizing a wider spectrum, and more complex activities in real life settings. PMID:18270033

  12. Monitoring activities of daily living based on wearable wireless body sensor network.

    PubMed

    Kańtoch, E; Augustyniak, P; Markiewicz, M; Prusak, D

    2014-01-01

    With recent advances in microprocessor chip technology, wireless communication, and biomedical engineering it is possible to develop miniaturized ubiquitous health monitoring devices that are capable of recording physiological and movement signals during daily life activities. The aim of the research is to implement and test the prototype of health monitoring system. The system consists of the body central unit with Bluetooth module and wearable sensors: the custom-designed ECG sensor, the temperature sensor, the skin humidity sensor and accelerometers placed on the human body or integrated with clothes and a network gateway to forward data to a remote medical server. The system includes custom-designed transmission protocol and remote web-based graphical user interface for remote real time data analysis. Experimental results for a group of humans who performed various activities (eg. working, running, etc.) showed maximum 5% absolute error compared to certified medical devices. The results are promising and indicate that developed wireless wearable monitoring system faces challenges of multi-sensor human health monitoring during performing daily activities and opens new opportunities in developing novel healthcare services.

  13. Disability in activities of daily living: patterns of change and a hierarchy of disability.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, D D; Hughes, S L; Manheim, L M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper examines longitudinal data over 6 years to evaluate incidence rates of disability and the pattern of dependency in activities of daily living. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 5151) was used to evaluate incidence of disability in activities of daily living; biennial interview data from 1984 through 1990 were used. The median age to disability onset for individual activities was estimated from survival analysis. A prevalent ordering of incident disability was identified from patterns of disability onset within individuals. RESULTS: The progression of incident disability among the elderly supported by longitudinal data, based on both the ordering of median ages to disability onset and patterns of incident disability, was as follows: walking, bathing, transferring, dressing, toileting, feeding. Gender differences were found in disability incidence rates. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a mathematical picture of physical functioning as people age. These findings, based on longitudinal data, indicate a different hierarchical structure of disability than found in previous reports using cross-sectional data. Furthermore, the study documents gender differences in incident impairment, which indicate that although women outlive men, they spend more time in a disabled state. PMID:9096537

  14. Daily activity patterns of two co-occurring tropical satyrine butterflies.

    PubMed

    Enrique Cardoso Peixoto, Paulo; Benson, Woodruff W

    2009-01-01

    Adult males and females of many insect species are expected to adjust their daily activity pattern in order to avoid stressful climatic conditions and increase the chances to encounter sexual partners. Using scan sampling methods associated with focal individual observations it was found that two satyrine butterflies of similar size and morphology, Hermeuptychia hermes (Fabricius) (Leptidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Paryphthimoides phronius (Godart), show completely different daily activity patterns on forest edges in southeastern Brazil. Hermeuptychia hermes presents one abundance peak in the morning and another in the late afternoon, while P. phronius abundance peaks in the mid-day, remaining stable until 1700 h. This difference is probably due to the occurrence of territorial behavior in the later species. The beginning of territorial defense by P. phronius males coincided with the time of new-born female activity. However, newly hatched females were not sexually receptive. The afternoon territoriality in male P. phronius may be in part related to mate acquisition. However, why the abundance of H. hermes decreases when the abundance of P. phronius increases is less clear.

  15. Risk Factors of Fatigue in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease in a Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Kotlęga, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Meller, Agnieszka; Budzianowska, Anna; Honczarenko, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Fatigue syndrome is one of the nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the study was assessment of prevalence of fatigue syndrome in PD and answering the question what are the independent risk factors connected with intensity of fatigue in PD. Methods. 114 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age 62.2 + 10.8 years) were enrolled. The fatigue was assessed according to the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). We analyzed associations between fatigue and sex, age, education, duration and severity of the disease, everyday activity, intensity of the main symptoms, treatment, presence of dyskinesias and fluctuations, depression and excessive sleep during the day, and presence of pain and nycturia. Results. The fatigue syndrome was detected in 57.9% of patients. The score in the FSS was 1 to 7 points, 4.3 average. Greater fatigue intensity correlated with higher total daily levodopa equivalent dose. Patients with moderate depression had significantly greater fatigue. Conclusions. Fatigue syndrome affects 57.9% of patients with PD. Use of higher LED and presence of moderate depression are independent risk factors of greater intensity of fatigue. PMID:26925292

  16. Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Hamer, Peter; Bishop, David

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual's anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e., the difference between the maximum anaerobic (Pana) and aerobic power (Paer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular activity, as evidenced by changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight healthy males carried out tests to determine Pana (defined as the highest power output attained during a 6-s cycling sprint), Paer (defined as the highest power output achieved during a progressive, discontinuous cycling test to failure) and a repeated cycling sprint test (10 x 6-s max sprints with 30 s rest). Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were calculated for each maximal 6-s cycling bout. Root mean square (RMS) was utilized to quantify EMG activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of the right leg. Over the ten sprints, PPO and MPO decreased by 24.6 and 28.3% from the maximal value (i.e., sprint 1), respectively. Fatigue index during repeated sprints was significantly correlated with APR (R = 0.87; P < 0.05). RMS values decreased over the ten sprints by 14.6% (+/-6.3%). There was a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) between the changes in MPO and EMG RMS from the vastus lateralis muscle during the ten sprints. The individual advantage in fatigue-resistance when performing a repeated sprint task was related with a lower anaerobic power reserve. Additionally, a suboptimal net motor unit activity might also impair the ability to repeatedly generate maximum power outputs.

  17. Association between daily activities, process skills, and motor skills in community-dwelling patients after left hemiparetic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between daily activities, information processing, and motor skills in individuals with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The instrumental activities of daily living of 35 patients (22 male and 13 female; age: 57.1 ± 16.9 years) with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke were assessed by using three clinical measurement tools, including activity card sorting, assessment of motor and process skills, and the modified Barthel Index. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that the patients’ processing skills in instrumental activities of daily living after having a left hemiparetic stroke were reduced. Participation in leisure and social activities was also affected as assessed by using the modified Barthel Index. [Conclusion] This study supports the clinical need for rehabilitation intervention after a left hemiparetic stroke to improve patients’ processing skills and independence in performing activities of daily living. PMID:27390426

  18. Different types of fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy and HMSN-I. Experienced fatigue and physiological fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Joke S; Zwarts, Machiel J; Schillings, Maartje L; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2008-09-01

    Although fatigue is a common symptom in neuromuscular disorders, little is known about different types of fatigue. Sixty-five FSHD, 79 adult-onset MD and 73 HMSN type I patients were studied. Experienced fatigue was assessed with the CIS-fatigue subscale. Physiological fatigue was measured during a 2-min sustained maximal voluntary contraction of the biceps brachii muscle using the twitch interpolation technique to assess central activation failure (CAF) and peripheral fatigue. Experienced fatigue, CAF and peripheral fatigue appeared to be predominantly separate types of fatigue. PMID:18690504

  19. Evaluation of a Smartphone-based Human Activity Recognition System in a Daily Living Environment.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Tundo, Marco D; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation method that includes continuous activities in a daily-living environment was developed for Wearable Mobility Monitoring Systems (WMMS) that attempt to recognize user activities. Participants performed a pre-determined set of daily living actions within a continuous test circuit that included mobility activities (walking, standing, sitting, lying, ascending/descending stairs), daily living tasks (combing hair, brushing teeth, preparing food, eating, washing dishes), and subtle environment changes (opening doors, using an elevator, walking on inclines, traversing staircase landings, walking outdoors). To evaluate WMMS performance on this circuit, fifteen able-bodied participants completed the tasks while wearing a smartphone at their right front pelvis. The WMMS application used smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope signals to classify activity states. A gold standard comparison data set was created by video-recording each trial and manually logging activity onset times. Gold standard and WMMS data were analyzed offline. Three classification sets were calculated for each circuit: (i) mobility or immobility, ii) sit, stand, lie, or walking, and (iii) sit, stand, lie, walking, climbing stairs, or small standing movement. Sensitivities, specificities, and F-Scores for activity categorization and changes-of-state were calculated. The mobile versus immobile classification set had a sensitivity of 86.30% ± 7.2% and specificity of 98.96% ± 0.6%, while the second prediction set had a sensitivity of 88.35% ± 7.80% and specificity of 98.51% ± 0.62%. For the third classification set, sensitivity was 84.92% ± 6.38% and specificity was 98.17 ± 0.62. F1 scores for the first, second and third classification sets were 86.17 ± 6.3, 80.19 ± 6.36, and 78.42 ± 5.96, respectively. This demonstrates that WMMS performance depends on the evaluation protocol in addition to the algorithms. The demonstrated protocol can be used and tailored for evaluating human activity

  20. The 'Technology - Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire': a version with a technology-related subscale

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L.; Riveros, Rodrigo; Nuñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. Method A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish Version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled The Technology Version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. Results The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-mental Test (MMSE), the Frontal Assesment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = −0.70; FAB: r = −0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = −0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p<0.001). The T-ADLQ showed a good reliability with a relatively high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.861). When considering a functional impairment cut-off point greater than 29.25%, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ were 82% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.937 for the T-ADLQ and 0.932 for the original version of the test. Conclusions The T-ADLQ revealed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the functional assessment of activities of daily living in dementia patients. However, the inclusion of technology items in

  1. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  2. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  3. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26947954

  4. Structural characterization and anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides from the roots of Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Lin; Li, Jun; Li, George; Wang, Dong-mei; Zhu, Long-ping; Yang, De-po

    2009-04-01

    Three polysaccharides MP-1, MP-2, and MP-3 were isolated from hot water extract of Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis through 95% ethanol precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column and Sephadex G-75 or G-100 column). MP-1 was identified as an inulin-type fructan with simple linear (2-->1)-linked structure. Both MP-2 and MP-3 were acidic polysaccharides which consisted predominantly of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Partial structure characterization of MP-3 was carried out by partial acid hydrolysis and periodate oxidation. The total polysaccharides of the herb were tested in mice weight-loaded swimming model and were found to have anti-fatigue activity. PMID:19150459

  5. An anthropomorphic hand exoskeleton to prevent astronaut hand fatigue during extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Shields, B L; Main, J A; Peterson, S W; Strauss, A M

    1997-09-01

    This correspondence presents a prototype of a powered hand exoskeleton that is designed to fit over the gloved hand of an astronaut and offset the stiffness of the pressurized space suit. This will keep the productive time spent in extravehicular activity from being constrained by hand fatigue. The exoskeleton has a three-finger design, the third and fourth fingers being combined to lighten and simplify the assembly. The motions of the hand are monitored by an array of pressure sensors mounted between the exoskeleton and the hand. Controller commands are determined by a state-of-the-art programmable microcontroller using pressure sensor input. These commands are applied to a PWM driven dc motor array which provides the motive power to move the exoskeleton fingers. The resultant motion of the exoskeleton allows the astronaut to perform both precision grasping tasks with the thumb and forefinger, as well as a power grasp with the entire hand. PMID:11541130

  6. An anthropomorphic hand exoskeleton to prevent astronaut hand fatigue during extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Shields, B L; Main, J A; Peterson, S W; Strauss, A M

    1997-09-01

    This correspondence presents a prototype of a powered hand exoskeleton that is designed to fit over the gloved hand of an astronaut and offset the stiffness of the pressurized space suit. This will keep the productive time spent in extravehicular activity from being constrained by hand fatigue. The exoskeleton has a three-finger design, the third and fourth fingers being combined to lighten and simplify the assembly. The motions of the hand are monitored by an array of pressure sensors mounted between the exoskeleton and the hand. Controller commands are determined by a state-of-the-art programmable microcontroller using pressure sensor input. These commands are applied to a PWM driven dc motor array which provides the motive power to move the exoskeleton fingers. The resultant motion of the exoskeleton allows the astronaut to perform both precision grasping tasks with the thumb and forefinger, as well as a power grasp with the entire hand.

  7. Daily variation in the electrophysiological activity of mouse medial habenula neurones

    PubMed Central

    Sakhi, Kanwal; Belle, Mino D C; Gossan, Nicole; Delagrange, Philippe; Piggins, Hugh D

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntrinsic daily or circadian rhythms arise through the outputs of the master circadian clock in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) as well as circadian oscillators in other brain sites and peripheral tissues. SCN neurones contain an intracellular molecular clock that drives these neurones to exhibit pronounced day–night differences in their electrical properties. The epithalamic medial habenula (MHb) expresses clock genes, but little is known about the bioelectric properties of mouse MHb neurones and their potential circadian characteristics. Therefore, in this study we used a brain slice preparation containing the MHb to determine the basic electrical properties of mouse MHb neurones with whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology, and investigated whether these vary across the day–night cycle. MHb neurones (n = 230) showed heterogeneity in electrophysiological state, ranging from highly depolarised cells (∼ −25 to −30 mV) that are silent with no membrane activity or display depolarised low-amplitude membrane oscillations, to neurones that were moderately hyperpolarised (∼40 mV) and spontaneously discharging action potentials. These electrical states were largely intrinsically regulated and were influenced by the activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. When considered as one population, MHb neurones showed significant circadian variation in their spontaneous firing rate and resting membrane potential. However, in recordings of MHb neurones from mice lacking the core molecular circadian clock, these temporal differences in MHb activity were absent, indicating that circadian clock signals actively regulate the timing of MHb neuronal states. These observations add to the extracellularly recorded rhythms seen in other brain areas and establish that circadian mechanisms can influence the membrane properties of neurones in extra-SCN sites. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that the MHb may

  8. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  9. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  10. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities.

  11. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (<0.1%). The relative abundance of these species increased from May until the beginning of July and then decreased, disappearing at the beginning of October. The diel host-seeking patterns and oviposition site-seeking patterns were species specific and were differentially affected by the ecological variables recorded at the day and hour of mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens.

  12. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  13. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25th-75th) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25th-75th) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual’s heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p < 0.001) and 24.8 (21.6-28.9) vs.26.2 (24.5-30.8) %HRR, p < 0.01], respectively. Overweight children allocated more of their day to sedentary pursuits [385 (336-468) vs 297 (235-468) min/d, p < 0.001], and less time to moderate physical activity [381(321-457) vs. 460 (380-534) min/d, p < 0.01]. Nevertheless, because of the greater energy cost of a given task, total and active daily energy expenditure did not differ from those with a normal BMI. Key points The physical activity intensity for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals. However, because the energy cost of activity is greater in those who are overweight, they do not differ in total energy expenditure or in active energy expenditure. Normal children spend more time in moderate activity and less time in

  14. Daily activity of four tropical intertidal hermit crabs from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turra, A; Denadai, M R

    2003-08-01

    This study describes the daily activity in a simulated high tide situation of four species of hermit crabs (Pagurus criniticornis, Clibanarius antillensis, C. sclopetarius, and C. vittatus) that coexist in an intertidal flat in southeastern Brazil. Observations were done in two-hour intervals during two subsequent days (48 h) in three replicate pools with thirty crabs each. Among species (between and within genera) there was an evident variation in activity patterns, of which three could be distinguished. The circadian activity patterns of C. antillensis and C. vittatus could be characterized as evening and nocturnal, with resting peaks during the morning and afternoon. The circadian activity pattern of C. sclopetarius was characterized by two marked peaks of inactivity, corresponding to dawn and evening, which could represent an intrinsic association with the semi-lunar tidal cycles of the study area. Pagurus criniticornis showed high activity not influenced by day/night conditions during the entire observed period. These activity pattern variations of the studied hermit crabs should be taken into account in designing further experiments. More precise and accurate interspecific behavioral comparisons among species could be achieved in nocturnal experiments, the high activity period of all species.

  15. Older Adults with Diabetes and Osteoarthritis and Their Spouses: Effects of Activity Limitations, Marital Happiness, and Social Contacts on Partners' Daily Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Susanne Olsen; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2009-01-01

    Using daily diary data from 28 later life couples where one spouse had diabetes and osteoarthritis, we examined crossover effects of target spouses' daily activity limitations and their partners' daily mood. On days when target spouses' daily activity limitations were higher than average, partners' positive mood decreased and negative mood…

  16. Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.

    PubMed

    Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

    1987-11-01

    1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students

  17. Gender Differences in Pain-Physical Activity Linkages among Older Adults: Lessons Learned from Daily Life Approaches.

    PubMed

    Ho, Amy; Ashe, Maureen C; DeLongis, Anita; Graf, Peter; Khan, Karim M; Hoppmann, Christiane A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many older adults know about the health benefits of an active lifestyle, but, frequently, pain prevents them from engaging in physical activity. The majority of older adults experience pain, a complex experience that can vary across time and is shaped by sociocultural factors like gender. Objectives. To describe the time-varying associations between daily pain and physical activity and to explore differences in these associations between women and men. Methods. One hundred and twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were asked to report their pain levels three times daily over a 10-day period and wear an accelerometer to objectively capture their daily physical activity (step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Results. Increased daily step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were associated with increased daily pain, especially among women. Confirming past literature and contrasting findings for daily pain reports, overall pain levels across the study period were negatively associated with minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Conclusions. Findings highlight that pain is significantly associated with physical activity in old age. The nature of this association depends on the time scale that is considered and differs between women and men. PMID:27445599

  18. Gender Differences in Pain-Physical Activity Linkages among Older Adults: Lessons Learned from Daily Life Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Amy; Ashe, Maureen C.; DeLongis, Anita; Graf, Peter; Khan, Karim M.; Hoppmann, Christiane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many older adults know about the health benefits of an active lifestyle, but, frequently, pain prevents them from engaging in physical activity. The majority of older adults experience pain, a complex experience that can vary across time and is shaped by sociocultural factors like gender. Objectives. To describe the time-varying associations between daily pain and physical activity and to explore differences in these associations between women and men. Methods. One hundred and twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were asked to report their pain levels three times daily over a 10-day period and wear an accelerometer to objectively capture their daily physical activity (step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Results. Increased daily step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were associated with increased daily pain, especially among women. Confirming past literature and contrasting findings for daily pain reports, overall pain levels across the study period were negatively associated with minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Conclusions. Findings highlight that pain is significantly associated with physical activity in old age. The nature of this association depends on the time scale that is considered and differs between women and men. PMID:27445599

  19. Behavioral Intention to Use a Virtual Instrumental Activities of Daily Living System Among People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. METHOD. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world–based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. RESULTS. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. CONCLUSION. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. PMID:25871604

  20. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  1. Transitions in activities of daily living in Mexico, 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Venegas, Carlos; De La Vega, Sergio; Wong, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the 2001–2012 progression of limitations in daily activities in the Mexican elderly population aged 60 or older and identifies how sociodemographic and health factors affect these progressions. Materials and methods Data come from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a national sample of adults born in 1951 or earlier, including a baseline survey in 2001 and follow-ups in 2003 and 2012. Results Difficulty in getting dressed is the activity that has the highest prevalence in all three waves for both genders. In the 11-year transition, 42.8% of the respondents with no limitations in 2001 reported no limitations in 2012. In contrast, 60.8% of those who reported three or more limitations in 2001 had died by 2012. Conclusions With the rapid aging of the Mexican population, the knowledge of patterns of deterioration of functional limitations will prove useful for future public health policies. PMID:26172235

  2. Creep contributes to the fatigue behavior of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Bowman, S M; Guo, X E; Cheng, D W; Keaveny, T M; Gibson, L J; Hayes, W C; McMahon, T A

    1998-10-01

    Repetitive, low-intensity loading from normal daily activities can generate fatigue damage in trabecular bone, a potential cause of spontaneous fractures of the hip and spine. Finite element models of trabecular bone (Guo et al., 1994) suggest that both creep and slow crack growth contribute to fatigue failure. In an effort to characterize these damage mechanisms experimentally, we conducted fatigue and creep tests on 85 waisted specimens of trabecular bone obtained from 76 bovine proximal tibiae. All applied stresses were normalized by the previously measured specimen modulus. Fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature; creep tests were conducted at 4, 15, 25, 37, 45, and 53 degrees C in a custom-designed apparatus. The fatigue behavior was characterized by decreasing modulus and increasing hysteresis prior to failure. The hysteresis loops progressively displaced along the strain axis, indicating that creep was also involved in the fatigue process. The creep behavior was characterized by the three classical stages of decreasing, constant, and increasing creep rates. Strong and highly significant power-law relationships were found between cycles-to-failure, time-to-failure, steady-state creep rate, and the applied loads. Creep analyses of the fatigue hysteresis loops also generated strong and highly significant power law relationships for time-to-failure and steady-state creep rate. Lastly, the products of creep rate and time-to-failure were constant for both the fatigue and creep tests and were equal to the measured failure strains, suggesting that creep plays a fundamental role in the fatigue behavior of trabecular bone. Additional analysis of the fatigue strain data suggests that creep and slow crack growth are not separate processes that dominate at high and low loads, respectively, but are present throughout all stages of fatigue.

  3. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database. PMID:22254706

  4. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database.

  5. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  6. [The effect of daily exposure to low hardening temperature on plant vital activity].

    PubMed

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Sherudilo, E G

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological responses of plants to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature was studied under chamber and field conditions. Experiments were carried out on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), marigolds (Tagetes L.), and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants. The obtained data demonstrated a similar pattern of response in all studied plant species to different variants of exposure to low hardening temperature. The main features of plant response to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature include: a higher rate of increase in cold tolerance (cf. two- or threefold increase relative to constant low hardening temperature) that peaked on day 5 (cf. day 2 at constant low hardening temperature) and was maintained for 2 weeks (cf. 3-4 days at constant low hardening temperature); a simultaneous increase in heat tolerance (cf. twofold relative to constant low hardening temperature) maintained over a long period (cf. only in the beginning of the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a sharp drop in the subsequent cold tolerance after plant incubation in the dark (cf. a very low decrease in cold tolerance following the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a combination of high cold tolerance and high photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (cf. a low non-photochemical quenching at constant low hardening temperature); and the capacity to rapidly increase cold tolerance in response to repeated short-term exposures to low hardening temperature in plants grown outdoors (cf. a gradual increase after repeated exposure to constant low hardening temperature). Possible methods underlying the plant response to daily short-term exposure to low temperature are proposed.

  7. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Relatively Active and for Passive Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazelmans, Ellen; Prins, Judith; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2006-01-01

    In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), facilitating, initiating, and perpetuating factors are distinguished. Although somatic factors might have initiated symptoms in CFS, they do not explain the persistence of fatigue. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for CFS focuses on factors that perpetuate and prolong symptoms. Recently it has been shown that,…

  8. Accelerometry predicts daily energy expenditure in a bird with high activity levels.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Speakman, John R; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-02-23

    Animal ecology is shaped by energy costs, yet it is difficult to measure fine-scale energy expenditure in the wild. Because metabolism is often closely correlated with mechanical work, accelerometers have the potential to provide detailed information on energy expenditure of wild animals over fine temporal scales. Nonetheless, accelerometry needs to be validated on wild animals, especially across different locomotory modes. We merged data collected on 20 thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) from miniature accelerometers with measurements of daily energy expenditure over 24 h using doubly labelled water. Across three different locomotory modes (swimming, flying and movement on land), dynamic body acceleration was a good predictor of daily energy expenditure as measured independently by doubly labelled water (R(2) = 0.73). The most parsimonious model suggested that different equations were needed to predict energy expenditure from accelerometry for flying than for surface swimming or activity on land (R(2) = 0.81). Our results demonstrate that accelerometers can provide an accurate integrated measure of energy expenditure in wild animals using many different locomotory modes. PMID:23256182

  9. A robotic system to train activities of daily living in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Guidali, Marco; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Broggi, Simon; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Nef, Tobias; Riener, Robert

    2011-10-01

    In the past decade, several arm rehabilitation robots have been developed to assist neurological patients during therapy. Early devices were limited in their number of degrees of freedom and range of motion, whereas newer robots such as the ARMin robot can support the entire arm. Often, these devices are combined with virtual environments to integrate motivating game-like scenarios. Several studies have shown a positive effect of game-playing on therapy outcome by increasing motivation. In addition, we assume that practicing highly functional movements can further enhance therapy outcome by facilitating the transfer of motor abilities acquired in therapy to daily life. Therefore, we present a rehabilitation system that enables the training of activities of daily living (ADL) with the support of an assistive robot. Important ADL tasks have been identified and implemented in a virtual environment. A patient-cooperative control strategy with adaptable freedom in timing and space was developed to assist the patient during the task. The technical feasibility and usability of the system was evaluated with seven healthy subjects and three chronic stroke patients.

  10. Accelerometry predicts daily energy expenditure in a bird with high activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kyle H.; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Speakman, John R.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Animal ecology is shaped by energy costs, yet it is difficult to measure fine-scale energy expenditure in the wild. Because metabolism is often closely correlated with mechanical work, accelerometers have the potential to provide detailed information on energy expenditure of wild animals over fine temporal scales. Nonetheless, accelerometry needs to be validated on wild animals, especially across different locomotory modes. We merged data collected on 20 thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) from miniature accelerometers with measurements of daily energy expenditure over 24 h using doubly labelled water. Across three different locomotory modes (swimming, flying and movement on land), dynamic body acceleration was a good predictor of daily energy expenditure as measured independently by doubly labelled water (R2 = 0.73). The most parsimonious model suggested that different equations were needed to predict energy expenditure from accelerometry for flying than for surface swimming or activity on land (R2 = 0.81). Our results demonstrate that accelerometers can provide an accurate integrated measure of energy expenditure in wild animals using many different locomotory modes. PMID:23256182

  11. Loading of the knee joint during activities of daily living measured in vivo in five subjects.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, I; Heinlein, B; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Bergmann, G

    2010-08-10

    Detailed knowledge about loading of the knee joint is essential for preclinical testing of implants, validation of musculoskeletal models and biomechanical understanding of the knee joint. The contact forces and moments acting on the tibial component were therefore measured in 5 subjects in vivo by an instrumented knee implant during various activities of daily living. Average peak resultant forces, in percent of body weight, were highest during stair descending (346% BW), followed by stair ascending (316% BW), level walking (261% BW), one legged stance (259% BW), knee bending (253% BW), standing up (246% BW), sitting down (225% BW) and two legged stance (107% BW). Peak shear forces were about 10-20 times smaller than the axial force. Resultant forces acted almost vertically on the tibial plateau even during high flexion. Highest moments acted in the frontal plane with a typical peak to peak range -2.91% BWm (adduction moment) to 1.61% BWm (abduction moment) throughout all activities. Peak flexion/extension moments ranged between -0.44% BWm (extension moment) and 3.16% BWm (flexion moment). Peak external/internal torques lay between -1.1% BWm (internal torque) and 0.53% BWm (external torque). The knee joint is highly loaded during daily life. In general, resultant contact forces during dynamic activities were lower than the ones predicted by many mathematical models, but lay in a similar range as measured in vivo by others. Some of the observed load components were much higher than those currently applied when testing knee implants.

  12. Neighborhoods, daily activities, and measuring health risks experienced in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Basta, Luke A; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2010-12-01

    Studies of place and health often classify a subject's exposure status according to that which is present in their neighborhood of residence. One's neighborhood is often proxied by designating it to be an administratively defined unit such as census tract, to make analysis feasible. Although it is understood that residential space and actual lived space may not correspond and therefore exposure misclassification may result, few studies have the opportunity to investigate the implications of this issue concretely. A population-based case-control study that is currently underway provides one such opportunity. Adolescent victims of assault in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, and a control sample of adolescents drawn randomly from the community are being enrolled to study how alcohol consumption and time spent nearby alcohol outlets - individual-level and environmental-level risk factors for violence, respectively - over the course of daily activities relate to the likelihood of being assaulted. Data from a rapport-building exercise consist of hand-drawn sketches that subjects drew on street maps when asked to indicate the area considered their neighborhood. The main data consist of self-reported, detailed paths of the routes adolescents traveled from one location to the next over the course of one full day. Having noticed interesting patterns as the data collection phase proceeds, we present here an analysis conducted with the data of 55 control subjects between 15 and 19 years old. We found that hand-drawn neighborhoods and activity paths did not correspond to census tract boundaries, and time subjects spent in close proximity to alcohol outlets during their daily activities was not correlated with the prevalence of alcohol outlets in the census tract of their residence. This served as a useful example demonstrating how classifying subjects as exposed based solely on the prevalence of the exposure in the geographic area of their residence may misrepresent the

  13. Kinesiology Tape or Compression Sleeve Applied to the Thigh Does Not Improve Balance or Muscle Activation Before or Following Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, M Tyler; Quigley, Patrick J; Hodgson, Daniel D; Reid, Jonathan C; Behm, David G

    2016-07-01

    Cavanaugh, MT, Quigley, PJ, Hodgson, DD, Reid, JC, and Behm, DG. Kinesiology tape or compression sleeve applied to the thigh does not improve balance or muscle activation before or following fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1992-2000, 2016-Compression sleeves (CS) and kinesiology tape (KT) are purported to enhance proprioception, however, there is substantial conflict in the literature. Because the beneficial effects of CS and KT are more evident in the literature with recovery, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of CS and KT on balance under acute nonfatigued and postfatigued conditions. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 12 university participants (5 females and 7 males) performed in a random order CS, KT, and Control conditions. Two trials of each test were conducted before the application of CS or KT (pretest 1), immediately after the application (pretest 2), with posttests at 1 and 10 minutes after 4 sets of unilateral Bulgarian squats to failure (1 minute rest between sets). Tests included a Y balance test (measures: distance reached by nondominant foot in anterior, posterior lateral, and posterior medial directions) and drop jump landing balance test from a 50-cm platform (measures: ground reaction force, electromyography, and center of pressure). The fatigue protocol induced 25.3% decrease in unilateral squat repetitions from set 1 to set 4. There were no significant condition main effects or interactions for any balance measure or EMG before or after fatigue. In conclusion, independent of fatigue, there was no significant effect of CS or KT on balance outcomes immediately and up to 10 minutes following the fatiguing intervention. Thus, nonfatigued or muscles weakened by fatigue did not benefit from CS and KT application. PMID:26705066

  14. Kinesiology Tape or Compression Sleeve Applied to the Thigh Does Not Improve Balance or Muscle Activation Before or Following Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, M Tyler; Quigley, Patrick J; Hodgson, Daniel D; Reid, Jonathan C; Behm, David G

    2016-07-01

    Cavanaugh, MT, Quigley, PJ, Hodgson, DD, Reid, JC, and Behm, DG. Kinesiology tape or compression sleeve applied to the thigh does not improve balance or muscle activation before or following fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1992-2000, 2016-Compression sleeves (CS) and kinesiology tape (KT) are purported to enhance proprioception, however, there is substantial conflict in the literature. Because the beneficial effects of CS and KT are more evident in the literature with recovery, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of CS and KT on balance under acute nonfatigued and postfatigued conditions. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 12 university participants (5 females and 7 males) performed in a random order CS, KT, and Control conditions. Two trials of each test were conducted before the application of CS or KT (pretest 1), immediately after the application (pretest 2), with posttests at 1 and 10 minutes after 4 sets of unilateral Bulgarian squats to failure (1 minute rest between sets). Tests included a Y balance test (measures: distance reached by nondominant foot in anterior, posterior lateral, and posterior medial directions) and drop jump landing balance test from a 50-cm platform (measures: ground reaction force, electromyography, and center of pressure). The fatigue protocol induced 25.3% decrease in unilateral squat repetitions from set 1 to set 4. There were no significant condition main effects or interactions for any balance measure or EMG before or after fatigue. In conclusion, independent of fatigue, there was no significant effect of CS or KT on balance outcomes immediately and up to 10 minutes following the fatiguing intervention. Thus, nonfatigued or muscles weakened by fatigue did not benefit from CS and KT application.

  15. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26957472

  16. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) throughout the Year

    PubMed Central

    Wassmer, Thomas; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light), the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day. PMID:26963918

  17. Muscle fiber conduction velocity and fractal dimension of EMG during fatiguing contraction of young and elderly active men.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; Cescon, Corrado; Coratella, Giuseppe; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Barbero, Marco; Lanza, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, linear and nonlinear surface electromyography (EMG) variables highlighting different components of fatigue have been developed. In this study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) rate of changes as descriptors, respectively, of motor unit synchronization and peripheral manifestations of fatigue. Sixteen elderly (69  ±  4 years) and seventeen young (23  ±  2 years) physically active men (almost 3-5 h of physical activity per week) executed one knee extensor contraction at 70% of a maximal voluntary contraction for 30 s. Muscle fiber CV and FD were calculated from the multichannel surface EMG signal recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. The main findings were that the two groups showed a similar rate of change of CV, whereas FD rate of change was higher in the young than in the elderly group. The trends were the same for both muscles. CV findings highlighted a non-different extent of peripheral manifestations of fatigue between groups. Nevertheless, FD rate of change was found to be steeper in the elderly than in the young, suggesting a greater increase in motor unit synchronization with ageing. These findings suggest that FD analysis could be used as a complementary variable providing further information on central mechanisms with respect to CV in fatiguing contractions.

  18. Mapping the Daily Progression of Large Wildland Fires Using MODIS Active Fire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Sedano, Fernando; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Rogers, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    High temporal resolution information on burned area is a prerequisite for incorporating bottom-up estimates of wildland fire emissions in regional air transport models and for improving models of fire behavior. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire product (MO(Y)D14) as input to a kriging interpolation to derive continuous maps of the evolution of nine large wildland fires. For each fire, local input parameters for the kriging model were defined using variogram analysis. The accuracy of the kriging model was assessed using high resolution daily fire perimeter data available from the U.S. Forest Service. We also assessed the temporal reporting accuracy of the MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1 and MCD64A1). Averaged over the nine fires, the kriging method correctly mapped 73% of the pixels within the accuracy of a single day, compared to 33% for MCD45A1 and 53% for MCD64A1.

  19. An Evidence-Based Adoption of Technology Model for Remote Monitoring of Elders’ Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    What benefit will new technologies offer if they are inadequately or not used? This work presents a meta-synthesis of adoption of technology related findings from four innovative monitoring intervention research studies with older adults and their informal and/or formal caregivers. Each study employed mixed methods analyses that lead to an understanding of the key variables that influenced adoption of telephone and Internet based wireless remote monitoring technologies by elders and their caregivers. The studies were all conducted in “real world” homes ranging from solo residences to multi-story independent living residential buildings. Insights gained came from issues not found in controlled laboratory environments but in the complex interplay of family-elder-staff dynamics around balancing safety and independence. Findings resulted in an adoption of technology model for remote monitoring of elders’ daily activities derived from evidence based research to advance both practical and theoretical development in the field of gerontechnology. PMID:21423843

  20. A scale for measuring the activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with craniomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    List, T; Helkimo, M

    1995-01-01

    A rating scale based on methods used in medical and behavioral science was modified for specific assessment of the function of the masticatory system. Eleven common activities of daily living were recorded on a scale rated from 0 to 10. Thirty-one patients (23 women and 8 men) who had exhibited facial pain and/or headache for a duration of at least one year participated. Test-retest coefficients of reliability for the patients' assessment of pain and discomfort on two different occasions two weeks apart were high and varied (with the exception of one question) between r = 0.67 and r = 0.92. The correlations between the patients' own estimations and that which one member of the family made were high and varied (with the exception of one question) between r = 0.78 and r = 0.92.

  1. Assessment of impairment in activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment using an individualized scale.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Giseli de Fátima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alexandra Martini; Chaves, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Aprahamian, Ivan; Nunes, Paula Villela

    2016-07-01

    Mild impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) can occur in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but the nature and extent of these difficulties need to be further explored. The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) is one of the few individualized scales designed to identify self-perceived difficulties in ADL. The present study investigated impairments in ADL using the COPM in elderly with MCI. A total of 58 MCI patients were submitted to the COPM for studies of its validity and reliability. The COPM proved a valid and consistent instrument for evaluating ADL in elderly MCI patients. A total of 74.6% of the MCI patients reported difficulties in ADL. Of these problems, 41.2% involved self-care, 31.4% productivity and 27.4% leisure. This data further corroborates recent reports of possible functional impairment in complex ADL in MCI. PMID:27487375

  2. Living with psoriasis: prevalence of shame, anger, worry, and problems in daily activities and social life.

    PubMed

    Sampogna, Francesca; Tabolli, Stefano; Abeni, Damiano

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial problems are frequent among patients with psoriasis. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of some specific psychosocial issues. These were evaluated in 936 patients using the emotions and functioning scales of the Skindex-29 questionnaire. The problems most frequently experienced were: shame, anger, worry, difficulties in daily activities and social life. All problems were associated with the severity of psoriasis and with depression or anxiety. Shame, worry and annoyance were more frequent in women than in men, and shame and anger were associated with a low level of education. Impairment in work/hobbies was significantly higher in patients with palmoplantar psoriasis and those with arthro-pathic psoriasis. In conclusion, clinicians could gain important insights about their patients by looking at the single items of a quality of life instrument, to identify patients with high levels of emotional and social problems, in order to improve quality of care.

  3. The RFad Method--a new fatigue recovery time assessment for industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Silva e Santos, Marcello; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Moreira, Sergio Bastos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study about fatigue recovery time assessment processes in work activities. It came about due to a demand presented by an automotive industry giant, in need of updating existing cycle time sheets and TAKT time parameters. The company decided to hire an Ergonomics Laboratory with ties to a major Brazilian University in order to evaluate current conditions and establish a new method to either calculate recovery times or validate existing assessment criteria, based in the ergonomics evaluation of the work activities. It is clear that there has been evident evolution in the industrial sector in the past two decades. It brought up fast modernization of industrial processes, not only in production but also in terms of management systems. Due to improved computer and robotics systems, combined with overall operational advancements - like the use of lighter hand tools and more effective hoist systems - most work activities have had its physical effort requirements reduced in the past decades. Thus, compensation factors built into production times need to be reviewed in order to avoid unnecessary costs associated to them. By using ergonomics considerations, we prevent simply removing the physical variables built in rest time calculations without taking on account, for example, additional cognitive load represented by the use of more sophisticated pieces of equipment.

  4. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject's daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  5. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed Central

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject’s daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  6. A new tent trap for monitoring the daily activity of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Casas Martínez, Mauricio; Orozco Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz Reyes, Miguel; Ulloa García, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Valle Mora, Javier; Weber, Manuel; Rojas, Julio C

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we designed a new tent trap; the BioDiVector (BDV) tent trap, consisting of two rectangular tents that use human bait without endangering the technical personnel. The daily activity pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in intra, peri, and extradomiciliary sites was studied in an endemic area of dengue in southern Mexico by using the BDV tent trap. Totals of 3,128 individuals of Ae. aegypti and 833 Ae. albopictus were captured. More Ae. aegypti males than females were caught, while the opposite was true with Ae. albopictus. The activity of both mosquito species was affected by the interaction between the collection site and time of day. In general, more individuals of both mosquito species were captured at the extradomicillary sites than at the peri and intradomicillary sites. Mosquitoes showed two peaks of activity, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, but in general this only occurred at the extradomicillary sites, whereas no peak of activity was observed at the intra and peridomicillary sites. Overall, Ae. aegypti had a higher indirect biting rate than Ae. albopictus. Finally, due to its efficiency, simplicity, and low cost, we suggest the use of this innovative tool for entomological surveillance, bionomics and vector incrimination studies in geographical areas where dengue and other arboviruses are present.

  7. Hypotensive responses to common daily activities in institutionalized elderly. A potential risk for recurrent falls.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, P V; Lipsitz, L A; Kelley, M; Koestner, J

    1990-07-01

    Transient hypotension may be one of many factors contributing to the high prevalence of falls among elderly people. To determine the frequency and magnitude of hypotensive responses to common daily activities, and their potential relationship to falls in the elderly, we examined blood pressure (BP) and heart rate during a standardized series of activities in 38 institutionalized recurrent fallers (age, 87 +/- 6 years), 20 institutionalized nonfallers (age, 85 +/- 5 years), and 10 healthy young control subjects (age, 24 +/- 3 years). The coefficient of variation for systolic BP during all activities was higher in elderly subjects (fallers, 14% +/- 5%; nonfallers, 12% +/- 3%) than in young control subjects (8% +/- 1%). In contrast, the coefficient of variation for heart rate during all activities was higher in young subjects than in the elderly subjects. Elderly subjects had marked BP reduction following meals and nitroglycerin, which was significantly greater in fallers than in nonfallers, independent of the cause of the fall. Thus, institutionalized elderly have marked BP variability and hypotensive responses to meals and nitroglycerin. A decline in BP during common preload-reducing stresses may predispose some elderly people to falls.

  8. Difficulty with daily activities involving the lower extremities in people with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Brandenstein, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of lower extremity impairments in motion and strength in people with systemic sclerosis and the relationships of the impairments to limitations in activities of daily living primarily involving the lower extremities. Participants were 69 persons with SSc who received evaluations of lower extremity joint motion (Keitel function test), strength (timed-stands test), and basic mobility (timed up and go test) and completed a demographic questionnaire regarding symptoms in the lower extremities. Activity limitations were measured by the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) which examines functional ability, pain, and quality of life. The participants had difficulty with items requiring external rotation of the hips and lower extremity strength. There were moderate correlations between the impairment measures of joint motion, strength, mobility, and activity limitations. Fair correlations were found between the skin scores and the RAOS sections except for pain. The results of this study show that lower extremity involvement is present in persons with SSc. The findings, regarding strength, mobility, and joint motion are related to the ability to perform everyday activities involving the lower extremities, suggest that these areas should be targeted for intervention in persons with SSc.

  9. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 months), group B (onset duration: >3 months and <2 years), and group C (onset duration: ≥2 years). The correlation between grip and pinch strength and the K-MBI score was analyzed. Results In group A (95 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of both hands in patients with right hemiplegia. Significant (p<0.05) correlation between the K-MBI score and the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand was shown in patients with left hemiplegia. In group B (69 patients) and group C (73 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand. Conclusion Stroke patients in subacute stage mainly performed activities of daily living using their dominant hand. However, independence in ADL was associated with the strength of the affected dominant hand. For stroke patients in chronic and late chronic stages, their hand power of the affected hand was associated with independence in ADL regardless whether the dominant hand was affected. PMID:26605173

  10. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males. PMID:27180933

  11. Validity of uniaxial accelerometry during activities of daily living in children.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Joey C; Strath, Scott J; Shadrick, Danny; Rigsby, Paul; Hirsch, Nicole; Jacobson, Leigh

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of treadmill-based equations of two commonly used uniaxial accelerometers to estimate energy expenditure (EE) during activities of daily living in children. Twelve subjects with mean (SD) age11.4 (0.4) years engaged in a choreographed routine consisting of three activities (sweeping, bowling, and basketball) of 4min duration while wearing a Manufacturing Technology, Inc. (MTI) accelerometer, Caltrac accelerometer, and a portable gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b(2)). The equations of Trost et al. and Sallis et al. were used to convert activity counts to estimations of EE for the MTI and Caltrac, respectively. Correlation coefficients between Caltrac predictions of EE and measured EE from indirect calorimetry ranged from r=0.22 to 0.72 for individual activities. Correlations between MTI EE predictions and indirect calorimetry ranged from r=0.50 to 0.68 for individual activities. When the activities were pooled the correlations between EE from uniaxial accelerometers and EE from indirect calorimetry were moderately strong (MTI, r=0.78 and Caltrac, r=0.82). Inter-accelerometer (counts min(-1)) correlations were 0.08, -0.54, 0.63, and 0.79 for sweeping, bowling, basketball, and pooled data, respectively. The overall mean difference, or bias, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each uniaxial accelerometer compared to indirect calorimetry were as follows: Caltrac, bias = 2.80 (2.36, 3.24) kcal min(-1); MTI, bias = 0.88 (0.23, 1.53) kcal min(-1). Both accelerometers significantly underestimated measured EE ( P<0.05). Uniaxial accelerometers provide potential for the measurement of physical activity (PA) and EE in children. Future studies refining accelerometry predictions of PA and EE are warranted.

  12. Fatigue crack detection in thick steel structures with piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresil, M.; Yu, L.; Giurgiutiu, V.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a set of numerical and experimental results on the use of guided waves for structural health monitoring (SHM) of crack growth during a fatigue test in a thick steel plate used for civil engineering application. The capability of embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to perform in situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is explored. Numerical simulation and experimental tests are used to prove that PWAS can perform active SHM using guided wave pitch-catch method and passive SHM using acoustic emission (AE). Multi-physics finite element (MPFEM) codes are used to simulate the transmission and reception of guided waves in a 1-mm plate and their diffraction by a through hole. The MP-FEM approach permitted that the input and output variables be expressed directly in electric terms while the two-ways electromechanical conversion was done internally in the MP-FEM formulation. The analysis was repeated for several hole sizes and a damage index performances was tested. AE simulation was performed with the MP-FEM approach in a 13-mm plate in the shape of the compact tension (CT) fracture mechanics specimen. The AE event was simulated as a pulse of defined duration and amplitude. The electrical signal measured at a receiver PWAS was simulated. Daubechies wavelet transform was used to process the signal and identify its Lamb modes and FFT frequency contents. Experimental tests were performed with PWAS transducers acting as passive receivers of AE signals. The 8-mm thick flange of an I beam was instrumented on one side with PWAS transducers and on the other side with conventional AE transducers (PAC R15I) acting as comparison witnesses. An AE source was simulated using 0.5- mm pencil lead breaks; the PWAS transducers were able to pick up AE signal with good strength. Subsequently, PWAS transducers and R15I sensors were applied to a 13-mm CT specimen subjected to accelerated fatigue testing. The PWAS and R15I transducers signals were collected with

  13. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  14. Effects of restricted feeding on daily fluctuations of hepatic functions including p450 monooxygenase activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Jun; Arakawa, Shingo; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ito, Kazumi; Furukawa, Tadashi

    2006-02-10

    Hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities, assessed by measurement of 7-alkoxycoumarin O-dealkylase (ACD) activities, show obvious daily fluctuations in male rats with high values during the dark period and low values during the light period. We have already confirmed that the ACD activities are controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is well known as the oscillator of circadian rhythm. Recently, it is reported that circadian oscillators exist not only in the SCN but also in peripheral organs. To date, it is unclear which circadian oscillators predominantly drive the daily fluctuations of hepatic ACD activities. To address this question, we examined the effects of restricted feeding, which uncouples the circadian oscillators in the liver from the central pacemaker in the SCN, on the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities in male rats. Here we show that restricted feeding inverts the oscillation phase of the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities. Regarding the hepatic P450 content, there were no fluctuations between the light and dark periods under ad libitum and restricted feeding conditions. Therefore, it is considered that the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities are predominantly driven by the circadian factors in peripheral organs rather than by the oscillator in the SCN directly.

  15. Clinical neurophysiology of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, M J; Bleijenberg, G; van Engelen, B G M

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a multidimensional concept covering both physiological and psychological aspects. Chronic fatigue is a typical symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disorders but is also presented by people in whom no defined somatic disease has been established. If certain criteria are met, chronic fatigue syndrome can be diagnosed. The 4-item Abbreviated Fatigue Questionnaire allows the extent of the experienced fatigue to be assessed with a high degree of reliability and validity. Physiological fatigue has been well defined and originates in both the peripheral and central nervous system. The condition can be assessed by combining force and surface-EMG measurements (including frequency analyses and muscle-fibre conduction estimations), twitch interpolation, magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and analysis of changes in the readiness potential. Fatigue is a well-known phenomenon in both central and peripheral neurological disorders. Examples of the former conditions are multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Although it seems to be a universal symptom of many brain disorders, the unique characteristics of the concomitant fatigue also point to a specific relationship with several of these syndromes. As regards neuromuscular disorders, fatigue has been reported in patients with post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type-I. More than 60% of all neuromuscular patients suffer from severe fatigue, a prevalence resembling that of patients with MS. Except for several rare myopathies with specific metabolic derangements leading to exercise-induced muscle fatigue, most studies have not identified a prominent peripheral cause for the fatigue in this population. In contrast, the central activation of the diseased neuromuscular system is generally found to be suboptimal. The

  16. Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Gillian Hatfield; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal characteristics of all gait variables. The fatigue protocol resulted in decreased knee extensor torque generation and quadriceps median power frequencies for 18 of 20 participants (p < 0.05). The gait data from these 18 participants was analyzed. The knee external rotation angle increased (p < 0.05), the net external flexion and external rotation moments decreased (p < 0.05), and the net external adduction moment increased (p < 0.05). Post-fatigue changes in periarticular muscle activation patterns were consistent with the biomechanical changes, but were not significantly altered. Even for this low demand task of walking the knee motion and loading characteristics were altered following a high intensity fatigue protocol in a manner that may place the knee joint at greater risk for joint pathology and injury.

  17. Fluid electrolyte changes in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity and daily hyperhydration.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Y G; Ichinose, M N; Sakagamis, M B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this report was to present some of our results, in a compressed form, obtained from our previous studies on the effect of 364-d hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken per day by the volunteers) on the following: (1) regulation of fluid volume and osmosis, (2) regulation of electrolytes, and (3) functional condition of the kidneys and its role in the fluid-electrolyte homeostasis on 30 physically healthy male volunteers aged 22-26 years. Prior to their exposure to hypokinesia all subjects were on 13.8 km/day (10,000 running steps/day) and were all well conditioned, with (oxygen uptake capacities (VO2 max 68 ml/kg-min). During the hypokinetic period of 364 days, the 1st group was subjected to pure hypokinesia (HK), that is without the use of physical exercise (PE), the 2nd group was subjected to a set of intensive PE (energy expenditure of 700 kcal/h) and the 3rd group submitted to a set of moderate PE (energy expenditure of 400 kcal/h). All volunteers consumed daily fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) aimed at increasing body hydration level during the hypokinetic period. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept on 2.7 km/day (3000 walking steps per day). All volunteers were on a diet of freshly prepared food, with a daily intake of 2500-2700 kcal, 3340 ml water, 1500 mgs calcium, 500 mgs magnesium, 1200 mgs potassium, 1500 mgs phosphorus, 8.5 gms sodium and 9.8 gms chloride. The amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed and eliminated in urine, as well as their concentrations in the urine and blood plasma were determined. There were also measured urinary volume, osmolality, creatine, and urea changes in urine. During HK the amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed daily decreased while the rate of excretion increased significantly. During post HK the fluid and electrolytes concentrations in urine decreased significantly. The urinary urea, osmolality and creatinine increased significantly during HK. It was concluded

  18. Perception, consequences, communication, and strategies for handling fatigue in persons with rheumatoid arthritis of working age--a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Feldthusen, Caroline; Björk, Mathilda; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of working age experience and handle their fatigue in everyday life. Six focus group discussions were conducted focusing on experiences of fatigue in 25 persons with RA (19 women, 6 men), aged 20-60 years. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The analyses resulted in four categories. (1) Perception of fatigue: Fatigue was experienced different from normal tiredness, unpredictable, and overwhelming. It was associated with negative emotions, changed self-image, and fears. Feelings of frustration and shame were central when the persons were forced to omit valued life activities. (2) Consequences due to fatigue: The fatigue caused changes in cognitive ability, ability to act, and overall activity pattern where the increased need for rest and sleep caused an imbalance in daily life. The participants struggled not to let the fatigue interfere with work. The fatigue also brought negative consequences for their significant others. (3) Communicating fatigue: Fatigue was difficult to gain understanding for, and the participants adjusted their communication accordingly; it was important to keep up appearances. During medical consultation, fatigue was perceived as a factor not given much consideration, and the participants expressed taking responsibility for managing their fatigue symptoms themselves. (4) Strategies to handle fatigue: Strategies comprised conscious self-care, mental strategies, planning, and prioritizing. Fatigue caused considerable health problems for persons with RA of working age: negative emotions, imbalance in daily life due to increased need for rest, and difficulties gaining understanding. This draws attention to the importance of developing new modes of care to address fatigue in RA. Person-centered care to improve balance in life may be one approach needing further investigations. PMID:23292480

  19. Early activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase is associated with interferon-alpha-induced depression and fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Alagbe, Oyetunde; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Hu, Fang; Raison, Charles L.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokine-induced stimulation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been shown to influence behaviorally-relevant pathophysiologic pathways including monoamine neurotransmission and neuroendocrine function and thus may contribute to behavioral changes that occur during chronic administration of the innate immune cytokine, interferon (IFN)-alpha. Accordingly, in the current study, phosphorylation (activation) of intracellular p38 MAPK in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry every 2 hours for 12 hours following the initial injection of IFN-alpha in eleven patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hourly assessments of plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and interleukin-6 were also obtained. Symptoms of depression and fatigue were measured at baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment. Acute administration of IFN-alpha significantly increased the percentage of lymphocytes staining positive for intracellular phosphorylated p38 (p-p38). IFN-alpha-induced increases in p-p38 were significantly greater in patients that developed clinically significant depressive symptoms [Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score ≥15] during the first 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment. Increases in the percentage of p-p38-positive lymphocytes following the first IFN-alpha injection also highly correlated with depression severity at weeks 4 (r=0.85, p=0.001) and 12 (r=0.70, p=0.018). Similar relationships were observed for fatigue. Examination of relationships between p-p38 induction and factors previously reported to predict IFN-alpha-induced depressive symptoms revealed strong associations of p-p38 with baseline MADRS (r=0.82, p=0.002) and cortisol responses to the initial injection of IFN-alpha (r=0.91, p=0.000). Taken together, these findings indicate that sensitivity of p38 MAPK signaling pathways to immune stimulation is associated with depressive symptoms during chronic IFN-alpha treatment. PMID

  20. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb. PMID:24356522

  1. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  2. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  3. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study.

  4. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs.

  5. Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  6. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs. PMID:25265612

  7. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  8. Activities of daily living among St Petersburg women after mild stroke.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann; Mishina, Ekaterina; Ivanov, Andrey; Björklund, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine how women living in St Petersburg, Russia, who have had a mild stroke, describe their performance in activities of daily living (ADL) and to elicit possible causes of their occupational dysfunction. Thirty-six women who had experienced a mild stroke and been referred to a rehabilitation centre participated in the study. Data collection was conducted through interviews, including the 'ADL Staircase' and a modified 'Frenchay Activities Index for Stroke Patients'. Additional data were collected through field notes and information from team members and relatives. The results showed that women who have had a mild stroke and ADL limitations experience occupational dysfunction in ADL that is most often caused by a combination of overprotection from relatives, the women's own feelings of anxiety and insecurity, and an overemphasizing of their disability. The results are limited, based on the small sample and restricted geographic area. There is a need to further investigate how individuals who have had a mild stroke can be physically and socially rehabilitated and reintegrated into the community in countries with developing economies such as Russia.

  9. Sex Differences in Muscle Pain: Self-care Behaviors and Effects on Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dannecker, Erin A.; Knoll, Victoria; Robinson, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Women have a higher prevalence of fibromyalgia and myofascial pain than men, but sex differences in muscle pain are inconsistently detected. We examined sex differences in ratings and effects of recalled and experimentally-induced muscle pain. In Study 1 (N = 188), participants completed a questionnaire about recalled muscle pain. In Study 2 (N = 55), participants’ described muscle pain from an exercise stimulus across three days by telephone. Muscle pain ratings, self-care behaviors for muscle pain, and effects of muscle pain on activities were measured. No significant sex differences were found except that women tended to view exercise as more effective for decreasing muscle pain than men (F1, 187 = 5.43, p = .02, η2 = .03), fewer women performed exercise for induced muscle pain than men, and women’s activity interference was significantly higher than men’s at the third day post-exercise (F2, 42 = 6.54, p= .01, η2 = .14). These findings support the absence of meaningful sex differences in muscle pain ratings. However, additional investigations are needed that consider the daily activities completed by people and the prevalence and incidence of performing a wide range of self-care behaviors for pain. Perspective: These studies support that sex differences are not present in recalled and experimentally-induced muscle pain ratings. Therefore, we must be cautious about generalizing the musculoskeletal pain literature to muscle pain. Additional research is needed to interpret potential sex differences in self-care behaviors for muscle pain and activity interference from muscle pain. PMID:18088556

  10. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  11. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living.

  12. [A statistical analysis of factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients].

    PubMed

    Nogaki, H

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate several factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients after cerebro-vascular diseases. A statistical analysis of 121 hemiplegic patients with unilateral supratentorial lesions showed that age, severity of muscle weakness of involved or uninvolved extremities, unilateral spatial neglect and the sense of toe position had influence on standing balance, activity of daily living or ambulation. The patients were divided into five groups based on the degree of unilateral spatial neglect, evaluated by their copies of two daisies who omitted more than three quarters, three quarters, half, one quarter and none of the figures were defined as the USN-4, USN-3, USN-2, USN-1 and no involvement groups, respectively. Those who belonged to the USN-2 group had significantly lower scores for activity of daily living than those who belonged to the no involvement group. In the USN-2 group, 7 of the 8 patients could not keep standing for 50 seconds, while in the no involvement group, this was the case in only 1 of the 15 patients. Activity of daily living scores or sway area during standing showed no statistically significant differences between the USN-1 and no involvement groups. These results suggested that severe or moderate unilateral spatial neglect is one of the most important factors influencing standing balance and activity of daily living. PMID:1614008

  13. Mechanisms of excitation-contraction uncoupling relevant to activity-induced muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Graham D

    2009-06-01

    If the free [Ca2+] in the cytoplasm of a skeletal muscle fiber is raised substantially for a period of seconds to minutes or to high levels just briefly, it leads to disruption of the normal excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling process and a consequent long-lasting decrease in force production. It appears that the disruption to the coupling occurs at the triad junction, where the voltage-sensor molecules (dihydropyridine receptors) normally interact with and open the Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) in the adjacent sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). This disruption results in inadequate release of SR Ca2+ upon stimulation. Such E-C uncoupling may underlie the long-duration low-frequency fatigue that can occur after various types of exercise, as well as possibly being a contributing factor to the muscle weakness in certain muscle diseases. The process or processes causing the disruption of the coupling between the voltage sensors and the release channels is not known with certainty, but might be associated with structural changes at the triad junction, possibly caused by activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease, micro-calpain.

  14. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  15. Technology-Aided Verbal Instructions to Help Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Perform Daily Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tatulli, Emanuela; Rigante, Valeria; Zonno, Nadia; Perilli, Viviana; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.

    2010-01-01

    These two studies extended previous research on the use of verbal instructions and support technology for helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. Study I included seven participants who were to carry out one of two previously targeted activities (i.e., either coffee preparation or table setting). Study…

  16. The Relationships between Weather-Related Factors and Daily Outdoor Physical Activity Counts on an Urban Greenway

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Dana; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between weather and outdoor physical activity (PA). An online weather source was used to obtain daily max temperature [DMT], precipitation, and wind speed. An infra-red trail counter provided data on daily trail use along a greenway, over a 2-year period. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine associations between PA and weather, while controlling for day of the week and month of the year. The overall regression model explained 77.0% of the variance in daily PA (p < 0.001). DMT (b = 10.5), max temp-squared (b = −4.0), precipitation (b = −70.0), and max wind speed (b = 1.9) contributed significantly. Conclusion: Aggregated daily data can detect relationships between weather and outdoor PA. PMID:21556205

  17. The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Kirsten C; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H J

    2016-06-01

    Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. A non-clinical sample of N = 208 Italian adolescent girls (age M = 16.68 years) completed a 95-item online retrospective questionnaire regarding perimenstrual symptoms, and how these symptoms affect their daily activities. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Results showed that physical and psychological symptoms were strongly associated. More importantly, results supported the hypothesis that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities mediates the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms, but only for depressed mood and cognitive symptoms. This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings.

  18. Vibration, acceleration, gravitation, and movement: activity controlled rate adaptive pacing during treadmill exercise testing and daily life activities.

    PubMed

    Candinas, R; Jakob, M; Buckingham, T A; Mattmann, H; Amann, F W

    1997-07-01

    Activity-based sensors for rate adaptive pacing have been available for several years and now include several different types: vibration; acceleration; gravitation; and movement. However, a systematic comparison evaluating the relative advantages and disadvantages of these various sensors has received little study. The purpose of the present study was to compare these sensor subtypes using treadmill testing and an outdoor test circuit, which simulated daily life activities and included both uphill and downhill walking. Pacemakers were strapped on the chest of healthy volunteers and connected to one channel of an ambulatory recording device, which also recorded the subject's intrinsic heart rate. The pacemakers were programmed using an initial treadmill test to standardize the rate responsive parameters for each device. Nine different pacemaker models were studied including 3 vibration-based (Elite, Synchrony, Metros), 4 acceleration-based (Relay, Excel, Ergos, Trilogy), 1 gravitational-based (Swing), and 1 movement-based (Sensorithm) device. All devices demonstrated a prompt rate response with casual walking on flat ground. The vibration-, gravitational-, and movement-based pacemakers showed a pronounced rate decline during more strenuous work, e.g., walking uphill. This phenomenon was absent in the accelerometer-based units. In particular, the vibration- and movement-based units showed a higher rate with walking downhill compared to uphill. An optimally tuned rate behavior on the treadmill usually did not provide an optimal rate behavior during daily activities and there was a tendency to overstimulation during low workload. The development of the two newest sensors (gravitational and movement) did not result in an improved performance of rate response behavior. Overall, the accelerometer-based pacemakers simulated or paralleled sinus rate behavior the most closely.

  19. Impairment in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and the Geriatric Syndrome of Self-Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand D.; Burnett, Jason; Pickens-Pace, Sabrina; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We sought to characterize self-neglect definitively as a geriatric syndrome by identifying an association with functional impairment. Design and Methods We performed a cross-sectional home evaluation of 100 community-living older adults referred by Adult Protective Services for geriatric self-neglect and 100 matched adults from a community geriatrics clinic. We made our assessments by using two manual muscle tests, a timed-gait test, a modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT), and the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS). Results Participants in the self-neglect group had impaired mPPT (p < .077) and KELS (p < .001) scores compared with community-controls. Using analysis of covariance models, we found that self-neglect referral explained a significant proportion of the variance in KELS scores (32%; p < .001) but not in mPPT scores (22%; p = .49). Implications The geriatric syndrome of self-neglect is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and appears to be independently associated with impairments in instrumental activities of daily living. The evaluation and treatment of geriatric self-neglect should be consistent with that of other geriatric syndromes. PMID:18591364

  20. The feasibility of shoulder motion tracking during activities of daily living using inertial measurement units.

    PubMed

    Kirking, Bryan; El-Gohary, Mahmoud; Kwon, Young

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of shoulder kinematics during activities of daily living (ADL) can be used to evaluate patient function before and after treatment and help define device testing conditions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) to track shoulder joint angles while performing actual ADLs outside of laboratory simulations. IMU data of 5 subjects with normal shoulders was collected for 4h at the subjects' workplace and up to 4h off-work. An Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) enhanced with gyroscope bias modeling and zero velocity updates demonstrated an accuracy of about 2° and was used to estimate relative upper arm angles from the IMU data. The overall averaged 95th percentile angles were: flexion 128.8°, abduction 128.4°, and external rotation 69.5°. These peaks angles are similar to other investigator's reports using laboratory simulations of ADLs measured with optical and electromagnetic technologies. Additionally, with a Fourier transform the 50th percentile frequency was determined and used to extrapolate the typical number of arm cycles in a 10year period to be 649,000. Application of the UKF with the additional drift correction made substantial improvements in shoulder tracking performance and this feasibility data suggests that IMUs with the UKF are suitable for extended use outside of laboratory settings. The data provides a novel description of arm motion during ADLs including an estimate for the 10 year cycle count of upper arm motion. PMID:27371783

  1. A multi-environment dataset for activity of daily living recognition in video streams.

    PubMed

    Borreo, Alessandro; Onofri, Leonardo; Soda, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Public datasets played a key role in the increasing level of interest that vision-based human action recognition has attracted in last years. While the production of such datasets has been influenced by the variability introduced by various actors performing the actions, the different modalities of interactions with the environment introduced by the variation of the scenes around the actors has been scarcely took into account. As a consequence, public datasets do not provide a proper test-bed for recognition algorithms that aim at achieving high accuracy, irrespective of the environment where actions are performed. This is all the more so, when systems are designed to recognize activities of daily living (ADL), which are characterized by a high level of human-environment interaction. For that reason, we present in this manuscript the MEA dataset, a new multi-environment ADL dataset, which permitted us to show how the change of scenario can affect the performances of state-of-the-art approaches for action recognition.

  2. Dexterity, visual perception, and activities of daily living in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Nakamoto, Trisha; McNulty, Tina; Montoya, Janeen R; Weill, Deedra; Dieruf, Kathy; Skipper, Betty

    2010-04-01

    ABSTRACT The purposes of this study were to compare dexterity, visual perception, and abilities to carry out activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with different multiple sclerosis (MS) subtypes and to determine what relationships exist between the three variables. Fifty-six persons with MS were administered tests of dexterity, visual perception, and ADL ability. Demographic variables and scores on Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale were also collected. Scores from the chronic-progressive group were significantly higher than those of the benign and progressive-relapsing groups for the Nine-Hole Peg Test-Left Hand, Grooved Peg Test, and Functional Status Index (except Functional Status Index-Pain). There were no differences between the MS groups for any demographic variables except on the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Visual perception did not correlate with dexterity or ADL ability, and only dexterity scores for the left hand correlated with ADL ability. Persons with the severer subtype of MS were significantly impaired compared with the least severe group for dexterity and ADL ability. Decreased dexterity was associated with needing more assistance and having more perceived difficulty with ADL.

  3. Disaggregating Activities of Daily Living Limitations for Predicting Nursing Home Admission

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Joelle H; Mitchell, Olivia S; Koh, Benedict S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether disaggregated activities of daily living (ADL) limitations better predict the risk of nursing home admission compared to conventionally used ADL disability counts. Data Sources We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for years 1998–2010. The HRS is a nationally representative survey of adults older than 50 years (n = 18,801). Study Design We fitted Cox regressions in a continuous time survival model with age at first nursing home admission as the outcome. Time-varying ADL disability types were the key explanatory variables. Principal Findings Of the six ADL limitations, bathing difficulty emerged as the strongest predictor of subsequent nursing home placement across cohorts. Eating and dressing limitations were also influential in driving admissions among more recent cohorts. Using simple ADL counts for analysis yielded similar adjusted R2s; however, the amount of explained variance doubled when we allowed the ADL disability measures to time-vary rather than remain static. Conclusions Looking beyond simple ADL counts can provide health professionals insights into which specific disability types trigger long-term nursing home use. Functional disabilities measured closer in time carry more prognostic power than static measures. PMID:25256014

  4. Functional capacity and assistance from the caregiver during daily activities in Brazilian children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral Palsy (CP) presents changes in posture and movement as a core characteristic, which requires multiprofessional clinical treatments during children’s habilitation or rehabilitation. Besides clinical treatment, it is fundamental that professionals use evaluation systems to quantify the difficulties presented to the individual and their families in their daily lives. We aimed to investigate the functional capacity of individuals with CP and the amount of assistance required by the caregiver in day-to-day activities. Methods Twenty patients with CP, six-year-old on average, were evaluated. The Pediatric Evaluation Inventory of Incapacities was used (PEDI - Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory), a system adapted for Brazil that evaluates child's dysfunction in three 3 dimensions: self-care, mobility and social function. To compare the three areas, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results We found the following results regarding the functional capacity of children: self-care, 27.4%, ±17.5; mobility, 25.8%, ±33.3 and social function, 36.3%, ±27.7. The results of the demand of aid from the caregiver according to each dimension were: self-care, 9.7%, ±19.9; mobility, 14.1%, ± 20.9 and social function, 19.8%, ±26.1. Conclusion We indicated that there was no difference between the performance of the subjects in areas of self-care, mobility and social function considering the functional skills and assistance required by the caregiver. PMID:23302576

  5. FALL-RELATED ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING AND BEHAVIOUR DISTURBANCES IN DEMENTIA.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Taro; Hayashi, Akiko; Matsuo, Shinsuke; Shinoda, Kunihiko; Konishi, Isamu; Makio, Haruna; Tsuji, Miwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the activities of daily living and behaviour disturbances related to inpatients and outpatients with dementia experiencing falls. Patients diagnosed with dementia belonging to 18 facilities which consented to the study were subjected. The study involved "whether or not the patient has fallen in the past 12 months", "Barthel Index (B.I)", and "Dementia Behaviour Disturbance Scale (DBD)" and other data from 325 people in 18 facilities who had been diagnosed with dementia. The ratio of subjects who had fallen to those who had not was 113:212. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the study items related to falls including the DBD item of "making unwarranted accusations" had an OR = 1.445, 95% CI (1.133-1.843), the DBD item of "refusing to eat" had an OR = 0.699, 95% CI (0.521- 0.938), the B.I item of "feeding" had OR = 1.115, 95% CI (1.032-1.204) and the B.I item of "bathing" had OR = 0.782, 95% CI (0.671-0.912). Integral characteristics of dementia patients who have fallen are assumed to be making unwarranted accusations, having a low rate of refusing to eat, being able to eat alone and requiring attention when bathing. PMID:27501537

  6. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  7. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  8. The Influence of Autonomic Dysfunction Associated with Aging and Type 2 Diabetes on Daily Life Activities

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and ageing have well documented effects on every organ in the body. In T2D the autonomic nervous system is impaired due to damage to neurons, sensory receptors, synapses and the blood vessels. This paper will concentrate on how autonomic impairment alters normal daily activities. Impairments include the response of the blood vessels to heat, sweating, heat transfer, whole body heating, orthostatic intolerance, balance, and gait. Because diabetes is more prevalent in older individuals, the effects of ageing will be examined. Beginning with endothelial dysfunction, blood vessels have impairment in their ability to vasodilate. With this and synaptic damage, the autonomic nervous system cannot compensate for effectors such as pressure on and heating of the skin. This and reduced ability of the heart to respond to stress, reduces autonomic orthostatic compensation. Diminished sweating causes the skin and core temperature to be high during whole body heating. Impaired orthostatic tolerance, impaired vision and vestibular sensing, causes poor balance and impaired gait. Overall, people with T2D must be made aware and counseled relative to the potential consequence of these impairments. PMID:22566994

  9. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity in survivors of childhood malignancy.

    PubMed

    Warner, J T; Bell, W; Webb, D K; Gregory, J W

    1998-05-01

    Changes in body composition, in particular the onset of obesity, may result from reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) as a consequence of relative physical inactivity. Children previously treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) become obese, yet the mechanism remains undefined. TDEE and physical activity levels [PAL = TDEE/basal metabolic rate (BMR)] were measured in 34 long-term survivors of ALL and compared with results from 21 survivors of other malignancies and 32 healthy sibling control subjects using the flex-heart rate technique. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The median TDEE was reduced in the ALL group (150 kJ x kg d(-1)) compared with other malignancies and controls (207 and 185 kJ x kg d(-1), respectively, p < 0.01). This reduction was accounted for mainly by a relative decrease in the PAL of the ALL group (1.24) compared with both other malignancies and controls (1.58 and 1.47, respectively, p < 0.01). TDEE and PAL were correlated with percentage body fat (r = -0.39, p < 0.001 and r = -0.24, p < 0.05, respectively). Obesity in survivors of ALL may, in part, be explained by a reduction in TDEE as a consequence of reduced PAL. The cause of such reduction is uncertain.

  10. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development.

  11. PRIDE for PLAY: Personal Responsibility in Daily Effort for Participation in Lifelong Activity for Youths. A Singaporean Context

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Singapore, a developed city state of four million people is experiencing the pitfalls that come with rapid modernisation and economic progress- elevated disease risk factors among adults and young people. Weekly compulsory physical education classes of 70 minutes in schools and the associated sports activities after classes are inadequate to meet emergent physical activity guidelines of a daily accumulation of at least 90 minutes of physical activity of at least moderate intensity. Daily play sessions that are exclusive of an active daily recess, physical education classes taught by trained specialists and after-school sport sessions, can provide many developmental and holistic health benefits that may carry over into adulthood. A school environment that is play-encouraging, play-enabling and play-inviting can be a useful, innovative and natural way of inculcating a love for movement and help redress a serious trend of physical activity insufficiency while youngsters engage electronic gaming activities. Pilot initiatives for the PRIDE (personal responsibility in daily effort) for PLAY (participation in lifelong activity for youths) programme is a radicalised approach in a number of primary schools in Singapore to infuse daily physical play of between 20 to 45 minutes during curriculum hours. The hope is that PRIDE for PLAY will reap benefits of improved holistic health of youngsters- better physical, social, emotional and mental attributes. While PRIDE for PLAY is no panacea to all of the ills of modernisation, it will go some way in helping the students of tomorrow to be physically healthy, socially more engaged and tolerant of others, mentally more apt to problem-solve and emotionally more proficient to embrace working life in adulthood. Key pointsPhysical play is natural among young people and a daily dose of play can help young people meet daily requirements for accumulated physical activity of at least 90 minutes and at least of a moderate intensity.Play is

  12. Non-Motor symptoms in Portuguese Parkinson's Disease patients: correlation and impact on Quality of Life and Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Lampreia, Tânia; Miguel, Rita; Mendonça, Marcelo D; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has varied between studies. Their interrelation isn't totally understood. Also, the relative importance of each symptom, regarding its impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and health related quality of life (HRQL), remains debatable. We assessed all PD patients attending a Portuguese tertiary movement disorders center during one year (n = 134), with ADL, HRQL and other clinical scales approved for identifying the most relevant NMS in PD. All patients had at least one NMS. Sleep/fatigue, affect/cognition, attention/memory were the most frequent complaints, and their prevalence, above 80%, was higher than in most studies. There were significantly correlations between: sleepiness, psychosis and cognition; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular symptoms and pain; depression and apathy; anxiety and insomnia; olfaction, weight and hyperhidrosis. Depression/apathy exerted the strongest influence on HRQL and non-tremor motor dysfunction on ADL. Compared to studies in other countries, we found a higher prevalence of NMS, which could be specific of this population. The interrelation between NMS could be related to degeneration of different brain structures. NMS exert a stronger influence than MS in HRQL, which should be taken in account regarding treatment options. PMID:27573215

  13. Non-Motor symptoms in Portuguese Parkinson’s Disease patients: correlation and impact on Quality of Life and Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Bugalho, Paulo; Lampreia, Tânia; Miguel, Rita; Mendonça, Marcelo D.; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) has varied between studies. Their interrelation isn’t totally understood. Also, the relative importance of each symptom, regarding its impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and health related quality of life (HRQL), remains debatable. We assessed all PD patients attending a Portuguese tertiary movement disorders center during one year (n = 134), with ADL, HRQL and other clinical scales approved for identifying the most relevant NMS in PD. All patients had at least one NMS. Sleep/fatigue, affect/cognition, attention/memory were the most frequent complaints, and their prevalence, above 80%, was higher than in most studies. There were significantly correlations between: sleepiness, psychosis and cognition; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular symptoms and pain; depression and apathy; anxiety and insomnia; olfaction, weight and hyperhidrosis. Depression/apathy exerted the strongest influence on HRQL and non-tremor motor dysfunction on ADL. Compared to studies in other countries, we found a higher prevalence of NMS, which could be specific of this population. The interrelation between NMS could be related to degeneration of different brain structures. NMS exert a stronger influence than MS in HRQL, which should be taken in account regarding treatment options. PMID:27573215

  14. Daily and seasonal variations of radon activity measured in Mystery Cave

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, R.S. ); Krafthefer, B. ); Netherton, W. )

    1993-03-01

    Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota, is the site of an ongoing study of how radon and radon progeny are affected by meteorological changes in and about the dave. Data on radon, radon progeny, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, and rainfall are collected at 4-hour intervals at different locations within and just outside the cave. During winter months, average ambient radon levels ranged from 5 to 200 pCi/L. Transient levels above 500 pCi/L tended to correlate with failing barometric pressure, but not with the magnitude of [Delta]P. In summer, average ambient radon increased to around 300 pCi/L with short-term levels exceeding 500 pCi/L. Fluctuations related to temperature were also noted. Radon progeny generally correlate with radon and both showed rates of change faster than ingrowth or decay. In addition to the time variations in the radon activity levels, pulses were observed between monitoring locations. The probable correlation of radon-activity transport with aboveground meteorological changes and preliminary data on cave airflow is being studied. Previous grab sampling with Lucas cells and integrating alpha-track devices did not show either the 10- to 100-fold daily fluctuations or the pulses. As more continuous data become available, it is increasingly evident that radon fluctuates on time scales that range from hours to years, in response to conditions both inside and outside the cave system. Funding for this project was approved by the Minnesota legislature ML 1991, Chapter 264, Art. 1, Sec. 14, subd. 3 (I) as recommended by the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources from the Minnesota Future Resources Fund.

  15. Improved aircraft dynamic response and fatigue life during ground operations using an active control landing gear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.; Carden, H. D.; Edson, R.

    1978-01-01

    A three-degree-of-freedom aircraft landing analysis incorporating a series-hydraulic active control main landing gear has been developed and verified using preliminary experimental data from drop tests of a modified main landing gear from a 2722 kg (6000 lbm) class of airplane. The verified analysis was also employed to predict the landing dynamics of a supersonic research airplane with an active control main landing gear system. The results of this investigation have shown that this type of active gear is feasible and indicate a potential for improving airplane dynamic response and reducing structural fatigue damage during ground operations by approximately 90% relative to that incurred with the passive gear.

  16. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children’s language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children’s math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers’ structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945

  17. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice.

  18. Periodic increases in force during sustained contraction reduce fatigue and facilitate spatial redistribution of trapezius muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Falla, Deborah; Farina, Dario

    2007-09-01

    This study compared fatigue and the spatial distribution of upper trapezius electromyographic (EMG) amplitude during a 6-min constant force shoulder elevation task at 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC) (constant force) and during the same task interrupted by brief (2 s) periodic increases in force to 25% MVC every 30 s (variable force). Surface EMG signals were recorded with a 13 x 5 grid of electrodes from the upper trapezius muscle of nine healthy subjects. The centroid (center of activity) of the EMG root mean square map was computed to assess changes over time in the spatial distribution of EMG amplitude. MVC force decreased by (mean +/- SD) 9.0 +/- 3.9% after the constant force task (P < 0.05) but was unchanged following the variable force contraction. The centroid of EMG amplitude shifted in the cranial direction across the duration of the variable force contraction (P < 0.05) but not during the constant force contraction (shift of 2.9 +/- 2.3 mm and 1.4 +/- 1.1 mm, respectively). The results demonstrate that periodic increases in force during a sustained contraction enhance the modifications in spatial distribution of upper trapezius EMG amplitude and reduce fatigue compared to a constant force contraction performed at a lower average load. The change in spatial distribution of EMG amplitude over time during a sustained contraction may reflect a mechanism to counteract fatigue during prolonged muscle activity.

  19. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  20. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Encarnación; Lázaro, Angelina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs) is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. Methods The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e) = 0.05, α = 0.05, β = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre. A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95%) were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Results Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years) and gender (female). The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered) with regard to the independence in ADLs. Conclusion A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are independent enough to

  1. Potential of M-Wave Elicited by Double Pulse for Muscle Fatigue Evaluation in Intermittent Muscle Activation by Functional Electrical Stimulation for Motor Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Naoto; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies on application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to motor rehabilitation have been increasing. However, muscle fatigue appears early in the course of repetitive movement production training by FES. Although M-wave variables were suggested to be reliable indices of muscle fatigue in long lasting constant electrical stimulation under the isometric condition, the ability of M-wave needs more studies under intermittent stimulation condition, because the intervals between electrical stimulations help recovery of muscle activation level. In this paper, M-waves elicited by double pulses were examined in muscle fatigue evaluation during repetitive movements considering rehabilitation training with surface electrical stimulation. M-waves were measured under the two conditions of repetitive stimulation: knee extension force production under the isometric condition and the dynamic movement condition by knee joint angle control. Amplitude of M-wave elicited by the 2nd pulse of a double pulse decreased during muscle fatigue in both measurement conditions, while the change in M-waves elicited by single pulses in a stimulation burst was not relevant to muscle fatigue in repeated activation with stimulation interval of 1 s. Fatigue index obtained from M-waves elicited by 2nd pulses was suggested to provide good estimation of muscle fatigue during repetitive movements with FES. PMID:27110556

  2. Clinical Cosmobiology - Sudden Cardiac Death and Daily / Monthly Geomagnetic, Cosmic Ray and Solar Activity - the Baku Study (2003-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

    2006-12-01

    Part of results of collaborative studies for revealing an influence of the periodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities on the sudden cardiac death (SCD) mortality is described in this paper. The data covering daily and monthly temporal distribution of SCD (788 patients in 36 months in 2003-2005), taken from all of emergency and first medical aid stations of grand Baku area, were analyzed and compared with certain cosmophysical parameters. It was obtained that SCD is higher on the highest and lowest daily levels of geomagnetic activity. Days with SCD are accompanied by higher cosmic ray (neutron) activity. The monthly number of SCD was inversely related to solar and geomagnetic activities while was positively linked with cosmic ray activity level. It was concluded that cosmic ray activity could be considered as one of regulating external/environmental factors in human homeostasis.

  3. Effects of converting tacrolimus formulation from twice-daily to once-daily in liver transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Ashok; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Tsung-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Typically, tacrolimus is administrated twice daily. Prolonged-release tacrolimus is the once-daily formulation and may be more convenient for patients. Experience with the administration of the once-daily formulation is still limited. This study enrolled 210 liver transplant recipients who had stable liver function and converted tacrolimus from a twice-daily to once-daily formulation on a 1 mg to 1 mg basis. Among 210 patients, seven patients (3.3%) were withdrawn from the once-daily formulation due to allergy and fatigue. For the other patients, the trough concentration after converting to the once-daily formulation was lower than that of the twice-daily formulation. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated in 3 months after formulation conversion and serum creatinine and uric acid were mildly decreased. Seven patients (3.4%) had clinical suspicion of acute rejection after the formulation conversion and three of them were caused by nonadherence. 155 patients (76.4%) experienced a more convenient life with an increase of social activity. Forty-seven patients (23.2%) experienced the convenience of once-daily formulation during overseas trips. In conclusion, tacrolimus can be safely converted from the twice-daily to the once-daily formulation for most stable liver recipients. Acute rejection may occur in a minority of patients during formulation conversion and should be carefully monitored.

  4. Effects of a cognitive-enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Chung, JaeYeop; Park, JuHyung; You, HeeCheon; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of a cognitive enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly population of a local Korean community were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 22 elderly subjects who were 65 years of age or older, had been diagnosed with dementia, and were attending a daily care center in K City, Republic of Korea. Eleven subjects participated in the program, which was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks for a total of 16 sessions. Eleven subjects in a non-training group did not receive any interventions. [Results] The MMSE-K, MBI and KDS scores of all of the eleven subjects who participated in the program improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Cognitive enhancement group training programs may have positive effects on daily living activities, cognition, and depression. PMID:25931707

  5. Neuromuscular Fatigue Alters Postural Control and Sagittal Plane Hip Biomechanics in Active Females With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Barnett S.; Gilsdorf, Christine M.; Goerger, Benjamin M.; Prentice, William E.; Padua, Darin A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Females with history of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and subsequent ligament reconstruction are at high risk for future ACL injury. Fatigue may influence the increased risk of future injury in females by altering lower extremity biomechanics and postural control. Hypothesis: Fatigue will promote lower extremity biomechanics and postural control deficits associated with ACL injury. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen physically active females with ACL reconstruction (mean age, 19.64 ± 1.5 years; mean height, 163.52 ± 6.18 cm; mean mass, 62.6 ± 13.97 kg) volunteered for this study. Postural control and lower extremity biomechanics were assessed in the surgical limb during single-leg balance and jump-landing tasks before and after a fatigue protocol. Main outcome measures were 3-dimensional hip and knee joint angles at initial contact, peak angles, joint angular displacements and peak net joint moments, anterior tibial shear force, and vertical ground reaction force during the first 50% of the loading phase of the jump-landing task. During the single-leg stance task, the main outcome measure was center of pressure sway speed. Results: Initial contact hip flexion angle decreased (t = −2.82, P = 0.01; prefatigue, 40.98° ± 9.79°; postfatigue, 36.75° ± 8.61°) from pre- to postfatigue. Hip flexion displacement (t = 2.23, P = 0.04; prefatigue, 45.19° ± 14.1°; postfatigue, 47.48° ± 14.21°) and center of pressure sway speed (t = 3.95, P < 0.05; prefatigue, 5.18 ± 0.96 cm/s; postfatigue, 6.20 ± 1.72 cm/s) increased from pre- to postfatigue. There was a trending increase in hip flexion moment (t = 2.14, P = 0.05; prefatigue, 1.66 ± 0.68 Nm/kg/m; postfatigue, 1.91 ± 0.62 Nm/kg/m) from pre- to postfatigue. Conclusion: Fatigue may induce lower extremity biomechanics and postural control deficits that may be associated with ACL injury in physically active females with ACL reconstruction. Clinical Relevance

  6. The loss of independence in activities of daily living: the role of low normal cognitive function in elderly nuns.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Schmitt, F A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of low normal cognitive function in the subsequent loss of independence in activities of daily living. METHODS. Of the 678 elderly nuns who-completed cognitive and physical function assessments in 1992/93, 575 were reassessed in 1993/94. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were divided into three categories and related to loss of independence in six activities of daily living. RESULTS. Participants with low normal cognitive function at first assessment had twice the risk of losing independence in three activities of daily living by second assessment relative to those with high normal cognitive function. This relationship was largely due to a progression from low normal cognitive function at first assessment to impaired cognitive function at second assessment and was associated with an elevated risk of losing independence in the six activities. CONCLUSIONS. Progression from low normal to impaired cognitive function was associated with loss of independence in activities of daily living. Thus low normal cognitive function could be viewed as an early warning of impending cognitive impairment and loss of physical function. PMID:8561244

  7. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro A; Pinato, Luciana; Ferreira, Zulma S; Markus, Regina P

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic

  8. Prediction of ground reaction forces and moments during various activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Fluit, R; Andersen, M S; Kolk, S; Verdonschot, N; Koopman, H F J M

    2014-07-18

    Inverse dynamics based simulations on musculoskeletal models is a commonly used method for the analysis of human movement. Due to inaccuracies in the kinematic and force plate data, and a mismatch between the model and the subject, the equations of motion are violated when solving the inverse dynamics problem. As a result, dynamic inconsistency will exist and lead to residual forces and moments. In this study, we present and evaluate a computational method to perform inverse dynamics-based simulations without force plates, which both improves the dynamic consistency as well as removes the model׳s dependency on measured external forces. Using the equations of motion and a scaled musculoskeletal model, the ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&Ms) are derived from three-dimensional full-body motion. The method entails a dynamic contact model and optimization techniques to solve the indeterminacy problem during a double contact phase and, in contrast to previously proposed techniques, does not require training or empirical data. The method was applied to nine healthy subjects performing several Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and evaluated with simultaneously measured force plate data. Except for the transverse ground reaction moment, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found between the mean predicted and measured GRF&Ms for almost all ADLs. The mean residual forces and moments, however, were significantly reduced (P>0.05) in almost all ADLs using our method compared to conventional inverse dynamic simulations. Hence, the proposed method may be used instead of raw force plate data in human movement analysis using inverse dynamics.

  9. Temperature fluctuations in the lower limbs of young and elderly individuals during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Vladimir V; Lin, David C

    2014-09-01

    Age-related deficiencies in thermoregulation diminish the capacity to defend against heat loss under conditions often encountered during activities of daily living (ADL). A potential consequence of these deficiencies is that elderly individuals could have colder lower limbs, which would exacerbate the age-related decline in plantarflexor contractile properties and compromise recovery from a tripping incident. Moreover, a common self-perception among the elderly is that their limbs are cold. However, this impression has never been documented, especially under ADL conditions. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that elderly individuals have lower plantarflexor temperatures than their younger counterparts. Skin temperatures above the plantarflexors of elderly and young individuals were continuously recorded during ADL in the winter months and compared under three conditions: quiescent indoor temperature, during a cold challenge, and the recovery period subsequent to the cold challenge. For quiescent indoor periods, differences in skin temperature between the two groups were not statistically significant. During cold exposures, both age and exposure duration were statistically significant factors related to the decrease in skin temperature, with the elderly group maintaining warmer temperatures. In the recovery period following short duration cold exposures, a statistically significant difference between the two groups for the decrease in skin temperature persisted for the first 9min of recovery. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lower limbs of elderly participants are colder. Higher limb temperatures observed in elderly participants were consistent with previous studies of age-related thermoregulatory changes, indicating that deficiencies in vasoconstriction are persistent in ADL.

  10. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1β: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, David R; Kim, Hyunji; Tocci, Catherine; Ndiaye, Awa; Petronzio, Abbey; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Molyneux, Penny C; Scammell, Thomas E; Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease, and is also common in patients with traumatic brain injury, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Little is known about the neurobiology of fatigue, in part due to the lack of an approach to induce fatigue in laboratory animals. Fatigue is a common response to systemic challenge by pathogens, a response in part mediated through action of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). We investigated the behavioral responses of mice to IL-1β. Female C57Bl/6J mice of 3 ages were administered IL-1β at various doses i.p. Interleukin-1β reduced locomotor activity, and sensitivity increased with age. Further experiments were conducted with middle-aged females. Centrally administered IL-1β dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity. Using doses of IL-1β that caused suppression of locomotor activity, we measured minimal signs of sickness, such as hyperthermia, pain or anhedonia (as measured with abdominal temperature probes, pre-treatment with the analgesic buprenorphine and through sucrose preference, respectively), all of which are responses commonly reported with higher doses. We found that middle-aged orexin-/- mice showed equivalent effects of IL-1β on locomotor activity as seen in wild-type controls, suggesting that orexins are not necessary for IL-1β -induced reductions in wheel-running. Given that the availability and success of therapeutic treatments for fatigue is currently limited, we examined the effectiveness of two potential clinical treatments, modafinil and methylphenidate. We found that these treatments were variably successful in restoring locomotor activity after IL-1β administration. This provides one step toward development of a satisfactory animal model of the multidimensional experience of fatigue, a model that could allow us to determine possible pathways through which inflammation induces fatigue, and could lead to novel treatments for

  11. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1β: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bonsall, David R.; Kim, Hyunji; Tocci, Catherine; Ndiaye, Awa; Petronzio, Abbey; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Molyneux, Penny C.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease, and is also common in patients with traumatic brain injury, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Little is known about the neurobiology of fatigue, in part due to the lack of an approach to induce fatigue in laboratory animals. Fatigue is a common response to systemic challenge by pathogens, a response in part mediated through action of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). We investigated the behavioral responses of mice to IL-1β. Female C57Bl/6J mice of 3 ages were administered IL-1β at various doses i.p. Interleukin-1β reduced locomotor activity, and sensitivity increased with age. Further experiments were conducted with middle-aged females. Centrally administered IL-1β dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity. Using doses of IL-1β that caused suppression of locomotor activity, we measured minimal signs of sickness, such as hyperthermia, pain or anhedonia (as measured with abdominal temperature probes, pre-treatment with the analgesic buprenorphine and through sucrose preference, respectively), all of which are responses commonly reported with higher doses. We found that middle-aged orexin-/- mice showed equivalent effects of IL-1β on locomotor activity as seen in wild-type controls, suggesting that orexins are not necessary for IL-1β -induced reductions in wheel-running. Given that the availability and success of therapeutic treatments for fatigue is currently limited, we examined the effectiveness of two potential clinical treatments, modafinil and methylphenidate. We found that these treatments were variably successful in restoring locomotor activity after IL-1β administration. This provides one step toward development of a satisfactory animal model of the multidimensional experience of fatigue, a model that could allow us to determine possible pathways through which inflammation induces fatigue, and could lead to novel treatments for

  12. Dynamic Strain Aging and Oxidation Effects on the Thermomechanical Fatigue Deformation of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesha, A.; Kannan, R.; Srinivasan, V. S.; Sandhya, R.; Choudhary, B. K.; Laha, K.

    2016-03-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) behavior of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel was investigated under in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) conditions under different mechanical strain amplitudes and temperature regimes. OP TMF was generally observed to result in the lowest cyclic lives compared to both IP TMF and isothermal low cycle fatigue (IF) at the maximum temperature ( T max). The stress-strain hysteresis loops under TMF were marked by extensive serrations associated with dynamic strain aging (DSA) at the strain amplitudes of ±0.4 and ±0.6 pct. The serrations were noticed during the downward ramp of temperature that resulted in IP and OP TMF exhibiting jerky flow in the compressive and tensile portions, respectively. However, no evidence of serrated flow was seen under IF cycling at any of the temperatures within the TMF cycle. The stress response during IP TMF was marked by a near-saturation regime over 65 to 70 pct of life in contrast to continuous cyclic softening in the case of OP TMF. The marked life reduction observed under OP cycling at the strain amplitudes of ±0.4 and ±0.6 pct was attributed to the deleterious influence associated with oxidation, DSA, and tensile mean stress. The findings assume importance in the context of elevated temperature fatigue design, considering the fact that the IF data at T max are deemed adequately conservative in traditional design approaches.

  13. Effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung; Yoo, Chanuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects that task-oriented training has on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Task-oriented training was applied to two chronic hemiplegic patients in this research. The training was provided to each patient for 30 minutes a day, five times a week for two weeks. The treatment program included six different types of training that could be performed by the patients themselves. Evaluation was performed four times, that is, once a week for three weeks before the intervention and once after the intervention. The change in upper extremity function was measured with the Manual Function Test, and the change in performance of daily activity was measured with the Functional Independence Measure. [Results] The upper extremity function of both subjects was improved after application of task-oriented training. However, in the performance of daily activities, subject one showed improvement compared to with before the intervention, whereas subject two showed the same results. [Conclusion] This research confirmed that two weeks of task-oriented training for chronic stroke patients is effective for improvement of upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients. PMID:26355425

  14. Patient with Macular Disease, Good Visual Acuity, and Central Visual Field Disruption and Significant Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Donald C.; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Walker, Joseph P.; Raskauskas, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally appreciated that patients with macular disease frequently experience reduced visual acuity. It is not as widely appreciated that they often have significant central visual field disruption, which, by itself, can cause significant problems with activities of daily living, such as reading and driving, even when they maintain good…

  15. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  16. Physical Training of School Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Daily Activity, Fat Mass and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg-Emons, R. J.; Van Baak, M. A.; Speth, L.; Saris, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of two 9-month sports programs (four or two sessions per week) on daily physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), and physical fitness were assessed in 20 Dutch children (ages 7-13) with spastic cerebral palsy. Four sessions per week tended to increase PA ratio and held FM constant. (Author/CR)

  17. Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

  18. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deterioration, unilateral spatial neglect or apathy. [Methods] According to abdominal strength, the 24 patients were divided into a nonweakness group and a weakness group. For the assessment, we used the stroke impairment assessment set, the Berg balance scale, a simple test for evaluating hand function, grip strength, and functional independence measure scale scores and the results were compared between the groups. [Results] The Berg balance scale score and scores for dressing, toilet use, transfer to bed, and walk items of the functional independence measure were significantly lower in the weakness group than in the nonweakness group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that weakness of the abdominal muscles adversely impacts the balance of patients with mild stroke as well as their ability to dress, use a toilet, transfer, and walk. Trunk training, including abdominal muscle exercises, can effectively improve the performance of these activities of daily living items.

  19. Post-stroke depression inhibits improvement in activities of daily living in patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Daisuke; Midorikawa, Manabu; Makiyama, Yasushi; Shimoda, Kaori; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There have been no investigations into the improvement of activities of daily living among patients suffering from post-stroke depression on admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan. This study aimed to assess the improvement of activities in daily living in patients with or without post-stroke depression at the time of admission to a convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 108 stroke patients divided into two groups according to their Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item short form scores. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Functional Independence Measure. The degree of improvement on the Functional Independence Measure was defined as the difference between scores on admission and at discharge. [Results] The Functional Independence Measure gain score was significantly different from the Functional Independence Measure total score. There was a significant interaction between time period and post-stroke depression factors for the Functional Independence Measure total score. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between Geriatric Depression Scale score and Functional Independence Measure total score. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that post-stroke depression has a negative impact on recovery of activities of daily living and on rehabilitation outcomes in a convalescent rehabilitation ward setting. PMID:27630408

  20. The effect of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects were each assigned to a mirror therapy group and a sham therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment and the Box and Block Test were performed to compare paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities. The functional independence measurement was conducted to compare abilities to perform activities of daily living. [Results] Paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities were significantly different between the mirror therapy and sham therapy groups. Intervention in the mirror therapy group was more effective than in the sham therapy group for improving the ability to perform activities of daily living. Self-care showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy is effective in improving paretic upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. PMID:26180297

  1. Post-stroke depression inhibits improvement in activities of daily living in patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Daisuke; Midorikawa, Manabu; Makiyama, Yasushi; Shimoda, Kaori; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There have been no investigations into the improvement of activities of daily living among patients suffering from post-stroke depression on admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan. This study aimed to assess the improvement of activities in daily living in patients with or without post-stroke depression at the time of admission to a convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 108 stroke patients divided into two groups according to their Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item short form scores. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Functional Independence Measure. The degree of improvement on the Functional Independence Measure was defined as the difference between scores on admission and at discharge. [Results] The Functional Independence Measure gain score was significantly different from the Functional Independence Measure total score. There was a significant interaction between time period and post-stroke depression factors for the Functional Independence Measure total score. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between Geriatric Depression Scale score and Functional Independence Measure total score. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that post-stroke depression has a negative impact on recovery of activities of daily living and on rehabilitation outcomes in a convalescent rehabilitation ward setting.

  2. Daily dynamics of the number and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in fallow and intensely cultivated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emer, N. R.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Kostina, N. V.; Golichenkov, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    The daily dynamics (during 33 days) of the number (colony-forming units (CFU)) of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and of the nitrogen-fixing activity (the acetylene method) were determined in a gray forest soil under a fallow land and under an intensely cultivated field. The daily dynamics of the CFUs determined on the nitrogen-free medium in the samples from both plots had wavelike patterns. The daily values of the actual and potential activities of nitrogen fixation in the samples from the fallow land plot and of the actual activity of nitrogen fixation in the samples from the intensely cultivated soil were low and close to the detection limit. The potential activity of nitrogen fixation in the intensely cultivated soil was significant and also had a wavelike pattern. The harmonic analysis of the daily dynamics of the CFUs and nitrogen fixation showed the statistically significant harmonics of these biological characteristics pointing to the objective and regular character of the wavelike dynamics. The revealed dynamics of the biological characteristics of the soils and the methods of their analysis are important in terms of the comparative study of the biological properties of different soils.

  3. A Profile of Adults Needing Assistance with Activities of Daily Living, 1991-1992. Disability Statistics Report 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jae; LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    This report uses data from the 1990 and 1991 samples of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to construct a profile of the U.S. noninstitutionalized adult population needing assistance with activities of daily living (ADL) and to estimate the size of the population eligible for federal personal assistance services (PAS) under different…

  4. Factors affecting daily physical activity and physical performance in maintenance dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kopple, Joel D; Kim, Jun C; Shapiro, Bryan B; Zhang, Min; Li, Yinan; Porszasz, Janos; Bross, Rachelle; Feroze, Usama; Upreti, Rajeev; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-03-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients display reduced daily physical activity (DPA) and physical performance (PP). Previous studies did not differentiate the effects of kidney failure and MHD treatments from comorbidities as causes for reduced DPA and PP. In relatively healthy MHD patients and normal adults, we evaluated DPA and PP and examined relationships between DPA and PP and possible associations between anxiety or depression and DPA and PP. DPA, 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD), sit-to-stand (STS), and stair-climbing tests were measured in 72 MHD patients (40% diabetics) with limited comorbidities and 39 normal adults of similar age and gender mix. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck anxiety and depression inventories. DPA, time-averaged over 7 days, and all 3 PP tests were impaired in MHD patients, to about 60% to 70% of normal values (P < .0001 for each measurement). MHD patients spent more time sleeping or physically inactive (P < .0001) and less time in ≥ moderate activity (P < .0001). Adjusted DPA correlated with 6-MWD but not STS or stair-climbing. Anxiety and depression were identified in 43% and 33% of MHD patients and 2.5% and 5.1% of normals (P < .0001 for each comparison). Most of the impairment in DPA and PP tests were also observed in MHD patients without anxiety or depression. However, MHD patients with both anxiety and depression generally had the most impaired DPA and PP. In MHD patients, higher adjusted anxiety scores were correlated with impaired 6-MWD and STS, whereas adjusted average DPA was negatively correlated with depression (r = -0.33, P = .006) but not anxiety. DPA on the hemodialysis day (P = .01), day after dialysis (P = .03), and day 2 after dialysis (P = .03) each correlated negatively with degree of depression but not with anxiety. MHD patients displayed negative-adjusted correlations between anxiety and 6-MWD (P = .03) and STS (P = .04). In relatively healthy MHD patients, DPA and PP are substantially impaired

  5. Flexural fatigue behavior of machinable and light-activated hybrid composites for esthetic restorations.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Morimoto, Nobuko; Tsuo, Yukiko; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2004-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the flexural strength and flexural fatigue strength of a machinable composite (GN-I) and three hybrid composites (Artglass, Estenia, and Gradia). Specimens (2 x 2 x 25 mm) were polymerized in a laboratory photo-curing unit and then immersed in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, 6 months, and 1 year. After each immersion period, flexural strengths (4-PFS) were measured at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min in 4-point bending (span = 20 mm; distance between inside loading points = 10 mm). The cyclic fatigue test was performed at 2.0 Hz on a fatigue tester. The staircase method was employed for flexural fatigue strength (FFS) using a 5000 cyclic load limitation, 5-MPa stress increment, and 20 specimens for each material. Both 4-PFS and FFS of the machinable composite after all immersion periods were significantly greater than those of the three hybrid composites. The FFS results followed the same pattern as those of the 4-PFS. The Estenia material exhibited the highest 4-PFS and FFS after 24 h of immersion among three hybrid composites, whereas after 1 year of immersion, all three composites showed almost identical 4-PFS and FFS statistically. A strong correlation was observed between 4-PFS and FFS of the machinable composite and three hybrid resin composites.

  6. Feasibility of a Dynamic Web Guidance Approach for Personalized Physical Activity Prescription Based on Daily Information From Wearable Technology

    PubMed Central

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L; Raymond Jr, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Computer tailored, Web-based interventions have emerged as an effective approach to promote physical activity. Existing programs, however, do not adjust activities according to the participant’s compliance or physiologic adaptations, which may increase risk of injury and program attrition in sedentary adults. To address this limitation, objective activity monitor (AM) and heart rate data could be used to guide personalization of physical activity, but improved Web-based frameworks are needed to test such interventions. Objective The objective of this study is to (1) develop a personalized physical activity prescription (PPAP) app that combines dynamic Web-based guidance with multi-sensor AM data to promote physical activity and (2) to assess the feasibility of using this system in the field. Methods The PPAP app was constructed using an open-source software platform and a custom, multi-sensor AM capable of accurately measuring heart rate and physical activity. A novel algorithm was written to use a participant’s compliance and physiologic response to aerobic training (ie, changes in daily resting heart rate) recorded by the AM to create daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions. In addition, the PPAP app was designed to (1) manage the transfer of files from the AM to data processing software and a relational database, (2) provide interactive visualization features such as calendars and training tables to encourage physical activity, and (3) enable remote administrative monitoring of data quality and participant compliance. A 12-week feasibility study was performed to assess the utility and limitations of the PPAP app used by sedentary adults in the field. Changes in physical activity level and resting heart rate were monitored throughout the intervention. Results The PPAP app successfully created daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions and an interactive Web environment to guide and promote physical activity by the participants

  7. Personalized Multilayer Daily Life Profiling Through Context Enabled Activity Classification and Motion Reconstruction: An Integrated System Approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Wang, Yan; Barrett, Mick; Dobkin, Bruce; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2016-01-01

    Profiling the daily activity of a physically disabled person in the community would enable healthcare professionals to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of their patients' compliance with recommendations for exercise, fitness, and practice of skilled movements, as well as enable feedback about performance in real-world situations. Based on our early research in in-community activity profiling, we present in this paper an end-to-end system capable of reporting a patient's daily activity at multiple levels of granularity: 1) at the highest level, information on the location categories a patient is able to visit; 2) within each location category, information on the activities a patient is able to perform; and 3) at the lowest level, motion trajectory, visualization, and metrics computation of each activity. Our methodology is built upon a physical activity prescription model coupled with MEMS inertial sensors and mobile device kits that can be sent to a patient at home. A novel context-guided activity-monitoring concept with categorical location context is used to achieve enhanced classification accuracy and throughput. The methodology is then seamlessly integrated with motion reconstruction and metrics computation to provide comprehensive layered reporting of a patient's daily life. We also present an implementation of the methodology featuring a novel location context detection algorithm using WiFi augmented GPS and overlays, with motion reconstruction and visualization algorithms for practical in-community deployment. Finally, we use a series of experimental field evaluations to confirm the accuracy of the system. PMID:25546868

  8. Personalized Multilayer Daily Life Profiling Through Context Enabled Activity Classification and Motion Reconstruction: An Integrated System Approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Wang, Yan; Barrett, Mick; Dobkin, Bruce; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2016-01-01

    Profiling the daily activity of a physically disabled person in the community would enable healthcare professionals to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of their patients' compliance with recommendations for exercise, fitness, and practice of skilled movements, as well as enable feedback about performance in real-world situations. Based on our early research in in-community activity profiling, we present in this paper an end-to-end system capable of reporting a patient's daily activity at multiple levels of granularity: 1) at the highest level, information on the location categories a patient is able to visit; 2) within each location category, information on the activities a patient is able to perform; and 3) at the lowest level, motion trajectory, visualization, and metrics computation of each activity. Our methodology is built upon a physical activity prescription model coupled with MEMS inertial sensors and mobile device kits that can be sent to a patient at home. A novel context-guided activity-monitoring concept with categorical location context is used to achieve enhanced classification accuracy and throughput. The methodology is then seamlessly integrated with motion reconstruction and metrics computation to provide comprehensive layered reporting of a patient's daily life. We also present an implementation of the methodology featuring a novel location context detection algorithm using WiFi augmented GPS and overlays, with motion reconstruction and visualization algorithms for practical in-community deployment. Finally, we use a series of experimental field evaluations to confirm the accuracy of the system.

  9. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    PubMed

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  10. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001)…

  11. Identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer: evaluating laboratory-trained algorithms in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gyllensten, Illapha Cuba; Bonomi, Alberto G

    2011-09-01

    Accurate identification of physical activity types has been achieved in laboratory conditions using single-site accelerometers and classification algorithms. This methodology is then applied to free-living subjects to determine activity behavior. This study is aimed at analyzing the reproducibility of the accuracy of laboratory-trained classification algorithms in free-living subjects during daily life. A support vector machine (SVM), a feed-forward neural network (NN), and a decision tree (DT) were trained with data collected by a waist-mounted accelerometer during a laboratory trial. The reproducibility of the classification performance was tested on data collected in daily life using a multiple-site accelerometer augmented with an activity diary for 20 healthy subjects (age: 30 ± 9; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)). Leave-one-subject-out cross validation of the training data showed accuracies of 95.1 ± 4.3%, 91.4 ± 6.7%, and 92.2 ± 6.6% for the SVM, NN, and DT, respectively. All algorithms showed a significantly decreased accuracy in daily life as compared to the reference truth represented by the IDEEA and diary classifications (75.6 ± 10.4%, 74.8 ± 9.7%, and 72.2 ± 10.3%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, cross validation of training data overestimates the accuracy of the classification algorithms in daily life.

  12. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  13. A Photo Album of Earth Scheduling Landsat 7 Mission Daily Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, William; Gasch, John; Bauer, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Landsat7 is a member of a new generation of Earth observation satellites. Landsat7 will carry on the mission of the aging Landsat 5 spacecraft by acquiring high resolution, multi-spectral images of the Earth surface for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural and civil analysis and research. One of the primary mission goals of Landsat7 is to accumulate and seasonally refresh an archive of global images with full coverage of Earth's landmass, less the central portion of Antarctica. This archive will enable further research into seasonal, annual and long-range trending analysis in such diverse research areas as crop yields, deforestation, population growth, and pollution control, to name just a few. A secondary goal of Landsat7 is to fulfill imaging requests from our international partners in the mission. Landsat7 will transmit raw image data from the spacecraft to 25 ground stations in 20 subscribing countries. Whereas earlier Landsat missions were scheduled manually (as are the majority of current low-orbit satellite missions), the task of manually planning and scheduling Landsat7 mission activities would be overwhelmingly complex when considering the large volume of image requests, the limited resources available, spacecraft instrument limitations, and the limited ground image processing capacity, not to mention avoidance of foul weather systems. The Landsat7 Mission Operation Center (MOC) includes an image scheduler subsystem that is designed to automate the majority of mission planning and scheduling, including selection of the images to be acquired, managing the recording and playback of the images by the spacecraft, scheduling ground station contacts for downlink of images, and generating the spacecraft commands for controlling the imager, recorder, transmitters and antennas. The image scheduler subsystem autonomously generates 90% of the spacecraft commanding with minimal manual intervention. The image scheduler produces a conflict-free schedule

  14. Hamstring Fatigue and Muscle Activation Changes During Six Sets of Nordic Hamstring Exercise in Amateur Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Lovell, Ric; Knox, Michael F; Brennan, Scott L; Siegler, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a bodyweight movement commonly prescribed to increase eccentric hamstring strength and reduce the incidence of strain injury in sport. This study examined hamstring fatigue and muscle activation responses throughout 6 sets of 5 repetitions of the NHE. Ten amateur-level soccer players performed a single session of 6 sets of 5 repetitions of NHE. Maximal eccentric and concentric torque output (in newton meters) was measured after every set. Hamstrings electromyograms (EMG) were measured during all maximal contractions and exercise repetitions. Hamstring maximal eccentric torque was reduced throughout the range of motion after only a single set of NHE between 7.9 and 17.1% (p ≤ 0.05), with further reductions in subsequent sets. Similarly, maximal concentric torque reductions between 7.8 and 17.2% were observed throughout the range of motion after 1 set of NHE (p ≤ 0.05). During the descent phase of the NHE repetitions, hamstring muscle activity progressively increased as the number of sets performed increased. These increases were observed in the first half of the range of motion. During the ascent phase, biceps femoris muscle activity but not medial hamstrings was reduced from the start of exercise during latter sets of repetitions. These data provide unique insight into the extent of fatigue induced from a bodyweight only exercise after a single set of 5 repetitions. Strength and conditioning coaches need to be aware of the speed and extent of fatigue induced from NHE, particularly in practical settings in which this exercise is now prescribed before sport-specific training sessions (i.e., the FIFA-11 before soccer training). PMID:25886019

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a teleconference fatigue management plus physical activity intervention in adults with multiple sclerosis: rationale and research protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue and inactivity are prevalent problems among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and may independently or interactively have detrimental effects on quality of life and ability to participate in life roles. However, no studies to date have systematically evaluated the benefits of an intervention for both managing fatigue and promoting physical activity in individuals with MS. This study involves a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a telehealth intervention that supports individuals with MS in managing fatigue and increasing physical activity levels. Methods/Design A randomly-allocated, three-parallel group, time-series design with a social support program serving as the control group will be used to accomplish the purpose of the study. Our goal is to recruit 189 ambulatory individuals with MS who will be randomized into one of three telehealth interventions: (1) a contact-control social support intervention, (2) a physical activity-only intervention, and (3) a physical activity plus fatigue management intervention. All interventions will last 12 weeks and will be delivered entirely over the phone. Our hypothesis is that, in comparison to the contact-control condition, both the physical activity-only intervention and the physical activity plus fatigue management intervention will yield significant increases in physical activity levels as well as improve fatigue and health and function, with the physical activity plus fatigue management intervention yielding significantly larger improvements. To test this hypothesis, outcome measures will be administered at Weeks 1, 12, and 24. Primary outcomes will be the Fatigue Impact Scale, the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), and Actigraph accelerometers. Secondary outcomes will include the SF-12 Survey, Mental Health Inventory, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale, the Community Participation Indicator, and psychosocial constructs (e.g., self

  16. Ecological Validity of Virtual Reality Daily Living Activities Screening for Early Dementia: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlee, Winfried; Tsolaki, Magda; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs; Nef, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    , and chair stands separately and while performing VR-DOTs in order to correlate performance in these measures with VR-DOTs because performance while navigating a virtual environment is a valid and reliable indicator of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Results The mild AD group was more impaired than the amnestic MCI group, and both were more impaired than healthy controls. The novel VR-DOT functional index correlated strongly with standard cognitive and functional measurements, such as mini-mental state examination (MMSE; rho=0.26, P=.01) and Bristol Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale scores (rho=0.32, P=.001). Conclusions Functional impairment is a defining characteristic of predementia and is partly dependent on the degree of cognitive impairment. The novel virtual reality measures of functional ability seem more sensitive to functional impairment than qualitative measures in predementia, thus accurately differentiating from healthy controls. We conclude that VR-DOT is an effective tool for discriminating predementia and mild AD from controls by detecting differences in terms of errors, omissions, and perseverations while measuring ADL functional ability. PMID:25658491

  17. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  18. Knee Flexion and Daily Activities in Patients following Total Knee Replacement: A Comparison with ISO Standard 14243

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Markus A.; Nechtow, William; Schwenke, Thorsten; Moisio, Kirsten C.

    2015-01-01

    Walking is only one of many daily activities performed by patients following total knee replacement (TKR). The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses (a) that subject activity characteristics are correlated with knee flexion range of motion (ROM) and (b) that there is a significant difference between the subject's flexion/extension excursion throughout the day and the ISO specified input for knee wear testing. In order to characterize activity, the number of walking and stair stepping cycles, the time spent with dynamic and stationary activities, the number of activity sequences, and the knee flexion/extension excursion of 32 TKR subjects were collected during daily activity. Flexion/extension profiles were compared with the ISO 14243 simulator input profile using a level crossing classification algorithm. Subjects took an average of 3102 (range: 343–5857) walking cycles including 65 (range: 0–319) stair stepping cycles. Active and passive ROMs were positively correlated with stair walking time, stair step counts, and stair walking sequences. Simulated knee motion according to ISO showed significantly fewer level crossings at the flexion angles 20–40° and beyond 50° than those measured with the monitor. This suggests that implant wear testing protocols should contain more cycles and a variety of activities requiring higher knee flexion angles with incorporated resting/transition periods to account for the many activity sequences. PMID:26347875

  19. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  20. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  1. Physical Activity Advertisements That Feature Daily Well-Being Improve Autonomy and Body Image in Overweight Women but Not Men

    PubMed Central

    Segar, Michelle L.; Updegraff, John A.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife. PMID:22701782

  2. Handgrip performance in relation to self-perceived fatigue, physical functioning and circulating IL-6 in elderly persons without inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bautmans, Ivan; Gorus, Ellen; Njemini, Rose; Mets, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Background Low grip strength is recognized as one of the characteristics of frailty, as are systemic inflammation and the sensation of fatigue. Contrary to maximal grip strength, the physical resistance of the muscles to fatigue is not often included in the clinical evaluation of elderly patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if the grip strength and the resistance of the handgrip muscles to fatigue are related to self-perceived fatigue, physical functioning and circulating IL-6 in independently living elderly persons. Methods Forty elderly subjects (15 female and 25 male, mean age 75 ± 5 years) were assessed for maximal grip strength, as well as for fatigue resistance and grip work (respectively time and work delivered until grip strength drops to 50% of its maximum during sustained contraction), self perceived fatigue (VAS-Fatigue, Mob-Tiredness scale and the energy & fatigue items of the WHOQOL-100), self rated physical functioning (domain of physical functioning on the MOS short-form) and circulating IL-6. Relationships between handgrip performance and the other outcome measures were assessed. Results In the male participants, fatigue resistance was negatively related to actual sensation of fatigue (VAS-F, p < .05) and positively to circulating IL-6 (p < .05). When corrected for body weight, the relations of fatigue resistance with self-perceived fatigue became stronger and also apparent in the female. Grip strength and grip work were significantly related with several items of self-perceived fatigue and with physical functioning. These relations became more visible by means of higher correlation coefficients when grip strength and grip work were corrected for body weight. Conclusion Well functioning elderly subjects presenting less handmuscle fatigue resistance and weaker grip strength are more fatigued, experience more tiredness during daily activities and are more bothered by fatigue sensations. Body weight seems to play an important role in the

  3. Hand-held monitor of sympathetic nervous system using salivary amylase activity and its validation by driver fatigue assessment.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Deguchi, Mitsuo; Wakasugi, Junichi; Ono, Shin; Takai, Noriyasu; Higashi, Tomoyuki; Mizuno, Yasufumi

    2006-01-15

    In order to realize a hand-held monitor of the sympathetic nervous system, we fabricated a completely automated analytical system for salivary amylase activity using a dry-chemistry system. This was made possible by the fabrication of a disposable test-strip equipped with built-in collecting and reagent papers and an automatic saliva transfer device. In order to cancel out the effects of variations in environmental temperature and pH of saliva, temperature- and pH-adjusted equations were experimentally determined, and each theoretical value was input into the memory of the hand-held monitor. Within a range of salivary amylase activity between 10 and 140 kU/l, the calibration curve for the hand-held monitor showed a coefficient with R(2)=0.97. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that the hand-held monitor enabled a user to automatically measure the salivary amylase activity with high accuracy with only 30 microl sample of saliva within a minute from collection to completion of the measurement. In order to make individual variations of salivary amylase activity negligible during driver fatigue assessment, a normalized equation was proposed. The normalized salivary amylase activity correlated with the mental and physical fatigue states. Thus, this study demonstrated that an excellent hand-held monitor with an algorithm for normalization of individuals' differences in salivary amylase activity, which could be easily and quickly used for evaluating the activity of the sympathetic nervous system at any time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the salivary amylase activity might be used as a better index for psychological research.

  4. Impact of Sativex(®) on quality of life and activities of daily living in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Rafael; Vila, Carlos; Dechant, Kerry L

    2014-07-01

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity, associated symptoms such as spasms, pain, mobility restrictions and sleep disturbances can interfere with the ability to perform activities of daily living and reduce quality of life (QoL). Recent cross-sectional studies from Europe have confirmed that advancing severity of MS spasticity correlates directly with worsening QoL. The treatment effect of Sativex(®) (GW Pharmaceuticals PLC, Porton Down, UK; Laboratorios Almirall, SA, Barcelona, Spain) on QoL has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials, observational studies conducted under everyday clinical practice conditions and a survey in long-term users. Symptomatic relief of MS spasticity in responders to Sativex was associated with quantifiable improvements in QoL and activities of daily living that were maintained over time. Benefits were perceived by both patients and caregivers. PMID:25275238

  5. Impact of Sativex(®) on quality of life and activities of daily living in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Rafael; Vila, Carlos; Dechant, Kerry L

    2014-07-01

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity, associated symptoms such as spasms, pain, mobility restrictions and sleep disturbances can interfere with the ability to perform activities of daily living and reduce quality of life (QoL). Recent cross-sectional studies from Europe have confirmed that advancing severity of MS spasticity correlates directly with worsening QoL. The treatment effect of Sativex(®) (GW Pharmaceuticals PLC, Porton Down, UK; Laboratorios Almirall, SA, Barcelona, Spain) on QoL has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials, observational studies conducted under everyday clinical practice conditions and a survey in long-term users. Symptomatic relief of MS spasticity in responders to Sativex was associated with quantifiable improvements in QoL and activities of daily living that were maintained over time. Benefits were perceived by both patients and caregivers.

  6. Effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung-beom; Kim, Young-dong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] The experimental group and control group comprised 15 hemiplegia patients each. [Methods] This study was performed from June 4 to December 22, 2012, involving 30 hemiplegia patients. The experimental and controls groups performed task practices for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 28 weeks with and without taping, respectively. [Results] After treatment, there were significant differences in every outcome measures within each group except for the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the hand. However, there was a significant difference in functional independence movements between the groups. [Conclusion] Task practice has the same effectiveness regardless of the taping of the upper extremities. Nevertheless, taping is helpful for improving both the functions and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia. PMID:26157239

  7. Effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung-Beom; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] The experimental group and control group comprised 15 hemiplegia patients each. [Methods] This study was performed from June 4 to December 22, 2012, involving 30 hemiplegia patients. The experimental and controls groups performed task practices for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 28 weeks with and without taping, respectively. [Results] After treatment, there were significant differences in every outcome measures within each group except for the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the hand. However, there was a significant difference in functional independence movements between the groups. [Conclusion] Task practice has the same effectiveness regardless of the taping of the upper extremities. Nevertheless, taping is helpful for improving both the functions and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia.

  8. Harnessing Different Motivational Frames via Mobile Phones to Promote Daily Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Hekler, Eric B.; Grieco, Lauren A.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Buman, Matthew P.; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N.; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An “analytically” framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A “socially” framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An “affectively” framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring

  9. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use

  10. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use

  11. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  12. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden.

  13. A count model to study the correlates of 60 min of daily physical activity in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9-11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane-Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p<0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates' roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  14. Scores of fatigue complaints in high school students in physical education classes.

    PubMed

    Maehashi, A; Taketa, K

    1996-06-01

    This study was undertaken to give scientific basis in introducing exercise into our daily lives. Fatigue scores, the Flicker value, the counter value, grip strength and counting steps were analyzed in 109 female high school students before and after physical education classes during the third school period. These female students were chosen because of their lower fatigue scores, particularly before lunch time. Fatigue scores were obtained in tumbling exercises, softball, badminton, team handball, basketball and a 2.2-km distance run during 50-min classes. Step-counting activities were the lowest in tumbling with 640 steps, and the highest in the 2.2-km distance run with 2,580 steps. In all activities except the distance run, fatigue scores decreased, and the Flicker value and the counter value increased after exercise. Grip strength decreased only in softball and the distance run. In the distance run, all measurements of the tests showed tendencies toward fatigue. However, with lighter exercises, the fatigue scores decreased by 1,760 steps; also, the Flicker value and the counter value showed improvement of physical function. Therefore, it is suggested that exercise having around 1,760 steps, corresponding to approximately 35 steps/min, might be the upper limit of physical load at which fatigue symptoms increase in a physical education class. Physical activities in the physical education classes showed two types of effects: recreational effects and training effects.

  15. Effects of Listening to Music versus Environmental Sounds in Passive and Active Situations on Levels of Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Mercadíe, Lolita; Mick, Gérard; Guétin, Stéphane; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    In fibromyalgia, pain symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are associated with fatigue. Mechanisms underlying such symptoms can be modulated by listening to pleasant music. We expected that listening to music, because of its emotional impact, would have a greater modulating effect on the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia than listening to nonmusical sounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a 4-week study in which patients with fibromyalgia listened to either preselected musical pieces or environmental sounds when they experienced pain in active (while carrying out a physical activity) or passive (at rest) situations. Concomitant changes of pain and fatigue levels were evaluated. When patients listened to music or environmental sounds at rest, pain and fatigue levels were significantly reduced after 20 minutes of listening, with no difference of effect magnitude between the two stimuli. This improvement persisted 10 minutes after the end of the listening session. In active situations, pain did not increase in presence of the two stimuli. Contrary to our expectations, music and environmental sounds produced a similar relieving effect on pain and fatigue, with no benefit gained by listening to pleasant music over environmental sounds.

  16. Effects of Listening to Music versus Environmental Sounds in Passive and Active Situations on Levels of Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Mercadíe, Lolita; Mick, Gérard; Guétin, Stéphane; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    In fibromyalgia, pain symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are associated with fatigue. Mechanisms underlying such symptoms can be modulated by listening to pleasant music. We expected that listening to music, because of its emotional impact, would have a greater modulating effect on the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia than listening to nonmusical sounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a 4-week study in which patients with fibromyalgia listened to either preselected musical pieces or environmental sounds when they experienced pain in active (while carrying out a physical activity) or passive (at rest) situations. Concomitant changes of pain and fatigue levels were evaluated. When patients listened to music or environmental sounds at rest, pain and fatigue levels were significantly reduced after 20 minutes of listening, with no difference of effect magnitude between the two stimuli. This improvement persisted 10 minutes after the end of the listening session. In active situations, pain did not increase in presence of the two stimuli. Contrary to our expectations, music and environmental sounds produced a similar relieving effect on pain and fatigue, with no benefit gained by listening to pleasant music over environmental sounds. PMID:26163741

  17. Mitochondrial metabolism during daily torpor in the dwarf Siberian hamster: role of active regulated changes and passive thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jason C L; Gerson, Alexander R; Staples, James F

    2007-11-01

    During daily torpor in the dwarf Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, metabolic rate is reduced by 65% compared with the basal rate, but the mechanisms involved are contentious. We examined liver mitochondrial respiration to determine the possible role of active regulated changes and passive thermal effects in the reduction of metabolic rate. When assayed at 37 degrees C, state 3 (phosphorylating) respiration, but not state 4 (nonphosphorylating) respiration, was significantly lower during torpor compared with normothermia, suggesting that active regulated changes occur during daily torpor. Using top-down elasticity analysis, we determined that these active changes in torpor included a reduced substrate oxidation capacity and an increased proton conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane. At 15 degrees C, mitochondrial respiration was at least 75% lower than at 37 degrees C, but there was no difference between normothermia and torpor. This implies that the active regulated changes are likely more important for reducing respiration at high temperatures (i.e., during entrance) and/or have effects other than reducing respiration at low temperatures. The decrease in respiration from 37 degrees C to 15 degrees C resulted predominantly from a considerable reduction of substrate oxidation capacity in both torpid and normothermic animals. Temperature-dependent changes in proton leak and phosphorylation kinetics depended on metabolic state; proton leakiness increased in torpid animals but decreased in normothermic animals, whereas phosphorylation activity decreased in torpid animals but increased in normothermic animals. Overall, we have shown that both active and passive changes to oxidative phosphorylation occur during daily torpor in this species, contributing to reduced metabolic rate.

  18. Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 are biomarkers for fatigue, which distinguish between physiological fatigue and pathological fatigue.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ryo; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Go; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kazuya; Oka, Naomi; Takahashi, Mayumi; Yamadera, Wataru; Iwashita, Masayuki; Tokuno, Shinichi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Mukai, Yasuo; Mitani, Keiji; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue reduces productivity and is a risk factor for lifestyle diseases and mental disorders. Everyone experiences physiological fatigue and recovers with rest. Pathological fatigue, however, greatly reduces quality of life and requires therapeutic interventions. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between the two but there has been no biomarker for this. We report on the measurement of salivary human herpesvirus (HHV-) 6 and HHV-7 as biomarkers for quantifying physiological fatigue. They increased with military training and work and rapidly decreased with rest. Our results suggested that macrophage activation and differentiation were necessary for virus reactivation. However, HHV-6 and HHV-7 did not increase in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), which are thought to cause pathological fatigue. Thus, HHV-6 and HHV-7 would be useful biomarkers for distinguishing between physiological and pathological fatigue. Our findings suggest a fundamentally new approach to evaluating fatigue and preventing fatigue-related diseases. PMID:27396623

  19. Fatigue and Comorbidities in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fiest, Kirsten M.; Fisk, John D.; Patten, Scott B.; Tremlett, Helen; Wolfson, Christina; Warren, Sharon; McKay, Kyla A.; Berrigan, Lindsay I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fatigue is commonly reported by people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Comorbidity is also common in MS, but its association with the presence of fatigue or fatigue changes over time is poorly understood. Methods: Nine hundred forty-nine people with definite MS were recruited from four Canadian centers. The Fatigue Impact Scale for Daily Use and a validated comorbidity questionnaire were completed at three visits over 2 years. Participants were classified into groups with no fatigue versus any fatigue. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between fatigue and each comorbidity at baseline, year 1, year 2, and overall. Results: The incidence of fatigue during the study was 38.8%. The prevalence of fatigue was greater in those who were older (P = .0004), had a longer time since symptom onset (P = .005), and had greater disability (P < .0001). After adjustment, depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03–3.27), irritable bowel syndrome (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18–2.48), migraine (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.27–2.27), and anxiety (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.15–2.16) were independently associated with fatigue that persisted during the study. There was also an individual-level effect of depression on worsening fatigue (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08–2.07). Conclusions: Comorbidity is associated with fatigue in MS. Depression is associated with fatigue and with increased risk of worsening fatigue over 2 years. However, other comorbid conditions commonly associated with MS are also associated with persistent fatigue, even after accounting for depression. Further investigation is required to understand the mechanisms by which comorbidities influence fatigue. PMID:27134583

  20. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  1. Real-time estimation of daily physical activity intensity by a triaxial accelerometer and a gravity-removal classification algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Oshima, Yoshitake; Hikihara, Yuki; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Tabata, Izumi; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-06-01

    We have recently developed a simple algorithm for the classification of household and locomotive activities using the ratio of unfiltered to filtered synthetic acceleration (gravity-removal physical activity classification algorithm, GRPACA) measured by a triaxial accelerometer. The purpose of the present study was to develop a new model for the immediate estimation of daily physical activity intensities using a triaxial accelerometer. A total of sixty-six subjects were randomly assigned into validation (n 44) and cross-validation (n 22) groups. All subjects performed fourteen activities while wearing a triaxial accelerometer in a controlled laboratory setting. During each activity, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry, and physical activity intensities were expressed as metabolic equivalents (MET). The validation group displayed strong relationships between measured MET and filtered synthetic accelerations for household (r 0·907, P < 0·001) and locomotive (r 0·961, P < 0·001) activities. In the cross-validation group, two GRPACA-based linear regression models provided highly accurate MET estimation for household and locomotive activities. Results were similar when equations were developed by non-linear regression or sex-specific linear or non-linear regressions. Sedentary activities were also accurately estimated by the specific linear regression classified from other activity counts. Therefore, the use of a triaxial accelerometer in combination with a GRPACA permits more accurate and immediate estimation of daily physical activity intensities, compared with previously reported cut-off classification models. This method may be useful for field investigations as well as for self-monitoring by general users.

  2. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p < 0.05). The RPE and acute pain ratings were similar, but DOMS was higher in the nonoccluded leg (p < 0.05). We conclude that blood flow restriction during low-intensity dynamic knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  3. Neural activity to positive expressions predicts daily experience of schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms in adults with high social anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Christine I; Benson, Taylor L; Gyurak, Anett; Yin, Hong; Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope

    2014-02-01

    Social anhedonia (SA), the diminished pleasure from social relationships, is a prominent characteristic of the vulnerability and manifestation of schizophrenia disorder. However, SA can develop for multiple reasons and little is known about its neural basis; these 2 issues hinder the utility and sensitivity of SA as a marker of schizophrenia pathology. This study investigated whether lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) deficits in social reward processing are associated with both SA and other schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms. During functional MRI (fMRI), a community sample of healthy adults (N = 30) with high and low SA viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions. Afterward, participants completed an online daily diary in which they rated schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and occurrence of interpersonal conflict each day for 21 days. Compared with low SA, high SA participants had less ventral (V)LPFC activity to positive versus neutral expressions. In addition, participants with a combination of high SA and low VLPFC activity to positive versus neutral expressions had worse daily diary ratings of schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, including worse cognition, paranoia, motivation/productivity, and vigor/positive affect (i.e., psychomotor activation). Finally, among high SA participants, VLPFC activity predicted the daily relationship between distress from interpersonal conflict and symptom-severity; specifically, high SA participants with low VLPFC activity had worse paranoia on days of high conflict distress. These findings indicate that VLPFC deficits in positive emotion are associated with both SA and other schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and that understanding the interaction of SA, VLPFC function, and social stress could facilitate the use of SA in the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia.

  4. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  5. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  6. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  7. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  8. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  9. Experiments on functional fatigue of thermally activated shape memory alloy springs and correlations with driving force intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Ashwin; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2013-04-01

    The issue of material performance over its designed life is of prime concern with designers lately due to increasing use of shape memory alloy (SMA) components in different engineering applications. In this work, a concept of "Driving force amplitude v/s no of cycles" is proposed to analyze functional degradation of SMA components under torsion. The model is formulated using experimentally measurable quantities such as torque and angle of twist with the inclusion of both mechanical and thermal loading in the same framework. Such an approach can potentially substitute the traditional fatigue theories like S-N, epsilon-N theories which primarily use mechanical loading effects with temperature being an external control parameter. Such traditional S-N, epsilon-N fatigue theories work well for capturing superelastic effects at a given temperature but not for shape memory effects or temperature dependent superelastic effects which involves mechanical and thermal coupling. Experiments on SMA extension springs are performed using a custom designed thermomechanical test rig capable of mimicking shape memory effect on thermally activated SMA springs held under constant deformation. For every thermomechanical cycle, load and temperature sensor readings are continually recorded as a function of time using LabVIEW software. The sensor data over the specimen lifetime is used to construct a "Driving force amplitude v/s no of cycles" relationship that can be used as a guideline for analyzing functional degradation of SMA components.

  10. Associations between fatigue attributions and fatigue, health, and psychosocial work characteristics: a study among employees visiting a physician with fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Andrea, H; Kant, I.; Beurskens, A; Metsemakers, J; van Schayck, C P

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study associations between characteristics of employees active at work and making a fatigue related visit to the general practitioner (GP) or occupational physician (OP) in terms of fatigue, physical health problems, mental health problems, psychosocial work characteristics, and attributions of their fatigue complaints. Methods: Self report questionnaires from the Maastricht Cohort Study Fatigue at Work were used to measure fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength, Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey), physical health problems (chronic illness), mental health problems (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), psychosocial work characteristics (Job Content Questionnaire), and fatigue attributions (somatic, psychological, none) in employees who made a fatigue related visit to the GP or OP over a six month period. Results: In employees visiting only the GP, fatigue was an important reason to visit in one of seven (13.9%) employees. These fatigue related visits were in particular associated with high fatigue levels and mental health problems. A psychological fatigue attribution was reported by 41.8%, a somatic fatigue attribution by 44.0%. On a multivariate level, mental health problems showed the strongest association with psychological fatigue attributions, over and beyond fatigue itself. No associations were found between fatigue attributions and psychosocial work characteristics. Attributional patterns appeared to be different between visitors of the GP and the OP. Conclusions: Fatigue is a common reason among employees to consult a GP. Asking employees for their own fatigue attributions in terms of somatic or psychological causes may be useful for the GP—and possibly also the OP—to gather information about underlying health problems in employees active at work and making a fatigue related visit. PMID:12782755

  11. The Mars-500 crew in daily life activities: An ethological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole

    2013-10-01

    A Mars mission is a new challenge for scientific investigators in the space field. What would be the behavioral profile of an interplanetary crew with long-duration social isolation and spatial restriction? The current study addresses this question with the first ethological data from the Mars-500 experiment. It took place in Moscow, Russia from June 3, 2010 to November 4, 2011. It was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of an isolated and confined crew over 250 days for reaching Mars, 30 days for Mars orbiting with Mars landing and 240 days for returning to Earth. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. The Mars-500 facilities comprised four hermetically sealed, interconnected modules and a Martian surface module. We applied the ethological method based on observation, description and quantification of the individual and inter-individual behaviors in terms of personal actions, visual interactions, object interactions, body interactions, facial expressions and collateral acts. These events were scored on the Observer XT® software, from video recordings made every two weeks at breakfast time inside the habitat module. We found the following results: a diminishing collective time from the first phase corresponding to the 250-day trip to Mars to the second phase corresponding to the 240-day return to Earth; 35-day cycles then 70-day cycles of high duration of personal actions within these phases; periodic oscillations of duration of inter-personal actions; decreasing then increasing occurrences of facial expressions with temporal points of decrements, around day 159 and day 355, after 6 months and one year of simulation; increasing occurrences of collateral acts over the full 520-day journey. We discuss the findings with regard to a Mars mission scenario. Time has a major impact on the behavioral profile, as shown by indicators of physical and psychological states of fatigue, stress, well being and good

  12. Inflammation-induced activation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathway: Relevance to cancer-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Miller, Brian J; Stefanek, Michael E; Miller, Andrew H

    2015-07-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common complication of cancer and its treatment that can significantly impair quality of life. Although the specific mechanisms remain poorly understood, inflammation is now considered to be a distinct component of CRF in addition to effects of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and other factors. One key biological pathway that may link inflammation and CRF is indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Induced by inflammatory stimuli, IDO catabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine (KYN), which is subsequently converted into neuroactive metabolites. Here we summarize current knowledge concerning the relevance of the IDO pathway to CRF, including activation of the IDO pathway in cancer patients and, as a consequence, accumulation of neurotoxic KYN metabolites and depletion of serotonin in the brain. Because IDO inhibitors are already being evaluated as therapeutic agents in cancer, the elucidation of the relationship between IDO activation and CRF in cancer patients may lead to novel diagnostic and clinical approaches to managing CRF and its debilitating consequences.

  13. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles.

  14. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  15. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  16. Creep-Fatigue Interaction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue fives in metals are nominally time independent below 0.5 T(sub Melt). At higher temperatures, fatigue lives are altered due to time-dependent, thermally activated creep. Conversely, creep rates are altered by super. imposed fatigue loading. Creep and fatigue generally interact synergistically to reduce material lifetime. Their interaction, therefore, is of importance to structural durability of high-temperature structures such as nuclear reactors, reusable rocket engines, gas turbine engines, terrestrial steam turbines, pressure vessel and piping components, casting dies, molds for plastics, and pollution control devices. Safety and lifecycle costs force designers to quantify these interactions. Analytical and experimental approaches to creep-fatigue began in the era following World War II. In this article experimental and life prediction approaches are reviewed for assessing creep-fatigue interactions of metallic materials. Mechanistic models are also discussed briefly.

  17. Fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Grace E; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease often characterized by fatigue, with significant effects on physical functioning and wellbeing. The definition, prevalence and factors associated with fatigue, including physical activity, obesity, sleep, depression, anxiety, mood, cognitive dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, pain, effects of medications and comorbidities, as well as potential therapeutic options of fatigue in the systemic lupus erythematosus population are reviewed. Due to variability in the reliability and validity of various fatigue measures used in clinical studies, clinical trial data have been challenging to interpret. Further investigation into the relationships between these risk factors and fatigue, and improved measures of fatigue, may lead to an improvement in the management of this chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:22737181

  18. The Influence of Daily Structured Physical Activity on Academic Progress of Elementary Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Brett; Dimon, Chelsea; Stone, Danielle; Desmond, Deborah; Casilio, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests regular physical activity can positively influence academic performance. Although, little has been published on physical activity's impact on academic performance of students with intellectual disabilities, research shows the impact on brain and cognitive function of movement and physical activity. In this study, seven…

  19. Strain- and sex-specific differences in daily flight activity and the circadian clock of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rund, Samuel S C; Lee, Samuel J; Bush, Brian R; Duffield, Giles E

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles gambiae, the primary African malaria vector, is currently speciating into two incipient species, the so-called "molecular forms" M and S. While some geographic areas may contain only one form, in many areas both forms are found coexisting, but reproductively isolated. It appears that spatial segregation of mating swarms may contribute significantly to reproductive isolation as in many locales single-form swarms exist almost exclusively even though they are in close geographic proximity. The mechanism causing this spatial segregation is not well understood. Here, we compare the locomotor flight activity of M and S form male and female An. gambiae mosquitoes with the goal of identifying potential strain-specific temporal differences that could potentially serve as a mating barrier. We use an infrared beam break method to monitor flight activity of individual mosquitoes with a minute-to-minute time resolution under both LD cycle and constant dark conditions. We compare daily total flight activity, activity onset, peak in early nocturnal activity, the build up of dusk-related activity, and the free-running circadian period length. Our investigations revealed strain- and sex-specific differences in total daily activity. In both forms, males commenced nightly flight activity earlier than females, and this corresponded with a significantly shorter circadian period length in males compared to females. We note strain-specific differences in this response to dusk as males of the M form have a pronounced build up in flight activity relative to the S form males prior to complete darkness. This is likely driven by a differential response to the decreasing light intensity at dusk. We hypothesize that this behavioral difference could be a temporal factor contributing to the assembly of single-form swarms. PMID:23068991

  20. The relationship between communication activities of daily living and quality of life among the elderly suffering from stroke

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Disabilities after stroke are known to have adverse effects on the quality of life. This study investigated the relationship between Communication Activities of Daily Living (C-ADL) and quality life of elderly stroke patients to provide basic data for use in enhancing the quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred sixty five elderly over the age of 60, who were diagnosed as having stroke and receiving treatment in rehabilitation departments of general hospitals were surveyed. Stroke patients’ basic communication ability to survive in daily living was measured using the C-ADL Second Edition, and stroke patients’ quality of life was measured with the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL). The relationship between C-ADL and SSQOL was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. [Results] C-ADL had a significant positive relationship with SSQOL. [Conclusion] This result implies that it is necessary to enhance stroke patients’ communication ability in daily living in order to raise their quality of life. PMID:27313349

  1. Biomechanical fatigue analysis of an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy plate for bone fracture repair using conventional fatigue tests and thermography.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-07-01

    The current study is part of an ongoing research program to develop an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite with a “sandwich structure” as a substitute for metallic materials for orthopedic long bone fracture plate applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue properties of this composite, since cyclic loading is one of the main types of loads carried by a femur fracture plate during normal daily activities. Conventional fatigue testing, thermographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the damage progress that occurred during fatigue loading. Fatigue strength obtained using thermography analysis (51% of ultimate tensile strength) was confirmed using the conventional fatigue test (50–55% of ultimate tensile strength). The dynamic modulus (E⁎) was found to stay almost constant at 47 GPa versus the number of cycles, which can be related to the contribution of both flax/epoxy and CF/epoxy laminae to the stiffness of the composite. SEM images showed solid bonding at the CF/epoxy and flax/epoxy laminae, with a crack density of only 0.48% for the plate loaded for 2 million cycles. The current composite plate showed much higher fatigue strength than the main loads experienced by a typical patient during cyclic activities; thus, it may be a potential candidate for bone fracture plate applications. Moreover, the fatigue strength from thermographic analysis was the same as that obtained by the conventional fatigue tests, thus demonstrating its potential use as an alternate tool to rapidly evaluate fatigue strength of composite biomaterials.

  2. Biomechanical fatigue analysis of an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy plate for bone fracture repair using conventional fatigue tests and thermography.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-07-01

    The current study is part of an ongoing research program to develop an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite with a "sandwich structure" as a substitute for metallic materials for orthopedic long bone fracture plate applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue properties of this composite, since cyclic loading is one of the main types of loads carried by a femur fracture plate during normal daily activities. Conventional fatigue testing, thermographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the damage progress that occurred during fatigue loading. Fatigue strength obtained using thermography analysis (51% of ultimate tensile strength) was confirmed using the conventional fatigue test (50-55% of ultimate tensile strength). The dynamic modulus (E(⁎)) was found to stay almost constant at 47GPa versus the number of cycles, which can be related to the contribution of both flax/epoxy and CF/epoxy laminae to the stiffness of the composite. SEM images showed solid bonding at the CF/epoxy and flax/epoxy laminae, with a crack density of only 0.48% for the plate loaded for 2 million cycles. The current composite plate showed much higher fatigue strength than the main loads experienced by a typical patient during cyclic activities; thus, it may be a potential candidate for bone fracture plate applications. Moreover, the fatigue strength from thermographic analysis was the same as that obtained by the conventional fatigue tests, thus demonstrating its potential use as an alternate tool to rapidly evaluate fatigue strength of composite biomaterials.

  3. Biomechanical fatigue analysis of an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy plate for bone fracture repair using conventional fatigue tests and thermography.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-07-01

    The current study is part of an ongoing research program to develop an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite with a “sandwich structure” as a substitute for metallic materials for orthopedic long bone fracture plate applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue properties of this composite, since cyclic loading is one of the main types of loads carried by a femur fracture plate during normal daily activities. Conventional fatigue testing, thermographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the damage progress that occurred during fatigue loading. Fatigue strength obtained using thermography analysis (51% of ultimate tensile strength) was confirmed using the conventional fatigue test (50–55% of ultimate tensile strength). The dynamic modulus (E⁎) was found to stay almost constant at 47 GPa versus the number of cycles, which can be related to the contribution of both flax/epoxy and CF/epoxy laminae to the stiffness of the composite. SEM images showed solid bonding at the CF/epoxy and flax/epoxy laminae, with a crack density of only 0.48% for the plate loaded for 2 million cycles. The current composite plate showed much higher fatigue strength than the main loads experienced by a typical patient during cyclic activities; thus, it may be a potential candidate for bone fracture plate applications. Moreover, the fatigue strength from thermographic analysis was the same as that obtained by the conventional fatigue tests, thus demonstrating its potential use as an alternate tool to rapidly evaluate fatigue strength of composite biomaterials. PMID:24918250

  4. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alexander R.; Ojiambo, Robert; Konstabel, Kenn; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Reilly, John J.; Speakman, John R.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years) and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2) adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity () was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml. kg−1. min−1 and 61.5±6.3 ml. kg−1. min−1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time), 244±56 min (30%), 75±18 min (9%) and 82±30 min (10%). Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8–13.4 km). Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ. day−1, 5.4±3.0 MJ. day−1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in was explained by sex (partial R2 = 54.7%) and body mass index (partial R2 = 15.9%). Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success. PMID:23805234

  5. Daily physical activity and physical fitness from adolescence to adulthood: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat M.; Delvaux, Katrien; Thomis, Martine; Vanreusel, Bart; Eynde, Bavo Vanden; Claessens, Albrecht L.; Lysens, Roeland; Renson, Roland; Beunen, Gaston

    2000-07-01

    The stability of physical fitness and physical activity in Flemish males from 18 to 40 years of age was investigated. In addition, effects of a consistently low-activity or high-activity level during the same age period on physical fitness were studied. The sample consisted of males who were followed longitudinally from age 13 to age 18 years, and were remeasured at the ages of 30, 35, and 40 years. Complete data about physical fitness and physical activity between 13 and 40 years were available for 130 subjects. Stability was measured using Pearson autocorrelations and simplex models. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measurements was used to look for the effects of activity level on physical fitness. Simplex models showed higher stability coefficients than Pearson correlations, and stability of physical fitness was higher than stability of physical activity. Physical fitness showed the highest stability in flexibility (r = 0.91 between 18 and 30 years, r = 0.96 for both the 30-35 and 35-40 ages intervals), while physical activity showed the highest stability during work (r between 0.70 and 0.98 for the 5-year intervals). Results from MANOVA indicated that for some fitness characteristics the high-active subjects were more fit than their low-active peers. Stability of physical activity was higher than assumed and, therefore, it is a useful and independent indicator for further research. Although possible confounding factors are present (e.g., heredity), a higher level of physical activity during work and leisure time on a regular basis benefits physical fitness considerably. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:487-497, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534040

  6. A study of activities of daily living and employment in adults with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Yu, Shu-Ning; Yu, Ya-Tsu

    2012-06-01

    Research on daily living activities and employment levels of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Taiwan is limited. The aims of the study were to investigate outcomes related to functional independence and employment among people with ASD in Taiwan. We investigated the daily living activities and the employment status of 81 adults (age range, 18-48 years; mean age, 22.8 years) with ASD in southern Taiwan. Most (85.2%) participants with ASD were men, and all lived with their caregivers or guardians. Primary caregivers or guardians completed a self-administered, written questionnaire. More than three-quarters (80.2%) of the participants with ASD could independently take care of themselves. Instrumental activities of daily living they most frequently engaged in included walking outside for more than 15 min (88.9%), light housework (85.2%), and local shopping (80.2%). Only 11 (13.6%) of the participants with ASD were employed [five (6.2%) worked more than 20 h/week] and four (4.9%) were attending school. Types of occupation consisted of serving food and beverages, baking, and cleaning. Most (81.5%) of the participants with ASD were unemployed, stayed at home, and were cared for by family members. The results of this study provide information to support the design of adequate interventions to meet the needs of adults with ASD, particularly those in Taiwan. It is important to develop adequate interventions to facilitate the functional independence of this population. Future research using larger study populations with a comparison group is needed.

  7. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  8. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  9. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E; Goldenfeld, M; Shimshoni, M; Siegel, R

    1993-02-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stromy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population. PMID:8468099

  10. Temporal Links in Daily Activity Patterns between Coral Reef Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have documented the activity patterns of both predators and their common prey over 24 h diel cycles. This study documents the temporal periodicity of two common resident predators of juvenile reef fishes, Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) and Pseudochromis fuscus (dottyback) and compares these to the activity and foraging pattern of a common prey species, juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish). Detailed observations of activity in the field and using 24 h infrared video in the laboratory revealed that the two predators had very different activity patterns. C. cyanostigma was active over the whole 24 h period, with a peak in feeding strikes at dusk and increased activity at both dawn and dusk, while P. fuscus was not active at night and had its highest strike rates at midday. The activity and foraging pattern of P. moluccensis directly opposes that of C. cyanostigma with individuals reducing strike rate and intraspecific aggression at both dawn and dusk, and reducing distance from shelter and boldness at dusk only. Juveniles examined were just outside the size-selection window of P. fuscus. We suggest that the relatively predictable diel behaviour of coral reef predators results from physiological factors such as visual sensory abilities, circadian rhythmicity, variation in hunting profitability, and predation risk at different times of the day. Our study suggests that the diel periodicity of P. moluccensis behaviour may represent a response to increased predation risk at times when both the ability to efficiently capture food and visually detect predators is reduced. PMID:25354096

  11. Determinants of Developmental Gain in Daily Activities in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, Anne J A; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Verschuren, Olaf; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Jongmans, Marian J; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2014-09-18

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine which child and family characteristics at the child's age of 2 years are determinants of development of self-care and mobility activities over a period of 2 years in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Longitudinal data of 92 children, representing all levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were analyzed. Children's self-care and mobility activities were assessed with the Functional Skills Scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Development of self-care and mobility activities was related to several child determinants but no family determinants. GMFCS, type of CP, intellectual capacity, and epilepsy were related to the development of self-care and mobility activities, while manual ability and spasticity were related to development of mobility activities. Multivariate analysis indicated that GMFCS and intellectual capacity were the strongest determinants of development of self-care activities, and GMFCS was the strongest determinant of development of mobility activities. The change in self-care and mobility activities was less favorable in severely affected children with severe disability. Knowledge of GMFCS level and intellectual capacity is important in anticipating change over time and goal setting in young children with CP.

  12. Computational Study of Axial Fatigue for Peripheral Nitinol Stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meoli, Alessio; Dordoni, Elena; Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele; Pennati, Giancarlo

    2014-07-01

    Despite their success as primary treatment for vascular diseases, Nitinol peripheral stents are still affected by complications related to fatigue failure. Hip and knee movements during daily activities produce large and cyclic deformations of the superficial femoral artery, that concomitant to the effects of pulsatile blood pressure, may cause fatigue failure in the stent. Fatigue failure typically occurs in cases of very extended lesions, which often require the use of two or more overlapping stents. In this study, finite element models were used to study the fatigue behavior of Nitinol stents when subjected to cyclic axial compression in different conditions. A specific commercial Nitinol stent was chosen for the analysis and subjected to cyclic axial compression typical of the femoral vascular region. Three different configurations were investigated: stent alone, stent deployed in a tube, and two overlapping stents deployed in a tube. Results confirm that stent oversizing has an influence in determining both the mean and amplitude strains induced in the stent and plays an important role in determining the fatigue response of Nitinol stents. In case of overlapping stents, numerical results suggest higher amplitude strains concentrate in the region close to the overlapping portion where the abrupt change in stiffness causes higher cyclic compression. These findings help to explain the high incidence of stent fractures observed in various clinical trials located close to the overlapping portion.

  13. Shoulder Electromyography Measurements During Activities of Daily Living and Routine Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    Gurney, A Burke; Mermier, Christine; LaPlante, Michael; Majumdar, Aditi; O'Neill, Kathleen; Shewman, Todd; Gurney, James G

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background The activity of the rotator cuff muscles has not previously been measured with indwelling electromyography (EMG) comparing ambulation and other movements. Knowledge of the relative contribution of these muscles during various tasks may help to guide rehabilitation progression. Objective To measure activity of the rotator cuff muscles and other shoulder muscles during normal ambulation, shirt and sling donning and doffing, and rehabilitation tasks commonly performed after rotator cuff surgery. Methods In 28 volunteers (15 men, 13 women; mean age, 32.2 years), indwelling EMG activity was measured in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles during various tasks; and surface EMG activity was measured in the middle deltoid, biceps, and upper trapezius muscles. Results Using median EMG activity, in general, donning and doffing a shirt or sling recruited the rotator cuff muscles more than the other 7 tasks tested. Self-ranging motion using pulleys, especially in the scapular plane, was also consistently associated with greater recruitment of the shoulder muscles. Pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel recruited the shoulder muscles to a lesser extent. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rehabilitation tasks such as pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel show low EMG activity, whereas pulleys in the sagittal plane and scapular plane show greater activity. Scapular plane activity was consistently higher than sagittal plane activity. Of all the tasks assessed, ambulation without a sling and donning and doffing a sling and a shirt consistently showed the highest activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):375-383. Epub 6 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6090. PMID:27049599

  14. Daily acute intermittent hypoxia elicits functional recovery of diaphragm and inspiratory intercostal muscle activity after acute cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Opazo, A.; Vinit, S; Dougherty, B.J.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    A major cause of mortality after spinal cord injury is respiratory failure. In normal rats, acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces respiratory motor plasticity, expressed as diaphragm (Dia) and second external intercostal (T2 EIC) long-term facilitation (LTF). Dia (not T2 EIC) LTF is enhanced by systemic adenosine 2A (A2a) receptor inhibition in normal rats. We investigated the respective contributions of Dia and T2 EIC to daily AIH-induced functional recovery of breathing capacity with/without A2a receptor antagonist (KW6002, i.p.) following C2 hemisection (C2HS). Rats received daily AIH (dAIH: 10, 5-min episodes, 10.5% O2; 5-min normoxic intervals; 7 successive days beginning 7 days post-C2HS) or daily normoxia (dNx) with/without KW6002, followed by weekly (reminder) presentations for 8 weeks. Ventilation and EMGs from bilateral diaphragm and T2 EIC muscles were measured with room air breathing (21% O2) and maximum chemoreceptor stimulation (MCS: 7% CO2, 10.5% O2). dAIH increased tidal volume (Vt) in C2HS rats breathing room air (dAIH + vehicle: 0.47 ± 0.02, dNx + vehicle: 0.40 ± 0.01ml/100 g; p<0.05) and MCS (dAIH + vehicle: 0.83 ± 0.01, dNx + vehicle: 0.73 ± 0.01ml/100g; p<0.001); KW6002 had no significant effect. dAIH enhanced contralateral (uninjured) diaphragm EMG activity, an effect attenuated by KW6002, during room air breathing and MCS (p<0.05). Although dAIH enhanced contralateral T2 EIC EMG activity during room air breathing, KW6002 had no effect. dAIH had no statistically significant effects on diaphragm or T2 EIC EMG activity ipsilateral to injury. Thus, two weeks post-C2HS: 1) dAIH enhances breathing capacity by effects on contralateral diaphragm and T2 EIC activity; and 2) dAIH-induced recovery is A2a dependent in diaphragm, but not T2 EIC. Daily AIH may be a useful in promoting functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury, but A2a receptor antagonists (eg. caffeine) may undermine its effectiveness shortly after

  15. The mouse liver displays daily rhythms in the metabolism of phospholipids and in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gorné, Lucas D; Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A; Pasquaré, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma M; Guido, Mario Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system involves central and peripheral oscillators regulating temporally biochemical processes including lipid metabolism; their disruption leads to severe metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, etc). Here, we investigated the temporal regulation of glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis in mouse liver, a well-known peripheral oscillator. Mice were synchronized to a 12:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle and then released to constant darkness with food ad libitum. Livers collected at different times exhibited a daily rhythmicity in some individual GPL content with highest levels during the subjective day. The activity of GPL-synthesizing/remodeling enzymes: phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1/lipin) and lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) also displayed significant variations, with higher levels during the subjective day and at dusk. We evaluated the temporal regulation of expression and activity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesizing enzymes. PC is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway with Choline Kinase (ChoK) as a key regulatory enzyme or through the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway. The PC/PE content ratio exhibited a daily variation with lowest levels at night, while ChoKα and PEMT mRNA expression displayed maximal levels at nocturnal phases. Our results demonstrate that mouse liver GPL metabolism oscillates rhythmically with a precise temporal control in the expression and/or activity of specific enzymes.

  16. Measurement of daily physical activity using the SenseWear Armband: Compliance, comfort, adverse side effects and usability.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Renae J; Tsai, Ling Ling Y; Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the acceptability of wearing physical activity-monitoring devices. This study aimed to examine the compliance, comfort, incidence of adverse side effects, and usability when wearing the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for daily physical activity assessment. In a prospective study, 314 participants (252 people with COPD, 36 people with a dust-related respiratory disease and 26 healthy age-matched people) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire following a 7-day period of wearing the SWA. Compliance, comfort levels during the day and night, adverse side effects and ease of using the device were recorded. Non-compliance with wearing the SWA over 7 days was 8%. The main reasons for removing the device were adverse side effects and discomfort. The SWA comfort level during the day was rated by 11% of participants as uncomfortable/very uncomfortable, with higher levels of discomfort reported during the night (16%). Nearly half of the participants (46%) experienced at least one adverse skin irritation side effect from wearing the SWA including itchiness, skin irritation and rashes, and/or bruising. Compliance with wearing the SWA for measurement of daily physical activity was found to be good, despite reports of discomfort and a high incidence of adverse side effects. PMID:26879695

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of migraine in medical students and its impact on their daily activities

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Kinnera, Neeharika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significant impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of migraine headaches in medical students, to measure its impact on their life, and to assess their knowledge about the ailment. Information about lifestyle variables was also collected. Materials and Methods: All medical students who confirmed of having headache for more than 1 year formed the study group. Students filled a detailed questionnaire focusing on demographics, pain characteristics, accompanying factors, triggers, and family history of migraine. Lifestyle variables were enquired and migraine associated disability was assessed by MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment). The diagnosis of migraine was made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Results are expressed in n = numbers and percentage. Results: Sixty-eight percent of medical students had headache. The prevalence of migraine in the whole cohort was 28%; however, of the headache group, migraine constituted 42%. There was a female preponderance. One-fourth of the students had weekly or daily attacks with 31% students reporting increase in their headache intensity and frequency. Forty-four percent of students had severe headaches. Dizziness, allodynia, and neck stiffness were reported as accompanying symptoms. Trigger factors were identified in 99% students, predominant of which were poor sleep hygiene, environmental changes, head movements, and mental stress. Only 4% of students did regular exercise. Twenty-seven percent of students reported self-medication use of analgesics. One-fourth of the students had migraine-associated disability but only 6% realized that they had migraine. Conclusion: Our study found a high prevalence of headache with migraine in medical students. The students’ awareness of the disease was very low with one-fourth of the students resorting to self-medication. Our study identified

  18. Daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G; Jones, Geoffrey E; Glander, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. Here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. Four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center (Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta, Propithecus coquereli, Varecia rubra, and Varecia variegata variegata) were fitted with a Daysimeter-D pendant that contained light and accelerometer sensors. Our results reveal common as well as species-specific light exposure and behavior patterns. As expected, all five species were more active between sunrise and sunset. All five species demonstrated an anticipatory increase in their pre-sunrise activity that peaked at sunrise with all but V. rubra showing a reduction within an hour. All five species reduced activity during mid-day. Four of the five stayed active after sunset, but P. coquereli began reducing their activity about 2 hours before sunset. Other subtle differences in the recorded light exposure and activity patterns suggest species-specific photic niches and behaviors. The eventual application of the Daysimeter-D in the wild may help to better understand the adaptive evolution of ancestral primates.

  19. Current activities in standardization of high-temperature, low-cycle-fatigue testing techniques in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Ellis, J. Rodney; Swindeman, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E606-80 is the most often used recommended testing practice for low-cycle-fatigue (LCF) testing in the United States. The standard was first adopted in 1977 for LCF testing at room temperature and was modified in 1980 to include high-temperature testing practices. Current activity within ASTM is aimed at extending the E606-80 recommended practices to LCF under thermomechanical conditions, LCF in high-pressure hydrogen, and LCF in metal-matrix composite materials. Interlaboratory testing programs conducted to generate a technical base for modifying E606-80 for the aforementioned LCF test types are discussed.

  20. Abnormalities of AMPK Activation and Glucose Uptake in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells from Individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Audrey E.; Jones, David E.; Walker, Mark; Newton, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects. Methods Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise. Results In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured. Conclusion EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25836975

  1. Association between peripheral muscle strength, exercise performance, and physical activity in daily life in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance training of peripheral muscles has been recommended in order to increase muscle strength in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, whether peripheral muscle strength is associated with exercise performance (EP) and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in these patients needs to be investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether strength of the quadriceps muscle (QS) is associated with EP and daily PADL in patients with COPD. Methods We studied patients with COPD (GOLD A-D) and measured maximal isometric strength of the left QS. PADL was measured for 7 days with a SenseWear-Pro® accelerometer. EP was quantified by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), the number of stands in the Sit-to-Stand Test (STST), and the handgrip-strength. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine possible associations between QS, PADL and EP. Results In 27 patients with COPD with a mean (SD) FEV1 of 37.6 (17.6)% predicted, QS was associated with 6MWD, STST, and handgrip-strength but not with PADL. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that QS was independently associated with the 6MWD (β = 0.42, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.84, p = 0.019), STST (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.86, p = 0.014) and with handgrip-strength (β = 0.45, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84, p = 0.038). Conclusions Peripheral muscle strength may be associated with exercise performance but not with physical activity in daily life. This may be due to the fact that EP tests evaluate patients’ true abilities while PADL accelerometers may not. PMID:25013723

  2. The Effect of Type-2-Diabetes-Related Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction on Skin Physiology and Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott

    2011-01-01

    A common factor contributing to organ damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is impaired tissue blood flow caused by damage to vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Damage can occur even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes. It can be caused by both a high average blood glucose concentration and/or large daily spikes in blood glucose. While much of the present literature focuses on the damage to VECs and organs from these large glucose excursions, this review will focus on the consequence of this damage, that is, how endothelial cell damage in diabetes affects normal daily activities (e.g., exercise, reaction to typical stimuli) and various treatment modalities (e.g.. contrast baths and electrical stimulation therapy). It is important to understand the effects of VEC damage such as poor skin blood flow, compromised thermoregulation, and altered response to skin pressure in designing diabetes technologies as simple as heating pads and as complex as continuous glucose monitors. At the simplest level, people with diabetes have poor circulation to the skin and other organs. In the skin, even the blood flow response to locally applied pressure, such as during standing, is different than for people who do not have T2DM. Simple weight bearing on the foot can occlude the skin circulation. This makes the skin more susceptible to damage. In addition, endothelial damage has far-reaching effects on the whole body during normal activities of daily living, including an impaired response to local heat, such as hot packs and contrast baths, and higher body temperatures during whole body heating due to impaired blood flow and a reduced ability to sweat. Finally, because of multiple organ damage, people with T2DM have poor balance and gait and impaired exercise performance. PMID:21722580

  3. Validity of physical activity monitors during daily life in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Roberto A; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Raste, Yogini; Langer, Daniel; Van Remoortel, Hans; Giavedoni, Santiago; Burtin, Chris; Regueiro, Eloisa M G; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Polkey, Michael I; Wilson, Frederick J; Macnee, William; Westerterp, Klaas R; Troosters, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    Symptoms during physical activity and physical inactivity are hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to evaluate the validity and usability of six activity monitors in patients with COPD against the doubly labelled water (DLW) indirect calorimetry method. 80 COPD patients (mean ± sd age 68 ± 6 years and forced expiratory volume in 1 s 57 ± 19% predicted) recruited in four centres each wore simultaneously three or four out of six commercially available monitors validated in chronic conditions for 14 consecutive days. A priori validity criteria were defined. These included the ability to explain total energy expenditure (TEE) variance through multiple regression analysis, using TEE as the dependent variable with total body water (TBW) plus several physical activity monitor outputs as independent variables; and correlation with activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured by DLW. The Actigraph GT3X (Actigraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA), and DynaPort MoveMonitor (McRoberts BV, The Hague, the Netherlands) best explained the majority of the TEE variance not explained by TBW (53% and 70%, respectively) and showed the most significant correlations with AEE (r=0.71, p<0.001 and r=0.70, p<0.0001, respectively). The results of this study should guide users in choosing valid activity monitors for research or for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases such as COPD.

  4. A survey of daily asthmatic activity patterns in Cincinnati. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A survey was undertaken in Cincinnati to obtain information on the activity patterns of asthmatics. Because studies have demonstrated symptomatic responses to elevated levels of SO{sub 2} only during outdoor exercise, information on the behavioral patterns of asthmatics is vital for the accurate estimation of risk due to air pollution exposures. In particular, data detailing the actual likelihood of asthmatics being engaged in strenuous outdoor activity at any given time of day is essential for an accurate appraisal of response probability. This, in turn, is necessary for an accurate estimate of risk. In the absence of such activity data, those concerned with the setting of short-term SO{sub 2} regulations are required to use purely subjective judgment to estimate how many asthmatics are engaged in strenuous outdoor exercise when SO{sub 2} levels are high enough to affect them. The activity pattern data give an indication of how much such an assumption would overestimate the true response and thus the true risk associated with SO{sub 2}. Lack of information on the activity patterns of asthmatics has thus been a critical gap in the SO{sub 2} risk assessment process. The primary purpose of this survey was to fill that gap.

  5. A phenomenological model for predicting fatigue life in bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, P; Moore, T L A; Gibson, L J

    2004-06-01

    Cyclic loading of bone during daily activities can lead to fatigue degradation and increased risk of fracture in both the young and elderly population. Damage processes under cyclic loading in trabecular bone result in the reduction of the elastic modulus and accumulation of residual strain. These effects increase with increasing stress levels, leading to a progressive reduction in fatigue life. The present work analyzes the effect of stress and strain variation on the above damage processes in bovine trabecular bone, and develops a phenomenological model relating fatigue life to the imposed stress level. The elastic modulus reduction of the bone specimens was observed to depend on the maximum compressive strain, while the rate of residual strain accumulation was a function of the stress level. A model was developed for the upper and lower bounds of bone elastic modulus reduction with increasing number of cycles, at each stress range. The experimental observations were described well by the model. The model predicted the bounds of the fatigue life with change in fatigue stress. The decrease in the fatigue life with increasing stress was related to corresponding increases in the residual strain accumulation rates at the elevated stress levels. The model shows the validity of fatigue predictions from relatively few cyclic experiments, by combining trends observed in the monotonic and the cyclic tests. The model also presents a relatively simple procedure for predicting the endurance limit for bovine trabecular bone specimens.

  6. Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care: executive summary of a Cochrane Collaboration systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mochamat; Cuhls, Henning; Peuckmann‐Post, Vera; Minton, Ollie; Stone, Patrick; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In palliative care patients, fatigue can be severely debilitating and is often not counteracted with rest, thereby impacting daily activity and quality of life. Further complicating issues are the multidimensionality, subjective nature and lack of a consensus definition of fatigue. The review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for fatigue in palliative care, with a focus on patients at an advanced stage of disease, including patients with cancer and other chronic diseases. Methods We considered randomized controlled trials concerning adult palliative care with a focus on pharmacological treatment of fatigue compared with placebo, application of two drugs, usual care or a non‐pharmacological intervention. The primary outcome had to be non‐specific fatigue (or related terms such as asthenia). We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and a selection of cancer journals up to 28 April 2014. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Results We screened 1645 publications of which 45 met the inclusion criteria. In total, we analysed data from 18 drugs and 4696 participants. There was a very high degree of statistical and clinical heterogeneity in the trials. Meta‐analysis of data was possible for modafinil, pemoline, and methylphenidate. Conclusions Due to the limited evidence, we cannot recommend a specific drug for the treatment of fatigue in palliative care patients. Some drugs, which may be beneficial for the treatment of fatigue associated with palliative care such as amantadine, methylphenidate, and modafinil, should be further researched. PMID:27066315

  7. Classification of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Types of Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Boulton, Aaron; Porter, Nicole S.; Jessen, Tricia; Njoku, Mary Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Persons with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) often complain of fatigue states (e.g. post-exertional malaise, brain fog) that are qualitatively different than normal, daily fatigue. Given the heterogeneous nature of ME/CFS, it is likely that individuals with this illness experience these fatigue types differently in terms of severity and frequency. It is also possible that meaningful subgroups of patients exist regarding different patterns of the fatigue experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether individuals with ME/CFS can be classified in a meaningful way according to the different types of fatigue they experience. One hundred individuals with ME/CFS participated in the study. Individuals that met inclusion criteria were administered the Multiple Fatigue Types Questionnaire (MFTQ), a five-factor instrument that distinguishes between different types of fatigue. A cluster analysis was used to classify patients into various clusters based upon factor subscale scores. Using a three-factor solution, individuals were classified according to illness severity (low, moderate, severe) across the different fatigue factors. However, a 5-cluster solution enabled participants with moderate to severe fatigue levels to fall out into more differentiated clusters and demonstrate distinct fatigue state patterns. These results suggest that fatigue patterns of individuals with ME/CFS are heterogeneous and patients may be classified into meaningful subgroups. PMID:20185398

  8. Reliance on others for food-related activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather H

    2005-01-01

    Reliance on others for help with food-related activities (grocery shopping and meal preparation) [FADL] can influence food intake and can be considered part of the concept of food security for older adults. Data collected from 193 community-living seniors identified that 29.5% of these seniors required help with these activities. Covariates independently associated with FADL were: muscle strength/size, gender, avoidance of activities due to a fear of falling and occurrence of functionally limiting diagnoses. Mediation analysis identified variables that explain the "how and why" of the association between FADL and food intake. Mediators included informal supports, frequency of informal support, perceived health status, and number of medications. By specifically analyzing covariates and mediators of reliance for FADL, there is further understanding of the relationship between this reliance and food intake in older adults. PMID:16891262

  9. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging adults with an ASD and that reported by their caring adult; (2) examining the barriers to participation reported. Preliminary results demonstrate that the AYA-ACS appears to be a reliable and valid method of identifying emerging adults' participation strengths as well as personal and environmental challenges in a variety of age-appropriate activities. The AYA-ACS could assist service providers by providing an understanding of the challenges to participation faced by this population and aid in developing client centered interventions.

  10. Necessity to Develop a Tool to Evaluate Activity of Daily Living for Electric Powered Indoor/Outdoor Chair Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwon; Lim, Jae Kuk; Lee, Min Jun; Jo, Yoon-Sik; Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Jong Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in activity of daily living before and after provision of electric-powered indoor/outdoor chair (EPIOC), discuss problems of current activities of daily living (ADL) evaluating tools for EPIOC users, and provide preliminary data to develop ADL evaluation tool for EPIOC user. Methods A total of 70 users who were prescribed EPIOC and had been using for more than 1 year were recruited in this study. Before and after provision of EPIOC, MBI and FIM scores were measured and a questionnaire consisting of six categories (general socioeconomic states, currently using state, whether EPIOC was helpful for social participation and occupational chances, psychiatric influences, self-reported degrees of independency, and barriers of using EPIOC) was used. Results No difference in MBI scores before and after provision of EPIOC was observed. However, the wheelchair ambulation category showed a significant difference. While motor FIM was not significantly different from MBI, FIM score were significantly (p<0.05) higher than MBI. For questions regarding social participation frequency, helpfulness of EPIOC on confidence, refreshing patients' emotions and self-reported degrees of independence, all of them showed positive responses. Especially, EPIOC users' self-reported degree of independency showed favorable results. There was discrepancy in MBI or FIM measured by physicians. Conclusion Our study showed that there was a gap between the existing ADL evaluation tool and the ADL level that EPIOC users were actually feeling. Thus, it is necessary to develop an evaluation tool specifically for EPIOC. PMID:25932425

  11. The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on Cognition, Depression, and Activities of Daily Living for Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Duru Aşiret, Güler; Kapucu, Sevgisun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was, conducted with experimental design, to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on cognition, depression, activities of daily living of institutionalized mild and moderate Alzheimer patients. The study was conducted with a total of 62 patients (31 intervention group and 31 control group) in four home care in Ankara, Turkey. Study was done between the July 1, 2013 and December 20, 2014. Reminiscence therapy sessions were held with groups consists of 4-5 patients, once a week with 30-35 minute duration for 12 weeks. Standardized Mini Mental Test was used in sample selection. Patients were listed through their mini mental test scores, and randomized as odd numbers to control group and even numbers to intervention group. Data were collected with forms developed by researcher 'Data Sheet' and 'Activities of Daily Living Follow-up Form' as well as scales 'Standardized Mini Mental Test' and 'Geriatric Depression Scale'. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U test, variance analyses in repeated measures and Bonferroni tests were used for analysis. The increase in mean Standardized Mini Mental Test score and the decrease in mean Geriatric Depression Scale score of the individuals in the intervention group compared to the control group at the end of the reminiscence therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.05). At the end of reminiscence therapy sessions, increase in cognition and decrease in depression were found statistically significant in intervention group.

  12. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction. PMID:26071443

  13. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction.

  14. Promoting Early Literacy Skills within Daily Activities and Routines in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Lynette K.; Young, Robin Miller; Nylander, Donna; Shields, LuAnn; Ash, JoAnne; Bauman, Becky; Butts, Jill; Black, Kristine; Geraghty, Peggy; Hafer, Megan; Lay, Angie; Mitera, Brandie; Richardson, Debra; Steffen, Kara; Summers, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and other service providers struggle with trying to address the many skills that are important for young children to acquire during the preschool years. Early Literacy Initiative project (Project ELI) is a comprehensive, two-tiered, early language and literacy intervention model that includes activities for all children as well as…

  15. A "Tools for Teachers" Approach for Infusing Social Skills Instruction into Daily Teaching Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffert, James S.; Brady, Mary E.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Students participate in a "social community" of learners. For children with learning problems, mastering the skills needed to actively participate in this community can be a challenge. How can teachers find time to provide social skills instruction, given the pressures to teach academic subjects first and foremost? This article shows school…

  16. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  17. PEDOMETER RELIABILITY, VALIDITY AND DAILY ACTIVITY TARGETS AMONG 10- TO 15-YEAR-OLD BOYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether the number of pedometer counts recorded by adolescents differs according to the adiposity of the participant or location on the body; (2) assess the accuracy and reliability of pedometers during field activity; and (3) set adolescent pedometer-ba...

  18. The role of anxiety sensitivity in daily physical activity and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Bridget A; Quatromoni, Paula A; Mascoop, Joshua L; Otto, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of somatic arousal, has been linked to both maladaptive eating behavior as well as exercise avoidance in both self-report and laboratory-based experiments. The current pilot study sought to extend these finding to the naturalistic setting. A sample of 32 adults completed affect and dietary monitoring and wore actigraphs across a three-day monitoring period. Results indicated that high AS was associated with greater calorie consumption overall in women and less consumption in men, and high AS predicted an increase in calories consumed following participants' greatest increase in negative affect in both sexes. For physical activity, results indicated an AS by BMI interaction such that obese individuals with high AS engaged in less moderate-intensity physical activity, whereas the opposite was true for normal weight individuals. These results indicate that AS may represent a double-edged risk factor for obesity contributing to both exercise avoidance and calorie consumption.

  19. Seasonality and daily flight activity of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phasuk, Jumnongjit; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal abundance and flight activity patterns are required to design effective management programs for insect pests of humans and livestock. In this study, the seasonality and daily flight activity of Stomoxys species were observed on two dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand. Data were assessed throughout 1 year using Vavoua traps from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 2,520 individuals belonging to four species were collected. Most Stomoxys species peaked in September (rainy season) and gradually decreased in number toward February (dry season); a second peak occurred between March and April (hot season). Stomoxys calcitrans was caught throughout the year and was the most abundant species in this study. The total number of males and females of S. calcitrans differed significantly among seasons and time intervals. The weather parameters of relative humidity and light intensity were significantly correlated with S. calcitrans abundance. PMID:23673316

  20. Daily affect and daily beliefs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Daniels, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Human resource directorate employees of a large United Kingdom public hospital (N=36) completed an initial questionnaire and then participated in a daily diary study. The questionnaire included measures of affect and beliefs about high work demands' influence on affect and work performance. The diary included measures of affect, extent of high work demands, and daily beliefs, corresponding to those measured in the questionnaire. Participants were required to complete the diary twice daily, before and after work over a 2-week period. Measures of affect after work were associated with beliefs concerning work demands' influence on work performance and on affect measured after work. Beliefs about work demands measured in the questionnaire were associated with subsequent daily assessments of beliefs.

  1. Daily walking activity among male office workers in a rural town in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Takahiro; Barajima, Tomoko; Kanachi, Michihiko; Shimaoka, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the level of walking activity among residents of the Tohoku district in northern Japan, where no widespread public transport system has been developed, winter is severe. The participants were 50 town hall employees with an average age of 43.6+/-10.8 (SD) years. The walking activity of each participant was assessed using a pedometer for one week in summer and one week in winter. The participants' lifestyles, including their commuting methods, were assessed using a questionnaire. Forty-six participants (92%) usually commute to work by private car. The average numbers of steps/day on workdays and holidays were, in summer, 6,560+/-2,600 and 7,016+/-4,679, respectively, and, in winter, 5,236+/-2,253 and 4,770+/-3,039; these numbers were somewhat lower than those recorded in previous reports. We observed a significant reduction in walking during winter (F=19.016, p=0.0001), but no significant differences between workdays and holidays (F=0.001, p=0.966). A significant correlation between BMI and steps/day (r=-0.420, p<0.01) was obtained on workdays in winter. The unexpectedly low level of these participants' physical activity, especially in winter, is probably due to the fact that most of them commute by private car, which is likely a cause of the high incidence of obesity in this district. In addition, a seasonal effect should also be considered when physical activity is assessed, especially in cold climates. PMID:20453433

  2. Differential Neural Processing during Motor Imagery of Daily Activities in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vrana, Andrea; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina; Stämpfli, Philipp; Hänggi, Jürgen; Seifritz, Erich; Humphreys, B. Kim; Meier, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (chronic LBP) is both debilitating for patients but also a major burden on the health care system. Previous studies reported various maladaptive structural and functional changes among chronic LBP patients on spine- and supraspinal levels including behavioral alterations. However, evidence for cortical reorganization in the sensorimotor system of chronic LBP patients is scarce. Motor Imagery (MI) is suitable for investigating the cortical sensorimotor network as it serves as a proxy for motor execution. Our aim was to investigate differential MI-driven cortical processing in chronic LBP compared to healthy controls (HC) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-nine subjects (15 chronic LBP patients, 14 HC) were included in the current study. MI stimuli consisted of randomly presented video clips showing every-day activities involving different whole-body movements as well as walking on even ground and walking downstairs and upstairs. Guided by the video clips, subjects had to perform MI of these activities, subsequently rating the vividness of their MI performance. Brain activity analysis revealed that chronic LBP patients exhibited significantly reduced activity compared to HC subjects in MI-related brain regions, namely the left supplementary motor area and right superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, psycho-physiological-interaction analysis yielded significantly enhanced functional connectivity (FC) between various MI-associated brain regions in chronic LBP patients indicating diffuse and non-specific changes in FC. Current results demonstrate initial findings about differences in MI-driven cortical processing in chronic LBP pointing towards reorganization processes in the sensorimotor network. PMID:26569602

  3. Differential Neural Processing during Motor Imagery of Daily Activities in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Andrea; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina; Stämpfli, Philipp; Hänggi, Jürgen; Seifritz, Erich; Humphreys, B Kim; Meier, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (chronic LBP) is both debilitating for patients but also a major burden on the health care system. Previous studies reported various maladaptive structural and functional changes among chronic LBP patients on spine- and supraspinal levels including behavioral alterations. However, evidence for cortical reorganization in the sensorimotor system of chronic LBP patients is scarce. Motor Imagery (MI) is suitable for investigating the cortical sensorimotor network as it serves as a proxy for motor execution. Our aim was to investigate differential MI-driven cortical processing in chronic LBP compared to healthy controls (HC) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-nine subjects (15 chronic LBP patients, 14 HC) were included in the current study. MI stimuli consisted of randomly presented video clips showing every-day activities involving different whole-body movements as well as walking on even ground and walking downstairs and upstairs. Guided by the video clips, subjects had to perform MI of these activities, subsequently rating the vividness of their MI performance. Brain activity analysis revealed that chronic LBP patients exhibited significantly reduced activity compared to HC subjects in MI-related brain regions, namely the left supplementary motor area and right superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, psycho-physiological-interaction analysis yielded significantly enhanced functional connectivity (FC) between various MI-associated brain regions in chronic LBP patients indicating diffuse and non-specific changes in FC. Current results demonstrate initial findings about differences in MI-driven cortical processing in chronic LBP pointing towards reorganization processes in the sensorimotor network. PMID:26569602

  4. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    PubMed

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common app