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Sample records for fatter the asymmetric effects

  1. Why even active people get fatter--the asymmetric effects ofincreasing and decreasing exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Public health policies for preventing obesityneed guidelines for active individuals who are at risk due to exerciserecidivism. Methods: Changes in adiposity were compared to the runningdistances at baseline and follow-up in men and women whose reportedexercise increased (N=4,632 and 1,953, respectively) or decreased (17,280and 5,970, respectively) during 7.7 years of follow-up. Results: PerDelta km/wk, decreases in running distance caused over four-fold greaterweight gain between 0-8 km/wk (slope+-SE, males: -0.068+ -0.005 kg/m2,females: -0.080+-0.01 kg/m2) than between 32-48 km/wk (-0.017+-0.002 and-0.010+-0.005 kg/m2, respectively). In contrast, increases in runningdistance produced the smallest weight losses between 0-8 km/wk andstatistically significant weight loss only above 16 km/wk in males and 32km/wk in females. Above 32 km/wk (30 kcal/kg) in men and 16 km/wk (15kcal/kg) in women, weight loss from increasing exercise was equal to orgreater than weight gained with decreasing exercise, otherwise weightgain exceeded weight loss. Substantial weight gain occurred in runnerswho quit running, which would be mostly retained with resumed activity.Conclusion: Public health recommendations should warn against the risksof irreversible weight gain with exercise cessation. Weight gained due toreductions in exercise below 30 kcal/kg in men and 15 kcal/kg in womenmay not be reversed by resuming prior activity. Current IOM guidelines(i.e., maintain total energy expenditure at 160 percent of basal) agreewith the men s exercise threshold for symmetric weight change withchanging exercise levels.

  2. A fringe projector-based study of the Brighter-Fatter Effect in LSST CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbertson, W.; Nomerotski, A.; Takacs, P.

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope for Dark Energy science requires a detailed understanding of CCD sensor effects. One such sensor effect is the Point Spread Function (PSF) increasing with flux, alternatively called the `Brighter-Fatter Effect.' In this work a novel approach was tested to perform the PSF measurements in the context of the Brighter-Fatter Effect employing a Michelson interferometer to project a sinusoidal fringe pattern onto the CCD. The Brighter-Fatter effect predicts that the fringe pattern should become asymmetric in the intensity pattern as the brighter peaks corresponding to a larger flux are smeared by a larger PSF. By fitting the data with a model that allows for a changing PSF, the strength of the Brighter-Fatter effect can be evaluated.

  3. The Brighter-Fatter and other sensor effects in CCD simulations for precision astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, C. W.

    2015-05-01

    Upcoming and current large astronomical survey experiments often seek to constrain cosmological parameters via measurements of subtle effects such as weak lensing, which can only be measured statistically. In these cases, instrumental effects in the image plane CCDs need to be accounted and/or corrected for in measurement algorithms. Otherwise, the systematic errors induced in the measurements might overwhelm the size of the desired effects. Lateral electric fields in the bulk of the CCDs caused by field shaping potentials or space charge build up as the electrons in the image are acquired can cause lateral deflections of the electrons drifting in the CCD bulk. Here, I report on the LSST effort to model these effects on a photon-by-photon basis by the use of a Monte Carlo technique. The eventual goal of this work is to produce a CCD model validated by laboratory data which can then be used to evaluate its effects on weak lensing science.

  4. Is fatter fitter? Body storage and reproduction in ten populations of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus minus.

    PubMed

    Glazier, D S

    2000-02-01

    offspring size may be a maternally mediated effect of increased resource availability, though other explanations are possible. Overall, this study suggests that "fatter" female amphipods are fitter than "thinner" ones, though both the costs and benefits of increased body storage and brood size require investigation to substantiate this claim. This study also suggests that effects of individual variation in resource acquisition on life-history patterns deserve more theoretical and empirical attention by ecologists than they have received. It should be recognized that positive and/or nonsignificant correlations between life-history traits are just as interesting and important as are the negative correlations predicted by many theoretical models.

  5. Applying the Helmholtz illusion to fashion: horizontal stripes won't make you look fatter.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Peter; Mikellidou, Kyriaki

    2011-01-01

    A square composed of horizontal lines appears taller and narrower than an identical square made up of vertical lines. Reporting this illusion, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that such illusions, in which filled space seems to be larger than unfilled space, were common in everyday life, adding the observation that ladies' frocks with horizontal stripes make the figure look taller. As this assertion runs counter to modern popular belief, we have investigated whether vertical or horizontal stripes on clothing should make the wearer appear taller or fatter. We find that a rectangle of vertical stripes needs to be extended by 7.1% vertically to match the height of a square of horizontal stripes and that a rectangle of horizontal stripes must be made 4.5% wider than a square of vertical stripes to match its perceived width. This illusion holds when the horizontal or vertical lines are on the dress of a line drawing of a woman. We have examined the claim that these effects apply only for 2-dimensional figures in an experiment with 3-D cylinders and find no support for the notion that horizontal lines would be 'fattening' on clothes. Significantly, the illusion persists when the horizontal or vertical lines are on pictures of a real half-body mannequin viewed stereoscopically. All the evidence supports Helmholtz's original assertion.

  6. Applying the Helmholtz illusion to fashion: horizontal stripes won't make you look fatter

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Peter; Mikellidou, Kyriaki

    2011-01-01

    A square composed of horizontal lines appears taller and narrower than an identical square made up of vertical lines. Reporting this illusion, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that such illusions, in which filled space seems to be larger than unfilled space, were common in everyday life, adding the observation that ladies' frocks with horizontal stripes make the figure look taller. As this assertion runs counter to modern popular belief, we have investigated whether vertical or horizontal stripes on clothing should make the wearer appear taller or fatter. We find that a rectangle of vertical stripes needs to be extended by 7.1% vertically to match the height of a square of horizontal stripes and that a rectangle of horizontal stripes must be made 4.5% wider than a square of vertical stripes to match its perceived width. This illusion holds when the horizontal or vertical lines are on the dress of a line drawing of a woman. We have examined the claim that these effects apply only for 2-dimensional figures in an experiment with 3-D cylinders and find no support for the notion that horizontal lines would be ‘fattening’ on clothes. Significantly, the illusion persists when the horizontal or vertical lines are on pictures of a real half-body mannequin viewed stereoscopically. All the evidence supports Helmholtz's original assertion. PMID:23145226

  7. The Marriage of Rigorous Academics and Technical Instruction with State-of-the-Art Technology: A Success Story of the William T. McFatter Technical High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasik, Katherine; Williams, Richard G.; Johnson, Jeanette; Boegli, D. Robert

    2004-01-01

    The search for high school reform leads to William T. McFatter Technical High School in Broward County Public Schools, Florida. The purpose of this article is to highlight key information about the school and to demonstrate the success of its rigorous academic and technical instruction with state-of-the-art technology. By sharing this…

  8. The future liver of the Asia pacific: fatter and firmer from more fructose and fortune?

    PubMed

    Mahady, Suzanne E; George, Jacob

    2013-06-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region.

  9. The Future Liver of the Asia Pacific: Fatter and Firmer from More Fructose and Fortune?

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Suzanne E.; George, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region. PMID:25755484

  10. How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and proteinstats awaiting discovery.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y

    2015-02-01

    Whether dieting makes people fatter has been a subject of considerable controversy over the past 30 years. More recent analysis of several prospective studies suggest, however, that it is dieting to lose weight in people who are in the healthy normal range of body weight, rather than in those who are overweight or obese, that most strongly and consistently predict future weight gain. This paper analyses the ongoing arguments in the debate about whether repeated dieting to lose weight in normal-weight people represents unsuccessful attempts to counter genetic and familial predispositions to obesity, a psychosocial reaction to the fear of fatness or that dieting per se confers risks for fatness and hence a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic. In addressing the biological plausibility that dieting predisposes the lean (rather than the overweight or obese) to regaining more body fat than what had been lost (i.e. fat overshooting), it integrates the results derived from the re-analysis of body composition data on fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM) losses and recoveries from human studies of experimental energy restriction and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from the depletion of both fat mass (i.e. adipostats) and FFM (i.e. proteinstats) contribute to weight regain through the modulation of energy intake and adaptive thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to FFM recovery (i.e. preferential catch-up fat) is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation in lean individuals. Such a temporal desynchronization in the restoration of the body's fat vs. FFM results in a state of hyperphagia that persists beyond complete recovery of fat mass and interestingly until FFM is fully recovered. However, as this completion of FFM recovery is also accompanied by fat deposition, excess fat accumulates. In other words, fat overshooting is a prerequisite to allow complete recovery of FFM. This confers biological plausibility for post

  11. Richer but fatter: the unintended consequences of microcredit financing on household health and expenditure in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Fox, Kristin; Kirton, Claremont; Fraser, Raphael; McLeod, Georgia; Forrester, Terrence

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there was a difference in wealth and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between microcredit loan beneficiaries and community-matched non-beneficiaries (controls). Seven hundred and twenty-six households of microcredit loan beneficiaries were matched with 726 controls by age, sex and community. A standardised interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on health and household expenditure. Weights, heights, waist circumference and blood pressure measurements were taken for an adult and one child (6-16 years) from each household. Amongst adults, there was no difference in the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension. More male (68.1% vs. 47.8%) and female beneficiaries (84.5% vs. 77.9%) were overweight/obese. More male (17.2% vs. 7.1%; P < 0.05) and female beneficiaries (68.5% vs. 63.3%; P < 0.05) exhibited substantially increased risk for CVD. Children of beneficiaries displayed higher mean BMI-for-age z-scores than their control peers: males 0.56 [95% CI 0.40-0.72] vs. 0.18 [95% CI 0.02-0.35] (P < 0.001) and females 0.66 [95% CI 0.52-0.80] vs. 0.42 [95% CI 0.29-0.56] (P < 0.001). Based on BMI-for-age z-scores, children of beneficiaries had greater odds of being overweight/obese (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.18-1.82) Beneficiaries were economically better off; their mean total annual expenditure and house ownership were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.001). Microcredit financing is positively associated with wealth acquisition but worsened cardiovascular risk status. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effect of asymmetric attack on trim angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ballistic range tests were conducted to determine the effect of an asymmetrically ablated heat shield on the trim angle of attack of an entry vehicle. The tests, which were in support of Project Galileo, were conducted in atmospheric air at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 2.0. For the results for the configuration that was tested, the deduced trim angle varied between 13 deg and 21 deg.

  13. Ratchet effect driven by Coulomb friction: the asymmetric Rayleigh piston.

    PubMed

    Sarracino, A; Gnoli, A; Puglisi, A

    2013-04-01

    The effect of Coulomb friction is studied in the framework of collisional ratchets. It turns out that the average drift of these devices can be expressed as the combination of a term related to the lack of equipartition between the probe and the surrounding bath, and a term featuring the average frictional force. We illustrate this general result in the asymmetric Rayleigh piston, showing how Coulomb friction can induce a ratchet effect in a Brownian particle in contact with an equilibrium bath. An explicit analytical expression for the average velocity of the piston is obtained in the rare collision limit. Numerical simulations support the analytical findings.

  14. On the Reverse Asymmetric Gas Transport Effect in the Polymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatov, I. M.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Skuridin, I. E.

    In this paper, change of gas permeability value, depending on orientation of polymer gas membrane, in a wide pressure range was investigated. Consistent patterns of asymmetric gas transfer through the PVTMS-membrane were established experimentally. Reverse asymmetric transport effect was observed, wherein the permeability from the direction of porous support prevails at the permeability from the direction of selective non-porous layer.

  15. The effects of stretching exercise for upper trapezius on the asymmetric rate of bite force.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bomjin; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Heo, Kwangjin; Hwang, Hojin; Kim, Boyoung; Han, Dongwook

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of stretching the upper trapezius muscle on the asymmetric rate of bite force. [Subjects] Forty-seven female university students who had all their original teeth, had no disorders in the temporomandibular joints, and had never worn braces; participated in this study. [Methods] An occlusometer was used to measure biting forces. Subsequently, stretching exercises of the upper trapezius were performed. The subjects were divided into 3 groups at the start of the testing: the asymmetric rate of the first group was less than 10%; the asymmetric rate of the second group was between 10% and 20%; and the asymmetric rate of the third group was more than 20%. The stretching exercises were done on the dominant side of the upper trapezius. [Results] After the stretching exercises of the upper trapezius, the results showed that for the first group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was less than 10%, there was a significant increase in asymmetric rate (from 5.1% to 10.3%). For the second group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was measured to be between 10% and 20%, the asymmetric rate decreased from 14.7% to 14.3%, but the change was not statistically significant. For the third group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was more than 20%, there was a significant decrease in asymmetric rate (from 27.8% to 12.6%). [Conclusion] We concluded that stretching exercises of the upper trapezius muscle had a direct effect on the asymmetric rate of biting force.

  16. The Optical Janus Effect: Asymmetric Structural Color Reflection Materials.

    PubMed

    England, Grant T; Russell, Calvin; Shirman, Elijah; Kay, Theresa; Vogel, Nicolas; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Structurally colored materials are often used for their resistance to photobleaching and their complex viewing-direction-dependent optical properties. Frequently, absorption has been added to these types of materials in order to improve the color saturation by mitigating the effects of nonspecific scattering that is present in most samples due to imperfect manufacturing procedures. The combination of absorbing elements and structural coloration often yields emergent optical properties. Here, a new hybrid architecture is introduced that leads to an interesting, highly directional optical effect. By localizing absorption in a thin layer within a transparent, structurally colored multilayer material, an optical Janus effect is created, wherein the observed reflected color is different on one side of the sample than on the other. A systematic characterization of the optical properties of these structures as a function of their geometry and composition is performed. The experimental studies are coupled with a theoretical analysis that enables a precise, rational design of various optical Janus structures with highly controlled color, pattern, and fabrication approaches. These asymmetrically colored materials will open applications in art, architecture, semitransparent solar cells, and security features in anticounterfeiting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effect of motor overflow on bimanual asymmetric force coordination.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, David A; Roelle, Sarah M; Allexandre, Didier; Potter-Baker, Kelsey A; Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Knutson, Jayme S; Yue, Guang H; Machado, Andre G; Plow, Ela B

    2017-04-01

    Motor overflow, typically described in the context of unimanual movements, refers to the natural tendency for a 'resting' limb to move during movement of the opposite limb and is thought to be influenced by inter-hemispheric interactions and intra-cortical networks within the 'resting' hemisphere. It is currently unknown, however, how motor overflow contributes to asymmetric force coordination task accuracy, referred to as bimanual interference, as there is need to generate unequal forces and corticospinal output for each limb. Here, we assessed motor overflow via motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the regulation of motor overflow via inter-hemispheric inhibition (IHI) and short-intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) using transcranial magnetic stimulation in the presence of unimanual and bimanual isometric force production. All outcomes were measured in the left first dorsal interosseous (test hand) muscle, which maintained 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), while the right hand (conditioning hand) was maintained at rest, 10, 30, or 70% of its MVC. We have found that as higher forces are generated with the conditioning hand, MEP amplitudes at the active test hand decreased and inter-hemispheric inhibition increased, suggesting reduced motor overflow in the presence of bimanual asymmetric forces. Furthermore, we found that subjects with less motor overflow (i.e., reduced MEP amplitudes in the test hemisphere) demonstrated poorer accuracy in maintaining 30% MVC across all conditions. These findings suggest that motor overflow may serve as an adaptive substrate to support bimanual asymmetric force coordination.

  18. Wiser, but Fatter, by Graduation

    MedlinePlus

    ... professor in the University of Vermont's nutrition and food sciences department. The students' average weight was 147 pounds ... The study was published online recently in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior . SOURCE: University of ...

  19. The effect of asymmetric payoff mechanism on evolutionary networked prisoner’s dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2009-12-01

    In social and biological systems, there are obvious individual divergence and asymmetric payoff phenomenon due to the strength, power and influence differences. In this paper, we introduce an asymmetric payoff mechanism to evolutionary Prisoner’s Dilemma Game (PDG) on scale-free networks. The co-effects of individual diversity and asymmetric payoff mechanism on the evolution of cooperation and the wealth distribution under different updating rules are investigated. Numerical results show that the cooperation is highly promoted when the hub nodes are favored in the payoff matrix, which seems to harm the interest of the majority. But the inequality of social wealth distribution grows with the unbalanced payoff rule. However, when the node difference is eliminated in the learning strategy, the asymmetric payoff rule will not affect the cooperation level. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the cooperative behavior and wealth inequality in the society.

  20. The effect of rare earth elements on the texture and formability of asymmetrically rolled magnesium sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, Dr. Martyn; Cavin, Odis Burl; Davis, Dr. Bruce; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Muth, Thomas R; Peter, William H; Randman, David; Watkins, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    The lack of formability is a serious issue when considering magnesium alloys for various applications. Standard symmetric rolling introduces a strong basal texture that decreases the formability; however, asymmetric rolling has been put forward as a possible route to produce sheet with weaker texture and greater ductility. It has also been shown in recent work that weaker textures can be produced through the addition of rare earth elements to magnesium alloys. Therefore, this study has been carried out to investigate the effect of rare earth additions on the texture changes during asymmetric rolling. Two alloys have been used, AZ31B and ZEK100. The effect that the rare earth additions have on the texture of asymmetrically rolled sheet and the subsequent changes in formability will be discussed.

  1. [Mutagenic effect of the rocket fuel component asymmetric dimethylhydrazine on rats of various ages].

    PubMed

    Kolumbaeva, S Zh; Shalakhmetova, T M; Begimbetova, D A; Bersimbaev, R I; Kalimagambetov, A M

    2007-06-01

    Mutagenic effect of asymmetric dimethylhydrazine (ADMH) on rats of different age groups upon acute and subacute treatment and protective effect of a Limonium gmelinii preparation. Genotoxic effect of ADMH depending on the dose and duration of treatment was established. The phytopreparation lacked mutagenicity and toxicity and had a protective effect in combination with the xenobiotic.

  2. The effects of asymmetric directional microphone fittings on acceptance of background noise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong S; Bryan, Melinda Freyaldenhoven

    2011-05-01

    The effects of asymmetric directional microphone fittings (i.e., an omnidirectional microphone on one ear and a directional microphone on the other) on speech understanding in noise and acceptance of background noise were investigated in 15 full-time hearing aid users. Subjects were fitted binaurally with four directional microphone conditions (i.e., binaural omnidirectional, right asymmetric directional, left asymmetric directional and binaural directional microphones) using Siemens Intuis Directional behind-the-ear hearing aids. Speech understanding in noise was assessed using the Hearing in Noise Test, and acceptance of background noise was assessed using the Acceptable Noise Level procedure. Speech was presented from 0° while noise was presented from 180° azimuth. The results revealed that speech understanding in noise improved when using asymmetric directional microphones compared to binaural omnidirectional microphone fittings and was not significantly hindered compared to binaural directional microphone fittings. The results also revealed that listeners accepted more background noise when fitted with asymmetric directional microphones as compared to binaural omnidirectional microphones. Lastly, the results revealed that the acceptance of noise was further increased for the binaural directional microphones when compared to the asymmetric directional microphones, maximizing listeners' willingness to accept background noise in the presence of noise. Clinical implications will be discussed.

  3. Asymmetric Acoustic Propagation of Wave Packets Via the Self-Demodulation Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaux, Thibaut; Tournat, Vincent; Richoux, Olivier; Pagneux, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This Letter presents the experimental characterization of nonreciprocal elastic wave transmission in a single-mode elastic waveguide. This asymmetric system is obtained by coupling a selection layer with a conversion layer: the selection component is provided by a phononic crystal, while the conversion is achieved by a nonlinear self-demodulation effect in a 3D unconsolidated granular medium. A quantitative experimental study of this acoustic rectifier indicates a high rectifying ratio, up to 1 06, with wide band (10 kHz) and an audible effect. Moreover, this system allows for wave-packet rectification and extends the future applications of asymmetric systems.

  4. Asymmetric Acoustic Propagation of Wave Packets Via the Self-Demodulation Effect.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Thibaut; Tournat, Vincent; Richoux, Olivier; Pagneux, Vincent

    2015-12-04

    This Letter presents the experimental characterization of nonreciprocal elastic wave transmission in a single-mode elastic waveguide. This asymmetric system is obtained by coupling a selection layer with a conversion layer: the selection component is provided by a phononic crystal, while the conversion is achieved by a nonlinear self-demodulation effect in a 3D unconsolidated granular medium. A quantitative experimental study of this acoustic rectifier indicates a high rectifying ratio, up to 10^{6}, with wide band (10 kHz) and an audible effect. Moreover, this system allows for wave-packet rectification and extends the future applications of asymmetric systems.

  5. The Effect of Asymmetric flow on the 3-Dimensional Symmetric Bogus Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, J.; Cheong, H.; Hwang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of asymmetric flow on the 3-dimensional symmetric bogus vortex called as Structure Adjustable Balanced Vortex (SABV) is investigated for 9 tropical cyclones (TCs) observed in Northwest Pacific. NCEP global reanalysis data were used as initial condition, and the high order spectral filter (HSF) were employed to separate asymmetric flow from disturbance flow as following: The first step is that the global field is decomposed into environment and disturbance field. And secondly, the disturbance field is transformed into cylindrical coordinates, and the Fourier transform is applied to the transformed data along the azimuth. Lastly, the inverse Fourier transform is carried out except for wavenumber (WN) 0 component, and it is added to SABV. To investigate the effect of asymmetric flow on the SABV, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) V3.2.1 was employed, which was set to have a single domain with 12 km resolution and YSU, WSM 6 and Kain-Fritsch schemes are used. With these methods, it was found that the track error at 48 h and 72 h was improved by about 13% and 16%, respectively, implying the asymmetric flow should be added to SABV for better performance.

  6. Effect of asymmetric bedforms on tidal flows in the Weser estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Christian; Herrling, Gerald; Lefebvre, Alice

    2017-04-01

    Compound bedforms of various shapes and sizes are ubiquitous in tidal channels, inlets and estuaries. Large primary bedforms are often asymmetric in the direction of the dominant tidal direction and have been shown to act as form roughness elements only during tidal stages when the flow is in the direction of the bedform shape. This study compiles data on the topography of compound dunes from the Weser estuary on the German Bight to discuss implications of a critical lee slope in tidal environments with reversing flow. Preliminary numerical model results reveal the effect of local asymmetric bedforms to estuarine tidal currents.

  7. The asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy using NARDL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, J. C.; Yang, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    The present work endeavors to explore the asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy by applying nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model for the period of January 2005 to June 2015. The obtained results indicate that the coal price has a strong asymmetric effect on China's macro economy in the long-run. Namely one percent increase in coal price leads to 0.6194 percent of the China's macro economy increase; and while the coal price is reduces by 1 percent, the China's macro economy will decrease by 0.008 percent. These data indicate that when coal price rises, the effect on China's macro economy is far greater than the price decline. In the short-run, coal price fluctuation has a positive effect on the China's macro economy.

  8. The Effect of Asymmetrical Signal Degradation on Binaural Speech Recognition in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Tharpe, Anne Marie; Grantham, D. Wesley

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effect of asymmetrical signal degradation on binaural speech recognition, 28 children and 14 adults were administered a sentence recognition task amidst multitalker babble. There were 3 listening conditions: (a) monaural, with mild degradation in 1 ear; (b) binaural, with mild degradation in both ears (symmetric degradation); and…

  9. Attention Modulation by Proportion Congruency: The Asymmetrical List Shifting Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F.

    2013-01-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention…

  10. The effect of transverse crack upon parametric instability of a rotor-bearing system with an asymmetric disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qinkai; Chu, Fulei

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that either the asymmetric disk or transverse crack brings parametric inertia (or stiffness) excitation to the rotor-bearing system. When both of them appear in a rotor system, the parametric instability behaviors have not gained sufficient attentions. Thus, the effect of transverse crack upon parametric instability of a rotor-bearing system with an asymmetric disk is studied. First, the finite element equations of motion are established for the asymmetric rotor system. Both the open and breathing transverse cracks are taken into account in the model. Then, the discrete state transition matrix (DSTM) method is introduced for numerically acquiring the instability regions. Based upon these, some computations for a practical asymmetric rotor system with open or breathing transverse crack are conducted, respectively. Variations of the primary and combination instability regions induced by the asymmetric disk with the crack depth are observed, and the effect of the orientation angle between the crack and asymmetric disk on various instability regions are discussed in detail. It is shown that for the asymmetric angle around 0, the existence of transverse (either open or breathing) crack has attenuation effect upon the instability regions. Under certain crack depth, the instability regions could be vanished by the transverse crack. When the asymmetric angle is around π/2, increasing the crack depth would enhance the instability regions.

  11. Hourglass effects for asymmetric colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We give the expressions for the geometrical reduction factor of the luminosity and the geometrical beam-beam aggravating factor'' for the general asymmetric case, for tri-gaussian bunches colliding head on. With these formulas we attempt a (limited) analytic understanding of the multiparticle tracking simulations carried out for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory when parasitic crossings are ignored. We conclude the following: (a) the geometrical reduction in luminosity is {approximately}6% relative to the zero-bunch-length (nominal) value; (b) only the vertical beam-beam parameter of the LER is significantly altered by the hourglass effect: the geometrical enhancement of the central positron's vertical beam-beam parameter is {approximately}10% relative to the nominal value, and (c) the positrons at the head or tail of the bunch have vertical beam-beam parameters much larger than nominal. We discuss the electromagnetic disruption effect only qualitatively. This effect probably compensates (or overcompensates) the geometrical reduction of the luminosity, and it is possibly detrimental for the beam-beam parameters. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Close to me: the effect of asymmetrical environments on spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Roden, Sally; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias; Spence, Charles J; Forte, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    Attention can be captured by distractors and can affect performance. To examine whether asymmetrical distractors, such as a wall, affect spatial attention, Experiment 1 required participants (n = 20) to determine the relative length of pre-bisected lines when a temporary barrier was placed close to the left or right sides of the display. Post-hoc tests showed that attention was drawn towards left, but not right, walls. Experiment 2 (n = 18) sought to increase this effect using a solid brick wall rather than a temporary barrier. Instead of strengthening the result, no effect of barrier was observed. A non-effect was also observed in Experiment 3 (n = 18) when participants moved a cursor to the line's middle. Finally, Experiment 4 (n = 26) showed that asymmetrical barriers had no effect on visual search. While the data showed some evidence that attention is distracted by walls placed to the left, this effect is weak and task-specific. The ability to monitor critical information on displays can be affected by asymmetrical distractors. In many workplaces, a display may be placed alongside a wall. This study explored whether a wall placed to the left/right affects spatial attention. A weak, task-specific, attraction effect was observed for walls on the left.

  13. Typhoon prediction with SABV method and the effect of asymmetric components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.-G.; Cheong, H.-B.; Park, J.-R.

    2012-04-01

    The track and intensity forecast experiments of typhoons in 2010 were performed using the structure adjustable balanced vortex (SABV) tropical cyclone (TC) initialization scheme, and the effects on the forecasts including the asymmetric components were also identified. For the purpose of forecast, the global forecast system (GFS) data provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was adopted as initial and boundary conditions. Since the SABV method contains only axisymmetric components, the asymmetric components should be included to make more realistic bogus vortex. The asymmetric components being existed in tropical cyclone scale were extracted from the short model integration that started from the 6 hours earlier than targeted time. In the procedure for obtaining the disturbance of asymmetric components from the total field of the model output, the high-order spectral filter for limited-area domain applied to the Mercator map projection is used to separate the scale components. The average track and intensity (in terms of central pressure) errors at 48 h forecast time for 10 typhoons were 176 km and 10.7 hPa, respectively, showing smaller forecast errors than those of Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) Tokyo that were 204 km and 14.8 hPa. Also, forecast experiments without TC initialization were conducted to evaluate the effect of initialization. The experiments with SABV method reduced track and intensity errors by 11% and 10%, respectively, compared with those without TC initialization. The forecast experiments with asymmetric components were carried out for the track error larger than the average of the experiments with the axisymmetric bogus vortex. The effects of the inclusion of asymmetric components showed positive effects for both track and intensity predictions and those errors were reduced by about 7.8 % and 7.9 %, respectively. These results suggest that the SABV TC initialization method with more realistic bogus

  14. Model of the optical Stark effect in semiconductor quantum wells: Evidence for asymmetric dressed exciton bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang-Tao; Su, Fu-Hai; Wang, Hai

    2009-09-01

    The influence of intense coherent ω and 2ω laser beams on the electric properties of quantum wells is investigated. In the optical quantum-interference process, an asymmetric dressed band structure can be achieved in k space. By adjusting the relative phase and the polarization direction of the ω and 2ω laser beams, the light-induced shift and group velocity variation in electrons and spins can be tuned. The transport effects of asymmetric dressed carriers are studied. We find that if the pseudospin Hall conductance (p-SHC) is dominated by the optically induced band mixing, the p-SHC is nearly invariable with the relative phase of the laser beams. But if the p-SHC is caused by the disorder scattering effect, it is sensitive to the relative phase of the laser beams.

  15. Isospin effects on fragmentation in the asymmetric reactions induced by neutron-rich targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Arun

    2016-05-06

    To understand the isospin effects in terms of fragment’s yield in the asymmetric reactions induced by neutron-rich targets, we perform a theoretical study using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. Simulations are carried out for reactions of {sup 16}O+Br{sup 80,84,92} and {sup 16}O+Ag{sup 108,113,122}. We envision that fragments’s yield in the asymmetric collisions induced by neutron-rich targets is better candidate to study isospin effects via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross-sections. Also, pronounced effects of symmetry energy and cross-sections can be found at lower and higher beam energies, respectively.

  16. Scaling Effect of Phosphorene Nanoribbon - Uncovering the Origin of Asymmetric Current Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yawei; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Qijun; Wang, Hao; He, Jin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) are theoretically studied using a multiscale simulation flow from the ab initio level to the tight binding (TB) level. The scaling effects of both armchair PNRs (aPNRs) and zigzag PNRs (zPNRs) from material properties to device properties are explored. The much larger effective mass of holes compared to that of electrons in zPNR is responsible for its asymmetric transport. However, in aPNR, not only the effective mass difference but also the non-equal density of state (DOS) distributions near valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) lead to the asymmetric transport. This non-equal distribution phenomenon is caused by energy band degeneracies near the VBM. Based on these two different mechanisms, PNRs’ asymmetric transport characteristics at the device level are explained, and it is shown that this behaviour can be ameliorated well by reducing the ribbon width in an aPNR MOSFET. Calculation results also indicate that aPNR’s effective mass is comparable to that of a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) at the same bandgap; however, aPNR’s band gap variation is more stable and regular than that of GNR, making it a good candidate for use in low-dimensional nano devices.

  17. Scaling Effect of Phosphorene Nanoribbon - Uncovering the Origin of Asymmetric Current Transport.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yawei; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Qijun; Wang, Hao; He, Jin

    2016-11-29

    In this paper, phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) are theoretically studied using a multiscale simulation flow from the ab initio level to the tight binding (TB) level. The scaling effects of both armchair PNRs (aPNRs) and zigzag PNRs (zPNRs) from material properties to device properties are explored. The much larger effective mass of holes compared to that of electrons in zPNR is responsible for its asymmetric transport. However, in aPNR, not only the effective mass difference but also the non-equal density of state (DOS) distributions near valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) lead to the asymmetric transport. This non-equal distribution phenomenon is caused by energy band degeneracies near the VBM. Based on these two different mechanisms, PNRs' asymmetric transport characteristics at the device level are explained, and it is shown that this behaviour can be ameliorated well by reducing the ribbon width in an aPNR MOSFET. Calculation results also indicate that aPNR's effective mass is comparable to that of a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) at the same bandgap; however, aPNR's band gap variation is more stable and regular than that of GNR, making it a good candidate for use in low-dimensional nano devices.

  18. Scaling Effect of Phosphorene Nanoribbon - Uncovering the Origin of Asymmetric Current Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yawei; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Qijun; Wang, Hao; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) are theoretically studied using a multiscale simulation flow from the ab initio level to the tight binding (TB) level. The scaling effects of both armchair PNRs (aPNRs) and zigzag PNRs (zPNRs) from material properties to device properties are explored. The much larger effective mass of holes compared to that of electrons in zPNR is responsible for its asymmetric transport. However, in aPNR, not only the effective mass difference but also the non-equal density of state (DOS) distributions near valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) lead to the asymmetric transport. This non-equal distribution phenomenon is caused by energy band degeneracies near the VBM. Based on these two different mechanisms, PNRs’ asymmetric transport characteristics at the device level are explained, and it is shown that this behaviour can be ameliorated well by reducing the ribbon width in an aPNR MOSFET. Calculation results also indicate that aPNR’s effective mass is comparable to that of a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) at the same bandgap; however, aPNR’s band gap variation is more stable and regular than that of GNR, making it a good candidate for use in low-dimensional nano devices. PMID:27897230

  19. Asymmetric Switch Costs as Sequential Difficulty Effects

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    When switching between tasks of unequal difficulty, there is often a larger switch cost for the easy task than for the difficult task. The authors propose a new account of these asymmetric switch costs based on sequential difficulty effects. They argue that the asymmetry arises from impaired performance after a difficult trial regardless of whether the task switches or repeats. Empirical support for this idea is provided in two experiments on arithmetic task switching in which asymmetries are observed for secondary difficulty manipulations, even in the context of arithmetic task repetitions. The authors discuss how their sequential difficulty account might explain asymmetric restart costs in addition to asymmetric switch costs and how sequential difficulty effects might be explained by resource depletion involving executive control or working memory. PMID:20401811

  20. THE EFFECT OF ASYMMETRIC BEAMS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wehus, I. K.; Ackerman, L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Groeneboom, N. E. E-mail: lotty@caltech.ed E-mail: leuat@irio.co.u

    2009-12-10

    We generate simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature field as observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite, taking into account the detailed shape of the asymmetric beams and scanning strategy of the experiment, and use these to re-estimate the WMAP beam transfer functions. This method avoids the need of artificially symmetrizing the beams, as done in the baseline WMAP approach, and instead measures the total convolution effect by direct simulation. We find only small differences with respect to the nominal transfer functions, typically less than 1% everywhere, and less than 0.5% at l < 400. The net effect on the CMB power spectrum is less than 0.6%. The effect on all considered cosmological parameters is negligible. For instance, we find that the spectral index of scalar perturbations after taking into account the beam asymmetries is n {sub s} = 0.964 +- 0.014, corresponding to a negative shift of -0.1sigma compared to the previously released WMAP results. Our CMB sky simulations are made publicly available and can be used for general studies of asymmetric beam effects in the WMAP data.

  1. The effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical hearing impairment on music quality perception.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yuebo; Liang, Maojin; Chen, Ling; Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of symmetrical, asymmetrical and unilateral hearing impairment on music quality perception. Six validated music pieces in the categories of classical music, folk music and pop music were used to assess music quality in terms of its 'pleasantness', 'naturalness', 'fullness', 'roughness' and 'sharpness'. 58 participants with sensorineural hearing loss [20 with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), 20 with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss (BSHL) and 18 with bilateral asymmetrical hearing loss (BAHL)] and 29 normal hearing (NH) subjects participated in the present study. Hearing impaired (HI) participants had greater difficulty in overall music quality perception than NH participants. Participants with BSHL rated music pleasantness and naturalness to be higher than participants with BAHL. Moreover, the hearing thresholds of the better ears from BSHL and BAHL participants as well as the hearing thresholds of the worse ears from BSHL participants were negatively correlated to the pleasantness and naturalness perception. HI participants rated the familiar music pieces higher than unfamiliar music pieces in the three music categories. Music quality perception in participants with hearing impairment appeared to be affected by symmetry of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss and music familiarity when they were assessed using the music quality rating test (MQRT). This indicates that binaural symmetrical hearing is important to achieve a high level of music quality perception in HI listeners. This emphasizes the importance of provision of bilateral hearing assistive devices for people with asymmetrical hearing impairment.

  2. Structural tailoring effects on the magnetic behavior of symmetric and asymmetric cubane-type Ni complexes.

    PubMed

    Ponomaryov, Alexey N; Kim, Namseok; Hwang, Jaewon; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; van Tol, Johan; Ozarowski, Andrew; Park, Jena; Jang, Zeehoon; Suh, Byoungjin; Yoon, Sungho; Choi, Kwang-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Using two kinds of carboxylate ligands with small but significant differences in steric size, symmetric and asymmetric Fe(II) and Ni(II) cubanes have been synthesized in a controlled fashion. Fast sweeping pulsed field measurements showed magnetization hysteresis loops for two cubane-type molecular complexes, [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(4F-Ph))4(HOMe)8] and [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(Tol))4(HOMe)6], thus suggesting single-molecule magnet behavior. To differentiate the magnetic properties between the symmetric and asymmetric cubanes, detailed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were performed. From the EPR data, taken at various frequencies and temperatures, zero-field splitting parameters D, E, and other higher-order parameters for both cubane samples were extracted. Compared to the symmetric Ni-cubane, the asymmetric one shows an increase in the D and E values by about 20%, thereby suggesting structural engineering effects on the magnetic properties. By using the magnetic parameters determined by EPR, a static magnetization curve at 2 K and a temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility were simulated. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental data confirms the validity of the values obtained from EPR measurements.

  3. Determining the effect of asymmetric data on the variogram. I. Underlying asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, R.; Oliver, M. A.

    2007-10-01

    Matheron's usual variogram estimator can result in unreliable variograms when data are strongly asymmetric or skewed. Asymmetry in a distribution can arise from a long tail of values in the underlying process or from outliers that belong to another population that contaminate the primary process. This paper examines the effects of underlying asymmetry on the variogram and on the accuracy of prediction, and the second one examines the effects arising from outliers. Standard geostatistical texts suggest ways of dealing with underlying asymmetry; however, this is based on informed intuition rather than detailed investigation. To determine whether the methods generally used to deal with underlying asymmetry are appropriate, the effects of different coefficients of skewness on the shape of the experimental variogram and on the model parameters were investigated. Simulated annealing was used to create normally distributed random fields of different size from variograms with different nugget:sill ratios. These data were then modified to give different degrees of asymmetry and the experimental variogram was computed in each case. The effects of standard data transformations on the form of the variogram were also investigated. Cross-validation was used to assess quantitatively the performance of the different variogram models for kriging. The results showed that the shape of the variogram was affected by the degree of asymmetry, and that the effect increased as the size of data set decreased. Transformations of the data were more effective in reducing the skewness coefficient in the larger sets of data. Cross-validation confirmed that variogram models from transformed data were more suitable for kriging than were those from the raw asymmetric data. The results of this study have implications for the 'standard best practice' in dealing with asymmetry in data for geostatistical analyses.

  4. Effects of surface perturbations on the asymmetric vortex flow over a slender body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskovitz, Cary A.; Dejarnette, Fred R.; Hall, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of surface perturbations on the asymmetric flow past a slender body has been conducted for laminar flow conditions. Beads with diameters ranging from 3/32 to 12/32 in. were attached near the apex of a cone/cylinder model having a base diameter of 3.5 in. and a cone semiapex angle of 9 deg at an angle of attack of 40 deg in an attempt to alter the sense of the asymmetric vortex flow pattern. Circumferential position as well as longitudinal location were varied to determine the most effective bead position. Whether or not the beads were effective in controlling the magnitude and direction of the vortex asymmetries was determined by 3 circumferential rows of pressure taps and by a helium-bubble flow visualization technique. The most effective circumferential position was found to be approximately 140 deg from the windward ray. While holding this circumferential position constant, the effect of bead size at three stations further along the body was also investigated. It was found that the size of the bead necessary to reverse the asymmetry increased more rapidly than the growth in cylinder radius. In general, these results indicate that discrete geometric imperfections on a body's surface can force asymmetry in a given direction if they are sufficiently large relative to the local radius.

  5. Effects of surface perturbations on the asymmetric vortex flow over a slender body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskovitz, Cary A.; Dejarnette, Fred R.; Hall, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of surface perturbations on the asymmetric flow past a slender body has been conducted for laminar flow conditions. Beads with diameters ranging from 3/32 to 12/32 in. were attached near the apex of a cone/cylinder model having a base diameter of 3.5 in. and a cone semiapex angle of 9 deg at an angle of attack of 40 deg in an attempt to alter the sense of the asymmetric vortex flow pattern. Circumferential position as well as longitudinal location were varied to determine the most effective bead position. Whether or not the beads were effective in controlling the magnitude and direction of the vortex asymmetries was determined by 3 circumferential rows of pressure taps and by a helium-bubble flow visualization technique. The most effective circumferential position was found to be approximately 140 deg from the windward ray. While holding this circumferential position constant, the effect of bead size at three stations further along the body was also investigated. It was found that the size of the bead necessary to reverse the asymmetry increased more rapidly than the growth in cylinder radius. In general, these results indicate that discrete geometric imperfections on a body's surface can force asymmetry in a given direction if they are sufficiently large relative to the local radius.

  6. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  7. Effects of asymmetric nanostructures on the extinction difference properties of actin biomolecules and filaments

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, E. H.; Leong, Eunice S. P.; Wu, S. J.; Phua, W. K.; Hor, Y. L.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, symmetric and asymmetric tapering on the arms of the gammadion nanostructure is proposed to enhance both local field distribution and extinction difference (ED). The asymmetric tapered gammadion with tapering fraction (TF) of 0.67 is seen to have the largest ED and spatial local field distribution, producing a large wavelength shift of more than 50 percent as compared to the untapered gammadion nanostructures when immersed in a solution of actin molecules and filaments. The optical chirality, ζ shows that the larger local field amplitudes produced by the asymmetric designs increases the rate of chiral molecules excitation. This enhanced field is strongly rotating and highly sensitive to single molecules and larger filaments. Here, we show that the ED, optical chirality, sensitivity and rate of chiral molecules excitation can be improved by incorporating asymmetric designs into chiral gammadion nanostructures through tapering. PMID:26792371

  8. Effective forces between macroions: The cases of asymmetric macroions and added salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, E.; Löwen, H.; Trigger, S.

    1998-05-01

    The distance-resolved effective forces between two spherical, highly charged colloidal macroions are calculated by computer simulation within the primitive model of strongly asymmetric electrolytes. In particular we consider the case of two asymmetric macroions, i.e., two particles with different charges and different radii, as well as the case of added salt ions. Different parameter sets corresponding to typical experimental samples are investigated. The results are compared with the predictions of traditional linear screening theory of Derjaguin and Landau [Acta Physicochim. URSS 14, 633 (1941)] and of Verwey and Overbeek [Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1948)]. For moderate charge asymmetries we find a semiquantitative agreement and verify different scaling laws obtained from Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory justifying the DLVO description of binary mixtures and of charge- and size-polydisperse macroion samples. However for very large asymmetry, particularly for the mixture of charged and uncharged colloid particles, we obtain a nonzero repulsive interaction contrarily to DLVO theory.

  9. Effect of baffle on the asymmetric gravity jitter excited slosh waves in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1993-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamical behavior of fluids affected by asymmetric gravity jitter oscillations, in particular, the effect of surface tension on partially filled rotating fluids in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft dewar tank, with and without the installation of the baffle-board, imposed by time-dependent directions of background gravity. The time-sequence evolution of the 3D behavior of the liquid-vapor interface oscillations resulting in the excitation of large amplitude slosh waves exerted by gravity jitter disturbances are examined. It is shown that the damping effect provided by baffle reduces the amplitude of slosh wave excitation and lowers the degree of asymmetry in the liquid-vapor distribution.

  10. Finite Gyroradius Effects in the Electron Outflow of Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C.; Graham, D. B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Andre, M.; Vaivads, A.; Chen, Li-Jen; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G. T.; Ergun, R. E.; Magnes, W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of asymmetric magnetic reconnection showing evidence of electron demagnetization in the electron outflow. The observations were made at the magnetopause by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, separated by approximately 15 km. The reconnecting current sheet has negligible guide field, and all four spacecraft likely pass close to the electron diffusion region just south of the X line. In the electron outflow near the X line, all four spacecraft observe highly structured electron distributions in a region comparable to a few electron gyroradii. The distributions consist of a core with T(sub parallel) greater than T(sub perpendicular) and a nongyrotropic crescent perpendicular to the magnetic field. The crescents are associated with finite gyroradius effects of partly demagnetized electrons. These observations clearly demonstrate the manifestation of finite gyroradius effects in an electron-scale reconnection current sheet.

  11. Effects of asymmetric sitting on spinal balance.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hee Soon; Oh, Jong Chi; Won, Sung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of two common asymmetric sitting positions on spinal balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven healthy subjects in their twenties were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Asymmetric positions of resting the chin on a hand and crossing the legs were performed by each group for 1 hour. After 1 hour, the subjects lay in the supine position again and spinal imbalance was measured using a device. [Results] After 1 hour of resting with the chin on a hand, sagittal imbalance, coronal imbalance, pelvic obliquity and lordosis angle presented spinal imbalance worsening of 1 hour of crossing legs, sagittal imbalance, pelvic torsion showed in mainly learned spinal imbalance living. [Conclusion] Good posture could be an innate ability, however it through habits. So this study is meaningful from the perspective of the importance of good posture.

  12. The development of the asymmetrically dominated decoy effect in young children

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    One classic example of context-independent violations is the asymmetrically dominated decoy effect, in which adding a decoy option (inferior option) to a set of original options often increases the individual’s preference for one option over the other original option. Despite the prevalence of this effect, little is known about its developmental origins. Moreover, it remains contentious whether the decoy effect is a result of biological evolution or is learned from social experience. Here, we investigated the decoy effect in 3- to 7-year-old children (n = 175) and young adults (n = 52) using a simple perceptual task. Results showed that older children (5-year-olds and 7-year-olds), but not younger children (3-year-olds), exhibited a decoy effect. Nevertheless, children as young as age 5 exhibited a decoy effect that was not significantly different from that shown by young adults. These findings suggest that humans start to appreciate the relative values of options at around age 5. PMID:26935899

  13. Asymmetrical Effect of Levodopa on the Neural Activity of Motor Regions in PD

    PubMed Central

    Martinu, Kristina; Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Fogel, Stuart; Monchi, Oury

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative illness often characterized by asymmetrical symptoms. However, the reason for this asymmetry and the cerebral correlates underlying symptom asymmetry are still not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of levodopa on the cerebral correlates of disease asymmetry have not been investigated. In this study, right-handed PD patients performed self-initiated, externally triggered and repetitive control finger movements with both their right and left hands during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate asymmetrical effects of levodopa on the hemodynamic correlates of finger movements. Patients completed two experimental sessions OFF and ON medication after a minimum of 12 hours medication withdrawal. We compared the effect of levodopa on the neural activation patterns underlying the execution of both the more affected and less affected hand for self-initiated and externally triggered movements. Our results show that levodopa led to larger differences in cerebral activity for movements of the more affected, left side: there were significant differences in activity after levodopa administration in regions of the motor cortico-striatal network when patients performed self-initiated and externally triggered movements with their left hand. By contrast, when patients used their right hand, levodopa led to differences in cerebellar activity only. As our patients were affected more severely on their left side, we propose that levodopa may help provide additional dopaminergic input, improving movements for the more severely affected side. These results suggest that the impact of reduced dopamine in the cortico-striatal system and the action of levodopa is not symmetrical. PMID:25369523

  14. Analysis of the effects of asymmetric faults in three-phase superconducting inductive fault current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R.; Pina, J. M.; Vilhena, N.; Arsénio, P.; Pronto, A. G.; Martins, J.

    2014-05-01

    Inductive fault current limiters of magnetic shielding type can be described in terms of the excursion in the plane defined by flux linked with primary and line current, and this methodology has been previously applied to single-phase devices. Practical applications, however, require three-phase limiters, which, for the sake of compactness, may be built by three legged cores, instead of three single phase units. This has the advantage of using well established methods of power transformers industry, but the performance of the devices depends on the type of fault, e.g. phase to ground or phase to phase. For instance, in a three legged core, a phase to ground fault affects healthy phases, and these are the most frequent faults in distribution grids, where such systems are envisaged. The effects of asymmetric faults are analysed in this paper, by means of measured excursions in the linked flux-current plane.

  15. The effect of pulse width on asymmetric bipolar pulse DC sputtered tantalum pentoxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, S. Maidul; Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Misal, J. S.; Shinde, D. D.; Rao, K. Divakar; Sahoo, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of pulse width in asymmetric bipolar pulse DC (ABPDC) sputtering technique is studied by depositing a set of Ta2O5 dielectric thin films under varying pulse widths from 496-1616 ns. Structural studies showed no distinction among the deposited samples. Optical properties of the samples have been characterized by transmission spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry which reveal that with increase in pulse width, the deposition rate and hence total thickness of the samples decreases while the percentage of substrate-film interface thickness increases. The void percentage in interface layers were found to be almost constant up to 1296 ns pulse width and increases substantially beyond this. The study is important from the point of pulse width optimization for depositing Ta2O5 thin films by ABPDC sputtering technique for optical multilayer thin film application.

  16. Effect of the elliptic rods orientations on the asymmetric light transmission in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, A.; Ouerghi, F.; AbdelMalek, F.; Haxha, S.; Ademgil, H.; Akowuah, E. K.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we report a novel design of a photonic crystal utilizing elliptic rods. The two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal consists of an asymmetric distribution of unit cells to ensure the one-way transmission of light. Analysis performed indicated that the orientation of the ellipse along the major and minor axis has an influence on the shift of the transmission. In particular, this results in shift of the transmission towards high frequencies and subsequent oscillation of its magnitude. The peak of the transmission band was also found to be strongly influenced by the orientation angle, θ. It has been demonstrated that the strong asymmetric propagation properties of the proposed photonic crystal structure enables the switching of incident light from one direction to another. The proposed structure may be applied as a building block to integrated photonics applications.

  17. The Effect of Asymmetrical Sample Training on Retention Functions for Hedonic Samples in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sabrina; Santi, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Rats were trained in a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task to discriminate sample stimuli that consisted of the presence of food or the absence of food. Asymmetrical sample training was provided in which one group was initially trained with only the food sample and the other group was initially trained with only the no-food sample. In…

  18. The Effect of Asymmetrical Sample Training on Retention Functions for Hedonic Samples in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sabrina; Santi, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Rats were trained in a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task to discriminate sample stimuli that consisted of the presence of food or the absence of food. Asymmetrical sample training was provided in which one group was initially trained with only the food sample and the other group was initially trained with only the no-food sample. In…

  19. A new approach to extracting the RF parameters of asymmetric DG MOSFETs with the NQS effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Sudhansu Kumar; Koley, Kalyan; Dutta, Arka; Mohankumar, N.; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2013-11-01

    In analog circuit design an important parameter, from the perspective of superior device performance, is linearity. The DG MOSFET in asymmetric mode operation has been found to present a better linearity. In addition to that it provides, at the discretion of analog circuit designer, an additional degree of freedom, by providing independent bias control for the front and the back gates. Here a non-quasi-static (NQS) small signal model for DGMOSFET with asymmetric gate bias is proposed for extracting the parameters of the device using TCAD simulations. The parameters extracted here for analysis are the intrinsic front and back gate to drain capacitance, Cgd1 and Cgd2, the intrinsic front and back distributed channel resistance, Rgd1 and Rgd2 respectively, the transport delay, τm, and the inductance, Lsd. The parameter extraction model for an asymmetric DG MOSFET is validated with pre-established extracted parameter data, for symmetric DG MOSFET devices, from the available literature. The device simulation is performed with respect to frequency up to 100 GHz.

  20. Asymmetric dark matter and effective number of neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Kurosawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of the MeV-scale asymmetric dark matter annihilation on the effective number of neutrinos Neff at the epoch of the big bang nucleosynthesis. If the asymmetric dark matter χ couples more strongly to the neutrinos ν than to the photons γ and electrons e-, Γχ γ ,χ e≪Γχ ν , or Γχ γ ,χ e≫Γχ ν, the lower mass limit on the asymmetric dark matter is about 18 MeV for Neff≃3.0 .

  1. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Jacquet, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Dieting makes you fat - the title of a book published in 1983 - embodies the notion that dieting to control body weight predisposes the individual to acquire even more body fat. While this notion is controversial, its debate underscores the large gap that exists in our understanding of basic physiological laws that govern the regulation of human body composition. A striking example is the key role attributed to adipokines as feedback signals between adipose tissue depletion and compensatory increases in food intake. Yet, the relative importance of fat depletion per se as a determinant of post-dieting hyperphagia is unknown. On the other hand, the question of whether the depletion of lean tissues can provide feedback signals on the hunger-appetite drive is rarely invoked, despite evidence that food intake during growth is dominated by the impetus for lean tissue deposition, amidst proposals for the existence of protein-static mechanisms for the regulation of growth and maintenance of lean body mass. In fact, a feedback loop between fat depletion and food intake cannot explain why human subjects recovering from starvation continue to overeat well after body fat has been restored to pre-starvation values, thereby contributing to 'fat overshooting'. In addressing the plausibility and mechanistic basis by which dieting may predispose to increased fatness, this paper integrates the results derived from re-analysis of classic longitudinal studies of human starvation and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from both fat and lean tissues contribute to recovering body weight through effects on energy intake and thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to lean tissue recovery is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation that drives fat overshooting. A main implication of these findings is that the risk of becoming fatter in response to dieting is greater in lean than in obese individuals.

  2. Effect of the Shafranov shift and the gradient of β on intrinsic momentum transport in up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I.; Lee, Jungpyo; Cerfon, Antoine J.

    2016-12-01

    Tokamaks with up-down asymmetric poloidal cross-sections spontaneously rotate due to turbulent transport of momentum. In this work, we investigate the effect of the Shafranov shift on this intrinsic rotation, primarily by analyzing tokamaks with tilted elliptical flux surfaces. By expanding the Grad-Shafranov equation in the large aspect ratio limit we calculate the magnitude and direction of the Shafranov shift in tilted elliptical tokamaks. The results show that, while the Shafranov shift becomes up-down asymmetric and depends strongly on the tilt angle of the flux surfaces, it is insensitive to the shape of the current and pressure profiles (when the geometry, total plasma current, and average pressure gradient are kept fixed). Next, local nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of these MHD equilibria are performed with GS2, which reveal that the Shafranov shift can significantly enhance the momentum transport. However, to be consistent, the effect of {β\\prime} (i.e. the radial gradient of β) on the magnetic equilibrium was also included, which was found to significantly reduce momentum transport. Including these two competing effects broadens the rotation profile, but leaves the on-axis value of the rotation roughly unchanged. Consequently, the shape of the β profile has a significant effect on the rotation profile of an up-down asymmetric tokamak.

  3. The internal Shapiro effect in some portions of the parameter space of asymmetric two-junction SQUIDs and its influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatesami, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The Shapiro effect is known, with regular steps in the voltage-current characteristic of a Josephson junction in the presence of microwave radiation, and so are its applications. In asymmetric two-junction SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices), in particular the interactions between various current contributions in the two junctions lead to more varied and richer conditions. In this paper, we discuss the possibility and the impacts of a kind of internal Shapiro effect in some portions of the parameter space of the asymmetric high-TC SQUID with overdamped junctions and large loop inductance. In this predicted phenomenon, the required high-frequency radiation is produced spontaneously in the interior of the SQUID. The main message is the importance of achieving a set of nine parameters for the device whose voltage-current characteristics show no indication of spike-step-like structures.

  4. Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N. A.; Miralles, M. P.; Ranquist, D. A.; Pope, C. L.; Raymond, J. C.; Lukin, V. S.; McKillop, S.; Shen, C.; Winter, H. D.; Reeves, K. K.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Models of solar flares and coronal mass ejections typically predict the development of an elongated current sheet in the wake behind the rising flux rope. In reality, reconnection in these current sheets will be asymmetric along the inflow, outflow, and out-of-plane directions. We perform resistive MHD simulations to investigate the consequences of asymmetry during solar reconnection. We predict several observational signatures of asymmetric reconnection, including flare loops with a skewed candle flame shape, slow drifting of the current sheet into the strong field upstream region, asymmetric footpoint speeds and hard X-ray emission, and rolling motions within the erupting flux rope. There is net plasma flow across the magnetic field null along both the inflow and outflow directions. We compare simulations to SDO/AIA, Hinode/XRT, and STEREO observations of flare loop shapes, current sheet drifting, and rolling motions during prominence eruptions. Simulations of the plasmoid instability with different upstream magnetic fields show that the reconnection rate remains enhanced even during the asymmetric case. The islands preferentially grow into the weak field upstream region. The islands develop net vorticity because the outflow jets impact them obliquely rather than directly. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere occurs when emerging flux interacts with pre-existing overlying flux. We present initial results on asymmetric reconnection in partially ionized chromospheric plasmas. Finally, we discuss how comparisons to observations are necessary to understand the role of three-dimensional effects.

  5. Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N. A.; Miralles, M. P.; Ranquist, D. A.; Pope, C. L.; Raymond, J. C.; Lukin, V. S.; McKillop, S. C.; Shen, C.; Winter, H. D.; Reeves, K. K.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Models of solar flares and coronal mass ejections typically predict the development of an elongated current sheet in the wake behind the rising flux rope. In reality, reconnection in these current sheets will be asymmetric along the inflow, outflow, and out-of-plane directions. We perform resistive MHD simulations to investigate the consequences of asymmetry during solar reconnection. We predict several observational signatures of asymmetric reconnection, including flare loops with a skewed candle flame shape, slow drifting of the current sheet into the strong field upstream region, asymmetric footpoint speeds and hard X-ray emission, and rolling motions within the erupting flux rope. There is net plasma flow across the magnetic field null along both the inflow and outflow directions. We compare simulations to SDO/AIA, Hinode/XRT, and STEREO observations of flare loop shapes, current sheet drifting, and rolling motions during prominence eruptions. Simulations of the plasm! oid instability with different upstream magnetic fields show that the reconnection rate remains enhanced even during the asymmetric case. The islands preferentially grow into the weak field upstream region. The islands develop net vorticity because the outflow jets impact them obliquely rather than directly. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere occurs when emerging flux interacts with pre-existing overlying flux. We present initial results on asymmetric reconnection in partially ionized chromospheric plasmas. Finally, we discuss how comparisons to observations are necessary to understand the role of three-dimensional effects.

  6. The effects of variable practice on locomotor adaptation to a novel asymmetric gait.

    PubMed

    Hinkel-Lipsker, Jacob W; Hahn, Michael E

    2017-06-24

    Very little is known about the effects of specific practice on motor learning of predictive balance control during novel bipedal gait. This information could provide an insight into how the direction and magnitude of predictive errors during acquisition of a novel gait task influence transfer of balance control, as well as yield a practice protocol for the restoration of balance for those with locomotor impairments. This study examined the effect of a variable practice paradigm on transfer of a novel asymmetric gait pattern in able-bodied individuals. Using a split-belt treadmill, one limb was driven at a constant velocity (constant limb) and the other underwent specific changes in velocity (variable limb) during practice according to one of three prescribed practice paradigms: serial, where the variable limb velocity increased linearly; random blocked, where variable limb underwent random belt velocity changes every 20 strides; and random practice, where the variable limb underwent random step-to-step changes in velocity. Random practice showed the highest balance control variability during acquisition compared to serial and random blocked practice which demonstrated the best transfer of balance control on one transfer test. Both random and random blocked practices showed significantly less balance control variability during a second transfer test compared to serial practice. These results indicate that random blocked practice may be best for generalizability of balance control while learning a novel gait, perhaps, indicating that individuals who underwent this practice paradigm were able to find the most optimal balance control solution during practice.

  7. Ferroelectricity and tunneling electroresistance effect in asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, L. L.; Wang, J.

    2016-06-14

    We report the investigation on the ferroelectricity and tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect in PbTiO{sub 3} (PTO)-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) using first-principles calculations. For symmetric FTJs, we have calculated the average polarizations of PTO film and effective screening lengths of different metal electrodes for a number of FTJs, which is useful for experimental research. For asymmetric FTJs, significant asymmetric ferroelectric displacements in PTO film are observed, which is attributed to the intrinsic field generated by the two dissimilar electrodes. Moreover, by performing quantum transport calculations on those asymmetric FTJs, a sizable TER effect is observed. It is found that the asymmetry of ferroelectric displacements in PTO barrier, which is determined by the difference of work functions of the electrodes, controls the observed TER effect. Our results will help unravel the TER mechanism of asymmetric FTJs in most experiments and will be useful for the designing of FTJ-based devices.

  8. Coronal current-sheet formation - The effect of asymmetric and symmetric shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Devore, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    A 2.5D numerical code is used to investigate the results of an asymmetric shear imposed on a potential quadrupolar magnetic field under two sets of atmospheric boundary conditions - a low-beta plasma with line tying at the base, similar to the line-tied analytic model, and a hydrostatic-equilibrium atmosphere with solar gravity, typical of the observed photosphere-chromosphere interface. The low-beta simulation confirms the crucial role of the line-tying assumption in producting current sheets. The effects of a symmetric shear on the same hydrostatic-equilibrium atmosphere is examined, using more grid points to improve the resolution of the current structures which form along the flux surfaces. It is found that true current sheets do not form in the corona when a more realistic model is considered. The amount of Ohmic dissipation in the thick currents is estimated to be two to four orders of magnitude below that required to heat the corona. It is concluded that magnetic topologies of the type examined here do not contribute significantly to coronal heating.

  9. Effect of coagulant bath on the gas permeation properties of cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, F.; Hasbullah, H.; Jami'an, W. N. R.; Salleh, W. N. H. W.; Ibrahim, N.; Ali, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Membrane based gas separation process technology has been recognized as one of the most efficient and advanced unit operation for gas separation. One of the problems in membrane gas separation is membrane performance. This paper explores the application of cellulose acetate (CA) membrane for natural gas purification and separation by improving its permeability and selectivity. The main interest in this research is to study the effect of quench medium on the gas separation performance towards its physical characteristics and gas separation performance of CA membrane. Cellulose acetate polymer was dissolved in n- methyl-2-pyrrolidone solvent and casted onto a glass plate using a pneumatically controlled casting system with fixed shear rate and solvent evaporation times. The parameter varied was the non-solvent used as quench medium during membrane post treatment that were methanol and n-hexane. The different quench media as post treatment affected the O2 and N2 gas permeation and O2/N2 selectivity as well as the tensile strength of the flat sheet asymmetric membrane. Combination of methanol and n-hexane as quench media gave the best result than the other steps. This solvent exchange step influenced the morphology by producing thin skin layer and thus gives better gas separation performance than other steps

  10. Asymmetric airflow and vibration induced by the Coanda effect in a symmetric model of the vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chao; Zhang, Yu; Hottinger, Daniel G; Jiang, Jack J

    2007-10-01

    A model constructed from Navier-Stokes equations and a two-mass vocal fold description is proposed in this study. The composite model not only has the capability to describe the aerodynamics in a vibratory glottis but also can be used to study the vocal fold vibration under the driving of the complex airflow in the glottis. Numerical simulations show that this model can predict self-oscillations of the coupled glottal aerodynamics and vocal fold system. The Coanda effect could occur in the vibratory glottis even though the vocal folds have left-right symmetric prephonatory shape and tissue properties. The Coanda effect causes the asymmetric flow in the glottis and the difference in the driving force on the left and right vocal folds. The different pressures applied to the left and right vocal folds induce their displacement asymmetry. By using various lung pressures (0.6-2.0 kPa) to drive the composite model, it was found that the asymmetry of the vocal fold displacement is increased from 1.87% to 11.2%. These simulation results provide numerical evidence for the presence of asymmetric flow in the vibratory glottis; moreover, they indicate that glottal aerodynamics is an important factor in inducing the asymmetric vibration of the vocal folds.

  11. Examining the asymmetrical effects of goal faultlines in groups: a categorization-elaboration approach.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Aleksander P J; Mai, Ke Michael; Christian, Jessica Siegel

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the categorization-elaboration model (CEM) to examine the asymmetrical effects of goal faultlines in groups, which are present when hypothetical dividing lines are created on the basis of different performance goals, splitting the group into subgroups. On the basis of the CEM, we expected groups with goal faultlines to exhibit higher levels of creative task performance than (a) groups with specific, difficult goals and (b) groups with do-your-best goals. We expected the benefits of goal faultlines to be due to increases in reflective reframing, which occurs when group members build on each other's ideas by shifting to alternate frames. However, we expected groups with goal faultlines to exhibit lower levels of routine task performance than (a) groups with do-your-best goals and (b) groups with specific, difficult goals, due to increased perceptions of loafing. Results from 87 groups generally supported our hypothesized model. Implications are discussed as well as possible limitations and directions for future research.

  12. The role of asymmetric interactions on the effect of habitat destruction in mutualistic networks.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Guillermo; Trejo Soto, Claudia A; Oña, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Plant-pollinator mutualistic networks are asymmetric in their interactions: specialist plants are pollinated by generalist animals, while generalist plants are pollinated by a broad range involving specialists and generalists. It has been suggested that this asymmetric--or disassortative--assemblage could play an important role in determining the observed equal susceptibility of specialist and generalist plants under habitat destruction. At the core of the analysis of the phenomenon lies the observation that specialist plants, otherwise candidates to extinction, could cope with the disruption thanks to their interaction with a few generalist pollinators. We present a theoretical framework that supports this thesis. We analyze a dynamical model of a system of mutualistic plants and pollinators, subject to the destruction of their habitat. We analyze and compare two families of interaction topologies, ranging from highly assortative to highly disassortative ones, as well as real pollination networks. We found that several features observed in natural systems are predicted by the mathematical model. First, there is a tendency to increase the asymmetry of the network as a result of the extinctions. Second, an entropy measure of the differential susceptibility to extinction of specialist and generalist species show that they tend to balance when the network is disassortative. Finally, the disappearance of links in the network, as a result of extinctions, shows that specialist plants preserve more connections than the corresponding plants in an assortative system, enabling them to resist the disruption.

  13. Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults?

    PubMed

    Bruijn, S M; Massaad, F; Maclellan, M J; Van Gestel, L; Ivanenko, Y P; Duysens, J

    2013-11-27

    When a cat's head is rotated in a transverse plane to one side, the legs on that side of the body extend, while on the other side, they flex (asymmetric tonic neck reflexes ATNR). On the contrary, when the head is rotated in a sagittal plane both legs flex when the head flexes, and extend when the head extends (symmetric tonic neck reflexes STNR). These reflexes have also been found in newborn babies and are thought to be a motor primitive, which is suppressed later in life. Still, using a test in which children sit on hand and knees, the ATNR and STNR can be found in children up to 9 years of age. This may suggest that these reflexes may still be involved in motor control in these children. Whether this is also the case in full-grown adults has thus far only been studied using coarse methods. Thus, for the current study, we set out to measure in detail whether the ATNR/STNR can still be evoked in healthy adult subjects. We measured 10 subjects who were asked to sit on their hands and knees while (1) their head was rotated left and right by an experimenter, (2) their head was flexed and extended by an experimenter. Kinematics was registered using a Vicon system. Elbow and head angles were detrended, and a regression analysis was performed, to investigate the effects of head angle on elbow angle. Results clearly showed the existence of the ATNR and STNR in adult subjects. A next step will be to assess the effects of the ATNR and STNR during everyday motor control tasks, such as making head rotations while driving a bike.

  14. Asymmetric effect of domain interactions on the kinetics of folding in yeast phosphoglycerate kinase.

    PubMed

    Osváth, Szabolcs; Köhler, Gottfried; Závodszky, Péter; Fidy, Judit

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this work is to shed more light on the effect of domain-domain interactions on the kinetics and the pathway of protein folding. A model protein system consisting of several single-tryptophan variants of the two-domain yeast phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and its individual domains was studied. Refolding was initiated from the guanidine-unfolded state by stopped-flow or manual mixing and monitored by tryptophan fluorescence from 1 msec to 1000 sec. Denaturant titrations of both individual domains showed apparent two-state unfolding transitions. Refolding kinetics of the individual domains from different denaturant concentrations, however, revealed the presence of intermediate structures during titration for both domains. Refolding of the same domains within the complete protein showed that domain-domain interactions direct the folding of both domains, but in an asymmetric way. Folding of the N domain was already altered within 1 msec, while detectable changes in the folding of the C domain occurred only 60-100 msec after initiating refolding. All mutants showed a hyperfluorescent kinetic intermediate. Both the disappearance of this intermediate and the completion of the folding were significantly faster in the individual N domain than in the complete protein. On the contrary, folding of the individual C domain was slower than in the complete protein. The presence of the C domain directs the refolding of the N domain along a completely different pathway than that of the individual N domain, while folding of the individual C domain follows the same path as within the complete protein.

  15. Asymmetric effects on Earth's polar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian; Zotov, Leonid

    2013-06-01

    Differential equations ruling the Earth's polar motion are slightly asymmetric with respect to the pole coordinates. This is not only associated with the lack of axial symmetry around the Earth figure axis (triaxiality) but also with the longitude dependency of the pole tide (the main contribution). We propose a consistent handling of both asymmetric contributions, formulating a unique equation in the complex equatorial plane, of which we derive a general solution. Difference with respect to the usual symmetric solution is discussed and found significant in light of the present accuracy of the observed pole coordinates. For the same geophysical excitation, the prograde Chandler wobble is accompanied by a retrograde component up to 2 milliarcseconds (mas), transforming it in a slight elliptic motion. The asymmetric contribution is relatively larger in the geodetic excitation function, for Chandler wobble excitation mixes prograde and retrograde components of comparable level (1 mas).

  16. [Facial aesthetics Part II - effect of symmetric and asymmetric modulations of the orbital region].

    PubMed

    Springer, Ingo N; Wannicke, Björn; Wiltfang, Jörg; Warnke, Patrick H; Zernial, Oliver; Wolfart, Stefan

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of standardised computer-manipulated changes to images of the orbital region. Judges (n=250) ranked each image for attractiveness on a visual-analogue-scale. The images were thereby classified into different clusters according to their ratings of attractiveness. These clusters were highly significantly different (p<0.001). The degree of negative impact of changes to the orbital region on facial attractiveness increased significantly from lateral to medial and from cranial to caudal. Small asymmetrical or symmetrical lateral variations did not influence attractiveness negatively.

  17. The asymmetrically stepped, orifice compensated hydrostatic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharrer, J. K.; Hibbs, R. I.; San Andres, L.

    1992-07-01

    An improved hydrostatic bedaring configuration consisting of a conventional orifice compensated, continuous, hydrostatic bearing augmented on one side by a ring with a smaller radial clearance is presented. Results for the leakage and rotordynamic coeffcients of this asymmetrically stepped hydrostatic bearing are calculated using a numerical solution of the film-average Navier-Stokes equations. Results of a parametric study on the effects of ring geometry and recess position on hydrostatic bearing performance are presented. The results show that the presence of the asymmetric step enhances the rotordynamic performance of an orifice compensated hydrostatic bearing.

  18. Effect of asymmetric vocal fold stiffness on traveling wave velocity in the canine larynx.

    PubMed

    Sloan, S H; Berke, G S; Gerratt, B R

    1992-10-01

    The vocal fold (VF) traveling wave is essential to normal voice production. The present investigation describes a new method to determine traveling wave velocity (TWV) in the in vivo canine phonatory model. This method synchronizes photoglottographic and electroglottographic waveforms with videostroboscopic images to determine the duration of time the traveling wave moves between two tattoos placed a known distance apart between the upper and lower margins of each VF. Using this method, we compared the TWV of a paralyzed VF with the TWV of the contralateral, electrically stimulated VF during phonation in two canines. In addition, the presumed VF stiffness asymmetry in the simulated acute recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis state was confirmed by measuring Young's modulus of each VF. The results indicated that the TWV of the paralyzed VF averaged 55% of the TWV of the normal, stiffer VF when the glottal gap was small and entrainment occurred. This study demonstrated the feasibility of quantifying traveling wave motion in asymmetric VF stiffness disorders. The potential use of TWV in human beings as a target to optimize the phonosurgical results in asymmetric VF stiffness disorders is discussed.

  19. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure.

  20. Effects of asymmetric cultural experiences on the auditory pathway: evidence from music.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Perrachione, Tyler K; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2009-07-01

    Cultural experiences come in many different forms, such as immersion in a particular linguistic community, exposure to faces of people with different racial backgrounds, or repeated encounters with music of a particular tradition. In most circumstances, these cultural experiences are asymmetric, meaning one type of experience occurs more frequently than other types (e.g., a person raised in India will likely encounter the Indian todi scale more so than a Westerner). In this paper, we will discuss recent findings from our laboratories that reveal the impact of short- and long-term asymmetric musical experiences on how the nervous system responds to complex sounds. We will discuss experiments examining how musical experience may facilitate the learning of a tone language, how musicians develop neural circuitries that are sensitive to musical melodies played on their instrument of expertise, and how even everyday listeners who have little formal training are particularly sensitive to music of their own culture(s). An understanding of these cultural asymmetries is useful in formulating a more comprehensive model of auditory perceptual expertise that considers how experiences shape auditory skill levels. Such a model has the potential to aid in the development of rehabilitation programs for the efficacious treatment of neurologic impairments.

  1. Effects of Asymmetric Cultural Experiences on the Auditory Pathway Evidence from Music

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Perrachione, Tyler K.; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2009-01-01

    Cultural experiences come in many different forms, such as immersion in a particular linguistic community, exposure to faces of people with different racial backgrounds, or repeated encounters with music of a particular tradition. In most circumstances, these cultural experiences are asymmetric, meaning one type of experience occurs more frequently than other types (e.g., a person raised in India will likely encounter the Indian todi scale more so than a Westerner). In this paper, we will discuss recent findings from our laboratories that reveal the impact of short- and long-term asymmetric musical experiences on how the nervous system responds to complex sounds. We will discuss experiments examining how musical experience may facilitate the learning of a tone language, how musicians develop neural circuitries that are sensitive to musical melodies played on their instrument of expertise, and how even everyday listeners who have little formal training are particularly sensitive to music of their own culture(s). An understanding of these cultural asymmetries is useful in formulating a more comprehensive model of auditory perceptual expertise that considers how experiences shape auditory skill levels. Such a model has the potential to aid in the development of rehabilitation programs for the efficacious treatment of neurologic impairments. PMID:19673772

  2. The symmetric-asymmetric transition of the sponge phase: I.Effect of the salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinches, C.; Coulon, C.; Roux, D.

    1994-07-01

    A systematic study of pseudoternary systems made of salted water, pentanol and SDS is presented for salt concentrations ranging from 20 to 80 g/l of NaCl. In the dilute part of the phase diagram, the system with the lowest salt concentration is known to present a continuous phase transition between phases of randomly interconnected membranes, namely a sponge (symmetric) and an asymmetric phase. The same topology is found as the salt concentration is increased and the evolution of the characteristics of the symmetric-asymmetric phase transition is studied. Light scattering experiments are first described. We show that the scattered intensity should be analysed in terms of a product of a structure and a form factor. The latter contribution gives directly the geometrical size of the phase (the mean distance between the membranes) without using any thermodynamical model and therefore gives an unambiguous location of the symmetric-asymmetric phase transition. The structure factor gives the critical behaviour at the phase transition. Electrical conductivity as a function of the frequency (in the range 100Hz-15MHz) has also been measured for the first time in this kind of systems. These phases can be considered as composites of a conducting solvent and a dielectric membrane and the data are analysed in terms of a low frequency (DC) conductivity leading to an “obstruction” factor and a dielectric constant strongly dependent on the frequency. Far from the S/A phase transition, the obstruction factor is constant and the dielectric constant shows a single Debye-like relaxation. Simple scaling laws are found for the variation of the intensity and of the frequency as a function of dilution. This indicates that the mode probes the “local structure” of the sponge phase. Near the S/A phase transition, in addition to this mode, another dielectric relaxation is observed at lower frequencies. At the same time, a departure from the scaling laws of the Debye mode and an

  3. Effects of nose bluntness, roughness, and surface perturbations on the asymmetric flow past slender bodies at large angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskovitz, Cary A.; Dejarnette, F. R.; Hall, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of such geometric perturbations as variations of model-tip sharpness and roughness, as well as discrete surface perturbations, on the asymmetric flow past slender bodies is experimentally investigated for the cases of a cone/cylinder model having a 10-deg semiapex angle and a 3.0-caliber tangent ogive model. Both models have base diameters of 3.5 inches, and were tested in laminar flow conditions at angles-of-attack in the 30-60 deg range. Single, discrete roughness elements were represented by beads; bead effectiveness was judged on the basis of the extent to which they affected the flowfield in various conditions.

  4. Substituent effect in the photochromism of two isomeric asymmetric diarylethenes having pyrrole and thiophene units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjie; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Pu, Shouzhi; Liu, Gang; Dai, Yanfeng

    2017-02-01

    Two new asymmetric isomeric diarylethenes having pyrrole and thiophene units have been synthesized by one-pot reaction and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The two prepared diarylethenes had disparate crystal structures, and they exhibited distinctly different photochromic behavior, both in solution and in the solid state. Their photochromism, fatigue resistance, and fluorescence were investigated systematically. The methyl group at the reactive carbon atom could significantly enhance the quantum yield of cyclization step and decrease the quantum yield of cycloreversion step, whereas a cyano group at the same position could notably suppress the photocyclization reaction and promote the photocycloreversion reaction. The results indicated that the substituent at the reactive carbon atom could readily modulate the optoelectronic and physical properties for these diarylethenes.

  5. Effects of long-term sensory deprivation on asymmetric synapses in the whisker barrel field of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Machín, Raquel; Pérez-Cejuela, César G; Bjugn, Roger; Avendaño, Carlos

    2006-08-30

    Whisker trimming deprives the cortical barrel field from the patterned sensory input that derives from active touch but leaves passive tactile signals unaltered. We have studied in the rat barrel field, by stereological procedures, the effects of a sustained period of unilateral deprivation by whisker clipping during adolescence and early adulthood on (1) the surface density (SV) of asymmetric synapses, as determined from measuring the presynaptic membrane specializations, and (2) the numerical density of asymmetric synaptic profiles (NA), classified according to their postsynaptic target and their apparent curvature. Compared to control rats, the procedure did not change the overall volume of the region, the volume fraction occupied by each cortical layer, or the volume fraction occupied by unmyelinated axons and boutons. However, the deprived barrel cortex displayed an increase in SV in layers I and II, and an increase in NA in layer I and in the cortex as a whole, mainly due to an increase in profiles with a convex shape. Layer IV was the least affected by the deprivation. These results point to a net increase, rather than a decrease, of excitatory synapses in the deprived cortex, which could result from a deprivation-induced decrease in the rate of normal synapse loss. This effect occurs specifically in superficial layers, more involved in intracortical and cortico-cortical, rather than thalamo-cortical, processing.

  6. Defeating the Modern Asymmetric Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    prolific use of suicide bombers by the LTTE: one strategic, one operational, one psychological and one religious. Chapter V conducts an analysis of...and responsive government) are the applicable variables in defeating the modern asymmetric threat, even those that employ suicide bombers. I...future. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 171 14. SUBJECT TERMS Sri Lanka, LTTE, Ethnic Conflict, Asymmetry, Suicide Terrorism, Foreign Internal Defense

  7. The Effect of Asymmetric Mechanical and Thermal Loading on Membrane Wrinkling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blandino, Joseph R.; Johnston, John D.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Dharamsi, Urmil K.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large, tensioned membranes are being considered for future gossamer spacecraft systems. Examples include sunshields, solar sails, and membrane optics. In many. cases a relatively flat membrane with minimal wrinkling is desired. Developing methods to predict and measure membrane wrinkling is important to the future development of gossamer spacecraft. Numerical and experimental data are presented for a 0.5 m square, tensioned membrane. The membrane is subjected to symmetric and asymmetric mechanical loading. Data are also presented for a symmetrically loaded membrane subjected to spot heating in the center. The numerical model shows good agreement with the experiment for wrinkle angle data. There is. also reasonable agreement for the wrinkled area for both isothermal and elevated temperature tests.

  8. Ratchet Effect of Single Vortex Motion in Superconducting Asymmetrical Nanobridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, Kemmei; Fujita, Keisuke; An, Baoyu; Inoue, Masumi; Fujimaki, Akira

    2012-05-01

    We have successfully obtained asymmetrical current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) nanobridges patterned with asymmetrical geometry. These asymmetrical nanobridges (ANBs) are shown to control vortices one at a time. The critical current Ic, of 200-nm-wide and 100-nm-thick ANB changes by a maximum of 9% when a magnetic field of 2.4 mT is applied. The Ic variation ΔIc increases monotonically with increased magnetic field from -2.2 to 2.4 mT. The asymmetrical I-V characteristics obtained in our experiment are due to the restriction of vortex motion by the asymmetrical surface barrier (the so-called vortex ratchet effect). The width and thickness dependencies of the I-V asymmetry are also studied, and indicate that the bias current and the Meissner screening current, determined by the relative width compared to the effective penetration depth of the YBCO film, dominates the I-V asymmetry characteristics.

  9. Hall and Ohmic Heating Effects on the Peristaltic Transport of a Carreau-Yasuda Fluid in an Asymmetric Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Abbasi, Fahad M.; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad

    2014-02-01

    The effects of Hall current and Ohmic heating are analyzed for the peristaltic flow of a Carreau- Yasuda fluid in an asymmetric channel. The mathematical model for peristalsis of the Carreau- Yasuda fluid is provided for the first time in the literature. The problem is developed in the presence of viscous dissipation. Solutions for pressure gradient, stream function, axial velocity, and temperature are established and discussed. The heat transfer rate at the wall is first computed numerically and then examined. A comparative study for viscous, Carreau, and Carreau-Yasuda fluids is also made.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  11. Microwave-assisted asymmetric organocatalysis. A probe for nonthermal microwave effects and the concept of simultaneous cooling.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Masood; Stiasni, Nikola; Barbieri, Vera; Kappe, C Oliver

    2007-02-16

    A series of five known asymmetric organocatalytic reactions was re-evaluated at elevated temperatures applying both microwave dielectric heating and conventional thermal heating in order to probe the existence of specific or nonthermal microwave effects. All transformations were conducted in a dedicated reactor setup that allowed accurate internal reaction temperature measurements using fiber-optic probes. In addition, the concept of simultaneous external cooling while irradiating with microwave power was also applied in all of the studied cases. This method allows a higher level of microwave power to be administered to the reaction mixture and, therefore, enhances any potential microwave effects while continuously removing heat. For all of the five studied (S)-proline-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich- and aldol-type reactions, the observed rate enhancements were a consequence of the increased temperatures attained by microwave dielectric heating and were not related to the presence of the microwave field. In all cases, in contrast to previous literature reports, the results obtained either with microwave irradiation or with microwave irradiation with simultaneous cooling could be reproduced by conventional heating at the same reaction temperature and time in an oil bath. No evidence for specific or nonthermal microwave effects was obtained.

  12. Diverse interface effects on ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling in asymmetric multiferroic tunnel junctions: the role of the interfacial bonding structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Chen, W J; Jiang, G L; Wang, B; Zheng, Yue

    2016-01-28

    Interface and size effects on electric/magnetic orders and magnetoelectric coupling are vital in the modern application of quantum-size functional devices based on multiferroic tunnel junctions. In order to give a comprehensive study of the interface and size effects, the properties of a typical asymmetric multiferroic tunnel junction, i.e., Fe/BaTiO3/Co, have been calculated using the first-principles simulations. Most importantly, all of the eight possible structures with four combinations of electrode/ferroelectric interfaces (i.e., Fe/BaO, Fe/TiO2, Co/BaO and Co/TiO2) and a series of barrier thicknesses have been taken into account. In this work, the equilibrium configurations, polarization, charge density, spin density and magnetic moments, etc., have been completely simulated and comprehensively analyzed. It is found that the ferroelectric stability is determined as a competition outcome of the strength of short-range chemical bondings and long-range depolarization/built-in fields. M/BaO (M = magnetic metal) terminations show an extraordinary enhancement of local polarization near the interface and increase the critical thickness of ferroelectricity. The bistability of polarization is well kept at the M/TiO2 interface. At the same time, the induced magnetic moment on atoms at the interfaces is rather localized and dominated by the local interfacial configuration. Reversing electric polarization can switch the induced magnetic moments, wherein atoms in M-O-Ti and M-Ti-O chains show preference for being magnetized. In addition, the difference between the sum of the interfacial magnetic moments is also enlarged with the increase of the barrier thickness. Our study provides a comprehensive and detailed reference to the manipulation and utilization of the interface, size and magnetoelectric effects in asymmetric multiferroic tunnel junctions.

  13. Analysis of the effect of symmetric/asymmetric CUSP magnetic fields on melt/crystal interface during Czochralski silicon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daggolu, Parthiv; Ryu, Jae Woo; Galyukov, Alex; Kondratyev, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    With the use of 300 mm silicon wafers for industrial semiconductor device manufacturing, the Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth process has to be optimized to achieve higher quality and productivity. Numerical studies based on 2D global thermal models combined with 3D simulation of melt convection are widely used today to save time and money in the process development. Melt convection in large scale Cz Si growth is controlled by a CUSP or transversal magnetic field (MF) to suppress the melt turbulence. MF can be optimized to meet necessary characteristics of the growing crystal, in terms of point defects, as MF affects the melt/crystal interface geometry and allows adjustment of the pulling rate. Among the different knobs associated with the CUSP magnetic field, the nature of its configuration, going from symmetric to asymmetric, is also reported to be an important tool for the control of crystallization front. Using a 3D unsteady model of the CGSim software, we have studied these effects and compared with several experimental results. In addition, physical mechanisms behind these observations are explored through a detailed modeling analysis of the effect of an asymmetric CUSP MF on convection features governing the heat transport in the silicon melt.

  14. Exploring perception-action relations in music production: The asymmetric effect of tonal class.

    PubMed

    Jebb, Andrew T; Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2016-05-01

    When playing musical passages, performers integrate the pitch content of auditory feedback with current action plans. However, this process depends on the degree to which the musical structure of the feedback melody is perceived as similar to the structure of what is planned. Four experiments reported here explored the relationship between the tonal class of planned melodies (tonal or atonal) and the sequence of events formed by auditory feedback. Participants produced short melodies from memory that were either tonal (Experiments 1 and 3) or atonal (Experiments 2 and 4). Auditory feedback matched the planned melody with respect to contour but could vary in tonal class. The results showed that when participants planned a tonal melody, atonal feedback was treated as unrelated to the planned sequence. However, when planning an atonal melody, tonal feedback was still treated as similar to the planned sequence. This asymmetric similarity mirrors findings found within the music perception literature and implies that schematic musical knowledge is highly active in determining perception-action relations during music performance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The effects of moist convection on the tropospheric response to tropical and subtropical zonally-asymmetric torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, W. R.; Shaw, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Tropospheric winds can be altered by vertical transfers of momentum caused by orographic gravity waves and convection, both of which tend to be highly localized in space. We showed in separate work that such zonally-asymmetric torques produce a characteristic response in dry models, with a pattern of tropical ascent that is qualitatively well-described by linear dynamics and a meridional shift of the eddy-driven mid-latitude jet. Here we use several idealized models to examine the effects of moisture on the tropospheric response to zonally-asymmetric torques. While the dynamical response to an upper-tropospheric toque in moist models can have a spatial structure that is qualitatively similar to that in dry models, moisture introduces several important modifications. One of the most dramatic of these is an amplification of the vertical velocity by nearly an order of magnitude in moist models. This occurs in a general circulation model with parameterized moist convection and an entirely oceanic lower boundary, and also in a quasi-linear model of the troposphere's first-baroclinic mode. The amplification is shown to result from the reduced effective static stability of a moist atmosphere, and can thus be rectified by the distribution of precipitation in the basic state. Given this amplification of the irrotational part of the response, we show how the vorticity budget necessitates changes in the horizontal structure of the nondivergent flow. The intensity and horizontal structure of the response in moist models can also be greatly altered by wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE), with enhanced zonal winds increasing ocean evaporation and convectively-coupled ascent. We briefly discuss some possible implications of these results for the effect of vertical momentum transfers on regional precipitation.

  16. Liquid film flow along a substrate with an asymmetric topography sustained by the thermocapillary effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumkin, Valeri; Oron, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    We investigate flow in a thin liquid film over a "thick" asymmetric corrugated surface in a gas-liquid bi-layer system. Using long-wave approximation, we derive a nonlinear evolution equation for the spatiotemporal dynamics of the liquid-gas interface over the corrugated topography. A closed-form expression indicating a non-zero value for a liquid flow rate is derived in a steady state of the system. Through numerical investigations we study the nonlinear dynamics of the liquid-gas interface with respect to topographical variations of the solid surface, different thermal properties of the liquid and the solid, and different values of the Marangoni number. We find the existence of a critical value for the Marangoni number Mc, so that for M > Mc, the liquid film ruptures, whereas for M < Mc, the interface will remain continuous. In a broad variety of parameters, the interface attains a deformed steady state with a nonzero average flow rate through the system, thus the described mechanism may be used as a means of transport in microfluidic devices. We carry out the Floquet stability analysis of periodic steady states with respect to spatial replication and show that in the framework of the time-independent evolution equation, the system is unstable to long wave perturbations. We demonstrate that in a finite periodic setting, the system may evolve within a certain parameter range into a metastable state which may be manipulated by varying the Marangoni number M in time in order to increase, control, and sustain the average flow rate through the system. We also show that in the case of a solid substrate with the thermal conductivity lower than that of the liquid, the flow rate through the system may be significantly increased with respect to the opposite case.

  17. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field in Collisionless Asymmetric Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, D. J.; Malakit, K.; Ek-In, S.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recently it has been pointed out that when the inflow conditions of magnetic reconnection are asymmetric, a new in-plane electric field can arise from the physics of finite ion Larmor radius, called the Larmor electric field. It is located next to the Hall electric field structure, making it a potential indicator of proximity to the diffusion region. However, the properties of the Larmor electric field have not previously been explored for the case of a nonzero guide field, which could occur for many reconnection sites, including the day-side magnetopause. In this study, we therefore further explore the properties of the Larmor electric field by adding guide fields with different strengths into our simulations. The results show that the width of the Larmor electric field structure will be smaller, but the strength of the field will be stronger as the guide field increases, consistent with what we expect from the existing theory. Moreover, we show that in the region where the Larmor electric field occurs, there also appears an electron anisotropy. The widths of the electron anisotropy and Larmor electric field structures are found to be similar, suggesting that observing the combination of these two signatures provides a useful indicator of proximity to a reconnection site. Partially supported by a Mahidol University Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Thailand Research Fund. This research was supported by the postdoctoral research sponsorship of Mahidol University (K. M.), the Thailand Research Fund (D. R.), NSF Grants No. ATM-0645271 (M. A. S.) and No. AGS-0953463 (P.A. C.), NASA Grants No. NNX08A083G—MMS IDS, No. NNX11AD69G, and No. NNX13AD72G(M. A. S.).

  18. Mini-ISES identifies promising carbafructopyranose-based salens for asymmetric catalysis: Tuning ligand shape via the anomeric effect

    PubMed Central

    Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Fei, Xiang; Swyka, Robert A.; Broussy, Sylvain; Shen, Weijun; Dey, Sangeeta; Roy, Sandip K.; Berkowitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces new methods of screening for and tuning chiral space and in so doing identifies a promising set of chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis. The carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine(s) and salens constructed therefrom are particularly compelling. It is shown that by removing the native anomeric effect in this ligand family, one can tune chiral ligand shape and improve chiral bias. This concept is demonstrated by a combination of (i) x-ray crystallographic structure determination, (ii) assessment of catalytic performance, and (iii) consideration of the anomeric effect and its underlying dipolar basis. The title ligands were identified by a new mini version of the in situ enzymatic screening (ISES) procedure through which catalyst-ligand combinations are screened in parallel, and information on relative rate and enantioselectivity is obtained in real time, without the need to quench reactions or draw aliquots. Mini-ISES brings the technique into the nanomole regime (200 to 350 nmol catalyst/20 μl organic volume) commensurate with emerging trends in reaction development/process chemistry. The best-performing β-d-carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine–derived salen ligand discovered here outperforms the best known organometallic and enzymatic catalysts for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of 3-phenylpropylene oxide, one of several substrates examined for which the ligand is “matched.” This ligand scaffold defines a new swath of chiral space, and anomeric effect tunability defines a new concept in shaping that chiral space. Both this ligand set and the anomeric shape-tuning concept are expected to find broad application, given the value of chiral 1,2-diamines and salens constructed from these in asymmetric catalysis. PMID:26501130

  19. Asymmetric selection and the evolution of extraordinary defences.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C; Bürger, Reinhard; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists typically predict future evolutionary responses to natural selection by analysing evolution on an adaptive landscape. Much theory assumes symmetric fitness surfaces even though many stabilizing selection gradients deviate from symmetry. Here we revisit Lande's adaptive landscape and introduce novel analytical theory that includes asymmetric selection. Asymmetric selection and the resulting skewed trait distributions bias equilibrium mean phenotypes away from fitness peaks, usually toward the flatter shoulder of the individual fitness surface. We apply this theory to explain a longstanding paradox in biology and medicine: the evolution of excessive defences against enemies. These so-called extraordinary defences can evolve in response to asymmetrical selection when marginal risks of insufficient defence exceed marginal costs of excessive defence. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between population abundances and asymmetric selection further exaggerate these defences. Recognizing the effect of asymmetrical selection on evolutionary trajectories will improve the accuracy of predictions and suggest novel explanations for apparent sub-optimality.

  20. Cis-by-Trans Regulatory Divergence Causes the Asymmetric Lethal Effects of an Ancestral Hybrid Incompatibility Gene

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Shamoni; Barbash, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The Dobzhansky and Muller (D-M) model explains the evolution of hybrid incompatibility (HI) through the interaction between lineage-specific derived alleles at two or more loci. In agreement with the expectation that HI results from functional divergence, many protein-coding genes that contribute to incompatibilities between species show signatures of adaptive evolution, including Lhr, which encodes a heterochromatin protein whose amino acid sequence has diverged extensively between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans by natural selection. The lethality of D. melanogaster/D. simulans F1 hybrid sons is rescued by removing D. simulans Lhr, but not D. melanogaster Lhr, suggesting that the lethal effect results from adaptive evolution in the D. simulans lineage. It has been proposed that adaptive protein divergence in Lhr reflects antagonistic coevolution with species-specific heterochromatin sequences and that defects in LHR protein localization cause hybrid lethality. Here we present surprising results that are inconsistent with this coding-sequence-based model. Using Lhr transgenes expressed under native conditions, we find no evidence that LHR localization differs between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, nor do we find evidence that it mislocalizes in their interspecific hybrids. Rather, we demonstrate that Lhr orthologs are differentially expressed in the hybrid background, with the levels of D. simulans Lhr double that of D. melanogaster Lhr. We further show that this asymmetric expression is caused by cis-by-trans regulatory divergence of Lhr. Therefore, the non-equivalent hybrid lethal effects of Lhr orthologs can be explained by asymmetric expression of a molecular function that is shared by both orthologs and thus was presumably inherited from the ancestral allele of Lhr. We present a model whereby hybrid lethality occurs by the interaction between evolutionarily ancestral and derived alleles. PMID:22457639

  1. Effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene-silencing potency of asymmetric siRNA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun Woo; Park, June Hyun; Yun, Soyeong; Lee, Chang Han; Shin, Chanseok; Lee, Dong-ki

    2014-08-01

    siRNAs are short dsRNAs that mediate efficient target gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. We previously developed a novel siRNA structure, called asiRNA (asymmetric siRNA), which alleviates the off-target effects associated with conventional siRNA structures without decreasing target gene silencing potency. In the present study, we explored the effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene silencing potency of asiRNA. Interestingly, asiRNAs with a 21 nt guide strand solely composed of RNA resulted in gene silencing that was more than 6-fold more efficient compared with the corresponding asiRNA guide strand harbouring a dTdT (deoxythymidine dinucleotide) at its 3'-end. We demonstrated that the molecular basis of potency of the asiRNA with a 21 nt guide strand composed solely of RNA was due to the enhanced formation of the RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) and increased affinity towards hAgo2 (human Argonaute2). Our observations may assist researchers in designing new asiRNAs with high on-target silencing efficiency with low off-target effects, which is critical for applications in both basic research and therapeutic development.

  2. Effect of the kinetic variables and postural stability between bilateral in lower limbs by the Oreum trekking exercise: asymmetric index

    PubMed Central

    Ryew, Che-Cheong; Hyun, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze an effect of the kinetic variables and postural stability between bilateral in lower limbs by participation of Oreum trekking exercise program and subjects participated were composed of adult male and female subjects (n=14) of 20s. Experiment was performed with the drop landing which can evaluate postural stability and kinetic variables between bilateral in lower limbs. peak vertical force (PVF) value showed significant difference with the less in case of post than before participation of Oreum trekking exercise. Also PVF of bilateral in lower limbs did not showed significant difference, and too the effect of interaction. vertical stability index (VSI) and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) showed significant difference with improvement of postural stability by Oreum trekking, but did not between bilateral in the limbs. Particularly the result of one-way analysis of variance due to VSI’s effect of interaction, showed the more influence on the improvement of postural stability in left leg after participation of Oreum trekking exercise. When consideration the above, the analysis result on asymmetric index of bilateral in lower limbs showed more symmetric pattern in post than before participation of Oreum trekking exercise program. PMID:27656636

  3. Determining the effect of asymmetric data on the variogram. II. Outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, R.; Oliver, M. A.

    2007-10-01

    Asymmetry in a distribution can arise from a long tail of values in the underlying process or from outliers that belong to another population that contaminate the primary process. The first paper of this series examined the effects of the former on the variogram and this paper examines the effects of asymmetry arising from outliers. Simulated annealing was used to create normally distributed random fields of different size that are realizations of known processes described by variograms with different nugget:sill ratios. These primary data sets were then contaminated with randomly located and spatially aggregated outliers from a secondary process to produce different degrees of asymmetry. Experimental variograms were computed from these data by Matheron's estimator and by three robust estimators. The effects of standard data transformations on the coefficient of skewness and on the variogram were also investigated. Cross-validation was used to assess the performance of models fitted to experimental variograms computed from a range of data contaminated by outliers for kriging. The results showed that where skewness was caused by outliers the variograms retained their general shape, but showed an increase in the nugget and sill variances and nugget:sill ratios. This effect was only slightly more for the smallest data set than for the two larger data sets and there was little difference between the results for the latter. Overall, the effect of size of data set was small for all analyses. The nugget:sill ratio showed a consistent decrease after transformation to both square roots and logarithms; the decrease was generally larger for the latter, however. Aggregated outliers had different effects on the variogram shape from those that were randomly located, and this also depended on whether they were aggregated near to the edge or the centre of the field. The results of cross-validation showed that the robust estimators and the removal of outliers were the most

  4. Effective dynamics in an asymmetric death-branching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkaman, Pegah; Jafarpour, Farhad H.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we study activity fluctuations in an asymmetric death-branching process in one-dimension. The model, which is a variant of the asymmetric Glauber model, has already been studied in Torkaman and Jafarpour (2015 J. Stat. Mech. P01007). It is known that in the low-activity region i.e. below the typical activity in the steady-state, the dynamical free energy of the system can be calculated exactly. However, the behavior of the system in the high-activity region is different and more interesting. The system undergoes a series of dynamical phase transitions. In present work we justify the hierarchy of dynamical phase transitions in terms of effective interactions in the system. It turns out that the effective interactions are long-range and that they can be described in terms of interactions between repelling shock fronts.

  5. Effective interaction in asymmetric charged binary mixtures: the non-monotonic behaviour with the colloidal charge.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2012-11-01

    In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.

  6. Effect of asymmetric deformation on capsule lateral migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Stephanie; Imai, Yohsuke; Matsunaga, Daiki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2013-11-01

    In a Stokes flow, lateral migration is the movement of a particle perpendicular to the flow direction due to the presence of a wall and/or shear gradient. Lateral migration has an effect on microscale flows in a number of fields. For example, in the cardiovascular system, the presence of a cell-free layer in blood vessels near the vessel wall is caused by the lateral migration away from the wall. In this study, we use the boundary integral method to investigate the wall-induced lateral migration of a capsule, which consists of a hyperelastic membrane enclosing an inner fluid. The boundary integral equation can be separated into two terms that represent contributions due to the capsule shape and wall. We find that the extent of the asymmetrical deformation of the capsule works to decrease the rate of migration perpendicular to the wall by up to 30% compared to the far-field analytical solution. Additionally, the effect of the asymmetrical deformation persists for distances up to ten times the capsule radius. Since the effect of asymmetrical deformation is only weakly dependent on the membrane properties, this type of analysis could be useful towards the understanding of lateral migration of other particles, such as drops and vesicles. Supported by JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  7. On the Interactive-beating-modes Model: Generation of Asymmetric Multiplet Structures and Explanation of the Blazhko Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Paul H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers a nonlinear coupling between a radial and a nonradial mode of nearly the same frequency. The results may be of general interest, but in particular have application to the “beating-modes model” of the Blazhko effect which was recently shown to accurately reproduce the light curve of RR Lyr. For weak coupling, the two modes do not phase-lock and they retain separate frequencies, but the coupling nevertheless has important consequences. Upon increasing the coupling strength from zero, an additional side-peak emerges in the spectrum forming an asymmetric triplet centered on the fundamental. As the coupling is further increased, the amplitude of this side-peak increases and the three peaks are also pulled toward each other, decreasing the Blazhko frequency. Beyond a critical coupling strength, phase-locking occurs between the modes. With appropriate choice of coupling strength, this “interactive beating-modes model” can match the side-peak amplitude ratio of any star. The effects of nonlinear damping are also explored and found to generate additional side-peaks of odd order. Consistent with this, the odd side-peaks are found to be favored in V808 Cyg. It is also shown that the Blazhko effect generates a fluctuating “environment” that can have a modulatory effect on other excited modes of the star. An example is found in V808 Cyg where the modulation is at double the Blazhko frequency. An explanation is found for this mysterious doubling, providing additional evidence in favor of the model.

  8. A Guided Wave Sensor Based on the Inverse Magnetostrictive Effect for Distinguishing Symmetric from Asymmetric Features in Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Kong, Dongying; Sun, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The magnetostrictive guided wave sensor with a single induced winding cannot distinguish axially symmetric from non-axially symmetric features in a pipe, because it is impossible for the sensor to detect the non-axially symmetric mode waves. When we study the effect of the change of the magnetic field in the air zone for receiving the longitudinal guided wave mode, we find that the change of the magnetic flux in the air zone is almost equivalent to the change of the flux in the pipe wall, but in opposite directions. Based on this phenomenon, we present a sensor that can detect the flexural-mode waves in pipes based on the inverse magnetostrictive effect. The sensor is composed of several coils that are arranged evenly on the outside of pipes. The coils induce a change in magnetic flux in the air to detect the flexural-mode waves. The waves can be determined by adding a phase delay to the induced signals. The symmetric and asymmetric features of a pipe can be distinguished using the sensor. A prototype sensor that can detect F(1,3) and F(2,3) mode waves is presented. The function of the sensor is verified by experiments. PMID:25738769

  9. A guided wave sensor based on the inverse magnetostrictive effect for distinguishing symmetric from asymmetric features in pipes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Kong, Dongying; Sun, Pengfei

    2015-03-02

    The magnetostrictive guided wave sensor with a single induced winding cannot distinguish axially symmetric from non-axially symmetric features in a pipe, because it is impossible for the sensor to detect the non-axially symmetric mode waves. When we study the effect of the change of the magnetic field in the air zone for receiving the longitudinal guided wave mode, we find that the change of the magnetic flux in the air zone is almost equivalent to the change of the flux in the pipe wall, but in opposite directions. Based on this phenomenon, we present a sensor that can detect the flexural-mode waves in pipes based on the inverse magnetostrictive effect. The sensor is composed of several coils that are arranged evenly on the outside of pipes. The coils induce a change in magnetic flux in the air to detect the flexural-mode waves. The waves can be determined by adding a phase delay to the induced signals. The symmetric and asymmetric features of a pipe can be distinguished using the sensor. A prototype sensor that can detect F(1,3) and F(2,3) mode waves is presented. The function of the sensor is verified by experiments.

  10. Effect of Asymmetrical Stand Stiffness on Hot Rolled Strip Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dianyao; Xu, Jianzhong; Jiang, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Xianghua; Wang, Guodong

    The difference of elastic springs between the operating side (OS) and driving side (DS) of rolling mill has a significant influence on the strip shape not just the strip thickness. Based on the slit beam and roll deformation theories, the roll force distribution was analysed considering the asymmetric stiffness of the OS and DS of rolling mill, and the work roll and backup roll deformation equations were deduced respectively, and the thickness distribution in lateral direction of the hot rolled strip at exit was discussed. Using the roll elastic deformation analysis software which was developed previously based on the influence coefficient method, the roll flattening distribution, roll pressure distribution and the rolling force distribution caused by the asymmetric stand stiffness were calculated and analysed, and the exit strip profile of the rolling mill was also presented. The relationship between the mill stiffness difference and the strip wedge shape or single wave was obtained. Effect of the upstream asymmetric mill on strip crown and flatness of the downstream stands was discussed.

  11. The centrosome and asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric stem cell division is a mechanism widely employed by the cell to maintain tissue homeostasis, resulting in the production of one stem cell and one differentiating cell. However, asymmetric cell division is not limited to stem cells and is widely observed even in unicellular organisms as well as in cells that make up highly complex tissues. In asymmetric cell division, cells must organize their intracellular components along the axis of asymmetry (sometimes in the context of extracellular architecture). Recent studies have described cell asymmetry in many cell types and in many cases such asymmetry involves the centrosome (or spindle pole body in yeast) as the center of cytoskeleton organization. In this review, I summarize recent discoveries in cellular polarity that lead to an asymmetric outcome, with a focus on centrosome function. PMID:19458491

  12. Effects of Noise on Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yi-you; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-11-01

    We present a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation via a six-qubit cluster state in noisy environments, which includes the phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels. We analytically derive the fidelities of the asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation process in these two noise channels. We show that the fidelities only depend on the initial state and the noisy rate.

  13. Asymmetric pendulum effect and transparency change of P T -symmetric photonic crystals under dynamical Bragg diffraction beyond the paraxial approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushuev, V. A.; Dergacheva, L. V.; Mantsyzov, B. I.

    2017-03-01

    Light propagating in P T -symmetric photonic crystals (PhCs) under Bragg diffraction in the Laue geometry has been studied theoretically using the spectral method. The P T -symmetric solutions describing propagating modes have been found in the PhCs with gain and loss beyond paraxial approximation. We described the pendulum effect—the periodical spatial localization of the total field intensity in a PhC—near the P T -symmetry-breaking point. It is shown that, due to P T -symmetric properties of the medium, an asymmetric change in the amplitudes of the diffracted waves in PhCs is observed when the sign of the Bragg incidence angle is changed from positive to negative. Thus, the intensity of a spatially periodic field in a medium radically alters under the pendulum effect. Moreover, when the sign of the Bragg incidence angle changes, a PhC of a certain thickness is turned from an absorbing structure into an amplifying one, also a PhC of any thickness evolves from completely transparent into amplifying in the vicinity of the P T -symmetry-breaking point. Under a small change of the imaginary part of permittivity, the light switching from a transmitted wave into a gain or loss diffracted wave is possible in a diffraction-thick PhC.

  14. [Asymmetric effects of addition versus deletion on change detection task: the role of feeling of something strange].

    PubMed

    Uchino, Yashio; Hakoda, Yuji; Shibata, Mariko

    2005-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the asymmetric effect of alterations (i.e., addition versus deletion) on recognition memory. In Experiment 1, a scale for measuring the FSS (Feeling of Something Strange) was developed (n=50) using added or deleted pictures from previous research (e.g., Uchino, Hakoda, & Yamada, 2000). Result showed that altered pictures were evaluated by "pleasant" and "odd" factors. In Experiment 2, 80 participants observed 20 pictures, and then they answered whether each test picture was altered or not. Test pictures varied in significance of the objects added or deleted on a scene. Additions were detected more easily than deletions only when added object was unexpected or unusual, while deleted object was essential to a scene (TD: typicality-disrupted condition). Then, 60 participants rated the FSS scale for test pictures. Ratings of odd factor for added pictures were higher than deleted pictures presented in the TD condition. These results suggest that superiority of addition over deletion might be due to their different effect on FSS.

  15. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    PubMed

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of high outflow permeability in asymmetric poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Jung; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2006-03-01

    This study attempted to accelerate the peripheral nerve regeneration, using the high outflow rate of asymmetric poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nerve conduits. Asymmetric PLGA nerve conduits of monomer ratio 85/15 were prepared by immersion-precipitation method to serve as possible materials. In this study, mandrels were immersed into a 20% (wt/wt) of PLGA/1,4-dioxane solution and precipitated in a non-solvent bath followed by freeze-drying. Different concentrations of isopropyl alcohol (95%, 40% and 20%) were used as precipitation baths where non-asymmetric (95%) and asymmetric (40% and 20%) conduits could easily form. The asymmetric nerve conduits that consisted of macrovoids on the outer layer, and interconnected micropores in the inner sublayer, possessed characters of larger outflow rate than inflow rate. The asymmetric conduits were implanted to 10mm right sciatic nerve defects in rats. Autografts, silicone and non-asymmetric PLGA conduits were performed as the control and the contrast groups. Implanted graft specimens of all groups were harvested for histological analysis at 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. The asymmetric PLGA conduits maintained a stable supporting structure and inhibited exogenous cells invasion during entire regeneration process. Asymmetric PLGA conduits were found to have statistically greater number of regenerated axons at the midconduit and distal nerve site of implanted grafts, as compared to the silicone and non-asymmetric groups at 4 and 6 weeks. Of interest was that the results of 4 weeks in asymmetric groups were better than the non-asymmetric groups at 6 weeks in number of axons. According to the results of permeability, the asymmetric structure in the conduit wall seemed to enhance the removal of the blockage of the waste drain from the inner inflamed wound in the early stage, which may have improved the efficacy of the peripheral nerve regeneration. The asymmetric structure could be adequately employed in the

  17. Effect of asymmetric auxin application on Helianthus hypocotyl curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migliaccio, F.; Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid was applied asymmetrically to the hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. After 5 hours on a clinostat, auxin gradients as small as 1 to 1.3 produced substantial (more than 60 degrees) hypocotyl curvature. This result suggests the asymmetric growth underlying hypocotyl gravitropism can be explained by lateral auxin redistribution.

  18. Detrimental effects of nicotine on the acute gastric mucosal injury induced by ethanol: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhou, Yuan; Zou, Yi-You; Wang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Chun; Guo, Ren; Li, Dai; Peng, Jun; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is responsible for the detrimental effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury and its underlying mechanisms. Gastric mucosal injury was induced by an injection of ethanol in the stomach in rats. Animals were pretreated with nicotine for 28 days before ethanol injection. The gastric mucosal ulcer index (UI) and the levels of ADMA and NO in gastric juice were determined. In vitro, the cultured mucosal epithelial cells were treated with nicotine in the presence or absence of ethanol. The concentration of ADMA in the culture medium and the ratio of cell apoptosis were measured, and the effect of nicotine or ADMA alone on cell apoptosis was also examined. In rats treated with ethanol, the UI and ADMA levels were increased and the NO level was decreased, and these effects of ethanol were augmented by pretreatment with nicotine. Administration of nicotine alone did not show significant impact on UI, ADMA level, or NO level. In vitro, incubation of human epithelial cells with ethanol induced cell injury accompanied by increased ADMA levels in the culture medium, an effect which was amplified in the presence of nicotine. Similarly, ethanol was able to induce epithelial cell apoptosis that was exacerbated by nicotine. Incubation of epithelial cells with nicotine alone did not induce cell apoptosis, but administration of ADMA alone did induce cell apoptosis. The results suggest that the gastric mucosal injury induced by ethanol is augmented by nicotine, which is related to the increased ADMA level.

  19. Influence of polydispersity on the critical parameters of an effective-potential model for asymmetric hard-sphere mixtures.

    PubMed

    Largo, Julio; Wilding, Nigel B

    2006-03-01

    We report a Monte Carlo simulation study of the properties of highly asymmetric binary hard-sphere mixtures. This system is treated within an effective fluid approximation in which the large particles interact through a depletion potential [R. Roth, Phys. Rev. E 62 5360 (2000)] designed to capture the effects of a virtual sea of small particles. We generalize this depletion potential to include the effects of explicit size dispersity in the large particles and consider the case in which the particle diameters are distributed according to a Schulz form having a degree of polydispersity 14%. The resulting alteration (with respect to the monodisperse limit) of the metastable fluid-fluid critical point parameters is determined for two values of the ratio of the diameters of the small and large particles: q(triple bond)sigma(s)/(-)sigma(b)=0.1 and q=0.05. We find that the inclusion of polydispersity moves the critical point to lower reservoir volume fractions of the small particles and high volume fractions of the large ones. The estimated critical point parameters are found to be in good agreement with those predicted by a generalized corresponding states argument which provides a link to the known critical adhesion parameter of the adhesive hard-sphere model. Finite-size scaling estimates of the cluster percolation line in the one phase fluid region indicate that inclusion of polydispersity moves the critical point deeper into the percolating regime. This suggests that phase separation is more likely to be preempted by dynamical arrest in polydisperse systems.

  20. The effect of asymmetric surface topography on dust dynamics on airless bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquette, M.; Horányi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Without a significant atmosphere or global magnetic field, the lunar surface is exposed to micrometeoroid bombardment, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and the solar wind. Micrometeoroid bombardment grinds the surface into a regolith comprised of dust grains ranging in size from 10 nm to 1 mm (Grün et al., 2011). Incident UV radiation and solar wind electrons and ions electrically charge the surface forming a plasma sheath whose structure is dependent on both the plasma and surface properties (Campanell, 2013; Guernsey and Fu, 1970; Poppe and Horányi, 2010; Nitter et al., 1998). Dust grains that are liberated from the surface can collect additional charge and interact with the plasma sheath. These interactions have been suggested to explain a variety of phenomena observed on airless bodies including horizon glow and dust ponding (Colwell et al., 2005; Hughes et al., 2008; Poppe et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2009). The effect of surface topography on the plasma environment and ensuing dust dynamics is poorly understood and serves as the focus of this paper. We present the results of a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code used to model the dayside near-surface lunar plasma environment at a variety of solar zenith angles (SZA) for two different topographies. Using the results of the PIC code, we model the effects on dust dynamics and bulk transport. The simulations also address dust transport on smaller bodies such as asteroid 433 Eros and comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to identify effects of reduced gravity.

  1. The Effect of Zonally Asymmetric Ozone Heating on the Northern Hemisphere Winter Polar Stratosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-09

    winds). Differences in the ensemble mean winds are negligible throughout much of December. In Jan - uary, the 3DO3 mean westerly winds are ∼5 m s−1...wave propagation versus wave damping in modulating the planetary wave drag and thus the zonal-mean circulation. Acknowledgments. We thank John Albers

  2. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  3. Isotope Effects and Mechanism of the Asymmetric BOROX Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Aziridination Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vetticatt, Mathew J.; Desai, Aman A.; Wulff, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of the chiral VANOL-BOROX Brønsted acid catalyzed aziridination reaction of imines and ethyldiazoacetate has been studied using a combination of experimental kinetic isotope effects and theoretical calculations. A stepwise mechanism where reversible formation of a diazonium ion intermediate precedes rate-limiting ring-closure to form the cis-aziridine is implicated. A revised model for the origin of enantio- and diastereoselectivity is proposed based on relative energies of the ring closing transition structures. PMID:23687986

  4. Cage effect in supercritical fluids and compressed gases in the photolysis of an asymmetrically substituted diazene.

    PubMed

    Hoijemberg, Pablo A; Zerbs, Jochen; Japas, M Laura; Chesta, Carlos A; Schroeder, Jörg; Aramendía, Pedro F

    2009-05-07

    We studied the photolysis of (1-biphenyl-4-yl-1-methyl-ethyl)-tert-butyl diazene in supercritical CO(2) and Xe, as well as in compressed Kr. The compound has good solubility in the mentioned fluids, allowing the photolysis measurements to be performed in CO(2) at 1.4 K above T(c) and at pressures as low as 70 bar. We monitored relative cage effect after nanosecond laser pulses by measuring the absorbance at 320 nm (DeltaA(t-->0)) corresponding to the total amount of out-of-cage 1-biphenyl-4-yl-1-methyl-ethyl radical (BME.) produced after nitrogen loss of the diazene. In supercritical CO(2) and Xe, isothermal values of DeltaA(t-->0) showed an increase-decrease behavior with increasing pressure at constant temperature, a typical feature of the transition from the solvent energy transfer to the friction controlled regimes. The comparison of the behavior of DeltaA(t-->0) in CO(2) at reduced temperatures between 1.004 and 1.027, in Xe, and in Kr points to an absence of enhanced cage effect near the critical point. Compatibility with spectroscopic data is analyzed.

  5. Study of the effect of Na+ and Ca2+ ion concentration on the structure of an asymmetric DPPC/DPPC + DPPS lipid bilayer by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Porasso, Rodolfo D; López Cascales, J J

    2009-10-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of the steady and dynamic properties of an asymmetric phospholipid bilayer was carried out in the presence of sodium or calcium ions. The asymmetric lipid bilayer was seen to resemble a cellular membrane of an eukaryotic cell, which was modeled by dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS), placing the DPPS in one of the two leaflets of the lipid bilayer. From a numerical analysis of the simulated trajectories, information was obtained with atomic resolution for both membrane leaflet concerning the effect of bilayer asymmetry on different properties of the lipid/water interface, such as the translational diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time of the water molecules, lipid hydration, and residence time of water around different lipid atoms. In addition, information related to lipid conformation, and lipid-lipid interactions was also analyzed.

  6. The electrical asymmetry effect in geometrically asymmetric capacitive radio frequency plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schuengel, E.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Eremin, D.; Mussenbrock, T.

    2012-09-01

    The electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) allows an almost ideal separate control of the mean ion energy, , and flux, {Gamma}{sub i}, at the electrodes in capacitive radio frequency discharges with identical electrode areas driven at two consecutive harmonics with adjustable phase shift, {theta}. In such geometrically symmetric discharges, a DC self bias is generated as a function of {theta}. Consequently, can be controlled separately from {Gamma}{sub i} by adjusting the phase shift. Here, we systematically study the EAE in low pressure dual-frequency discharges with different electrode areas operated in argon at 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz by experiments, kinetic simulations, and analytical modeling. We find that the functional dependence of the DC self bias on {theta} is similar, but its absolute value is strongly affected by the electrode area ratio. Consequently, the ion energy distributions change and can be controlled by adjusting {theta}, but its control range is different at both electrodes and determined by the area ratio. Under distinct conditions, the geometric asymmetry can be compensated electrically. In contrast to geometrically symmetric discharges, we find the ratio of the maximum sheath voltages to remain constant as a function of {theta} at low pressures and {Gamma}{sub i} to depend on {theta} at the smaller electrode. These observations are understood by the model. Finally, we study the self-excitation of non-linear plasma series resonance oscillations and its effect on the electron heating.

  7. Effects on calculated half-widths and shifts from the line coupling for asymmetric-top molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-06-28

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy formalism by considering the line coupling for linear molecules developed in our previous studies [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013); 140, 104304 (2014)] have been extended to asymmetric-top molecules. For H{sub 2}O immersed in N{sub 2} bath, the line coupling selection rules applicable for the pure rotational band to determine whether two specified lines are coupled or not are established. Meanwhile, because the coupling strengths are determined by relative importance of off-diagonal matrix elements versus diagonal elements of the operator −iS{sub 1} − S{sub 2}, quantitative tools are developed with which one is able to remove weakly coupled lines from consideration. By applying these tools, we have found that within reasonable tolerances, most of the H{sub 2}O lines in the pure rotational band are not coupled. This reflects the fact that differences of energy levels of the H{sub 2}O states are pretty large. But, there are several dozen strongly coupled lines and they can be categorized into different groups such that the line couplings occur only within the same groups. In practice, to identify those strongly coupled lines and to confine them into sub-linespaces are crucial steps in considering the line coupling. We have calculated half-widths and shifts for some groups, including the line coupling. Based on these calculations, one can conclude that for most of the H{sub 2}O lines, it is unnecessary to consider the line coupling. However, for several dozens of lines, effects on the calculated half-widths from the line coupling are small, but remain noticeable and reductions of calculated half-widths due to including the line coupling could reach to 5%. Meanwhile, effects on the calculated shifts are very significant and variations of calculated shifts could be as large as 25%.

  8. Effects on Calculated Half-Widths and Shifts from the Line Coupling for Asymmetric-Top Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy formalism by considering the line coupling for linear molecules developed in our previous studies [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013); 140, 104304 (2014)] have been extended to asymmetric-top molecules. For H2O immersed in N2 bath, the line coupling selection rules applicable for the pure rotational band to determine whether two specified lines are coupled or not are established. Meanwhile, because the coupling strengths are determined by relative importance of off-diagonal matrix elements versus diagonal elements of the operator -iS1 -S2, quantitative tools are developed with which one is able to remove weakly coupled lines from consideration. By applying these tools, we have found that within reasonable tolerances, most of the H2O lines in the pure rotational band are not coupled. This reflects the fact that differences of energy levels of the H2O states are pretty large. But, there are several dozen strongly coupled lines and they can be categorized into different groups such that the line couplings occur only within the same groups. In practice, to identify those strongly coupled lines and to confine them into sub-linespaces are crucial steps in considering the line coupling. We have calculated half-widths and shifts for some groups, including the line coupling. Based on these calculations, one can conclude that for most of the H2O lines, it is unnecessary to consider the line coupling. However, for several dozens of lines, effects on the calculated half-widths from the line coupling are small, but remain noticeable and reductions of calculated half-widths due to including the line coupling could reach to 5%. Meanwhile, effects on the calculated shifts are very significant and variations of calculated shifts could be as large as 25%.

  9. An improved method for computing q-values when the distribution of effect sizes is asymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Megan; Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Asymmetry is frequently observed in the empirical distribution of test statistics that results from the analysis of gene expression experiments. This asymmetry indicates an asymmetry in the distribution of effect sizes. A common method for identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes in a gene expression experiment while controlling false discovery rate (FDR) is Storey’s q-value method. This method ranks genes based solely on the P-values from each gene in the experiment. Results: We propose a method that alters and improves upon the q-value method by taking the sign of the test statistics, in addition to the P-values, into account. Through two simulation studies (one involving independent normal data and one involving microarray data), we show that the proposed method, when compared with the traditional q-value method, generally provides a better ranking for genes as well as a higher number of truly DE genes declared to be DE, while still adequately controlling FDR. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing two microarray datasets, one from an experiment of thale cress seedlings and the other from an experiment of maize leaves. Availability and implementation: The R code and data files for the proposed method and examples are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: megan.orr@ndsu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25024290

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of statins on plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Ursoniu, Sorin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Rizzo, Manfredi; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Kalinowski, Leszek; Rysz, Jacek; Banach, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The impact of statin therapy on plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels has not been conclusively studied. Therefore the aim of the meta-analysis was to assess the effect of statins on circulating ADMA levels. We searched selected databases (up to August 2014) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigate the effect of statins on plasma ADMA concentrations. A weighted meta-regression (WMD) using unrestricted maximum likelihood model was performed to assess the impact of statin dose, duration of statin therapy and baseline ADMA concentrations as potential variables on the WMD between statin and placebo group. In total, 1134 participants in 9 selected RCTs were randomized; 568 were allocated to statin treatment and 566 were controls. There was a significant reduction in plasma ADMA concentrations following statin therapy compared with placebo (WMD: − 0.104 μM, 95% confidence interval: − 0.131 to − 0.077, Z = − 7.577, p < 0.0001). Subgroups analysis has shown a significant impact of hydrophilic statins (WMD: − 0.207 μM, 95%CI: − 0.427 to + 0.013, Z = − 7.250, p < .0001) and a non-significant effect of hydrophobic statins (WMD: − 0.101 μM, 95%CI: − 0.128 to − 0.074, Z = − 1.845, p = 0.065). In conclusion, this meta-analysis of available RCTs showed a significant reduction in plasma ADMA concentrations following therapy with hydrophilic statins. PMID:25970700

  11. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Malakit, Kittipat; Ruffolo, David; Shay, Michael A.; Cassak, Paul A.

    2017-08-01

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  12. Activation of the DLPFC Reveals an Asymmetric Effect in Risky Decision Making: Evidence from a tDCS Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Daqiang; Chen, Shu; Wang, Siqi; Shi, Jinchuan; Ye, Hang; Luo, Jun; Zheng, Haoli

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of loss aversion (the tendency for losses to have a greater impact than comparable gains) has long been observed in daily life. Neurocognitive studies and brain imaging studies have shed light on the correlation between the phenomenon of loss aversion and the brain region of the prefrontal cortex. Recent brain stimulation studies using bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have obtained various results showing the causal relationship between brain regions and decision making. With the goal of studying whether unilateral stimulation can change participants' risky decision making in the frames of gains and losses, we applied different polarities of tDCS over the regions of the right or left prefrontal cortex. We also designed a risk measurement table (Multiple Price List) to reflect the participants' attitudes toward risky decision making via the crossover point including the frames of gains and losses. The results of our experiment indicated that the participants tended to be more risk averse in the gain frame after receiving left anodal tDCS and more risk seeking in the loss frame after receiving right cathodal tDCS, which was consistent with the hypothesis that the process of risky decision making was correlated with the interaction of multiple systems in the brain. Our conclusion revealed an asymmetric effect of right/left DLPFC when the participants faced gains and losses, which partially provided the neural evidence and a feasible paradigm to help better understand risky decision making and loss aversion. The current study can not only expand the traditional understanding of the behavioral preferences of humans in economics but also accommodate empirical observations of behavioral economists on the preferences of humans.

  13. Activation of the DLPFC Reveals an Asymmetric Effect in Risky Decision Making: Evidence from a tDCS Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Daqiang; Chen, Shu; Wang, Siqi; Shi, Jinchuan; Ye, Hang; Luo, Jun; Zheng, Haoli

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of loss aversion (the tendency for losses to have a greater impact than comparable gains) has long been observed in daily life. Neurocognitive studies and brain imaging studies have shed light on the correlation between the phenomenon of loss aversion and the brain region of the prefrontal cortex. Recent brain stimulation studies using bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have obtained various results showing the causal relationship between brain regions and decision making. With the goal of studying whether unilateral stimulation can change participants’ risky decision making in the frames of gains and losses, we applied different polarities of tDCS over the regions of the right or left prefrontal cortex. We also designed a risk measurement table (Multiple Price List) to reflect the participants’ attitudes toward risky decision making via the crossover point including the frames of gains and losses. The results of our experiment indicated that the participants tended to be more risk averse in the gain frame after receiving left anodal tDCS and more risk seeking in the loss frame after receiving right cathodal tDCS, which was consistent with the hypothesis that the process of risky decision making was correlated with the interaction of multiple systems in the brain. Our conclusion revealed an asymmetric effect of right/left DLPFC when the participants faced gains and losses, which partially provided the neural evidence and a feasible paradigm to help better understand risky decision making and loss aversion. The current study can not only expand the traditional understanding of the behavioral preferences of humans in economics but also accommodate empirical observations of behavioral economists on the preferences of humans. PMID:28174549

  14. Strong enhancement of Penning ionization for asymmetric atom pairs in cold Rydberg gases: the Tom and Jerry effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, D. K.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ekers, A.

    2016-06-01

    We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d , n i , of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with {n}d={n}i={n}0 the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive—for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them ‘Tom’ and ‘Jerry’ for ‘big’ and ‘small’) pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with {n}i\\gt {n}0\\gt {n}d which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate.

  15. The asymmetric gait toenail unit sign.

    PubMed

    Zaias, Nardo; Rebell, Gerbert; Casal, German; Appel, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to resolve a diagnostic problem and report toenail unit changes attributable to shoe friction that resemble onychomycosis, but that are fungus-negative, and identify common skeletal causes in patients with an asymmetric walking gait. X-ray and clinical feet inspections were performed to evaluate skeletal components that change normal foot biodynamics. Forty-nine patients, all dermatophyte-negative, were reviewed. All patients were those seen in our private practice who demonstrated skeletal and toenail unit abnormalities such as onycholysis, nail bed keratosis resembling distal subungual onychomycosis, nail plate surface abnormalities, distal toe skin keratosis, a diagnostic nail plate shape, as well as several skeletal abnormalities. The clinical abnormalities of the asymmetric gait syndrome include onycholysis, nail bed keratosis, nail plate surface abnormalities, and a diagnostic nail plate shape. By the patient's history, the skeletal findings that were present worsened with age and, in many patients, they were familial. Onychomycosis does not lead to an asymmetric gait nail problem, asymmetric gait toenail does not favor dermatophyte infection, and not all nail dystrophies are the result of an asymmetric walking gait.

  16. ASYMMETRIC ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Rha, Kicheol; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Yoon, Peter H.

    2013-09-20

    A plausible mechanism responsible for producing asymmetric electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind is investigated by means of one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A recent paper suggests that the variation in the ion-to-electron temperature ratio influences the nonlinear wave-particle dynamics such that it results in the formation of asymmetric distributions. The present PIC code simulation largely confirms this finding, but quantitative differences between the weak turbulence formalism and the present PIC simulation are also found, suggesting the limitation of the analytical method. The inter-relationship between the asymmetric electron distribution and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio may be a new useful concept for the observation.

  17. The effect of reconnection electric field on crescent and U-shaped distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection with no guide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L.-J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-07-01

    Electron distribution functions in the electron diffusion region in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field are studied by means of theory and 2-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The effect of the reconnection electric field on crescent-shaped distribution functions is to broaden the thickness of the crescent. We express the thickness of the crescent as a function of field strengths, the distance from the X-line, and the time electrons spend executing meandering orbits. The electron distribution at the reconnection X-line exhibits a U-shaped structure with an opening angle in the direction of the reconnection electric field. We predict the opening angle of the U-shaped distribution by considering acceleration of the meandering electrons by the reconnection electric field. Results from particle tracing in PIC simulations and theoretical analysis agree. The above predictions provide guidance to interpret measurements by spacecraft from electron diffusion regions in asymmetric reconnection.

  18. The Direct Catalytic Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Cheyenne S.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric aldol reactions are a powerful method for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds in an enantioselective fashion. Historically this reaction has been performed in a stoichiometric fashion to control the various aspects of chemo-, diastereo-, regio- and enantioselectivity, however, a more atom economical approach would unite high selectivity with the use of only a catalytic amount of a chiral promoter. This critical review documents the development of direct catalytic asymmetric aldol methodologies, including organocatalytic and metal-based strategies. New methods have improved the reactivity, selectivity and substrate scope of the direct aldol reaction and enabled the synthesis of complex molecular targets PMID:20419212

  19. Biomechanical Properties of Insect Wings: The Stress Stiffening Effects on the Asymmetric Bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma Beetle's Hind Wing

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings. PMID:24339878

  20. Biomechanical properties of insect wings: the stress stiffening effects on the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings.

  1. The effect of asymmetric vortex wake characteristics on a slender delta wing undergoing wing rock motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arena, A. S., Jr.; Nelson, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the fluid mechanisms responsible for wing rock on a slender delta wing with 80 deg leading edge sweep has been conducted. Time history and flow visualization data are presented for a wide angle-of-attack range. The use of an air bearing spindle has allowed the motion of the wing to be free from bearing friction or mechanical hysteresis. A bistable static condition has been found in vortex breakdown at an angle of attack of 40 deg which causes an overshoot of the steady state rocking amplitude. Flow visualization experiments also reveal a difference in static and dynamic breakdown locations on the wing. A hysteresis loop in dynamic breakdown location similar to that seen on pitching delta wings was observed as the wing was undergoing the limit cycle oscillation.

  2. Exploring the Effect of Asymmetric Mitochondrial DNA Introgression on Estimating Niche Divergence in Morphologically Cryptic Species

    PubMed Central

    Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W.

    2014-01-01

    If potential morphologically cryptic species, identified based on differentiated mitochondrial DNA, express ecological divergence, this increases support for their treatment as distinct species. However, mitochondrial DNA introgression hampers the correct estimation of ecological divergence. We test the hypothesis that estimated niche divergence differs when considering nuclear DNA composition or mitochondrial DNA type as representing the true species range. We use empirical data of two crested newt species (Amphibia: Triturus) which possess introgressed mitochondrial DNA from a third species in part of their ranges. We analyze the data in environmental space by determining Fisher distances in a principal component analysis and in geographical space by determining geographical overlap of species distribution models. We find that under mtDNA guidance in one of the two study cases niche divergence is overestimated, whereas in the other it is underestimated. In the light of our results we discuss the role of estimated niche divergence in species delineation. PMID:24743746

  3. Physiological effects of back belt wearing during asymmetric lifting.

    PubMed

    Bobick, T G; Belard, J L; Hsiao, H; Wassell, J T

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of wearing a back belt on subjects' heart rate, oxygen consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency during asymmetric repetitive lifting. Thirty subjects with materials-handling experience utilized three different belts (ten subjects per belt). Subjects completed six 30-min lifting sessions--three while wearing a belt and three without. Data analyses were conducted on the second, third, and fourth lifting periods. A 9.4 kg box, without handles, was lifted 3 times/min, starting at 10 cm above the floor, ending at 79 cm, with a 60 degree twist to the right. Data analysis indicates that belt-wearing did not have a significant effect on the overall mean values for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency. Belt-wearing had a significant effect on the overall mean oxygen consumption of the subjects.

  4. A model for asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in multilayered bimagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buznikov, N. A.; Antonov, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetoimpedance in three-layered bimagnetic film structure is studied theoretically. The structure consists of the soft and hard magnetic films separated by highly conductive non-magnetic layer. A model to describe the magnetoimpedance effect in the film structure based on a simultaneous solution of linearized Maxwell equations and Landau-Lifshitz equation is proposed. It is shown that magnetostatic coupling between the magnetic layers results in the asymmetry in the field dependence of the film impedance. The magnetostatic coupling is described in terms of an effective bias field appearing in the soft magnetic layer. The calculated field and frequency dependences of the film impedance are shown to be in a qualitative agreement with previous results of experimental studies of the asymmetric magnetoimpedance in NiFe/Cu/Co film structures. The results obtained may be useful for development of weak magnetic-field sensors.

  5. The effect of low-dose aspirin on fetal weight of idiopathic asymmetrically intrauterine growth restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler indices: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed K; Abbas, Ahmed M; Yosef, Ali H; Bahloul, Mustafa

    2017-07-11

    To investigate the effect of aspirin on fetal weight in fetuses with idiopathic asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler indices. The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at Woman's Health Hospital, Assiut, Egypt, between June 2016 and the January 2017 included 60 pregnant women (28-30 weeks) with idiopathic asymmetrical IUGR associated with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler indices. Women were randomly assigned to group I (aspirin 75 mg) daily for four weeks or group II (no intervention). The primary outcome was the fetal weight after four weeks. Secondary outcomes included Doppler blood flow changes in the umbilical artery plus delivery and neonatal outcomes. The estimated fetal weight and umbilical artery blood flow increased significantly in aspirin group (p = .00) when compared with no intervention group. As regard neonatal outcomes; aspirin group showed better results and encouraging outcomes (p < .05). Aspirin improves fetal weight and umbilical artery blood flow in idiopathic asymmetrical IUGR fetuses complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow.

  6. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  7. EFFECTS OF ASYMMETRIC FLOWS IN SOLAR CONVECTION ON OSCILLATION MODES

    SciTech Connect

    Baldner, Charles S.; Schou, Jesper

    2012-11-20

    Many helioseismic measurements suffer from substantial systematic errors. A particularly frustrating one is that time-distance measurements suffer from a large center to limb effect which looks very similar to the finite light travel time, except that the magnitude depends on the observable used and can have the opposite sign. This has frustrated attempts to determine the deep meridional flow in the solar convection zone, with Zhao et al. applying an ad hoc correction with little physical basis to correct the data. In this Letter, we propose that part of this effect can be explained by the highly asymmetrical nature of the solar granulation which results in what appears to the oscillation modes as a net radial flow, thereby imparting a phase shift on the modes as a function of observing height and thus heliocentric angle.

  8. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  9. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  10. Photovoltaic effect in individual asymmetrically contacted lead sulfide nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sedat; Bielewicz, Thomas; Lebedeva, Vera; Klinke, Christian

    2015-03-21

    Solution-processable, two-dimensional semiconductors are promising optoelectronic materials which could find application in low-cost solar cells. Lead sulfide nanocrystals raised attention since the effective band gap can be adapted over a wide range by electronic confinement and observed multi-exciton generation promises higher efficiencies. We report on the influence of the contact metal work function on the properties of transistors based on individual two-dimensional lead sulfide nanosheets. Using palladium we observed mobilities of up to 31 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that asymmetrically contacted nanosheets show photovoltaic effect and that the nanosheets' height has a decisive impact on the device performance. Nanosheets with a thickness of 5.4 nm contacted with platinum and titanium show a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.94% (EQE 75.70%). The results underline the high hopes put on such materials.

  11. The effect of asymmetrical electrode form after negative bias illuminated stress in amorphous IGZO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wan-Ching; Chang, Ting-Chang; Liao, Po-Yung; Chen, Yu-Jia; Chen, Bo-Wei; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Yang, Chung-I.; Huang, Yen-Yu; Chang, Hsi-Ming; Chiang, Shin-Chuan; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the degradation behavior of InGaZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). TFT devices with two different source and drain layouts were exanimated: one having a parallel format electrode and the other with UI format electrode. UI means that source/drain electrodes shapes is defined as a forked-shaped structure. The I-V curve of the parallel electrode exhibited a symmetric degradation under forward and reverse sweeping in the saturation region after 1000 s NBIS. In contrast, the I-V curve of the UI electrode structure under similar conditions was asymmetric. The UI electrode structure also shows a stretch-out phenomenon in its C-V measurement. Finally, this work utilizes the ISE-Technology Computer Aided Design (ISE-TCAD) system simulations, which simulate the electron field and IV curves, to analyze the mechanisms dominating the parallel and UI device degradation behaviors.

  12. Why are children living in poverty getting fatter?

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Linda S; Huot, Céline

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a dramatic increase in unhealthy weight for both children and adults. The Canadian standard of living has changed in favour of more easily prepared, calorie-dense foods and sedentary practices. Many family characteristics have also changed over the past 50 years. More Canadian families are living in disadvantaged situations, forecasting a host of unhealthy behaviours and attitudes in adults. The poor are not only getting poorer, they are also becoming heavier. Children from disadvantaged families seem to be leading the trend in increasing prevalence of unhealthy weight. Because they live in neighbourhoods that are perceived as unsafe, these children are likely spending more time indoors. This is associated with watching more television, which not only displaces other forms of educational and active entertainment but also places them at risk of learning inaccurate information about proper eating. Social science research helps identify factors contributing most to the rise in excess weight within this population, thus providing essential clues for effective approaches to its eradication. PMID:19030449

  13. Why are children living in poverty getting fatter?

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S; Huot, Céline

    2007-10-01

    In recent decades, there has been a dramatic increase in unhealthy weight for both children and adults. The Canadian standard of living has changed in favour of more easily prepared, calorie-dense foods and sedentary practices. Many family characteristics have also changed over the past 50 years. More Canadian families are living in disadvantaged situations, forecasting a host of unhealthy behaviours and attitudes in adults. The poor are not only getting poorer, they are also becoming heavier. Children from disadvantaged families seem to be leading the trend in increasing prevalence of unhealthy weight. Because they live in neighbourhoods that are perceived as unsafe, these children are likely spending more time indoors. This is associated with watching more television, which not only displaces other forms of educational and active entertainment but also places them at risk of learning inaccurate information about proper eating. Social science research helps identify factors contributing most to the rise in excess weight within this population, thus providing essential clues for effective approaches to its eradication.

  14. The effect of inclination angle on the plastic deformation behavior of bicrystalline silver nanowires with Σ3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lin; Jing, Peng; Shan, Debin; Guo, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Atomistic simulations were used to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of bicrystalline silver nanowires with Σ3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries at 0.1 K. The calculated grain boundary energies of Σ3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries corresponded well with the energies measured in experiments and predicted by the theoretical description. The Σ3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries with low inclination angles were composed of a replication of twin boundary segments separated by small ledges. The results demonstrated that the combination effect of Schmid factor and non-Schmid factors could explain dislocations emission into grain 1 only in models with low inclination angles (Ф < 64.76°). At the latter stage of plastic deformation, free surfaces served as additional dislocation sources. Parallelly arranged operative slip systems were the fundamental features of plastic deformation. In addition, a number of stacking faults and multiple stacking faults were formed during plastic deformation. The hindrance of stacking faults to dislocation motion and the interactions between dislocations leaded to the observed strain hardening in nanowires with inclination angles at and above 29.50°. The low stacking fault energy of silver was responsible for the appearance of strain hardening. Dislocations emitted from grain 2 interacted with each other contributing to the observed strain hardening. Grain boundaries were completely eliminated by successive emission of dislocations from grain boundaries in nanowires with an inclination angle of 35.26° and 54.74°. A detailed understanding of the relationship between strength and grain boundary structures as well as specific plastic deformation would push forward the application of nanocrystalline materials and provide insights into the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with superior strength and ductility.

  15. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution.

    PubMed

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-05-21

    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out that both the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids across a membrane and the asymmetric distribution of NaCl and KCl induce nonzero drops in the transmembrane potential. However, these potential drops are opposite in sign. As the PC leaflet faces a NaCl saline solution and the PE leaflet is exposed to KCl, the outcome is that the effects of asymmetric lipid and salt ion distributions essentially cancel one another almost completely. Overall, our study highlights the complex nature of the intrinsic potential of cell membranes under physiological conditions.

  16. The Asymmetric Exclusion Process and Brownian Excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.; Enaud, C.; Lebowitz, J. L.

    2004-04-01

    We consider the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) in one dimension in its maximal current phase. We show, by an exact calculation, that the non-Gaussian part of the fluctuations of density can be described in terms of the statistical properties of a Brownian excursion. Numerical simulations indicate that the description in terms of a Brownian excursion remains valid for more general one dimensional driven systems in their maximal current phase.

  17. High Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Achieved by the Simultaneous Plasmon-Optical and Plasmon-Electrical Effects from Plasmonic Asymmetric Modes of Gold Nanostars.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xingang; Cheng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Shaoqing; Li, Xinchen; Rao, Tingke; Huo, Lijun; Hou, Jianhui; Choy, Wallace C H

    2016-10-01

    The plasmon-optical effects have been utilized to optically enhance active layer absorption in organic solar cells (OSCs). The exploited plasmonic resonances of metal nanomaterials are typically from the fundamental dipole/high-order modes with narrow spectral widths for regional OSC absorption improvement. The conventional broadband absorption enhancement (using plasmonic effects) needs linear-superposition of plasmonic resonances. In this work, through strategic incorporation of gold nanostars (Au NSs) in between hole transport layer (HTL) and active layer, the excited plasmonic asymmetric modes offer a new approach toward broadband enhancement. Remarkably, the improvement is explained by energy transfer of plasmonic asymmetric modes of Au NS. In more detail, after incorporation of Au NSs, the optical power in electron transport layer transfers to active layer for improving OSC absorption, which otherwise will become dissipation or leakage as the role of carrier transport layer is not for photon-absorption induced carrier generation. Moreover, Au NSs simultaneously deliver plasmon-electrical effects which shorten transport path length of the typically low-mobility holes and lengthen that of high-mobility electrons for better balanced carrier collection. Meanwhile, the resistance of HTL is reduced by Au NSs. Consequently, power conversion efficiency of 10.5% has been achieved through cooperatively plasmon-optical and plasmon-electrical effects of Au NSs.

  18. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin.

    PubMed

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2014-06-03

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  19. The incidence of asymmetrical left/right skeletal and dental development in an Australian population and the effect of this on forensic age estimations.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard B; Briggs, Christopher; Drummer, Olaf H

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of developmental asymmetry between left and right sides of the body in the third molar tooth and medial clavicular epiphysis is examined in a contemporary Australian population (92% Caucasian). The contention that differences between left and right side developmental timing is statistically insignificant, and can therefore be ignored in forensic age estimation procedures, is questioned. It was found that of a population sample of 604 individuals, 177 displayed asymmetrical timing in development between antimeres of the third molar, the medial clavicle or both. There was no correlation found between the third molar tooth and medial clavicular epiphysis in terms of left/right synchronicity. For those individuals differing in development by two or more developmental stages in either age marker or one stage in both age markers, the effect upon the accuracy of forensic age estimations can be significant. Differences in age estimates for each side were as much as 3.1 years. Age estimations based on one side only may not provide the best estimate for an individual, and more accurate results can be achieved if both sides are taken into consideration. A protocol for dealing with asymmetrical development is discussed with reference to the multifactorial age estimation method proposed by the same authors in previous research.

  20. Some recent applications of the suction analogy to asymmetric flow situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A recent extension of the suction analogy for the estimation of vortex loads on asymmetric configurations was reviewed. This includes the asymmetric augmented vortex lift and the forward sweep effect on side edge suction. Application of this extension to a series of skewed wings has resulted in an improved estimating capability for a wide range of asymmetric flow situations. Hence, the suction analogy concept now has more general applicability for subsonic lifting surface analysis.

  1. Improving nucleoside analogs via lipid conjugation: Is fatter any better?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter; Kucera, Gregory; Pardee, Timothy S

    2016-04-01

    In the past few decades, nucleoside analog drugs have been used to treat a large variety of cancers. These anti-metabolite drugs mimic nucleosides and interfere with chain lengthening upon incorporation into the DNA or RNA of actively replicating cells. However, efficient delivery of these drugs is limited due to their pharmacokinetic properties, and tumors often develop drug resistance. In addition, nucleoside analogs are generally hydrophilic, resulting in poor bioavailability and impaired blood-brain barrier penetration. Conjugating these drugs to lipids modifies their pharmacokinetic properties and may improve in vivo efficacy. This review will cover recent advances in the field of conjugation of phospholipids to nucleoside analogs. This includes conjugation of myristic acid, 12-thioethyldodecanoic acid, 5-elaidic acid esters, phosphoramidate, and self-emulsifying formulations. Relevant in vitro and in vivo data will be discussed for each drug, as well as any available data from clinical trials.

  2. Capuchins (Cebus apella) fail to show an asymmetric dominance effect.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul M; Santos, Laurie R

    2017-03-01

    The asymmetric dominance effect (ADE) occurs when the introduction of a partially dominated decoy option increases the choice share of its dominating alternative. The ADE is a violation of regularity and the constant-ratio rule, which are two derivations of the independence of irrelevant alternatives axiom, a core tenant of rational choice. The ADE is one of the most widely reported human choice phenomena, leading researchers to probe its origins by studying a variety of non-human species. We examined the ADE in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a species that displays many other decision biases. In Experiment 1, we used a touchscreen method to elicit choice-based preferences for food rewards in asymmetrically dominated choice sets. In Experiments 2 and 3, we distinguished between different types of judgments and used a free selection task to elicit consumption-based preferences for juice rewards. However, we found no evidence for the ADE through violations of regularity or the constant-ratio rule, despite the similarity of our stimuli to other human and non-human experiments. While these results appear to conflict with existing literature on the ADE in non-human species, we point out methodological differences-notably, the distinction between value-based and perception-based stimuli-that have led to a collection of phenomena that are difficult to understand under a unitary theoretical framework. In particular, we highlight key differences between the human and non-human research and provide a series of steps that researchers could take to better understand the ADE.

  3. Triazolium based ionic liquid crystals: Effect of asymmetric substitution

    DOE PAGES

    Stappert, K.; Mudring, A. -V.

    2015-01-27

    A new series of ten different asymmetrical 1-dodecyl-3-alkyl-triazolium bromides, [C12CnTr][Br], has been synthesized and their mesomorphic behavior studied by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), POM (polarizing optical microscopy) and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering). The influence of the chain length of the triazolium salts is investigated to explore the effect of asymmetric substitution on the phase behaviour of these compounds. For that reason, the length of one alkyl chain was varied from 14 to 1 carbon atoms (n = 14, 12, 10, 8–4, 2, 1) while the other alkyl chain was kept at 12 carbon. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis ofmore » compounds [C12C12Tr][Br] and [C12C5Tr][Br] reveal that the cations adopt a U-shaped conformation with head-to-head arranged triazolium cores. In contrast, for [C12C1Tr][Br], a rod like shape of the cation with interdigitated alkyl chains is found. All investigated compounds are thermotropic liquid crystals. Higher ordered smectic phases, smectic C as well as smectic A phases were found depending on the chain length of the cation. Moreover, the clearing point temperature decreases with decreasing chain length with exception for the n-dodecyl-3-alkyltrizoliumbromides with the two shortest alkyl chains, [C12C2Tr][Br] and [C12C1Tr][Br], which present higher clearing temperatures (86 and 156 °C) and are structurally distinctly different.« less

  4. Triazolium based ionic liquid crystals: Effect of asymmetric substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Stappert, K.; Mudring, A. -V.

    2015-01-27

    A new series of ten different asymmetrical 1-dodecyl-3-alkyl-triazolium bromides, [C12CnTr][Br], has been synthesized and their mesomorphic behavior studied by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), POM (polarizing optical microscopy) and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering). The influence of the chain length of the triazolium salts is investigated to explore the effect of asymmetric substitution on the phase behaviour of these compounds. For that reason, the length of one alkyl chain was varied from 14 to 1 carbon atoms (n = 14, 12, 10, 8–4, 2, 1) while the other alkyl chain was kept at 12 carbon. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis of compounds [C12C12Tr][Br] and [C12C5Tr][Br] reveal that the cations adopt a U-shaped conformation with head-to-head arranged triazolium cores. In contrast, for [C12C1Tr][Br], a rod like shape of the cation with interdigitated alkyl chains is found. All investigated compounds are thermotropic liquid crystals. Higher ordered smectic phases, smectic C as well as smectic A phases were found depending on the chain length of the cation. Moreover, the clearing point temperature decreases with decreasing chain length with exception for the n-dodecyl-3-alkyltrizoliumbromides with the two shortest alkyl chains, [C12C2Tr][Br] and [C12C1Tr][Br], which present higher clearing temperatures (86 and 156 °C) and are structurally distinctly different.

  5. Diradical character dependences of the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of asymmetric open-shell singlet systems.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masayoshi; Champagne, Benoît

    2013-06-28

    The static first and second hyperpolarizabilities (referred to as β and γ, respectively) of asymmetric open-shell singlet systems have been investigated using the asymmetric two-site diradical model within the valence configuration interaction level of theory in order to reveal the effect of the asymmetric electron distribution on the diradical character and subsequently on β and γ. It is found that the increase of the asymmetric electron distribution causes remarkable changes in the amplitude and the sign of β and γ, and that their variations are intensified with the increase of the diradical character. These results demonstrate that the asymmetric open-shell singlet systems with intermediate diradical characters can exhibit further enhancements of β and γ as compared to conventional asymmetric closed-shell systems and also to symmetric open-shell singlet systems with intermediate diradical characters.

  6. Effect of asymmetrical eddy currents on magnetic diagnosis signals for equilibrium reconstruction in the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Z; Tan, Y; Gao, Z; Wang, L

    2014-11-01

    The vacuum vessel of Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak was split into two insulated hemispheres, both of which were insulated from the central cylinder. The eddy currents flowing in the vacuum vessel would become asymmetrical due to discontinuity. A 3D finite elements model was applied in order to study the eddy currents. The modeling results indicated that when the Poloidal Field (PF) was applied, the induced eddy currents would flow in the toroidal direction in the center of the hemispheres and would be forced to turn to the poloidal and radial directions due to the insulated slit. Since the eddy currents converged on the top and bottom of the vessel, the current densities there tended to be much higher than those in the equatorial plane were. Moreover, the eddy currents on the top and bottom of vacuum vessel had the same direction when the current flowed in the PF coils. These features resulted in the leading phases of signals on the top and bottom flux loops when compared with the PF waveforms.

  7. Strong Asymmetric Limit of the Quasi-Potential of the Boundary Driven Weakly Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Lorenzo; Gabrielli, Davide; Landim, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    We consider the weakly asymmetric exclusion process on a bounded interval with particles reservoirs at the endpoints. The hydrodynamic limit for the empirical density, obtained in the diffusive scaling, is given by the viscous Burgers equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In the case in which the bulk asymmetry is in the same direction as the drift due to the boundary reservoirs, we prove that the quasi-potential can be expressed in terms of the solution to a one-dimensional boundary value problem which has been introduced by Enaud and Derrida [16]. We consider the strong asymmetric limit of the quasi-potential and recover the functional derived by Derrida, Lebowitz, and Speer [15] for the asymmetric exclusion process.

  8. Effects of asymmetrical stance and movement on body rotation in pushing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-01-21

    Pushing objects in the presence of body asymmetries could increase the risk of back injury. Furthermore, when the object is heavy, it could exacerbate the effects induced by asymmetrical posture. We investigated how the use of asymmetrical posture and/or upper extremity movement affect vertical torque (Tz) and center of pressure (COP) displacement during pushing. Ten healthy volunteers were instructed to push objects of three different weights using two hands (symmetrical hand use) or one hand (asymmetrical hand use) while standing in symmetrical or asymmetrical foot-positions. The peak values of Tz and COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction (COPML) were analyzed. In cases of isolated asymmetry, changes in the Tz were mainly linked with effects of hand-use whereas effects of foot-position dominated changes in the COPML displacement. In cases of a combined asymmetry, the magnitudes of both Tz and COPML were additive when asymmetrical hand-use and foot-position induced the rotation of the lower and upper body in the same direction or subtractive when asymmetries resulted in the rotation of the body segments in the opposite directions. Moreover, larger Tz and COP displacements were seen when pushing the heavy weight. The results point out the importance of using Tz and COPML to describe the isolated or combined effects of asymmetrical upper extremity movement and asymmetrical posture on body rotation during pushing. Furthermore, it suggests that a proper combination of unilateral arm movement and foot placements could help to reduce body rotation even when pushing heavy objects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ratchet effect study in Si/SiGe heterostructures in the presence of asymmetrical antidots for different polarizations of microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisotto, Isabelle; Kannan, Ethirajulu S.; Portal, Jean-Claude; Brown, Devin; Beck, Thomas J.; Krupko, Yuriy; Jalabert, Laurent; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Hoshi, Yusuke; Shiraki, Yasuhiro; Saraya, Takura

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we studied the photovoltage response of an antidot lattice to microwave radiation for different antidot parameters. The study was carried out in a Si/SiGe heterostructure by illuminating the antidot lattice with linearly polarized microwaves and recording the polarity of induced photovoltage for different angles of incidence. Our study revealed that with increased antidot density and etching depth, the polarity of induced photovoltage changed when the angle of incidence was rotated 90 degrees. In samples with large antidot density and/or a deeply etched antidot lattice, scattering was dominated by electron interaction with the asymmetrical potential created by semicircular antidots. The strong electron-electron interaction prevailed in other cases. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of interaction between microwaves and electrons in an antidot lattice, which is the key for developing an innovative ratchet-based device. Moreover, we present an original and fundamental example of antidot lattice etching through the use of a two-dimensional electron gas. This system deals with a hole lattice instead of an electron depletion in the antidot lattice region.

  10. Ratchet effect study in Si/SiGe heterostructures in the presence of asymmetrical antidots for different polarizations of microwaves.

    PubMed

    Bisotto, Isabelle; Kannan, Ethirajulu S; Portal, Jean-Claude; Brown, Devin; Beck, Thomas J; Krupko, Yuriy; Jalabert, Laurent; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Hoshi, Yusuke; Shiraki, Yasuhiro; Saraya, Takura

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we studied the photovoltage response of an antidot lattice to microwave radiation for different antidot parameters. The study was carried out in a Si/SiGe heterostructure by illuminating the antidot lattice with linearly polarized microwaves and recording the polarity of induced photovoltage for different angles of incidence. Our study revealed that with increased antidot density and etching depth, the polarity of induced photovoltage changed when the angle of incidence was rotated 90 degrees. In samples with large antidot density and/or a deeply etched antidot lattice, scattering was dominated by electron interaction with the asymmetrical potential created by semicircular antidots. The strong electron-electron interaction prevailed in other cases. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of interaction between microwaves and electrons in an antidot lattice, which is the key for developing an innovative ratchet-based device. Moreover, we present an original and fundamental example of antidot lattice etching through the use of a two-dimensional electron gas. This system deals with a hole lattice instead of an electron depletion in the antidot lattice region.

  11. The acute asymmetric effects of hemiovariectomy on testosterone secretion vary along the estrous cycle. The participation of the cholinergic system

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Angélica; Rodríguez, Jorge O; Palafox, María T; Meléndez, Griselda; Barco, Ana I; Chavira, Roberto; Esther Cruz, M; Domínguez, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The presence of asymmetry in the capacity of the left and right ovaries to secrete testosterone was analyzed by studying the effects of hemiovariectomy along the estrus cycle one hour after surgery. The effects of ether anesthesia on hormone serum levels were also analyzed. Bilateral ovariectomy and the extirpation of the left ovary performed on the day of proestrus resulted in significantly lower testosterone levels. Compared to the anesthetized group, the effects of perforating the peritoneum unilaterally varied according to the day of the estrous cycle and the side of the peritoneum surgery was performed on. Injecting atropine sulfate (ATR) to control or anesthetized rats on D1 resulted in a significant increase of testosterone serum levels. The effects of perforating the peritoneum on testosterone levels depended on the cholinergic innervation and varied along the estrous cycle. Blocking the cholinergic system before performing unilateral or bilateral ovariectomy had different effects depending on the day of the estrous cycle. Testosterone plasma levels increased significantly when surgery was performed on the day of diestrus and dropped when surgery was performed on proestrus. Similar effects were observed when the left adrenal was extirpated from animals with the cholinergic system blocked. The results presented herein support the hypothesis of asymmetry in the ovaries' abilities to secrete steroid hormones, and that the capacity to secrete testosterone varies along the estrous cycle. PMID:16509991

  12. Asymmetric Volcano Trend in Oxygen Reduction Activity of Pt and Non-Pt Catalysts: In Situ Identification of the Site-Blocking Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingkun; Alsudairi, Amell; Ma, Zi-Feng; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Jia, Qingying

    2017-02-01

    Proper understanding of the major limitations of current catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is essential for further advancement. Herein by studying representative Pt and non-Pt ORR catalysts with a wide range of redox potential (Eredox) via combined electrochemical, theoretical, and in situ spectroscopic methods, we demonstrate that the role of the site-blocking effect in limiting the ORR varies drastically depending on the Eredox of active sites; and the intrinsic activity of active sites with low Eredox have been markedly underestimated owing to the overlook of this effect. Accordingly, we establish a general asymmetric volcano trend in the ORR activity: the ORR of the catalysts on the overly high Eredox side of the volcano is limited by the intrinsic activity; whereas the ORR of the catalysts on the low Eredox side is limited by either the site-blocking effect and/or intrinsic activity depending on the Eredox.

  13. Development of the asymmetric human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2005-10-01

    Symmetry across the midline is present in many animals, together with the left/right asymmetry of several organs, such as the heart in vertebrates. The development of such asymmetries during embryonic development requires first the specification of the midline and then specification of left/right. One model proposes the transfer of molecular asymmetry to the multicellular level. Nodal expression on the left side in mammals and chicks is a key event, and is due to the release of calcium on the left possibly involving an ion pump and the Notch pathway

  14. Comparison of the effects of symmetric and asymmetric temperature elevation and CO2 enrichment on yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yunzhou; Liu, Huiling; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Liu, Yueyan; Dong, Baodi; Shi, Changhai; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhang, Chao; Gong, Jinnan; Si, Fuyan; Li, Dongxiao; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Mengyu

    2014-01-01

    Under the changing climate, asymmetric warming pattern would be more likely during day and night time, instead of symmetric one. Concurrently, the growth responses and water use of plants may be different compared with those estimated based on symmetric warming. In this work, it was compared with the effects of symmetric (ETs) and asymmetric (ETa) elevation of temperature alone, and in interaction with elevated carbon dioxide concentration (EC), on the grain yield (GY) and evapotranspiration in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based on pot experiment in the North China Plain (NCP). The experiment was carried out in six enclosed-top chambers with following climate treatments: (1) ambient temperature and ambient CO2 (CON), (2) ambient temperature and elevated CO2 (EC), (3) elevated temperature and ambient CO2 (ETs; ETa), and (4) elevated temperature and elevated CO2 (ECETs, ECETa). In symmetric warming, temperature was increased by 3°C and in asymmetric one by 3.5°C during night and 2.5°C during daytime, respectively. As a result, GY was in ETa and ETs 15.6 (P < 0.05) and 10.3% (P < 0.05) lower than that in CON. In ECETs and ECETa treatments, GY was 14.9 (P < 0.05) and 9.1% (P < 0.05) higher than that in CON. Opposite to GY, evapotranspiration was 7.8 (P < 0.05) and 17.9% (P < 0.05) higher in ETa and ETs treatments and 7.2 (P < 0.05) and 2.1% (P > 0.05) lower in ECETs and ECETa treatments compared with CON. Thus, GY of wheat could be expected to increase under the changing climate with concurrent elevation of CO2 and temperature as a result of increased WUE under the elevated CO2. However, the gain would be lower under ETa than that estimated based on ETs due to higher evapotranspiration. PMID:24963392

  15. Comparison of the effects of symmetric and asymmetric temperature elevation and CO2 enrichment on yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yunzhou; Liu, Huiling; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Liu, Yueyan; Dong, Baodi; Shi, Changhai; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhang, Chao; Gong, Jinnan; Si, Fuyan; Li, Dongxiao; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Mengyu

    2014-05-01

    Under the changing climate, asymmetric warming pattern would be more likely during day and night time, instead of symmetric one. Concurrently, the growth responses and water use of plants may be different compared with those estimated based on symmetric warming. In this work, it was compared with the effects of symmetric (ETs) and asymmetric (ETa) elevation of temperature alone, and in interaction with elevated carbon dioxide concentration (EC), on the grain yield (GY) and evapotranspiration in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based on pot experiment in the North China Plain (NCP). The experiment was carried out in six enclosed-top chambers with following climate treatments: (1) ambient temperature and ambient CO2 (CON), (2) ambient temperature and elevated CO2 (EC), (3) elevated temperature and ambient CO2 (ETs; ETa), and (4) elevated temperature and elevated CO2 (ECETs, ECETa). In symmetric warming, temperature was increased by 3°C and in asymmetric one by 3.5°C during night and 2.5°C during daytime, respectively. As a result, GY was in ETa and ETs 15.6 (P < 0.05) and 10.3% (P < 0.05) lower than that in CON. In ECETs and ECETa treatments, GY was 14.9 (P < 0.05) and 9.1% (P < 0.05) higher than that in CON. Opposite to GY, evapotranspiration was 7.8 (P < 0.05) and 17.9% (P < 0.05) higher in ETa and ETs treatments and 7.2 (P < 0.05) and 2.1% (P > 0.05) lower in ECETs and ECETa treatments compared with CON. Thus, GY of wheat could be expected to increase under the changing climate with concurrent elevation of CO2 and temperature as a result of increased WUE under the elevated CO2. However, the gain would be lower under ETa than that estimated based on ETs due to higher evapotranspiration.

  16. Nonequilibrium ionization effects in asymmetrically heated loops. [in solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spadaro, D.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Mariska, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of nonequilibrium ionization on magnetic loop models with a steady siphon flow that is driven by a nonuniform heating rate are investigated. The model developed by Mariska (1988) to explain the observed redshifts of transition region emission lines is examined, and the number densities of the ions of carbon and oxygen along the loop are computed, with and without the approximation of ionization equilibrium. Considerable deviations from equilibrium were found. In order to determine the consequences of these nonequilibrium effects on the characteristics of the EUV emission from the loop plasma, the profiles and wavelength positions of all the important emission lines due to carbon and oxygen were calculated. The calculations are in broad agreement with Mariska's conclusions, although they show a significant diminution of the Doppler shifts, as well as modifications to the line widths. It is concluded that the inclusion of nonequilibrium effects make it more difficult to reproduce the observed characteristics of the solar transition region by means of the asymmetric-heating models.

  17. Asymmetric cross-modal effects in time perception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Ming; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2009-03-01

    It is common to judge the duration of an audiovisual event, and yet it remains controversial how the judgment of duration is affected by signals from other modalities. We used an oddball paradigm to examine the effect of sound on the judgment of visual duration and that of a visual object on the judgment of an auditory duration. In a series of standards and oddballs, the participants compared the duration of the oddballs to that of the standards. Results showed asymmetric cross-modal effects, supporting the auditory dominance hypothesis: a sound extends the perceived visual duration, whereas a visual object has no effect on perceived auditory duration. The possible mechanisms (pacemaker or mode switch) proposed in the Scalar Expectancy Theory [Gibbon, J., Church, R. M., & Meck, W. H. (1984). Scalar timing in memory. In J. Gibbon & L. Allan (Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Vol. 423. Timing and time perception (pp. 52-77). New York: New York Academy of Sciences] were examined using different standard durations. We conclude that sound increases the perceived visual duration by accelerating the pulse rate in the visual pacemaker.

  18. Exchange bias effect modified asymmetric magnetization reversal in Ni/YMnO3 multiferroic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Junlu; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Feng, Liefeng; Bai, Haili

    2016-04-01

    Exchange bias (EB) effect modified asymmetric magnetization reversal in Ni/YMnO3 multiferroic bilayers was investigated by combining anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) with free energy methods. The promotion and inhibition effects of EB field on magnetization rotation result in the asymmetry of magnetization reversal. The AMR curves exhibit shape transition from arc-like to sin2θH-dependence with increasing external fields due to the competition between Zeeman energy and interfacial coupling energy. The phase shift and asymmetric behaviors become weak as the EB field decreases. Our work suggests that controlling the EB effect can be an alternative way to manipulate the magnetization reversal in exchange biased systems.

  19. Effects of an asymmetrically molded plastic objective lens on the push-pull tracking-error signal in an optical disk drive.

    PubMed

    Hung, K M

    2000-03-10

    The effects of a plastic objective lens's astigmatism on the push-pull tracking-error signal (TES) of an optical disk data storage system were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Astigmatism of plastic objective lenses arises commonly from the asymmetric deviation from their designed shape during the molding process. By carefully studying the aberration characteristics of the objective lens and including the astigmatism of the laser diode in the analysis, we can calculate the combined effects of astigmatism of these two components on the push-pull TES. It is found, from both the simulations and the experiments, that, by rotation of the objective lens about the optical axis, the peak-to-peak value of the push-pull TES varies with the lens's rotation angle, and a change as great as 340% in its value was observed in a given optical pickup.

  20. The effect of buckling on I–V characteristics of symmetric and asymmetric zigzag germanene nanoribbons: a first-principle calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, T.; Bagheri Tagani, M.; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider zigzag-edge germanene nanoribbons with small buckling and even (symmetric) or odd (asymmetric) widths. Although the band structures of these two type structures are the same, they are noticeably different in terms of conductivity and current. In previous works on silicene, the role of buckling to dominate the effect of symmetry has been ignored and just the buckling changes of the symmetry space group from σ to C 2 are shown. In this case, buckling is the main factor responsible for differences in conductivity and current. Fluorine, hydroxyl, and hydrogen are used to passivate the nanoribbon edges. Results show that the current and conductivity are strongly dependent on the kinds of substitutional atoms/groups used to passivate the structure. It is found that symmetry breaking is not the only effective factor in the creation of current—buckling and backscattering are also important.

  1. [Asymmetric confusability effect in recognition memory of cats pictures].

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Hakoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    Performance superiority of the addition of features in the stimuli over the deletion on recognition (asymmetric confusability effect) has been shown in previous studies (Pezdek, Maki, Valencia-Laver, Whetstone, Stoeckert, & Dougherty, 1988; Ando & Hakoda, 1998). We investigated the same effect by using a familiar living thing (cat) as a stimulus. Ten subjects were given a recognition task using pictures of cats with feature changes (additions, deletions, or no change). Results showed that the picture with deletions were easier to recognize than those with additions, which was opposite to the previous studies. Then, we examined the possibility that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression. Another group of 18 subjects was asked to rate the impression scales consisting of a "typicality-reality factor", a "stability-balance factor", and a "grotesque-disgust factor". Results showed that there was a significant difference in impression ratings for each factor between the additions and the deletions, and that impression ratings predicted recognition performance well. It was concluded that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression.

  2. Thermal and velocity slip effects on the MHD peristaltic flow with carbon nanotubes in an asymmetric channel: application of radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S.; Khan, Zafar Hayat

    2014-10-01

    Peristaltic flow is used to study the flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes in an asymmetric channel with thermal and velocity slip effects. Two types of carbon nanotubes, namely, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes are utilized to see the analysis with water as base fluids. Empirical correlations are used for the thermo-physical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of solid volume fraction of CNTs. The governing equations are simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. Exact solutions have been evaluated for velocity, pressure gradient, the solid volume fraction of CNTs and temperature profile. The effects of various flow parameters, i.e. Hatmann number M, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles ϕ, Grashof number G, velocity slip parameter β, thermal slip parameter γ and Prandtl number P r are presented graphically for both single- (SWCNT) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT).

  3. A Numerical Investigation of the Strain Effect on Saturation Optical Intensity in Electroabsorption Modulators Based on Asymmetric Intra-step-barrier Coupled Double Strained Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Kambiz

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the strain effect on saturation optical intensity in electroabsorption modulators (EAMs) based on asymmetric intra-step-barrier coupled double strained quantum well (AICD-SQWs) active region is theoretically investigated and compared with intra-step quantum well (IQW) structure. For this purpose, the thermionic emission and tunneling escape processes are taken into account and the escape times of photogenerated carriers are calculated. Then, the electroabsorption coefficient is calculated for different well strains for TE input light polarization. Finally, the saturation optical intensity of electroabsorption modulators with AICD-SQW structures in comparison with IQW structure is evaluated. Numerical results show that the tensile strain of well has the most significant effect on the saturation optical intensity of electroabsorption modulators with AICD-SQW structures due to reduction in escape times.

  4. Reflection-Asymmetric Nuclear Deformations within the Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, E; Erler, J; Nazarewicz, W.; Stoitsov, M

    2012-01-01

    Within the nuclear density functional theory (DFT) we study the effect of reflection- asymmetric shapes on ground-state binding energies and binding energy differences. To this end, we developed the new DFT solver axialhfb that uses an approximate second-order gradient to solve the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations of superconducting DFT with the quasi-local Skyrme energy density functionals. Illustrative calculations are carried out for even- even isotopes of radium and thorium.

  5. Evolutionary stability in the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Zhou; Wang, Rui-Wu; Li, Yao-Tang

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that in public goods games, contributors are either strong or weak players and each individual has an equal probability of exhibiting cooperation. It is difficult to explain why the public good is produced by strong individuals in some cooperation systems, and by weak individuals in others. Viewing the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma game as an evolutionary game, we find that whether the strong or the weak players produce the public good depends on the initial condition (i.e., phenotype or initial strategy of individuals). These different evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) associated with different initial conditions, can be interpreted as the production modes of public goods of different cooperation systems. A further analysis revealed that the strong player adopts a pure strategy but mixed strategies for the weak players to produce the public good, and that the probability of volunteering by weak players decreases with increasing group size or decreasing cost-benefit ratio. Our model shows that the defection probability of a "strong" player is greater than the "weak" players in the model of Diekmann (1993). This contradicts Selten's (1980) model that public goods can only be produced by a strong player, is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, and will therefore disappear over evolutionary time. Our public good model with ESS has thus extended previous interpretations that the public good can only be produced by strong players in an asymmetric game.

  6. Evolutionary Stability in the Asymmetric Volunteer's Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao-Tang

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that in public goods games, contributors are either strong or weak players and each individual has an equal probability of exhibiting cooperation. It is difficult to explain why the public good is produced by strong individuals in some cooperation systems, and by weak individuals in others. Viewing the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma game as an evolutionary game, we find that whether the strong or the weak players produce the public good depends on the initial condition (i.e., phenotype or initial strategy of individuals). These different evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) associated with different initial conditions, can be interpreted as the production modes of public goods of different cooperation systems. A further analysis revealed that the strong player adopts a pure strategy but mixed strategies for the weak players to produce the public good, and that the probability of volunteering by weak players decreases with increasing group size or decreasing cost-benefit ratio. Our model shows that the defection probability of a “strong” player is greater than the “weak” players in the model of Diekmann (1993). This contradicts Selten's (1980) model that public goods can only be produced by a strong player, is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, and will therefore disappear over evolutionary time. Our public good model with ESS has thus extended previous interpretations that the public good can only be produced by strong players in an asymmetric game. PMID:25111781

  7. Active Control of Asymmetric Vortex Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Silver Spring, MD 20910 5.- S DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING Attn: Code CK-81 SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report.. - -- Approved for public...positioned downstream of the model, fixed to the support assembly . These were focused up- stream and were used in conjunction with the tunnel vapor...strips, +50 rps, M = 0.25, a = 500 33 oi 0 0 N _ z0 Liin 0 -4 . 0- D z 0. r4 344 1.0. CONFIG: TIP WITH 3 GRIT STRIPS M : 0.6 ACy a:Q 3Q0 A-Yn0 0 + SPIN

  8. Limit laws for the asymmetric inclusion process.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2012-12-01

    The Asymmetric Inclusion Process (ASIP) is a unidirectional lattice-gas flow model which was recently introduced as an exactly solvable 'Bosonic' counterpart of the 'Fermionic' asymmetric exclusion process. An iterative algorithm that allows the computation of the probability generating function (PGF) of the ASIP's steady state exists but practical considerations limit its applicability to small ASIP lattices. Large lattices, on the other hand, have been studied primarily via Monte Carlo simulations and were shown to display a wide spectrum of intriguing statistical phenomena. In this paper we bypass the need for direct computation of the PGF and explore the ASIP's asymptotic statistical behavior. We consider three different limiting regimes: heavy-traffic regime, large-system regime, and balanced-system regime. In each of these regimes we obtain-analytically and in closed form-stochastic limit laws for five key ASIP observables: traversal time, overall load, busy period, first occupied site, and draining time. The results obtained yield a detailed limit-laws perspective of the ASIP, numerical simulations demonstrate the applicability of these laws as useful approximations.

  9. Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Poulson, Nicholas D.; Lechler, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Generation of three-dimensional tissue with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates - a process known as asymmetric cell division (ACD). Understanding ACD’s has been greatly aided by studies in invertebrate model systems, where genetics and live imaging have provided the basis for much of what we know. ACD’s also drive the development and differentiation of the epidermis in mammals. While similar to the invertebrate models, the epidermis is distinct in balancing symmetric and asymmetric divisions to yield a tissue of the correct surface area and thickness. Here we review the roles of spindle orientation in driving both morphogenesis and cell fate decisions. We highlight the epidermis as a unique model system to study not only basic mechanisms of ACD, but also to study their regulation during development. PMID:22449491

  10. The nonlinear optical rectification and second harmonic generation in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum well: Effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zou, LiLi; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Zhi-Hai; Yuan, Jian-Hui

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification (OR) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum well (QW) have been investigated theoretically. Here, the expressions for the optical properties are calculated by the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Simultaneously, the energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions have been obtained by using the finite difference method. The energy eigenvalues and the shape of the confined potential are modulated by the hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field. So the results of a number of numerical experiments indicate that the nonlinear OR and SHG strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field. This gives a new degree of freedom in various device applications based on the intersubband transitions of electrons.

  11. Asymmetric catalysis at the mesoscale: gold nanoclusters embedded in chiral self-assembled monolayer as heterogeneous catalyst for asymmetric reactions.

    PubMed

    Gross, Elad; Liu, Jack H; Alayoglu, Selim; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2013-03-13

    Research to develop highly versatile, chiral, heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric organic transformations, without quenching the catalytic reactivity, has met with limited success. While chiral supramolecular structures, connected by weak bonds, are highly active for homogeneous asymmetric catalysis, their application in heterogeneous catalysis is rare. In this work, asymmetric catalyst was prepared by encapsulating metallic nanoclusters in chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), immobilized on mesoporous SiO2 support. Using olefin cyclopropanation as an example, it was demonstrated that by controlling the SAM properties, asymmetric reactions can be catalyzed by Au clusters embedded in chiral SAM. Up to 50% enantioselectivity with high diastereoselectivity were obtained while employing Au nanoclusters coated with SAM peptides as heterogeneous catalyst for the formation of cyclopropane-containing products. Spectroscopic measurements correlated the improved enantioselectivity with the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network in the chiral SAM. These results demonstrate the synergetic effect of the catalytically active metallic sites and the surrounding chiral SAM for the formation of a mesoscale enantioselective catalyst.

  12. Effects of the Electronic Spin-Orbit Interaction on the Anomalous Asymmetric Scattering of the Spin-Polarized 4He+ Beam with Paramagnetic Target Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Osamu; Suzuki, Taku T.

    2017-06-01

    The scattering of the electron-spin-polarized 4He+ beam on paramagnetic materials has an anomalously large asymmetric scattering component (ASC) around 5%, which is 104 of that expected from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for the potential of the target nucleus. In addition, the ASC of some materials (for example, Au and Pt) changes sign near the scattering angle (θ) of 90° unlike the result predicted by using the potential scattering theory. When the 4He+ approaches the target, virtual electron-transfer (ET) excitations between them occur. The effects of the SOC of electrons (SOEs) on the target atom in the ET intermediate state are studied within the frame of the lowest-order perturbation theory about the ET process. The ASC is caused through the combination of the quantum development of electron orbital states under the SOEs and the He nucleus motion in the intermediate state because the preferred orbital states for the ET depend on the position of the He nucleus. It is shown by a numerical calculation that the present process has the possibility of producing the ASC with a magnitude of around 0.1. In the present process, the ASC shows a θ dependence of cos θ sin θ, which changes sign at θ = 90° when the excited orbital in the ET state has the d-character like the Au and Pt cases.

  13. Using fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo to investigate the effects of rotation-vibration coupling in highly fluxional asymmetric top molecules: application to H2D+.

    PubMed

    Petit, Andrew S; Wellen, Bethany A; McCoy, Anne B

    2013-01-21

    A fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo approach for obtaining the energies and wave functions of the rotationally excited states of asymmetric top molecules that undergo large amplitude, zero-point vibrational motions is reported. The nodal surfaces required to introduce rotational excitation into the diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are obtained from the roots of the asymmetric top rigid rotor wave functions calculated using the system's zero-point, vibrationally averaged rotational constants. Using H(2)D(+) as a model system, the overall accuracy of the methodology is tested by comparing to the results of converged variational calculations. The ability of the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo approach to provide insights into the nature and strength of the rotation-vibration coupling present in the rotationally excited states of highly fluxional asymmetric tops is discussed. Finally, the sensitivity of the methodology to the details of its implementation, such as the choice of embedding scheme, is explored.

  14. Effects of asymmetrical damping on a 2 DOF quarter-car model under harmonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M.; Wahi, P.; Fernandes, J. C. M.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this work is to study the dynamical behavior of vehicle suspension systems employing asymmetrical viscous damping, with a focus on improving passenger comfort. Previous studies have shown that the use of asymmetrical dampers in these types of systems can be advantageous with regard to comfort of the passengers. The modeling and the behavior of a quarter-car model with asymmetrical viscous damping under harmonic excitation is presented. The response is obtained with an analytical approximation via the method of Harmonic Balance. The choice of the asymmetry ratio diminishes the effects that the uneven road causes on the displacement and acceleration of the sprung mass. Although current systems usually adopt larger damping during the expansion phase, it is shown in this work that, for lower frequencies, smaller damping in this phase results in better comfort.

  15. Turning symmetric an asymmetric hydrogen bond with the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects: the case of the [CN···H···NC]- complex.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego V; González, Sergio A; Reyes, Andrés

    2011-01-14

    Nuclear quantum effects (NQE) on the geometry, energy, and electronic structure of the [CN·L·NC](-) complex (L = H, D, T) are investigated with the recently developed APMO/MP2 code. This code implements the nuclear molecular orbital approach (NMO) at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and MP2 levels of theory for electrons and quantum nuclei. In a first study, we examined the H/D/T isotope effects on the geometry and electronic structure of the CNH molecule at NMO/HF and NMO/MP2 levels of theory. We found that when increasing the hydrogen nuclear mass there is a reduction of the R(N-H) bond distance and an increase of the electronic population on the hydrogen atom. Our calculated bond distances are in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical results. In a second investigation, we explored the hydrogen NQE on the geometry of [CNHNC](-) complex at the NMO/HF and NMO/MP2 levels of theory. We discovered that while a NMO/HF calculation presented an asymmetric hydrogen bond, the NMO/MP2 calculation revealed a symmetric H-bond. We also examined the H/D/T isotope effects on the geometry and stabilization energy of the [CNHNC](-) complex. We noted that gradual increases in hydrogen mass led to reductions of the R(NN) distance and destabilization of the hydrogen bond (H-bond). A discussion of these results is given in terms of the hydrogen nuclear delocalization effects on the electronic structure and energy components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ab initio NMO study that reveals the importance of including nuclear quantum effects in conventional electronic structure calculations for an enhanced description of strong-low-barrier H-bonded systems.

  16. Effect of Geometric Azimuthal Asymmetrics of PPM Stack on Electron Beam Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) beam optics model has been developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAFIA. The model includes an electron beam with initial transverse velocity distribution focused by a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stack. All components of the model are simulated in three dimensions allowing several azimuthally asymmetric traveling wave tube (TWT) characteristics to be investigated for the first time. These include C-magnets, shunts and magnet misalignment and their effects on electron beam behavior. The development of the model is presented and 3D TWT electron beam characteristics are compared in the absence of and under the influence of the azimuthally asymmetric characteristics described.

  17. The asymmetric profile of the acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Vandenbussche, Eric; Saffarini, Mohammed; Taillieu, Fabienne; Mutschler, Céline

    2008-02-01

    Despite the curvaceous profile of the acetabulum, orthopaedic surgeons have continued to implant hemispheric cups since the introduction of total hip arthroplasty. The geometric discrepancies between the natural acetabulum and implant can result in painful iliopsoas impingement attributable to prosthetic overlap at the anterior acetabular ridge over which the iliopsoas tendon extends to leave the pelvis. We expanded on previous in vitro observations of acetabular morphology using a large in vivo sample and quantified the dimensions of the psoas valley. We studied computed tomographic scans of 200 healthy hips from 50 men and 50 women. The acetabular ridges were digitized on three-dimensional bone reconstructions and their coordinates were manipulated in spreadsheets to deduce acetabular diameter, anteversion, and inclination and to plot the rim profile. Our results confirm the acetabular rim is an asymmetric succession of three peaks and three troughs. The psoas valley has the following shape distribution: 79% curved, 11% angular, 10% irregular, and 0% straight. The mean depth of the psoas valley is 5 mm and the latitude of its trough is on average 6 mm below the acetabular equator. The use of side-specific cups that replicate the curvaceous acetabular profile could prevent prosthetic overlap and reduce the incidence of iliopsoas impingement.

  18. Prodan fluorescence detects the bilayer packing of asymmetric phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masaki; Matsui, Takayuki; Tamai, Nobutake; Matsuki, Hitoshi; Kaneshina, Shoji

    2011-05-01

    The bilayer phase behavior of asymmetric phospholipids, palmitoylstearoylphosphatidylcholine (PSPC) and stearoylpalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (SPPC), with different vesicle sizes (large multilamellar vesicle (LMV) and giant multilamellar vesicle (GMV)) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy using a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe Prodan under high pressure. The results were compared with those of a symmetric phospholipid, diheptadecanoyl PC (C17PC). The difference in phase transitions of the PSPC and SPPC bilayers and in thermodynamic quantities of the transitions was hardly observed between LMV and GMV as the case of the C17PC bilayer. On the other hand, the Prodan fluorescence showed clear differences between LMV and GMV of the asymmetric PC bilayers. From the second derivative of Prodan fluorescence spectra, the three dimensional image plots in which we can clearly see the location of Prodan in the bilayer membrane as blue valleys were constructed for LMV and GMV under high pressure. We revealed from the plots that the bilayer packing is significantly dependent on not only the vesicle size but also the acyl-chain asymmetry of PC molecule in addition to the phase states. It was found that the packing of the gel phases of the asymmetric PC bilayers is weaker than that of the symmetric PC bilayer, and the size of vesicle affects the packing of the interdigitated gel phase the most markedly among three gel phases. This study suggests that the Prodan molecules can detect the effect of vesicle size on the phase states for the asymmetric PC bilayers, and they become a useful indicator for various membrane properties, especially bilayer interdigitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Asymmetric Dust Environment of IK Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, J.; Tatebe, K.; Hale, D. D. S.; Townes, C. H.; Monnier, J. D.; Ireland, M.; Tuthill, P. G.; Cohen, R.; Barry, R. K.; Rajagopal, J.; Danchi, W. C.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared observations of IK Tau have been made at 11.15 μm with the three-telescope Infrared Spatial Interferometer on Mount Wilson and also using individual segments of the Keck telescope for multiple-aperture interferometry on the Keck telescope at 10.7 μm. Both experiments provided closure phase and show temporal variations and asymmetries in the surrounding dust, with a difference of about 15% in intensity between two sides of the star. Asymmetries have been previously observed in the distribution of SiO masers closely surrounding the star. Comparison with earlier interferometric measurements shows substantial reduction in dust surrounding the star over the last decade. Several asymmetric dust models are investigated and simple images constructed.

  20. Weakly Asymmetric Bridges and the KPZ Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbé, Cyril

    2017-08-01

    We consider the corner growth dynamics on discrete bridges from (0, 0) to (2 N, 0), or equivalently, the weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process with N particles on 2 N sites. We take an asymmetry of order N -α with α ∈ (0, 1) and provide a complete description of the asymptotic behaviour of this model. In particular, we show that the hydrodynamic limit of the density of particles is given by the inviscid Burgers equation with zero-flux boundary condition. When the interface starts from the flat initial profile, we show that KPZ fluctuations occur whenever α ∈ (0, 1/3]. In the particular regime α = 1/3, these KPZ fluctuations suddenly vanish at a deterministic time.

  1. Asymmetric multifractal scaling behavior in the Chinese stock market: Based on asymmetric MF-DFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Cao, Jie; Xu, Longbing

    2013-02-01

    We utilized asymmetric multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in this study to examine the asymmetric multifractal scaling behavior of Chinese stock markets with uptrends or downtrends. Results show that the multifractality degree of Chinese stock markets with uptrends is stronger than that of Chinese stock markets with downtrends. Correlation asymmetries are more evident in large fluctuations than in small fluctuations. By discussing the source of asymmetric multifractality, we find that multifractality is related to long-range correlations when the market is going up, whereas it is related to fat-tailed distribution when the market is going down. The main source of asymmetric scaling behavior in the Shanghai stock market are long-range correlations, whereas that in the Shenzhen stock market is fat-tailed distribution. An analysis of the time-varying feature of scaling asymmetries shows that the evolution trends of these scaling asymmetries are similar in the two Chinese stock markets. Major financial and economical events may enhance scaling asymmetries.

  2. Effect of chronic elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels on granulopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Gernot; Perthel, Ronny; Suntharalingam, Mayuren; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Kielstein, Jan T; Kielstein, Heike

    2013-04-01

    The endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is elevated in both animal models of chronic inflammatory disorders as well as in patients with chronic inflammatory disease. In vivo data suggest that ADMA can increase the number of circulating monocytes and possibly affect their adhesion potential in vitro. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible effects of chronically elevated levels of ADMA on white blood cell count (WBC), leukocyte subsets, and WBC distribution pattern using a model of chronic exogenous ADMA infusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 20, 10 weeks of age) were randomized to receive either (1) isotonic saline or (2) ADMA applied by osmotic mini pumps. After 28 days of infusion, all animals were sacrificed for blood and tissue sampling. WBC count, flow cytometry for subtype assessment, and histological assessment were performed. Over a time period of 28 days, continuous ADMA infusion significantly increased mean plasma levels (1.26 ± 0.07 μmol/l) as compared to saline infusion (0.57 ± 0.02 μmol/l). Clinical side effects were not observed. Despite a physiologically relevant rise in ADMA plasma levels, measured by decrease of the L-arginine/AMDA ratio-a surrogate parameter of NO production capacity-there was no effect on WBC count or pattern of leukocyte subsets. Numbers and morphology of peripheral blood cells as well as number of NK-cells leveling liver and spleen were not affected by chronic ADMA infusion. Chronically elevated ADMA levels in otherwise healthy rats did not affect WBC counts or leukocyte subsets. Furthermore, anemia frequently found in patients with progressive renal failure and elevated ADMA levels, was not observed. In a chronic inflammatory state, elevated ADMA levels themselves are rather the result than the cause of the underlying inflammatory process.

  3. The effect of Wolbachia on dengue dynamics in the presence of two serotypes of dengue: symmetric and asymmetric epidemiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ndii, M Z; Allingham, D; Hickson, R I; Glass, K

    2016-10-01

    An innovative strategy to reduce dengue transmission uses the bacterium Wolbachia. We analysed the effects of Wolbachia on dengue transmission dynamics in the presence of two serotypes of dengue using a mathematical model, allowing for differences in the epidemiological characteristics of the serotypes. We found that Wolbachia has a greater effect on secondary infections than on primary infections across a range of epidemiological characteristics. If one serotype is more transmissible than the other, it will dominate primary infections and Wolbachia will be less effective at reducing secondary infections of either serotype. Differences in the antibody-dependent enhancement of the two serotypes have considerably less effect on the benefits of Wolbachia than differences in transmission probability. Even if the antibody-dependent enhancement rate is high, Wolbachia is still effective in reducing dengue. Our findings suggest that Wolbachia will be effective in the presence of more than one serotype of dengue; however, a better understanding of serotype-specific differences in transmission probability may be needed to optimize delivery of a Wolbachia intervention.

  4. Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion and the ISR Asymmetrical Capacitator Thruster, Experimental Results and Improved Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis; Winet, Ed; Ice, Bob; Melcher, Cory; Pesavento, Phil; Holmes, Alan; Butler, Carey; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The outline of this viewgraph presentation on asymmetrical capacitor thruster development includes: 1) Test apparatus; 2) Devices tested; 3) Circuits used; 4) Data collected (Time averaged, Time resolved); 5) Patterns observed; 6) Force calculation; 7) Electrostatic modeling; 8) Understand it all.

  5. Effect of asymmetric strain relaxation on dislocation relaxation processes in heteroepitaxial semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, D.; Hull, R.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of asymmetric interfacial strain configurations upon the generation of misfit dislocation arrays in lattice mismatched epitaxy is considered. For example, elastic strain relaxation for Si1-xGex/Si(110) films is uniaxial, assuming glide on {111} planes as expected for the diamond cubic system, which leads to asymmetric strain relief. Here, we extend our previously developed relaxation model for generation of dislocation arrays in SiGe/Si, by accounting for how the different energetics of asymmetrically strained films affect the kinetics of the relaxation process. Similarly, non-polar III-nitride epitaxial films have asymmetric strain from the outset of growth due to the different c/a lattice parameter ratios. In both systems, the asymmetric strain is represented by an additional term in the misfit dislocation applied stress equation. In SiGe/Si(110), a simple elasticity analysis of the strain produced by the uniaxial array of dislocations predicts that the relaxation orthogonal to the dislocation line direction occurs at a faster rate than predicted by purely biaxial strain relief due to the contributions of the strain parallel to the dislocations. This difference is because the strain parallel to the dislocation line directions continues to resolve stress onto the misfit dislocations even as the orthogonal strain is minimized. As a result, the minimum strain energy is predicted to occur for a dislocation spacing, which produces tensile layer strain in the orthogonal direction. Such tensile strain may modify the (opto)electronic properties of a Si, Ge, or GeSi epilayer but is only predicted to occur for advanced stages of relaxation. These asymmetric derivations are applicable to any thin film system where strain is not strictly biaxial.

  6. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo.

  7. Remarkably high asymmetric amplification in the chiral lanthanide complex-catalyzed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction: first example of the nonlinear effect in ML3 system

    PubMed

    Furuno; Hanamoto; Sugimoto; Inanaga

    2000-01-01

    [reaction: see text] A remarkably high asymmetric amplification was realized in the Yb[(R)-BNP]3-catalyzed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction as the first example in the metal/chiral ligand 1:3 system. The mechanism may be explained by the autogenetic formation of the enantiopure complex as the most active catalyst. The enantiomer-discriminative formation of homochiral ML3 complexes is quite general within the lanthanide metal ions with similar ionic radii to that of the ytterbium ion.

  8. The resonant, near-resonant, and off-resonant plasmon coupling effects for the bonding modes in two types of asymmetric dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanshui; Hu, Jianling; Wang, Ziya; Wang, Fengping; Bao, Yongjun

    2014-07-01

    The resonant, near-resonant, and off-resonant plasmon coupling effects for the bonding modes in asymmetric dimers are illustrated by two types of configuration, one formed by a gold nanoparticle and a TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticle and the other formed by two TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with suitable sizes. The redshift and blueshift behaviours of the coupled bonding modes with decreasing gap are found under longitudinal and transverse polarization of light for these dimers in the resonant situation, respectively. Under the near-resonant situation, the redshift behaviours of the coupled bonding modes still remain under longitudinal polarization, whereas the two separated modes of monomers after coupling under transverse polarization exhibit no obvious peak-shift behaviours, and the one on the lower frequency side shows an apparent attenuation in the strength. Under the off-resonant situation, the redshift behaviours not only occur in the coupled modes under longitudinal polarization, but also occur in two separated modes under transverse polarization.

  9. Kinetic equations for neutral Fermi liquids in dc magnetic fields. The nonlinear and particle-hole asymmetric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwonko, J.

    1988-04-01

    Since nonlinear effects are of the same importance as the particle-hole asymmetry (PHA) effects for normal Fermi liquids, at least for some physical situations, a formalism is presented taking both into account. Moreover, because the nonlinearity or PHA is easiest to induce by strong magnetic fields, weak polarization effects are also included. The kinetic equations for the weakly coupled density and magnetization modes are obtained under these circumstances. They lead to an additional effective mass equation in comparison to the Landau formula, joining the suitable angular average of the effective interaction of triples of quasiparticles with gradient of the two-quasiparticle interaction with PHA effects included. The equations are investigated in detail for ac magnetic field much smaller than the dc field in two cases: (1) at almost equilibrium magnetization of the sample and (2) at almost equilibrium (in the length) magnetization precessing around a dc field tipped to it by an angle Theta not equal to O.

  10. Effects of the magnetic field direction and anisotropy on the interband light absorption of an asymmetric quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the direct interband transition and the threshold frequency of absorption in a two-dimensional anisotropic quantum dot are studied under the influence of a tilted external magnetic field. We first calculate the analytical wave functions and energy levels using a transformation to simplify the Hamiltonian of the system. Then, we obtain the analytical expressions for the light interband absorption coefficient and the threshold frequency of absorption as a function of the magnetic field, magnetic field direction, and anisotropy of the system. According to the results obtained from the present work, we find that (i) the absorption threshold frequency (ATF) increases when the magnetic field increases for all directions. (ii) When anisotropy is increased, ATF increases. (iii) At small anisotropy, the magnetic field direction has no important effect on the ATF. In brief, the magnetic field, magnetic field direction, and anisotropy play important roles in the ATF and absorption coefficient.

  11. Origin of Asymmetric Solvation Effects for Ions in Water and Organic Solvents Investigated Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations: The Swain Acity-Basity Scale Revisited.

    PubMed

    Reif, Maria M; Hünenberger, Philippe H

    2016-08-25

    The asymmetric solvation of ions can be defined as the tendency of a solvent to preferentially solvate anions over cations or cations over anions, at identical ionic charge magnitudes and effective sizes. Taking water as a reference, these effects are quantified experimentally for many solvents by the relative acity (A) and basity (B) parameters of the Swain scale. The goal of the present study is to investigate the asymmetric solvation of ions using molecular dynamics simulations, and to connect the results to this empirical scale. To this purpose, the charging free energies of alkali and halide ions, and of their hypothetical oppositely charged counterparts, are calculated in a variety of solvents. In a first set of calculations, artificial solvent models are considered that present either a charge or a shape asymmetry at the molecular level. The solvation asymmetry, probed by the difference in charging free energy between the two oppositely charged ions, is found to encompass a term quadratic in the ion charge, related to the different solvation structures around the anion and cation, and a term linear in the ion charge, related to the solvation structure around the uncharged ion-sized cavity. For these simple solvent models, the two terms are systematically counteracting each other, and it is argued that only the quadratic term should be retained when comparing the results of simulations involving physical solvents to experimental data. In a second set of calculations, 16 physical solvents are considered. The theoretical estimates for the acity A are found to correlate very well with the Swain parameters, whereas the correlation for B is very poor. Based on this observation, the Swain scale is reformulated into a new scale involving an asymmetry parameter Σ, positive for acitic solvents and negative for basitic ones, and a polarity parameter Π. This revised scale has the same predictive power as the original scale, but it characterizes asymmetry in an

  12. Edge-Channel Photo-Effect In Asymmetric Two-Dimensional Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyev, Yu. B.; Meltser, B. Ya.; Ivanov, S. V.; Kop'ev, P. S.; Stellmach, C.; Gouider, F.; Nachtwei, G.

    2011-12-23

    We report on the photo-effect in an asymmetric two dimensional electron system where edge currents are induced by homogeneous terahertz (THz) radiation in tilted magnetic field without any external bias. We discuss the features of the observed effect and its mechanism taking into account properties of edge states in magnetic fields. The process is understood as the quantum Hall effect associated with electron-hole pairs generated in Landau levels by THz radiation under CR conditions.

  13. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, David P.; Camps, Vicente J.; Ramón, María L.; Mateo, Verónica; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP). METHODS Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y) with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany). In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj) was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj) for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj) and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj) obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal) and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay I). RESULTS PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05). In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D) and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D) when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01) and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj. CONCLUSION Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors. PMID:26085998

  14. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Camps, Vicente J; Ramón, María L; Mateo, Verónica; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP). Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y) with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany). In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj) was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj) for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj) and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj) obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal) and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay I). PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05). In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D) and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D) when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01) and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj. Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

  15. The asymmetric geospace - the most common state of the system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostgaard, Nikolai; Reistad, Jone P.; Tenfjord, Paul; Laundal, Karl M.; Rexer, Theresa; Haaland, Stein; Snekvik, Kristian; Hesse, Michael; Milan, Steve; Ohma, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that conjugate auroral features are significantly displaced in the two hemispheres when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a transverse (Y) component. Furthermore, it has been shown that a By component is induced in the closed magnetosphere due to the asymmetric loading of magnetic flux in the lobes following asymmetric dayside reconnection when IMF has a strong Y component. The magnetic field lines with azimuthally displaced footpoints map into a «banana» cell in one hemisphere and an «orange» cell in the other. This means that both the magnetosphere and the ionosphere are asymmetric during such conditions. As the most common orientation of IMF is to have a dominant By component an asymmetric geospace is in fact the most common state of the system. In this paper we study auroral features observed (IMAGE and Polar) and convection pattern (all available data) during a magnetic storm on August 17, 2001. Due to the combination of a strong IMF By component (>20 nT) and tilt angle of 23 degrees we observed conjugate auroral features, which were displaced as much as 4 MLT. Convection data are consistent with this asymmetric state of geospace. We also observed that the asymmetries were reduced by substorms during that period.

  16. Effect of asymmetrical street aspect ratios on microclimates in hot, humid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaid, Adeb; Ossen, Dilshan R.

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetrical street aspect ratios, i.e. different height-to-width (H1/W-H2/W) ratios, have not received much attention in the study of urban climates. Putrajaya Boulevard (northeast to southwest orientation) in Malaysia was selected to study the influence of six asymmetrical aspect ratio scenarios on the street microclimate using the Envi-met three-dimensional microclimate model (V3.1 Beta). Putrajaya Boulevard suffers from high surface and air temperature during the day due to the orientation, the low aspect ratio and the wide sky view factor. These issues are a common dilemma in many boulevards. Further, low and high symmetrical streets are incompatible with tropical regions as they offer conflicting properties during the day and at night. These scenarios are examined, therefore, to find asymmetrical streets which are able to reduce the impact of the day microclimate on boulevards, and as an alternative strategy fulfilling tropical day and night climatic conditions. Asymmetrical streets are better than low symmetrical streets in enhancing wind flow and blocking solar radiation, when tall buildings confront winds direction or solar altitudes. Therefore, mitigating heat islands or improving microclimates in asymmetrical streets based on tall buildings position which captures wind or caste shades. In northeast to southwest direction, aspect ratios of 0.8-2 reduce the morning microclimate and night heat islands yet the negative effects during the day are greater than the positive effects in the night. An aspect ratio of 2-0.8 reduces the temperature of surfaces by 10 to 14 °C and the air by 4.7 °C, recommended for enhancing boulevard microclimates and mitigating tropical heat islands.

  17. Effect of asymmetrical street aspect ratios on microclimates in hot, humid regions.

    PubMed

    Qaid, Adeb; Ossen, Dilshan R

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetrical street aspect ratios, i.e. different height-to-width (H1/W-H2/W) ratios, have not received much attention in the study of urban climates. Putrajaya Boulevard (northeast to southwest orientation) in Malaysia was selected to study the influence of six asymmetrical aspect ratio scenarios on the street microclimate using the Envi-met three-dimensional microclimate model (V3.1 Beta). Putrajaya Boulevard suffers from high surface and air temperature during the day due to the orientation, the low aspect ratio and the wide sky view factor. These issues are a common dilemma in many boulevards. Further, low and high symmetrical streets are incompatible with tropical regions as they offer conflicting properties during the day and at night. These scenarios are examined, therefore, to find asymmetrical streets which are able to reduce the impact of the day microclimate on boulevards, and as an alternative strategy fulfilling tropical day and night climatic conditions. Asymmetrical streets are better than low symmetrical streets in enhancing wind flow and blocking solar radiation, when tall buildings confront winds direction or solar altitudes. Therefore, mitigating heat islands or improving microclimates in asymmetrical streets based on tall buildings position which captures wind or caste shades. In northeast to southwest direction, aspect ratios of 0.8-2 reduce the morning microclimate and night heat islands yet the negative effects during the day are greater than the positive effects in the night. An aspect ratio of 2-0.8 reduces the temperature of surfaces by 10 to 14 °C and the air by 4.7 °C, recommended for enhancing boulevard microclimates and mitigating tropical heat islands.

  18. The asymmetric geospace during a magnetic storm on August 17, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostgaard, N.; Reistad, J.; Tenfjord, P.; Laundal, K.; Rexer, T.; Haaland, S.; Snekvik, K.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    A coronal mass ejection on August 16, 2001, hit the Earth 35 hours later. A high pressure solar wind carrying a large By component (30 nT) caused significant compression and reconfiguration of the Earth's magnetosphere as well as highly asymmetric aurora in the conjugate hemispheres (see figure).The Polar VIS Earth camera and IMAGE FUV system provided 5 hours of simultaneous imaging of the northern hemispheres when the CME hit the Earth. A few hours later the two cameras imaged the entire auroral ovals in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously. This provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of a completely asymmetric system. Combined with supporting data from other satellites, such as DMSP and NOAA, as well as ground based networks as SuperDARN and SuperMAG, we identify asymmetric auroral features, asymmetric open closed boundaries. the asymmetric convection pattern and the asymmetric current systems. Our goal is to give a consistent interpretation of the dynamics that lead to these asymmetric features.

  19. Probing the effect of dopants (donors) within InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs Asymmetric Heterostructure wafer by magneto-THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmehr, Mehdi; Heyn, Christian; Hansen, Wolfgang

    Probing the effect of impurities within semiconductor structures have been the topic of interest both from applied and scientific point of views. We studied the effect of dopants (donors) within InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs asymmetric heterostructure wafer by means of THz magneto-transmission (TR) spectroscopy, in conjunction with THz magneto-photoresponse (PR) spectroscopy. The sample wafer has been immersed in pumped liquid Helium at 1.6 K, while being exposed to sweeping magnetic field up to 10 Tesla, with THz laser beam (1.4 THz) being focused on sample by off-axis parabolic mirror. The transmitted beam was detected by silicon composite bolometer. Two broad absorption features other than sharp Cyclotron resonance (CR) absorption dip within magneto-TR signal attributed to 1s -->2P transition within donors of doped layer (InAlAs) in heterostructure. We plan to discuss the analysis of magneto-TR signal, in conjunction with Magneto-PR signals from Hall bar samples made from same type of wafer at same frequency to clarify how dopants could possibly alter these signals.

  20. Stacking and Electrostatic Interactions Drive the Stereoselectivity of Silylium-Ion Asymmetric Counteranion-Directed Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Trevor J; Wheeler, Steven E

    2016-12-19

    Computational analysis shows that the enantioselectivity of asymmetric Lewis-acid organocatalysis of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene to cinnamates arises from stacking interactions that favor the addition of the diene to the more hindered face of the dienophile, while electrostatic interactions control the diastereoselectivity by selectively stabilizing the endo transition state. These results not only explain the stereoselectivity of these silylium-ion-ACDC reactions but should also guide the development of more effective ion-pairing asymmetric organocatalysts.

  1. Effects of non-idealities and quantization of the center of mass motion on symmetric and asymmetric collective states in a collective state atomic interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Resham; Kim, May E.; Fang, Renpeng; Tu, Yanfei; Shahriar, Selim M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of an ensemble of ? non-interacting, identical atoms excited by a laser. In general, the ?-th atom sees a Rabi frequency ?, an initial position dependent laser phase ?, and a motion induced Doppler shift of ?. When ? or ? is distinct for each atom, the system evolves into a superposition of ? intercoupled states, of which there are ? symmetric and ? asymmetric collective states. For a collective state atomic interferometer (COSAIN), we recently proposed, it is important to understand the behavior of all the collective states under various conditions. In this paper, we show how to formulate the properties of these states under various non-idealities, and use this formulation to understand the dynamics thereof. We also consider the effect of treating the center of mass degree of freedom of the atoms quantum mechanically on the description of the collective states, illustrating that it is indeed possible to construct a generalized collective state, as needed for the COSAIN, when each atom is assumed to be in a localized wave packet. The analysis presented in this paper is important for understanding the dynamics of the COSAIN, and will help advance the analysis and optimization of spin squeezing in the presence of practically unavoidable non-idealities as well as in the domain where the center of mass motion of the atoms is quantized.

  2. Asymmetric Dark Matter in the shear-dominated universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iminniyaz, Hoernisa

    2017-02-01

    We explore the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter in shear-dominated universe in which it is assumed the universe is expanded anisotropically. The modified expansion rate leaves its imprint on the relic density of asymmetric Dark Matter particles if the asymmetric Dark Matter particles are decoupled in shear dominated era. We found the relic abundances for particle and anti-particle are increased. The particle and anti-particle abundances are almost in the same amount for the larger value of the shear factor xe which makes the indirect detection possible for asymmetric Dark Matter. We use the present day Dark Matter density from the observation to find the constraints on the parameter space in this model.

  3. Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VI: the conference summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, O.

    2014-04-01

    The Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae conference series, now in its sixth edition, aims to resolve the shaping mechanism of PN. Eighty percent of PN have non spherical shapes and during this conference the last nails in the coffin of single stars models for non spherical PN have been put. Binary theories abound but observational tests are lagging. The highlight of APN6 has been the arrival of ALMA which allowed us to measure magnetic fields on AGB stars systematically. AGB star halos, with their spiral patterns are now connected to PPN and PN halos. New models give us hope that binary parameters may be decoded from these images. In the post-AGB and pre-PN evolutionary phase the naked post-AGB stars present us with an increasingly curious puzzle as complexity is added to the phenomenologies of objects in transition between the AGB and the central star regimes. Binary central stars continue to be detected, including the first detection of longer period binaries, however a binary fraction is still at large. Hydro models of binary interactions still fail to give us results, if we make an exception for the wider types of binary interactions. More promise is shown by analytical considerations and models driven by simpler, 1D simulations such as those carried out with the code MESA. Large community efforts have given us more homogeneous datasets which will yield results for years to come. Examples are the ChanPlaN and HerPlaNe collaborations that have been working with the Chandra and Herschel space telescopes, respectively. Finally, the new kid in town is the intermediate-luminosity optical transient, a new class of events that may have contributed to forming several peculiar PN and pre-PN.

  4. Large Deviation Functional of the Weakly Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enaud, C.; Derrida, B.

    2004-02-01

    We obtain the large deviation functional of a density profile for the asymmetric exclusion process of L sites with open boundary conditions when the asymmetry scales like 1/L. We recover as limiting cases the expressions derived recently for the symmetric (SSEP) and the asymmetric (ASEP) cases. In the ASEP limit, the non linear differential equation one needs to solve can be analysed by a method which resembles the WKB method.

  5. Asymmetric field-aligned currents in the conjugate hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, J. P.; Ostgaard, N.; Oksavik, K.; Laundal, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Earlier studies using simultaneous imaging from space of the Aurora Borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and Aurora Australis (Southern Hemisphere) have revealed that the aurora can experience a high degree of asymmetry between the two hemispheres. Using 19 hours of simultaneous global imaging from both hemispheres (IMAGE satellite in north and Polar satellite in south) in conjunction with the entire IMAGE WIC database, we investigate the importance of various mechanisms thought to generate the asymmetries seen in global imaging. In terms of asymmetric or interhemispheric field-aligned currents, three candidate mechanisms have been suggested: 1) Hemispheric differences in solar wind dynamo efficiency mainly controlled by IMF Bx leading to asymmetric region 1 currents; 2) conductivity differences in conjugate areas; and 3) penetration of IMF By into the closed magnetosphere possibly generating a pair of oppositely directed interhemispheric currents. From the 19 hour conjugate dataset we find that the solar wind dynamo is likely to be the most important controlling mechanism for asymmetric bright aurora in the polar part of the nightside oval. Here we present statistical analyses of candidates 1) and 3). Using the entire IMAGE WIC database, a statistical analysis of the auroral brightness distribution along and across the Northern Hemisphere oval is carried out. For each candidate, two extreme cases (+/- IMF Bx for 1) and +/- IMF By for 3)) are compared during times non-favorable for the other two mechanisms. Our results indicate that solar wind dynamo induced currents play an important role for the nightside auroral brightness in an average sense. Also, signatures of interhemispheric currents due to IMF By penetration are seen in our statistics, although this effect is somehow weaker.

  6. Effect of nose perturbation on asymmetric vortices over a blunt-nose body at high angle of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Y. X.; Wang, Y. K.; Qi, Z. Y.

    2017-04-01

    To improve the maneuverability, the modern missiles of blunt-nose slender body configuration are required to flight at high angle of attack where many research show complex asymmetric vortices flow will develop over the slender body. The effect of artificial perturbation located on the nose of a blunt slender body at high angle of attack(α=50°) on asymmetric vortices has been investigated with low speed wind tunnel test. The Reynolds number(ReD) of the experiment was 1.48×105. The experimental results are shown to be the following: Asymmetric flow over blunt-nose body was extremely sensitive to the machining tolerances of the nose and can be governed by the artificial perturbation; with the circumferential angle of artificial perturbation varied a period, asymmetric vortices present a behavior of single-period.

  7. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g−1 at 100 A g−1. On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg−1 and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg−1. PMID:26053847

  8. The Asymmetrical "Sticking" Behavior of Two Balls on an Incline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, A. John

    1999-01-01

    Offers a relatively simple analysis of the asymmetrical "sticking" and rolling behavior of two balls, one steel and one rubber, on an incline. Describes an Interactive Physics (TM) simulation designed to study the problem and gives rough experimental results. (WRM)

  9. The Asymmetrical "Sticking" Behavior of Two Balls on an Incline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, A. John

    1999-01-01

    Offers a relatively simple analysis of the asymmetrical "sticking" and rolling behavior of two balls, one steel and one rubber, on an incline. Describes an Interactive Physics (TM) simulation designed to study the problem and gives rough experimental results. (WRM)

  10. The Inhibitory Effect of Quercetin on Asymmetric Dimethylarginine-Induced Apoptosis Is Mediated by the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Glomerular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weikang; Ding, Jiaxiang; Zhang, Aihua; Dai, Wendi; Liu, Sha; Diao, Zongli; Wang, Liyan; Han, Xue; Liu, Wenhu

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is considered an independent mortality and cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and contributes to the development of renal fibrosis. Quercetin (QC), a natural component of foods, protects against renal injury. Here, we explored the possible mechanisms that are responsible for ADMA-induced renal fibrosis and the protective effect of QC. We found that ADMA treatment activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor proteins phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-activated-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol requiring-1α (IRE1), which correspondingly induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs). Following this, ADMA promoted ER stress-induced apoptosis and resulted in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) expression in GEnCs. SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK, and CHOP siRNA protected against ADMA-induced cell apoptosis and TGF-β expression. QC prevented ADMA-induced PERK and IRE1 apoptotic ER stress pathway activation. Also, ADMA-induced GEnCs apoptosis and TGF-β expression was reduced by QC. Overexpression of CHOP blocked QC-mediated protection from apoptosis in ER stressed cells. Overall, these observations indicate that ADMA may induce GEnCs apoptosis and TGF-β expression by targeting the PERK-CHOP and IRE1-JNK pathway. In addition, drugs such as QC targeting ER stress may hold great promise for the development of novel therapies against ADMA-induced renal fibrosis. PMID:24451129

  11. Axons and synapses mediating startle-like responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the reticular formation in rats: symmetric and asymmetric collision effects.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, J S; Hempel, C M; Chapman, C A

    1993-07-23

    A new method for determining the locations, directions of transmission and transmission times of synapses mediating electrically evoked responses is proposed here. Electrical stimulation of pontine or medullary reticular formation with one 0.1-ms pulse evokes a short-latency startle-like response. Two pulses were delivered to single sites at various interpulse intervals and the currents required to evoke a criterion startle response were measured. The results suggest that the startle-evoking substrates have absolute refractory periods that range from 0.25-0.6 ms. When one pulse was delivered to a caudal pontine site and a second pulse was delivered to a an ipsilateral medulla site, decreases in required current were observed as interpulse interval increased from +0.4 to +0.8 ms or as interpulse interval decreased from -0.4 to -0.8 ms. These collision-like effects, being symmetric around an interpulse interval of 0, suggest that electrically evoked startle is mediated by fast axons that pass longitudinally through medulla. When one pulse was delivered to the rostral pons and a second pulse to the ipsilateral medulla, however, required currents decreased sharply as interpulse intervals increased from +0.4 to 1.0 ms and as interpulse intervals decreased from +0.2 to -0.2 ms. These asymmetric collision-like effects suggest that strong synapses in the caudal pons, transmitting from pons to medulla, mediate electrically evoked startle. The 0.3-ms asymmetry suggests that the transmission time (i.e., from presynaptic stimulus to postsynaptic action potential) averaged 0.3 ms via monosynaptic connections. The short duration of collision (0.7 ms) suggests that only one postsynaptic action potential was produced with high probability for each presynaptic action potential. From the localization of these effects and the short refractory periods, we estimate that < 60 giant cells on each side of the ventral pontine reticular formation mediate the startle reflex in the rat.

  12. Modulating the light environment with the peach ‘asymmetric orchard’: effects on gas exchange performances, photoprotection, and photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Losciale, Pasquale; Chow, Wah Soon; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The productivity of fruit trees is a linear function of the light intercepted, although the relationship is less tight when greater than 50% of available light is intercepted. This paper investigates the management of light energy in peach using the measurement of whole-tree light interception and gas exchange, along with the absorbed energy partitioning at the leaf level by concurrent measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. These measurements were performed on trees of a custom-built ‘asymmetric’ orchard. Whole-tree gas exchange for north–south, vertical canopies (C) was similar to that for canopies intercepting the highest irradiance in the morning hours (W), but trees receiving the highest irradiance in the afternoon (E) had the highest net photosynthesis and transpiration while maintaining a water use efficiency (WUE) comparable to the other treatments. In the W trees, 29% and 8% more photosystems were damaged than in C and E trees, respectively. The quenching partitioning revealed that the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) played the most important role in excess energy dissipation, but it was not fully active at low irradiance, possibly due to a sub-optimal trans-thylakoid ΔpH. The non-net carboxylative mechanisms (NC) appeared to be the main photoprotective mechanisms at low irradiance levels and, probably, they could facilitate the establishment of a trans-thylakoid ΔpH more appropriate for NPQ. These findings support the conclusion that irradiance impinging on leaves may be excessive and can cause photodamage, whose repair requires energy in the form of carbohydrates that are thereby diverted from tree growth and productivity. PMID:20124356

  13. Effects of asymmetric Schottky contacts on photoresponse in tungsten diselenide (WSe2) phototransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Arnob; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2017-08-01

    We present an investigation of the effects of asymmetric contacts on the photoresponse of a thin film tungsten diselenide (WSe2) phototransistor. We observe different scenarios in photoresponse during gate modulation depending on the metal-semiconductor contacts through which majority carrier (hole) injection occurs. Under illumination, a peak in drain current is observed during gate modulation when hole injection occurs from the higher Schottky barrier contact. On the other hand, regular behavior in photoresponse during gate modulation is observed when hole injection occurs from the opposite direction, the lower Schottky barrier contact. Further, we analyze the possibilities of realizing WSe2 phototransistors with improved performance in terms of responsivity, response time, and detectivity by utilizing asymmetric contact engineering and proper gating. In addition, an interesting shift of the aforementioned peak is detected, with increasing incident light intensity during gate modulation. We demonstrate that this peak shift can be explained by the photogating effect caused by trapped charges.

  14. Asymmetric statistical features of the Chinese domestic and international gold price fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhao, Yingchao; Han, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Analyzing the statistical features of fluctuation is remarkably significant for financial risk identification and measurement. In this study, the asymmetric detrended fluctuation analysis (A-DFA) method was applied to evaluate asymmetric multifractal scaling behaviors in the Shanghai and New York gold markets. Our findings showed that the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold spot markets were asymmetric. The gold return series persisted longer in an increasing trend than in a decreasing trend. Moreover, the asymmetric degree of multifractals in the Chinese and international gold markets decreased with the increase in fluctuation range. In addition, the empirical analysis using sliding window technology indicated that multifractal asymmetry in the Chinese and international gold markets was characterized by its time-varying feature. However, the Shanghai and international gold markets basically shared a similar asymmetric degree evolution pattern. The American subprime mortgage crisis (2008) and the European debt crisis (2010) enhanced the asymmetric degree of the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold markets. Furthermore, we also make statistical tests for the results of multifractatity and asymmetry, and discuss the origin of them. Finally, results of the empirical analysis using the threshold autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (TARCH) and exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) models exhibited that good news had a more significant effect on the cyclical fluctuation of the gold market than bad news. Moreover, good news exerted a more significant effect on the Chinese gold market than on the international gold market.

  15. Asymmetric nucleosomes flank promoters in the budding yeast genome.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymmetric nucleosome positions revealed a corresponding asymmetry in MNase protection near the dyad axis, suggesting that the loss of DNA contacts around H4S47 is accompanied by protection of the DNA from MNase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation mapping of selected nucleosome remodelers indicated that asymmetric nucleosomes are bound by the RSC chromatin remodeling complex, which is required for maintaining nucleosomes at asymmetric positions. These results imply that the asymmetric nucleosome-RSC complex is a metastable intermediate representing partial unwrapping and protection of nucleosomal DNA on one side of the dyad axis during chromatin remodeling.

  16. Modeling the Overalternating Bias with an Asymmetric Entropy Measure

    PubMed Central

    Gronchi, Giorgio; Raglianti, Marco; Noventa, Stefano; Lazzeri, Alessandro; Guazzini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Psychological research has found that human perception of randomness is biased. In particular, people consistently show the overalternating bias: they rate binary sequences of symbols (such as Heads and Tails in coin flipping) with an excess of alternation as more random than prescribed by the normative criteria of Shannon's entropy. Within data mining for medical applications, Marcellin proposed an asymmetric measure of entropy that can be ideal to account for such bias and to quantify subjective randomness. We fitted Marcellin's entropy and Renyi's entropy (a generalized form of uncertainty measure comprising many different kinds of entropies) to experimental data found in the literature with the Differential Evolution algorithm. We observed a better fit for Marcellin's entropy compared to Renyi's entropy. The fitted asymmetric entropy measure also showed good predictive properties when applied to different datasets of randomness-related tasks. We concluded that Marcellin's entropy can be a parsimonious and effective measure of subjective randomness that can be useful in psychological research about randomness perception. PMID:27458418

  17. Mean-field analysis for parallel asymmetric exclusion process with anticipation effect.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing-Yi; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song

    2010-08-01

    This paper studies an extended parallel asymmetric exclusion process, in which the anticipation effect is taken into account. The fundamental diagram of the model has been investigated via cluster mean field analysis. Different from previous mean field analysis, in which the n -cluster probabilities P(σ{i},…,σ{i+n-1}) involve the (n+2) -cluster probabilities P(τ{i-1},…,τ{i+n}) , our mean-field analysis is asymmetric because the three-cluster probabilities P(σ{i},σ{i+1},σ{i+2}) involve the six-cluster probabilities P(τ{i-1},…,τ{i+4}) . We find an excellent agreement between Monte Carlo simulations and cluster mean field analysis, which indicates that the mean field analysis might give the exact expression.

  18. Asymmetric and Negative Differential Thermal Spin Effect at Magnetic Interfaces: Towards Spin Seebeck Diodes and Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2014-03-01

    We study the nonequilibrium thermal-spin transport across metal-magnetic insulator interfaces. The transport is assisted by the exchange interaction between conduction electrons in the metal and localized spins in the magnetic insulator. We predict the rectification and negative differential spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, reversing the temperature bias is able to give asymmetric spin currents and increasing temperature bias could give an anomalously decreasing spin current. We resolve their microscopic mechanism as a consequence of the energy-dependent electronic DOS in the metal. The rectification of spin Peltier effect is also discussed. We then study the asymmetric and negative differential magnon tunneling driven by temperature bias. We show that the many-body magnon interaction that makes the magnonic spectrum temperature-dependent is the crucial factor for the emergence of rectification and negative differential SSEs in magnon tunneling junctions. We show that these asymmetric and negative differential SSEs are relevant for building magnon and spin Seebeck diodes and transistors, which could play important roles in controlling information and energy in functional devices. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the US DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  19. Coupled effects of market impact and asymmetric sensitivity in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Ren, Fei; Shi, Yong-Dong

    2013-05-01

    By incorporating market impact and asymmetric sensitivity into the evolutionary minority game, we study the coevolutionary dynamics of stock prices and investment strategies in financial markets. Both the stock price movement and the investors’ global behavior are found to be closely related to the phase region they fall into. Within the region where the market impact is small, investors’ asymmetric response to gains and losses leads to the occurrence of herd behavior, when all the investors are prone to behave similarly in an extreme way and large price fluctuations occur. A linear relation between the standard deviation of stock price changes and the mean value of strategies is found. With full market impact, the investors tend to self-segregate into opposing groups and the introduction of asymmetric sensitivity leads to the disappearance of dominant strategies. Compared with the situations in the stock market with little market impact, the stock price fluctuations are suppressed and an efficient market occurs. Theoretical analyses indicate that the mechanism of phase transition from clustering to self-segregation in the present model is similar to that in the majority-minority game and the occurrence and disappearance of efficient markets are related to the competition between the trend-following and the trend-aversion forces. The clustering of the strategies in the present model results from the majority-wins effect and the wealth-driven mechanism makes the market become predictable.

  20. Asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidyl alkanol and its application to the study on the origin of homochirality.

    PubMed

    Soai, Kenso; Kawasaki, Tsuneomi; Matsumoto, Arimasa

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Amplification of enantiomeric excess (ee) is a key feature for the chemical evolution of biological homochirality from the origin of chirality. We describe the amplification of ee in the asymmetric autocatalysis of 5-pyrimidyl alkanols in the reaction between diisopropylzinc (i-Pr2Zn) and pyrimidine-5-carbaldehydes. During the reaction, an extremely low ee (ca. 0.00005% ee) can be amplified to >99.5% ee, and therefore, the initial slightly major enantiomer is automultiplied by a factor of ca. 630000, while the initial slightly minor enantiomer is automultiplied by a factor of less than 1000. In addition, pyrimidyl alkanols with various substituents at the 2-position of the pyrimidine ring, 3-quinolyl alkanol, 5-carbamoyl-3-pyridyl alkanol, and large multifunctionalized pyrimidyl alkanols also act as highly efficient asymmetric autocatalysts in the addition of i-Pr2Zn to the corresponding aldehydes. The asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidyl alkanol can discriminate the chirality of various compounds. Chiral substances such as alcohols, amino acids, hydrocarbons, metal complexes, and heterogeneous chiral materials can act as chiral triggers for asymmetric autocatalysis to afford pyrimidyl alkanols with the corresponding absolute configuration of the initiator. This recognition ability of chiral compounds is extremely high, and chiral discrimination of a cryptochiral quaternary saturated hydrocarbon was established by applying asymmetric autocatalysis. By using the large amplification effect of the asymmetric autocatalysis, we can link various proposed origins of chirality with highly enantioenriched organic compounds in conjunction with asymmetric autocatalysis. Thus, a statistical fluctuation in ee of racemic compounds can be amplified to high ee by using asymmetric autocatalysis. Enantiomeric imbalance induced by irradiation of circularly polarized light can affect the enantioselectivity of asymmetric autocatalysis. The asymmetric autocatalysis was also

  1. The Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Christopher J.; Taylor, Melissa R.

    2005-01-01

    Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation is developed that focuses on the varying enantiomeric excess of the product diols based on the structures of the alkenes being oxidized. The experimental sequence enables investigation of this reaction in terms of the different chiral ligands being used.

  2. The Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Christopher J.; Taylor, Melissa R.

    2005-01-01

    Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation is developed that focuses on the varying enantiomeric excess of the product diols based on the structures of the alkenes being oxidized. The experimental sequence enables investigation of this reaction in terms of the different chiral ligands being used.

  3. Asymmetric effects at 3D Ising-like critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsypin, M.

    2003-05-01

    The Standard Model of electroweak interactions has a line of first order phase transition in the plane (higgs mass, temperature) that ends in a critical point belonging to the 3D Ising model universality class [K. Rummukainen et al, hep-lat/9805013. Similar critical points are found in finite-temperature QCD [M. Stephanov et al, hep-ph/9806219; F. Karsch et al, hep-lat/0107020. When these critical points are studied by Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice, one observes certain residual deviations from Z2 symmetry (which is exact for the Ising model). Here we study whether such deviations can be attributed to asymmetric corrections to scaling, which are relatively poorly studied. We compute the critical exponents in the local potential approximation (LPA), that is, in the framework of the Wegner-Houghton equation. We find that the exponent for the leading antisymmetric correction to scaling is approximately 1.691 in the LPA. This high value implies that such corrections cannot explain observed asymmetries.

  4. Asymmetric dark matter and the hadronic spectra of hidden QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Schroor, Martine; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2017-09-01

    The idea that dark matter may be a composite state of a hidden non-Abelian gauge sector has received great attention in recent years. Frameworks such as asymmetric dark matter motivate the idea that dark matter may have similar mass to the proton, while mirror matter and G ×G grand unified theories provide rationales for additional gauge sectors which may have minimal interactions with standard model particles. In this work we explore the hadronic spectra that these dark QCD models can allow. The effects of the number of light colored particles and the value of the confinement scale on the lightest stable state, the dark matter candidate, are examined in the hyperspherical constituent quark model for baryonic and mesonic states.

  5. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used extensively as a permeable cryoprotectant and is a common solvent utilized for several water-insoluble substances. DMSO has various biological and pharmacological activities; however, the effect of DMSO on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation remains unknown. Results In DMSO-treated oocytes, we observed abnormal MII oocytes that contained large polar bodies, including 2-cell–like MII oocytes, during in vitro maturation. Oocyte polarization did not occur, due to the absence of actin cap formation and spindle migration. These features are among the primary causes of abnormal symmetric division; however, analysis of the mRNA expression levels of genes related to asymmetric division revealed no significant difference in the expression of these factors between the 3% DMSO-treated group and the control group. After each “blastomere” of the 2-cell–like MII stage oocytes was injected by one sperm head respectively, the oocytes still possessed the ability to extrude the second polar body from each “blastomere” and to begin cleavage. However, MII oocytes with large polar bodies developed to the blastocyst stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Furthermore, other permeable cryoprotectants, such as ethylene glycol and glycerol, also caused asymmetric division failure. Conclusion Permeable cryoprotectants, such as DMSO, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, affect asymmetric division. DMSO disrupts cytokinesis completion by inhibiting cortical reorganization and polarization. Oocytes that undergo symmetric division maintain the ability to begin cleavage after ICSI. PMID:24953160

  6. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongjie; Shen, Xinghui; Gu, Yanli; Zhang, Na; Li, Tong; Wu, Xi; Lei, Lei

    2014-06-21

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used extensively as a permeable cryoprotectant and is a common solvent utilized for several water-insoluble substances. DMSO has various biological and pharmacological activities; however, the effect of DMSO on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation remains unknown. In DMSO-treated oocytes, we observed abnormal MII oocytes that contained large polar bodies, including 2-cell-like MII oocytes, during in vitro maturation. Oocyte polarization did not occur, due to the absence of actin cap formation and spindle migration. These features are among the primary causes of abnormal symmetric division; however, analysis of the mRNA expression levels of genes related to asymmetric division revealed no significant difference in the expression of these factors between the 3% DMSO-treated group and the control group. After each "blastomere" of the 2-cell-like MII stage oocytes was injected by one sperm head respectively, the oocytes still possessed the ability to extrude the second polar body from each "blastomere" and to begin cleavage. However, MII oocytes with large polar bodies developed to the blastocyst stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Furthermore, other permeable cryoprotectants, such as ethylene glycol and glycerol, also caused asymmetric division failure. Permeable cryoprotectants, such as DMSO, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, affect asymmetric division. DMSO disrupts cytokinesis completion by inhibiting cortical reorganization and polarization. Oocytes that undergo symmetric division maintain the ability to begin cleavage after ICSI.

  7. Complete polarimetry on the asymmetric transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol; Maoz, Ben M; Nichols, Shane; Markovich, Gil; Kahr, Bart

    2014-06-02

    Dissymmetric, periodically nanostructured metal films can show non-reciprocal transmission of polarized light, in apparent violation of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. The wave vector dependence of the extraordinary optical transmission in gold films with square and oblique subwavelength hole arrays was examined for the full range of polarized light input states. In normal incidence, the oblique lattice, in contrast to square lattice, showed strong asymmetric, non-reciprocal transmission of circularly polarized light. By analyzing the polarization of the input and the output with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter the mechanisms that permits asymmetric transmission while preserving the requirement of electromagnetic reciprocity is revealed: the coupling of the linear anisotropies induced by misaligned surface plasmons in the film. The square lattice also shows asymmetric transmission at non-normal incidence, whenever the plane of incidence does not coincide with a mirror line.

  8. Simulations of non-uniform embossing:the effect of asymmetric neighbor cavities on polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; King, William P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Rowland, Harry D.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents continuum simulations of viscous polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for embossing tools having irregular spacings and sizes. Simulations varied non-uniform embossing tool geometry to distinguish geometric quantities governing cavity filling order, polymer peak deformation, and global mold filling times. A characteristic NIL velocity predicts cavity filling order. In general, small cavities fill more quickly than large cavities, while cavity spacing modulates polymer deformation mode. Individual cavity size, not total filling volume, dominates replication time, with large differences in individual cavity size resulting in non-uniform, squeeze flow filling. High density features can be modeled as a solid indenter in squeeze flow to accurately predict polymer flow and allow for optimization of wafer-scale replication. The present simulations make it possible to design imprint templates capable of distributing pressure evenly across the mold surface and facilitating symmetric polymer flow over large areas to prevent mold deformation and non-uniform residual layer thickness.

  9. Asymmetric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Malon, R. F.; Zampini, A.

    1984-12-04

    Asymmetric gas separation membranes of materials having selective permeation of at least one gas of a gaseous mixture over that of one or more remaining gases of the gaseous mixture, exhibit significantly improved permeation selectivities for the at least one gas when the asymmetric membrane is contacted on one or both surfaces with an effective amount of a Lewis acid. The improved asymmetric gas separation membranes, process for producing the improved membrane, and processes utilizing such membranes for selectively separating at least one gas from a gaseous mixture by permeation are disclosed.

  10. Asymmetric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Malon, R. F.; Zampini, A.

    1984-09-18

    Asymmetric gas separation membranes of materials having selective permeation of at least one gas of a gaseous mixture over that of one or more remaining gases of the gaseous mixture, exhibit significantly improved permeation selectivities for the at least one gas when the asymmetric membrane is contacted on one or both surfaces with an effective amount of a Br nsted-Lowry acid. The improved asymmetric gas separation membranes, process for producing the improved membrane, and processes utilizing such membranes for selectively separating at least one gas from a gaseous mixture by permeation are disclosed.

  11. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavor breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.

  12. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavormore » breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.« less

  13. Asymmetric centrosome behavior and the mechanisms of stem cell division

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Fuller, Margaret T.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of dividing cells to produce daughters with different fates is an important developmental mechanism conserved from bacteria to fungi, plants, and metazoan animals. Asymmetric outcomes of a cell division can be specified by two general mechanisms: asymmetric segregation of intrinsic fate determinants or asymmetric placement of daughter cells into microenvironments that provide extrinsic signals that direct cells to different states. For both, spindle orientation must be coordinated with the localization of intrinsic determinants or source of extrinsic signals to achieve the proper asymmetric outcome. Recent work on spindle orientation in Drosophila melanogaster male germline stem cells and neuroblasts has brought into sharp focus the key role of differential centrosome behavior in developmentally programmed asymmetric division (for reviews see Cabernard, C., and C.Q. Doe. 2007. Curr. Biol. 17:R465–R467; Gonzalez, C. 2007. Nat. Rev. Genet. 8:462–472). These findings provide new insights and suggest intriguing new models for how cells coordinate spindle orientation with their cellular microenvironment to regulate and direct cell fate decisions within tissues. PMID:18209101

  14. The Influence of the Asymmetric Ionosphere on the Schumann Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The asymmetric ionosphere is known to affect the behavior of the Earth's Schumann resonances (SR). Several studies have addressed the day-night asymmetry with observation or simulation and showed the contrast in SR amplitude between day and night (Satori et.al 2007, Pechony and Price 2007, Yang et.al., 2006). And distinct perturbations in the ionosphere caused by solar proton events, x-ray emission and earthquake coupling will also produce variations in SRs (Roldugin et.al., 2004, De et al., 2010; Satori et.al., 2015). Considering all these possible variations produced by changes in ionospheric asymmetry, we simulate the SR propagation in an asymmetric cavity including the day-night contribution and the more general perturbation asymmetry using a TDTE (Two Dimensional Telegraph Equation) approach. The change of source position in the asymmetric ionosphere and the size of the perturbation will also affect the SR parameters such as amplitude and modal frequency. The central location of the source in either the daytime or nighttime zone will produce a larger amplitude than other locations in the cavity. For example, the amplitude from a source in the zone with lower electric height (like the daytime region) is larger than the situation with source in region of larger electric height (like nighttime region). The asymmetry(difference on EM amplitude between two regions) will be more distinct when the source is on the terminator between two region than on other position. And when the size of the asymmetric construction is changed, the amplitude and modal frequency will also be changed. The increased size of the zone with lower electric height will produce larger SR amplitudes and decreased modal frequency.

  15. Sara endosomes and the asymmetric division of intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Chrystelle; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Tissue homeostasis is maintained by adult stem cells, which self-renew and give rise to differentiating cells. The generation of daughter cells with different fates is mediated by signalling molecules coming from an external niche or being asymmetrically dispatched between the two daughters upon stem cell mitosis. In the adult Drosophila midgut, the intestinal stem cell (ISC) divides to generate a new ISC and an enteroblast (EB) differentiating daughter. Notch signalling activity restricted to the EB regulates intestinal cell fate decision. Here, we show that ISCs divide asymmetrically, and Sara endosomes in ISCs are specifically dispatched to the presumptive EB. During ISC mitosis, Notch and Delta traffic through Sara endosomes, thereby contributing to Notch signalling bias, as revealed in Sara mutants: Sara itself contributes to the control of the ISC asymmetric division. Our data uncover an intrinsic endosomal mechanism during ISC mitosis, which participates in the maintenance of the adult intestinal lineage.

  16. The asymmetric effects of El Niño and La Niña on the East Asian winter monsoon and their simulation by CMIP5 atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events significantly affect the year-by-year variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). However, the effect of La Niña events on the EAWM is not a mirror image of that of El Niño events. Although the EAWM becomes generally weaker during El Niño events and stronger during La Niña winters, the enhanced precipitation over the southeastern China and warmer surface air temperature along the East Asian coastline during El Niño years are more significant. These asymmetric effects are caused by the asymmetric longitudinal positions of the western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone during El Niño events and the WNP cyclone during La Niña events; specifically, the center of the WNP cyclone during La Niña events is westward-shifted relative to its El Niño counterpart. This central-position shift results from the longitudinal shift of remote El Niño and La Niña anomalous heating, and asymmetry in the amplitude of local sea surface temperature anomalies over the WNP. However, such asymmetric effects of ENSO on the EAWM are barely reproduced by the atmospheric models of Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), although the spatial patterns of anomalous circulations are reasonably reproduced. The major limitation of the CMIP5 models is an overestimation of the anomalous WNP anticyclone/cyclone, which leads to stronger EAWM rainfall responses. The overestimated latent heat flux anomalies near the South China Sea and the northern WNP might be a key factor behind the overestimated anomalous circulations.

  17. Probing Asymmetric Structures in the Outskirts of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhang Zheng; Zheng, Xian Zhong; An, Fang Xia

    2014-06-01

    Upcoming large imaging surveys will allow detailed studies of the structure and morphology of galaxies aimed at addressing how galaxies form and evolve. Computational approaches are needed to characterize their morphologies over large samples. We introduce an automatic method to quantify the outer structure of galaxies. The key to our approach is the division of a galaxy image into two sections delineated by the isophote, which encloses half the total brightness of the galaxy. We call the central section the inner half-flux region (IHR) and the outer section the outer half-flux region (OHR). From this division, we derive two parameters: A o, which measures the asymmetry of the OHR, and D o, which measures the deviation of the intensity weighted centroid of the OHR from that of the IHR relative to the effective radius. We derive the two parameters from HST/ACS z 850-band images for a sample of 764 galaxies with z 850 < 22 mag and 0.35 < z < 0.9 selected from the GEMS and GOODS-South surveys. We show that the sample galaxies having strong asymmetric structures, particularly tidal tails, are well-separated from those with regular morphologies in the A o-D o space. Meanwhile, the widely used CAS and Gini-M 20 methods turn out to be insensitive to such morphological features. We stress that the A o-D o method is an efficient way to select galaxies with significant asymmetric features like tidal tails and study galaxy mergers in the dynamical phase traced by these delicate features.

  18. Strongly asymmetric discrete Painlevé equations: The multiplicative case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammaticos, B.; Ramani, A.; Tamizhmani, K. M.; Tamizhmani, T.; Satsuma, J.

    2016-04-01

    We examine a class of multiplicative discrete Painlevé equations which may possess a strongly asymmetric form. When the latter occurs, the equation is written as a system of two equations the right hand sides of which have different functional forms. The present investigation focuses upon two canonical families of the Quispel-Roberts-Thompson classification which contain equations associated with the affine Weyl groups D5 ( 1 ) and E6 ( 1 ) (or groups appearing lower in the degeneration cascade of these two). Many new discrete Painlevé equations with strongly asymmetric forms are obtained.

  19. Asymmetric frontal brain activity and parental rejection predict altruistic behavior: moderation of oxytocin effects.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tops, Mattie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-06-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts charitable donations after a charity's (emotion-eliciting) promotional video showing a child in need is viewed, in a sample of 47 young adult women. In addition, we explore possibilities for mediation and moderation, by asymmetric frontal activity, of the effects of intranasally administered oxytocin and parental love withdrawal on charitable donations. Greater relative left frontal activity was related to larger donations. In addition, we found evidence of moderation: Low levels of parental love withdrawal predicted larger donations in the oxytocin condition for participants showing greater relative right frontal activity. We suggest that when approach motivation is high (reflected in greater relative left frontal activity), individuals are generally inclined to take action upon seeing someone in need and, thus, to donate money to actively help out. Only when approach motivation is low (reflected in less relative left/greater relative right activity) do empathic concerns affected by oxytocin and experiences of love withdrawal play an important part in deciding about donations.

  20. Evolutionary stability in the asymmetric war of attrition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y G

    1993-03-07

    It is shown that there are at least two evolutionarily stable strategies, or ESSs, in the war of attrition with a role asymmetry when players make an error with a small but positive probability in implementing their strategy choices. This result proves Maynard Smith's original conjecture that players should choose asymmetric pure strategies in the asymmetric war of attrition. It is also in contrast to the standard non-existence result of an ESS in this game under complete information. To derive this result we discretize the original game and apply the limit ESS condition introduced by Selten. The result is also compared with other evolutionary analyses of this game.

  1. Effects of Impact Damage in Midplane Asymmetric Sandwich Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael (Technical Monitor); Webb, M. Mensah; Veezie, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Several structural sandwich composites arc in service on military and commercial aerospace vehicles, however, these components have been limited to secondary structures partly because the impact damage and damage tolerance of these composites have not been extensively characterized. To improve durability, safety, and life cycle performance of PMCs while reducing maintenance costs, combined analysis, and test methods that provide a means of predicting critical engineering properties after impact damage of the structure, must be developed. A key enabling technology here is the establishment of the correlation between the impact test results conducted in the laboratory and the mechanics-based phenomenological solutions. This research was undertaken to investigate the compression and flexural properties following low velocity impact of a nomex/phenolic honeycomb core, fiberglass/epoxy facesheet, midplane asymmetric sandwich composite. One facesheet (thin side) was composed of two plies of the fiberglass/epoxy (0/90), while the other facesheet (thick side) was composed of four plies (0/90/0/90) of fiberglass/epoxy. Due to the differences in facesheet thickness, impact damage was separately induced on the thick side as well as the thin side. The compression and flexural strength properties for each damage arrangement were compared using different levels of impact energy ranging from 0 to 452 Joules. In all cases, higher impact energy resulted in decreased compression and flexural strength. Impact on the thin side showed slightly more retention of compression strength at low impact levels, whereas higher residual compressive strength was observed from impact on the thick side at higher impact levels. Different facesheet thicknesses or midplane asymmetry, played an important role in the flexural strength, however, low velocity impact on the both the thick and thin fiberglass/epoxy facesheet side showed an almost linear loss of flexural strength to saturation.

  2. Overcoming asymmetric goals in teams: the interactive roles of team learning orientation and team identification.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Venkataramani, Vijaya

    2015-05-01

    Although members of teams share a common, ultimate objective, they often have asymmetric or conflicting individual goals that shape the way they contribute to, and pursue, the shared goal of the team. Compounding this problem, they are frequently unaware of the nature of these goal asymmetries or even the fact that such differences exist. Drawing on, and integrating, social interdependence and representational gaps theories, we identify 2 emergent states that combine interactively to enable teams to overcome asymmetric goals: team identification and team learning orientation. Using data from long-term, real-life teams that engaged in a computer simulation designed to create both asymmetric goals and representational gaps about those goals, we found that teams were most effective when they had a high learning orientation coupled with high team identification and that this effect was mediated by teams' ability to form more accurate team goal mental models and engage in effective planning processes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  3. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Pulsed finite amplitude sound beams, nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer, nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams, effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams, and parametric receiving arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses five projects all of which involve basic theoretical research in nonlinear acoustics: (1) pulsed finite amplitude sound beams are studied with a recently developed time domain computer algorithm that solves the KZK nonlinear parabolic wave equation; (2) nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer is a study of harmonic generation and acoustic soliton information in a liquid between a rigid and a free surface; (3) nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams is a study of source asymmetries and scattering of sound by sound at high intensity; (4) effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams is a completed study of the role of absorption in second harmonic generation and scattering of sound by sound; and (5) parametric receiving arrays is a completed study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment.

  4. Coupling effects on photoluminescence of exciton states in asymmetric quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of photoluminescence from exciton states in InAs/GaAs asymmetric dot pairs, where interdot coupling is reached via magnetic field in the Faraday configuration. Electronic structure is obtained by finite element calculations, and Coulomb effects are included using a perturbative approach. According to our simulated spectra, bright excited states may become optically accessible at low temperatures in hybridization regimes where intermixing with the ground state is achieved. Our results show effective magnetic control on the energy, polarization and intensity of emitted light, and suggest these coupled nanostructures as relevant candidates for implementation of quantum optoelectronic devices. PMID:24994955

  5. The Mediastinal Waltz--A Representation of Asymmetrical Mediastinal Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki

    2011-01-01

    Many structures in the mediastinum have asymmetrical relationships. For example, the pulmonary artery is superior to the main bronchus on the left side but is anterior on the right side. The pulmonary trunk is not in the midline, but to the left of the midline, and bifurcates anterior to the left main bronchus. Students often find these…

  6. The Mediastinal Waltz--A Representation of Asymmetrical Mediastinal Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki

    2011-01-01

    Many structures in the mediastinum have asymmetrical relationships. For example, the pulmonary artery is superior to the main bronchus on the left side but is anterior on the right side. The pulmonary trunk is not in the midline, but to the left of the midline, and bifurcates anterior to the left main bronchus. Students often find these…

  7. Gold(I)-catalyzed asymmetric desymmetrization of meso-alkynyl diols and kinetic resolution of the corresponding DL-diols: effects of celite filtration and silver salts.

    PubMed

    Sota, Yumi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Murai, Masato; Uenishi, Jun'ichi; Uemura, Motokazu

    2015-03-09

    The asymmetric desymmetrization of meso-2-alkynylbenzenediols through the use of a combination of axially chiral diphosphine(AuCl)2 precatalysts and silver salt co-catalysts gave optically active isochromene compounds with high enantioselectivities in good yields. The corresponding DL-diol isomers underwent efficient kinetic resolution to give the cyclized isochromenes and recovered diols with high enantioselectivities under similar conditions. The high reactivity and selectivity in the desymmetrization of the meso-diols is independent of the combination of axially chiral diphosphine(AuCl)2 precatalyst and silver salt co-catalyst, whereas the corresponding tricarbonylchromium complexes of alkynylbenzenediols were affected by the combination of the diphosphine(AuCl)2 and silver salt. The reactivity was largely dependent on the nature of the gold(I) species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Differential relations for the imaging coefficients of asymmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2003-12-01

    We consider imaging properties embedded in the point eikonal for first-order asymmetric optical systems. We provide geometrical interpretations for the coefficients of the eikonal functions and proceed to show that there exist differential relations between them. The differentials are computed with respect to the position of the reference planes in the object or image spaces.

  9. Differential relations for the imaging coefficients of asymmetric systems.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2003-12-01

    We consider imaging properties embedded in the point eikonal for first-order asymmetric optical systems. We provide geometrical interpretations for the coefficients of the eikonal functions and proceed to show that there exist differential relations between them. The differentials are computed with respect to the position of the reference planes in the object or image spaces.

  10. The impact of asymmetric flows on pathological speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Peterson, Sean D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2010-11-01

    In voiced speech the vocal folds form a divergent glottal passage during the closing phases of the phonatory cycle. Due to the adverse pressure gradient, asymmetric flow develops within the glottis causing the glottal jet to separate from one vocal fold wall, and fully-attach to the opposing wall. The asymmetric pressures that arise from this flow configuration directly influence the vocal fold energy exchange process, and are expected to have the greatest influence on vocal fold motion when pathologies that affect the vocal fold musculature are present. A theoretical flow solution that produces the pressure distributions arising from asymmetric glottal flows is implemented into a two-mass model of speech. The impact of flow asymmetries on pathological vocal fold motion is investigated by modifying the tissue parameters of the speech model to represent unilateral paralysis. The influence of asymmetric flow behavior on pathological vocal fold motion is quantified and compared to the commonly-reported simplified case involving symmetric flow behavior.

  11. The mysteries of the diffusion region in asymmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, M.; Aunai, N.; Zenitani, S.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Birn, J.

    2013-12-01

    Unlike in symmetric systems, where symmetry dictates a comparatively simple structure of the reconnection region, asymmetric systems offer a surprising, much more complex, structure of the diffusion region. Beyond the well-known lack of colocation of flow stagnation and magnetic null, the physical mechanism underpinning the reconnection electric field also appears to be considerably more complex. In this presentation, we will perform a detailed analysis of the reconnection diffusion region in an asymmetric system. We will show that, unlike in symmetric systems, the immediate reconnection electric field is not given by electron pressure tensor nongyrotropies, but by electron inertial contributions. We will further discuss the role of pressure nongyrotropies, and we will study the origin of the complex structures of electron distributions in the central part of the diffusion region.

  12. Connecting cancer to the asymmetric division of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, Andreas; Gonzalez, Cayetano

    2006-03-24

    Two studies, one in this issue of Cell and the other in Developmental Cell show that the cell-fate determinant Brain Tumor (Brat) suppresses self-renewal in one of the daughter cells that arise from the asymmetric division of a neural stem cell. This work suggests a mechanism by which loss of polarity in stem cells may lead to tumorigenesis.

  13. Preliminary investigation of the effects of lower hybrid power on asymmetric behaviors in the scrape-off layer in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Ding, B. J. Li, M. H.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Yang, J. H.; Wu, Z. G.; Liu, L.; Wang, M.; Zhao, L. M.; Ma, W. D.; Xiu, H. D.; Wang, X. J.; Jia, H.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, M.; Wu, D. J.; Xu, L.; and others

    2014-02-15

    The striations in front of the lower hybrid (LH) launcher have been observed during LH injection by a visible video camera in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Edge density at the top of the LH launcher tends to be much larger in reversed magnetic field (B{sub t}) than that in the normal B{sub t}. To study the mechanisms of the observations, the diffusive-convective model is employed. Simulations show that the LH power makes the density in scrape-off layer asymmetric in poloidal direction with five density peaks. The locations of the striations are approximately in agreement with the locations of the density peaks in different directions of B{sub t}. Higher LH power strengths the asymmetry of the density and leads to a bad coupling which is in conflict with the experimental results showing a good coupling with a higher power. Furthermore, an ionization term is introduced into this model and the increase of edge density with LH power can be qualitatively explained. The simulations also show that the density peaks in front of the waveguides become clearer when taking into account gas puffing.

  14. Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, Keri V

    2005-01-01

    The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

  15. The asymmetric quantum Rabi model in the polaron picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Maoxin; Ying, Zu-Jian; An, Jun-Hong; Luo, Hong-Gang; Lin, Hai-Qin

    2017-02-01

    The concept of the polaron in condensed matter physics has been extended to the Rabi model, where polarons resulting from the coupling between a two-level system and single-mode photons represent two oppositely displaced oscillators. Interestingly, tunneling between these two displaced oscillators can induce an anti-polaron, which has not been systematically explored in the literature, especially in the presence of an asymmetric term. In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of the competition between the polaron and anti-polaron under the interplay of the coupling strength and the asymmetric term. While intuitively the anti-polaron should be secondary owing to its higher potential energy, we find that, under certain conditions, the minor anti-polaron may gain a reversal in the weight over the major polaron. If the asymmetric amplitude ɛ is smaller than the harmonic frequency ω, such an overweighted anti-polaron can occur beyond a critical value of the coupling strength g; if ɛ is larger, the anti-polaron can even be always overweighted at any g. We propose that the explicit occurrence of the overweighted anti-polaron can be monitored by a displacement transition from negative to positive values. This displacement is an experimentally accessible observable, which can be measured by quantum optical methods, such as balanced Homodyne detection.

  16. Functional consequences of the asymmetric architecture of the ctenophore statocyst.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Sidney L

    2015-10-01

    Ctenophores, or comb jellies, are geotactic with a statocyst that controls the activity of the eight ciliary comb rows. If a ctenophore is tilted or displaced from a position of vertical balance, it rights itself by asymmetric frequencies of beating on the uppermost and lowermost comb rows, turning to swim up or down depending on its mood. I recently discovered that the statocyst of ctenophores has an asymmetric architecture related to the sagittal and tentacular planes along the oral-aboral axis. The four groups of pacemaker balancer cilia are arranged in a rectangle along the tentacular plane, and support a superellipsoidal statolith elongated in the tentacular plane. By controlled tilting of immobilized ctenophores in either body plane with video recording of activated comb rows, I found that higher beat frequencies occurred in the sagittal than in the tentacular plane at orthogonal orientations. Similar tilting experiments on isolated statocyst slices showed that statolith displacement due to gravity and the resulting deflection of the mechanoresponsive balancers are greater in the sagittal plane. Finally, tilting experiments on a mechanical model gave results similar to those of real statocysts, indicating that the geometric asymmetries of statolith design are sufficient to account for my findings. The asymmetric architecture of the ctenophore statocyst thus has functional consequences, but a possible adaptive value is not known. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  17. Asymmetric cultural effects on perceptual expertise underlie an own-race bias for voices

    PubMed Central

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Chiao, Joan Y.; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The own-race bias in memory for faces has been a rich source of empirical work on the mechanisms of person perception. This effect is thought to arise because the face-perception system differentially encodes the relevant structural dimensions of features and their configuration based on experiences with different groups of faces. However, the effects of sociocultural experiences on person perception abilities in other identity-conveying modalities like audition have not been explored. Investigating an own-race bias in the auditory domain provides a unique opportunity for studying whether person identification is a modality-independent construct and how it is sensitive to asymmetric cultural experiences. Here we show that an own-race bias in talker identification arises from asymmetric experience with different spoken dialects. When listeners categorized voices by race (White or Black), a subset of the Black voices were categorized as sounding White, while the opposite case was unattested. Acoustic analyses indicated listeners' perceptions about race were consistent with differences in specific phonetic and phonological features. In a subsequent person-identification experiment, the Black voices initially categorized as sounding White elicited an own-race bias from White listeners, but not from Black listeners. These effects are inconsistent with person-perception models that strictly analogize faces and voices based on recognition from only structural features. Our results demonstrate that asymmetric exposure to spoken dialect, independent from talkers' physical characteristics, affects auditory perceptual expertise for talker identification. Person perception thus additionally relies on socioculturally-acquired dynamic information, which may be represented by different mechanisms in different sensory modalities. PMID:19782970

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of pyrazoles and pyrazolones employing the reactivity of pyrazolin-5-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Pankaj; Mahajan, Suruchi; Enders, Dieter

    2015-08-21

    Due to the frequent occurrence of the pyrazole core in many important naturally occurring and synthetic molecules, tremendous efforts have been made for their synthesis. The pyrazolin-5-one derivatives have emerged as the most effective substrates for the synthesis of useful pyrazoles and their corresponding pyrazolone derivatives. Recently, the reactivity of pyrazolin-5-ones has been used for the asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalised pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives by employing organo- and metal-catalysts. This feature article focuses on the progress in the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of pyrazoles and pyrazolones using pyrazolin-5-one derivatives.

  19. On the Complexity of the Asymmetric VPN Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothvoß, Thomas; Sanità, Laura

    We give the first constant factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric Virtual Private Network (textsc{Vpn}) problem with arbitrary concave costs. We even show the stronger result, that there is always a tree solution of cost at most 2·OPT and that a tree solution of (expected) cost at most 49.84·OPT can be determined in polynomial time.

  20. Transmission and reflection in the stadium billiard: time-dependent asymmetric transport.

    PubMed

    Dettmann, Carl P; Georgiou, Orestis

    2011-03-01

    The survival probability of the open stadium billiard with one hole on its boundary is well known to decay asymptotically as a power law. We investigate the transmission and reflection survival probabilities for the case of two holes placed asymmetrically. Classically, these distributions are shown to lose their algebraic decay tails depending on the choice of injecting hole, therefore exhibiting asymmetric transport. The mechanism behind this is explained while exact expressions are given and confirmed numerically. We propose a model for experimental observation of this effect using semiconductor nanostructures and comment on the relevant quantum time scales.

  1. Effects of task precision demands on behavioral and physiological changes during a repetitive asymmetric lifting activity.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of task precision demands on behavioral and physiological changes during repetitive asymmetric lifting. Repetitive lifting encountered in manual material handling leads to muscle fatigue and is a documented risk factor for low back disorder. A total of 17 healthy volunteers performed repetitive asymmetric lifting for 60 min (10 lifts/min). Task precision demands were imposed by varying the entry width onto the destination conveyor. Physiological changes were assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy obtained from the erector spinae muscles. Three-dimensional spine kinematics and moment responses were quantified to understand behavioral changes during the lifting activity. Task precision demands showed no effect on erector spinae muscle oxygenation levels. Behavioral changes associated with repetitive lifting included increases in the overall lift duration, peak forward bending motion, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine, along with a decrease in the lateral bending moment. Relative to low precision demands, high precision demands resulted in 20% longer placement periods, which, in turn, resulted in a 12% increase in the time-integrated twisting postures and a 10% increase in the time-integrated lateral bending moments during load placement. The elevated risk of low back injury when lifting under greater precision demands is likely due to the sustained spine twisting and the sustained lateral bending moment on the spine in the final phase of these lifts. Understanding behavioral changes to repetitive asymmetric lifting, especially for tasks requiring greater precision can be used to support injury prevention efforts. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  2. The effect of two- and three-body interactions in ArnCO2 (n = 1,2) on the asymmetric stretching CO2 coordinate: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Janusz; Szcześniak, M. M.; Chałasiński, Grzegorz; Cybulski, sławomir M.

    1997-06-01

    The dependence of the two-body and three-body interactions in the ArnCO2 cluster upon the intramolecular asymmetric stretching coordinate of CO2 is studied by the ab initio method. In the T-shaped binary complex Ar-CO2, the influence of the components of the interaction energy on the shift of the asymmetric stretching frequency of CO2 (ν3) is estimated within a one-dimensional vibrational model and compared with the experimental data of Sperhac, Weida, and Nesbitt [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 2202 (1996)]. The interaction energy is dissected into Heitler-London, induction, and dispersion energies and their respective intrasystem correlation corrections. The redshift represents a delicate balance of these effects on the v=0 and v=1 levels. The highly correlated treatment is required to describe the dependence of two-body potential upon the stretching coordinate. The supermolecular coupled cluster calculations with the single, double, and noniterative triple excitations reproduce the shift observed by Sperhac et al. with excellent accuracy. In the Ar2CO2 trimer with the two Ar atoms in equatorial positions, the influence of the three-body interaction components on the v=0 and v=1 levels is analyzed. A model of the three-body potential, including three nonadditive components, exchange, induction, and dispersion is applied. It describes the departure from additivity of the two-body shifts observed by Sperhac et al. with excellent accuracy. The analytical models of the energy components are also discussed.

  3. Fluorination effect of activated carbons on performance of asymmetric capacitive deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hanjoo; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Jung, Min-Jung; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2017-07-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) were fluorinated and fabricated into electrodes to investigate the effect of fluorination on asymmetric capacitive deionization (CDI). Fluorine functional groups were introduced on the AC surfaces via fluorination. The specific capacitance of the fluorinated AC (Fsbnd AC) electrode increased drastically from 261 to 337 F/g compared with the untreated AC (Rsbnd AC) electrode at a scan rate of 5 mV/s, despite a decrease in the specific surface area and total pore volume after fluorination. The desalination behavior of asymmetric CDI cells assembled with an Rsbnd AC electrode as the counter electrode and an Fsbnd AC electrode as the cathode (R || F-) or anode (R || F +) was studied. For R || F-, the salt adsorption capacity and charge efficiency increased from 10.6 mg/g and 0.58-12.4 mg/g and 0.75, respectively, compared with the CDI cell assembled with identical Rsbnd AC electrodes at 1 V. This CDI cell exhibited consistently better salt adsorption capacity and charge efficiency at different applied voltages because Fsbnd AC electrodes have a cation attractive effect originating from the partially negatively charged fluorine functional groups on the AC surface. Therefore, co-ion expulsion in the Fsbnd AC electrode as the cathode is effectively diminished, leading to enhanced CDI performance.

  4. Numerical approach to new tangential slot effect on film cooling effectiveness over asymmetrical turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senouci, Z.; Benabed, M.

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this numerical study is to conceive a new basic film cooling configuration in order to increase film cooling effectiveness, especially at the leading edge zone between the injection holes where cooling is mostly needed. The new configuration, resulting from the tangential slot configuration and especially adapted to the leading edge of an asymmetrical blade, is compared to the uniform slot configuration. Three alternatives geometries were proposed and numerically tested to find the configuration that provides the best film cooling effectiveness. The simulation is conducted at a fixed density ratio of 1.0 and a blowing ratio of 0.7. A new parameter, Rc, is defined to measure the rate of blade coverage by the film cooling. The outcomes of the numerical results indicate that the three proposed configurations allow better thermal protection because of their higher film cooling coverage. At suction side, the new configurations provide a better film cooling coverage than the baseline case. The minimal improvement is at approximately 34%, with a light superiority of case 1. At pressure side, the use of the tangential slot is especially interesting for the allowed minimum adiabatic effectiveness values between 0.3 and 0.5.

  5. The dynamics and control of large flexible asymmetric spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, T. T.

    1991-02-01

    This thesis develops the equations of motion for a large flexible asymmetric Earth observation satellite and finds the characteristics of its motion under the influence of control forces. The mathematical model of the structure is produced using analytical methods. The equations of motion are formed using an expanded momentum technique which accounts for translational motion of the spacecraft hub and employs orthogonality relations between appendage and vehicle modes. The controllability and observability conditions of the full spacecraft motions using force and torque actuators are defined. A three axis reaction wheel control system is implemented for both slewing the spacecraft and controlling its resulting motions. From minor slew results it is shown that the lowest frequency elastic mode of the spacecraft is more important than higher frequency modes, when considering the effects of elastic motion on instrument pointing from the hub. Minor slews of the spacecraft configurations considered produce elastic deflections resulting in rotational attitude motions large enough to contravene pointing accuracy requirements of instruments aboard the spacecraft hub. Active vibration damping is required to reduce these hub motions to acceptable bounds in sufficiently small time. A comparison between hub mounted collocated and hub/appendage mounted non-collocated control systems verifies that provided the non-collocated system is stable, it can more effectively damp elastic modes whilst maintaining adequate damping of rigid modes. Analysis undertaken shows that the reaction wheel controller could be replaced by a thruster control system which decouples the modes of the spacecraft motion, enabling them to be individually damped.

  6. Polarity and asymmetric cell division in the control of lymphocyte fate decisions and function.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammed; Russell, Sarah M

    2016-04-01

    Polarity is important in several lymphocyte processes including lymphocyte migration, formation of the immunological synapse, and asymmetric cell division (ACD). While lymphocyte migration and immunological synapse formation are relatively well understood, the role of lymphocyte ACD is less clear. Recent advances in measuring polarity enable more robust analyses of asymmetric cell division. Use of these new methods has produced crucial quantification of ACD at precise phases of lymphocyte development and activation. These developments are leading to a better understanding of the drivers of fate choice during lymphocyte activation and provide a context within which to explain the effects of ACD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical characteristics of tunneling field-effect transistors with asymmetric channel thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsik; Oh, Hyeongwan; Kim, Jiwon; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Effects of using asymmetric channel thickness in tunneling field-effect transistors (TFET) are investigated in sub-50 nm channel regime using two-dimensional (2D) simulations. As the thickness of the source side becomes narrower in narrow-source wide-drain (NSWD) TFETs, the threshold voltage (V th) and the subthreshold swing (SS) decrease due to enhanced gate controllability of the source side. The narrow source thickness can make the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) distance shorter and induce much higher electric field near the source junction at the on-state condition. In contrast, in a TFET with wide-source narrow-drain (WSND), the SS shows almost constant values and the V th slightly increases with narrowing thickness of the drain side. In addition, the ambipolar current can rapidly become larger with smaller thickness on the drain side because of the shorter BTBT distance and the higher electric-field at the drain junction. The on-current of the asymmetric channel TFET is lower than that of conventional TFETs due to the volume limitation of the NSWD TFET and high series resistance of the WSND TFET. The on-current is almost determined by the channel thickness of the source side.

  8. Effect of delta tabs on mixing and axis switching in jets from asymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of delta tabs on mixing and the phenomenon of axis switching in free air jets from various asymmetric nozzles was studied experimentally. Flow visualization and Pitot probe surveys were carried out with a set of small nozzles (D = 1.47 cm) at a jet Mach number, Mj = 1.63. Hot wire measurements for streamwise vorticity were carried out with larger nozzles (D = 6.35 cm) at Mj = 0.31. Jet mixing with the asymmetric nozzles, as indicated by the mass fluxes downstream, was found to be higher than that produced by a circular nozzle. The circular nozzle with four delta tabs, however, produced fluxes much higher than that produced by a asymmetric nozzles themselves or by most of the tab configurations tried with them. Even higher fluxes could be obtained with only a few cases, e.g., with 3:1 rectangular nozzle with two large delta tabs placed on the narrow edges. In this case, the jet 'fanned out' at a large angle after going through one axis switch. The axis switching could be either stopped or augmented with suitable choice of the tab configurations. Two mechanisms are identified governing the phenomenon. One, as described in Ref. 12 and referred to here as the omega(sub Theta)-induced dynamics, is due to differential induced velocities of different segments of a rolled up azimuthal vortical structure. The other is the omega(sub x)-induced dynamics due to the induced velocities of streamwise vortex pairs in the flow. While the former dynamics are responsible for rapid axis switching in periodically forced jets, the effect of the tabs is governed mainly by the latter. It is inferred that both dynamics are active in a natural asymmetric jet issuing from a nozzle having an upstream contraction. The tendency for axis switching caused by the omega(sub Theta)-induced dynamics is resisted by the omega(sub x)-induced dynamics, leading to a delayed or no switch over in that case. In jets from orifices and in screeching jets, the omega(sub Theta)-induced dynamics

  9. Asymmetric effects of daytime and night-time warming on Northern Hemisphere vegetation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Chen, Anping; Chevallier, Frédéric; Dolman, Albertus J; Janssens, Ivan A; Peñuelas, Josep; Zhang, Gengxin; Vicca, Sara; Wan, Shiqiang; Wang, Shiping; Zeng, Hui

    2013-09-05

    Temperature data over the past five decades show faster warming of the global land surface during the night than during the day. This asymmetric warming is expected to affect carbon assimilation and consumption in plants, because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during daytime and is more sensitive to the maximum daily temperature, Tmax, whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day and is therefore influenced by both Tmax and the minimum daily temperature, Tmin. Most studies of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate warming, however, ignore this asymmetric forcing effect on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Here we analyse the interannual covariations of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, an indicator of vegetation greenness) with Tmax and Tmin over the Northern Hemisphere. After removing the correlation between Tmax and Tmin, we find that the partial correlation between Tmax and NDVI is positive in most wet and cool ecosystems over boreal regions, but negative in dry temperate regions. In contrast, the partial correlation between Tmin and NDVI is negative in boreal regions, and exhibits a more complex behaviour in dry temperate regions. We detect similar patterns in terrestrial net CO2 exchange maps obtained from a global atmospheric inversion model. Additional analysis of the long-term atmospheric CO2 concentration record of the station Point Barrow in Alaska suggests that the peak-to-peak amplitude of CO2 increased by 23 ± 11% for a +1 °C anomaly in Tmax from May to September over lands north of 51° N, but decreased by 28 ± 14% for a +1 °C anomaly in Tmin. These lines of evidence suggest that asymmetric diurnal warming, a process that is currently not taken into account in many global carbon cycle models, leads to a divergent response of Northern Hemisphere vegetation growth and carbon sequestration to rising temperatures.

  10. Suppression of the asymmetric competition mode in the relativistic Ku-band coaxial transit-time oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Junpu; He, Juntao; Zhang, Jiande; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Lei

    2014-10-15

    A relativistic Ku-band coaxial transit-time oscillator has been proposed in our previous work. In the experiments, we find that the asymmetric competition mode in the device limits the microwave power with the increase of the input electric power. For solving such a problem, the methods for analysis and suppression of the asymmetric competition mode in the device are investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the structure and the material of the collector, the concentricity, and the electron emission uniformity play an important part in the suppression of the asymmetric competition mode in the relativistic Ku-band transit-time oscillator. In the subsequent experiments, the asymmetric mode was suppressed effectively. At a low guiding magnetic field of 0.7 T, a microwave pulse with power of 1 GW, frequency of 14.3 GHz close to the simulation one, and efficiency of 20% was generated.

  11. Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Scaffolding of L2 Collocations in the Context of Concordancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaee, Abbas Ali; Marefat, Hamideh; Saeedakhtar, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Collocational competence is recognized to be integral to native-like L2 performance, and concordancing can be of assistance in gaining this competence. This study reports on an investigation into the effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical scaffolding on the collocational competence of Iranian intermediate learners of English in the context of…

  12. Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Scaffolding of L2 Collocations in the Context of Concordancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaee, Abbas Ali; Marefat, Hamideh; Saeedakhtar, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Collocational competence is recognized to be integral to native-like L2 performance, and concordancing can be of assistance in gaining this competence. This study reports on an investigation into the effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical scaffolding on the collocational competence of Iranian intermediate learners of English in the context of…

  13. The effect of on-body lift assistive device on the lumbar 3D dynamic moments and EMG during asymmetric freestyle lifting.

    PubMed

    Abdoli-E, Mohammad; Stevenson, Joan M

    2008-03-01

    A new on-body personal lift assistive device was developed to reduce force requirements of back muscles during lifting and static holding tasks. Nine male subjects participated in the study. Twelve Fastrak sensors were used to record positions and rotations of the segments. Trunk muscles were normalized to maximum and integrated electromyographic amplitudes of the left and right thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, external obliques, and rectus abdominalis were compared in asymmetrical lifting for three different loads (5 kg, 15 kg, 25 kg) using free style under two conditions: with and without a lift assistive device. The assistive device significantly reduced the required muscular effort of the lumbar and thoracic erector spinae (P=0.001) with no significant differences in the level of abdominal muscular activity. Average integrated electromyography amplitudes were reduced across all subjects by 23.9% for lumbar erector spinae, 24.4% for thoracic erector spinae, and 34.9% for the contralateral external oblique muscles. The assistive device had its greatest impact on smaller moments with 30% reduction in lateral bending, and 24% reduction in rotational moments, with only 19.5% a reduction in larger flexion-extension moments. To investigate whether the lift assistive device affected lifting kinematics, the device tensions were zeroed mathematically. No kinematic differences in lifting technique would explain this magnitude of moment reduction. The on-body assistive device reduced the required muscular effort of the lumbar and thoracic erector spinae without adversely affecting the level of abdominal muscle activity. These reductions were mirrored by similar 3D moment reductions.

  14. Impaired endothelial function and microvascular asymmetrical dimethylarginine in angiotensin II-infused rats: effects of tempol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Luo, Zaiming; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jose, Pedro A; Falck, John R; Welch, William J; Aslam, Shakil; Teerlink, Tom; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II causes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the hypothesis that Ang II increases microvascular reactive oxygen species and asymmetrical dimethylarginine and switches endothelial function from vasodilator to vasoconstrictor pathways. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent responses of mesenteric resistance arterioles were assessed in a myograph and vascular NO and reactive oxygen species by fluorescent probes in groups (n=6) of male rats infused for 14 days with Ang II (200 ng/kg per minute) or given a sham infusion. Additional groups of Ang or sham-infused rats were given oral Tempol (2 mmol · L(-1)). Ang II infusion increased mean blood pressure (119±5 versus 89±7 mm Hg; P<0.005) and plasma malondialdehyde (0.57±0.02 versus 0.37±0.05 μmol · L(-1); P<0.035) and decreased maximal endothelium-dependent relaxation (18±5% versus 54±6%; P<0.005) and hyperpolarizing (19±3% versus 29±3%; P<0.05) responses and NO activity (0.9±0.1 versus 1.6±0.2 U; P<0.01) yet enhanced endothelium-dependent contraction responses (23±5% versus 5±5%; P<0.05) and reactive oxygen species production (0.82±0.05 versus 0.15±0.03 U; P<0.01). Ang II decreased the expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 and increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine in vessels (450±50 versus 260±35 pmol/mg of protein; P<0.01) but not plasma. Tempol prevented any significant changes with Ang II. In conclusion, Ang redirected endothelial responses from relaxation to contraction, reduced vascular NO, and increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine. These effects were dependent on reactive oxygen species and could, therefore, be targeted with effective antioxidant therapy.

  15. Effect of asymmetric concentration profile on thermal conductivity in Ge/SiGe superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Konstanze R.; Cecchi, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2016-05-16

    The effect of the chemical composition in Si/Ge-based superlattices on their thermal conductivity has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation cells of Ge/SiGe superlattices have been generated with different concentration profiles such that the Si concentration follows a step-like, a tooth-saw, a Gaussian, and a gamma-type function in direction of the heat flux. The step-like and tooth-saw profiles mimic ideally sharp interfaces, whereas Gaussian and gamma-type profiles are smooth functions imitating atomic diffusion at the interface as obtained experimentally. Symmetry effects have been investigated comparing the symmetric profiles of the step-like and the Gaussian function to the asymmetric profiles of the tooth-saw and the gamma-type function. At longer sample length and similar degree of interdiffusion, the thermal conductivity is found to be lower in asymmetric profiles. Furthermore, it is found that with smooth concentration profiles where atomic diffusion at the interface takes place the thermal conductivity is higher compared to systems with atomically sharp concentration profiles.

  16. Effect of asymmetric concentration profile on thermal conductivity in Ge/SiGe superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Konstanze R.; Cecchi, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the chemical composition in Si/Ge-based superlattices on their thermal conductivity has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation cells of Ge/SiGe superlattices have been generated with different concentration profiles such that the Si concentration follows a step-like, a tooth-saw, a Gaussian, and a gamma-type function in direction of the heat flux. The step-like and tooth-saw profiles mimic ideally sharp interfaces, whereas Gaussian and gamma-type profiles are smooth functions imitating atomic diffusion at the interface as obtained experimentally. Symmetry effects have been investigated comparing the symmetric profiles of the step-like and the Gaussian function to the asymmetric profiles of the tooth-saw and the gamma-type function. At longer sample length and similar degree of interdiffusion, the thermal conductivity is found to be lower in asymmetric profiles. Furthermore, it is found that with smooth concentration profiles where atomic diffusion at the interface takes place the thermal conductivity is higher compared to systems with atomically sharp concentration profiles.

  17. Effect of asymmetric molecule-electrode coupling and molecular bias on rectification in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rupan Preet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    2016-12-01

    In this research work, we compare the rectification trends of two symmetrical and one asymmetrical molecular junction formed with gold and silver electrodes bridging benzenedithiol molecule. The origin of rectification is attributed to both molecular bias drop and asymmetric molecule-electrode coupling. The electronic transport properties are computed by using semi-empirical extended Huckel method combined with non-equilibrium Green's function framework. The results are fully rationalized by analysing the distribution of molecular orbitals with changing bias voltage, available density of states and area of transmission spectra spanned within bias window, transmission eigenstates and transmission pathways. We deduce through this work that the molecular rectification is not only the property of asymmetric molecule-metal coupling, but molecular bias also plays vital role in stemming asymmetric I- V characteristics. Our results suggest how to realize molecular rectification by using different electrode materials which act as Schottky barriers in molecular junctions that emulate p-n junction diode in semiconductor electronics.

  18. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping

    2016-08-01

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  19. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jianfa Dai, Zhensheng Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping

    2016-08-15

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  20. Preferential synthesis of asymmetric antibodies in rats immunized with paternal particulate antigens. Effect on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, T; Borel, I M; Angelucci, J; Miranda, S; Margni, R A

    1992-08-01

    The effect of immunization of female Fischer rats with particulate (spleen cells) (group I) or soluble (supernatant of disintegrated spleen cells) (group II) paternal antigens previous to mating with Buffalo rats was investigated. The percentage of asymmetric IgG molecules in the serum of rats inoculated with particulate antigens was 38% while in those injected with soluble antigens it was 29% and 28% in non-immunized animals. These percentages further increased during pregnancy to 45%, 38% and 37%, respectively. The antipaternal antibody titres, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), was much higher in the animals immunized with particulate antigens but the effector activity, judged by complement fixation, was similar in both groups. The same values were observed at the time of mating (after 3 months of immunization) and at day 17 of pregnancy. Fetus and placenta weights and offspring survival were equally greater in group I than in group II or non-immunized rats (group III). The results obtained indicate the preferential synthesis of antipaternal IgG asymmetric antibodies in rats injected with particulate antigens previous to mating and suggests a beneficial effect of these antibodies in pregnancy.

  1. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Gold(I)‐Mediated Thiourea Organocatalyst Activation: A Synergic Effect for Asymmetric Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Izaga, Anabel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several group 11 metal complexes with chiral thiourea organocatalysts have been prepared and tested as organocatalysts. The promising results on the influence of metal‐assisted thiourea organocatalysts in the asymmetric Friedel–Crafts alkylation of indole with nitrostyrene are described. Better results with the metal complexes have been achieved because of the cooperative effects between the chiral thiourea and the metal. The synergic effect between both species is higher than the effect promoted by each one separately, especially for gold(I). These outcomes are attributed to a pioneering gold(I) activation of the thiourea catalysts, affording a more acidic and rigid catalytic complex than that provided by the thiourea alone. Furthermore, the use of the gold–thiourea organocatalyst allows reducing the catalyst loading to 1–3 mol %. This contribution could become an important starting point for further investigations opening a new line of research overlooked so far in the literature. PMID:28706568

  3. Gold(I)-Mediated Thiourea Organocatalyst Activation: A Synergic Effect for Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Izaga, Anabel; Herrera, Raquel P; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2017-04-07

    Several group 11 metal complexes with chiral thiourea organocatalysts have been prepared and tested as organocatalysts. The promising results on the influence of metal-assisted thiourea organocatalysts in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with nitrostyrene are described. Better results with the metal complexes have been achieved because of the cooperative effects between the chiral thiourea and the metal. The synergic effect between both species is higher than the effect promoted by each one separately, especially for gold(I). These outcomes are attributed to a pioneering gold(I) activation of the thiourea catalysts, affording a more acidic and rigid catalytic complex than that provided by the thiourea alone. Furthermore, the use of the gold-thiourea organocatalyst allows reducing the catalyst loading to 1-3 mol %. This contribution could become an important starting point for further investigations opening a new line of research overlooked so far in the literature.

  4. Effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on glottic posture, acoustics, vibration.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Neubauer, Juergen; Bergeron, Jennifer L; Sofer, Elazar; Peng, Kevin A; Jamal, Nausheen

    2013-12-01

    Evaluate the effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on the vibratory phase, laryngeal posture, and acoustics. Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. The superior laryngeal nerves were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight activation levels to mimic laryngeal asymmetries representing various levels of superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions. Glottal posture change, vocal fold speed, and vibration of these 64 distinct laryngeal-activation conditions were evaluated by high speed video and concurrent acoustic and aerodynamic recordings. Assessments were made at phonation onset. Vibratory phase was symmetric in all symmetric activation conditions, but consistent phase asymmetry toward the vocal fold with higher superior laryngeal-nerve activation was observed. Superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions had reduced vocal fold strain and fundamental frequency. Superior laryngeal nerve activation increased vocal fold closure speed, but this effect was more pronounced for the ipsilateral vocal fold. Increasing asymmetry led to aperiodic and chaotic vibration. This study directly links vocal-fold tension asymmetry with vibratory phase asymmetry, in particular the side with greater tension leads in the opening phase. The clinical observations of vocal fold lag, reduced vocal range, and aperiodic voice in superior laryngeal paresis and paralysis is also supported. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Effects of Asymmetric Superior Laryngeal Nerve Stimulation on Glottic Posture, Acoustics, Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Bergeron, Jennifer L.; Sofer, Elazar; Peng, Kevin A.; Jamal, Nausheen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on the vibratory phase, laryngeal posture, and acoustics. Study Design Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. Methods The superior laryngeal nerves were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight activation levels to mimic laryngeal asymmetries representing various levels of superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions. Glottal posture change, vocal fold speed, and vibration of these 64 distinct laryngeal activation conditions were evaluated by high speed video and concurrent acoustic and aerodynamic recordings. Assessments were made at phonation onset. Results Vibratory phase was symmetric in all symmetric activation conditions but consistent phase asymmetry towards the vocal fold with higher superior laryngeal nerve activation was observed. Superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions had reduced vocal fold strain and fundamental frequency. Superior laryngeal nerve activation increased vocal fold closure speed, but this effect was more pronounced for the ipsilateral vocal fold. Increasing asymmetry led to aperiodic and chaotic vibration. Conclusions This study directly links vocal fold tension asymmetry with vibratory phase asymmetry; in particular the side with greater tension leads in the opening phase. The clinical observations of vocal fold lag, reduced vocal range, and aperiodic voice in superior laryngeal paresis and paralysis is also supported. PMID:23712542

  6. Effects of Asymmetric Quantum Wells on the Structural and Optical Properties of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Lung; Wu, Wei-Che

    2014-05-12

    A metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy-grown InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) with three graded-thickness wells (the first-grown well had the greatest width) near the n-GaN was used as the active layer of an LED. For LEDs with an asymmetric quantum well (AQW), high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic reveal that the modified MQWs with a reasonable crystalline quality were coherently strained on the underlying GaN epilayers without any relaxation. In addition, the slight increase of indium segregation in the LED with an AQW may be attributed to variations in indium contents experienced during epitaxial growth of the wide well-containing MQWs. By preventing the energetic electrons from accumulating at the topmost quantum well nearest the p-GaN, the presence of light intensity roll-off in the LED with an AQW is shifted to higher currents and the corresponding maximum light output power is increased with a ratio 7.9% higher than that of normal LEDs. Finally, similar emission wavelengths were observed in the electroluminescence spectra of both LEDs, suggesting that light emitted mostly from the top quantum wells (near the p-GaN) while the emissions from the AQW region were insignificant.

  7. Effects of Asymmetric Quantum Wells on the Structural and Optical Properties of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Lung; Wu, Wei-Che

    2014-01-01

    A metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy-grown InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) with three graded-thickness wells (the first-grown well had the greatest width) near the n-GaN was used as the active layer of an LED. For LEDs with an asymmetric quantum well (AQW), high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic reveal that the modified MQWs with a reasonable crystalline quality were coherently strained on the underlying GaN epilayers without any relaxation. In addition, the slight increase of indium segregation in the LED with an AQW may be attributed to variations in indium contents experienced during epitaxial growth of the wide well-containing MQWs. By preventing the energetic electrons from accumulating at the topmost quantum well nearest the p-GaN, the presence of light intensity roll-off in the LED with an AQW is shifted to higher currents and the corresponding maximum light output power is increased with a ratio 7.9% higher than that of normal LEDs. Finally, similar emission wavelengths were observed in the electroluminescence spectra of both LEDs, suggesting that light emitted mostly from the top quantum wells (near the p-GaN) while the emissions from the AQW region were insignificant. PMID:28788647

  8. Mass-asymmetric fission in the 40ca+142Nd reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, E.; Hinde, D. J.; Williams, E.; Dasgupta, M.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Jeung, D. Y.; Luong, D. H.; McNeil, S.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Wakhle, A.; Ramachandran, K.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Dullmann, Ch. E.; Lommel, B.; Kindler, B.

    2016-09-01

    Shell effects play a major role in fission. Mass-asymmetric fission observed in the spontaneous and low energy fission of actinide nuclei was explained by incorporating the fragment shell properties in liquid drop model. Asymmetric fission has also been observed in the low energy fission of neutron-deficient 180Hg nuclei in recent β-delayed fission experiments. This low-energy β-delayed fission has been explained in terms of strong shell effects in pre-scission configurations associated with the system after capture. Calculations predicted asymmetric fission for heavier Hg isotopes as well, at compound nuclear excitation energy as high as 40 MeV. To explore the evolution of fission fragment mass distribution as a function of neutron and proton numbers and also with excitation energy, fission fragment mass distributions have been measured for the 40Ca+142Nd reaction forming the compound nucleus 182Hg at energies around the capture barrier, using the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility and CUBE spectrometer at the Australian National University. Mass-asymmetric fission is observed in this reaction at an excitation energy of 33.6 MeV. The results are consistent with the β-delayed fission measurements and indicate the presence of shell effects even at higher exciation energies.

  9. Phase controlled swapping effect in electron transport through asymmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan; Chand, Shyam; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the role of asymmetry and magnetic flux on electronic transport through various configurations of coupled quantum dot system, by using Non-Equilibrium Green Function formalism. Transport properties (Transmission Probability, Current-Voltage Characteristics and Differential Conductance) of the different configurations of coupled quantum dot system have been studied by self-consistent approach, in the presence of on-dot Coulomb interaction. Fano effect, appearing in Transmission probability, has been explored during transition of the system from series to symmetric parallel configuration and in response to the variation in magnetic flux threading the system. The results show Fano peaks for asymmetric and symmetric parallel configurations. By adjusting the magnetic flux, swapping effect in Fano peaks appears due to the exchange of states, which sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect. The transmission probability spectrum shows mirror symmetry whenever the sum of two values of magnetic flux threading the system is 2 π.

  10. Asymmetric Synthesis of the Aminocyclitol Pactamycin, a Universal Translocation Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Malinowski, Justin T.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    An asymmetric total synthesis of the aminocyclopentitol pactamycin is described, which delivers the title compound in 15 steps from 2,4-pentanedione. Critical to this approach was the exploitation of a complex symmetry-breaking reduction strategy to assemble the C1, C2, and C7 relative stereochemistry within the first four steps of the synthesis. Multiple iterations of this reduction strategy are described, and a thorough analysis of stereochemical outcomes is detailed. In the final case, an asymmetric Mannich reaction was developed to install a protected amine directly at the C2 position. Symmetry-breaking reduction of this material gave way to a remarkable series of stereochemical outcomes leading to the title compound without recourse to non-strategic downstream manipulations. This synthesis is immediately accommodating to the facile preparation of structural analogs. PMID:24245656

  11. Social evolution in the shadow of asymmetrical relatedness.

    PubMed

    Krupp, D B; Taylor, Peter D

    2015-05-22

    The persistence of altruism and spite remains an enduring problem of social evolution. It is well known that selection for these actions depends on the structure of the population-that is, on actors' genetic relationships to recipients and to the 'neighbourhood' upon which the effects of their actions redound. Less appreciated, however, is that population structure can cause genetic asymmetries between partners whereby the relatedness (defined relative to the neighbourhood) of an individual i to a partner j will differ from the relatedness of j to i. Here, we introduce a widespread mechanism of kin recognition to a model of dispersal in subdivided populations. In so doing, we uncover three remarkable consequences of asymmetrical relatedness. First, altruism directed at phenotypically similar partners evolves more easily among migrant than native actors. Second, spite directed at dissimilar partners evolves more easily among native than migrant actors. Third, unlike migrants, natives can evolve to pay costs that far outstrip those they spitefully impose on others. We find that the frequency of natives relative to migrants amplifies the asymmetries between them. Taken together, our results reveal differentiated patterns of 'phenocentrism' that readily arise from asymmetries of relatedness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.; Hakim, V.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-11-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices.

  13. The design of asymmetric 4 pi shields for space reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engle, W. W., Jr.; Childs, R. L.; Mynatt, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    A one dimensional shield optimization program based on the method of discrete ordinates has been developed and is used to determine material thicknesses used in asymmetric 4 pion shields for space power reactors. The two dimensional discrete ordinates program DOT is used to check the design, and the information generated in the DOT calculation is used as a guide in shaping the shield which may be considered a first step in two dimensional shield optimization.

  14. Asymmetric dark matter models and the LHC diphoton excess

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-05-31

    The existence of dark matter (DM) and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are persistent indications that the SM is incomplete. More recently, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed an excess of diphoton events with invariant mass of about 750 GeV. One interpretation of this excess is decays of a new spin-0 particle with a sizable diphoton partial width, e.g. induced by new heavy weakly charged particles. These are also key ingredients in models cogenerating asymmetric DM and baryons via sphaleron interactions and an initial particle asymmetry. We explore what consequences the new scalar may have for models of asymmetric DM that attempt to account for the similarity of the dark and visible matter abundances.

  15. The Impacts of Numerical Schemes on Asymmetric Hurricane Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, S.; Reisner, J. M.; Marras, S.; Giraldo, F.

    2015-12-01

    The fundamental pathways for tropical cyclone (TC) intensification are explored by considering axisymmetric and asymmetric impulsive thermal perturbations to balanced, TC-like vortices using the dynamic cores of three different numerical models. Attempts at reproducing the results of previous work, which used the community atmospheric model WRF (Nolan and Grasso 2003; NG03), revealed a discrepancy with the impacts of purely asymmetric thermal forcing. The current study finds that thermal asymmetries can have an important, largely positive role on the vortex intensification whereas NG03 and other studies find that asymmetric impacts are negligible. Analysis of the spectral energetics of each numerical model indicates that the vortex response to asymmetric thermal perturbations is significantly damped in WRF relative to the other numerical models. Spectral kinetic energy budgets show that this anomalous damping is due to the increased removal of kinetic energy from the convergence of the vertical pressure flux, which is related to the flux of inertia-gravity wave energy. The increased kinetic energy in the other two models is shown to originate around the scales of the heating and propagate upscale with time. For very large thermal amplitudes (~ 50 K and above), the anomalous removal of kinetic energy due to inertia-gravity wave activity is much smaller resulting in little differences between models. The results of this paper indicate that the numerical treatment of small-scale processes that project strongly onto inertia-gravity wave energy are responsible for these differences, with potentially important impacts for the understanding and prediction of TC intensification.

  16. Importance of material matching in the calibration of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation: material specificity and nanoparticle surface coating effects on retention time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haiou; Quevedo, Ivan R.; Linder, Sean W.; Fong, Andrew; Mudalige, Thilak K.

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with dynamic light scattering or multiangle light scattering detectors is a promising technique for the size-based separation of colloidal particles (nano- and submicron scale) and the online determination of the particle size of the separated fractions in aqueous suspensions. In most cases, the applications of these detectors are problematic due to the material-specific properties of the analyte that results in erroneous calculations, and as an alternative, different nanoparticle size standards are required to properly calibrate the size-based retention in AF4. The availability of nanoparticle size standards in different materials is limited, and this deviation from ideal conditions of retention is mainly due to material-specific and particle coating-specific membrane-particle interactions. Here, we present an experimental method on the applicability of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NP) as standard for AF4 calibration and compare with gold nanoparticle (Au NP) standards having different nominal sizes and surface functionalities.

  17. Baseline Testing of the Club Car Carryall With Asymmetric Ultracapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the Club Car Carryall with asymmetric ultracapacitors as a way to reduce pollution in industrial settings, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The Club Car Carryall provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in electric vehicle technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via non-traditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The Carryall is a state of the art, ground up, electric utility vehicle. A unique aspect of the project was the use of a state of the art, long life ultracapacitor energy storage system. Innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The Carryall was tested with the standard lead acid battery energy storage system, as well as with an asymmetric ultracapacitor energy storage system. The report concludes that the Carryall provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of asymmetric ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  18. The Kinetics of Phase Separation in Asymmetric Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Elizabeth J.; Hooper, Nigel M.; Olmsted, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Phase separation in a model asymmetric membrane is studied using Monte Carlo techniques. The membrane comprises two species of particles, which mimic different lipids in lipid bilayers and separately possess either zero or non-zero spontaneous curvatures. We study the influence of phase separation on membrane shape and the influence of the coupling of composition and height dynamics on phase separation and domain growth, via both the degree of shape asymmetry and relative kinetic coefficients for height relaxation. PMID:15778446

  19. Social evolution in the shadow of asymmetrical relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, D. B.; Taylor, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of altruism and spite remains an enduring problem of social evolution. It is well known that selection for these actions depends on the structure of the population—that is, on actors' genetic relationships to recipients and to the ‘neighbourhood’ upon which the effects of their actions redound. Less appreciated, however, is that population structure can cause genetic asymmetries between partners whereby the relatedness (defined relative to the neighbourhood) of an individual i to a partner j will differ from the relatedness of j to i. Here, we introduce a widespread mechanism of kin recognition to a model of dispersal in subdivided populations. In so doing, we uncover three remarkable consequences of asymmetrical relatedness. First, altruism directed at phenotypically similar partners evolves more easily among migrant than native actors. Second, spite directed at dissimilar partners evolves more easily among native than migrant actors. Third, unlike migrants, natives can evolve to pay costs that far outstrip those they spitefully impose on others. We find that the frequency of natives relative to migrants amplifies the asymmetries between them. Taken together, our results reveal differentiated patterns of ‘phenocentrism’ that readily arise from asymmetries of relatedness. PMID:25925099

  20. Magnus-induced ratchet effects for skyrmions interacting with asymmetric substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Reichhardt, C.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2015-07-31

    We show using numerical simulations that pronounced ratchet effects can occur for ac driven skyrmions moving over asymmetric quasi-one-dimensional substrates. We find a new type of ratchet effect called a Magnus-induced transverse ratchet that arises when the ac driving force is applied perpendicular rather than parallel to the asymmetry direction of the substrate. This transverse ratchet effect only occurs when the Magnus term is finite, and the threshold ac amplitude needed to induce it decreases as the Magnus term becomes more prominent. Ratcheting skyrmions follow ordered orbits in which the net displacement parallel to the substrate asymmetry direction is quantized.more » As a result, skyrmion ratchets represent a new ac current-based method for controlling skyrmion positions and motion for spintronic applications.« less

  1. Magnus-induced ratchet effects for skyrmions interacting with asymmetric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, C.; Ray, D.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.

    2015-07-01

    We show using numerical simulations that pronounced ratchet effects can occur for ac driven skyrmions moving over asymmetric quasi-one-dimensional substrates. We find a new type of ratchet effect called a Magnus-induced transverse ratchet that arises when the ac driving force is applied perpendicular rather than parallel to the asymmetry direction of the substrate. This transverse ratchet effect only occurs when the Magnus term is finite, and the threshold ac amplitude needed to induce it decreases as the Magnus term becomes more prominent. Ratcheting skyrmions follow ordered orbits in which the net displacement parallel to the substrate asymmetry direction is quantized. Skyrmion ratchets represent a new ac current-based method for controlling skyrmion positions and motion for spintronic applications.

  2. The Asymmetric Top Molecule In An Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Suzanne; Almaguer, Jose; Heller, Eric; Heller Group Team

    2014-03-01

    The quantum and classical behavior of the asymmetric top has been studied in a variety of different contexts, and is known for its dynamical complexity due to have greater than 2 DOF. In this presentation the focus will be on the classical dynamics of an asymmetric top molecule with a dipole moment in an electric field (a non-integrable system), and how the underlying classical phase space structures, such as resonances, can impact the behavior of its quantum analog. Specifically, we will be presenting results from a classical simulation, which highlights both chaotic and regular regions for small electric fields depending on initial conditions. Department of Physics and Harvard, I7 Oxford St., Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138.

  3. Underwater asymmetric acoustic transmission structure using the medium with gradient change of impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Hu; Jie, Shi; Sheng-Guo, Shi; Yu, Sun; Zhong-Rui, Zhu

    2016-02-01

    We propose an underwater asymmetric acoustic transmission structure comprised of two media each with a gradient change of acoustic impedance. By gradually increasing the acoustic impedances of the media, the propagating direction of the acoustic wave can be continuously bent, resulting in allowing the acoustic wave to pass through along the positive direction and blocking acoustic waves from the negative one. The main advantages of this structure are that the asymmetric transmission effect of this structure can be realized and enhanced more easily in water. We investigate both numerically and experimentally the asymmetric transmission effect. The experimental results show that a highly efficient asymmetric acoustic transmission can be yielded within a remarkable broadband frequency range, which agrees well with the numerical prediction. It is of potential practical significance for various underwater applications such as reducing vibration and noise. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204049 and 11204050), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. IRT1228), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20122304120023 and 20122304120011).

  4. The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport

    PubMed Central

    Kominis, Yannis; Bountis, Tassos; Flach, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess non-reciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport functionality. PMID:27640818

  5. The effects of the electric and intense laser field on the binding energies of donor impurity states (1s and 2p±) and optical absorption between the related states in an asymmetric parabolic quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sökmen, I.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    We have calculated the effects of electric and intense laser fields on the binding energies of the ground and some excited states of conduction electrons coupled to shallow donor impurities as well as the total optical absorption coefficient for transitions between 1s and 2p± electron-impurity states in a asymmetric parabolic GaAs/Ga1-x AlxAs quantum well. The binding energies were obtained using the effective-mass approximation within a variational scheme. Total absorption coefficient (linear and nonlinear absorption coefficient) for the transitions between any two impurity states were calculated from first- and third-order dielectric susceptibilities derived within a perturbation expansion for the density matrix formalism. Our results show that the effects of the electric field, intense laser field, and the impurity location on the binding energy of 1s-impurity state are more pronounced compared with other impurity states. If the well center is changed to be Lc<0 (Lc>0), the effective well width decreases (increases), and thus we can obtain the red or blue shift in the resonant peak position of the absorption coefficient by changing the intensities of the electric and non-resonant intense laser field as well as dimensions of the well and impurity positions.

  6. Recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in asymmetrical quantum rings

    SciTech Connect

    Voskoboynikov, O.

    2016-07-15

    We theoretically investigate suppression and recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the diamagnetic response of electrons (holes) confined in self-assembled In{sub c}Ga{sub 1−c}As/GaAs semiconductor reflection asymmetrical quantum rings. Based on the mapping method and gauge-origin-independent definition for the magnetic vector potential we simulate the energies and wave functions of the electron (hole) under external magnetic and electric fields. We examine the transformation of the ground state wave function of the electron (hole) in reflection asymmetrical rings from localized in one of the potential valleys (dotlike shape of the wave function) to distributed over all volume of the ring (ringlike shape) under an appropriate lateral electric field. This transformation greatly recovers the electron (hole) diamagnetic coefficient and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the diamagnetic response of the ring. However, the recovering electric field for the first Aharonov-Bohm diamagnetic oscillation of the electron is a suppressing one for the hole (and vice versa). This can block the recovery of the optical Aharonow-Bohm effect in In{sub c}Ga{sub 1−c}As/GaAs asymmetrically wobbled rings. However, the recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations for the independent electron (hole) by the external electric field remains interesting and feasible objective for the asymmetric rings.

  7. Recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in asymmetrical quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboynikov, O.

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate suppression and recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the diamagnetic response of electrons (holes) confined in self-assembled IncGa1-cAs/GaAs semiconductor reflection asymmetrical quantum rings. Based on the mapping method and gauge-origin-independent definition for the magnetic vector potential we simulate the energies and wave functions of the electron (hole) under external magnetic and electric fields. We examine the transformation of the ground state wave function of the electron (hole) in reflection asymmetrical rings from localized in one of the potential valleys (dotlike shape of the wave function) to distributed over all volume of the ring (ringlike shape) under an appropriate lateral electric field. This transformation greatly recovers the electron (hole) diamagnetic coefficient and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the diamagnetic response of the ring. However, the recovering electric field for the first Aharonov-Bohm diamagnetic oscillation of the electron is a suppressing one for the hole (and vice versa). This can block the recovery of the optical Aharonow-Bohm effect in IncGa1-cAs/GaAs asymmetrically wobbled rings. However, the recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations for the independent electron (hole) by the external electric field remains interesting and feasible objective for the asymmetric rings.

  8. Effects of asymmetric dynamic and isometric liftings on strength/force and rating of perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Y; Ono, Y; Shimaoka, M; Hiruta, S; Kamijima, M; Shibata, E; Ichihara, G; Ando, S; Villaneuva, M B; Takeuchi, Y

    1996-06-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to determine the postural and physical characteristics and subjective stress during dynamic lifting of a usual load (10 kg) compared with during isometric lifting. The authors also aimed to clarify the effects of asymmetric lifting on these parameters. The subjects were thirteen male college students. They were asked to lift a box weighing 10 kg. They performed sixteen different lifting tasks from the floor to a height of 71 cm, involving a combination of three independent factors: two lifting modes (isometric lifting and dynamic lifting), four lifting angles in relation to the sagittal plane (sagittal plane, right 45 degree, right 90 degree and left 90 degree planes) and two lifting postures (squat and stoop). For each lifting task, strengths or forces and ground reaction forces were measured. At the end of each task, the authors asked the subjects to rate their perceived exertion (RPE) during lifting at ten sites of the body. Angle factor had a significant effect on isometric strengths and dynamic peak forces. Isometric strengths during the maximum 3 s were highest in lifting in the right 45 degree plane, followed by that in the sagittal plane, while those in the right 90 degree and left 90 degree planes were the lowest. However, peak forces in dynamic lifting were the highest in the lifting in the sagittal plane, followed by that in the right 45 degree plane, while those in the right 90 degree and left 90 degree planes were the lowest. Postural factor had a significant effect on height at peak force, which is higher in squat lifting than in stoop lifting. RPEs for the left arm, the backs and the right whole body in isometric lifting were significantly higher than in dynamic lifting of 10 kg. There were remarkably high RPEs for the ipsilateral thigh to the box in right 90 degree and left 90 degree planes during both isometric and dynamic liftings. Locations of the resultant force consisting of three component forces on the force

  9. The high-birefringence asymmetric SF57 glass microstructured optical fiber at 1060.0 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ting-Hang; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yilei

    2017-07-01

    Many high-birefringence asymmetric microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) have been numerically designed and analyzed, but the fabrication of asymmetric MOF is challenging, especially those with elliptical structures. In this work, we designed, fabricated and modelled an asymmetric glass MOF in which the structure is asymmetric and the air holes are elliptical. SF57 glass was selected due to the high refraction index and low absorption in the Terahertz region. From simulations based on the finite difference (FD) method at 1060.0 μm, the polarizations of the first two modes are perpendicular to each other and the effective refraction indices are different, which lead to the birefringence of this MOF as high as 0.090. The plane-wave expansion method was used to verify the FD calculations, where both results are consistent and the difference is about 0.1%.

  10. The asymmetric Hubbard model with a confining potential: The partial filling case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.

    We investigate the one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model with a confining potential, which may describe the ground state of two species of fermionic atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We use White's density matrix renormalization group and the global electronic density considered is n=0.8. The fermion density profiles and their variance were computed. We observe coexistence of insulating and metallic regions in the system. The effective confinement region is different for each kind of fermionic atom.

  11. Asymmetric Hearing During Development: The Aural Preference Syndrome and Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Karen; Henkin, Yael; Kral, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    Deafness affects ∼2 in 1000 children and is one of the most common congenital impairments. Permanent hearing loss can be treated by fitting hearing aids. More severe to profound deafness is an indication for cochlear implantation. Although newborn hearing screening programs have increased the identification of asymmetric hearing loss, parents and caregivers of children with single-sided deafness are often hesitant to pursue therapy for the deaf ear. Delayed intervention has consequences for recovery of hearing. It has long been reported that asymmetric hearing loss/single-sided deafness compromises speech and language development and educational outcomes in children. Recent studies in animal models of deafness and in children consistently show evidence of an "aural preference syndrome" in which single-sided deafness in early childhood reorganizes the developing auditory pathways toward the hearing ear, with weaker central representation of the deaf ear. Delayed therapy consequently compromises benefit for the deaf ear, with slow rates of improvement measured over time. Therefore, asymmetric hearing needs early identification and intervention. Providing early effective stimulation in both ears through appropriate fitting of auditory prostheses, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, within a sensitive period in development has a cardinal role for securing the function of the impaired ear and for restoring binaural/spatial hearing. The impacts of asymmetric hearing loss on the developing auditory system and on spoken language development have often been underestimated. Thus, the traditional minimalist approach to clinical management aimed at 1 functional ear should be modified on the basis of current evidence.

  12. Effects of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy on hospitals competition under non-price regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan

    2016-11-15

    Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources

  13. Effect of adiabatic square ribs on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi-Saad, Aissa; Kadja, Mahfoud; Popa, Catalin; Polidori, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    A 2-D numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the effect of two adiabatic square ribs on laminar flow and heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated channel. The two ribs are symmetrically located on each wall, exactly above the heating zone. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady bi-dimensional continuity, momentum and energy equations with the finite volume method. The investigations focused more specifically on the influence of ribs sizes on the flow structure and heat transfer enhancement. The results showed that the variation of ribs sizes significantly alters the heat transfer and fluid flow distribution along the channel, especially in the vicinity of protrusions. Also, the results show that streamlines, isotherms, and the number, sizes and formation of vortex structures inside the channel strongly depend on the size of protrusions. The changes in heat transfer parameters have also been presented.

  14. How the IMF By induces a By component in the closed magnetosphere and how it leads to asymmetric currents and convection patterns in the two hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenfjord, P.; Østgaard, N.; Snekvik, K.; Laundal, K. M.; Reistad, J. P.; Haaland, S.; Milan, S. E.

    2015-11-01

    We used the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetohydrodynamics model to study the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component on the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere-ionosphere system. When the IMF reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field with IMF By≠0, flux transport is asymmetrically distributed between the two hemispheres. We describe how By is induced in the closed magnetosphere on both the dayside and nightside and present the governing equations. The magnetosphere imposes asymmetric forces on the ionosphere, and the effects on the ionospheric flow are characterized by distorted convection cell patterns, often referred to as "banana" and "orange" cell patterns. The flux asymmetrically added to the lobes results in a nonuniform induced By in the closed magnetosphere. By including the dynamics of the system, we introduce a mechanism that predicts asymmetric Birkeland currents at conjugate foot points. Asymmetric Birkeland currents are created as a consequence of y directed tension contained in the return flow. Associated with these currents, we expect fast localized ionospheric azimuthal flows present in one hemisphere but not necessarily in the other. We also present current density measurements from Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment that are consistent with this picture. We argue that the induced By produces asymmetrical Birkeland currents as a consequence of asymmetric stress balance between the hemispheres. Such an asymmetry will also lead to asymmetrical foot points and asymmetries in the azimuthal flow in the ionosphere. These phenomena should therefore be treated in a unified way.

  15. Persistent asymmetrical priority effects in a California grassland restoration experiment.

    PubMed

    Werner, Chhaya M; Vaughn, Kurt J; Stuble, Katharine L; Wolf, Kristina; Young, Truman P

    2016-09-01

    The order of species arrival can dramatically alter the trajectory of community development. While there is experimental evidence that priority effects can be important drivers of community structure early on, the persistence and duration of these effects is unclear. Here we report on a community assembly experiment in which a mix of four native grasses and a mix of four native forbs were planted on their own, together, or with one-year priority over the other guild. We found positive effects of priority for both grasses and forbs in the initial years of the experiment. However, 6-8 yr after planting, the effectiveness of priority treatments were mixed. Some species became rare, persisting only in treatments in which they had been given priority; others continued to maintain high cover and exhibit a strong positive signal of priority effects; still others remained common but no longer showed a signature of the initial priority effects; and finally, some species became locally extinct across all experimental plots. Grass priority over forbs was strong and persistent, but not forb priority over grasses. Our results demonstrate that the long-term benefits of temporal priority can persist for at least 8 yr for some, but not all species, and these continued effects result in distinct community composition. Manipulating the trajectory of community assembly through priority in seeding has potential as a useful tool for restoration. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA'S ASYMMETRICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, A. M.; Desch, S. J.; Scowen, P. A.; Foy, J. P.

    2013-03-10

    We present the first Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 imaging survey of the entire Crab Nebula, in the filters F502N ([O III] emission), F673N ([S II]), F631N ([O I]), and F547M (continuum). We use our mosaics to characterize the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its three-dimensional structure, the ionizational structure in the filaments forming at its periphery, the speed of the shock driven by the PWN into surrounding ejecta (by inferring the cooling rates behind the shock), and the morphology and ionizational structure of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) fingers. We quantify a number of asymmetries between the northwest (NW) and southeast (SE) quadrants of the Crab Nebula. The lack of observed filaments in the NW, and our observations of the spatial extent of [O III] emission lead us to conclude that cooling rates are slower, and therefore the shock speeds are greater, in the NW quadrant of the nebula, compared with the SE. We conclude that R-T fingers are longer, more ionizationally stratified, and apparently more massive in the NW than in the SE, and the R-T instability appears more fully developed in the NW.

  17. Ratchet without spatial asymmetry for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta using time-asymmetric drives.

    PubMed

    Cole, David; Bending, Simon; Savel'ev, Sergey; Grigorenko, Alexander; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Nori, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Initially inspired by biological motors, new types of nanodevice have been proposed for controlling the motion of nanoparticles. Structures incorporating spatially asymmetric potential profiles (ratchet substrates) have been realized experimentally to manipulate vortices in superconductors, particles in asymmetric silicon pores, as well as charged particles through artificial pores and arrays of optical tweezers. Using theoretical ideas, we demonstrate experimentally how to guide flux quanta in layered superconductors using a drive that is asymmetric in time instead of being asymmetric in space. By varying the time-asymmetry of the drive, we are able experimentally to increase or decrease the density of magnetic flux at the centre of superconducting samples that have no spatial ratchet substrate. This is the first ratchet without a ratchet potential. The experimental results can be well described by numerical simulations considering the dragging effect of two types of vortices penetrating layered superconductors in tilted magnetic fields.

  18. Asymmetric dark matter and the sun.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Mads T; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-07-02

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure formation on galactic scales. A "dark baryon" of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the "solar composition problem." The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino fluxes may be measurable by the Borexino and SNO+ experiments.

  19. The asymmetric wind of R127

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.; Leitherer, C.; Clayton, G. C.; Robert, C.; Meade, M. R.; Drissen, L.; Nota, A.; Schmutz, W.

    1993-01-01

    We present optical, linear polarimetry in broad-band UBVRI filters plus narrow-band filters centered on the emission lines of H-alpha and the red forbidden N II and spectropolarimetry in the wavelength range from 4120 A to 6770 A of the luminous blue variable R127 in the LMC. Both observations display a decrease of the percentage polarization across the H-alpha emission line with respect to the continuum. We assume that H-alpha is recombination-line dominated and thus intrinsically unpolarized, and we use the continuum subtracted line polarization to estimate the interstellar foreground polarization. The resulting amount of intrinsic continuum polarization of R127 is very large, of order 1-1.5 percent, implying both the presence of copious free electrons and a considerable asphericity in their distribution. The two data sets, taken two months apart, display significant variations in the continuum polarization, which confirms that the stellar-wind properties of R127 are time-dependent in the maximum state. We discuss several possible wind geometries and present arguments favoring a clumpy, axisymmetric outflow.

  20. Pre-equilibrium effects in charge-asymmetric low-energy reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Burrello, S.; Colonna, M.; Baran, V.

    2017-06-01

    We study the pre-equilibrium dipole response in the charge-asymmetric reaction 132Sn +58Ni at Elab = 10 MeV/A, within a semi-classical transport model employing effective interactions for the nuclear mean-field. In particular, we adopt the recently introduced SAMi-J Skyrme interactions, whose parameters are specifically tuned to improve the description of spin-isospin properties of nuclei. Within the same framework, we also discuss pre-equilibrium nucleon emission. Our results show that both mechanisms, i.e., pre-equilibrium dipole oscillations and nucleon emission, are sensitive to the symmetry energy below the saturation density ρ0 (in the range 0.6ρ0 -ρ0), to the momentum dependence of the mean-field potential and to the nucleon-nucleon cross section. Finally, a correlation analysis is applied to examine the impact of the model parameters on observables of experimental interest.

  1. The evolution of asymmetric genitalia in Coleoptera

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; zu Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821530

  2. Functional renormalization group study of parallel double quantum dots: Effects of asymmetric dot-lead couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protsenko, V. S.; Katanin, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the effects of asymmetry of hopping parameters between double parallel quantum dots and the leads on the conductance and a possibility of local magnetic moment formation in this system using functional renormalization group approach with the counterterm. We demonstrate a possibility of a quantum phase transition to a local moment regime [so-called singular Fermi liquid (SFL) state] for various types of hopping asymmetries and discuss respective gate voltage dependencies of the conductance. We show that, depending on the type of the asymmetry, the system can demonstrate either a first-order quantum phase transition to an SFL state, accompanied by a discontinuous change of the conductance, similarly to the symmetric case, or the second-order quantum phase transition, in which the conductance is continuous and exhibits Fano-type asymmetric resonance near the transition point. A semianalytical explanation of these different types of conductance behavior is presented.

  3. Asymmetric Warfare and the Will to Win

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    had left this world for paradise or their after-life. Jamie had seen his share of death, and really only three things bothered him from Afghanistan. The...comprehend martyrdom. Through their study of religion, children learn that paradise is their reward for death in battle. To strengthen this point, the...as to carry their own burial shrouds into battle in the expectation of martyrdom and a free trip to paradise should they be killed (Pike, 1999

  4. Effects of curvature on asymmetric steady states in catalyst particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, B J

    1981-02-01

    The effects of curvature on steady states of chemical catalytic reactions are investigated by studying the cases of the catalytic particle being a spherical or cylindrical shell. Existence and stability of solutions are studied. It is shown that the solutions converge to the solutions for the catalytic slab when the curvature goes to 0 in each case.

  5. Asymmetric Attention: Visualizing the Uncertain Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    the Uncertain Threat Christopher L. Vowels U. S. Army Research Institute March 2010 Approved for public release...ELEMENT NUMBER 622785 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L. Vowels (U.S. Army Research Institute) 5c. PROJECT NUMBER A790 5d. TASK NUMBER... Vowels 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): This report attempts to fuse Army needs, specific to threat detection, with available evidence from

  6. Effect of asymmetric gravity jitter excited slosh waves at liquid-vapor interface under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Pan, H. L.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids affected by the asymmetric gravity jitter oscillations, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a sub-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant dewar tank imposed by time-dependent various directions of background gravity environment have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitter imposed on the time-dependent variations of the direction of background gravity induced a greater amplitude of oscillations and a stronger degree of asymmetry in liquid-vapor interface geometry than that made by the higher frequency gravity jitter. Furthermore, the greater the components of background gravity in radial and circumferential directions will provide a greater contribution in driving more to the increasing amplitude and degrees of symmetry of liquid-vapor interface profiles which, in turn, modify the disturbance of moment of inertia and angular momentum of spacecraft.

  7. Embedded soliton dynamics in the asymmetric array of Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Ivan O.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav

    2017-06-01

    The dc-biased annular array of three-junction asymmetric superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is investigated. The existence of embedded solitons (solitons that exist despite the resonance with the linear waves) is demonstrated both in the unbiased Hamiltonian limit and in the dc-biased and damped case on the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of the array. The existence diagram on the parameter plane is constructed. The signatures of the embedded solitons manifest themselves as inaccessible voltage intervals on the CVCs. The upper boundary of these intervals is proportional to the embedded soliton velocity.

  8. Ultraslow-light effects in symmetric and asymmetric waveguide structures with moon-like scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yong; Ge, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Sheng; Guo, Yue; Yuan, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Ultraslow-light effects in two-dimensional hexagonal-lattice coupled waveguide with moon-like scatterers were theoretically studied using the plane-wave expansion method. For symmetric structures, simulations showed that slow light with high group index can be achieved by shifting the scatterers and adjusting the radius of moon-like scatterers. The maximum group index was over 8:0 × 104. For asymmetric structures, simulations showed that slow light with flat band and high group index can be obtained by shifting the scatterers, adjusting the radius of moon-like scatterers, and rotating the scatterers. The maximum group index was over 5:7 × 105 with a "saddle-like" relationship between the frequency and group index.

  9. Warm unstable asymmetric nuclear matter: Critical properties and the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    The spinodal instabilities in hot asymmetric nuclear matter and some important critical parameters derived thereof are studied by using six different families of relativistic mean-field models. The slopes of the symmetry energy coefficient vary over a wide range within each family. The critical densities and proton fractions are more sensitive to the symmetry energy slope parameter at temperatures much below its critical value (Tc˜14 -16 MeV ). The spread in the critical proton fraction at a given symmetry energy slope parameter is noticeably larger near Tc, indicating that the equation of state of warm asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation densities is not sufficiently constrained. The distillation effects are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at low temperatures which tend to wash out with increasing temperature.

  10. Photovoltaic Effect and Evidence of Carrier Multiplication in Graphene Vertical Homojunctions with Asymmetrical Metal Contacts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Jing; Wang, Qinsheng; Meng, Jie; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bie, Ya-Qing; Liu, Junku; Liu, Kaihui; Liao, Zhi-Min; Sun, Dong; Yu, Dapeng

    2015-09-22

    Graphene exhibits exciting potentials for high-speed wideband photodetection and high quantum efficiency solar energy harvest because of its broad spectral absorption, fast photoelectric response, and potential carrier multiplication. Although photocurrent can be generated near a metal-graphene interface in lateral devices, the photoactive area is usually limited to a tiny one-dimensional line-like interface region. Here, we report photoelectric devices based on vertical graphene two-dimensional homojunction, which is fabricated via vertically stacking four graphene monolayers with asymmetric metal contacts. The devices show excellent photovoltaic output with excitation wavelength ranging from visible light to mid-infrared. The wavelength dependence of the internal quantum efficiency gives direct evidence of the carrier multiplication effect in graphene. The simple fabrication process, easy scale-up, large photoresponsive active area, and broadband response of the vertical graphene device are very promising for practical applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics.

  11. The plasmoid instability during asymmetric inflow magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Young, Aleida K.; Shen, Chengcai; Lin, Jun; Ni, Lei

    2013-06-15

    Theoretical studies of the plasmoid instability generally assume that the reconnecting magnetic fields are symmetric. We relax this assumption by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the plasmoid instability during asymmetric inflow magnetic reconnection. Magnetic asymmetry modifies the onset, scaling, and dynamics of this instability. Magnetic islands develop preferentially into the weak magnetic field upstream region. Outflow jets from individual X-points impact plasmoids obliquely rather than directly as in the symmetric case. Consequently, deposition of momentum by the outflow jets into the plasmoids is less efficient, the plasmoids develop net vorticity, and shear flow slows down secondary merging between islands. Secondary merging events have asymmetry along both the inflow and outflow directions. Downstream plasma is more turbulent in cases with magnetic asymmetry because islands are able to roll around each other after exiting the current sheet. As in the symmetric case, plasmoid formation facilitates faster reconnection for at least small and moderate magnetic asymmetries. However, when the upstream magnetic field strengths differ by a factor of 4, the reconnection rate plateaus at a lower value than expected from scaling the symmetric results. We perform a parameter study to investigate the onset of the plasmoid instability as a function of magnetic asymmetry and domain size. There exist domain sizes for which symmetric simulations are stable but asymmetric simulations are unstable, suggesting that moderate magnetic asymmetry is somewhat destabilizing. We discuss the implications for plasmoid and flux rope formation in solar eruptions, laboratory reconnection experiments, and space plasmas. The differences between symmetric and asymmetric simulations provide some hints regarding the nature of the three-dimensional plasmoid instability.

  12. The deal with diel: Temperature fluctuations, asymmetrical warming, and ubiquitous metals contaminants.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Tyler A; Brooks, Marjorie L

    2015-11-01

    Climate projections over the next century include disproportionately warmer nighttime temperatures ("asymmetrical warming"). Cool nighttime temperatures lower metabolic rates of aquatic ectotherms. In contaminated waters, areas with cool nights may provide thermal refugia from high rates of daytime contaminant uptake. We exposed Cope's gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis), southern leopard frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus), and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to five concentrations of a mixture of cadmium, copper, and lead under three to four temperature regimes, representing asymmetrical warming. At concentrations with intermediate toxicosis at test termination (96 h), temperature effects on acute toxicity or escape distance were evident in all study species. Asymmetrical warming (day:night, 22:20 °C; 22:22 °C) doubled or tripled mortality relative to overall cooler temperatures (20:20 °C) or cool nights (22:18 °C). Escape distances were 40-70% shorter under asymmetrical warming. Results suggest potentially grave ecological impacts from unexpected toxicosis under climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental effects of receiving negative weight-related feedback: a weight guessing study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jennifer S; Miller, Jessie L

    2007-09-01

    The effects of receiving negative verbal weight-related feedback on the mood, self-esteem, and body image of restrained and unrestrained eaters were investigated. Female undergraduate students either reported their current weight (no feedback) or had their weight guessed as 15 lb higher than their actual weight (negative feedback) by an experimenter who presented herself as either an undergraduate (peer) or graduate student (non-peer). Participants overall had higher anxiety and felt "fatter" in the negative feedback condition. When this feedback came from a peer they felt fatter, more dissatisfied with their bodies, and, for restrained eaters, more depressed, as compared to when it came from a non-peer. These results provide empirical evidence that negative weight-related feedback produces adverse psychological consequences for young women, especially restrained eaters, and suggest the importance of peers' perceptions of weight.

  14. Predicting the Electron Diffusion Region in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Michael; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Li-Jen; Bessho, Naoki; Kuznetsova, Masha; Burch, James; Birn, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The launch of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission is leading to a revolution in our understanding of the way magnetic reconnection works. During the first orbit phases, MMS science focuses on asymmetric reconnection, as is commonly found at the Earth's magnetopause. MMS observations have begun to support the view that reconnection operates primarily as a quasi-laminar process, supporting one class of theoretical precitions and a number of concurrent simulations. In this presentation, we present a brief overview of these theoretical and modeling predictions, and we present a comparison to recent MMS observations.

  15. DNA-cellulose: an economical, fully recyclable and highly effective chiral biomaterial for asymmetric catalysis.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Erica; Duchemin, Nicolas; Bethge, Lucas; Vonhoff, Stefan; Klussmann, Sven; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Cossy, Janine; Smietana, Michael; Arseniyadis, Stellios

    2015-04-11

    The challenge in DNA-based asymmetric catalysis is to perform a reaction in the vicinity of the helix by incorporating a small-molecule catalyst anchored to the DNA in a covalent, dative, or non-covalent yet stable fashion in order to ensure high levels of enantio-discrimination. Here, we report the first generation of a DNA-based catalyst bound to a cellulose matrix. The chiral biomaterial is commercially available, trivial to use, fully recyclable and produces high levels of enantioselectivity in various Cu(II)-catalyzed asymmetric reactions including Friedel-Crafts alkylations and Michael additions. A single-pass, continuous-flow process is also reported affording fast conversions and high enantioselectivities at low catalyst loadings thus offering a new benchmark in the field of DNA-based asymmetric catalysis.

  16. Matrix product approach for the asymmetric random average process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielen, F.; Schadschneider, A.

    2003-04-01

    We consider the asymmetric random average process which is a one-dimensional stochastic lattice model with nearest-neighbour interaction but continuous and unbounded state variables. First, the explicit functional representations, so-called beta densities, of all local interactions leading to steady states of product measure form are rigorously derived. This also completes an outstanding proof given in a previous publication. Then we present an alternative solution for the processes with factorized stationary states by using a matrix product ansatz. Due to continuous state variables we obtain a matrix algebra in the form of a functional equation which can be solved exactly.

  17. AN ASYMMETRICAL SYNCHROTRON MODEL FOR KNOTS IN THE 3C 273 JET

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Po; Chen, Y. J.; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2015-06-20

    To interpret the emission of knots in the 3C 273 jet from radio to X-rays, we propose a synchrotron model in which, owing to the shock compression effect, the injection spectra from a shock into the upstream and downstream emission regions are asymmetric. Our model could well explain the spectral energy distributions of knots in the 3C 273 jet, and predictions regarding the knots’ spectra could be tested by future observations.

  18. The Consequences of Saturn’s Rotating Asymmetric Ring Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwood, D. J.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    The plasma and field behavior in the dipolar region of the Saturnian magnetosphere is described, based primarily on interpretation of the magnetic field behavior measured by the Cassini spacecraft. Previous authors, such as Provan and Khurana, have pointed out that the regular pulses in field strength at around 10.8 hrs period detected in this region imply the existence not only of a symmetric ring current but also of a partial ring current. Once spacecraft motion in local time has been allowed for, one finds a close to sinusoidal variation with azimuth and time of the magnetic signal. Hence the partial ring current appears to quasi-rigidly rotate about the planetary axis at the same 10.8 hr period as the pulsing of the Saturn kilometric radiation. We point out that, independent of whether the excess current is due to asymmetry in flux tube population or in plasma beta (pressure normalized to field pressure), such a current gives rise to a rotating circulation system. The compressional field pattern is consistent with an m = 1 pattern of circulation. The fairly uniform inner magnetosphere cam magnetic signature predicted on the basis of inner magnetosphere transverse field components in our past work is modified in a systematic way by the partial ring current effects. The circulation due to the partial ring current has its own set of distributed field aligned currents (FACs). The rotating transverse perturbation field components are twisted by the FACs so that the radial field is reduced at low L-shells and increased at larger L. Overall the cam field is depressed at low L and enhanced as one approaches the boundary of the cam region at L = 10-12. In practice the system must also respond to some local time effects. Loss of plasma is easier on the night-side and flanks than on the day-side and so a day-night asymmetry is imposed tending to increase the perturbation field amplitudes by night. The FACs driven by the asymmetric ring current should be broadly

  19. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  20. Asymmetric ejection of jets from the symbiotic prototype Z Andromedae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skopal, A.; Tarasova, T. N.; Pribulla, T.; Vanko, M.; Dubovsky, P. A.; Kudzej, I.

    Z And is considered as a prototype symbiotic star. The binary composes of a late-type, M4.5 III, giant and a white dwarf accreting from the giant's wind on the 758-day orbit. From 2000 September, Z And started a series of outbursts with the main optical maxima in 2000 December, 2006 July and 2009 December. During the 2006 optical maximum, highly-collimated bipolar jets were detected for the first time. They were launched asymmetrically with respect to the reference wavelength of the spectral line. Their presence was transient, they disappeared by the end of 2006. During the following re-brightening, from the beginning of 2008 to its end, faint emission satellite components to the Hα and Hβ were observed again. The red component was enhanced relatively to its blue counterpart. During the recent 2009 major outburst, the mass ejection in the form of jet was indicated almost exclusively on the red side of the Hα line with velocities from +1000 (2009/10/01) to +1800 km s-1 (2010/01/05). During the light maxima, our high-time-resolution photometry revealed irregular waves in the star's brightness throughout a night(˜m 0.06mag),while in between the outbursts,they nearly disappeared. Evolution in the rapid photometric variability and asymmetric ejection of jets could be explained by a disruption of the inner parts of the disk ignited by radiation-induced warping of the disk.

  1. The role of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are not only one of the most intensively studied classes of natural products, their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities also makes them indispensable drug ingredients in both traditional and modern medicine. Among the methods for their production, biotechnological approaches are gaining importance, and biocatalysis has emerged as an essential tool in this context. A number of chemo-enzymatic strategies for alkaloid synthesis have been developed over the years, in which the biotransformations nowadays take an increasingly ‘central’ role. This review summarises different applications of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids and discusses how recent developments and novel enzymes render innovative and efficient chemo-enzymatic production routes possible. PMID:25580241

  2. Influence of the dissipation mechanism on collisionless magnetic reconnection in symmetric and asymmetric current layers

    SciTech Connect

    Aunai, Nicolas; Hesse, Michael; Black, Carrie; Evans, Rebekah; Kuznetsova, Maria

    2013-04-15

    Numerical studies implementing different versions of the collisionless Ohm's law have shown a reconnection rate insensitive to the nature of the non-ideal mechanism occurring at the X line, as soon as the Hall effect is operating. Consequently, the dissipation mechanism occurring in the vicinity of the reconnection site in collisionless systems is usually thought not to have a dynamical role beyond the violation of the frozen-in condition. The interpretation of recent studies has, however, led to the opposite conclusion that the electron scale dissipative processes play an important dynamical role in preventing an elongation of the electron layer from throttling the reconnection rate. This work re-visits this topic with a new approach. Instead of focusing on the extensively studied symmetric configuration, we aim to investigate whether the macroscopic properties of collisionless reconnection are affected by the dissipation physics in asymmetric configurations, for which the effect of the Hall physics is substantially modified. Because it includes all the physical scales a priori important for collisionless reconnection (Hall and ion kinetic physics) and also because it allows one to change the nature of the non-ideal electron scale physics, we use a (two dimensional) hybrid model. The effects of numerical, resistive, and hyper-resistive dissipation are studied. In a first part, we perform simulations of symmetric reconnection with different non-ideal electron physics. We show that the model captures the already known properties of collisionless reconnection. In a second part, we focus on an asymmetric configuration where the magnetic field strength and the density are both asymmetric. Our results show that contrary to symmetric reconnection, the asymmetric model evolution strongly depends on the nature of the mechanism which breaks the field line connectivity. The dissipation occurring at the X line plays an important role in preventing the electron current layer

  3. Influence of the dissipation mechanism on collisionless magnetic reconnection in symmetric and asymmetric current layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aunai, Nicolas; Hesse, Michael; Black, Carrie; Evans, Rebekah; Kuznetsova, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Numerical studies implementing different versions of the collisionless Ohm's law have shown a reconnection rate insensitive to the nature of the non-ideal mechanism occurring at the X line, as soon as the Hall effect is operating. Consequently, the dissipation mechanism occurring in the vicinity of the reconnection site in collisionless systems is usually thought not to have a dynamical role beyond the violation of the frozen-in condition. The interpretation of recent studies has, however, led to the opposite conclusion that the electron scale dissipative processes play an important dynamical role in preventing an elongation of the electron layer from throttling the reconnection rate. This work re-visits this topic with a new approach. Instead of focusing on the extensively studied symmetric configuration, we aim to investigate whether the macroscopic properties of collisionless reconnection are affected by the dissipation physics in asymmetric configurations, for which the effect of the Hall physics is substantially modified. Because it includes all the physical scales a priori important for collisionless reconnection (Hall and ion kinetic physics) and also because it allows one to change the nature of the non-ideal electron scale physics, we use a (two dimensional) hybrid model. The effects of numerical, resistive, and hyper-resistive dissipation are studied. In a first part, we perform simulations of symmetric reconnection with different non-ideal electron physics. We show that the model captures the already known properties of collisionless reconnection. In a second part, we focus on an asymmetric configuration where the magnetic field strength and the density are both asymmetric. Our results show that contrary to symmetric reconnection, the asymmetric model evolution strongly depends on the nature of the mechanism which breaks the field line connectivity. The dissipation occurring at the X line plays an important role in preventing the electron current layer

  4. The Thermal Properties of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter within the Extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaneen, Khaled; Mansour, Hesham

    2017-02-01

    The single-particle potentials and other properties at absolute zero temperature in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the frame of an extended Brueckner theory. Also thermal quantities are calculated in asymmetric nuclear matter using CD-Bonn potential and the Urbana three-body forces (3BF). Also, the effects of the hole-hole contributions are investigated within the self-consistent Greens function approach. The inclusion of 3BF or the hole-hole contributions improves the predicted saturation property of symmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach and it leads to a significant stiffening of the density dependence of symmetry energy at high densities but the exact saturation point is not reproduced. This is of great importance in astrophysical calculation. A phenomenological term simulating the three-body interaction is introduced to assure the empirical saturation property. The hot properties of asymmetric nuclear matter such as the internal energy and the pressure are analyzed using T2-approximation method at low temperatures.

  5. Analytical study of the origin and behavior of asymmetric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murray; Degani, David; Zilliac, Gregory G.

    1990-01-01

    An hypothesis advanced originally to explain computational observations is supported by theoretical considerations: The asymmetric mean flow observed on bodies of revolution at moderate to high angles of attack is the result of a convective instability of an originally symmetric flow to a time-invariant space-fixed disturbance. Additionally, the time-dependent fluctuations characteristic of the flow at higher angles of attack (up to 90 deg) are the result of an absolute instability of an originally steady flow to a small temporal disturbance of finite duration. Within a common domain, the instability mechanisms may coexist. The experimentally confirmed existence of bistable states, wherein the side-force variation with nose roll angle approaches a square-wave distribution, is attributed to the dominant influence of a pair of trailing vortices from the ogival forebody. Their existence is made possible by the appearance of foci of separation in the skin-friction line pattern beyond a critical angle of attack. The extreme sensitivity of the asymmetric flow orientation to nose geometry, demonstrated experimentally, is attributed to the presence of an indeterminate phase in the family of possible solutions for the three-dimensional wave system.

  6. De novo synthesis of natural products via the asymmetric hydration of polyenes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Qi; O'Doherty, George A

    2011-08-14

    For the last ten years our group has been working toward the development of an asymmetric hydration approach to polyketide natural products based on the regioselective hydration of di- and tri-enoates. Key to the success of this approach is the recognition that both high regiocontrol and asymmetric induction could be obtained by the use of a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction. Herein we describe the development of the method and its application to natural product total synthesis.

  7. Response Selection Contributes to the Preparation Cost for Bimanual Asymmetric Movements.

    PubMed

    Blinch, Jarrod; Franks, Ian M; Carpenter, Mark G; Chua, Romeo

    2017-09-06

    Movement preparation of bimanual asymmetric movements takes more time than bimanual symmetric movements in choice reaction-time conditions. This bimanual asymmetric cost may be caused by increased processing demands on any stage of movement preparation. The authors tested the contributions of each stage of movement preparation to the asymmetric cost by using the additive factors method. This involved altering the stimulus contrast, response compatibility, and response complexity. These manipulations changed the processing demands on stimulus identification, response selection, and response programming, respectively. Any manipulation with a larger reaction time cost than control suggests that stage contributes to the bimanual asymmetric cost. The bimanual asymmetric cost was larger for incompatible stimuli, which supports that response selection contributes to the bimanual asymmetric cost.

  8. Why DNA Is a More Effective Scaffold than RNA in Nucleic Acid-Based Asymmetric Catalysis-Supramolecular Control of Cooperative Effects.

    PubMed

    Marek, Jasmin J; Hennecke, Ulrich

    2017-04-05

    Nucleic acids can form efficient hybrid catalysts for asymmetric catalysis upon binding of low-molecular-weight metal complexes. Up to now DNA has been the preferred nucleic acid component, while RNA was largely ignored. It is shown that despite RNA's successful use in ribozymes, RNA is less suited for use in hybrid catalysts for asymmetric catalysis. A common dimethyl bipyridine copper complex does not form highly active and enantioselective hybrid catalysts with RNA due to the absence of synergistic effects between the copper complex and dsRNA.

  9. Asymmetric effects of positive and negative affect on decision making.

    PubMed

    Cahir, Caitriona; Thomas, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    Although affect is a fundamental element of decision making, there are different theoretical accounts and conflicting empirical evidence of its influence. This experiment was done to begin a more coherent account of the influence of affect by using standardised images to induce affect and a betting task to measure decision making. Eighty-five participants were assigned to a positive, a negative, or a neutral affect condition before making decisions on two hypothetical horse races. Analysis indicated that those in the positive and negative conditions made lower-risk decisions than those in the neutral condition; however, this did not differ between the races, suggesting that task familiarity did not moderate the influence of affect. Contrary to previous research, these results indicate that positive and negative affect do not necessarily exert symmetrical effects on decision making. Implications for the major accounts of the influence of affect on decision making are discussed in relation to the findings.

  10. Asymmetrical effects of reward and punishment on attributions of morality.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Weiner, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    The authors found that 3 experiments revealed that compliance with a pro-social request for an anticipated reward as opposed to a threatened punishment resulted in greater inferences of personal morality. In Experiment 1, participants received information about a teaching assistant (TA) who was either promised a reward or threatened with a punishment when asked for compliance. The participants perceived the TA as more moral for complying given the positive incentive as opposed to the negative incentive. Experiment 2 replicated this finding in a different culture, using different vignettes and incentives. Last, in Experiment 3, the results revealed that a perceived actor's real intentions mediated the effect of incentive valence on dispositional causation. That is, given a reward relative to a punishment, participants were more likely to assume that the agent would have helped even if no incentive had been offered.

  11. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Kondo effect in a deformed molecule coupled asymmetrically to ferromagnetic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Qiang; Jiang, Kai-Ming

    2009-12-01

    The nonequilibrium Kondo effect is studied in a molecule quantum dot coupled asymmetrically to two ferromagnetic electrodes by employing the nonequilibrium Green function technique. The current-induced deformation of the molecule is taken into account, modeled as interactions with a phonon system, and phonon-assisted Kondo satellites arise on both sides of the usual main Kondo peak. In the antiparallel electrode configuration, the Kondo satellites can be split only for the asymmetric dot-lead couplings, distinguished from the parallel configuration where splitting also exists, even though it is for symmetric case. We also analyze how to compensate the splitting and restore the suppressed zero-bias Kondo resonance. It is shown that one can change the TMR ratio significantly from a negative dip to a positive peak only by slightly modulating a local external magnetic field, whose value is greatly dependent on the electron-phonon coupling strength.

  12. Decaying asymmetric dark matter relaxes the AMS-Fermi tension

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Lei; Kang, Zhaofeng E-mail: zhaofengkang@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    The first result of AMS-02 confirms the positron fraction excess observed by PAMELA, but the spectrum is somewhat softer than that of PAMELA. In the dark matter (DM) interpretation it brings a tension between AMS-02 and Fermi-LAT, which reported an excess of the electron plus positron flux. In this work we point out that the asymmetric cosmic ray from asymmetric dark matter (ADM) decay relaxes the tension. It is found that in the case of two-body decay a bosonic ADM around 2.4 TeV and decaying into μ{sup −}τ{sup +} can significantly improve the fits. Based on the R−parity-violating supersymmetry with operators LLE{sup c}, we propose a minimal model to realize that ADM. The model introduces only a pair of singlets (X, X-bar ) with a tiny coupling LH{sub u}X, which makes the ADM share the lepton asymmetry and decay into μ{sup −}τ{sup +} along the operator LLE{sup c}.

  13. The prediction of two- and three-dimensional asymmetrical turbulent wakes - A comparision of the performance of three turbulence models for the effects of streamline curvature and rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1979-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional turbulent wakes which develop under the influence of streamline curvature and rotation were calculated with three turbulence closure models. The first model comprised of transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and the rate of energy dissipation. The second model comprised of equations for the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation and Reynolds stresses, but the effects of the convection and diffusion in the Reynolds stress transport equation were handled collectively. The third model utilizes equations of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation and Reynolds stresses in nearly exact form. All of the three models were modified for the effects of streamline curvature. The second and third models include the effects of rotation through the rotation-originated redistribution term in the transport equation of Reynolds stresses. The numerical results for the wakes of airfoils, cascades and turbomachinery rotor blades demonstrate that the second and third models provide accurate predictions, but computer time and storage can be considerably saved with the second model.

  14. The Lazarillo's game: Sharing resources with asymmetric conditions.

    PubMed

    Lacomba, Juan A; Lagos, Francisco; Perote, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Lazarillo of Tormes' picaresque novel introduces a story where two subjects sequentially extract (one, two or three) tokens from a common pool in an asymmetric information framework (the first player cannot observe her partners' actions). By introducing a reward for both subjects in case that in every period at least one subject had taken one single token, we define an interesting coordination game. We conduct an experiment with 120 undergraduate students to study their behavior in this framework. We find that if the second player is allowed to take more tokens than her partner, then the frequency of cooperators does not seem to be affected by the informational asymmetry. Nevertheless, this asymmetry (i) incentives the second player to use her 'power of extraction' while the social externality is still available, (ii) yields to more asymmetric profit distributions when subjects win the social externality and (iii) delays the breach period in case of coordination failure. Furthermore, the first choice of the first player is determinant for getting the reward.

  15. The Lazarillo’s game: Sharing resources with asymmetric conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Lazarillo of Tormes’ picaresque novel introduces a story where two subjects sequentially extract (one, two or three) tokens from a common pool in an asymmetric information framework (the first player cannot observe her partners’ actions). By introducing a reward for both subjects in case that in every period at least one subject had taken one single token, we define an interesting coordination game. We conduct an experiment with 120 undergraduate students to study their behavior in this framework. We find that if the second player is allowed to take more tokens than her partner, then the frequency of cooperators does not seem to be affected by the informational asymmetry. Nevertheless, this asymmetry (i) incentives the second player to use her ‘power of extraction’ while the social externality is still available, (ii) yields to more asymmetric profit distributions when subjects win the social externality and (iii) delays the breach period in case of coordination failure. Furthermore, the first choice of the first player is determinant for getting the reward. PMID:28704408

  16. [Asymmetric confusability effects in recognition memory of line drawings].

    PubMed

    Uchino, Y; Hakoda, Y; Yamada, N

    2000-06-01

    Experiment 1 and 2 examined the effect of addition or deletion changes in a picture recognition test. Addition and deletion applied to original pictures were referred to deviation change, and addition to deleted pictures or deletion from added pictures was referred to restoration change. In Experiment 1 (n = 40), elaborative detailed information contained in line drawings of scenes was changed whereas one of major features in a single object was changed in Experiment 2 (n = 36). In the test phase, participants indicated whether each test picture was changed or not from the picture they had seen in the study phase. Deviation change had a greater effect on detection performance than restoration only in Experiment 2. Additions were easily detected than deletions only in deviation change in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, 51 participants rated impression of added or deleted pictures used in Experiment 2. Impression of added pictures was significantly different from that of deleted in 3 factors. These results suggest that superiority of additions over deletions might be due to their different impression change.

  17. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to ‘morally disengage’ from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top ‘looking down’, or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521) and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354) during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a) community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable) levels of blatant dehumanization, (b) blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c) the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict. PMID:28746412

  18. Antibacterial phototoxic effects of synthetic asymmetric and glycosylated curcuminoids in aqueous formulations: studies on curcumin and curcuminoids. LIV.

    PubMed

    Tovsen, Marianne Lilletvedt; Bruzell, Ellen; Ferrari, Erika; Saladini, Monica; Gaware, Vivek S; Másson, Már; Kristensen, Solveig; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro phototoxic potential of synthetic asymmetric and glycosylated curcuminoids on planktonic model bacteria by counting the colony forming units. The Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli were exposed to aqueous solutions of the curcuminoids (⩽2.5 μM) in the presence or absence of selected pharmaceutical excipients (Pluronic F127, PEG 400 and HPγCD) in combination with a low irradiation dose (5 J/cm(2); λmax: 450 nm) of constant irradiance and time. All the asymmetric curcuminoids, but only one of the glycosylated curcuminoids demonstrated substantial phototoxic effect on E.faecalis (⩾4.7 log reduction). Only two of the asymmetric curcuminoids showed a moderate to low phototoxic effect on the more persistent E.coli. This study emphasized that aromatic hydroxyl substituents in the para-position are important to maintain the phototoxic potential of curcuminoids independent of molecular symmetry. Glycosylation of the aromatic substituents resulted in a substantial loss in phototoxicity towards planktonic bacteria, an apparent change in the non-radiative S₁-decay process and a weaker interaction with Pluronic F127 compared to the non-glycosylated curcuminoids. The selected excipients Pluronic F127, PEG 400 and HPγCD strongly influenced the phototoxic potential of the unsymmetrical, non-glycosylated compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 0114 + 074 - A very asymmetric galaxy in the field of an intermediate-redshift QSO

    SciTech Connect

    Akujor, C.E. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn )

    1989-10-01

    New radio-continuum observations of 0114 + 074 (4C 07.4) are presented. It is shown that this radio source consists of two distinct objects: a point source identified with an 18.0 mag QSO and a highly asymmetric 18.5 mag galaxy. The patently asymmetric structure of the galaxy is most plausibly due to intrinsically asymmetric energy funding of the lobes by the central machine or nucleus, rather than external influences. 41 refs.

  20. The asymmetrical effects of some ionized n-octyl derivatives on the sodium current of the giant axon of Loligo forbesi.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J R; Haydon, D A; Hendry, B M

    1984-01-01

    The effects of octyltrimethylammonium ions (OTMA+), octyl sulphate ions (OS-) and octanoic acid (OA) on the sodium current of the voltage-clamped squid giant axon have been investigated using intracellular and extracellular application of the test substances. OTMA+ applied externally at concentrations of 0.8-5.0 mM produces a small reversible increase in the peak inward sodium current in both intact and CsF-perfused axons. Intracellular application of OTMA+ at 0.8 mM to CsF-perfused axons causes a reversible 50% suppression of peak inward sodium current. The inhibition of peak inward current by internal OTMA+ arises largely from a shift of the steady-state activation parameter (m infinity) in the depolarizing direction along the voltage axis. There is little use dependence of the current suppression by OTMA+ OA applied either internally or externally is more effective at suppressing peak inward sodium current at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.4. At pH 6.0 external application of 5 mM-OA to perfused axons causes approximately 60% suppression. This is associated with a depolarizing shift of m infinity of about 13 mV and a hyperpolarizing shift of the steady-state inactivation (h infinity) curve of about 4 mV. The effects of internal and external OA are broadly similar except that the h infinity shift is not seen with internal application. OS- at concentrations above 2.0 mM produces complete irreversible loss of sodium current. At 2.0 mM, OS- produces 10% current suppression and a small depolarizing shift of the m infinity curve. Internal and external applications of OS- differ little except that external OS- causes a 25% increase in the time constant of activation (tau m). The possible origins of these effects are discussed. It is proposed that the shift of m infinity caused by internal OTMA+ is due to a diminution of the lipid dipole potential at the internal surface of the membrane caused by OTMA+ adsorption. This effect could also account for the m infinity shift caused by

  1. Influence of an asymmetric ring on the modeling of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, Naveen; Johnson, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Structural models are examined for the influence of a ring with an asymmetrical cross section on the linear elastic response of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell subjected to internal pressure. The first structural model employs classical theory for the shell and stiffeners. The second model employs transverse shear deformation theories for the shell and stringer and classical theory for the ring. Closed-end pressure vessel effects are included. Interacting line load intensities are computed in the stiffener-to-skin joints for an example problem having the dimensions of the fuselage of a large transport aircraft. Classical structural theory is found to exaggerate the asymmetric response compared to the transverse shear deformation theory.

  2. Does increased muscular tension along the torso disturb postural equilibrium more when it is asymmetrical?

    PubMed

    Hamaoui, Alain; Le Bozec, Serge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether increased muscular tension disturbs postural equilibrium more when it is asymmetrical. Ten healthy male subjects underwent a posturographic examination associated with an original uni and bilateral compressive load paradigm designed to set the active muscular tension at different controlled levels along each side of the torso. Respiratory kinematics were recorded by means of two sensing belts. Two electromyographic pre-tests were used to map out the main motor muscles of the task and to quantify the level of asymmetry induced by unilateral loads. The posturographic examination revealed that the mean deviation of the CP along the medial-lateral axis was significantly greater in unilateral than in bilateral compressive loads. It was suggested that increased muscular tension along the torso induces a more disturbing effect on posture when it is asymmetrical.

  3. Asymmetric MF-DCCA method based on risk conduction and its application in the Chinese and foreign stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Han, Yan; Li, Qingchen; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The acceleration of economic globalization gradually shows the linkage of the stock markets in various counties and produces a risk conduction effect. An asymmetric MF-DCCA method is conducted based on the different directions of risk conduction (DMF-ADCCA) and by using the traditional MF-DCCA. To ensure that the empirical results are more objective and robust, this study selects the stock index data of China, the US, Germany, India, and Brazil from January 2011 to September 2014 using the asymmetric MF-DCCA method based on different risk conduction effects and nonlinear Granger causality tests to study the asymmetric cross-correlation between domestic and foreign stock markets. Empirical results indicate the existence of a bidirectional conduction effect between domestic and foreign stock markets, and the greater influence degree from foreign countries to domestic market compared with that from the domestic market to foreign countries.

  4. Influence of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, G. Z.; Wang, L.; Li, X. Q.; Liu, H. F.; Tang, C. J.; Huang, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, X. Q.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the triggering and evolution of double tearing modes (DTMs) are investigated using nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics simulations in a slab geometry. We find that for reversed magnetic shear plasmas the resistive reconnection process induced by the initial perturbation at one rational surface can drive a new island at the other rational surface with the same mode number. The four typical states of the mode for the time evolution are found, and include: (i) a linear growth stage; (ii) a linear/nonlinear stable stage; (iii) an interactively driving stage; and (iv) a symmetric DTM stage. These differ from previous simulation results. Moreover, nonlinear DTM growth is found to strongly depend on the asymmetric magnetic perturbation, particularly in the early nonlinear phase. The initial perturbation strength scale of island width suggests that the left island enters into a Sweet-Parker growth process when the right island is sufficiently large to effectively drive the other. These results predict that although externally applied magnetic perturbations can suppress the neoclassical tearing mode they can also trigger new instabilities such as asymmetric DTMs.

  5. The involvement of phospholipases C and D in the asymmetric division of subsidiary cell mother cells of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Panteris, Emmanuel; Galatis, Basil

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, the involvement of phospholipase C and D (PLC and PLD) pathways in the asymmetric divisions that produce the stomatal complexes of Zea mays was investigated. In particular, the polar organization of microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) and the process of asymmetric division were studied in subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) treated with PLC and PLD modulators. In SMCs treated with butanol-1 (but-1), which blocks phosphatidic acid (PA) production via PLDs, AF-patch formation laterally to the inducing guard cell mother cell (GMC) and the subsequent asymmetric division were inhibited. In these SMCs, cell division plane determination, as expressed by MT preprophase band (MT-PPB) formation, was not disturbed. Exogenously applied PA partially relieved the but-1 effects on SMCs. In contrast to SMCs, but-1 did not affect the symmetric GMC division. Inhibition of the PLC catalytic activity by neomycin or U73122 resulted in inhibition of asymmetric SMC division, while AF-patch and MT-PPB were organized as in control SMCs. These data show that the PLC and PLD signaling pathways are involved in the transduction and/or perception of the inductive stimulus that is emitted by the GMCs and induces the polar AF organization and asymmetric SMC division. In contrast, division plane determination in SMCs, as expressed by MT-PPB formation, does not depend on PLC and PLD signaling pathways.

  6. Interactions between electrons, mesoscopic Josephson effect and asymmetric current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huard, B.

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses three experiments on the properties of electronic transport at the mesoscopic scale. The first one allowed to measure the energy exchange rate between electrons in a metal contaminated by a very weak concentration of magnetic impurities. The role played by magnetic impurities in the Kondo regime on those energy exchanges is quantitatively investigated, and the global measured exchange rate is larger than expected. The second experiment is a measurement of the current-phase relation in a system made of two superconductors linked through a single atom. We thus provide quantitative support for the recent description of the mesoscopic Josephson effect. The last experiment is a measurement of the asymmetry of the current fluctuations in a mesoscopic conductor, using a Josephson junction as a threshold detector. Cet ouvrage décrit trois expériences portant sur les propriétés du transport électronique à l'échelle mésoscopique. La première a permis de mesurer le taux d'échange d'énergie entre électrons dans un métal contenant une très faible concentration d'impuretés magnétiques. Nous avons validé la description quantitative du rôle des impuretés magnétiques dans le régime Kondo sur ces échanges énergétiques et aussi montré que le taux global d'échange est plus fort que prévu. La seconde expérience est une mesure de la relation courant-phase dans un système constitué de deux supraconducteurs couplés par un seul atome. Elle nous a permis de conforter quantitativement la récente description de l'effet Josephson mésoscopique. La dernière expérience est unemesure de l'asymétrie des fluctuations du courant dans un conducteur mésoscopique en utilisant une Jonction Josephson comme détecteur de seuil.

  7. Visual attention modulates the asymmetric influence of each cerebral hemisphere on spatial perception

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meijian; Wang, Xiuhai; Xue, Lingyan; Huang, Dan; Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Although the allocation of brain functions across the two cerebral hemispheres has aroused public interest over the past century, asymmetric interhemispheric cooperation under attentional modulation has been scarcely investigated. An example of interhemispheric cooperation is visual spatial perception. During this process, visual information from each hemisphere is integrated because each half of the visual field predominantly projects to the contralateral visual cortex. Both egocentric and allocentric coordinates can be employed for visual spatial representation, but they activate different areas in primate cerebral hemispheres. Recent studies have determined that egocentric representation affects the reaction time of allocentric perception; furthermore, this influence is asymmetric between the two visual hemifields. The egocentric-allocentric incompatibility effect and its asymmetry between the two hemispheres can produce this phenomenon. Using an allocentric position judgment task, we found that this incompatibility effect was reduced, and its asymmetry was eliminated on an attentional task rather than a neutral task. Visual attention might activate cortical areas that process conflicting information, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, and balance the asymmetry between the two hemispheres. Attention may enhance and balance this interhemispheric cooperation because this imbalance may also be caused by the asymmetric cooperation of each hemisphere in spatial perception. PMID:26758349

  8. Projection of two-dimensional diffusion in narrow asymmetric channels onto the longitudinal direction

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Inti; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-01-14

    Diffusive transport of particles is a ubiquitous feature of physical, chemical and biological systems. Typical structures like pores, tubes or fibers, are quasi one-dimensional, such that we need to solve 2+1 or 3+1 dimensional differential equations to describe correctly transport along them. The so-called Fick-Jacobs approach dramatically simplifies the problem if one assumes that a solute distribution in any cross-section of the channel is uniform at equilibrium. That study focuses on the mapping of the diffusion equation in a two-dimensional narrow asymmetric channel of varying cross section onto the longitudinal coordinate. We present a generalization to the case of an asymmetric channel using the projection method introduced earlier by Kalinay and Percus. We derive an expansion of the effective diffusion coefficient, which represents corrections to the Fick-Jacobs equation and contains the well-known previous results as special cases. Finally, we study numerically some specific two-dimensional asymmetric channel configurations to test and show the broader applicability of this effective diffusion coefficient formula.

  9. Projection of two-dimensional diffusion in narrow asymmetric channels onto the longitudinal direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Inti; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Diffusive transport of particles is a ubiquitous feature of physical, chemical and biological systems. Typical structures like pores, tubes or fibers, are quasi one-dimensional, such that we need to solve 2+1 or 3+1 dimensional differential equations to describe correctly transport along them. The so-called Fick-Jacobs approach dramatically simplifies the problem if one assumes that a solute distribution in any cross-section of the channel is uniform at equilibrium. That study focuses on the mapping of the diffusion equation in a two-dimensional narrow asymmetric channel of varying cross section onto the longitudinal coordinate. We present a generalization to the case of an asymmetric channel using the projection method introduced earlier by Kalinay and Percus. We derive an expansion of the effective diffusion coefficient, which represents corrections to the Fick-Jacobs equation and contains the well-known previous results as special cases. Finally, we study numerically some specific two-dimensional asymmetric channel configurations to test and show the broader applicability of this effective diffusion coefficient formula.

  10. The asymmetrical effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes: a different view based on an interference with the episodic register.

    PubMed

    Guez, Jonathan; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the conceptualization of encoding and retrieval processes established in previous studies that used a divided attention (DA) paradigm. These studies indicated that there were considerable detrimental effects of DA at encoding on later memory performance, but only minimal effects, if any, on divided attention at retrieval. We suggest that this asymmetry in the effects of DA on memory can be due, at least partially, to a confound between the memory phase (encoding and retrieval) and the memory requirements of the task (memory "for" encoded information versus memory "at" test). To control for this confound, we tested memory for encoded information and for retrieved information by introducing a second test that assessed memory for the retrieved information from the first test. We report the results of four experiments that use measures of memory performance, retrieval latency, and performance on the concurrent task, all of which consistently show that DA at retrieval strongly disrupts later memory for the retrieved episode, similarly to the effects of DA at encoding. We suggest that these symmetrical disruptive effects of DA at encoding and retrieval on later retrieval reflect a disruption of an episodic buffer (EB) or episodic register component (ER), rather than a failure of encoding or retrieval operations per se.

  11. The Asymmetrical Effects of Divided Attention on Encoding and Retrieval Processes: A Different View Based on an Interference with the Episodic Register

    PubMed Central

    Guez, Jonathan; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the conceptualization of encoding and retrieval processes established in previous studies that used a divided attention (DA) paradigm. These studies indicated that there were considerable detrimental effects of DA at encoding on later memory performance, but only minimal effects, if any, on divided attention at retrieval. We suggest that this asymmetry in the effects of DA on memory can be due, at least partially, to a confound between the memory phase (encoding and retrieval) and the memory requirements of the task (memory “for” encoded information versus memory “at” test). To control for this confound, we tested memory for encoded information and for retrieved information by introducing a second test that assessed memory for the retrieved information from the first test. We report the results of four experiments that use measures of memory performance, retrieval latency, and performance on the concurrent task, all of which consistently show that DA at retrieval strongly disrupts later memory for the retrieved episode, similarly to the effects of DA at encoding. We suggest that these symmetrical disruptive effects of DA at encoding and retrieval on later retrieval reflect a disruption of an episodic buffer (EB) or episodic register component (ER), rather than a failure of encoding or retrieval operations per se. PMID:24040249

  12. Rotational state selection and orientation of diatomic and asymmetric top molecules via the electric hexapole technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Toby Douglas

    2000-11-01

    The hexapole rotational state selection of 2∏ Ω diatomic and asymmetric top molecules is investigated. Classical molecular trajectory simulations are shown to reproduce experimental focusing spectra in these large classes of molecules. Deviations from linear Stark effects introduce significant effects in the focusing behavior of both the 2∏ and asymmetric rotor species. The laboratory frame distributions of orientations of the state-selected molecules are quantified by quantum mechanical orientational probability distribution functions (opdf's). Chapter 1 introduces preliminary data for the hexapole focusing of hydroxyl radicals and shows the deviation of the structured focusing curves from the first-order Stark effect. In Chapter 2, the focusing theory is developed for 2∏ diatomics, and the focusing spectra presented in Chapter 1 are analyzed using the theory. The Λ-doublet splitting is found to be the important parameter for simulating the measured focusing spectra. The high field limit opdf's are calculated, and highly anisotropic orientational distributions for the selected states are shown. Chapter 3 shows the laboratory orientation of 2∏ molecules is tunable via the electric field strength of an orienting field for post- hexapole selected rotational states. A laser induced fluorescence experiment is detailed allowing experimental validation of the theoretical opdf's. Chapter 4 explores the scattering of hexapole selected OD rotational states with various target gases. Elastic scattering cross sections are reported for OD + M (M = He, Ar, H2O, CO2, NH3, and CH3F). Hexapole focusing and the subsequent orientation of asymmetric rotors are the subjects of Chapter 5. Matrix treatments are used to calculate the field-free and Stark energies exactly. Perturbation and intermediate Stark effect approximations are compared to the exact matrix method, yielding several general rules useful in analyzing and predicting experimental focusing spectra. The theory

  13. Hollow silica capsules with well-defined asymmetric windows in the shell.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2012-05-15

    A straightforward and effective approach to fabricate porous silica capsules with well-defined asymmetric windows in the shell using raspberry-like templates has been developed. This process begins with the formation of a hierarchical template by chemically coupling a large polystyrene sphere to an ensemble of small, polystyrene latex spheres. The hierarchical template in conjunction with a hard templating method and spin-coating leads to silica capsules with well-defined, asymmetric pores (windows) in the outer shell. Proof-of-principle of this approach has been demonstrated using a 1500/110 nm hierarchical template. The silica capsules thus produced were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and STEM. The diameter of the capsules was ~1400 nm, and the outer opening of the windows was ~100 nm in size, consistent with the diameters of the core and satellite spheres considering the shrinkage due to the calcination. The inner opening was ~30 nm, which gives rise to an asymmetry factor, defined as the diameter of the outer window to the diameter of the inner window, of ~3. In another example, surface-bound capsules with an asymmetry factor of ~1 were made. Collectively, these windows can provide efficient pathways to connect the inside of the capsule to the outside and have potential for asymmetric diffusion and rectification.

  14. Exact Large Deviation Function in the Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    1998-01-01

    By an extension of the Bethe ansatz method used by Gwa and Spohn, we obtain an exact expression for the large deviation function of the time averaged current for the fully asymmetric exclusion process in a ring containing N sites and p particles. Using this expression we easily recover the exact diffusion constant obtained earlier and calculate as well some higher cumulants. The distribution of the deviation y of the average current is, in the limit N-->∞, skew and decays like exp-\\(Ay5/2\\) for y-->+∞ and exp-\\(A'\\|y\\|3/2\\) for y-->-∞. Surprisingly, the large deviation function has an expression very similar to the pressure (as a function of the density) of an ideal Bose or Fermi gas in 3D.

  15. The stability of an asymmetric rotor in damped supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, A. J.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    A general-purpose method of evaluating the stability of an asymmetric flexible rotor, mounted in symmetric damped bearings, is defined. This method evaluates the complex eigenvalues of the rotor system by solving the equations of motion in a rotating coordinate frame. The application of this method to a rotor mounted in tilting-pad bearings is demonstrated. The observed behavior of a number of different rotor configurations is compared with corresponding predictions of stability. For the configurations predicted to be unstable, a distinct and unnegotiable threshold of instability is encountered. The sharpness of this threshold is emphasized by careful balancing at speeds fractionally below the threshold. In a final configuration predicted to be marginally stable, lightly damped resonant behavior, negotiable by balancing, is encountered in the region of the first critical speed.

  16. Phase Shift of the Asymmetric Friedel-Anderson Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    The ground state of the asymmetric Friedel-Anderson (aFA) impurity is calculated within the FAIR (Friedel artificially inserted resonance) theory. Its properties are investigated by means of the fidelity with different Friedel impurities and by its Friedel oscillations. Friedel impurities with a specific phase shift δ at the Fermi level possess a finite fidelity with the aFA impurity. This phase shift δ determines other properties of the aFA impurity such as the amplitude and displacement of its Friedel oscillations. One can find the parameters of a Friedel impurity which coincides in its Friedel oscillations almost perfectly with the aFA impurity, thereby avoiding an Anderson orthogonality catastrophe.

  17. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  18. Neutrino flavor transformation in the lepton-asymmetric universe

    DOE PAGES

    Johns, Lucas Andrew; Mina, Mattia; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; ...

    2016-10-01

    We investigate neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe in the presence of a lepton asymmetry, focusing on a two-flavor system with 1–3 mixing parameters. We identify five distinct regimes that emerge in an approximate treatment neglecting collisions as the initial lepton asymmetry at high temperature is varied from values comparable to current constraints on the lepton number down to values at which the neutrino-neutrino forward-scattering potential is negligible. The characteristic phenomena occurring in these regimes are (1) large synchronized oscillations, (2) minimal flavor transformation, (3) asymmetric (ν- or ν¯-only) MSW, (4) partial MSW, and (5) symmetric MSW. We examinemore » our numerical results in the framework of adiabaticity, and we illustrate how they are modified by collisional damping. Lastly, we point out the existence of matter-neutrino resonances in the early Universe and show that they suffer from nonadiabaticity.« less

  19. Neutrino flavor transformation in the lepton-asymmetric universe

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Lucas Andrew; Mina, Mattia; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Paris, Mark W.; Fuller, George M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe in the presence of a lepton asymmetry, focusing on a two-flavor system with 1–3 mixing parameters. We identify five distinct regimes that emerge in an approximate treatment neglecting collisions as the initial lepton asymmetry at high temperature is varied from values comparable to current constraints on the lepton number down to values at which the neutrino-neutrino forward-scattering potential is negligible. The characteristic phenomena occurring in these regimes are (1) large synchronized oscillations, (2) minimal flavor transformation, (3) asymmetric (ν- or ν¯-only) MSW, (4) partial MSW, and (5) symmetric MSW. We examine our numerical results in the framework of adiabaticity, and we illustrate how they are modified by collisional damping. Lastly, we point out the existence of matter-neutrino resonances in the early Universe and show that they suffer from nonadiabaticity.

  20. Asymmetric induction in the zirconium catalyzed ethylmagnesiation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.L.; Whitby, R.J.; Jones, R.V.H.

    1995-12-31

    In 1985 Dzhemilev reported the zirconium catalysed ethylmagnesiation of terminal alkenes. A chiral centre is formed during the reaction which occurs under mild conditions. The authors have applied this reaction to a number of substrates and a mechanism has been elucidated. In order to induce asymmetry into the reaction, several chiral literature catalysts were synthesised including Ethylenebis(tetrahydroindenyl)zirconium dichloride and two more hindered complexes reported by Erker. All of these catalysts displayed low activity and poor asymmetric induction with terminal alkenes. The synthesis and properties of two novel catalysts will be described. Results show high activity furnishing carbomagnesiated products in excellent yields with as little as 2 mol% catalyst. The enantiomeric excesses induced by the complexes are as high as 79% with terminal alkenes but are >95% with cyclic ethers. The catalyst has proved recoverable. Ethylmagnesiation of an amine followed by an acidic workup furnishes the chiral complex in a quantitative return.

  1. The ability to assess muscular force in asymmetrical Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lafargue, Gilles; D'Amico, Andrea; Thobois, Stéphane; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-01-01

    We tested the ability of eight Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with clearly asymmetrical right-sided motor signs and eight control subjects to assess different levels of muscular forces. In Experiment 1, subjects had first to produce a target-force with one hand (the reference hand) with the assistance of visual feedback, and then match that force with the other hand (the matching hand) without any visual feedback. In Experiment 2, they had to produce a target-force with one hand and then estimate it by attributing a numerical value. In Experiment 1, the results showed that PD patients could normally reach the target-forces with the more affected left hand but they were impaired in inter-manual force transfer. They were also impaired, in Experiment 2, in estimating forces produced by their more affected hand. Our findings suggest that PD patients present a deficit in sensing motor effort. Effort awareness might be mediated by the basal ganglia.

  2. Neutrino flavor transformation in the lepton-asymmetric universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Lucas; Mina, Mattia; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Paris, Mark W.; Fuller, George M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe in the presence of a lepton asymmetry, focusing on a two-flavor system with 1-3 mixing parameters. We identify five distinct regimes that emerge in an approximate treatment neglecting collisions as the initial lepton asymmetry at high temperature is varied from values comparable to current constraints on the lepton number down to values at which the neutrino-neutrino forward-scattering potential is negligible. The characteristic phenomena occurring in these regimes are (1) large synchronized oscillations, (2) minimal flavor transformation, (3) asymmetric (ν - or ν ¯-only) MSW, (4) partial MSW, and (5) symmetric MSW. We examine our numerical results in the framework of adiabaticity, and we illustrate how they are modified by collisional damping. Finally, we point out the existence of matter-neutrino resonances in the early Universe and show that they suffer from nonadiabaticity.

  3. Neutrino flavor transformation in the lepton-asymmetric universe

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Lucas Andrew; Mina, Mattia; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Paris, Mark W.; Fuller, George M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe in the presence of a lepton asymmetry, focusing on a two-flavor system with 1–3 mixing parameters. We identify five distinct regimes that emerge in an approximate treatment neglecting collisions as the initial lepton asymmetry at high temperature is varied from values comparable to current constraints on the lepton number down to values at which the neutrino-neutrino forward-scattering potential is negligible. The characteristic phenomena occurring in these regimes are (1) large synchronized oscillations, (2) minimal flavor transformation, (3) asymmetric (ν- or ν¯-only) MSW, (4) partial MSW, and (5) symmetric MSW. We examine our numerical results in the framework of adiabaticity, and we illustrate how they are modified by collisional damping. Lastly, we point out the existence of matter-neutrino resonances in the early Universe and show that they suffer from nonadiabaticity.

  4. How does an asymmetric magnetic field change the vertical structure of a hot accretion flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, M.; Abbassi, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of large-scale magnetic fields in hot accretion flows for asymmetric configurations with respect to the equatorial plane. The solutions that we have found show that the large-scale asymmetric magnetic field can significantly affect the dynamics of the flow and also cause notable outflows in the outer parts. Previously, we treated a viscous resistive accreting disc in the presence of an odd symmetric B-field about the equatorial plane. Now, we extend our earlier work by taking into account another configuration of large-scale magnetic field that is no longer symmetric. We provide asymmetric field structures with small deviations from even and odd symmetric B-field. Our results show that the disc's dynamics and appearance become different above and below the equatorial plane. The set of solutions also predicts that even a small deviation in a symmetric field causes the disc to compress on one side and expand on the other. In some cases, our solution represents a very strong outflow from just one side of the disc. Therefore, the solution may potentially explain the origin of one-sided jets in radio galaxies.

  5. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X

    2015-12-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division.

  6. Observation of the asymmetric Bessel beams with arbitrary orientation using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Qiu, Xing-Ze; Ren, Yu-Xuan; Zhu, Hui-Qing; Liu, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Jin-Hua; Zhong, Min-Cheng; Chu, Xiu-Xiang; Li, Yin-Mei

    2014-11-03

    Recently, V. V. Kotlyar et al. [Opt. Lett.39, 2395 (2014)] have theoretically proposed a novel kind of three-parameter diffraction-free beam with a crescent profile, namely, the asymmetric Bessel (aB) beam. The asymmetry degree of such nonparaxial modes was shown to depend on a nonnegative real parameter c. We present a more generalized asymmetric Bessel mode in which the parameter c is a complex constant. This parameter controls not only the asymmetry degree of the mode but also the orientation of the optical crescent, and affects the energy distribution and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the beam. As a proof of concept, the high-quality generation of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams was demonstrated with the super-pixel method using a digital micromirror device (DMD). We investigated the near-field properties as well as the far field features of such beams, and the experimental observations were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Additionally, we provided an effective way to control the beam's asymmetry and orientation, which may find potential applications in light-sheet microscopy and optical manipulation.

  7. Asymmetric acoustic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Ye, Yangtao; Dai, Zhongwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2011-02-01

    The unidirectional transmission of acoustic waves is realized by a simple geometrically asymmetric steel grating structure. This exotic phenomenon stems from the one-way diffraction effect induced by the different periods of the slits on the both surfaces of the sample. And the frequency range of unidirectional transmission is simply determined by the structure periods. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical simulation. This remarkable effect is expected potential applications in ultrasonic devices, such as acoustic rectifiers and acoustic diodes.

  8. Numerical solution of the asymmetric water impact of a wedge in three degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazizade-Ahsaee, H.; Nikseresht, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Impact problems associated with water entry have important applications in various aspects of naval architecture and ocean engineering. Estimation of hydrodynamic impact forces especially during the first instances after the impact is very important and is of interest. Since the estimation of hydrodynamic impact load plays an important role in safe design and also in evaluation of structural weight and costs, it is better to use a reliable and accurate prediction method instead of a simple estimation resulted by analyzing methods. In landing of flying boats, some phenomena such as weather conditions and strong winds can cause asymmetric instead of symmetric descent. In this paper, a numerical simulation of the asymmetric impact of a wedge, as the step of a flying boat, considering dynamic equations in two-phase flow is taken into account. The dynamic motion of the wedge in two-phase flow is solved based on finite volume method with volume of fluid (VOF) scheme considering dynamic equations. Then the effects of different angles of impact and water depth on the velocity change and slamming forces in an asymmetric impact are investigated. The comparison between the simulation results and experimental data verifies the accuracy of the method applied in the present study.

  9. On the absence of asymmetric wakes for periodically plunging finite wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, D. E.; Cleaver, D. J.; Gursul, I.; Wang, Z.

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that, at high Strouhal numbers, oscillating airfoils can produce deflected jets that can create very high lift-coefficients for otherwise symmetric scenarios. These deflected jets form through pairing of the trailing-edge vortices to create asymmetric vortex couples that self-propel at an angle to the freestream, resulting in an asymmetric flow field and non-zero lift. In this paper results are presented that indicate these high-lift deflected jets cannot form for finite wings. Instead of the straight vortex tubes that pair and convect at an angle to the freestream observed for effectively infinite wings, finite wings exhibit vortex tubes that break into two branches near the tip forming double helix structures. One branch connects with the last vortex; one branch connects with the next vortex. This creates a long "daisy chain" of interconnected trailing edge vortices forming a long series of vortex loops. These symmetric flow fields are shown to persist for finite wings even to Strouhal numbers more than twice those required to produce asymmetric wakes on plunging airfoils. Two contributing reasons are discussed for why deflected jets are not observed. First the tip vortex creates three-dimensionality that discourages vortex coupling. Second, the symmetry of the circulation of the interconnected vortex loops, which has been confirmed by the experiments, is a natural consequence of the vortex topology. Therefore, the asymmetry in trailing edge vortex strength previously observed as characteristic of deflected jets cannot be supported for finite wings.

  10. An X chromosome effect responsible for asymmetric reproductive isolation between male Drosophila virilis and heterospecific females.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Desirée; Civetta, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between closely related species is expressed through uncoordinated courtship, failed fertilization, and (or) postzygotic barriers. Behavioural components of mating often form an initial barrier to hybridization between species. In many animals, females are responsible for mating discrimination in both intra- and interspecific crosses; males of Drosophila virilis group represent an exception to this trend. Using overall productivity tests, we show that a lower proportion of D. virilis males sire progeny when paired with a heterospecific female (Drosophila novamexicana or Drosophila americana texana) for 2 weeks. This suggests male mate discrimination or some other kind of asymmetrical incompatibility in courtship and mating or early zygote mortality. We used males from D. virilis-D. novamexicana and from D. virilis-D. a. texana backcross populations to map chromosome effects responsible for male reproductive isolation. Results from the analysis of both backcross male populations indicate a major X chromosome effect. Further, we conduct a male behavioural analysis to show that D. virilis males significantly fail to continue courtship after the first step of courtship, when they tap heterospecific females. The combined results of a major X chromosome effect and the observation that D. virilis males walk away from females after tapping suggest that future studies should concentrate on the identification of X-linked genes affecting the ability of males to recognize conspecific females.

  11. Photodissociation dynamics of tryptophan and the implication of asymmetric photolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Chien-Ming; Dyakov, Yuri A.; Huang, Huai Ching; Huang, Kuan Yu; Lee, Yuan T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Chiang, Su-Yu

    2010-08-21

    Photodissociation of amino acid tryptophan in a molecular beam at wavelengths of 212.8 and 193 nm, corresponding to excitation to the second and third absorption bands, was investigated using multimass ion imaging techniques. The respective wavelengths also represent excitation to the edge of a positive circular dichroism band and the center of a negative circular dichroism band of L-tryptophan. Only one dissociation channel was observed at both photolysis wavelengths: C{sub 8}NH{sub 6}CH{sub 2}CHNH{sub 2}COOH{yields}C{sub 8}NH{sub 6}CH{sub 2}+CHNH{sub 2}COOH. Dissociation rates were found to be 1.3x10{sup 6} and 5x10{sup 6} s{sup -1} at the respective wavelengths. Comparison to theoretical calculation indicates that dissociation occurs on the ground state after internal conversion. Implication of asymmetric photolysis is discussed.

  12. Families of Asymmetric Periodic Orbits in the Restricted Three-body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, K. E.

    2008-10-01

    This paper studies the asymmetric solutions of the restricted planar problem of three bodies, two of which are finite, moving in circular orbits around their center of masses, while the third is infinitesimal. We explore, numerically, the families of asymmetric simple-periodic orbits which bifurcate from the basic families of symmetric periodic solutions f, g, h, i, l and m, as well as the asymmetric ones associated with the families c, a and b which emanate from the collinear equilibrium points L 1, L 2 and L 3 correspondingly. The evolution of these asymmetric families covering the entire range of the mass parameter of the problem is presented. We found that some symmetric families have only one bifurcating asymmetric family, others have infinity number of asymmetric families associated with them and others have not branching asymmetric families at all, as the mass parameter varies. The network of the symmetric families and the branching asymmetric families from them when the primaries are equal, when the left primary body is three times bigger than the right one and for the Earth Moon case, is presented. Minimum and maximum values of the mass parameter of the series of critical symmetric periodic orbits are given. In order to avoid the singularity due to binary collisions between the third body and one of the primaries, we regularize the equations of motion of the problem using the Levi-Civita transformations.

  13. Asymmetric signal intensity in normal collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in horses with a low-field MRI system due to the magic angle effect.

    PubMed

    Spriet, Mathieu; Mai, Wilfried; McKnight, Alexia

    2007-01-01

    Increased signal intensity in one of the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint of sound horses in images acquired using a low-field magnet with vertical orientation of the magnetic field was investigated as a possible manifestation of the magic angle effect. Three isolated equine digits were imaged using the following pulse sequences: (1) spin echo TI, (2) turbo spin echo proton density and T2, and (3) 3D gradient echo T1, in different positions by mildly changing the orientation of the long axis of the digit, in the dorsal plane, relative to the magnetic field. The signal intensity in a ligament was significantly increased when the ligament orientation relative to the magnetic field was 55 +/- 10 degrees. The signal intensity was markedly increased in pulse sequences with short echo time (TE) 5.0, 4.9, and 3.9 times increased, respectively, for 3D gradient echo T1, spin echo T1, and turbo spin echo proton density) and to a lesser extent with pulse sequences with a longer TE (1.8 times increased for turbo spin echo T2). These changes are characteristic of the magic angle effect. Because of the anatomic orientation of the collateral ligaments of the DIP joint, a slight deviation of the long axis of the digit in the dorsal plane, from the ideal horizontal position, will induce an increased signal intensity that can be confused with desmitis. Careful positioning of the foot in magnetic resonance imaging systems where B0 is perpendicular to the long axis of the digit is critical to prevent the occurrence of the magic angle effect.

  14. Modeling the Asymmetric Wind of Massive LBV Binary MWC 314

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.; Groh, J.; Torres Dozinel, K.; Gorlova, N.; Martayan, C.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.; Prins, S.; Pessemier, W.; Waelkens, C.; Frémat, Y.; Hensberge, H.; Dummortier, L.; Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Lehmann, H.

    2012-12-01

    Spectroscopic monitoring with Mercator-HERMES over the past two years reveals that MWC 314 is a massive binary system composed of an early B-type primary LBV star and a less-luminous supergiant companion. We determine an orbital period Porb of 60.85 d from optical S II and Ne I absorption lines observed in this single-lined spectroscopic binary. We find an orbital eccentricity of e = 0.26, and a large amplitude of the radial velocity curve of 80.6 km s-1. The ASAS V light-curve during our spectroscopic monitoring reveals two brightness minima (ΔV = 0.1 mag) over the orbital period due to partial eclipses at an orbital inclination angle of ˜ 70°. We find a clear correlation between the orbital phases and the detailed shapes of optical and near-IR P Cygni-type line profiles of He I, Si II, and double- or triple-peaked stationary cores of prominent Fe II emission lines. A preliminary 3-D radiative transfer model computed with Wind3D shows that the periodic P Cygni line profile variability results from an asymmetric common-envelope wind with enhanced density (or line opacity) in the vicinity of the LBV primary. The variable orientation of the inner LBV wind region due to the orbital motion produces variable P Cygni line profiles (with wind velocities of ˜ 200 km s-1) between orbital phases φ = 0.65 to 0.85, while weak inverse P Cygni profiles are observed half an orbital period later around φ = 0.15 to 0.35. We do not observe optical or near-IR He II, C III, and Si III lines, signaling that the LBV's spectral type is later than B0. Detailed modeling of the asymmetrical wind properties of massive binary MWC 314 provides important new physical information about the most luminous hot (binary) stars such as η Carinae.

  15. Investigation of an Asymmetric B Factory in the PEP Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Chattapadhyay, A.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Chin, Y.H.; Dell'Orco, D.; Forest, E.; Furman, M.; Garren, A.A.; Hearty, C.; Jacob, A.; Kennedy, K.; Kim, K.; Lambertson, G.; Oddone, P.; Ronan, M.; Sessler, A.; Taylor, C.; Voelker, F.; Zisman, M.; Barletta, W.; Allen, M.; Bane, K.; Bloom, E.; Brenkus, F.; Brown, K.; Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Coupal, D.; Davies-White, W.; DeStaebler, H.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Hsu, I.; Hutton, A.; Jenkins, T.; Kozanecki, W.; Lisin, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.-L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Rees, J.; Ritson, D.; Ruth, R.; Saab, A.; Savage, W.; Schwarz, H.; Seeman, J.; Thompson, K.; Weidner, H.; Wilson, P.; Sullivan, M.; Jackson, G.; Hertzbach, S.; Tennyson, J.; Zholents, A.; Fitze, H.

    1990-03-01

    This report addresses the feasibility of designing and constructing an asymmetric B-factory based on the PEP storage ring at SLAC that can begin operation at a luminosity of 3 X 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and could ultimately reach even higher luminosity. Such a facility, operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, could be used to study mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} system, and could also study tau and charm physics. The essential accelerator physics, engineering and technology issues that must be addressed to successfully build this exciting and challenging facility are identified, and possible solutions, or R and D activities that will reasonable lead to such solutions, are described.

  16. The Basic Mechanics of Bipedal Walking Lead to Asymmetric Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Robert D.; Degani, Amir; Dhaher, Yasin; Lynch, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper computationally investigates whether gait asymmetries can be attributed in part to basic bipedal mechanics independent of motor control. Using a symmetrical rigid-body model known as the compass-gait biped, we show that changes in environmental or physiological parameters can facilitate asymmetry in gait kinetics at fast walking speeds. In the environmental case, the asymmetric family of high-speed gaits is in fact more stable than the symmetric family of low-speed gaits. These simulations suggest that lower extremity mechanics might play a direct role in functional and pathological asymmetries reported in human walking, where velocity may be a common variable in the emergence and growth of asymmetry. PMID:22275657

  17. Ratchet effect in Nb films with asymmetric pinning potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Javier E.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco; Gonzalez, Elvira M.; Anguita, Jose V.; Garcia, Ricardo; Vicent, Jose L.

    2004-03-01

    We fabricated a device that controls the motion of flux quanta in a niobium superconducting film grown on an array of nanoscale triangular pinning potentials (J. E. Villegas et al. Science 302, 1188 (2003).) The controllable rectification of the vortex motion is due to the asymmetry of the fabricated magnetic pinning centers. The reversal in the direction of the vortex flow is explained by the interaction between the vortices trapped on the magnetic nanostructures and the interstitial vortices. The applied magnetic field and input current strength can tune both the polarity and magnitude of the rectified vortex flow. Our ratchet system is explained and modeled theoretically, taking the interactions between particles into consideration.

  18. Families of asymmetric periodic solutions in the restricted four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Very recently, we presented five of the basic families of the network of periodic orbits of the restricted four-body problem which are simple, i.e. one intersection with the horizontal x-axis at the half period, symmetric with respect to the same axis and asymmetric with respect to the vertical y-axis. In the present work, using these families, we found series of asymmetric critical orbits for various values of the primaries m2 and m3. From these critical orbits we calculate and present five new families of simple periodic orbits which are asymmetric with respect to both the x- and y-axis. Additionally, we describe a grid method in the (x0, dot{x}0) plane and we obtain initial conditions for new asymmetric double-periodic orbits. We determine ten families of asymmetric double-periodic orbits from the bifurcations of the previous five asymmetric families using the special generating horizontally critical periodic orbits. The stability of each calculated asymmetric periodic orbit is also studied. Characteristic curves as well as stability diagrams of these families are illustrated. In the last section we present the evolution of the five basic families of simple asymmetric periodic orbits when the primaries are the Sun the Jupiter and the 2797 Teucer Asteroid.

  19. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines. PMID:26819482

  20. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines.

  1. Nonlinear giant magnetoimpedance and the asymmetric circumferential magnetization process in soft magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Polo, C.; Duque, J. G. S.; Knobel, M.

    2004-07-01

    The magnetoimpedance effect and its nonlinear terms are analysed for a (Co0.94Fe0.06)72.5Si12.5B15 amorphous wire. In order to enhance the nonlinear contribution the sample was previously subjected to current annealing (Joule heating) to induce a circumferential anisotropy. The effect of the application of a torsional strain on the nonlinear magnetoimpedance is analysed in terms of the torsional dependence of the magnetic permeability, evaluated through experimental circumferential hysteresis loops. The results obtained clearly confirm the direct correlation between the asymmetric circumferential magnetization process and the occurrence of nonlinear second-harmonic terms in the magnetoimpedance voltage.

  2. Magnetically induced Stark-like splitting and asymmetric refractive index effect in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanguo; Shen, Yang; Liu, Wenjie; Jin, Chongjun

    2017-05-01

    We develop an analytical method to investigate the eigenmodes of the surface plasmonic polaritons propagating along the interface of metal and magneto-optical (MO) medium by using perturbation theory. The solution shows that the MO activity can eliminate the eigenfrequency degeneracy of a pair of time-reversed waves. Analogously to the electron's magneto-Stark effect, we show this splitting can be understood as a result of "Lorentz force" acting on photons and it exhibits a Stark-like shape, which causes a difference between the forward and backward refractive index. It can be further enhanced by the surface plasmonic polaritons. Then, a hybrid structure composed with MO medium and metallic array is proposed to demonstrate this effect. In such a hybrid structure, the one-way property of surface wave presents a much higher efficiency than that of conventional magnetic photonic crystal. This Stark-like splitting at the interface of metal and magneto-optical (MO) medium can be used in the design of nanophotonic circuits, such as surface wave diode and asymmetric prism.

  3. Effects of noise source configuration on directional benefit using symmetric and asymmetric directional hearing aid fittings.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Ricketts, Todd A

    2007-04-01

    The benefits of directional processing in hearing aids are well documented in laboratory settings. Likewise, substantial research has shown that speech understanding is optimized in many settings when listening binaurally. Although these findings suggest that speech understanding would be optimized by using bilateral directional technology (e.g., a symmetric directional fitting), recent research suggests similar performance with an asymmetrical fitting (directional in one ear and omnidirectional in the other). The purpose of this study was to explore the benefits of using bilateral directional processing, as opposed to an asymmetric fitting, in environments where the primary speech and noise sources come from different directions. Sixteen older adults with mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were recruited for the study. Aided sentence recognition using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) was assessed in a moderately reverberant room, in three different speech and noise conditions in which the locations of the speech and noise sources were varied. In each speech and noise condition, speech understanding was assessed in four different microphone modes (bilateral omnidirectional mode; bilateral directional mode; directional mode left and omnidirectional mode right; omnidirectional mode left and directional mode right). The benefits and limitations of bilateral directional processing were assessed by comparing HINT thresholds across the various symmetric and asymmetric microphone processing conditions. Study results revealed directional benefit varied based on microphone mode symmetry (i.e., symmetric versus asymmetric directional processing) and the specific speech and noise configuration. In noise configurations in which the speech was located in the front of the listener and the noise was located to the side or surrounded the listener, maximum directional benefit (approximately 3.3 dB) was observed with the symmetric directional fitting. HINT thresholds

  4. Asymmetric actuating structure generates negligible influence on the supporting base for high performance scanning probe microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi Yan, Gang; Bin Liu, Yong; Hua Feng, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    An asymmetric actuating structure generating negligible influence on the supporting base for high performance scanning probe microscopies is proposed in this paper. The actuator structure consists of two piezostacks, one is used for actuating while the other is for counterbalancing. In contrast with balanced structure, the two piezostacks are installed at the same side of the supporting base. The effectiveness of the structure is proved by some experiments with the actuators fixed to the free end of a cantilever. Experimental results show that almost all of the vibration modes of the cantilever are suppressed effectively at a wide frequency range of 90 Hz-10 kHz.

  5. On the Singularity Expansion Method for the Solution of Electromagnetic Interaction Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-12-11

    course in the treatment of the interaution of electromagnetic fields with bodies located in free space or in other simple media, including the effects of...wire models of aircraft atrvctiuxex. Then in more Jetailed calculations of "fatter" structures one can use( the thin wire results to help locate all...the singu- larity expansion. For example take a perfectly conducting ob- ject of finite size located between two infinite parallel per- fectly

  6. The neural dynamic mechanisms of asymmetric switch costs in a combined Stroop-task-switching paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shanshan; Hitchman, Glenn; Tan, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yuanfang; Tang, Dandan; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-01-01

    Switch costs have been constantly found asymmetrical when switching between two tasks of unequal dominance. We used a combined Stroop-task-switching paradigm and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to explore the neural mechanism underlying the phenomenon of asymmetrical switch costs. The results revealed that a fronto-central N2 component demonstrated greater negativity in word switch (cW) trials relative to word repeat (wW) trials, and both First P3 and P3b components over the parieto-central region exhibited greater positivity in color switch (wC) trials relative to color repeat (cC) trials, whereas a contrasting switch-related fronto-central SP effect was found to have an opposite pattern for each task. Moreover, the time-frequency analysis showed a right-frontal lower alpha band (9-11 Hz) modulation in the word task, whereas a fronto-central upper alpha band (11-13 Hz) modulation was exclusively found in the color task. These results provide evidence for dissociable neural processes, which are related to inhibitory control and endogenous control, contributing to the generation of asymmetrical switch costs. PMID:25989933

  7. Use of Effects Based Operations in Asymmetric Conflicts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    the US doctrine of AirLand Battle, through its methodology of targeting and value analyses. The doctrine can be seen as a part of the principles of...and destroy what the adversary values most. This destruction, in the context of system-thinking, will break the enemy’s will to fight and is crucial...deeper understanding of what really changes behavior. To change behavior, one must exert influence somewhere early in this chain : beliefs – attitudes

  8. Primarily nonlinear effects observed in a driven asymmetrical vibrating wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, H. Kent; Morrison, Andrew C.; Boucher, Matthew A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to further experimentally explore the wide variety of behaviors exhibited by driven vibrating wires, primarily in the nonlinear regime. When the wire is driven near a resonant frequency, it is found that most such behaviors are significantly affected by the splitting of the resonant frequency and by the existence of a ``characteristic'' axis associated with each split frequency. It is shown that frequency splitting decreases with increasing wire tension and can be altered by twisting. Two methods are described for determining the orientation of characteristic axes. Evidence is provided, with a possible explanation, that each axis has the same orientation everywhere along the wire. Frequency response data exhibiting nonlinear generation of transverse motion perpendicular to the driving direction, hysteresis, linear generation of perpendicular motion (sometimes tubular), and generation of motion at harmonics of the driving frequency are exhibited and discussed. Also reported under seemingly unchanging conditions are abrupt large changes in the harmonic content of the motion that sometimes involve large subharmonics and harmonics thereof. Slow transitions from one stable state of vibration to another and quasiperiodic motions are also exhibited. Possible musical significance is discussed. .

  9. Recent observations of human-induced asymmetric effects on climate in very high-altitude area.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heli; Liu, Guifang

    2014-01-01

    Like urban heat islands (UHI), human-induced land degradation (HLD) is a phenomenon attributed to human activities, but this phenomenon occurs in non-urban areas. Although a large body of work has demonstrated that land-cover change influences local climate systems, little work has been done on separating the impact of HLD from naturally-occurring fluctuations in very high-altitude areas. We developed an innovative NDVI-difference method in order to evaluate HLD effects upon the climate system in the central Tibet Plateau. The results show that the minimum temperature increased at a significantly faster pace than the maximum temperature in the growing season at HLD meteorological stations, but this was reversed at stations with natural forces only. Further analysis revealed that abrupt changes of minimum temperature occurred five years earlier and amplitudes of these changes were 1.4 times larger than at stations with natural forces only. Therefore, our results complement other evidence that points to the fact that local effects from UHI contribute to climatic asymmetry observed between minimum and maximum temperature trends. Accordingly, we stress the need for consideration of non-urban factors from anthropogenic activities, such as human-induced land degradation, in understanding these asymmetric diurnal changes.

  10. Recent Observations of Human-induced Asymmetric Effects on Climate in Very High-Altitude Area

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Heli; Liu, Guifang

    2014-01-01

    Like urban heat islands (UHI), human-induced land degradation (HLD) is a phenomenon attributed to human activities, but this phenomenon occurs in non-urban areas. Although a large body of work has demonstrated that land-cover change influences local climate systems, little work has been done on separating the impact of HLD from naturally-occurring fluctuations in very high-altitude areas. We developed an innovative NDVI-difference method in order to evaluate HLD effects upon the climate system in the central Tibet Plateau. The results show that the minimum temperature increased at a significantly faster pace than the maximum temperature in the growing season at HLD meteorological stations, but this was reversed at stations with natural forces only. Further analysis revealed that abrupt changes of minimum temperature occurred five years earlier and amplitudes of these changes were 1.4 times larger than at stations with natural forces only. Therefore, our results complement other evidence that points to the fact that local effects from UHI contribute to climatic asymmetry observed between minimum and maximum temperature trends. Accordingly, we stress the need for consideration of non-urban factors from anthropogenic activities, such as human-induced land degradation, in understanding these asymmetric diurnal changes. PMID:24489643

  11. Left-right asymmetric expression of dpp in the mantle of gastropods correlates with asymmetric shell coiling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various shapes of gastropod shells have evolved ever since the Cambrian. Although theoretical analyses of morphogenesis exist, the molecular basis of shell development remains unclear. We compared expression patterns of the decapentaplegic (dpp) gene in the shell gland and mantle tissues at various developmental stages between coiled-shell and non-coiled-shell gastropods. Results We analyzed the expression patterns of dpp for the two limpets Patella vulgata and Nipponacmea fuscoviridis, and for the dextral wild-type and sinistral mutant lineage of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The limpets had symmetric expression patterns of dpp throughout ontogeny, whereas in the pond snail, the results indicated asymmetric and mirror image patterns between the dextral and sinistral lineages. Conclusion We hypothesize that Dpp induces mantle expansion, and the presence of a left/right asymmetric gradient of the Dpp protein causes the formation of a coiled shell. Our results provide a molecular explanation for shell, coiling including new insights into expression patterns in post-embryonic development, which should aid in understanding how various shell shapes are formed and have evolved in the gastropods. PMID:23711320

  12. Adult Speech Perception: Asymmetrical Effects in Categorical Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uselding, Douglas K.; Molfese, Dennis L.

    To measure the symmetry of adult categorical phoneme perception, 10 adult male undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology class were the subjects for this study as part of their course requirements. The stimuli used in this study were prepared at Haskins Laboratories by means of a parallel resonance synthesizer and computer. The…

  13. Asymmetrical effects of introduced Rana catesbeiana on native ranid frogs in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Bury, R. Bruce; McCreary, B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have become widely established in the Pacific Northwest over the last century and are thought to be an important predator of native amphibians throughout the western United States. The Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) historically coexisted in portions of the Pacific Northwest now invaded by R. catesbeiana, but R. pretiosa has declined more severely than R. a. aurora. We investigated whether microhabitat and behavioral differences that facilitate sympatric coexistence of the natives predict which species is more susceptible to predation by introduced R. catesbeiana. Our laboratory experiments demonstrate that R. catesbeiana adults prefer aquatic microhabitats, that R. pretiosa juveniles are more aquatic than R. a. aurora, and that adult R. catesbeiana consume more R. pretiosa than R. a. aurora juveniles. Mean and maximum jump distances of R. pretiosa were shorter than equally sized R. a. aurora, and the difference between these two species increased with larger frog sizes. Our examination of field survey data indicates that R. pretiosa coexist with R. catesbeiana less frequently than R. a. aurora. We conclude that R. catesbeiana is a greater threat to survival of R. pretiosa than to R. a. aurora and suggest that microhabitat use and escape abilities of native ranid frogs may be linked to this asymmetrical effect. Analysis of behavioral and microhabitat differences among related native species may be a useful tool in predicting the effects of introduced predators on amphibians and can assist in developing conservation priorities for these species.

  14. Asymmetrical Effects of Introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) on Native Ranid Frogs in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Bury, R.B.; McCreary, B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have become widely established in the Pacific Northwest over the last century and are thought to be an important predator of native amphibians throughout the western United States. The Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) historically coexisted in portions of the Pacific Northwest now invaded by R. catesbeiana, but R. pretiosa has declined more severely than R. a. aurora. We investigated whether microhabitat and behavioral differences that facilitate sympatric coexistence of the natives predict which species is more susceptible to predation by introduced R. catesbeiana. Our laboratory experiments demonstrate that R. catesbeiana adults prefer aquatic microhabitats, that R. pretiosa juveniles are more aquatic than R. a. aurora, and that adult R. catesbeiana consume more R. pretiosa than R. a. aurora juveniles. Mean and maximum jump distances of R. pretiosa were shorter than equally sized R. a. aurora, and the difference between these two species increased with larger frog sizes. Our examination of field survey data indicates that R. pretiosa coexist with R. catesbeiana less frequently than R. a. aurora. We conclude that R. catesbeiana is a greater threat to survival of R. pretiosa than to R. a. aurora and suggest that microhabitat use and escape abilities of native ranid frogs may be linked to this asymmetrical effect. Analysis of behavioral and microhabitat differences among related native species may be a useful tool in predicting the effects of introduced predators on amphibians and can assist in developing conservation priorities for these species.

  15. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  16. Coulomb and even-odd effects in cold and super-asymmetric fragmentation for thermal neutron induced fission of 235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, M.

    2016-07-01

    Even-odd effects of the maximal total kinetic energy (Kmax) as a function of charge (Z) and mass (A) of fragments from thermal neutron induced fission of actinides are questioned by other authors. In this work, visiting old results on thermal neutron induced fission of 235U, those even-odd effects are reconfirmed. The cases seeming to contradict even-odd effects are interpreted with the Coulomb effect hypothesis. According to Coulomb effect hypothesis, Kmax is equal to the Coulomb interaction energy of the most compact scission configuration. As a consequence, between two isobaric charge splits with similar Q-values, the more asymmetrical one will get the more compact scission configuration and then it will reach the higher Kmax-value. In some cases, the more asymmetrical charge split corresponds, by coincidence, to an odd charge split; consequently its higher Kmax-value may be misinterpreted as anti-even-odd effect. Another experimental result reported in the literature is the increasing of even-odd effects on charge distribution on the more asymmetrical fragmentations region. In this region, the difference between Kmax and Q-values increases with asymmetry, which means that the corresponding scission configuration needs higher total deformation energy to occur. Higher deformation energy of the fragments implies lower free energy to break nucleon pairs. Consequently, in the asymmetric fragmentation region, the even-odd effects of the distribution of proton number and neutron number must increase with asymmetry.

  17. CED-10/Rac1 mediates axon guidance by regulating the asymmetric distribution of MIG-10/lamellipodin.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Christopher C; Pfeil, Douglas S; Wadsworth, William G

    2008-06-03

    Axon migrations are guided by extracellular cues that induce asymmetric outgrowth activity in the growth cone. Several intracellular signaling proteins have been implicated in the guidance response. However, how these proteins interact to generate asymmetric outgrowth activity is unknown. Here, we present evidence that in C. elegans, the CED-10/Rac1 GTPase binds to and causes asymmetric localization of MIG-10/lamellipodin, a protein that regulates actin polymerization and has outgrowth-promoting activity in neurons. Genetic analysis indicates that mig-10 and ced-10 function together to orient axon outgrowth. The RAPH domain of MIG-10 binds to activated CED-10/Rac1, and ced-10 function is required for the asymmetric MIG-10 localization that occurs in response to the UNC-6/netrin guidance cue. We also show that asymmetric localization of MIG-10 in growth cones is associated with asymmetric concentrations of f-actin and microtubules. These results suggest that CED-10/Rac1 is asymmetrically activated in response to the UNC-6/netrin signal and thereby causes asymmetric recruitment of MIG-10/lamellipodin. We propose that the interaction between activated CED-10/Rac1 and MIG-10/lamellipodin triggers local cytoskeletal assembly and polarizes outgrowth activity in response to UNC-6/netrin.

  18. Asymmetric Lens Design Using Bicubic Splines: Application to the Color TV Lighthouse.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T P; Rigler, A K; Canty, B R

    1971-11-01

    Any two-dimensional interpolation scheme which has continuous derivatives may be used to represent an optical surface for ray-tracing purposes. We present bicubic splines in their application to the design of asymmetric surfaces. An as example of a problem requiring an asymmetric system, we analyze the design problems of a color TV lighthouse lens.

  19. Measuring Website Quality: Asymmetric Effect of User Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincl, Tomas; Strach, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Website quality measurement tools have been largely static and have struggled to determine relevant attributes of user satisfaction. This study compares and contrasts attributes of user satisfaction based on usability guidelines seeking to identify practical easy-to-administer measurement tools. The website users assessed business school homepages…

  20. Measuring Website Quality: Asymmetric Effect of User Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincl, Tomas; Strach, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Website quality measurement tools have been largely static and have struggled to determine relevant attributes of user satisfaction. This study compares and contrasts attributes of user satisfaction based on usability guidelines seeking to identify practical easy-to-administer measurement tools. The website users assessed business school homepages…

  1. Implementation of asymmetric yielding in case-specific finite element models improves the prediction of femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Derikx, Loes C; Vis, Roeland; Meinders, Timo; Verdonschot, Nico; Tanck, Esther

    2011-02-01

    Although asymmetric yielding in bone is widely shown in experimental studies, previous case-specific non-linear finite element (FE) studies have mainly adopted material behaviour using the Von Mises yield criterion (VMYC), assuming equal bone strength in tension and compression. In this study, it was verified that asymmetric yielding in FE models can be captured using the Drucker-Prager yield criterion (DPYC), and can provide better results than simulations using the VMYC. A sensitivity analysis on parameters defining the DPYC (i.e. the degree of yield asymmetry and the yield stress settings) was performed, focusing on the effect on bone failure. In this study, the implementation of a larger degree of yield asymmetry improved the prediction of the fracture location; variations in the yield stress mainly affected the predicted failure force. We conclude that the implementation of asymmetric yielding in case-specific FE models improves the prediction of femoral bone strength.

  2. Asymmetric