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Sample records for fatty acids isolated

  1. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparamarta, Hakun Wirawasista; Anggraini, Desy; Istianingsih, Della; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Gunawan, Setiyo

    2017-05-01

    Nyamplung (Calophylluminophyllum) has many benefits ranging from roots, stems, leaves, until seeds. In this seed, C. inophyllum contained significantly high amount of crude oil (70.4%). C. inophyllum oil is known as non edible. Therefore Indonesian people generally only know that seeds can produce oil that can be used for biodiesel. In this work, the fragmentation of fatty acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) was studied. The isolation process was started with separation of non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) from crude C. inophyllum oil via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) and was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). It was found that fatty acids of TAG are palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1c), linoleic acid (C18:2c), and linolenic acid (C18:3c). Moreover, TAG isolated from C. inophyllum oil was promising as edible oil.

  2. Isolation and identification of fatty acid amides from Shengli coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ming-Jie Ding; Zhi-Min Zong; Ying Zong; Xiao-Dong Ou-Yang; Yao-Guo Huang; Lei Zhou; Feng Wang; Jiang-Pei Cao; Xian-Yong Wei

    2008-07-15

    Shengli coal, a Chinese brown coal, was extracted with carbon disulfide and the extract was gradiently eluted with n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EA)/n-hexane mixed solvents with different concentrations of EA in a silica gel-filled column. A series of fatty acid amides, including fourteen alkanamides (C{sub 15}-C{sub 28}) and three alkenamides (C{sub 18} and C{sub 22}), were isolated from the coal by this method and analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown.

  4. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein in Small Intestine IDENTIFICATION, ISOLATION, AND EVIDENCE FOR ITS ROLE IN CELLULAR FATTY ACID TRANSPORT

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Manning, Joan A.

    1974-01-01

    A soluble fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), mol wt ∼ 12,000 is present in intestinal mucosa and other tissues that utilize fatty acids, including liver, myocardium, adipose, and kidney. This protein binds long chain fatty acids both in vivo and in vitro. FABP was isolated from rat intestine by gel filtration and isoelectric focusing. It showed a reaction of complete immunochemical identity with proteins in the 12,000 mol wt fatty acid-binding fractions of liver, myocardium, and adipose tissue supernates. (The presence of immunochemically nonidentical 12,000 mol wt FABP in these tissues is not excluded.) By quantitative radial immunodiffusion, supernatant FABP concentration in mucosa from proximal and middle thirds of jejuno-ileum significantly exceeded that in distal third, duodenum, and liver, expressed as micrograms per milligram soluble protein, micrograms per gram DNA, and micrograms per gram tissue. FABP concentration in villi was approximately three times greater than in crypts. Small quantities of FABP were present in washed nuclei-cell membrane, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions. However, the amount of FABP solubilized per milligram membrane protein was similar for all particulate fractions, and total membrane-associated FABP was only about 16% of supernatant FABP. Intestinal FABP concentration was significantly greater in animals maintained on high fat diets than on low fat; saturated and unsaturated fat diets did not differ greatly in this regard. The preponderance of FABP in villi from proximal and middle intestine, its ability to bind fatty acids in vivo as well as in vitro, and its response to changes in dietary fat intake support the concept that this protein participates in cellular fatty acid transport during fat absorption. Identical or closely related 12,000 mol wt proteins may serve similar functions in other tissues. Images PMID:4211161

  5. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  6. Isolation and characterization of unsaturated fatty acids during bacteriorhodopsin preparation from Halobacterium halobium.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Chen, J

    2007-09-01

    Isolation and characterization of unsaturated fatty acids during bacteriorhodopsin preparation from Halobacterium halobium. Halobacterium halobium was cultivated in a composite medium. Cells were collected by centrifugation followed by ultrasonic disruption, and the resulting suspension was subject to centrifugation for preparation of both pellet and supernatant. The pellet was saved in order to prepare bacteriorhodopsin, while the supernatant was used for the isolation of crude fatty acids by saponification and extraction. Crystallization then took place in acetone at -16 degrees C to remove fatty acids in which the carbon chain length was shorter than 13. The sample was obtained after purification and analysed by gas chromatography. The results demonstrated that Halobacterium halobium could synthesize multiple unsaturated fatty acids, particularly the three important polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (1.12%), eicosapentaenoic acid (16.76%) and docosahexaenoic acid (9.38%). Important unsaturated fatty acids were isolated and characterized from the waste, which was produced during the preparation of bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium halobium. Halobacterium halobium has already been used for decades to prepare bacteriorhodopsin. We found that several important unsaturated fatty acids could be extracted from the bacterial waste, which extends its application scope and might bring additional benefits to humanity.

  7. Isolation of fatty acids and aromatics from cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Gülaçti; Herrmann, Gabriele; Kolak, Ufuk; Gören, C; Porzel, Andrea; Kutchan, Toni M

    2007-02-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. ssp. angustifolia (syn.: L. officinalis Chaix.) afforded a fatty acid composition, cis and trans p-coumaric acids (=p-hydroxy cinnamic acids), and beta-sitosterol. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and the structures of the isolated three compounds were determined by 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic techniques.

  8. Fatty acid profiles in Leishmania spp. isolates with natural resistance to nitric oxide and trivalent antimony.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Alana Freire; Dutra, Jorge Luís de Lisboa; Santos, Micheli Luize Barbosa; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Fernandes, Marcelo Ferreira; Scher, Ricardo; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, especially those from phospholipids (PLFA), are essential membrane components that are present in relatively constant proportions in biological membranes under natural conditions. However, under harmful growth conditions, such as diseases, environmental changes, and chemical exposure, the fatty acid proportions might vary. If such changes could be identified and revealed to be specific for adverse situations, they could be used as biomarkers. Such biomarkers could facilitate the identification of virulence and resistance mechanisms to particular chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, specific biomarkers could lead to better therapeutic decisions that would, in turn, enhance treatment effectiveness. The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid profiles of trivalent antimony and nitric oxide (NO)-resistant and -sensitive Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis isolates. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from total lipids (MIDI), ester-linked lipids (ELFA), and ester-linked phospholipids (PLFA). FAMEs were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Species- or resistance-associated differences in FAME profiles were assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling, multiresponse permutation procedures, and indicator species analyses. The isolate groups had different MIDI-FAME profiles. However, neither the ELFA nor PLFA profiles differed between the sensitive and resistant isolates. Levels of the fatty acid 18:1 Δ9c were increased in sensitive isolates (p < 0,001), whereas the fatty acid 20:4 Δ5,8,11,14 showed the opposite trend (p < 0.01). We conclude that these two fatty acids are potential biomarkers for NO and antimony resistance in L. chagasi and L. amazonensis and that they could be helpful in therapeutic diagnoses.

  9. Isolation and structural characterisation of two antibacterial free fatty acids from the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Lebl, Tomas; Yan, Liming; Smith, Valerie J

    2008-12-01

    One solution to the global crisis of antibiotic resistance is the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds for clinical application. Marine organisms are an attractive and, as yet, relatively untapped resource of new natural products. Cell extracts from the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have antibacterial activity and the fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified as one compound responsible for this activity. During the isolation of EPA, it became apparent that the extracts contained further antibacterial compounds. The present study was undertaken to isolate these additional antibacterial factors using silica column chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Two antibacterial fractions, each containing a pure compound, were isolated and their chemical structures were investigated by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The antibacterial compounds were identified as the monounsaturated fatty acid (9Z)-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid; C16:1 n-7) and the relatively unusual polyunsaturated fatty acid (6Z, 9Z, 12Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA; C16:3 n-4). Both are active against Gram-positive bacteria with HTA further inhibitory to the growth of the Gram-negative marine pathogen, Listonella anguillarum. Palmitoleic acid is active at micro-molar concentrations, kills bacteria rapidly, and is highly active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. These free fatty acids warrant further investigation as a new potential therapy for drug-resistant infections.

  10. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K. )

    1989-04-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from {sup 14}C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis.

  11. Fatty acid uptake by isolated rat heart myocytes represents a carrier-mediated transport process.

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, W

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which fatty acids enter cardiomyocytes is unclear. Therefore, the influx kinetics of [3H]oleate into isolated rat heart myocytes were examined. Cells were incubated at 37 degrees C with [3H]oleate bound to albumin in various molar ratios and the initial rate of uptake (V0) was determined as a function of the unbound oleate concentration in the medium. V0 was saturable with increasing oleate concentrations incubated (Km 78 nM; Vmax 1.9 nmol X min-1 per 10(6) cells) and temperature dependent with an optimum at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, binding of [3H]oleate to isolated plasma membranes of cardiomyocytes was saturable, revealing a KD of 42 nM, and was inhibited by heat denaturation or trypsin pretreatment of the membranes. From these membranes a single 40-kD protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids was isolated. With a monospecific antibody to this membrane protein, binding as well as cellular influx of [3H]oleate was selectively inhibited. These data indicate that at least a portion of myocardial fatty acid uptake is mediated by a specific membrane protein. Images PMID:3343344

  12. Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Qiong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2012-12-15

    Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of fatty acids on physical properties of microsomes from isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, F; Goh, E H

    1980-04-01

    A computer-centered spectrofluorimeter was used to examine the physicochemical properties of hepatic microsomes and microsomal lipids obtained from isolated rat livers perfused with medium containing palmitate or oleate. The fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the liver microsomal lipids reflected that the fatty acid present in the perfusate. The absorption corrected fluorescence, relative fluorescence efficiency, polarization, and fluorescence anisotropy of several fluorescent probe molecules were measured to determine if their different microenvironments may be altered by the type of fatty acid infused. The probe molecules beta--parinaric acid and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene had higher values for each of these parameters when incorporated into microsomes obtained from livers perfused with a medium containing palmitate than with oleate. The same parameters measured for cholesta-5,7,9(11)-trien-3 beta-ol and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine were not altered. These differences appeared to be primarily due to alterations in microviscosity of the probe microenvironments since the rotational correlation time of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was 25% lower in the microsomes from livers perfused with oleate as compared to livers perfused with palmitate. Thermal discontinuities in Arrhenius plots were noted in the intact microsomes but not in the isolated microsomal lipids with the fluorescence probe molecule beta-parinaric acid. Break points occurred at 10 degrees C and 26 degrees C for microsomes from livers perfused with palmitate and at 12 degrees C and 17 degrees C for microsomes from livers perfused with oleate containing medium. These results suggest that the physicochemical properties of liver microsomes were determined in part by the fatty acid in the perfusate.

  14. A fatty acid glycoside from a marine-derived fungus isolated from mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Bo; Wang, Hui; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Zheng, Bo; Yang, Tao; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2012-03-01

    To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  15. Fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis from specifically labeled leucine by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mathias, M M; Sullivan, A C; Hamilton, J G

    1981-10-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from female rats meal-fed a high-glucose diet were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate medium containing 16.5 mM glucose, 3H2O, and 14C-labeled amino acids (-)-Hydroxycitrate depressed the incorporation of 3H2O and [14C] alanine into fatty acids and cholesterol. Incorporation of [U-14C]leucine into lipids was not affected but incorporation of 3H2O into lipids was decreased significantly by (-)-hydroxycitrate. (-)-Hydroxycitrate depressed the incorporation of radioactivity from [2-14C]leucine into fatty acids and cholesterol by 61 and 38%, respectively, and stimulated the incorporation of radioactivity from [4,5-3H]leucine 35 and 28%. As [2-14C]leucine labels the acetyl-CoA pool and [4,5-3H]leucine labels the acetoacetate pool, it was concluded that mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA is not incorporated intact into cholesterol, and that acetoacetate can be activated effectively in the liver cytosol for support of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis.

  16. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Dietary lipids modify the fatty acid composition of cartilage, isolated chondrocytes and matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Watkins, B A; Adkisson, H D

    1994-09-01

    The effects of dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of hyaline cartilage, epiphyseal chondrocytes (EC) and matrix vesicles (MV) were evaluated in chicks. A basal semipurified diet was fed to chicks containing one of the following lipid sources at 70 g/kg: soybean oil, butter+corn oil, margarine+corn oil or menhaden oil+corn oil (MEC). Articular and epiphyseal growth cartilage were isolated from the proximal tibiotarsus; EC and MV were subsequently released by trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) digestion followed by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid composition of polar lipids in chick epiphyseal cartilage at three and six weeks, as well as articular cartilage, EC and MV at eight weeks of age revealed the presence of high levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (up to 85.5%) but low levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (2.6-10.2%). Mead acid (20:3n-9, > 3%) was also present in cartilage, EC and MV lipids, and was unaffected by the dietary lipid treatments. Total n-3 PUFA concentrations were the highest in cartilage, EC and MV of chicks consuming MEC. Feeding MEC lowered the levels of 20:4n-6 in cartilage, but increased 20:5n-3 levels. The data are consistent with those reported previously which showed that cartilage tissues are low in n-6 PUFA and that they contain 20:3n-9. We furthermore demonstrated that the PUFA composition of cartilage can be modified by dietary lipids.

  18. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  19. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He Zhong; Quan, Xiao Fang; Tian, Wei Xi; Hu, Jiang Miao; Wang, Peng Cheng; Huang, Sheng Zhuo; Cheng, Zhong Quan; Liang, Wen Juan; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Xiao Feng; Zhao, You Xing

    2010-10-15

    Natural inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FAS) are emerging as potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. The bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the hulls of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of 13 phenolic compounds (1-13) mainly including xanthone and benzophenone, in which compounds 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 9 was a new natural product. These isolates possess strong inhibitory activity of FAS with the IC(50) values ranging from 1.24 to 91.07 μM. The study indicates that two types of natural products, xanthones and benzophenones, could be considered as promising FAS inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty acid preference of mycelium-bound lipase from a locally isolated strain of Geotrichum candidum.

    PubMed

    Loo, Joo Ling; Lai, Oi Mlng; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2007-12-01

    Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL) was prepared using a strain of Geotrichum candidum isolated from local soil. At the time of maximum lipase activity (54 h), the mycelia to which the lipase was bound were harvested by filtration and centrifugation. Dry MBL was prepared by lyophilizing the mycelia obtained. The yield of MBL was 3.66 g/l with a protein content of 44.11 mg/g. The lipase activity and specific lipase activity were 22.59 and 510 U/g protein, respectively. The moisture content of the MBL was 3.85%. The activity of free (extracellular) lipase in the culture supernatant (after removal of mycelia) was less than 0.2 U/ml. The MBL showed selectivity for oleic acid over palmitic acid during hydrolysis of palm olein, indicating that the lipase from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acid containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.

  1. Isolation of brominated long-chain fatty acids from the phospholipids of the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon terpenensis.

    PubMed

    Garson, M J; Zimmermann, M P; Hoberg, M; Larsen, R M; Battershill, C N; Murphy, P T

    1993-11-01

    Preliminary investigation of the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon terpenensis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of some novel brominated fatty acids. Two new brominated fatty acids, (5E, 9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (2a) and (5E, 9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-pentacosadienoic acid (3a) were subsequently isolated from a chloroform/methanol (3:1, vol/vol) extract of the sponge and characterized as their methyl esters 2b and 3b. The known brominated fatty acid (5E, 9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid (4a) was also isolated. The new fatty acid methyl esters were confirmed as brominated delta 5,9 acid derivatives by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The position of the bromine substituent was determined to be C-6 by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques while the stereochemistry of the two double bonds was deduced by nuclear Overhauser enhancement difference spectroscopy. The biosynthetic implications of the co-occurrence of the three brominated acids are discussed.

  2. Fatty acids, unusual glycophospholipids and DNA analyses of thermophilic bacteria isolated from hot springs.

    PubMed

    Siristova, Lucie; Melzoch, Karel; Rezanka, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The composition of fatty acids in 12 strains of the genera Thermus, Meiothermus, Geobacillus and Alicyclobacillus was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Major FAs found in the profiles included i-15:0, i-17:0, ai-15:0, i-16:0, 16:0, ai-17:0, together with some minor components. Branched FAs were predominant, forming more than 80% of all FAs measured. Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry was used for analysis of unusual glycophospholipids, i.e., acylglycosylcardiolipins from genera Geobacillus and Alicyclobacillus and 1-(hydroxy(2-(O-acylglycosyl-oxy)hexadecyloxy)phosphoryloxy) hexadecan-2-yl esters of C15-C17 acids from genera Thermus and Meiothermus. Cloning and preliminary sequence analysis of 16S rDNA showed that these isolates belong to the genera Thermus, Meiothermus, Geobacillus and Alicyclobacillus.

  3. Selective mobilization of saturated fatty acids in isolated adipocytes of hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Armstrong, Christopher; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are not mobilized from adipocyte triacylglycerols uniformly but rather some are preferentially mobilized while others are preferentially retained. In many vertebrate species, the pattern of differential mobilization is determined by the physical and chemical properties of each fatty acid. Fatty acids with shorter chains and more double bonds tend to be more readily mobilized than others, a pattern observed both in whole-animal studies and in isolated adipocytes. Several hibernating species seem to break this pattern, however, and retain 18:2ω6 (linoleic acid) while mobilizing saturated fatty acids such as 18:0. We sought to confirm this pattern in adipocytes of a hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, and to investigate mobilization patterns for the first time at hibernation temperature. We isolated adipocytes from summer active and winter torpid squirrels and incubated them with 1 μM norepinephrine at 4°C (7 h) and 37°C (90 min). We measured the proportion of each fatty acid in the adipose tissue and in the buffer at the end of incubation. Patterns of mobilization were similar in both seasons and incubation temperatures. Saturated fatty acids (18:0 and 16:0) were highly mobilized relative to the average, while some unsaturated fatty acids (notably, 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6) were retained. We conclude that hibernators have unique mechanisms at the level of adipose tissue that preferentially mobilize saturated fatty acids. Additionally, we found that adipocytes from hibernating squirrels produced more glycerol than those from summer squirrels (regardless of temperature), indicating a higher lipolytic capacity in hibernating squirrels.

  4. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty acids from saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary-tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms of pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, anti-androgenic effects, anti-proliferative effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we showed that SPE bound actively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel (1,4-DHP) receptors in the prostate and bladder of rats, whereas its active constituents have not been fully clarified. The present investigation is aimed to identify the main active components contained in hexane and diethyl ether extracts of SPE with the use of column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Based on the binding activity with alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic, and 1,4-DHP receptors, both isolated oleic and lauric acids were deduced to be active components. Authentic samples of oleic and lauric acids also exhibited similar binding activities to these receptors as the fatty acids isolated from SPE, consistent with our findings. In addition, oleic and lauric acids inhibited 5alpha-reductase, possibly leading to therapeutic effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia and related lower urinary-tract symptoms.

  5. Uncoupling effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in isolated rat hepatocytes:effect on glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Piquet, M A; Fontaine, E; Sibille, B; Filippi, C; Keriel, C; Leverve, X M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a 4-week deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in isolated rat hepatocytes have been investigated for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid, dihydroxyacetone (DHA) or glycerol metabolism. Oxygen uptake was significantly increased (by 20%) with or without fatty acid addition (octanoate or oleate) in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls. The effect persisted after oligomycin addition but not after that of potassium cyanide, leading to the conclusion that, in these intact cells, the mitochondria were uncoupled. The PUFA-deficient group exhibited a significant decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio, whereas the mitochondrial ratio was not affected. PUFA deficiency led to a 16% decrease in DHA metabolism owing to a 34% decrease in glycerol kinase activity; the significant decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio was accompanied by an increase in the fractional glycolytic flux. In contrast, glycerol metabolism was significantly enhanced in the PUFA-deficient group. The role of the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step in this stimulation was evidenced in hepatocytes perifused with glycerol and octanoate in the presence of increased concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (Dnp): uncoupling with Dnp led to an enhancement of glycerol metabolism, as found in PUFA deficiency, although it was more pronounced than in controls. The matrix/cytosol gradients for redox potential and ATP/ADP ratio were lower in cells from PUFA-deficient rats, suggesting a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in accordance with the uncoupling effect. Moreover, a doubling of the mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls led us to conclude that the activation of glycerol metabolism is the consequence of two mitochondrial effects: uncoupling and an increase in glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8760348

  6. Fatty acid clearance by isolated perfused hindquarters of rats fed fish oil

    SciTech Connect

    Herzberg, G.R.; MacCharles, G.; Rogerson, M. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that, compared to the dietary fatty acid composition, n-3 fatty acids are underrepresented in the adipose tissue of rats consuming fish oil diets. They have also shown that in rats fed fish oil diets, lipoprotein lipase is elevated in skeletal muscle and heart but not in adipose tissue. These two observations led us to hypothesize that n-3 enriched lipoproteins and n-3 fatty acids are preferentially utilized by muscle. Rats were fed diets containing 10% by weight corn oil (CO) or 2% CO + 8% fish oil (MaxEPA) for two weeks. Skinned hindquarters were perfused using a Krebs-Henselheit buffer containing 3% albumin, 5.5 mM glucose and 0.5 mM fatty acid. Muscle ATP was unaffected by previous diet or fatty acid perfused and was approximately 6 {mu}mol/g wet weight in each group. The rate of fatty acid removal was linear for 60 minutes by which time between 30 and 50% of the fatty acid in the perfusate had been removed. They determined the removal of either {sup 14}C EPA and {sup 14}C oleate. There was a significant effect of both the type of fatty acid and the previous diet of the rats from which the hindquarters were obtained. EPA was removed more rapidly by hindquarters from MaxEPA-fed rats than corn oil fed rats. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced utilization of fatty acids by muscle contributes to the hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary fish oils. They also suggest that n-3 fatty acids are more rapidly utilized by skeletal muscle.

  7. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD) 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE) 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general development of C. sativa should

  8. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  9. Fatty acid and amino acid modulation of glucose cycling in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, L A; Neeft, M; Reijngoud, D J; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, H P; Romijn, J A; Herling, A W; Burger, H J; Meijer, A J

    2001-01-01

    We studied the influence of glucose/glucose 6-phosphate cycling on glycogen deposition from glucose in fasted-rat hepatocytes using S4048 and CP320626, specific inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate translocase and glycogen phosphorylase respectively. The effect of amino acids and oleate was also examined. The following observations were made: (1) with glucose alone, net glycogen production was low. Inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate translocase increased intracellular glucose 6-phosphate (3-fold), glycogen accumulation (5-fold) without change in active (dephosphorylated) glycogen synthase (GSa) activity, and lactate production (4-fold). With both glucose 6-phosphate translocase and glycogen phosphorylase inhibited, glycogen deposition increased 8-fold and approached reported in vivo rates of glycogen deposition during the fasted-->fed transition. Addition of a physiological mixture of amino acids in the presence of glucose increased glycogen accumulation (4-fold) through activation of GS and inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase flux. Addition of oleate with glucose present decreased glycolytic flux and increased the flux through glucose 6-phosphatase with no change in glycogen deposition. With glucose 6-phosphate translocase inhibited by S4048, oleate increased intracellular glucose 6-phosphate (3-fold) and net glycogen production (1.5-fold), without a major change in GSa activity. It is concluded that glucose cycling in hepatocytes prevents the net accumulation of glycogen from glucose. Amino acids activate GS and inhibit flux through glucose-6-phosphatase, while oleate inhibits glycolysis and stimulates glucose-6-phosphatase flux. Variation in glucose 6-phosphate does not always result in activity changes of GSa. Activation of glucose 6-phosphatase flux by fatty acids may contribute to the increased hepatic glucose production as seen in Type 2 diabetes. PMID:11535127

  10. In vitro effects of alpha-bromopalmitate on metabolism of essential fatty acids studied in isolated rat hepatocytes: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Hagve, T A; Christophersen, B O

    1987-02-14

    alpha-Bromopalmitate was shown to have a far more pronounced effect on metabolism of labelled linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) in isolated liver cells from female rats than in those from males. alpha-Bromopalmitate decreased triacylglycerol synthesis with a concomitant accumulation of fatty acid in diacylglycerol, indicating that the acylation of diacylglycerol is affected by alpha-bromopalmitate.

  11. Isolation and functional characterization of fatty acid delta5-elongase gene from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Ohyama, Kanji; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2006-01-09

    Bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha L. produces C22 very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFA). Thus far, no enzyme that mediates elongation of C20 VLCPUFAs has been identified in land plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene MpELO2, which encodes an ELO-like fatty acid elongase in M. polymorpha. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that MpELO2 encodes delta5-elongase, which mediates elongation of arachidonic (20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acids (20:5). Phylogenetic and gene structural analysis indicated that the MpELO2 gene is closely related to bryophyte Delta6-elongase genes for C18 fatty acid elongation and diverged from them by local gene duplication.

  12. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  13. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  15. Fatty acid profiles of marine benthic microorganisms isolated from the continental slope of bay of bengal: a possible implications in the benthic Food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, P. S.; Khan, S. Ajmal

    2007-12-01

    Marine bacteria, actinomycetes and fungal strains were isolated from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal and studied for fatty acid profile to investigate their involvement in the benthic food-web. Fifteen different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from bacterial isolates, 14 from actinomycetes and fungal isolates were detected. The total unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial isolates ranged from 11.85 to 37.26%, while the saturated fatty acid ranged between 42.34 and 80.74%. In actinomycetes isolates, total unsaturated fatty acids varied from 27.86 to 38.85% and saturated fatty acids ranged from 35.29 to 51.25%. In fungal isolates unsaturated fatty acids ranged between 44.62 and 65.52% while saturated FA ranged from 20.80 to 46.30%. The higher percentages of unsaturated fatty acids from the microbial isolates are helpful in anticipating the active participation in the benthic food-web of Bay of Bengal.

  16. Modeling population kinetics of free fatty acids in isolated rat hepatocytes using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Alessandra; Thomaseth, Karl; Valerio, Anna

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is the characterization, by means of mathematical models, of the activity of isolated hepatic rat cells as regards the conversion of free fatty acids (FFA) to ketone bodies (KB). A new physiologically based compartmental model of FFA metabolism is used within a context of population pharmacokinetics. This analysis is based on a hierarchical model, that differs from standard model formulations, to account for the fact that some data sets belong to the same animal but have been collected under different experimental conditions. The statistical inference problem has been addressed within a Bayesian context and solved by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. The results obtained in this study indicate that, although hormones epinephrine and insulin are important metabolic regulatory factors in vivo, the conversion of FFA to KB by isolated hepatic rat cells is not significantly affected by epinephrine and only little influenced by insulin. So we conclude that in vivo, the interaction of these two hormones with other compounds not considered in this study plays a fundamental role in ketogenesis. From this study it appears that mathematical models of metabolic processes can be successfully employed in population kinetic studies using MCMC methods.

  17. A Novel Tetraenoic Fatty Acid Isolated from Amaranthus spinosus Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Liver Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Arijit; Guria, Tanmoy; Maity, Tapan Kumar; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) has been shown to be useful in preventing and mitigating adverse pathophysiological conditions and complex diseases. However, only limited information is available on the anticancer potential of this plant. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus—(14E,18E,22E,26E)-methyl nonacosa-14,18,22,26 tetraenoate—against HepG2 human liver cancer cells. We used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine cell viability, flow cytometry assay for cell cycle analysis, and Western blot analysis to measure protein expression of Cdc2), cyclin B1, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The MTT assay showed that the fatty acid markedly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dosage-dependent fashion, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 25.52 µmol/L. This antiproliferative result was superior to that of another known fatty acid, linoleic acid (IC50 38.65 µmol/L), but comparable to that of standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50 24.68 µmol/L). The novel fatty acid also induced apoptosis mediated by downregulation of cyclin B1, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2, resulting in the G2/M transition arrest. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus exhibits significant antiproliferative activity mediated through the induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. These encouraging results may facilitate the development of A. spinosus fatty acid for the prevention and intervention of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27669220

  18. Isolation and structural analysis of the cyclic fatty acid monomers formed from eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids during fish oil deodorization.

    PubMed

    Berdeaux, Olivier; Fournier, Véronique; Lambelet, Pierre; Dionisi, Fabiola; Sébédio, Jean Louis; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2007-01-05

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in fish oils are thermolabile molecules. Among the degradation reactions encountered, thermal cyclization occurs during refining or other heat treatments. Numerous studies have been carried out in the past to quantify and determine the structures of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAMs) formed from oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in heated vegetable oils. Recently, much attention have been given to LC-PUFAs due to their potential health benefits. However, data on quantification of CFAMs formed from these fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14, cis-17 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, cis-4, cis-7, cis-10, cis-13, cis-16, cis-19 22:6), the two main LC-PUFAs in fish oils, are scarce. In the present study, structural analyses of CFAMs formed from EPA and DHA during the deodorization of fish oil are presented. Fish oil sample was deodorized at 250 degrees C for 3 h under a pressure of 1.5 mbar in a laboratory deodorizer. The CFAMs formed during heat treatment of fish oil were isolated by a combination of saponification, esterification, urea fractionations and column chromatography. Structural analyses of C20- and C22-CFAMs were achieved by gas-chromatography electronic-ionization mass-spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) of their 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives. We identified seven out of 13 possible structures of hydrogenated CFAMs formed from EPA, and nine out of 16 possible structures of CFAM formed from DHA. Major CFAMs from both EPA and DHA were cyclohexyl isomers. All possible cyclohexyl isomers were found but only nine out of 18 of the cyclopentyl isomers were present in concentration sufficient for identification. Chemical mechanisms involved in the formation of polyunsaturated LC-PUFAs have been investigated. The results have shown that general principle involved in the cyclization of LC-PUFAs is same as that for the thermal cyclization of oleic, linoleic and alpha

  19. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition.

  20. Shewanella olleyana sp. nov., a marine species isolated from a temperate estuary which produces high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Jennifer H; Bowman, John P; Nichols, Peter D

    2002-11-01

    Two polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) producing strains (ACEM 6 and ACEM 9(T)) isolated from a temperate, humic-rich river estuary in Tasmania, Australia, were found to be members of the genus Shewanella. These strains were able to utilize humic compounds (tannic acid) and derivatives (2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate) as sole carbon sources and as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. The major fatty acids were typical of the genus Shewanella; however, PUFAs mostly made up of eicosapentaenoic acid were produced at high levels (10.2-23.6% of total fatty acids) and at relatively high incubation temperatures (10.2% at 24 degrees C). Sequence analysis indicated that ACEM 6 and ACEM 9(T) had identical 16S rDNA sequences and were most closely related to Shewanella japonica (sequence similarity 97.1%). DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics confirmed that the isolates constituted a novel species of the genus Shewanella, which is designated Shewanella olleyana sp. nov. (type strain ACEM 9(T) = ACAM 644(T) = LMG 21437(T)).

  1. Effect of forage:concentrate ratio on fatty acid composition of rumen bacteria isolated from ruminal and duodenal digesta.

    PubMed

    Vlaeminck, B; Fievez, V; Demeyer, D; Dewhurst, R J

    2006-07-01

    Four dairy cows were used to examine the effect of the dietary forage:concentrate ratio [35:65, 50:50, 65:35, and 80:20 on a dry matter (DM) basis] on the fatty acid composition of rumen bacteria isolated from the liquid (LAB) and solid (SAB) phase of the rumen and duodenal digesta. Rumen contents were sampled 4 h after the morning feeding. Solid and liquid phases were separated from rumen contents and duodenal bacteria from a composite duodenal sample by differential centrifugation. Total fatty acid content in bacterial DM was 1.6 to 2.8 times higher in SAB compared with LAB, and increased with dietary concentrate. In combination with published reports, the data show that bacterial fatty acid content and composition is closely related to dietary fatty acids except for C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3. A decrease in forage:concentrate ratio increased bacterial concentration of trans-10 C18:1, and this increase was 3.4 times higher in LAB compared with SAB. Analysis of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids showed large differences between SAB and LAB, which probably reflected a difference in species composition. The variation in odd- and branched-chain fatty acids between SAB and LAB was used to estimate their relative proportions in duodenal bacteria by means of linear programming, and showed an increased proportion of SAB from 64.7 to 74.8% with increasing forage:concentrate ratio. In addition, increasing the proportion of dietary forage was closely related to the proportion of anteiso C15:0 in total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (r(pearson) = -0.771). The bacterial concentration of iso C17:0 closely reflected the bacterial growth rate as shown by the relation with cytosine:N (r(pearson) = -0.729). These strong relationships suggest that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids might be used as tool to evaluate nutrient supply to rumen bacteria.

  2. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  3. New bioactive fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  4. Differentiation of Gram-Negative, Nonfermentative Bacteria Isolated from Biofilters on the Basis of Fatty Acid Composition, Quinone System, and Physiological Reaction Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Lipski, André; Klatte, Stefan; Bendinger, Bernd; Altendorf, Karlheinz

    1992-01-01

    Gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters for off-gas treatment of animal-rendering-plant emissions were differentiated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis, quinone analysis, and numerical taxonomy based on their physiological reaction profiles. The last system consisted of 60 physiological tests and was arranged as a microtest system on microtitration plates. Based on fatty acid analyses, 31 isolates were separated into six clusters and five single-member clusters. The isolates of two clusters were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas diminuta. The remaining nine clusters were characterized by their fatty acid profiles, quinone systems, and physiological reaction profiles. Clusters resulting from fatty acid analyses were compared with those resulting from physiological reaction profiles. Six clusters could be confirmed this way. The efficiency of the physiological test system was increased by the prearrangement of the isolates according to their quinone type. PMID:16348724

  5. Isolation and characterization of unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Altabe, Silvia; Lopez, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-11-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both genes and instead employs a single enzyme with only an isomerase function encoded by the fabM gene. In this paper we report the construction and characterization of an S. pneumoniae 708 fabM mutant. This mutant failed to grow in complex medium, and the defect was overcome by addition of UFAs to the growth medium. S. pneumoniae fabM mutants did not produce detectable levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analysis of the radiolabeled phospholipids. We also demonstrate that a fabM null mutant of the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutants is a UFA auxotroph, indicating that FabM is the only enzyme involved in the control of membrane fluidity in streptococci. Finally we report that the fabN gene of Enterococcus faecalis, coding for a dehydratase/isomerase, complements the growth of S. pneumoniae fabM mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that FabM is a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents against streptococci and that S. pneumoniae UFA auxotrophs could help identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans▿

    PubMed Central

    Altabe, Silvia; Lopez, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both genes and instead employs a single enzyme with only an isomerase function encoded by the fabM gene. In this paper we report the construction and characterization of an S. pneumoniae 708 fabM mutant. This mutant failed to grow in complex medium, and the defect was overcome by addition of UFAs to the growth medium. S. pneumoniae fabM mutants did not produce detectable levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analysis of the radiolabeled phospholipids. We also demonstrate that a fabM null mutant of the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutants is a UFA auxotroph, indicating that FabM is the only enzyme involved in the control of membrane fluidity in streptococci. Finally we report that the fabN gene of Enterococcus faecalis, coding for a dehydratase/isomerase, complements the growth of S. pneumoniae fabM mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that FabM is a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents against streptococci and that S. pneumoniae UFA auxotrophs could help identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis. PMID:17827283

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  8. History of fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  9. Isolation, characterization, and antioxidant activity of E- and Z-p-coumaryl fatty acid esters from cv. Annurca apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Cefarelli, Giuseppe; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Izzo, Angelina; Monaco, Pietro

    2005-05-04

    A total of 12 fatty acid esters of Z- and E-p-coumaryl alcohol were isolated from cv. Annurca apple fruit and characterized. This apple variety is widely cultivated in the south of Italy, and the fruits typically undergoe a reddening treatment after harvest. Structures of the p-coumaryl esters were elucidated by GC-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR after purification of individual compounds by HPLC. It was found that the esters are localized in the fruit peel. During reddening of the fruit, there was a substantial increase in the amount of esters and particularly in molecular species with unsaturated fatty acids. The individual compounds were tested for antioxidant activity, and over half were shown to be at least as effective as alpha-tocopherol.

  10. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  11. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  12. Differences in betaine lipids and fatty acids between Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa VLP and Diacronema vlkianum VLP isolates (Haptophyta).

    PubMed

    Armada, Isabel; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Mazuelos, Narciso; Ríos, José Luis; Manchado, Manuel; Cañavate, José Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Two Haptophytes were isolated from extensive aquaculture ponds at Veta La Palma state (Guadalquivir estuary, SW Spain). They were identified as Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa VLP and Diacronema vlkianum VLP based on their SSU rDNA homology to other Haptophytes and positioned in the Isochrysidaceae and Pavlovaceae families, respectively. Both Haptophytes had phosphatidilglycerol (PG) as the only phospholipid (PL), representing a low proportion of the total lipid content (0.8% in P. paradoxa VLP and 3.3% in D. vlkianum VLP). Instead, they were found to have different types of betaine lipids (BL) that were identified and characterized by HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS operating in multiple reacting monitoring (MRM) modes. P. paradoxa VLP had 2.2% of total lipids as diacylgyceryl-N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS): it is the first Haptophyte reported to have this BL. Its total lipid fraction also contained 12.0% of diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC) as the main BL and no diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-β-alanine (DGTA) was detected. DGTA was only present (4.6% of total lipids) in D. vlkianum VLP: this was the main difference in BL content relative to P. paradoxa. D. vlkianum VLP also had DGTS (4.1%) and DGCC (7.6%): it is the first microalgae in which the simultaneous presence of these three BL has been demonstrated. The fatty acid profiles of P. paradoxa VLP and D. vlkianum VLP were close to those described for the major part of known members of the Isochrisidaceae and Pavlovaceae families, respectively, with the main differences due to the higher percentages of 18:1n9 (18.5%), 18:4n3 (12.6%) and 22:6n3 (9.3%) in the former. The corresponding fatty acid percentages for D. vlkianum VLP were 3.9%, 3.5% and 3.9%, respectively. D. vlkianum VLP showed higher 16:1n7 (16.1%) and 20:5n3 (9.4%) contents, whereas P. paradoxa VLP had significantly lower percentages of 16:1n7 (1.7%) and 20:5n3 (0.6%). Fatty acids of BL differed between both haptophytes. In DGTS from P

  13. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  14. Fatty acid and DNA analyses of Permian bacteria isolated from ancient salt crystals reveal differences with their modern relatives.

    PubMed

    Vreeland, Russell H; Rosenzweig, William D; Lowenstein, Tim; Satterfield, Cindy; Ventosa, Antonio

    2006-02-01

    The isolation of living microorganisms from primary 250-million-year-old (MYA) salt crystals has been questioned by several researchers. The most intense discussion has arisen from questions about the texture and age of the crystals used, the ability of organisms to survive 250 million years when exposed to environmental factors such as radiation and the close similarity between 16S rRNA sequences in the Permian and modern microbes. The data in this manuscript are not meant to provide support for the antiquity of the isolated bacterial strains. Rather, the data presents several comparisons between the Permian microbes and other isolates to which they appear related. The analyses include whole cell fatty acid profiling, DNA-DNA hybridizations, ribotyping, and random amplified polymorphic DNA amplification (RAPD). These data show that the Permian strains, studied here, differ significantly from their more modern relatives. These differences are accumulating in both phenotypic and molecular areas of the cells. At the fatty acid level the differences are approaching but have not reached separate species status. At the molecular level the variation appears to be distributed across the genome and within the gene regions flanking the highly conserved 16S rRNA itself. The data show that these bacteria are not identical and help to rule out questions of contamination by putatively modern strains.

  15. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-03

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the

  16. Changes in the content of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes incubated in the presence of magnesium ions and/or ethanol.

    PubMed

    Grochowska-Niedworok, E; Calyniuk, B; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E; Muc-Wierzgon', M

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is one of the commonly used dietary supplements. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the content of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids and their esters in isolated rat hepatocytes induced by magnesium and/or ethanol. Isolation of hepatocytes was carried out by the Seglen's enzymatic method using collagenase. To thus prepared samples ethanol and/or MgCl2 solution were added, respectively, so that their concentrations were as follows: 150 mM/dm3 ethanol and/or 2 mM/dm3 MgCl2, 4 mM/dm3 MgCl2. The contents of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids and those of ester-bound acids were determined. The statistical evaluation of the experiment was made by comparing the area normalized for the analysed fatty acids in hepatocytes incubated for 5 h in the presence of the test substances. The effect of magnesium ions on the content of fatty acids and their esters in isolated hepatocytes incubated for 5 h depended on their concentration in the medium. A normalizing effect of magnesium ions on ethanol-induced changes in the content of C14-C17, C18-C20 and C21-C24 fatty acids was demonstrated. A normalizing effect of magnesium on ethanol-induced changes in the content of ester-bound fatty acids in hepatocytes was not confirmed.

  17. Methods for the Determination of Rates of Glucose and Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Isolated Working Rat Heart.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Bhavisha; Granger, Joey P; Harmancey, Romain

    2016-09-28

    The mammalian heart is a major consumer of ATP and requires a constant supply of energy substrates for contraction. Not surprisingly, alterations of myocardial metabolism have been linked to the development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure. Therefore, unraveling the link between metabolism and contraction should shed light on some of the mechanisms governing cardiac adaptation or maladaptation in disease states. The isolated working rat heart preparation can be used to follow, simultaneously and in real time, cardiac contractile function and flux of energy providing substrates into oxidative metabolic pathways. The present protocol aims to provide a detailed description of the methods used in the preparation and utilization of buffers for the quantitative measurement of the rates of oxidation for glucose and fatty acids, the main energy providing substrates of the heart. The methods used for sample analysis and data interpretation are also discussed. In brief, the technique is based on the supply of (14)C- radiolabeled glucose and a (3)H- radiolabeled long-chain fatty acid to an ex vivo beating heart via normothermic crystalloid perfusion. (14)CO2 and (3)H2O, end byproducts of the enzymatic reactions involved in the utilization of these energy providing substrates, are then quantitatively recovered from the coronary effluent. With knowledge of the specific activity of the radiolabeled substrates used, it is then possible to individually quantitate the flux of glucose and fatty acid in the oxidation pathways. Contractile function of the isolated heart can be determined in parallel with the appropriate recording equipment and directly correlated to metabolic flux values. The technique is extremely useful to study the metabolism/contraction relationship in response to various stress conditions such as alterations in pre and after load and ischemia, a drug or a circulating factor, or following the alteration in the expression of a gene product.

  18. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

  19. Cellular fatty acid composition and exopolysaccharide contribute to bile tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis strains isolated from fermented Japanese pickles.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigenori; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Chise; Saito, Tadao; Yajima, Nobuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Bile tolerance is a fundamental ability of probiotic bacteria. We examined this property in 56 Lactobacillus brevis strains isolated from Japanese pickles and also evaluated cellular fatty acid composition and cell-bound exopolysaccharide (EPS-b) production. The bile tolerance of these strains was significantly lower in modified de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) medium (without Tween 80 or sodium acetate) than in standard MRS medium. Aggregating strains showed significantly higher bile tolerance than nonaggregating strains in MRS medium, but there was no significant difference in the modified MRS media. The relative octadecenoic acid (C18:1) content of the 3 most tolerant aggregating and nonaggregating strains was significantly higher when bile was added to MRS. In MRS without Tween 80, the relative C18:1 content was only marginally affected by addition of bile. In MRS without sodium acetate, only the 3 most tolerant nonaggregating strains increased their relative C18:1 content in the presence of bile. Meanwhile, culture in MRS without sodium acetate reduced EPS-b production in aggregating strains. In conclusion, both EPS-b and cellular fatty acid composition play important roles in bile tolerance of pickle-derived L. brevis.

  20. Lack of activation of UCP1 in isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria by glucose-O-ω-modified saturated fatty acids of various chain lengths.

    PubMed

    Breen, Eamon P; Pilgrim, Wayne; Clarke, Kieran J; Yssel, Cristy; Farrell, Mark; Zhou, Jian; Murphy, Paul V; Porter, Richard K

    2013-03-27

    We previously demonstrated that uncoupling protein 1 activity, as measured in isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria (and as a native protein reconstituted into liposome membranes), was not activated by the non-flippable modified saturated fatty acid, glucose-O-ω-palmitate, whereas activity was stimulated by palmitate alone (40 nM free final concentration). In this study, we investigated whether fatty acid chain length had any bearing on the ability of glucose-O-ω-fatty acids to activate uncoupling protein 1. Glucose-O-ω-saturated fatty acids of various chain lengths were synthesized and tested for their potential to activate GDP-inhibited uncoupling protein 1-dependent oxygen consumption in brown adipose tissue mitochondria, and the results were compared with equivalent non-modified fatty acid controls. Here we demonstrate that laurate (12C), palmitate (16C) and stearate (18C) could activate GDP-inhibited uncoupling protein 1-dependent oxygen consumption in brown adipose tissue mitochondria, whereas there was no activation with glucose-O-ω-laurate (12C), glucose-O-ω-palmitate (16C), glucose-O-ω-stearate (18C), glucose-O-ω-arachidate (20C) or arachidate alone. We conclude that non-flippable fatty acids cannot activate uncoupling protein 1 irrespective of chain length. Our data further undermine the cofactor activation model of uncoupling protein 1 function but are compatible with the model that uncoupling protein 1 functions by flipping long-chain fatty acid anions.

  1. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute <0.1% to the fatty acid content of food samples. Their biological role still remains unclear as authentic furan fatty acid standards are not readily available and thorough experimental studies verifying the relevance of furan fatty acids are thus virtually impossible. An efficient protocol for the isolation of the furan fatty acid 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from hydrolyzed and centrifuged latex of Hevea brasiliensis was developed using countercurrent chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Phospholpid studies of marine organisms: 2.(1) Phospholipids, phospholipid-bound fatty acids and free sterols of the spongeAplysina fistularis (Pallas) formafulva (Pallas) (=Verongia thiona)(2). Isolation and structure elucidation of unprecedented branched fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Walkup, R D; Jamieson, G C; Ratcliff, M R; Djerassi, C

    1981-09-01

    The free sterols and phospholipids of the demospongeAplysina fistularis were isolated and analyzed. The free sterols consisted mainly of the unusual 26-methylated sterols aplysterol (53%) and 24(28)-dehydroaplysterol (7%) together with 7 commonly occurring sterods. The major phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acyl components of the phospholipids consisted of 85% C14-C20 acids, including the unprecedented 2,6,10-trimethyl-5-tetradecenoic acid and 11-methyloctadecanoic acid. The remaining 15% were C27-C30 demospongic acids, including 2 novel acids tentatively assigned the structures 5,9,23-octacosatrienoic acid and 5,9,23-nonacosatrienoic acid, and 3 novel acids proven to be 5,9,21-octacosatrienoic acid, Z,Z-20-methyl-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid and Z,Z-22-methyl-5,9-octacosadienoic acid. The biosyntheses of the novel demospongic acids are proposed to occur by chain elongation of monoenoic or branched precursors followed by desaturation. The large quantities of typically bacterial phospholipids and fatty acids found implied the presence of bacteria in the sponge, in agreement with microscopic studies. Analysis of the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in a sponge cell-enriched fraction indicated that the demospongic acids, including the 2 branched structures, were the major acids of the sponge cells. The presence inA. fistularis of demospongic acids containing membrane disordering groups-methyl branches or double bonds-on the ω7 carbon is proposed to be due to the need by the sponge for membranes possessing fluidity near the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. It is also proposed that the C26 methyl group of aplysterol causes disordering of the phospholipid bilayer in the same region, and thus also evolved in response to this need.

  3. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  4. [Omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Huyghebaert, C

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been drawing the interest of researchers for quite a number of years. The study of the impact of fish consumption on health and particularly on a cardiovascular level is the subject of much research. Some encouraging results have led to the study of omega-3 fatty acids in various other diseases. The interest in 'omega-3' has been widely relayed by the media and a huge market has developed with several allegations in its favour. This article is an attempt to shed light on these health claims, based on currently available scientific data.

  5. Fatty acid methyl ester from Neurospora intermedia N-1 isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom merah).

    PubMed

    Priatni, S; Hartati, S; Dewi, P; Kardono, L B S; Singgih, M; Gusdinar, T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) from Neurospora intermedia N-1 that isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom). FAME profiles have been used as biochemical characters to study many different groups of organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts. FAME from N. intermedia N-1 was obtained by some stages of extraction the orange spores and fractination using a chromatotron. The pure compound (1) was characterized by 500 mHz NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR and LC-MS. Summarized data's of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of compound 1 contained 19 Carbon, 34 Hydrogen and 2 Oxygen (C19H34O2). The position of the double bonds at carbon number 8 and 12 were indicated in the HMBC spectrum (2D-NMR). LC-MS spectrum indicates molecular weight of the compound 1 as 294 which is visible by the presence of protonated molecular ion [M+H] at m/z 295. Methyl esters of long chain fatty acids was presented by a 3 band pattern of IR spectrum with bands near 1249, 1199 and 1172 cm(-1). We suggested that the structure of the pure compound 1 is methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate. The presence methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate in N. intermedia is the first report.

  6. Rapid isolation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids using monolithic high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Peter; Wijesundera, Chakra

    2013-06-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids are important bio-active fatty acids in fish oils. Monolithic HPLC columns both in the polymeric cation exchange (silver-ion) and RP formats were compared with corresponding packed columns for the isolation of these acids from tuna oil ethyl esters. Monolithic columns in both formats enabled rapid (typically 5-10 min) separations compared with packed columns (30 min). Polymeric monolithic silver-ion disc column rapidly furnished mixtures of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters (90% purity) within 5-10 min, but was unable to resolve individual esters. A preparative version of the same column (80 mL bed volume) enabled isolation (>88% purity) of 100 mg quantities of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters from esterified tuna oil within 6 min. Baseline separation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters was achieved on all RP columns. The results show that there is potential to use polymeric monolithic cation exchange columns for scaled-up preparation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic ester concentrates from fish oils. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Estrogenic Activities of Fatty Acids and a Sterol Isolated from Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Isohama, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Hiroe; Yamada, Yayoi; Narita, Yukio; Ohta, Shozo; Araki, Yoko; Miyata, Takeshi; Mishima, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has weak estrogenic activity mediated by interaction with estrogen receptors that leads to changes in gene expression and cell proliferation. In this study, we isolated four compounds from RJ that exhibit estrogenic activity as evaluated by a ligand-binding assay for the estrogen receptor (ER) β. These compounds were identified as 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid, trans-2-decenoic acid and 24-methylenecholesterol. All these compounds inhibited binding of 17β-estradiol to ERβ, although more weakly than diethylstilbestrol or phytoestrogens. However, these compounds had little or no effect on the binding of 17β-estradiol to ERα. Expression assays suggested that these compounds activated ER, as evidenced by enhanced transcription of a reporter gene containing an estrogen-responsive element. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with these compounds enhanced their proliferation, but concomitant treatment with tamoxifen blocked this effect. Exposure of immature rats to these compounds by subcutaneous injection induced mild hypertrophy of the luminal epithelium of the uterus, but was not associated with an increase in uterine weight. These findings provide evidence that these compounds contribute to the estrogenic effect of RJ. PMID:18830443

  8. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti ) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg).

    PubMed

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-18

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  10. Isolation of two anti-inflammatory and one pro-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar; Cho, Ji-Young; Lee, Min-Chul; Kang, Ji-Young; Park, Nam Gyu; Fujii, Hitoshi; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2007-08-22

    Two anti-inflammatory omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of stearidonic acid (SA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and one pro-inflammatory omega-6 PUFA of arachidonic acid (AA) were isolated from the edible brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida. SA was active against mouse ear inflammation induced by phorbol myristate acetate, with IC50 values of 160, 314, and 235 microg per ear for edema, erythema, and blood flow, respectively. EPA was also active against edema, erythema, and blood flow, with IC50 values of 230, 462, and 236 microg per ear, respectively. Although AA at low concentrations showed anti-inflammatory activities when measured 10 h later, AA doses of more than 243 microg per ear induced inflammatory symptoms 1 h later. Mature thalli generally had larger amounts of PUFAs than young thalli. The algal blade contained more omega-3 PUFAs than were found in other parts, while the holdfast contained extremely high amounts of AA. Late-season thalli showed increased amounts of PUFAs, especially AA.

  11. Effect of vancomycin on the cytoplasmic membrane fatty acid profile of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Jamil, Nusrat

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effect of vancomycin on the cytoplasmic membrane fatty acid (FA) composition of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus. One low-level vancomycin-resistant isolate (LLR-VRSA) termed CP2, along with two vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus isolates (VISA-CP1) and Mu50 (ATCC #700699), were studied. The LLR-VRSA isolate CP2, recovered from the blood sample of a postoperative cardiac patient, exhibited vanA type vancomycin resistance [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 16 μg/ml], and the vanA cassette was located on a plasmid. CP1, isolated from the pus sample of the same patient, exhibited vancomycin intermediate resistance (MIC 8 μg/ml) in the absence of the vanA, vanB, or vanC gene. As susceptible controls, we used PSA (vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml), which was isolated from the pus sample of a neonate, and S. aureus (ATCC# 29213). Membrane FA analysis was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. For this purpose, CP1, CP2, Mu50, and the susceptible control isolates were grown in the presence and absence of vancomycin. Comparative analysis showed an increase in the relative proportion of unsaturated FAs during growth under vancomycin stress. The isolate CP2 (LLR-VRSA) exhibited a higher MIC to vancomycin than the other isolates used in present study (16 μg/ml) and under vancomycin stress conditions, quantitatively, it showed a high rate of conversion of saturated to unsaturated membrane FAs than CP1, Mu50 (VISA isolate) and the susceptible control PSA. The rate of saturated-to-unsaturated FA conversion increased as the concentration of vancomycin in the growth media was increased. Therefore, it is concluded that S. aureus tend to modify their membrane lipid chemistry from saturated to unsaturated in order to survive in a vancomycin stress environment.

  12. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  13. Epidemiological Typing of Campylobacter Isolates from Meat Processing Plants by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Fatty Acid Profile Typing, Serotyping, and Biotyping

    PubMed Central

    Steele, M.; McNab, B.; Fruhner, L.; DeGrandis, S.; Woodward, D.; Odumeru, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Foods of animal origin, particularly undercooked poultry, are common sources of Campylobacter species associated with disease in humans. A collection of 110 Campylobacter jejuni and 31 C. coli human and environmental isolates from different Ontario, Canada, abattoirs were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. Previously collected serotyping data for the same isolates were also analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was found to be the most discriminatory of the typing methods, followed by serotyping, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. A wide variety of typing profiles were observed within the isolates, suggesting that several different Campylobacter sp. strains were present within the abattoirs. PMID:9647797

  14. Epidemiological typing of Campylobacter isolates from meat processing plants by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, serotyping, and biotyping.

    PubMed

    Steele, M; McNab, B; Fruhner, L; DeGrandis, S; Woodward, D; Odumeru, J A

    1998-07-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Foods of animal origin, particularly under-cooked poultry, are common sources of Campylobacter species associated with disease in humans. A collection of 110 Campylobacter jejuni and 31 C. coli human and environmental isolates from different Ontario, Canada, abattoirs were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. Previously collected serotyping data for the same isolates were also analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was found to be the most discriminatory of the typing methods, followed by serotyping, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. A wide variety of typing profiles were observed within the isolates, suggesting that several different Campylobacter sp. strains were present within the abattoirs.

  15. Isolation of individual fatty acids in sediments using preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) for radiocarbon analysis at NIES-TERRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yoneda, Minoru; Mukai, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Morita, Masatoshi

    2000-10-01

    Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of individual fatty acids (140-1190 μg C) in an estuarine sediment sample collected from Tokyo Bay was carried out using a recently developed preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) system and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The results showed that the estimated 14C ages of four components greatly varied from modern age (combined iso and anteiso C 15:0, C 16:0) to 17 000 years BP (C 22:0), while a bulk-phase 14C age of organic matter is 5000 years BP. The 14C ages of the fatty acids derived from phytoplankton and bacteria are much younger than that of the bulk phase. On the other hand, the fatty acid originated from terrestrial higher plants (C 22:0) shows an older 14C age of 17 000 years BP.

  16. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in liver homogenates and isolated hepatocytes from control and clofibrate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mannaerts, G P; Debeer, L J; Thomas, J; De Schepper, P J

    1979-06-10

    Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation were compared in whole liver homogenates. Oxidation of 0.2 mM palmitoyl-CoA or oleate by mitochondria increased rapidly with increasing molar substrate:albumin ratios and became saturated at ratios below 3, while peroxisomal oxidation increased more slowly and continued to rise to reach maximal activity in the absence of albumin. Under the latter condition mitochondrial oxidation was severely depressed. In homogenates from normal liver peroxisomal oxidation was lower than mitochondrial oxidation at all ratios tested except when albumin was absent. In contrast with mitochondrial oxidation, peroxisomal oxidation did not produce ketones, was cyanide-insensitive, was not dependent on carnitine, and was not inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine, malonyl-CoA and 4-pentenoate. Mitochondrial oxidation was inhibited by CoASH concentrations that were optimal for peroxisomal oxidation. In the presence of albumin, peroxisomal oxidation was stimulated by Triton X-100 but unaffected by freeze-thawing; both treatments suppressed mitochondrial oxidation. Clofibrate treatment increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation 2- and 6- to 8-fold, respectively. Peroxisomal oxidation remained unchanged in starvation and diabetes. Fatty acid oxidation was severely depressed by cyanide and (+)-octanoylcarnitine in hepatocytes from normal rats. Hepatocytes from clofibrate-treated rats, which displayed a 3- to 4-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, were less inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine. Hydrogen peroxide production was severalfold higher in hepatocytes from treated animals oxidizing fatty acids than in control hepatocytes. Assuming that all H2O2 produced during fatty acid oxidation was due to peroxisomal oxidation, it was calculated that the contribution of the peroxisomes to fatty acid oxidation was less than 10% both in cells from control and clofibrate-treated animals.

  17. Carotenoid and fatty acid compositions of an indigenous Ettlia texensis isolate (Chlorophyceae) under phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Arzu; Demirel, Zeliha; İşleten-Hoşoğlu, Müge; Akgün, İsmail Hakkı; Hatipoğlu-Uslu, Sevde; Conk-Dalay, Meltem

    2014-02-01

    Ettlia oleoabundance (formerly known as Neochloris oleoabundance) is an attractive candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid accumulation, and it's taking the majority of the attention among the strains of Ettlia genus; however, potential of the other genus members is unknown. An indigenous strain from Salda Lake (South West Turkey) identified by 18S rDNA sequencing as Ettlia texensis (GenBank accession no: JQ038221), and its fatty acid and carotenoid compositions under phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions was investigated to evaluate the potential of the strain for commercial uses. A threefold increase was observed in total lipid content (total fatty acids; from 13% to 37%) in mixotrophic culture respect to the phototrophic growth conditions. The oleic acid (C18:1) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) were the major unsaturated fatty acids accounting for 40% and 13.2% of total fatty acids in mixotrophic culture, respectively. Carotenoid analyses of the mixotrophic culture revealed the metabolite canthaxanthin, a commercially valuable carotenoid used mainly for food coloring, was the major constituent among other pigments. The possible use of E. texensis in biotechnological applications is discussed.

  18. Thermal Resistance, Biochemical, Serological and Fatty Acid Analysis of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Pasteurized Egg Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized eg...

  19. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  20. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valencak, Teresa G.; Raith, Johannes; Staniek, Katrin; Gille, Lars; Strasser, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C) while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation. PMID:26805895

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of Thraustochytrium strain isolated from Antarctic Peninsula and its biotechnological potential in the production of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Caamaño, Esteban; Loperena, Lyliam; Hinzpeter, Ivonne; Pradel, Paulina; Gordillo, Felipe; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario; Lavín, Paris; González, Alex R

    Thraustochytrids are unicellular protists belonging to the Labyrinthulomycetes class, which are characterized by the presence of a high lipid content that could replace conventional fatty acids. They show a wide geographic distribution, however their diversity in the Antarctic Region is rather scarce. The analysis based on the complete sequence of 18S rRNA gene showed that strain 34-2 belongs to the species Thraustochytrium kinnei, with 99% identity. The total lipid profile shows a wide range of saturated fatty acids with abundance of palmitic acid (16:0), showing a range of 16.1-19.7%. On the other hand, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are present in a range of 24-48% and 6.1-9.3%, respectively. All factors analyzed in cells (biomass, carbon consumption and lipid content) changed with variations of culture temperature (10°C and 25°C). The growth in glucose at a temperature of 10°C presented the most favorable conditions to produce omega-3fatty acid. This research provides the identification and characterization of a Thraustochytrids strain, with a total lipid content that presents potential applications in the production of nutritional supplements and as well biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  3. Relationships between fatty acid composition and bile tolerance in lactobacillus isolates from plants and from non-plant materials.

    PubMed

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Suzuki, Shigenori; Yakabe, Takafumi; Suzuki, Chise

    2012-12-01

    Twenty plant-derived and 18 non-plant-derived strains of Lactobacillus casei were compared for their growth in tryptone - yeast extract - glucose broth containing 0.3% bile by measuring absorbance at a wavelength of 620 nm after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. Bile tolerance - a fundamental probiotic property - was calculated by dividing the experimental data by control values (growth without bile). We found that bile tolerance was strain specific but that the average bile tolerance of the plant-derived strains was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of the non-plant-derived strains tested. All tested strains could not deconjugate sodium taurocholate, indicating that the difference in bile tolerance was not due to the ability to deconjugate bile. The fatty acid compositions of the test strains with and without exposure to 0.3% bile were investigated, and a statistical correlation analysis between these compositions and their bile tolerance was conducted. The fatty acids correlated with bile tolerance differed between plant and non-plant lactobacilli. This is the first report to show that the origin (i.e., growth environment) of lactobacilli affects their fatty acid composition, which in turn, appears to be related to their bile tolerance.

  4. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  5. Isolation and chemical analysis of a fatty acid fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata with a potent lymphocyte suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, A P; Da Silva, S A; Souza, M L; Lima, L M; Rossi-Bergmann, B; de Moraes, V L; Costa, S S

    2000-03-01

    Previously we demonstrated that Kalanchoe pinnata (KP) leaf extracts inhibited in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and showed in vivo immunosuppressive activity. Here we attempt to identify the immunosuppressive substances present in KP guided by the lymphoproliferative assays. From the ethanolic extract was purified a fraction (KP12SA) twenty-fold more potent to block murine lymphocyte proliferation than the crude extract. Chemical analysis by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR and GC-MS of KP12SA (methylated sample) showed 89.3% of palmitic acid (C16), 10.7% of stearic acid (C18) and traces of arachidic (C20) and behenic acids (C22). This study provides evidence that fatty acids present in Kalanchoe pinnata may be responsible, at least in part, for its immunosuppressive effect in vivo.

  6. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  7. Metabolism of medium- and long-chain fatty acids by isolated hepatocytes from small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate for-gestational-age (AGA) piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Odle, J.; Benevenga, N.J.; Crenshaw, T.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Hepatocytes were isolated from full-term, SGA and AGA piglets at 6 or 48 hours postpartum and were incubated with 1 mM (1-{sup 14}C)-octanoate (C8), -nonanoate (C9) or-oleate (C18:1). The cells oxidized (natom 1-C/(h 10{sup 6} cells)) C9 to Co{sub 2} (12.5) and acid soluble products (28.9) faster than C8 (10.9, 20.6, respectively), and both were oxidized faster than C18:1 (3.9, 9.9) regardless of the piglet age or weight. Oleate accumulated in lipid products 8-fold faster than C8 and C9. No differences between cells from SGA and AGA piglets were detected. Recovery of 1-C in CO{sub 2} was 48% higher in incubations with cells from 48 hours old than from 6 hour old piglets. This increase was attributable to a 70% higher oxygen consumption by 48 hour old cells. Theoretical oxygen consumption rates were computed from the fatty acid flux data and compared to measured oxygen consumption. hepatocytes from SGA and AGA piglets were equally capable of satisfying more that 57% of their energy needs from fatty acid oxidation. The oxygen consumption attributable to C9 metabolism was 30% higher than observed for C8 and C18:1. All fatty acids apparently spared endogenous fuels to a greater degree in 6 hour than in 48 hour piglets.

  8. Fatty acid composition of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Ochiai, H

    1998-03-01

    The cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum was grown upon Escherichia coli B/r, and the fatty acid compositions of total lipids obtained from vegetative amebae and aggregation-competent cells were compared. Fatty acids isolated from vegetative cells included C-17 and C-19 cyclopropane fatty acids and also straight-chain, saturated fatty acids. The cyclopropane fatty acids were derived from the ingested bacteria. Development of amebae to aggregation-competent cells was accompanied by a substantial decrease in saturated cyclopropane fatty acids and a concomitant increase in unsaturated fatty acids and unsaturated cyclopropane fatty acids, mostly as 18:3 (5,9,12). We report here the fatty acid composition and identify the occurrence of delta 5 desaturation of cyclopropane fatty acids, namely, 9,10-methylene 5-hexadecenoic acid and 11,12-methylene 5-octadecenoic acid. These fatty acids have not been reported previously in the related species Dictyostelium discoideum, which also feeds on E. coli B/r and has delta 5-desaturation activity.

  9. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on contractile function of hearts isolated from sedentary and trained rats.

    PubMed

    Demaison, L; Blet, J; Sergiel, J P; Gregoire, S; Argaud, D

    2000-01-01

    Moderate physical training induced a decrease in arterial blood pressure in fish oil-fed rats as compared to sunflower seed oil-fed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if these changes were due to modifications of the left ventricular function of the heart. Forty rats were fed a semi-purified diet containing either 10% sunflower seed oil or 10% fish oil (EPAX 3000TG, Pronova). Each dietary group was assigned to two sub-groups, one being constituted by sedentary animals and the other by trained animals. Training was achieved by daily running for 60 minutes at moderate intensity for three weeks. At the end of the training period, the animals were sacrificed and their hearts were immediately perfused according to the working mode. The phospholipid fatty acid composition and parameters of the left ventricular function were determined. Feeding fish oil markedly reduced the proportion of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 18:2 n-6, 20:4 n-6, 22:4 n-6 and 22:5 n-6) in cardiac phospholipids. The n-6 PUFA were replaced by n-3 PUFA (mainly docosahexaenoic acid). In sedentary animals, the fluid dynamic (aortic and coronary flow, cardiac output) was not modified by the diet. The heart rate was reduced (-10%) in n-3 PUFA-rich hearts. Physical training did not markedly alter the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile of cardiac phospholipids. Conversely, it reduced the heart rate, aortic flow and cardiac output (-11, -21 and -14%, respectively) at a similar extent in the two dietary groups. In a second set of experiments, the training period was repeated in animals fed a commercially available diet (A103, UAR) which simultaneously provided n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. In these dietary conditions, neither the aortic flow nor the heart rate was decreased by physical exercise. These results suggest that both n-6 and n-3 PUFA in the diet are necessary to ensure a good cardiac adaptation to moderate physical training. Furthermore, the fish oil-induced decrease in arterial

  10. Cell Membrane Fatty Acid Composition of Chryseobacterium frigidisoli PB4T, Isolated from Antarctic Glacier Forefield Soils, in Response to Changing Temperature and pH Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bajerski, Felizitas; Wagner, Dirk; Mangelsdorf, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms in Antarctic glacier forefields are directly exposed to the hostile environment of their habitat characterized by extremely low temperatures and changing geochemical conditions. To survive under those stress conditions microorganisms adapt, among others, their cell membrane fatty acid inventory. However, only little is known about the adaptation potential of microorganisms from Antarctic soil environments. In this study, we examined the adaptation of the cell membrane polar lipid fatty acid inventory of Chryseobacterium frigidisoli PB4T in response to changing temperature (0°C to 20°C) and pH (5.5 to 8.5) regimes, because this new strain isolated from an Antarctic glacier forefield showed specific adaptation mechanisms during its detailed physiological characterization. Flavobacteriaceae including Chryseobacterium species occur frequently in extreme habitats such as ice-free oases in Antarctica. C. frigidisoli shows a complex restructuring of membrane derived fatty acids in response to different stress levels. Thus, from 20°C to 10°C a change from less iso-C15:0 to more iso-C17:1ω7 is observed. Below 10°C temperature adaptation is regulated by a constant increase of anteiso-FAs and decrease of iso-FAs. An anteiso- and bis-unsaturated fatty acid, anteiso-heptadeca-9,13-dienoic acid, shows a continuous increase with decreasing cultivation temperatures underlining the particular importance of this fatty acid for temperature adaptation in C. frigidisoli. Concerning adaptation to changing pH conditions, most of the dominant fatty acids reveal constant relative proportions around neutral pH (pH 6–8). Strong variations are mainly observed at the pH extremes (pH 5.5 and 8.5). At high pH short chain saturated iso- and anteiso-FAs increase while longer chain unsaturated iso- and anteiso-FAs decrease. At low pH the opposite trend is observed. The study shows a complex interplay of different membrane components and provides, therefore, deep insights into

  11. Cell Membrane Fatty Acid Composition of Chryseobacterium frigidisoli PB4(T), Isolated from Antarctic Glacier Forefield Soils, in Response to Changing Temperature and pH Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bajerski, Felizitas; Wagner, Dirk; Mangelsdorf, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms in Antarctic glacier forefields are directly exposed to the hostile environment of their habitat characterized by extremely low temperatures and changing geochemical conditions. To survive under those stress conditions microorganisms adapt, among others, their cell membrane fatty acid inventory. However, only little is known about the adaptation potential of microorganisms from Antarctic soil environments. In this study, we examined the adaptation of the cell membrane polar lipid fatty acid inventory of Chryseobacterium frigidisoli PB4(T) in response to changing temperature (0°C to 20°C) and pH (5.5 to 8.5) regimes, because this new strain isolated from an Antarctic glacier forefield showed specific adaptation mechanisms during its detailed physiological characterization. Flavobacteriaceae including Chryseobacterium species occur frequently in extreme habitats such as ice-free oases in Antarctica. C. frigidisoli shows a complex restructuring of membrane derived fatty acids in response to different stress levels. Thus, from 20°C to 10°C a change from less iso-C15:0 to more iso-C17:1ω7 is observed. Below 10°C temperature adaptation is regulated by a constant increase of anteiso-FAs and decrease of iso-FAs. An anteiso- and bis-unsaturated fatty acid, anteiso-heptadeca-9,13-dienoic acid, shows a continuous increase with decreasing cultivation temperatures underlining the particular importance of this fatty acid for temperature adaptation in C. frigidisoli. Concerning adaptation to changing pH conditions, most of the dominant fatty acids reveal constant relative proportions around neutral pH (pH 6-8). Strong variations are mainly observed at the pH extremes (pH 5.5 and 8.5). At high pH short chain saturated iso- and anteiso-FAs increase while longer chain unsaturated iso- and anteiso-FAs decrease. At low pH the opposite trend is observed. The study shows a complex interplay of different membrane components and provides, therefore, deep insights into

  12. Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P; Thies, F; Wallace, F A; Miles, E A

    2002-01-01

    The immune system acts to protect the host against pathogenic invaders. However, components of the immune system can become dysregulated such that their activities are directed against host tissues, so causing damage. Lymphocytes are involved in both the beneficial and detrimental effects of the immune system. Both the level of fat and the types of fatty acid present in the diet can affect lymphocyte functions. The fatty acid composition of lymphocytes, and other immune cells, is altered according to the fatty acid composition of the diet and this alters the capacity of those cells to produce eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2, which are involved in immunoregulation. A high fat diet can impair lymphocyte function. Cell culture and animal feeding studies indicate that oleic, linoleic, conjugated linoleic, gamma-linolenic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic, arachidonic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids can all influence lymphocyte proliferation, the production of cytokines by lymphocytes, and natural killer cell activity. High intakes of some of these fatty acids are necessary to induce these effects. Among these fatty acids the long chain n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid, appear to be the most potent when included in the human diet. Although not all studies agree, it appears that fish oil, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid, down regulates the T-helper 1-type response which is associated with chronic inflammatory disease. There is evidence for beneficial effects of fish oil in such diseases; this evidence is strongest for rheumatoid arthritis. Since n-3 fatty acids also antagonise the production of inflammatory eicosanoid mediators from arachidonic acid, there is potential for benefit in asthma and related diseases. Recent evidence indicates that fish oil may be of benefit in some asthmatics but not others.

  13. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  14. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis in novel ufa mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M; Stafford, A E; Lin, J T; Makapugay, M I; Fuller, G; McKeon, T A

    1994-10-01

    New mutants of Neurospora crassa having the ufa phenotype have been isolated. Two of these mutants, like previously identified ufa mutants, require an unsaturated fatty acid for growth and are almost completely blocked in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The new mutations map to a different chromosomal location than previously characterized ufa mutations. This implies that at least one additional genetic locus controls the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Neurospora.

  16. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Kevin; Massimi, Rebecca; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To address this problem, our study focused on isolating and characterizing microalgal strains from three municipal wastewater treatment systems (two activated sludge and one aerated-stabilization basin systems) for their potential use in biofuel feedstock production. Most of the 19 isolates from wastewater grew faster than two culture collection strains under mixotrophic conditions, particularly with glucose. The fastest growing wastewater strains included the genera Chlorella and Dictyochloris. The fastest growing microalgal strains were not necessarily the best lipid producers. Under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions, single strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus each produced the highest lipid yields, including those most relevant to biodiesel production. A comparison of axenic and non-axenic versions of wastewater strains showed a notable effect of commensal bacteria on fatty acid composition. Strains grown with bacteria tended to produce relatively equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an ideal lipid blend for biodiesel production. These results not only show the potential for using microalgae isolated from wastewater for growth in wastewater-fed feedstock systems, but also the important role that commensal bacteria may have in impacting the fatty acid profiles of microalgal feedstock.

  17. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production

    PubMed Central

    Stemmler, Kevin; Massimi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To address this problem, our study focused on isolating and characterizing microalgal strains from three municipal wastewater treatment systems (two activated sludge and one aerated-stabilization basin systems) for their potential use in biofuel feedstock production. Most of the 19 isolates from wastewater grew faster than two culture collection strains under mixotrophic conditions, particularly with glucose. The fastest growing wastewater strains included the genera Chlorella and Dictyochloris. The fastest growing microalgal strains were not necessarily the best lipid producers. Under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions, single strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus each produced the highest lipid yields, including those most relevant to biodiesel production. A comparison of axenic and non-axenic versions of wastewater strains showed a notable effect of commensal bacteria on fatty acid composition. Strains grown with bacteria tended to produce relatively equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an ideal lipid blend for biodiesel production. These results not only show the potential for using microalgae isolated from wastewater for growth in wastewater-fed feedstock systems, but also the important role that commensal bacteria may have in impacting the fatty acid profiles of microalgal feedstock. PMID:26989618

  18. Fatty acids are important for the Frank-Starling mechanism and Gregg effect but not for catecholamine response in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, P; Chiribiri, A; Gattullo, D; Penna, C; Rastaldo, R; Recchia, F A

    2002-11-01

    In some pathophysiological conditions myocardial metabolism can switch from mainly long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation to mainly glucose oxidation. Whether the predominant fatty acid or glucose oxidation affects cardiac performance has not been defined. In a buffer perfused isovolumetrically contracting rat heart, oxidation of endogenous pool LCFA was avoided by inhibiting carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT-I) with oxfenicine (2 mM). In order to restore fatty acid oxidation, hexanoate (1 mM), which bypasses CPT-I inhibition, was added to the perfusate. Three groups of hearts were subjected to either an increase in left ventricular volume (VV, +25%) or an increase in coronary flow (CF, +50%), or inotropic stimulation with isoproterenol (10(-8) and 10(-6) m). The increase in VV (the Frank-Starling mechanism) increased rate-pressure product (RPP) by 21 +/- 2% under control conditions, but only by 6 +/- 2% during oxfenicine-induced CPT-I inhibition. The contractile response to changes in VV recovered after the addition of hexanoate. Similar results were obtained in hearts, in which an increase in CF was elicited (the Gregg phenomenon). Isoproterenol caused a similar increase in contractility regardless of the presence of oxfenicine or hexanoate. In all groups, a commensurate increase in oxygen consumption accompanied the increase in contractility. The fatty acid oxidation is necessary for an adequate contractile response of the isolated heart to increased pre-load or flow, whereas the inotropic response to adrenergic beta-receptor stimulation is insensitive to changes in substrate availability.

  19. Effects of pent-4-enoate on cellular redox state, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation in isolated perfused rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Jauhonen, V. Pekka; Savolainen, Markku J.; Hassinen, Ilmo E.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolic effects of pent-4-enoate were studied in beating and potassium-arrested perfused rat hearts. The addition of 0.8mm-pent-4-enoate to the fluid used to perfuse a potassium-arrested heart resulted in a 70% increase in the O2 consumption and a 66% decrease in the glycolytic flux as measured in terms of the de-tritiation of [3-3H]glucose, although the proportion of the O2 consumption attributable to glucose oxidation decreased from an initial 30% to 10%. The pent-4-enoate-induced increase in O2 consumption was only 15% in the beating heart. In the potassium-arrested heart, pent-4-enoate stimulated palmitate oxidation by more than 100% when measured in terms of the production of 14CO2 from [1-14C]palmitate, but in the beating heart palmitate oxidation was inhibited. Perfusion of the heart with pent-4-enoate had no effect on the proportion of pyruvate dehydrogenase found in the active form, in spite of large changes in the CoASH and acetyl-CoA concentrations and changes in their concentration ratios. The effects of pent-4-enoate on the cellular redox state were dependent on the ATP consumption of the heart. In the beating heart, pent-4-enoate caused a rapid mitochondrial NAD+ reduction that subsequently faded out, so that the final state was more oxidized than the initial state. The arrested heart, however, remained in a more reduced state than initially, even after the partial re-oxidation that followed the initial rapid NAD+ reduction. The ability of pent-4-enoate to increase or decrease fatty acid oxidation can be explained on the basis of the differential effects of pent-4-enoate on the concentration of citric acid-cycle intermediates under conditions of high or low ATP consumption of the myocardial cell. The proportion of the fatty acids in the fuel consumed by the heart is probably primarily determined by the regulatory mechanisms of glycolysis. When pent-4-enoate causes an increase in the citric acid-cycle intermediates, feedback inhibition of

  20. Postprandial inhibition of gastric ghrelin secretion by long-chain fatty acid through GPR120 in isolated gastric ghrelin cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinping; Zhao, Xilin; Feng, Jianying; Liou, Alice P.; Anthony, Shari; Pechhold, Susanne; Sun, Yuxiang; Lu, Huiyan

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone that controls appetite and energy homeostasis. Plasma ghrelin levels rise before a meal and fall quickly thereafter. Elucidation of the regulation of ghrelin secretion has been hampered by the difficulty of directly interrogating ghrelin cells diffusely scattered within the complex gastric mucosa. Therefore, we generated transgenic mice with ghrelin cell expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) to enable characterization of ghrelin secretion in a pure population of isolated gastric ghrelin-expressing GFP (Ghr-GFP) cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining, we detected a high level of expression of the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor GPR120, while the other LCFA receptor, GPR40, was undetectable. In short-term-cultured pure Ghr-GFP cells, the LCFAs docosadienoic acid, linolenic acid, and palmitoleic acid significantly suppressed ghrelin secretion. The physiological mechanism of LCFA inhibition on ghrelin secretion was studied in mice. Serum ghrelin levels were transiently suppressed after gastric gavage of LCFA-rich lipid in mice with pylorus ligation, indicating that the ghrelin cell may directly sense increased gastric LCFA derived from ingested intraluminal lipids. Meal-induced increase in gastric mucosal LCFA was assessed by measuring the transcripts of markers for tissue uptake of LCFA, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid translocase (CD36), glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein 1, and nuclear fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Quantitative RT-PCR studies indicate significantly increased mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in postprandial gastric mucosa. These results suggest that meal-related increases in gastric mucosal LCFA interact with GPR120 on ghrelin cells to inhibit ghrelin secretion. PMID:22678998

  1. Isolation and identification of C-19 fatty acids with anti-tumor activity from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom).

    PubMed

    Gao, Pei; Hirano, Tomoya; Chen, Zhiqing; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2012-04-01

    We previously showed that ethanolic extracts of spores of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells. The active constituents appeared to be long-chain fatty acids, particularly carbon-19 (C-19) fatty acids which have not been reported in spores of Ganoderma lucidum. In the present study, two of these C-19 fatty acids which are key compounds in the activities, were identified as their 2-naphthyl ester derivatives after esterification of a mixture of fatty acids obtained from the spores. The active compounds were determines as nonadecanoic acid and cis-9-nonadecenoic acid. The location of the double bond of cis-9-nonadecenoic acid was demonstrated by GC-MS analysis, based on the fragmentation pattern of the adduct prepared from the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide.

  2. Desaturation and chain elongation of essential fatty acids in isolated liver cells from rat and rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hagve, T.A.; Christophersen, B.O.; Dannevig, B.H.

    1986-03-01

    Isolated hepatocytes from rainbow trout and rat were incubated with /sup 14/C-labeled linoleic acid, linolenic acid, dihomogammalinolenic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid. The most striking difference in the desaturase activity was the lower level of delta 5 desaturase in trout than in rat. No delta 4 desaturation of 22:4(n-6) to 22:5(n-6) was observed in either of the two species, while the conversion of 22:5(n-3) to 22:6(n-3) was significant in both groups and highest in rainbow trout. The chain-elongating activity was remarkably similar in the two species, except for the dead-end elongation which was distinctly more important in fish.

  3. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-immune diseases or degenerative neurologic diseases. PUFAs are used for metabolic syndrome related with obesity or diabetes. However, there are several considerations related with intake of PUFAs. Obsession with the intake of unsaturated fatty acids could bring about the shortage of essential fatty acids that are crucial for our body, weaken the immune system, and increase the risk of heart disease, arrhythmia, and stroke. In this review, we discuss types, physiologic mechanism of action of PUFAs, intake of PUFAs for children, recommended intake of PUFAs, and considerations for the intake of PUFAs. PMID:24224148

  5. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  6. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids...

  7. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids...

  8. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids...

  9. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids...

  10. Bioactivity-guided isolation of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as active compounds in the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Martínez, Ana Laura; Moreno, Julia; González-Trujano, Ma Eva

    2007-09-01

    Tilia species have been used as anxiolytics for many years. In a previous study anxiolytic-like effects of a hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences were observed in experimental models in mice. To get additional insights into the neuroactive actions of this particular Tilia species, in this study we report a bioactivity guided-fractionation of the extract and separation by column chromatographic methods to isolate three fatty acids and a triterpene identified as beta-sitosterol as major constituents. Our results revealed that the crude extract at 10 and 30 mg/kg I. P. and some pooled fractions at the same dosages potentiated sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and caused a significant increase in the time spent at the open-arm sides in the plus-maze test. A reduction in the exploratory behavioral pattern manifested as ambulatory activity, as well as head dipping and rearing tests was also observed. Further fractionation and purification yielded four major fractions containing fatty acids and beta-sitosterol as the active compounds. A dose-response curve of beta-sitosterol in the range 1 to 30 mg/kg doses indicated that this compound produced an anxiolytic-like action from 1 to 10 mg/kg and a sedative response when the dose was increased to 30 mg/kg, these effects resemble those produced by diazepam (0.1 mg/kg). Our results suggest that hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana produces depressant actions on the central nervous system, at least in part, because of the presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids that remain to be identified.

  11. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  12. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  13. Nitrogen deprivation induces lipid droplet accumulation and alters fatty acid metabolism in symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; Lin, I-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-07-22

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations.

  14. Nitrogen Deprivation Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Isolated from Aiptasia pulchella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; -Ping Lin, I.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-07-01

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations.

  15. Uptake of oleate by isolated rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieterman, W.; Sorrentino, D.; Potter, B.J.; Rand, J.; Kiang, C.L.; Stump, D.; Berk, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A portion of the hepatocellular uptake of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids is mediated by a specific 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, which has also been isolated from the gut. To investigate whether a similar transport process exists in other tissues with high transmembrane fatty acid fluxes, initial rates (V/sub O/) of (/sup 3/H)-oleate uptake into isolated rat adipocytes were studied as a function of the concentration of unbound (/sup 3/H)oleate in the medium. V/sub O/ reached a maximum as the concentration of unbound oleate was increased and was significantly inhibited both by phloretin and by prior incubation of the cells with Pronase. A rabbit antibody to the rat liver plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein inhibited adipocyte fatty acid uptake by up to 63% in dose-dependent fashion. Inhibition was noncompetitive; at an immunoglobulin concentration of 250 ..mu..g/ml V/sub max/ was reduced from 2480 /plus minus/ 160 to 1870 /plus minus/ 80 pmol/min per 5 /times/ 10/sup 4/ adipocytes, with no change in K/sub m/. A basic kDa adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, isolated from crude adipocyte plasma membrane fractions, reacted strongly in both agar gel diffusion and electrophoretic blots with the antibody raised against the corresponding hepatic plasma membrane protein. These data indicate that the uptake of oleate by rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most ... eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

  17. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  18. Isoprenoid quinones and fatty acids of Zoogloea.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, A; Shin, Y K; Sugiyama, J; Komagata, K

    1992-04-01

    Nine Zoogloea strains including the type strain of Z. ramigera (IAM 12136 = ATCC 19544 = N.C. Dondero 106) and newly isolated strains were investigated for isoprenoid quinone composition and whole-cell fatty acid profiles. Seven of the tested strains, having phenotypic properties typical of Zoogloea, were characterized by their production of both ubiquinone-8 and rhodoquinone-8 as major quinones, whereas the remaining two strains, Z. ramigera IAM 12669 (= K. Crabtree I-16-M) and IAM 12670 (= P.R. Dugan 115), formed ubiquinone-10 and ubiquinone-8, respectively, as the sole quinone. All rhodoquinone-producing strains contained palmitoleic acid and 3-hydroxy-decanoic acid as the major components of nonpolar and hydroxylated fatty acids, respectively. Marked differences were noted in the fatty acid composition between the strains with and without rhodoquinones. The chemotaxonomic data suggested that the rhodoquinone-lacking strains should be excluded from the genus Zoogloea. Since there have been no reliable taxonomic tools for Zoogloea, rhodoquinone analysis may provide a new criterion of great promise for identifying Zoogloea strains.

  19. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  20. Nitrated fatty acids: synthesis and measurement.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Steven R; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia/reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis and sample extraction from complex biological matrices and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed.

  1. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Beta cell compensation for insulin resistance in Zucker fatty rats: increased lipolysis and fatty acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Nolan, C J; Leahy, J L; Delghingaro-Augusto, V; Moibi, J; Soni, K; Peyot, M-L; Fortier, M; Guay, C; Lamontagne, J; Barbeau, A; Przybytkowski, E; Joly, E; Masiello, P; Wang, S; Mitchell, G A; Prentki, M

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acid signalling in islet beta cell compensation for insulin resistance in the Zucker fatty fa/fa (ZF) rat, a genetic model of severe obesity, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance that does not develop diabetes. NEFA augmentation of insulin secretion and fatty acid metabolism were studied in isolated islets from ZF and Zucker lean (ZL) control rats. Exogenous palmitate markedly potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in ZF islets, allowing robust secretion at physiological glucose levels (5-8 mmol/l). Exogenous palmitate also synergised with glucagon-like peptide-1 and the cyclic AMP-raising agent forskolin to enhance GSIS in ZF islets only. In assessing islet fatty acid metabolism, we found increased glucose-responsive palmitate esterification and lipolysis processes in ZF islets, suggestive of enhanced triglyceride-fatty acid cycling. Interruption of glucose-stimulated lipolysis by the lipase inhibitor Orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin) blunted palmitate-augmented GSIS in ZF islets. Fatty acid oxidation was also higher at intermediate glucose levels in ZF islets and steatotic triglyceride accumulation was absent. The results highlight the potential importance of NEFA and glucoincretin enhancement of insulin secretion in beta cell compensation for insulin resistance. We propose that coordinated glucose-responsive fatty acid esterification and lipolysis processes, suggestive of triglyceride-fatty acid cycling, play a role in the coupling mechanisms of glucose-induced insulin secretion as well as in beta cell compensation and the hypersecretion of insulin in obesity.

  3. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  4. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

  5. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by fatty acids and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Daniel; Everitt, Hannah E; Tewfik, Ihab; Clemens, Dahn L; Patel, Vinood B

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the key aspects of the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease particularly alterations to mitochondrial function remains to be resolved. The role of fatty acids in this regard requires further investigation due to their involvement in fatty liver disease and obesity. This study aimed to characterize the early effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids alone on liver mitochondrial function and during concomitant ethanol exposure using isolated liver mitochondria and VA-13 cells (Hep G2 cells that efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase). Liver mitochondria or VA-13 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of palmitic or arachidonic acid (1 to 160 μM) for 24 h with or without 100 mM ethanol. The results showed that in isolated liver mitochondria both palmitic and arachidonic acids significantly reduced state 3 respiration in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.001), implicating their ionophoric activities. Increased ROS production occurred in a dose-dependent manner especially in the presence of rotenone (complex I inhibitor), which was significantly more prominent in arachidonic acid at 80 μM (+970%, P<0.001) than palmitic acid (+40%, P<0.01). In VA-13 cells, ethanol alone and both fatty acids (40 μM) were able to decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels and increase lipid formation. ROS production was significantly increased with arachidonic acid (+110%, P<0.001) exhibiting a greater effect than palmitic acid (+39%, P<0.05). While in the presence of ethanol, the drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular ATP levels, and increased lipid formation were further enhanced by both fatty acids, but with greater effect in the case of arachidonic acid, which also correlated with significant cytotoxicity (P<0.001). This study confirms the ability of fatty acids to promote mitochondrial injury in the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  6. Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Ihsan

    2007-12-01

    Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty acids, arising as a result of ruminant activity, with an average content of 1.45 g/100 g fatty acids. The conjugated linoleic acid content of meat and chicken doner kebabs were found higher than other meat products. Chocolate samples contained trans fatty acids less than 0.17 g/100 g fatty acids, with the exceptional national product of chocolate bars and hazelnut cocoa cream (2.03 and 3.68 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Bakery products have the highest trans fatty acid contents and ranged from 0.99 to 17.77 g/100 g fatty acids. The average trans fatty acid contents of infant formula and ice-cream, which are milk-based products, were 0.79 and 1.50 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively. Among the analyzed foods, it was found that coffee whitener and powdered whipped topping had the highest saturated fatty acid contents, with an average content of 98.71 g/100 g fatty acids.

  7. Evaluation of antifungal activity of free fatty acids methyl esters fraction isolated from Algerian Linum usitatissimum L. seeds against toxigenic Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Amrouche; Houcine, Benmehdi; Halima, Dalile; Meriem, Chabane sari; Imane, Zaaboub; Eddine, Smahi Djamal; Abdallah, Moussaoui; Daoudi, Chabane sari

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the major fraction of fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds oil collected from Bechar department (Algeria). Methods The assessment of antifungal activity was carried out in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA) and biomass growth inhibition on liquid medium (potatoes dextrose broth PDB) against two fungi. Results The FAMEs was found to be effective in inhibiting the radial mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus more than Aspergillus ochraceus on all tested concentrations. The highest antifungal index was found to be (54.19%) compared to Aspergillus ochraceus (40.48%). The results of the antifungal activity of the FAMEs inhibition of biomass on liquid medium gave no discounted results, but this does not exclude the antifungal activity. Conclusions We can assume that the observed antifungal potency may be due to the abundance of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in linseed oil which appears to be promising to treat fungal infections, storage fungi and food spoilage in food industry field. PMID:23730556

  8. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hull, Mark A

    2011-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are naturally occurring omega (ω)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in highest quantities in oily fish such as sardines and mackerel. Epidemiological studies of the association between fish intake, ω-3 PUFA intake or blood ω-3 PUFA levels and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have not consistently suggested beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs on CRC (and other gastrointestinal cancer) risk. However, dietary administration of one or both of the main ω-3 PUFAs in rodent models of colorectal carcinogenesis has been demonstrated to reduce colorectal tumour size and multiplicity, compatible with CRC chemopreventative activity. EPA has now been demonstrated to reduce rectal polyp number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. A randomized polyp prevention trial of EPA is underway in order to test chemopreventative efficacy against 'sporadic' colorectal neoplasia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary consumption of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), commonly found in fish or fish oil, may modify the risk for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. As evidence, decreased blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Depression. Supplementation studies, using individual or combination omega-3 fatty acids, suggest the possibility for decreased symptoms associated with some of these conditions. Thus far, however, the benefits of supplementation, in terms of decreasing disease risk and/or aiding in symptom management, are not clear and more research is needed. The reasons for blood fatty acid alterations in these disorders are not known, nor are the potential mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may function in normal neuronal activity and neuropsychiatric disease prevention and/or treatment. It is clear, however, that DHA is the predominant n-3 fatty acid found in the brain and that EPA plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory precursor. Both DHA and EPA can be linked with many aspects of neural function, including neurotransmission, membrane fluidity, ion channel and enzyme regulation and gene expression. This review summarizes the knowledge in terms of dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and metabolism, as well as evidence pointing to potential mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acids in normal brain functioning, development of neuropsychiatric disorders and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in terms of symptom management.

  10. Saturated Fatty Acid Requirer of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Susan A.; Keith, Alec D.

    1971-01-01

    Dietary saturated fatty acids containing 12- to 18-carbon atoms satisfy growth requirements of Neurospora crassa mutant cel (previously named ol; Perkins et al., reference 11); unsaturated fatty acids are synthesized by direct desaturation when an appropriate saturate is available. Odd-chain saturates, 15 carbons and 17 carbons long, satisfy the requirement, and elaidic acid (18:1 Δ9trans) results in slow growth. Oleic acid and other cis-unsaturated fatty acids do not satisfy growth requirements; however, oleic acid plus elaidic acid result in growth at a faster rate than elaidate alone. The use of a spin-label fatty acid reveals that hyphae produced by cel during a slow basal level of growth have lipids that reflect a relatively rigid state of viscosity compared to wild type. cel Supplemented with fatty acids and wild type supplemented in the same way have lipids of the same viscosities as reflected by electron spin resonance. PMID:4323964

  11. Concentrations, Stability, and Isolation of the Furan Fatty Acid 9-(3-Methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic Acid from Disposable Latex Gloves.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marco; Hogg, Melanie; Ulms, Kerstin; Vetter, Walter

    2017-09-13

    Because of their antioxidant properties, furan fatty acids (furan-FAs) are valuable minor compounds with a widespread occurrence in all living matter. Unfortunately, pure standards are not readily available, because they usually contribute only 1% to the lipid fraction. A known exception of this is the milky fluid of Hevea brasiliensis, commonly known as latex, in which the furan-FA 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid (9M5) contributes about 90% to the triacylglycerides. In this study, we investigated the content of 9M5 in 30 different disposable latex gloves, which ranged from 0.7 to 8.2 mg/g of glove. The light degradability of 9M5 in latex gloves was investigated, and different amounts of 9M5 in disposable latex gloves were attributed to varying exposure time to light. Additionally, over 100 mg of the methyl or ethyl ester of 9M5 (purity of >98%) could be extracted from disposable latex gloves, employing cold extraction and silver ion chromatography. With this method, standards for the quantitation of furan-FAs are obtained easily and rapidly in all laboratories.

  12. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  13. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  14. Exogenous fatty acid metabolism in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Acyl-CoA can be used for phospholipid synthesis or broken down by β-oxidation, but cannot be used for lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-ACP in some Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting acyl-ACP undergoes the same fates as endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-phosphates in Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used for phospholipid synthesis or become acyl-ACP. Only the order Lactobacillales can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. FASII shuts down completely in presence of exogenous fatty acids in Lactobacillales, allowing Lactobacillales to synthesize phospholipids entirely from exogenous fatty acids. Inhibition of FASII cannot be bypassed in other bacteria because FASII is only partially down-regulated in presence of exogenous fatty acid or FASII is required to synthesize essential metabolites such as β-hydroxyacyl-ACP. Certain selective pressures such as FASII inhibition or growth in biofilms can select for naturally occurring one step mutations that attenuate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Although attempts have been made to estimate the natural prevalence of these mutants, culture-independent metagenomic methods would provide a better estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  16. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines.

    PubMed

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L M; Hollywood, R

    1979-09-01

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipoxidase, for trans fatty acid by infared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of linoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, respresenting various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated that two of them contained still higher levels of trans fatty acids (greater than 60%) and negligible amounts of linoleic acid. It is proposed that margarine could be a vehicle for the distribution of some dietary linoleic acid and that the level of linoleic acid and the summation of the saturated plus trans fatty acids be known to ascertain nutritional characteristics.

  17. Net release of individual fatty acids from white adipose tissue during lipolysis in vitro: evidence for selective fatty acid re-uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Raclot, T; Oudart, H

    2000-01-01

    During lipolysis, adipose tissue triacylglycerols (TAG) undergo concurrent breakdown and synthesis because some of the newly hydrolysed and released non-esterified ('free') fatty acids (NEFA) can subsequently be taken up and re-esterified. The present study examines whether and how the release of individual fatty acids is affected by the re-uptake of some of the newly hydrolysed fatty acids in vitro during lipolysis. To alter fatty acid release and re-uptake, adipose tissue fragments and isolated adipocytes from rats were incubated under various conditions, i.e. several cell concentrations or adipose fragment quantities, with or without glucose. In the various conditions tested, the NEFA/glycerol molar ratio ranged from 1.5 to 2.9. Whatever the incubation conditions, including those resulting in very low, medium or high fatty acid re-uptake (as assessed by the NEFA/glycerol ratio), the percentage weight of fatty acids in NEFA was significantly different from that in TAG for 20-24 of the 35 fatty acids that were considered. Thus the greater the fatty acid re-uptake, the higher the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the lower the proportion of long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in NEFA. Moreover, the relative mobilization (%NEFA/%TAG) of the least readily mobilized fatty acid (C(22:1,n-11)) was 6.2-fold lower than that of the most readily mobilized fatty acid (C(20:5,n-3)) under conditions of very low fatty acid re-uptake, and 14.8-fold lower under conditions of high fatty acid re-uptake, indicating a widening of the range of relative mobilizations. We conclude that the composition of the NEFA pool is affected by the rate of fatty acid re-uptake. This provides strong evidence for the selective re-uptake of adipose tissue fatty acids during lipolysis. PMID:10794723

  18. Note on the chromatographic analyses of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, D.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the effects of saponification/methylation and thin-layer chromatographic isolation on the analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using selected procedures, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of these acids in marine organisms can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Chitosan-whey protein isolate composite films for encapsulation and stabilization of fish oil containing ultra pure omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingyun; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan (1.5%, w/v)-whey protein isolate (WPI, 5% w/v) composite films were developed for encapsulating and stabilizing fish oil (FO) containing 93.7% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Chitosan-WPI film-forming solutions (FFS) were incorporated with 1.5% or 2% FO (w/v), 2% (w/v) glycerol, Tween 80 (3 times weight of FO), and 0.5% (w/v) oregano or rosemary essential oil (EO), and cast for films at room conditions. Dried films were stored at 2 °C for 30 d for evaluating encapsulation efficiency (EE), lipid stability, and film functionality. Total oil contents in films from FFS incorporating 1.5% or 2% FO were 28.1% to 32.5% and 33.4% to 37.3%, respectively, and free oil contents were 13.5% to 14.7% and 15.5% to 16.3%, respectively. EE, moisture content, and water activity of the films were 47.8% to 66%, 18.7% to 24.9%, and 0.42% to 0.50%, respectively, without significant difference among differently formulated films. Increasing FO concentration from 1.5% to 2% in FFS decreased tensile strength of the films from 0.57-0.73 to 0.34-0.44 MPa, but not the film elongation. Addition of oregano EO in FFS retarded lipid oxidation of the fish oil encapsulated in the films, in which a 43% to 53% reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value and 39% to 51% reduction in peroxide value were achieved. Chitosan-WPI composite films with incorporation of oregano essential oil could be applied as a simple and economic means for encapsulating and stabilizing fish oil for fortifying omega-3 fatty acids in various applications.

  20. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I. )

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from (1-14C)acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns.

  1. Salmonella spp. isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg produce: thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by f...

  2. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are derived...

  3. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are derived...

  4. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are derived...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis and...

  6. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Den Ruijter, Hester M; Verkerk, Arie O; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  7. Incorporated Fish Oil Fatty Acids Prevent Action Potential Shortening Induced by Circulating Fish Oil Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, Hester M. Den; Verkerk, Arie O.; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:21423389

  8. Antibacterial Targets in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, H. Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for development of new anti-bacterial agents. The extended use of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for anti-bacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multi-enzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host vs. target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalogue of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes. PMID:17707686

  9. Antibacterial targets in fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, H Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2007-10-01

    The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for the development of new antibacterial agents. The extended use of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for antibacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multienzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host versus target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalog of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes.

  10. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  11. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    TCDD appeared to interfere with fatty acid metabolism leading to an increase in unsaturation. Furthermore, Andersen et al. (2) proposed that such an...increase in cellular unsaturated fatty acids may lead-to excessive membrane fluidity (as indicated by induced changes in red blood cell fragility) and...TASK WORK UNITELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Claificati on) ~/~. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Ac ds 12. PERSONAL

  12. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  13. Acetylenes and fatty acids from Codonopsis pilosula

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yueping; Liu, Yufeng; Guo, Qinglan; Jiang, Zhibo; Xu, Chengbo; Zhu, Chenggen; Yang, Yongchun; Lin, Sheng; Shi, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Four new acetylenes (1–4) and one new unsaturated ω-hydroxy fatty acid (5), together with 5 known analogues, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Codonopsis pilosula roots. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new acetylenes are categorized as an unusual cyclotetradecatrienynone (1), tetradecenynetriol (2), and rare octenynoic acids (3 and 4), respectively, and 3 and 4 are possibly derived from oxidative metabolic degradation of 1 and/or 2. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectrum with the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of stereoisomers based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory, while the configuration of 2 was assigned by using modified Mosher׳s method based on the MPA determination rule of ΔδRS values for diols. PMID:26579449

  14. [Effect of Gram-negative bacteria on fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, N; Dupeyron, C; Leluan, G; Bory, J

    1981-01-01

    The gram-negative bacteria investigated exert various effects on fatty acids. P. aeruginosa and A. calcoaceticus catabolize any of the fatty acids tested. S. marcescens is effective upon all fatty acids excepting butyric acid. The long chain fatty acids only are degraded by E. coli, meanwhile the other fatty acids present a bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity on it. The authors propose a simple and original method for testing the capability of degradation of fatty acids by some bacterial species.

  15. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  16. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Alikunhi, Nabeel M; Narayanasamy, Rajendran; Kandasamy, Kathiresan

    2010-06-01

    Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove.

  17. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  18. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  19. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids...

  20. Incorporation of Extracellular Fatty Acids by a Fatty Acid Kinase-Dependent Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Frank, Matthew W.; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acyl-CoA and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetases activate exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids in Gram-negative bacteria. However, Gram-positive bacteria utilize an acyltransferase pathway for the biogenesis of phosphatidic acid that begins with the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by PlsY using an acyl-phosphate (acyl-PO4) intermediate. PlsX generates acyl-PO4 from the acyl-ACP end-products of fatty acid synthesis. The plsX gene of Staphylococcus aureus was inactivated and the resulting strain was both a fatty acid auxotroph and required de novo fatty acid synthesis for growth. Exogenous fatty acids were only incorporated into the 1-position and endogenous acyl groups were channeled into the 2-position of the phospholipids in strain PDJ39 (ΔplsX). Extracellular fatty acids were not elongated. Removal of the exogenous fatty acid supplement led to the rapid accumulation of intracellular acyl-ACP and the abrupt cessation of fatty acid synthesis. Extracts from the ΔplsX strain exhibited an ATP-dependent fatty acid kinase activity, and the acyl-PO4 was converted to acyl-ACP when purified PlsX is added. These data reveal the existence of a novel fatty acid kinase pathway for the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into S. aureus phospholipids. PMID:24673884

  1. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  2. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. PMID:23112921

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids and anorexia.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Carolina G; Ramos, Eduardo J B; Suzuki, Susumu; Meguid, Michael M

    2005-07-01

    To review the mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the brain, as well as their therapeutic implications in anorexia. Recent studies have demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids modulate changes in the concentrations and actions of several orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in the brain, including neuropeptide Y, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. In patients with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, low tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines are found, in association with anorexia and decreased food intake. The data suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production and improves food intake by normalizing hypothalamic orexigenic peptides and neurotransmitters. Based on current data, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a role in the treatment of anorexia by stimulating the production and release of orexigenic neurotransmitters in food intake regulatory nuclei in the hypothalamus.

  4. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G.G.; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A.B.; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them for rapid removal in oxidative (mitochondria, peroxisomes) or storage (endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets) organelles. Mammals have a large (15 member) family of FABPs with multiple members occurring within a single cell type. The first described FABP, liver-FABP (L-FABP, or FABP1), is expressed in very high levels (2-5% of cytosolic protein) in liver as well as intestine and kidney. Since L-FABP facilitates uptake and metabolism of LCFAs in vitro and in cultured cells, it was expected that abnormal function or loss of L-FABP would reduce hepatic LCFA uptake/oxidation and thereby increase LCFAs available for oxidation in muscle and/or storage in adipose. This prediction was confirmed in vitro with isolated liver slices and cultured primary hepatocytes from L-FABP gene-ablated mice. Despite unaltered food consumption when fed a control diet ad libitum, the L-FABP null mice exhibited age- and sex-dependent weight gain and increased fat tissue mass. The obese phenotype was exacerbated in L-FABP null mice pair-fed a high fat diet. Taken together with other findings, these data suggest that L-FABP could have an important role in preventing age- or diet-induced obesity. PMID:20537520

  5. Relative irritancy of free fatty acids of different chain length.

    PubMed

    Stillman, M A; Maibach, H I; Shalita, A R

    1975-01-01

    Free fatty acids of human skin surface lipids have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris because of their apparent irritant and comedogenic properties. Prior studies on the relative irritancy of free fatty acids revealed the saturated C8 to C14 fatty acids and a C18 dienoic unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic) to be most irritating. Saturated free fatty acids from C3 to C18, and unsaturated C18 free fatty acids were applied daily under occlusive patch tests to human skin until detectable erythema appeared. The most irritating fatty acids were C8 through C12. Of the unsaturated fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid produced irritation.

  6. Subgrouping of Pseudomonas cepacia by cellular fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Mukwaya, G M; Welch, D F

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions were determined for 42 strains of Pseudomonas cepacia from five cystic fibrosis centers in North America. All isolates contained significant (20%) amounts of hexadecanoic (C16:0), and cis-9 hexadecenoic (C16:1 cis9) acids and an isomer of octadecenoic acid (C18:1). None had hydroxy acids containing fewer than 14 carbon atoms. The quantitative data from the fatty acid analysis were highly reproducible and provided a basis for numerical analysis. Five subgroups comprising all the strains were obtained by cluster analysis and further characterized by principal-component analysis. With minor exceptions, the predominant subgroup identified in each center was different from that identified in other centers and accounted for one-half of the isolates within each center. Cellular fatty acid composition is a useful adjunct to biochemical characterization for the identification of P. cepacia isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Numerical analysis of the fatty acid data can separate P. cepacia into subgroups, which may provide useful epidemiologic information or a basis for further analysis by more complex techniques such as DNA probe analysis. PMID:2687315

  7. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  8. Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-05-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence.

  9. [Omega-3 fatty acids and cognition].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, the most abundant omega3 fatty acid in the brain, plays a role in cognitive development, learning ability, neuronal membrane plasticity, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis, all of which are involved in synaptic transmission and the well-being of normal brain functions, and search on the functionality is still in progress. Establishment of prevention and treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as dementia is not easy, but from numerous basic and epidemiological studies, increase of omega3 fatty acid dietary intake is reported likely to prevent the onset of dementia. This paper is outlined the relevance of cognitive function and omega3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid, and the possibility of preventive effect of the fatty acid on dementia.

  10. Ternatin, a cyclic peptide isolated from mushroom, and its derivative suppress hyperglycemia and hepatic fatty acid synthesis in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Kawashima, Haruna; Takemori, Kumiko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Murai, Atsushi; Masuda, Shun; Yamada, Kaoru; Uemura, Daisuke; Horio, Fumihiko

    2012-10-19

    (-)-Ternatin is a highly methylated cyclic heptapeptide isolated from mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Ternatin has an inhibitory effect on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, a ternatin derivative, also inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, although the effectiveness of [D-Leu(7)]ternatin was lower than that of ternatin. In this study, we investigated the effects of ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin on obesity and type 2 diabetes in KK-A(y) mice, an animal model for spontaneously developed type 2 diabetes. We continuously administered ternatin (8.5 or 17 nmol/day) or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin (68 nmol/day) to mice via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Unexpectedly, neither ternatin nor [D-Leu(7)]ternatin affected body weight or adipose tissue weight in KK-A(y) mice. In contrast, it was demonstrated that both ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin suppress the development of hyperglycemia. In liver, the SREBP-1c mRNA level tended to be lower or significantly decreased in mice treated with ternatin or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, respectively. Moreover, we found that ternatin directly lowered the SREBP-1c mRNA level in Hepa1-6 hepatocyte cells. This study showed that ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin each had a preventive effect on hyperglycemia and a suppressive effect on fatty acid synthesis in KK-A(y) mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  14. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Colleen; Jahnke, Nikki

    2011-08-10

    Studies suggest that a diet rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects for chronic conditions such as cystic fibrosis. To determine whether there is evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality and to identify any adverse events associated with supplementation. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Authors and persons interested in the subject of the review were contacted.Date of last search: 10 March 2011. Randomised controlled trials in people with cystic fibrosis comparing omega-3 fatty acid supplements with placebo. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the studies. The searches identified 13 studies; four studies with 91 participants were included. Two studies compared omega-3 fatty acids to olive oil for six weeks. One study compared a liquid dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids to one without for six months. One study compared omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids to a control (capsules with customised fatty acid blends) for three months. Only one short-term study (19 participants) comparing omega-3 to placebo reported a significant improvement in lung function and Shwachman score and a reduction in sputum volume in the omega-3 group. Another study (43 participants) demonstrated a significant increase in serum phospholipid essential fatty acid content and a significant drop in the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared to control. The longer-term study (17 participants) demonstrated a significant increase in essential fatty acid content in neutrophil membranes and a significant decrease in the leukotriene B4 to leukotriene B5 ratio

  16. PPARs: fatty acid sensors controlling metabolism.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars la Cour; Siersbæk, Majken; Mandrup, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that play key roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism, inflammation, cellular growth, and differentiation. The receptors bind and are activated by a broad range of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives and they thereby serve as major transcriptional sensors of fatty acids. Here we review the function, regulation, and mechanism of the different PPAR subtypes with special emphasis on their role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid).

  18. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids...

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients.

  20. Saturated Fatty Acid Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with an Intact Fatty Acid Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Karl H.; Schweizer, Eckhart

    1974-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae conditional mutant, LK 181, is described which grows at 37 C only when supplemented with a saturated fatty acid of 12 to 14 carbon atoms chain length. At 22 C, however, no fatty acid supplementation is required for growth. The fatty acid concentration required for optimal growth at 37 C is about four times lower for LK 181 than for fatty acid synthetase-deficient mutants. In contrast to all fatty acid synthetase mutants so far examined, mutant LK 181 cannot grow with palmitic acid. The addition of palmitic, palmitoleic, or oleic acid to the culture medium prevents LK 181 growth at temperatures between 22 and 37 C. In vivo as well as in vitro, cellular de novo fatty acid biosynthesis from acetate is unimpaired in this mutant. It is suggested that endogenously synthesized fatty acids, due to their chain lengths of 16 and more carbon atoms, cannot supplement the mutant LK 181. It is concluded that the exogeneously supplied fatty acids act as allosteric effectors for a mutationally altered cellular protein to restore its biological function at elevated temperatures, rather than as a substitute for endogenously synthesized long-chain fatty acids. PMID:4590462

  1. Inhibition of polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in plants expressing a fatty acid epoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Thomaeus, S; Lee, M; Green, A; Stymne, S

    2000-12-01

    Earlier, we described the isolation of a Crepis palaestina cDNA (Cpal2) which encoded a Delta12-epoxygenase that could catalyse the synthesis of 12,13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1E) from linoleic acid (18:2). When the Cpal2 gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter in Arabidopsis, plants were able to accumulate small amounts 18:1E and 12,13-epoxy-cis-9,15-octadec-2-enoic acid in their seed lipids. In this report we give results obtained from a detailed analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing the Cpal2 gene. The seeds from these plants accumulate varying levels of 18:1E, but show a marked increase in 18:1 and equivalent decrease in 18:2 and 18:3. We further observed that the co-expression of a C. palaestina Delta12-desaturase in Arabidopsis appears to return the relative proportions of the C(18) seed fatty acids to normal levels and results in a 2-fold increase in total epoxy fatty acids.

  2. Antisense technologies targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinshun; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-05-01

    Fatty acid synthesis is a coordinated process involving multiple enzymes. Overexpression of some of these enzymes plays important roles in tumor growth and development. Therefore, these enzymes are attractive targets for cancer therapies. Antisense agents provide highly specific inhibition of the expression of target genes and thus have served as powerful tools for gene functional studies and potential therapeutic agents for cancers. This article reviews different types of antisense agents and their applications in the modulation of fatty acid synthesis. Patents of antisense agents targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes are introduced. In addition, miR-122 has been shown to regulate the expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes, and thus antisense agent patents that inhibit miR-122 expression are also discussed.

  3. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  4. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-12-02

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  5. Carbocyclic fatty acids in plants: Biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis of Sterculia foetida

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiaoming; Katz, Sue; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acids containing three-member carbocyclic rings are found in bacteria and plants. Bacteria synthesize cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA-FAs) only by the addition of a methylene group from S-adenosylmethionine to the cis-double bond of monoenoic phospholipid-bound fatty acids. In plants CPA-FAs are usually minor components with cyclopropene fatty acids (CPE-FAs) more abundant. Sterculia foetida seed oil contains 65–78% CPE-FAs, principally sterculic acid. To address carbocyclic fatty acid synthesis in plants, a cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds during the period of maximum oil deposition. About 0.4% of 5,300 expressed sequence tags were derived from one gene, which shared similarities to the bacterial CPA-FA synthase. However, the predicted protein is twice as large as the bacterial homolog and represents a fusion of an FAD-containing oxidase at the N terminus and a methyltransferase at the C terminus. Functional analysis of the isolated full-length cDNA was conducted in tobacco suspension cells where its expression resulted in the accumulation of up to 6.2% dihydrosterculate of total fatty acids. In addition, the dihydrosterculate was specifically labeled by [methyl-14C]methionine and by [14C]oleic acid in the transgenic tobacco cells. In in vitro assay of S. foetida seed extracts, S-adenosylmethionine served as a methylene donor for the synthesis of dihydrosterculate from oleate. Dihydrosterculate accumulated largely in phosphatidylcholine in both systems. Together, a CPA-FA synthase was identified from S. foetida, and the pathway in higher plants that produce carbocyclic fatty acids was defined as by transfer of C1 units, most likely from S-adenosylmethionine to oleate. PMID:11997456

  6. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...

  7. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  8. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  9. [Elimination of all trans fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Katan, M B

    2008-02-09

    At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, the successor to Van den Bergh and Jurgens, then took the lead in eliminating trans fatty acids from retail foods worldwide. As a result, intake in The Netherlands fell from 15 g per day in 1980 to 3 g per day in 2003. Dairy products and meat are now the major source of trans fatty acids. The effects on health of these ruminant trans fatty acids are unclear. There are three lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of trans fatty acids. First, a history of safe use does not guarantee safety of food components, because routine surveillance will fail to detect adverse effects on common illnesses with long incubation periods. Second, it shows that it is more effective and easier to change the composition of foods than to change consumer behaviour. And third, governments can have a major impact on consumers' health by mandating the use of healthier food ingredients.

  10. Effects of even and odd number fatty acids cofeeding on PHA production and composition in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Mohd Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais; Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 cultivated on mixed carbon sources was investigated. The mixed carbon sources consisted of heptanoic acid (HA) and oleic acid (OA). A relatively low PHA content at 1.2% (w/w) and 11.4% (w/w) was obtained when HA or OA was used as the sole carbon source. When these fatty acids were supplied as a mixture, PHA content increased threefold. Interestingly, the mixture-derived PHA composed of both odd and even monomer units, namely. 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate and no unsaturated monomer was detected. It is hypothesized that the even-numbered monomers were derived primarily from OA, whereas the odd-numbered monomer was derived from HA. This also points out to an efficient and yet distinct fatty acids metabolism that fed the PHA biosynthesis machinery of this particular microorganism. PHA obtained was elastomeric because melting temperature (Tm ) and crystallinity were absent. It showed good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 275.96 to 283.05 °C. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and...

  12. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including..., safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty acids derived from these substances...

  13. CD36/fatty acid translocase in rats: distribution, isolation from hepatocytes, and comparison with the scavenger receptor SR-B1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingqi; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Cleland, Leslie G; Ey, Peter L; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Farmer, Elizabeth-Anne; Sincock, Paul; Mayrhofer, Graham

    2003-03-01

    The new mAb UA009 recognizes an antigen expressed by microvascular endothelium, by lymphatic endothelium, and by some epithelia in a number of organs, including the small intestine, lactating mammary gland, kidney, lung, sebaceous glands, and circumvallate papillae of the tongue. This antigen is also expressed abundantly in the splenic red pulp and marginal zone and by monocytes, macrophages, and erythrocytes (but not by platelets). Among tissues that store or metabolize fatty acids, the antigen is expressed by adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, and red skeletal muscle. Importantly, it is expressed by steroidogenic cells in the adrenal gland, testis, and ovary, whereas in the liver it is expressed by hepatocytes in a pattern that is dependent on gender and genetic background. mAb UA009 immunoprecipitated a mol wt 85-kDa surface protein from detergent extracts of hepatocytes from Dark Agouti female rats. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein was identical to fatty acid translocase (FAT), the rat cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) ortholog. The mAb also reacted with COS-7 cells transfected with cDNA encoding FAT. cDNAs encoding a CD36/FAT-like polypeptide were prepared from both liver and heart RNA by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences obtained from these cDNAs (Dark Agouti rats) revealed identity and 99% similarity, respectively, with the published sequences of Cd36/Fat in rats of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains. The absence of the UA009 antigen in CD36/FAT-deficient SHR/N rats confirmed the identity of the UA009 antigen and CD36/FAT. We suggest that CD36/FAT might function in the liver as a sex-regulated accessory molecule, either in reverse cholesterol transport and/or in fatty acid uptake.

  14. [Biology of essential fatty acids (EFA)].

    PubMed

    Dobryniewski, Jacek; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), are unsaturated fatty acids not produced by human being, but essential for proper functioning of the human body. To EFA-s belongs: linoleic acid (LA) (18:2,cis detla(9,12), omega6)--precursor o f gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3,cisA6,9,12, )6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)(18:3,cisdelta(9, 12, 15), omega3)--product of dehydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA). Most important EFA is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)--18 carbons, one-carboxylic, non-branched fatty acid with 3 double cis-bonds (the last is situated by 6-th carbon from methylic end). The diet devoided of EFA leads to decreased growth, skin and kidney injury and infertility. Modern research of GLA and others EFA's is concerned mainly on therapeutic impact on the inflammatory process. The biogenic amines, cytokines, prostaglandins, tromboxanes and leukotrienes are the main inflammatory mediators. The last three are described with the common name eicosanoides (eico-twenty). Eicosanoides are synthesized from 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids: dihomo-gamma-linoleic (DGLA) (20:3, cis delta(8,11,14), omega6), arachidonic acid (AA-20:4, cis delta(5,8,11,14), omega6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA-20:5, cis delta(5,8,11,14,17, omega3). Derivatives of gamma and gamma-linolenic acids regulate the inflammatory process, through their opposed activity. PG2, leucotrien C4 and tromboxan A2 have the strongest proinflammatory action. Derivatives of alpha-linolenic acid 15-HETE and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) have weak pro-inflammatory action, or even anti-inflammatory (PGE1), and additionally, they inhibit the transformation of arachidonic acid (AA) to leukotriens. delta6-desaturase (transformes linolenic acid into gamma-linolenic acid by making additional double bond) is the slowest step of the fatty acid metabolism. It's activity is impaired by many physiological and pathologic factors and leads to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) deficiency. The gamma-linolenic acid

  15. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    PubMed

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  16. Efficacy of mechanical postconditioning following warm, global ischaemia depends on circulating fatty acid levels in an isolated, working rat heart model†.

    PubMed

    Bartkevics, Maris; Huber, Simon; Mathys, Veronika; Sourdon, Joevin; Dornbierer, Monika; Carmona Mendez, Natalia; Gahl, Brigitta; Carrel, Thierry P; Tevaearai Stahel, Hendrik T; Longnus, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The number of heart transplantations is limited by donor organ availability. Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) could significantly improve graft availability; however, organs undergo warm ischaemia followed by reperfusion, leading to tissue damage. Laboratory studies suggest that mechanical postconditioning [(MPC); brief, intermittent periods of ischaemia at the onset of reperfusion] can limit reperfusion injury; however, clinical translation has been disappointing. We hypothesized that MPC-induced cardioprotection depends on fatty acid levels at reperfusion. Experiments were performed with an isolated rat heart model of DCDD. Hearts of male Wistar rats (n = 42) underwent working-mode perfusion for 20 min (baseline), 27 min of global ischaemia and 60 min reperfusion with or without MPC (two cycles of 30 s reperfusion/30 s ischaemia) in the presence or absence of high fat [(HF); 1.2 mM palmitate]. Haemodynamic parameters, necrosis factors and oxygen consumption (O2C) were assessed. Recovery rate was calculated as the value at 60 min reperfusion expressed as a percentage of the mean baseline value. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to provide an overview of differences between experimental groups, and pairwise comparisons were performed to compare specific time points of interest for parameters with significant overall results. Percent recovery of left ventricular (LV) work [developed pressure (DP)-heart rate product] at 60 min reperfusion was higher in hearts reperfused without fat versus with fat (58 ± 8 vs 23 ± 26%, P < 0.01) in the absence of MPC. In the absence of fat, MPC did not affect post-ischaemic haemodynamic recovery. Among the hearts reperfused with HF, two significantly different subgroups emerged according to recovery of LV work: low recovery (LoR) and high recovery (HiR) subgroups. At 60 min reperfusion, recovery was increased with MPC versus no MPC for LV work (79 ± 6 vs 55 ± 7, respectively; P < 0.05) in HiR subgroups and

  17. High pre-ischemic fatty acid levels decrease cardiac recovery in an isolated rat heart model of donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    Niederberger, Petra; Farine, Emilie; Arnold, Maria; Wyss, Rahel K; Sanz, Maria N; Méndez-Carmona, Natalia; Gahl, Brigitta; Fiedler, Georg M; Carrel, Thierry P; Tevaearai Stahel, Hendrik T; Longnus, Sarah L

    2017-06-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) could improve cardiac graft availability. However, strategies to optimize cardiac graft recovery remain to be established in DCD; these hearts would be expected to be exposed to high levels of circulatory fat immediately prior to the inevitable period of ischemia prior to procurement. We investigated whether acute exposure to high fat prior to warm, global ischemia affects subsequent hemodynamic and metabolic recovery in an isolated rat heart model of DCD. Hearts of male Wistar rats underwent 20min baseline perfusion with glucose (11mM) and either high fat (1.2mM palmitate; HF) or no fat (NF), 27min global ischemia (37°C), and 60min reperfusion with glucose only (n=7-8 per group). Hemodynamic recovery was 50% lower in HF vs. NF hearts (34±30% vs. 78±8% (60min reperfusion value of peak systolic pressure*heart rate as percentage of mean baseline); p<0.01). During early reperfusion, glycolysis (0.3±0.3 vs. 0.7±0.3μmol*min(-1)*g dry(-1), p<0.05), glucose oxidation (0.1±0.03 vs. 0.4±0.2μmol*min(-1)*g dry(-1), p<0.01) and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (1.8±0.6 vs. 3.6±0.5U*g protein(-1), p<0.01) were significantly reduced in HF vs. NF groups, respectively, while lactate release was significantly greater (1.8±0.9 vs. 0.6±0.2μmol*g wet(-1)*min(-1); p<0.05). Acute, pre-ischemic exposure to high fat significantly lowers post-ischemic cardiac recovery vs. no fat despite identical reperfusion conditions. These findings support the concept that oxidation of residual fatty acids is rapidly restored upon reperfusion and exacerbates ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Strategies to optimize post-ischemic cardiac recovery should take pre-ischemic fat levels into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD.

  19. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and athletics.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2007-07-01

    Human beings evolved consuming a diet that contained about equal amounts of y-6 and y-3 essential fatty acids. Today, in Western diets, the ratio of y-6 to y-3 fatty acids ranges from approximately 10:1 to 20:1 instead of the traditional range of 1:1 to 2:1. Studies indicate that a high intake of y-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction, and decreases in bleeding time. y-3 fatty acids, however, have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties. Excessive radical formation and trauma during high-intensity exercise leads to an inflammatory state that is made worse by the increased amount of y-6 fatty acids in Western diets, although this can be counteracted by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). For the majority of athletes, especially those at the leisure level, general guidelines should include EPA and DHA of about 1 to 2 g/d at a ratio of EPA:DHA of 2:1.

  2. Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Loll, Patrick J; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2012-06-01

    A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 μM affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 Å and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721.10629 Section 721.10629 Protection... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721.10629 Section 721.10629 Protection... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a...

  5. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolidm by Spodoptera litura larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)- L-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses as well as...

  6. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  7. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  8. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  9. The Association of Fatty Acids With Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-09

    Experimental studies have shown that omega-6 fatty acids enhance and omega - 3 fatty acids suppress oncogenesis. Correlational studies also indicate...that breast cancer incidence is positively linked to omega-6 consumption but is negatively related to intake of omega - 3 fatty acids, derived mainly from...arachidonic acid), and omega - 3 fatty acids (20:5n3, eicosapentaenoic acid; 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) were similar in cases and controls

  10. Isolation and characterization of two geometric allene oxide isomers synthesized from 9S-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by cytochrome P450 CYP74C3: stereochemical assignment of natural fatty acid allene oxides.

    PubMed

    Brash, Alan R; Boeglin, William E; Stec, Donald F; Voehler, Markus; Schneider, Claus; Cha, Jin K

    2013-07-19

    Specialized cytochromes P450 or catalase-related hemoproteins transform fatty acid hydroperoxides to allene oxides, highly reactive epoxides leading to cyclopentenones and other products. The stereochemistry of the natural allene oxides is incompletely defined, as are the structural features required for their cyclization. We investigated the transformation of 9S-hydroperoxylinoleic acid with the allene oxide synthase CYP74C3, a reported reaction that unexpectedly produces an allene oxide-derived cyclopentenone. Using biphasic reaction conditions at 0 °C, we isolated the initial products and separated two allene oxide isomers by HPLC at -15 °C. One matched previously described allene oxides in its UV spectrum (λmax 236 nm) and NMR spectrum (defining a 9,10-epoxy-octadec-10,12Z-dienoate). The second was a novel stereoisomer (UV λmax 239 nm) with distinctive NMR chemical shifts. Comparison of NOE interactions of the epoxy proton at C9 in the two allene oxides (and the equivalent NOE experiment in 12,13-epoxy allene oxides) allowed assignment at the isomeric C10 epoxy-ene carbon as Z in the new isomer and the E configuration in all previously characterized allene oxides. The novel 10Z isomer spontaneously formed a cis-cyclopentenone at room temperature in hexane. These results explain the origin of the cyclopentenone, provide insights into the mechanisms of allene oxide cyclization, and define the double bond geometry in naturally occurring allene oxides.

  11. Newly identified variability in Brucella canis fatty-acid content is associated with geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Brower, A; Lucero, N; Okwumabua, O; Groussaud, P; Gopaul, K K; Whatmore, A M; Cravero, S L; Trangoni, M D

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the fatty-acid profiles of Brucella canis blood culture isolates obtained from infected dogs in the UK, Germany, Japan, South Africa, Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina, and from a human clinical case in Argentina, to a bank of isolates obtained from canine outbreaks in the USA. Analysis of a total of 42 B. canis isolates and one reference strain found a marked variation within the species. Fatty-acid analysis showed that only the isolates from Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico, which included the human B. canis isolate, contained a specific fatty acid, 19:0 cyclopropane (lactobacillic acid), w8c (cis-11,12-methylene octadecanoic acid), and that this fatty acid, when present, made up a large percentage of overall fatty-acid content. Prior to this study, the cellular fatty-acid 19:0 cyclopropane had been identified in all of the species of Brucella considered to be pathogenic to humans (B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis) except for B. canis. Discovering that this fatty acid not only occurs in B. canis, but also that it is only present in some strains of the species provides a new focus for investigations aimed at identifying the cause of reported geographical variability in human B. canis infection, and at finding predictors of biological behaviour and human pathogenicity within this Brucella species.

  12. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  13. Fatty Acid Synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harold P.; Volkmann, Carol M.; Chao, Fu-Chuan

    1967-01-01

    A light particle fraction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, obtained from the crude ribosomal material, and containing the fatty acid synthetase, consisted primarily of 27S and 47S components. This fraction has a protein-ribonucleic acid ratio of about 13. Electron micrographs showed particles ranging in diameter between 100 and 300 A in this material. By use of density gradient analysis, the fatty acid synthetase was found in the 47S component. This component contained particles which were predominantly 300 A in diameter and which were considerably flatter than ribosomes, and it consisted almost entirely of protein. Images PMID:6025308

  14. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis and respiration.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Autio, Kaija J; Schonauer, Melissa S; Kursu, V A Samuli; Dieckmann, Carol L; Kastaniotis, Alexander J

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that mitochondria are able to synthesize fatty acids in a malonyl-CoA/acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent manner. This pathway resembles bacterial fatty acid synthesis (FAS) type II, which uses discrete, nuclearly encoded proteins. Experimental evidence, obtained mainly through using yeast as a model system, indicates that this pathway is essential for mitochondrial respiratory function. Curiously, the deficiency in mitochondrial FAS cannot be complemented by inclusion of fatty acids in the culture medium or by products of the cytosolic FAS complex. Defects in mitochondrial FAS in yeast result in the inability to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources, the loss of mitochondrial cytochromes a/a3 and b, mitochondrial RNA processing defects, and loss of cellular lipoic acid. Eukaryotic FAS II generates octanoyl-ACP, a substrate for mitochondrial lipoic acid synthase. Endogenous lipoic acid synthesis challenges the hypothesis that lipoic acid can be provided as an exogenously supplied vitamin. Purified eukaryotic FAS II enzymes are catalytically active in vitro using substrates with an acyl chain length of up to 16 carbon atoms. However, with the exception of 3-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP, a component of respiratory complex I in higher eukaryotes, the fate of long-chain fatty acids synthesized by the mitochondrial FAS pathway remains an enigma. The linkage of FAS II genes to published animal models for human disease supports the hypothesis that mitochondrial FAS dysfunction leads to the development of disorders in mammals.

  15. Isolation of peridinin-related norcarotenoids with cell growth-inhibitory activity from the cultured dinoflagellate of Symbiodinium sp., a symbiont of the Okinawan soft coral Clavularia viridis, and analysis of fatty acids of the dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoya; Watanabe, Kinzo; Fujiwara, Shoko; Kurasawa, Toshie; Wakabayashi, Takako; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Iguchi, Kazuo; Yamori, Takao

    2003-06-01

    Two norcarotenoids, 1 and 2, related to peridinin (3) were isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate of the genus Symbiodinium, a symbiont of the Okinawan soft coral Clavularia viridis, which contains in abundance antitumor marine prostanoids such as clavulones. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. These compounds showed significant growth-inhibitory activity in vitro toward cancer cells. Analysis of fatty acids of the dinoflagellate was also carried out, suggesting that the marine prostanoids are produced by the host soft coral itself.

  16. Omega 3 fatty acids in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Natalia; Achón, María; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-06-01

    Population ageing affects the entire world population. Also at world level one can observe a sharp increase in the proportion of older people. The challenge posed by population ageing translates into ensuring that the extra years of life will be as good as possible, free from high-cost dependency. Omega-3 fatty acids are now generally recognized as potential key nutrients to prevent the pathological conditions associated to the aging process. Ageing physiological process, its association with quality of life and the impact of omega-3 fatty acids intake and/or status is the focus of the present review. This report deals with the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on normal aging of older adults ( ≥ 65 years) mainly on the effects such as nutritional status itself, cognition, bone health, muscle tonus, and general health status. The preliminary broad search of the literature on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on normal aging yielded 685 citations. Forty two full text papers were checked for inclusion and thirty six studies were finally included in this review. It may be concluded that paradoxically even though the elderly population is the largest one, the number of studies and the methodology employed clearly lacks of sufficient evidence to establish definite conclusions on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on aging metabolism without pathological conditions and on quality of life.

  17. Changes in fatty acids metabolism during differentiation of Atlantic salmon preadipocytes; effects of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Todorcević, Marijana; Vegusdal, Anne; Gjøen, Tor; Sundvold, Hilde; Torstensen, Bente E; Kjaer, Marte A; Ruyter, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) preadipocytes, isolated from visceral adipose tissue, differentiate from an unspecialized fibroblast like cell type to mature adipocytes filled with lipid droplets in culture. The expression of the adipogenic gene markers peroxisome proliferated activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 1 and fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 3 increased during differentiation. In addition, we describe a novel alternatively spliced form of PPARgamma (PPARgamma short), the expression of which increased during differentiation. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) lowered the triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in mature salmon adipocytes compared to oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA). This finding indicates that a reduced level of highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (HUFAs) in fish diets, when the traditional marine oil is exchanged for n-9 fatty acids (FAs) rich vegetable oils (VOs), may influence visceral fat deposition in salmonids. Moreover, major differences in the metabolism of EPA, DHA and OA at different stages during differentiation of adipocytes occur. Most of the EPA and DHA were oxidized in preadipocytes, while they were mainly stored in TAGs in mature adipocytes in contrast to OA which was primarily stored in TAGs at all stages of differentiation.

  18. Fluorescing fatty acids in rat fatty liver models.

    PubMed

    Croce, Anna C; Ferrigno, Andrea; Di Pasqua, Laura G; Berardo, Clarissa; Mannucci, Barbara; Bottiroli, Giovanni; Vairetti, Mariapia

    2017-06-01

    The autofluorescence (AF) of NAD(P)H and flavins has been at the basis of many in-situ studies of liver energy metabolism and functionality. Conversely, few data have been so far reported on fluorescing lipids. In this work we investigated the AF of liver lipid extracts from two fatty liver models, Wistar rats fed with MCD diet for 12 days (Wi-MCD), and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. Among the most abundant fatty acids in the lipid extracts, indicated by mass spectrometry, arachidonic acid (AA) exhibited higher quantum yield than the other fluorescing fatty acids (FLFA), and red shifted AF spectrum. This allowed to estimate the AA contribution to the overall emission of lipid extracts by curve fitting analysis. AA prevailed in obese Zucker livers, accounting for the different AF spectral profiles between the two models. AF and mass spectrometry indicated also a different balance between the fluorescing fraction and the overall amount of AA in the two models. The ability of AF to detect directly AA and FLFA was demonstrated, suggesting its supportive role as tool in wide-ranging applications, from the control of animal origin food, to experimental investigations on liver fat accumulation, lipotoxicity and disease progression, with potential translation to the clinics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  20. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris [Portola Valley, CA; Broun, Pierre [Burlingame, CA; van de Loo, Frank [Weston, AU; Boddupalli, Sekhar S [Manchester, MI

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  1. Development of Fatty Acid-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Takeno, Seiki; Takasaki, Manami; Urabayashi, Akinobu; Mimura, Akinori; Muramatsu, Tetsuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    To date, no information has been made available on the genetic traits that lead to increased carbon flow into the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To develop basic technologies for engineering, we employed an approach that begins by isolating a fatty acid-secreting mutant without depending on mutagenic treatment. This was followed by genome analysis to characterize its genetic background. The selection of spontaneous mutants resistant to the palmitic acid ester surfactant Tween 40 resulted in the isolation of a desired mutant that produced oleic acid, suggesting that a single mutation would cause increased carbon flow down the pathway and subsequent excretion of the oversupplied fatty acid into the medium. Two additional rounds of selection of spontaneous cerulenin-resistant mutants led to increased production of the fatty acid in a stepwise manner. Whole-genome sequencing of the resulting best strain identified three specific mutations (fasR20, fasA63up, and fasA2623). Allele-specific PCR analysis showed that the mutations arose in that order. Reconstitution experiments with these mutations revealed that only fasR20 gave rise to oleic acid production in the wild-type strain. The other two mutations contributed to an increase in oleic acid production. Deletion of fasR from the wild-type strain led to oleic acid production as well. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the fasR20 mutation brought about upregulation of the fasA and fasB genes encoding fatty acid synthases IA and IB, respectively, by 1.31-fold ± 0.11-fold and 1.29-fold ± 0.12-fold, respectively, and of the accD1 gene encoding the β-subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by 3.56-fold ± 0.97-fold. On the other hand, the fasA63up mutation upregulated the fasA gene by 2.67-fold ± 0.16-fold. In flask cultivation with 1% glucose, the fasR20 fasA63up fasA2623 triple mutant produced approximately 280 mg of fatty acids/liter, which consisted mainly of oleic

  2. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Colleen; Watson, Helen

    2016-01-05

    Studies suggest that a diet rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects for chronic conditions such as cystic fibrosis. This is an updated version of a previously published review. To determine whether there is evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality and to identify any adverse events associated with supplementation. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Authors and persons interested in the subject of the review were contacted.Date of last search: 13 August 2013. Randomised controlled trials in people with cystic fibrosis comparing omega-3 fatty acid supplements with placebo. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the studies. The searches identified 15 studies; four studies with 91 participants (children and adults) were included; duration of studies ranged from six weeks to six months. Two studies were judged to be at low risk of bias based on adequate randomisation but this was unclear in the other two studies. Three of the studies adequately blinded patients, however, the risk of bias was unclear in all studies with regards to allocation concealment and selective reporting.Two studies compared omega-3 fatty acids to olive oil for six weeks. One study compared a liquid dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids to one without for six months. One study compared omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids to a control (capsules with customised fatty acid blends) for three months. Only one short-term study (19 participants) comparing omega-3 to placebo reported a significant improvement in lung function and Shwachman score and a reduction in sputum volume in the omega-3 group. Another

  4. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  5. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  6. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  7. Cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition of Corynebacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Moss, C W; Dowell, V R; Lewis, V J; Schekter, M A

    1967-11-01

    A detailed study of the cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 27 isolates of Corynebacterium acnes was performed to establish the properties by which this organism may be identified and characterized. The fatty acids were extracted directly from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. Each strain possessed a similar fatty acid profile which was characterized by a large percentage of C15 branched-chain acid. Uniformity in certain biochemical reactions and cultural characteristics was also observed. All strains were catalase-positive, nonmotile, and urease-negative, reduced nitrate, liquefied gelatin, failed to hydrolyze esculin and starch, and gave a positive methyl red test. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were fermented, but not lactose, salicin, sucrose, maltose, xylose, or arabinose. Production of hydrogen sulfide and indole, fermentation of mannitol, and hemolytic activity were variable characteristics. Two species of the genus Propionibacterium were also tested and found to be similar to C. acnes both in cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition. The results strengthen previous suggestions that C. acnes should be classified in the genus Propionibacterium.

  8. Microorganisms hydrolyse amide bonds; knowledge enabling read-across of biodegradability of fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Roy; Kuijer, Patrick; van Ginkel, Cornelis G; Plugge, Caroline M

    2014-07-01

    To get insight in the biodegradation and potential read-across of fatty acid amides, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide were used as model compounds. Two bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PK1 and Pseudomonas putida PK2 were isolated with N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and its hydrolysis product N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, respectively. In mixed culture, both strains accomplished complete mineralization of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide. Aeromonas hydrophila PK3 was enriched with N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide and subsequently isolated using agar plates containing dodecanoate. N-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazine, the hydrolysis product of N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide, was not degraded. The aerobic biodegradation pathway for primary and secondary fatty acid amides of P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila involved initial hydrolysis of the amide bond producing ammonium, or amines, where the fatty acids formed were immediately metabolized. Complete mineralization of secondary fatty acid amides depended on the biodegradability of the released amine. Tertiary fatty acid amides were not transformed by P. aeruginosa or A. hydrophila. These strains were able to utilize all tested primary and secondary fatty acid amides independent of the amine structure and fatty acid. Read-across of previous reported ready biodegradability results of primary and secondary fatty acid amides is justified based on the broad substrate specificity and the initial hydrolytic attack of the two isolates PK1 and PK3.

  9. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  10. Effects of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on fatty acid and glucose oxidation in the isolated rat diaphragm using 14C-labelled substrates. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VIII.

    PubMed

    Binder, L; Oellerich, M; Haeckel, R; Beneking, M

    1988-12-01

    The influence of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on the utilization of various substrates in isolated rat hemidiaphragms was investigated in comparison with other hypoglycaemic compounds. The effect of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate was concentration-dependent. At a concentration of 0.5 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, glucose utilization increased from 0.276 +/- 0.043 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.894 +/- 0.303 mumol.g-1.l-1 (p less than 0.05). Pyruvate and lactate utilization were stimulated to a lesser extent, while acetate utilization remained nearly constant. At a concentration of 2 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, the oxidation of palmitate decreased from 0.214 +/- 0.017 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.060 +/- 0.005 mumol.g-1.l-1, while the oxidation of octanoate was not decreased. These findings point to a stimulation of the glycolytic flux by inhibition of long-chain fatty acid oxidation.

  11. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  12. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  13. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  14. Efficacy of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of refractory hydroa vacciniforme.

    PubMed

    Durbec, Frédérique; Reguiaï, Ziad; Léonard, Fabienne; Pluot, Michel; Bernard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) is a rare photodermatosis. Several therapies, with sometimes severe side effects, have been used in isolated cases. We report a case of refractory HV successfully treated with dietary fish oil rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  15. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  16. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.

    PubMed

    Francois, C A; Connor, S L; Wander, R C; Connor, W E

    1998-02-01

    Although it is known that the fatty acid profile of human milk is altered by diet, the rapidity with which this occurs has not been addressed. We hypothesized that after absorption the fatty acids of a given meal would be transferred rapidly from the chylomicrons of the blood into human milk. Fourteen lactating women drank six test formulas, each containing a different fat: menhaden oil, herring oil, safflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, or cocoa butter. The subjects collected a midfeeding milk sample before consuming the breakfast test formula and additional samples at 6, 10, 14, and 24 h and then once daily for 4-7 d. Fatty acids of special interest included eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from menhaden oil, cetoleic acid from herring oil, linoleic acid from safflower oil, linolenic acid from canola oil, lauric acid from coconut oil, and palmitic and stearic acids from cocoa butter. Each of these fatty acids increased significantly in human milk within 6 h of consumption of the test formulas (P < 0.001). Maximum increases occurred 10 h after safflower oil; 14 h after cocoa utter, coconut oil, canola oil, and menhaden oil (eicosapentaenoic acid); and 24 h after herring oil and menhaden oil (docosahexaenoic acid). All of these fatty acids remained significantly elevated in milk (P < 0.05) for 10-24 h, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which remained significantly elevated for 2 d, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which remained elevated for 3 d. These data support the hypothesis that there is a rapid transfer of dietary fatty acids from chylomicrons into human milk.

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in emerging psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Schaefer, Miriam R; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Smesny, Stefan; McGorry, Pat; Berger, Gregor; Amminger, G Paul

    2012-01-01

    The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites for the cause and treatment of psychotic disorders are widely discussed. The efficacy as an augmenting agent in chronic schizophrenia seems to be small or not present, however epidemiological data, as well as some recent controlled studies in emerging psychosis point towards possible preventive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in early and very early stages of psychotic disorders and some potential secondary or tertiary beneficial long-term effects in later, more chronic stages, in particular for metabolic or extra-pyramidal side effects. In this comprehensive review, we describe the physiology and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipases, epidemiological evidence and the effect of these fatty acids on the brain and neurodevelopment. Furthermore, we examine the available evidence in indicated prevention in emerging psychosis, monotherapy, add-on therapy and tolerability. The neuroprotective potential of n-3 LC-PUFAs for indicated prevention, i.e. delaying transition to psychosis in high-risk populations needs to be further explored.

  18. Lipid and Fatty Acid Requirements of Tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary lipids are an important source of highly digestible energy and are the only source of essential fatty acids required for normal growth and development. They are also carriers and assist in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, such as sterols and fat-soluble vitamins, serve as a source of...

  19. Hydroxyl Fatty Acids and Hydroxyl Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean oil is produced domestically in large supply, averaging over 20 billion pounds per year with an annual carryover of more than one billion pounds. It is important to find new uses for this surplus soybean oil. Hydroxyl fatty acids and hydroxyl oils are platform materials for specialty chemi...

  20. [THE FATTY ACIDS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Catalán, Julio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo

    2015-09-01

    The functionality of the eukaryotic cell depends on the cell membrane, the genetic information and action of different organelles with or without the presence of membranes. The functionality of the cell membrane and organelles containing it depends primarily on the type and location of fatty acids in the phospholipids and the type of enzymes associated with them, this allows the fatty acids to be metabolized to new species that exert various functions. From this perspective, some essential fatty acids (EFAs) that produce metabolites that exert health benefits are identified, (for example antiinflammatory, neuroprotection, etc) and exert negative effects metabolites (eg inflammation, necrosis promoters, atheroma, etc.) are also generated. In general, these adverse or beneficial effects depend on the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 obtained in the diet. Thus, the higher this ratio is more negative effect; therefore the challenge of the current supply is obtained through food consumption, lower ratios in these fatty acids. The present review aims to present recent evidence on the effects of some AGEs, and the role of diet in maintaining health.

  1. Melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps.

    PubMed

    Barman, S; Vasudevan, S

    2006-11-16

    The melting of alkyl chains in the saturated fatty acid zinc soaps of different chain lengths, Zn(C(n)H(2n+1)COO)(2); n = 11, 13, 15, and 17, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and vibrational spectroscopy. These compounds have a layer structure with the alkyl chains arranged as tilted bilayers and with all methylene chains adopting a planar, all-trans conformation at room temperature. The saturated fatty acid zinc soaps exhibit a single reversible melting transition with the associated enthalpy change varying linearly with alkyl chain length, but surprisingly, the melting temperature remaining constant. Melting is associated with changes in the conformation of the alkyl chains and in the nature of coordination of the fatty acid to zinc. By monitoring features in the infrared spectra that are characteristic of the global conformation of the alkyl chains, a quantitative relation between conformational disorder and melting is established. It is found that, irrespective of the alkyl chain length, melting occurs when 30% of the chains in the soap are disordered. These results highlight the universal nature of the melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps and provide a simple explanation for the observed phenomena.

  2. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds.

    PubMed

    Sathe, S K; Seeram, N P; Kshirsagar, H H; Heber, D; Lapsley, K A

    2008-11-01

    Eight almond (Prunus dulcis L.) cultivars from 12 different California counties, collected during crop years 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006, were extracted with petroleum ether. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS analyses to determine fatty acid composition of soluble lipids. Results indicated palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3) acid, respectively, accounted for 5.07% to 6.78%, 57.54% to 73.94%, 19.32% to 35.18%, and 0.04% to 0.10%; of the total lipids. Oleic and linoleic acid were inversely correlated (r=-0.99, P= 0.05) and together accounted for 91.16% to 94.29% of the total soluble lipids. Statistically, fatty acid composition was significantly affected by cultivar and county.

  3. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  4. Effects of pyrazinamide on fatty acid synthesis by whole mycobacterial cells and purified fatty acid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, Helena I; Mizrahi, Valerie; Barry, Clifton E

    2002-04-01

    The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during intracellular hydrolysis of the corresponding amides, was not a direct consequence of modulation of fatty acid synthesis by these compounds but reflected the response to inorganic acid stress. Analysis of fatty acid synthesis in crude mycobacterial cell extracts demonstrated that pyrazinoic acid failed to directly modulate the fatty acid synthase activity catalyzed by fatty acid synthase I (FAS-I). However, fatty acid synthesis was irreversibly inhibited by 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in a time-dependent fashion. Moreover, we demonstrate that pyrazinoic acid does not inhibit purified mycobacterial FAS-I, suggesting that this enzyme is not the immediate target of pyrazinamide.

  5. (Fatty and aromatic acid catabolizing bacteria from methanogenic ecosystems). Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.P.; Kammerer, J.J.

    1985-02-27

    A long-chain fatty acid degrading (beta oxidizing), obligate proton-reducing, acetogenic bacterium strain SD2 of the genus Syntrophomonas has been isolated in coculture with a hydrogen-using bacterium, Desulfovibrio strain G-11. The enzymology of fatty acid degradation is being studied to discover the differences of SD2 from S. wolfei which allow it to degrade long chain fatty acids. A new species, Clostridium pfennigii (V5-2) was isolated from the rumen. A new genus and species, Syntrophococcus sucromutans (S195) is present in relatively high numbers in rumen contents. Another new species is Eubacterium oxidoreducens. (ACR)

  6. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  8. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  9. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  10. Manipulation of Galactolipid Fatty Acid Composition with Substituted Pyridazinones

    PubMed Central

    John, Judith B. St.

    1976-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the major lipids of the chloroplast membranes, the mono- and digalactosyl diglycerides, can be definably altered with various substituted pyridazinones. Galactolipid fatty acid composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be altered so that there is a decrease in linolenic acid accompanied by an increase in linoleic acid without a shift in the relative proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids; the fatty acid composition can be shifted toward a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids; or the fatty acid composition of the monogalactosyl diglycerides can be altered in preference to the digalactosyl diglycerides. Also, the light-mediated parallel accumulation of chlorophyll and linolenic acid can be separated with a substituted pyridazinone. The substituted pyridazinones may be useful tools in clarifying the role the galactolipids and their component fatty acids play in the structure and function of chloroplast membranes in higher plants. PMID:16659420

  11. Suitability of Phytosterols Alongside Fatty Acids as Chemotaxonomic Biomarkers for Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Sami J.; Hiltunen, Minna; Vuorio, Kristiina; Peltomaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The composition and abundance of phytoplankton is an important factor defining ecological status of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chemotaxonomic markers (e.g., pigments and fatty acids) are needed for monitoring changes in a phytoplankton community and to know the nutritional quality of seston for herbivorous zooplankton. Here we investigated the suitability of sterols along with fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers using multivariate statistics, by analyzing the sterol and fatty acid composition of 10 different phytoplankton classes including altogether 37 strains isolated from freshwater lakes. We were able to detect a total of 47 fatty acids and 29 sterols in our phytoplankton samples, which both differed statistically significantly between phytoplankton classes. Due to the high variation of fatty acid composition among Cyanophyceae, taxonomical differentiation increased when Cyanophyceae were excluded from statistical analysis. Sterol composition was more heterogeneous within class than fatty acids and did not improve separation of phytoplankton classes when used alongside fatty acids. However, we conclude that sterols can provide additional information on the abundance of specific genera within a class which can be generated by using fatty acids. For example, whereas high C16 ω-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) indicates the presence of Chlorophyceae, a simultaneous high amount of ergosterol could specify the presence of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae). Additionally, we found specific 4α-methyl sterols for distinct Dinophyceae genera, suggesting that 4α-methyl sterols can potentially separate freshwater dinoflagellates from each other. PMID:26973664

  12. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  13. Composition of fatty oils from semen ziziphi spinosae and its cardiotonic effect on isolated toad hearts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Wuqin; Zhang, Mingchun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the composition of fatty oil from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and its cardiotonic activity on the heart isolated from a toad were studied. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions of fatty oil were prepared by the perfusion method. The fatty oil had a positive inotropic effect on isolated rat hearts at a concentration between 5 × 10(-3) and 2 × 10(-2) mL/10 mL, and the effect was in positive correlation with the concentration of calcium ions. In addition, this effect was inhibited by 2 mg/mL nifedipine, suggesting that the cardiotonic mechanism could be responsible for accelerating the inflow of calcium ions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the main constituents of the fatty oil were 9-octadecenoic acid (43.32%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (42.57%), hexadecanoic acid (4.76%), 9-eicosenoic acid (2.95%), stearic acid (2.41%) and arachidic acid (0.81%). This preliminary study revealed that the fatty oil of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae exhibited remarkable cardiotonic activity in the tested models, and it is necessary to further reveal the effective substances of the fatty oil.

  14. Fatty acids of astaxanthin esters in krill determined by mild mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Matsui, Kumi; Nakamura, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Hanada, Satoshi

    2003-10-01

    Krill is a major source of astaxanthin, which has strong antioxidant activity. Fractions with astaxanthin monoesters and diesters of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba were isolated. Astaxanthin esters were separated by C18-HPLC depending on the number of carbons and double bonds of esterified fatty acid(s). Small amounts of other lipids remained in the samples, but relative molecular masses of carotenoid esters could be measured by field desorption mass spectrometry without fragmentation and interference from contaminant lipids. The fatty acids were determined by calculation of difference between astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters. Only five kinds of fatty acids, dodecanoate, tetradecanoate, hexadecanoate, hexadecenoate and octadecenoate, were detected. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry showed similar spectra. The fatty acid composition in astaxanthin esters was different from those in krill lipids. Therefore, determination of fatty acids in carotenoid esters by a combination of HPLC elution profile and mild mass spectrometry is found to be a useful tool.

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  18. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C 8 -C 18 Saturated); Exemption from the... fatty acids (C 8 -C 18 saturated) applied pre- and post-harvest on all raw agricultural commodities when... eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of ammonium salts of fatty acids (C...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN P-03-388...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  5. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  6. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  7. Naturally occurring fatty acids: Source, chemistry, and uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  8. Bioconverted Products of Essential Fatty Acids as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review deals with the recent findings on the microbial conversion of essential fatty acids (EFAs) through Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 NRRL-B-18602, and the antimicrobial properties of bioconverted essential fatty acids, with particular emphasis on n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. The first section deals...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10691 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10691... Substances § 721.10691 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-13-267) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10687 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10687 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-201, P-13-203, P-13-204, P-13-205, P-13-206, P-13-207,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10680 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10680... Substances § 721.10680 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    PubMed

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Maze solving using fatty acid chemistry.

    PubMed

    Suzuno, Kohta; Ueyama, Daishin; Branicki, Michal; Tóth, Rita; Braun, Artur; Lagzi, István

    2014-08-12

    This study demonstrates that the Marangoni flow in a channel network can solve maze problems such as exploring and visualizing the shortest path and finding all possible solutions in a parallel fashion. The Marangoni flow is generated by the pH gradient in a maze filled with an alkaline solution of a fatty acid by introducing a hydrogel block soaked with an acid at the exit. The pH gradient changes the protonation rate of fatty acid molecules, which translates into the surface tension gradient at the liquid-air interface through the maze. Fluid flow maintained by the surface tension gradient (Marangoni flow) can drag water-soluble dye particles toward low pH (exit) at the liquid-air interface. Dye particles placed at the entrance of the maze dissolve during this motion, thus exhibiting and finding the shortest path and all possible paths in a maze.

  2. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  3. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    PubMed

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  5. Metabolic diversity in biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria involving conjugated fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a effectively transforms linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acids of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. The transformation of various polyunsaturated fatty acids by washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a was investigated. Besides linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid [cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3)], gamma-linolenic acid (cis-6,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), columbinic acid (trans-5,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), and stearidonic acid [cis-6,cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4)] were found to be transformed. The fatty acids transformed by the strain had the common structure of a C18 fatty acid with the cis-9,cis-12 diene system. Three major fatty acids were produced from alpha-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, and trans-10,cis-15-18:2. Four major fatty acids were produced from gamma-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-10-18:2, and trans-10-octadecenoic acid. The strain transformed the cis-9,cis-12 diene system of C18 fatty acids into conjugated diene systems of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-9,trans-11. These conjugated dienes were further saturated into the trans-10 monoene system by the strain. The results provide valuable information for understanding the pathway of biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria and for establishing microbial processes for the practical production of conjugated fatty acids, especially those produced from alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  7. Identification of a two-component fatty acid kinase responsible for host fatty acid incorporation by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Broussard, Tyler C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Rosch, Jason W.; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was required to support virulence factor transcription. These data reveal the function of two conserved gene families, their essential role in the incorporation of host fatty acids by Gram-positive pathogens, and connects fatty acid kinase to the regulation of virulence factor transcription in S. aureus. PMID:25002480

  8. Research on food and nutrition characteristics of conjugated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the physiological effects of fatty acids with conjugated double bonds were widely examined in vitro and in vivo. Initially, a method for determination of conjugated fatty acids in food and biological samples was established. I then clarified that the oxidative stability of conjugated fatty acids was improved by the form of triacylglycerol and addition of an antioxidant, and the influence of this effect on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of conjugated fatty acids was clarified in vivo. In addition, antitumor, anti-angiogenesis, and antiobesity effects of conjugated fatty acids were found for the first time, thus demonstrating the usefulness of conjugated fatty acids. This communication mainly outlines the data obtained for conjugated linolenic acid. In addition, this review summarizes my research on conjugated fatty acid.

  9. Inhibition of Ileal Water Absorption by Intraluminal Fatty Acids INFLUENCE OF CHAIN LENGTH, HYDROXYLATION, AND CONJUGATION OF FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, Helmut V.; Phillips, Sidney F.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of fatty acids on ileal absorption of water, electrolytes, glucose, and taurocholate was examined in Thirty-Vella fistulas in five mongrel dogs. Fatty acid absorption also was measured. Segments of terminal ileum were perfused at steady state with isotonic electrolyte solutions containing 11.2 mM glucose, 4.5 mM taurocholate, and 0.1-5.0 mM fatty acid. Three C18 fatty acids, oleic acid, 10(9)-hydroxystearic acid, and ricinoleic acid, completely inhibited water absorption at 5 mM. Sodium, chloride, and potassium absorptions were inhibited in parallel with absorption of water. Differences between the potencies of C18 fatty acids were apparent when lesser concentrations were perfused. Dodecanoic and decanoic acids were as effective as C18 fatty acids at 5 mM but octanoic and hexanoic acids were ineffective. The polar group of C18 fatty acids was modified by conjugating oleic and ricinoleic acids with taurine. When these compounds and a substituted C18 fatty acid, p-n-decylbenzenesulfonate, were perfused, water absorption was also inhibited. Short-chain fatty acids (C3 and C4) and their hydroxylated derivatives were ineffective at 5 mM. When water absorption was inhibited, absorption of glucose and taurocholate was decreased. We speculate that the phenomenon of inhibition of water and electrolyte absorption by fatty acids may be relevant to steatorrhea and diarrhea in man. Images PMID:4808636

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  11. Fatty Acid Oxidation in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria is Unaffected by Deletion of CD36

    PubMed Central

    King, Kristen L.; Stanley, William C.; Rosca, Mariana; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L.; Febbraio, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies found that the plasma membrane fatty acid transport protein CD36 also resides in mitochondrial membranes in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Pharmacological studies suggest that CD36 may play an essential role in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria from wild type and CD36 knock-out mice. There were no differences between wild type and CD36 knock-out mice in mitochondrial respiration with palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl-carnitine or glutamate as substrate. We investigated a potential alternative role for CD36 in mitochondria, ie. the export of fatty acids generated in the matrix. Palmitate export was not different between wild type and CD36 knock out mice. Taken together, CD36 does not appear to play an essential role in mitochondrial uptake of fatty acids or export of fatty acid anions. PMID:17904092

  12. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids (ῳ-3 fatty acids) in epilepsy: animal models and human clinical trials.

    PubMed

    DeGiorgio, Christopher M; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose of ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.

  14. [Fatty acid composition of structural lipids of normal and abnormal wool fibres].

    PubMed

    Havryliak, V V; Tkachuk, V M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition of structural lipids, isolated from normal and abnormal wool fibers. The results of these studies show that regardless of the type of wool fibers defect there are quantitative changes in their fatty acid composition. It was shown that the main fatty acid of the covalently bound lipids, isolated from the wool fibers, is 18-methyleicosanoic acid (18-MEA), comprising 40% of the total fatty acid, while its amount in free lipids in norm is less than 4%. The decrease of 18-MEA content in the covalently bound lipid both in pathological thin and entangled wool fibers was established, which is associated with damage of the cuticle layer surface. Increasing of 18-MEA content in the free lipids in the entangled wool fibers may indicate a rupture of tioester links between lipids and proteins of cuticle layer lamellar structures.

  15. Fatty acid profile of unconventional oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha; Sathish Kumar, M H

    2012-01-01

    The continued increase in human population has resulted in the rise in the demand as well as the price of edible oils, leading to the search for alternative unconventional sources of oils, particularly in the developing countries. There are hundreds of un- or underexplored plant seeds rich in oil suitable for edible or industrial purposes. Many of them are rich in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which establish their utility as "healthy oils." Some agrowaste products such as rice bran have gained importance as a potential source of edible oil. Genetic modification has paved the way for increasing the oil yields and improving the fatty acid profiles of traditional as well as unconventional oilseeds. Single cell oils are also novel sources of edible oil. Some of these unconventional oils may have excellent potential for medicinal and therapeutic uses, even if their low oil contents do not promote commercial production as edible oils.

  16. [The fatty acids and fatty aldehydes of blood as a biochemical of multiple organ failure].

    PubMed

    Osipenko, A N; Akulich, N V; Marochkov, A V

    2012-10-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of fatty acids and fatty aldehydes of plasma and blood erythrocytes in patients with the syndrome of multiple organ failure. The increase of relative level of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and decrease of poly-saturated fatty acids and saturated stearic acid in blood plasma is demonstrated. The reliable alterations in erythrocytes concerning the content of saturated palmitic and poly-saturated linoleic fatty acids are detected. In patients with multiple organ failure the decrease of level of fatty aldehydes and cholesterol in blood plasma is established too. The conclusion is made about significant role of mono non-saturated fatty acids in disorders of systemic haemodynamics and evaluation of degree of disorder of lipid metabolism between cells and blood plasma lipoproteins.

  17. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  18. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  20. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis during development.

    PubMed

    Girard, J; Duée, P H; Ferré, P; Pégorier, J P; Escriva, F; Decaux, J F

    1985-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred oxidative substrates of the heart, skeletal muscles, kidney cortex and liver in adult mammals. They are supplied to these tissues either as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), or as triglycerides after hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase. During fetal life, tissue capacity to oxidize NEFA is very low, even in species in which the placental transfer of NEFA and carnitine is high. At birth, the ability to oxidize NEFA from endogenous sources or from milk (a high-fat diet) develops rapidly in various tissues and remains very high throughout the suckling period. Ketogenesis appears in the liver by 6 to 12 hrs after birth, and the ketone bodies are used as oxidative fuels by various tissues during the suckling period. At the time of weaning, the transition from a high-fat to a high-carbohydrate diet is attended by a progressive decrease in the ketogenic capacity of the liver, whereas other tissues (skeletal muscle, heart, kidney) maintain a high capacity for NEFA oxidation. The nutritional and hormonal factors involved in changes in fatty acid oxidation during development are discussed.

  1. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this section...

  4. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  5. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  6. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  9. Fatty acids of Thespesia populnea: Mass spectrometry of picolinyl esters of cyclopropene fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thespesia populnea belongs to the plant family of Malvaceae which contain cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acids. However, previous literature reports vary regarding the content of these compounds in Thespesia populnea seed oil. In this work, the content of malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-9-heptade...

  10. Overview of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bradberry, J. Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    The triglyceride (TG)-lowering benefits of the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well documented. Available as prescription formulations and dietary supplements, EPA and DHA are recommended by the American Heart Association for patients with coronary heart disease and hypertriglyceridemia. Dietary supplements are not subject to the same government regulatory standards for safety, efficacy, and purity as prescription drugs are; moreover, supplements may contain variable concentrations of EPA and DHA and possibly other contaminants. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remains the primary treatment goal in the management of dyslipidemia. Dietary supplements and prescription formulations that contain both EPA and DHA may lower TG levels, but they may also increase LDL-C levels. Two prescription formulations of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are available in the U.S. Although prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM-3-A EEs, Lovaza) contain high-purity EPA and DHA, prescription icosapent ethyl (IPE, Vascepa) is a high-purity EPA agent. In clinical trials of statin-treated and non–statin-treated patients with hypertriglyceridemia, both OM-3-A EE and IPE lowered TG levels and other atherogenic markers; however, IPE did not increase LDL-C levels. Results of recent outcomes trials of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, and niacin have been disappointing, failing to show additional reductions in adverse cardiovascular events when combined with statins. Therefore, the REDUCE–IT study is being conducted to evaluate the effect of the combination of IPE and statins on cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients. The results of this trial are eagerly anticipated. PMID:24391388

  11. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  12. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  13. Dietary essential fatty acids change the fatty acid profile of rat neural mitochondria over time.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J R; Greenwood, C E

    1991-10-01

    This experiment examined the time course over which the amount of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA) affects brain mitochondrial fatty acids. Weanling rats were fed 20% (wt/wt) fat diets that contained either 4 or 15% (wt/wt of diet) EFA for 1, 2, 3 or 6 wk or a 10% EFA diet for 3 or 6 wk. The EFA ratio [18:2(n-6)/18:3(n-3)] of all diets was approximately 30. Fatty acid analysis of brain mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin revealed that the largest dietary effect was on 18:2(n-6), which was 30% higher in rats fed the 15 vs. 4% EFA diets after 1 wk. This difference increased to twofold by 3 wk and was still twofold after 6 wk. These results demonstrate several facts: 1) the response of 18:2(n-6) in cardiolipin to dietary EFA is very fast and large, relative to changes in other quantitatively major fatty acids observed in weanling rats; 2) the 18:2(n-6) level in neural cardiolipin stabilizes after 3 wk of feeding at a level dependent upon the amount of dietary EFA; and 3) at least one neural fatty acid, 18:2(n-6), is very sensitive to amounts of dietary EFA that are well above the animal's EFA requirement.

  14. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  15. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  18. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  19. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  20. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  1. Epoxygenated Fatty Acids Inhibit Retinal Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Megan E.; Hammer, Sandra S.; McCollum, Gary W.; Penn, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of elevating epoxygenated fatty acids on retinal vascular inflammation. To stimulate inflammation we utilized TNFα, a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that is elevated in the serum and vitreous of diabetic patients. In TNFα-stimulated primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, total levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), but not epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), were significantly decreased. Exogenous addition of 11,12-EET or 19,20-EDP when combined with 12-(3-adamantane-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrolysis, inhibited VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and protein levels; conversely the diol product of 19,20-EDP hydrolysis, 19,20-DHDP, induced VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression. 11,12-EET and 19,20-EDP also inhibited leukocyte adherence to human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers and leukostasis in an acute mouse model of retinal inflammation. Our results indicate that this inhibition may be mediated through an indirect effect on NFκB activation. This is the first study demonstrating a direct comparison of EET and EDP on vascular inflammatory endpoints, and we have confirmed a comparable efficacy from each isomer, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. Taken together, these data establish that epoxygenated fatty acid elevation will inhibit early pathology related to TNFα-induced inflammation in retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27966642

  2. Effect of cyclic fatty acid monomers on fat absorption and transport depends on their positioning within the ingested triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Martin, J C; Caselli, C; Broquet, S; Juanéda, P; Nour, M; Sébédio, J L; Bernard, A

    1997-08-01

    We investigated the intestinal digestion of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) isolated from heated linseed oil and their effects upon fatty acid lymphatic transport and lipoprotein profile in lymph. These cyclic fatty acid monomers were acylated in specific positions in the glycerol backbone of triacylglycerols (sn-(1/3) position for the 1C oil, sn-2 position for the 2C oil and together in the sn-1,2, and 3 positions for the 3C oil) and administered intragastrically to lymph-canulated rats. Their lumenal digestibility was also assessed in vitro using a pancreatic lipase assay. The lipase activity was 1.9 to 6.6 less towards the triacylglycerols acylated with cyclic fatty acids compared to control. The lowest activity was with the 2C oil. In the hydrolytic products, the cyclic fatty acid contents were similar between the experimental groups. When absorbed as 2-monoacyl-sn-glycerol (2C oil), cyclic fatty acid monomers were better and unselectively recovered into the lymph than when absorbed as free fatty acids (1C oil). In that latter situation, the bulkier cyclic fatty acids (C6 and cis membered-ring CFAM) were transported into the lymph to a lesser extent. The appearance of the lymphatic chylomicrons was delayed in rats fed the 1C oil. Cyclic fatty acid monomers from the 2C oil only increased the lymphatic transport of saturated fatty acids (80%). Cyclic fatty acids from the 3C oil (absorbed as 2-monoacyl-sn-glycerol and free fatty acid) usually elicited intermediary effects. We conclude that the effects of cyclic fatty acid monomers upon the intestinal metabolism are greatly influenced by their positioning within the triacylglycerol and that the structure of the cyclic fatty acids influences their lymphatic recovery only when they are absorbed as free fatty acid.

  3. Loss of fatty acid control of gluconeogenesis and PDH complex flux in adrenalectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ciprés, G; Urcelay, E; Butta, N; Ayuso, M S; Parrilla, R; Martín-Requero, A

    1994-10-01

    This work aimed to determine the role played by the adrenal gland in the fatty acid control of gluconeogenesis in isolated perfused rat livers. The gluconeogenic substrate concentration responses were not altered in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats. This observation indicates that glucocorticoids are not essential to maintain normal basal gluconeogenic rates. In contrast, fatty acid failed to stimulate gluconeogenesis from lactate and elicited attenuated stimulation with pyruvate as substrate in livers from ADX rats. Fatty acid-induced stimulation of respiration and ketone body production were similar in control and ADX rats. Thus the diminished responsiveness of the gluconeogenic pathway to fatty acid cannot be the result of different rates of energy production and/or generation of reducing power. Fatty acids did not inhibit pyruvate decarboxylation in livers from ADX rats. Even though mitochondria isolated from livers of ADX rats showed normal basal rates of pyruvate metabolism, fatty acids failed to inhibit pyruvate decarboxylation and the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This novel observation of the glucocorticoid effect in controlling the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex responsiveness indicates that the mitochondrial partitioning of pyruvate between carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions may be altered in livers from ADX rats. We propose that the diminished effect of fatty acid in stimulating gluconeogenesis in livers from ADX rats is the result of a limited pyruvate availability for the carboxylase reaction due to a lack of inhibition of flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

  4. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  5. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  6. Effect of sulfonylureas on hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-08-01

    In isolated rat livers perfused with oleic acid (0.1 mM), infusion of tolbutamide or glyburide decreased the rate of ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was maximal at 2.0 mM and 10 M concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide, respectively. Neither tolbutamide nor glyburide inhibited ketogenesis in livers perfused with octanoate. The inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by sulfonylureas was independent of perfusate oleic acid concentration. Additionally, in rat livers perfused with oleic acid in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine (10 mM), submaximal concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide did not inhibit hepatic ketogenesis. Finally, glyburide infusion into livers perfused with (U- $C)oleic acid (0.1 mM) increased the rate of UC label incorporation into hepatic triglycerides by 2.5-fold. These data suggest that both tolbutamide and glyburide inhibit long-chain fatty acid oxidation by inhibition the key regulatory enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, most probably by competing with L-(-)-carnitine.

  7. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) but not carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat muscle mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Carley R; Holloway, Graham P; Campbell, S E; Yoshida, Yuko; Tandon, Narendra N; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J J F P; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter the expression of genes involved in regulating lipid metabolism. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, induces tissue-specific effects on lipid metabolism; however, its mode of action in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Since fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) was recently identified as a possible regulator of skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we examined in this tissue the effects of rosiglitazone infusion (7 days, 1 mg day−1) on FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein, its plasmalemmal content and fatty acid transport. In addition, in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria we examined rates of fatty acid oxidation, FAT/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) protein, and CPTI and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities. Rosiglitazone did not alter FAT/CD36 mRNA or protein expression, FAT/CD36 plasmalemmal content, or the rate of fatty acid transport into muscle (P > 0.05). In contrast, rosiglitazone increased the rates of fatty acid oxidation in both SS (+21%) and IMF mitochondria (+36%). This was accompanied by concomitant increases in FAT/CD36 in subsarcolemmal (SS) (+43%) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria (+46%), while SS and IMF CPTI protein content, and CPTI submaximal and maximal activities (P > 0.05) were not altered. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) and β-HAD activities were also not altered by rosiglitazone in SS and IMF mitochondria (P > 0.05). These studies provide another example whereby changes in mitochondrial fatty oxidation are associated with concomitant changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36 independent of any changes in CPTI. Moreover, these studies identify for the first time a mechanism by which rosiglitazone stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, namely the chronic, subcellular relocation of FAT/CD36 to mitochondria. PMID:18238811

  8. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dyall, S C; Michael-Titus, A T

    2008-01-01

    The central nervous system is highly enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the omega-6 and omega-3 series. The presence of these fatty acids as structural components of neuronal membranes influences cellular function both directly, through effects on membrane properties, and also by acting as a precursor pool for lipid-derived messengers. An adequate intake of omega-3 PUFA is essential for optimal visual function and neural development. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that increased intake of the long-chain omega-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may confer benefits in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders, and in particular neurodegenerative conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are still poorly understood. Recent evidence also indicates that in addition to the positive effects seen in chronic neurodegenerative conditions, omega-3 PUFA may also have significant neuroprotective potential in acute neurological injury. Thus, these compounds offer an intriguing prospect as potentially new therapeutic approaches in both chronic and acute conditions. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence of the neurological benefits of omega-3 PUFA, looking specifically at neurodegenerative conditions and acute neurological injury.

  9. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  10. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  11. Role of serotonin in fatty acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Ritze, Yvonne; Böhle, Maureen; Haub, Synia; Hubert, Astrid; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2013-12-09

    Saturated fatty acids are thought to be of relevance for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In previous studies we found that food-derived carbohydrates such as fructose alter the intestinal serotonergic system while inducing fatty liver disease in mice. Here, we examined the effect of fatty acid quantity (11% versus 15%) and quality (saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids) on hepatic fat accumulation, intestinal barrier and the intestinal serotonergic system. C57BL/6 mice had free access to diets enriched with one of the three fatty acids or standard diet, for 8 weeks. In an additional experiment mice were fed diets enriched with saturated, monounsaturated fatty acids or standard diet supplemented with tryptophan (0.4 g/(kg.d), 8 weeks) or not. Hepatic fat accumulation, small intestinal barrier impairment and components of the serotonergic system were measured with RT-PCR, western blot or immunoassays. For statistical analysis t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test and Bartlett's test for equal variances was used. Hepatic triglycerides, liver weight and liver to body weight ratio were significantly changed depending on the fat quality but not fat quantity. In contrast, fat quantity but not quality decreased the expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-1 in the small intestine. These changes seemed to result in enhanced portal vein endotoxin concentrations and fatty liver disease after feeding diet enriched with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids but not polyunsaturated fatty acids. Neither fatty acid quantity nor quality significantly influenced the intestinal serotonergic system. Similarly, tryptophan supplementation had no impact on small intestinal barrier or fatty liver disease. In conclusion, diets rich in saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids promote the development of fatty liver disease in mice, likely

  12. Role of serotonin in fatty acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saturated fatty acids are thought to be of relevance for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In previous studies we found that food-derived carbohydrates such as fructose alter the intestinal serotonergic system while inducing fatty liver disease in mice. Here, we examined the effect of fatty acid quantity (11% versus 15%) and quality (saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids) on hepatic fat accumulation, intestinal barrier and the intestinal serotonergic system. Methods C57BL/6 mice had free access to diets enriched with one of the three fatty acids or standard diet, for 8 weeks. In an additional experiment mice were fed diets enriched with saturated, monounsaturated fatty acids or standard diet supplemented with tryptophan (0.4 g/(kg.d), 8 weeks) or not. Hepatic fat accumulation, small intestinal barrier impairment and components of the serotonergic system were measured with RT-PCR, western blot or immunoassays. For statistical analysis t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test and Bartlett’s test for equal variances was used. Results Hepatic triglycerides, liver weight and liver to body weight ratio were significantly changed depending on the fat quality but not fat quantity. In contrast, fat quantity but not quality decreased the expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-1 in the small intestine. These changes seemed to result in enhanced portal vein endotoxin concentrations and fatty liver disease after feeding diet enriched with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids but not polyunsaturated fatty acids. Neither fatty acid quantity nor quality significantly influenced the intestinal serotonergic system. Similarly, tryptophan supplementation had no impact on small intestinal barrier or fatty liver disease. Conclusion In conclusion, diets rich in saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids promote the

  13. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G. ); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. ); Browse, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Incorporation of fatty acids by concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes and the effect on fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P; Harvey, D J; Watts, A; Newsholme, E A

    1994-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each fatty acid into all lipid classes but each fatty acid had a characteristic fate. Palmitic and arachidonic acids were incorporated principally into phospholipids whereas oleic and linoleic acids were incorporated in similar proportions into phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Oleic acid was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylcholine, palmitic and linoleic acids were incorporated equally into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and arachidonic acid was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylethanolamine. Supplementation of the culture medium with particular fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid) led to enrichment of that fatty acid in both neutral lipids and phospholipids. This generated lymphocytes with phospholipids differing in saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, degree of polyunsaturation, index of unsaturation and n - 6/n - 3 ratio. This method allowed the introduction into lymphocyte phospholipids of fatty acids not normally present (e.g. alpha-linolenic) or usually present in low proportions (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic). These three n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty

  15. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acidsodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method. PMID:24326396

  16. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  17. Anti-allergic Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Typhonium blumei Explored through ChemGPS-NP.

    PubMed

    Korinek, Michal; Tsai, Yi-Hong; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Lai, Kuei-Hung; Backlund, Anders; Wu, Shou-Fang; Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chen, Shu-Li; Wu, Yang-Chang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of allergic diseases with an inadequate variety of treatment drives forward search for new alternative drugs. Fatty acids, abundant in nature, are regarded as important bioactive compounds and powerful nutrients playing an important role in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Phytochemical study on Typhonium blumei Nicolson and Sivadasan (Araceae), a folk anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory medicine, yielded four oxygenated fatty acids, 12R-hydroxyoctadec-9Z,13E-dienoic acid methyl ester (1) and 10R-hydroxyoctadec-8E,12Z-dienoic acid methyl ester (2), 9R-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (3), and 12R(*)-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (4). Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods along with GC-MS analysis. Isolated fatty acids together with a series of saturated, unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acids were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities in vitro. Unsaturated (including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) as well as hydroxylated unsaturated fatty acids exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity in superoxide anion generation (IC50 2.14-3.73 μM) and elastase release (IC50 1.26-4.57 μM) assays. On the other hand, in the anti-allergic assays, the unsaturated fatty acids were inactive, while hydroxylated fatty acids showed promising inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assays (e.g., 9S-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, IC50 92.4 and 49.7 μM, respectively). According to our results, the presence of a hydroxy group in the long chain did not influence the potent anti-inflammatory activity of free unsaturated acids. Nevertheless, hydroxylation of fatty acids (or their methyl esters) seems to be a key factor for the anti-allergic activity observed in the current study. Moreover, ChemGPS-NP was explored to predict the structure-activity relationship of fatty acids. The anti-allergic fatty acids formed different cluster distant from

  18. Anti-allergic Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Typhonium blumei Explored through ChemGPS-NP

    PubMed Central

    Korinek, Michal; Tsai, Yi-Hong; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Lai, Kuei-Hung; Backlund, Anders; Wu, Shou-Fang; Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chen, Shu-Li; Wu, Yang-Chang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of allergic diseases with an inadequate variety of treatment drives forward search for new alternative drugs. Fatty acids, abundant in nature, are regarded as important bioactive compounds and powerful nutrients playing an important role in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Phytochemical study on Typhonium blumei Nicolson and Sivadasan (Araceae), a folk anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory medicine, yielded four oxygenated fatty acids, 12R-hydroxyoctadec-9Z,13E-dienoic acid methyl ester (1) and 10R-hydroxyoctadec-8E,12Z-dienoic acid methyl ester (2), 9R-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (3), and 12R*-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (4). Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods along with GC-MS analysis. Isolated fatty acids together with a series of saturated, unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acids were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities in vitro. Unsaturated (including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) as well as hydroxylated unsaturated fatty acids exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity in superoxide anion generation (IC50 2.14–3.73 μM) and elastase release (IC50 1.26–4.57 μM) assays. On the other hand, in the anti-allergic assays, the unsaturated fatty acids were inactive, while hydroxylated fatty acids showed promising inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assays (e.g., 9S-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, IC50 92.4 and 49.7 μM, respectively). According to our results, the presence of a hydroxy group in the long chain did not influence the potent anti-inflammatory activity of free unsaturated acids. Nevertheless, hydroxylation of fatty acids (or their methyl esters) seems to be a key factor for the anti-allergic activity observed in the current study. Moreover, ChemGPS-NP was explored to predict the structure-activity relationship of fatty acids. The anti-allergic fatty acids formed different cluster distant from

  19. Plasma and neutrophil fatty acid composition in advanced cancer patients and response to fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, V C; Watanabe, S; Bruera, E; Mackey, J; Clandinin, M T; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

    2002-12-02

    Metabolic demand and altered supply of essential nutrients is poorly characterised in patients with advanced cancer. A possible imbalance or deficiency of essential fatty acids is suggested by reported beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation. To assess fatty acid status (composition of plasma and neutrophil phospholipids) in advanced cancer patients before and after 14 days of supplementation (12+/-1 g day(-1)) with fish (eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive) oil. Blood was drawn from cancer patients experiencing weight loss of >5% body weight (n=23). Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes of isolated neutrophils were determined using gas liquid chromatography. At baseline, patients with advanced cancer exhibited low levels (<30% of normal values) of plasma phospholipids and constituent fatty acids and elevated 20 : 4 n-6 content in neutrophil phospholipids. High n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in neutrophil and plasma phospholipids were inversely related to body mass index. Fish oil supplementation raised eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma but not neutrophil phospholipids. 20 : 4 n-6 content was reduced in neutrophil PI following supplementation with fish oil. Change in body weight during the supplementation period related directly to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma. Advanced cancer patients have alterations in lipid metabolism potentially due to nutritional status and/or chemotherapy. Potential obstacles in fatty acid utilisation must be addressed in future trials aiming to improve outcomes using nutritional intervention with fish oils.

  20. Recovery of slaughterhouse Animal Fatty Wastewater Sludge by conversion into Fatty Acid Butyl Esters by acid-catalyzed esterification.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher; Cerny, Muriel; Lacroux, Eric; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2017-02-01

    Two types of Animal Fatty Wastewater Sludges (AFWS 1 and 2) were analyzed and fully characterized to determine their suitability for conversion into biofuel. AFWS 1 was determined to be unsuitable as it contains 68.8wt.% water and only 32.3wt.% dry material, of which only around 80% is lipids to be converted. AFWS 2 has only 15.7wt.% water and 84.3wt.% dry material of which is assumed to 100% lipids as the protein and ash contents were determined to be negligible. The 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) catalyzed esterification of AFWS with 1-butanol was performed in a novel batch reactor fitted with a drying chimney for the "in situ" removal of water and optimized using a non-conventional Doehlert surface response methodology. The optimized condition was found to be 1.66mol equivalent of 1-butanol (with respect to total fatty acid chains), 10wt.% of DBSA catalyst (with respect to AFWS) at 105°C for 3h. Fatty Acid Butyl Esters (FABEs) were isolated in good yields (95%+) as well as a blend of FABEs with 1-butanol (16%). The two potential biofuels were analyzed in comparison with current and analogous biofuels (FAME based biodiesel, and FABE products made from vegetable oils) and were found to exhibit high cetane numbers and flash point values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of model bacterial communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, Haack S.; Garchow, H.; Odelson, D.A.; Forney, L.J.; Klug, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid 'signatures' in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI- FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive.

  2. Caffeine-stimulated fatty acid oxidation is blunted in CD36 null mice.

    PubMed

    Lally, J S V; Jain, S S; Han, X X; Snook, L A; Glatz, J F C; Luiken, J J F P; McFarlan, J; Holloway, G P; Bonen, A

    2012-05-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism during exercise has been associated with the release of calcium. We examined whether this increase in fatty acid oxidation was attributable to a calcium-induced translocation of the fatty acid transporter CD36 to the sarcolemma, thereby providing an enhanced influx of fatty acids to increase their oxidation. Calcium release was triggered by caffeine (3 mm) to examine fatty acid oxidation in intact soleus muscles of WT and CD36-KO mice, while fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation were examined in giant vesicles and isolated mitochondria, respectively, from caffeine-perfused hindlimb muscles of WT and CD36-KO mice. Western blotting was used to examine calcium-induced signalling. In WT, caffeine stimulated muscle palmitate oxidation (+136%), but this was blunted in CD36-KO mice (-70%). Dantrolene inhibited (WT) or abolished (CD36-KO) caffeine-induced palmitate oxidation. In muscle, caffeine-stimulated palmitate oxidation was not attributable to altered mitochondrial palmitate oxidation. Instead, in WT, caffeine increased palmitate transport (+55%) and the translocation of fatty acid transporters CD36, FABPpm, FATP1 and FATP4 (26-70%) to the sarcolemma. In CD36-KO mice, caffeine-stimulated FABPpm, and FATP1 and 4 translocations were normal, but palmitate transport was blunted (-70%), comparable to the reductions in muscle palmitate oxidation. Caffeine did not alter the calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation but did increase the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase comparably in WT and CD36-KO. These studies indicate that sarcolemmal CD36-mediated fatty acid transport is a primary mediator of the calcium-induced increase in muscle fatty acid oxidation. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  3. Accuracy, Reproducibility, and Interpretation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles of Model Bacterial Communities †

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Garchow, Helen; Odelson, David A.; Forney, Larry J.; Klug, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid “signatures” in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI-FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive. PMID:16349327

  4. Fatty Acid Activation in Cyanobacteria Mediated by Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase Enables Fatty Acid Recycling1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Fulda, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In cyanobacteria fatty acids destined for lipid synthesis can be synthesized de novo, but also exogenous free fatty acids from the culture medium can be directly incorporated into lipids. Activation of exogenous fatty acids is likely required prior to their utilization. To identify the enzymatic activity responsible for activation we cloned candidate genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and identified the encoded proteins as acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetases (Aas). The enzymes catalyze the ATP-dependent esterification of fatty acids to the thiol of acyl carrier protein. The two protein sequences are only distantly related to known prokaryotic Aas proteins but they display strong similarity to sequences that can be found in almost all organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. To investigate the biological role of Aas activity in cyanobacteria, aas knockout mutants were generated in the background of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and S. elongatus PCC 7942. The mutant strains showed two phenotypes characterized by the inability to utilize exogenous fatty acids and by the secretion of endogenous fatty acids into the culture medium. The analyses of extracellular and intracellular fatty acid profiles of aas mutant strains as well as labeling experiments indicated that the detected free fatty acids are released from membrane lipids. The data suggest a considerable turnover of lipid molecules and a role for Aas activity in recycling the released fatty acids. In this model, lipid degradation represents a third supply of fatty acids for lipid synthesis in cyanobacteria. PMID:20061450

  5. n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J E

    1990-05-01

    Principal food sources of the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid are salad and cooking oil, salad dressing, shortening, margarine, and food-service fat and oil products made from canola oil or soybean oil. Using food production data provided by US trade associations and by Statistics Canada, I estimated the per capita availability of alpha-linolenic acid from vegetable-oil products in the United States to be approximately 1.2 g/d and in Canada, approximately 2 g/d. The higher alpha-linolenic acid availability in Canada is largely accounted for by widespread use of canola oil there. Considering also contributions to dietary alpha-linolenic acid of other foods such as nuts, dairy products, and vegetables, it would appear that total intake of alpha-linolenic acid in US and Canadian diets adequately exceeds the reported nutritional requirement. Emerging research has suggested possible health benefits associated with modest increases in dietary alpha-linolenic acid, including reduced blood-clotting tendency and reduced blood pressure.

  6. Applications of cellular fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D F

    1991-01-01

    More than ever, new technology is having an impact on the tools of clinical microbiologists. The analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) has become markedly more practical with the advent of the fused-silica capillary column, computer-controlled chromatography and data analysis, simplified sample preparation, and a commercially available GLC system dedicated to microbiological applications. Experience with applications in diagnostic microbiology ranges from substantial success in work with mycobacteria, legionellae, and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to minimal involvement with fungi and other nonbacterial agents. GLC is a good alternative to other means for the identification of mycobacteria or legionellae because it is rapid, specific, and independent of other specialized testing, e.g., DNA hybridization. Nonfermenters show features in their cellular fatty acid content that are useful in identifying species and, in some cases, subspecies. Less frequently encountered nonfermenters, including those belonging to unclassified groups, can ideally be characterized by GLC. Information is just beginning to materialize on the usefulness of cellular fatty acids for the identification of gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes, despite the traditional role of GLC in detecting metabolic products as an aid to identification of anaerobes. When species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci is called for, GLC may offer an alternative to biochemical testing. Methods for direct analysis of clinical material have been developed, but in practical and economic terms they are not yet ready for use in the clinical laboratory. Direct analysis holds promise for detecting markers of infection due to an uncultivable agent or in clinical specimens that presently require cultures and prolonged incubation to yield an etiologic agent. PMID:1747860

  7. [Control of adipogenesis by fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Jean César Farias de; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel Cardoso; Curi, Rui; Lima, Fabio Bessa

    2009-07-01

    Obesity is one of the major Public Health problems. Obese individuals are more susceptible to develop cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obesity results from the increase in size and number of the adipocytes. The balance between adipogenesis and adiposity determines the degree of obesity. Mature adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as TNFalpha, IL-6, leptine and adiponectin, and lipokine, the palmitoleic acid omega-7. The production of adipokines is increased in obesity, contributing to the onset of peripheral insulin resistance. The knowledge about the molecular events that regulate the differentiation of pre-adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes (adipogenesis) is important for the comprehension of the genesis of obesity. Activation of transcription factor PPARgamma plays an essential role in the adipogenesis. Certain fatty acids are PPARgamma ligands and can control adipogenesis. Moreover, some fatty acids act as signaling molecules regulating their differentiation into adipocytes or death. Accordingly, the lipid composition of the diet and PPARgamma agonists can regulate the balance between adipogenesis and death of adipocytes and, therefore, the obesity.

  8. Serum free fatty acids level in senile cataract.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Yannan; Sha, Qian; Liang, Meihua; Zhang, Xuefei; Li, Miaojing; Pan, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the levels of free fatty acids between senile cataract patients and normal controls. Fifty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed senile cataract and 50 age- and gender-matched controls were evaluated. Subjects/patients were randomized according to selection criteria. The levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixteen fatty acids from 14:0 to 24:1 were identified. The values were compared between cataract and control groups by parametric independent sample test and Mann-Whitney U tests. A significant decrease was observed in arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, ARA), cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), tetracosanoic acid (C24: 0), cis-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6, DPA), total n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), total n-6 LC-PUFAs, total fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and nonessential fatty acid levels in patients with senile cataract in comparison with healthy persons (p < 0.05). The levels of FFA including DPA, tetracosanoic acid, ARA, and DHA were significantly lower in the senile cataract group compared to that in the normal controls. FFA may be helpful in preventing senile cataract.

  9. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r2-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  10. A new leptin-mediated mechanism for stimulating fatty acid oxidation: a pivotal role for sarcolemmal FAT/CD36.

    PubMed

    Momken, Iman; Chabowski, Adrian; Dirkx, Ellen; Nabben, Miranda; Jain, Swati S; McFarlan, Jay T; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Bonen, Arend

    2017-01-01

    Leptin stimulates fatty acid oxidation in muscle and heart; but, the mechanism by which these tissues provide additional intracellular fatty acids for their oxidation remains unknown. We examined, in isolated muscle and cardiac myocytes, whether leptin, via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, stimulated fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid uptake to enhance fatty acid oxidation. In both mouse skeletal muscle and rat cardiomyocytes, leptin increased fatty acid oxidation, an effect that was blocked when AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside or Compound C. In wild-type mice, leptin induced the translocation of FAT/CD36 to the plasma membrane and increased fatty acid uptake into giant sarcolemmal vesicles and into cardiomyocytes. In muscles of FAT/CD36-KO mice, and in cardiomyocytes in which cell surface FAT/CD36 action was blocked by sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate, the leptin-stimulated influx of fatty acids was inhibited; concomitantly, the normal leptin-stimulated increase in fatty acid oxidation was also prevented, despite the normal leptin-induced increase in AMPK phosphorylation. Conversely, in muscle of AMPK kinase-dead mice, leptin failed to induce the translocation of FAT/CD36, along with a failure to stimulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Similarly, when siRNA was used to reduce AMPK in HL-1 cardiomyocytes, leptin failed to induce the translocation of FAT/CD36. Our studies have revealed a novel mechanism of leptin-induced fatty acid oxidation in muscle tissue; namely, this process is dependent on the activation of AMPK to induce the translocation of FAT/CD36 to the plasma membrane, thereby stimulating fatty acid uptake. Without increasing this leptin-stimulated, FAT/CD36-dependent fatty acid uptake process, leptin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation does not enhance fatty acid oxidation. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-08-15

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-¹³C]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-¹³C]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass⁻¹·min⁻¹) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-¹³C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin.

  12. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, ZengKui

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass−1·min−1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ∼1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  13. Mechanisms of Gene Regulation by Fatty Acids12

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadi, Anastasia; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved considerably and have provided the foundation for the emerging concept of fatty acid sensing, which can be interpreted as the property of fatty acids to influence biological processes by serving as signaling molecules. An important mechanism of fatty acid sensing is via stimulation or inhibition of DNA transcription. Here, we focus on fatty acid sensing via regulation of gene transcription and address the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, Toll-like receptor 4, G protein–coupled receptors, and other putative mediators. PMID:22516720

  14. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool.

  15. Genetic engineering of fatty acid chain length in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Radakovits, Randor; Eduafo, Patrick M; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    Renewable diesel surrogates made from shorter chain length fatty acids have improved cold flow properties. Acyl-ACP thioesterases specific for shorter chain length fatty acids are therefore of considerable interest in the genetic engineering of biofuel producing organisms, both for their ability to increase the production of shorter fatty acids, and for their involvement in fatty acid secretion in bacterial systems. Here we show that the heterologous expression of two thioesterases, biased towards the production of lauric (C12:0) and myristic acid (C14:0), causes increased accumulation of shorter chain length fatty acids in the eukaryotic microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Accumulation of shorter chain length fatty acids corresponds to transgene transcript levels. We achieved levels of C12:0 of up to 6.2% of total fatty acids and C14:0 of up to 15% by weight. Unlike observations in cyanobacteria, no significant secretion of fatty acids was observed. Instead, we found that 75-90% of the shorter chain length fatty acids produced was incorporated into triacylglycerols. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of thioesterases is a valid way to improve the biofuel production phenotype of eukaryotic microalgae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...

  17. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  18. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  19. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  20. Fatty acid supplements improve hair coat condition in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Hamel, A F; Menard, M T; Novak, M A

    2017-05-02

    As captive rhesus macaques often exhibit hair loss, alopecia was quantified and behavior was recorded before, during, and after fatty acid supplementation in six macaques. Fatty acid treatment was associated with a decrease in alopecia and in self-grooming behavior. Therefore, fatty acids may be a viable treatment for alopecia in some captive primates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10682 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10682 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substances... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-63, P-13-64, P-13-65, P-13-69, P-13-70, P-13-71, P-13-72,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibition of fatty acid synthase transcription is independent of PPAR activation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S D; Turini, M; Jump, D B; Abraham, S; Reedy, M

    1998-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the (n-6) and (n-3) families inhibit the rate of gene transcription for a number of hepatic lipogenic and glycolytic genes, e.g., fatty acid synthase (FAS). In contrast, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids have no inhibitory capability. The suppression of gene transcription resulting from the addition of PUFA to a high carbohydrate diet: occurs quickly (< 3 h) after its addition to a high glucose diet; can be recreated with hepatocytes cultured in a serum-free medium containing insulin and glucocorticoids; can be demonstrated in diabetic rats fed fructose; and is independent of glucagon. While the nature of the intracellular PUFA inhibitor is unclear, it appears that delta-6 desaturation is a required step in the process. Recently, the fatty acid activated nuclear factor, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) was suggested to be the PUFA-response factor. However, the potent PPAR activators ETYA and Wy-14643 did not suppress hepatic expression of FAS, but did induce the PPAR-responsive gene, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX). Similarly, treating rat hepatocytes with 20:4 (n-6) suppressed FAS expression but had no effect on AOX. Thus, it appears that the PUFA regulation of gene transcription involves a PUFA-response factor that is independent from PPAR.

  6. Engineering fungal de novo fatty acid synthesis for short chain fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Jan; Pavlovic, Renata; Fischer, Manuel; Boles, Eckhard; Grininger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are considered strategically important platform compounds that can be accessed by sustainable microbial approaches. Here we report the reprogramming of chain-length control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase (FAS). Aiming for short-chain FAs (SCFAs) producing baker's yeast, we perform a highly rational and minimally invasive protein engineering approach that leaves the molecular mechanisms of FASs unchanged. Finally, we identify five mutations that can turn baker's yeast into a SCFA producing system. Without any further pathway engineering, we achieve yields in extracellular concentrations of SCFAs, mainly hexanoic acid (C6-FA) and octanoic acid (C8-FA), of 464 mg l−1 in total. Furthermore, we succeed in the specific production of C6- or C8-FA in extracellular concentrations of 72 and 245 mg l−1, respectively. The presented technology is applicable far beyond baker's yeast, and can be plugged into essentially all currently available FA overproducing microorganisms. PMID:28281527

  7. Analysis of intact cholesteryl esters of furan fatty acids in cod liver.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2015-06-01

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are a class of natural antioxidants with a furan moiety in the acyl chain. These minor fatty acids have been reported to occur with high proportions in the cholesteryl ester fraction of fish livers. Here we present a method for the direct analysis of intact cholesteryl esters with F-acids and other fatty acids in cod liver lipids. For this purpose, the cholesteryl ester fraction was isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a cool-on-column inlet. Pentadecanoic acid esterified with cholesterol was used as an internal standard. GC/MS spectra of F-acid cholesteryl esters featured the molecular ion along with characteristic fragment ions for both the cholesterol and the F-acid moiety. All investigated cod liver samples (n = 8) showed cholesteryl esters of F-acids and, to a lower degree, of conventional fatty acids. By means of GC/MS-SIM up to ten F-acid cholesteryl esters could be determined in the samples. The concentrations of cholesteryl esters with conventional fatty acids amounted to 78-140 mg/100 g lipids (mean 97 mg/100 g lipids), while F-acid cholesteryl esters were present at 47-270 mg/100 g lipids (mean 130 mg/100 g lipids).

  8. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2006-08-21

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

  9. Algal swimming velocities signal fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Travis J; Hondzo, Miki; Mashek, Mara T; Mashek, Douglas G; Lefebvre, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The use of microalgae for biofuel production will be beneficial to society if we can produce biofuels at large scales with minimal mechanical energy input in the production process. Understanding micro-algal physiological responses under variable environmental conditions in bioreactors is essential for the optimization of biofuel production. We demonstrate that measuring micro-algal swimming speed provides information on culture health and total fatty acid accumulation. Three strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown heterotrophically on acetate and subjected to various levels of nitrogen starvation. Other nutrient levels were explored to determine their effect on micro-algal kinetics. Swimming velocities were measured with two-dimensional micro-particle tracking velocimetry. The results show an inverse linear relationship between normalized total fatty acid mass versus swimming speed of micro-algal cells. Analysis of RNA sequencing data confirms these results by demonstrating that the biological processes of cell motion and the generation of energy precursors are significantly down-regulated. Experiments demonstrate that changes in nutrient concentration in the surrounding media also affect swimming speed. The findings have the potential for the in situ and indirect assessment of lipid content by measuring micro-algal swimming kinetics.

  10. Antiarrhythmic effects of omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Reiffel, James A; McDonald, Arline

    2006-08-21

    Fish oil, and omega-3 fatty acids in particular, have been found to reduce plasma levels of triglycerides and increase levels of high-density lipoprotein in patients with marked hypertriglyceridemia, and a pharmaceutical-grade preparation has recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to market for this purpose. However, in both bench research studies and clinical trials, evidence for clinically significant antiarrhythmic properties has also been detected in association with omega-3 fatty acid intake. Arguably the most significant finding in this data set was the reduction in the incidence of sudden death in survivors of myocardial infarction in the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione trial and the subsequent recommendation for administration of fish oil as part of the postinfarction regimen in Europe. This article reviews in detail the basic and clinical research studies of fish oil as an antiarrhythmic entity, the forms of preparation and/or administration that appear to possess these properties and those that do not, the types of arrhythmias (ventricular ectopy and atrial fibrillation as well as ventricular tachyarrhythmias) that have been beneficially affected by fish oil administration, and the presumed and known mechanisms by which the beneficial actions are exerted.

  11. Environmental fatty acids enable emergence of infectious Staphylococcus aureus resistant to FASII-targeted antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Kénanian, Gérald; Hays, Constantin; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Brinster, Sophie; Kennedy, Sean; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Poyart, Claire; Lamberet, Gilles; Gloux, Karine; Gruss, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis, FASII, is a target for development of new anti-staphylococcal drugs. This strategy is based on previous reports indicating that self-synthesized fatty acids appear to be indispensable for Staphylococcus aureus growth and virulence, although other bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to compensate FASII inhibition. Here we report that staphylococci can become resistant to the FASII-targeted inhibitor triclosan via high frequency mutations in fabD, one of the FASII genes. The fabD mutants can be conditional for FASII and not require exogenous fatty acids for normal growth, and can use diverse fatty acid combinations (including host fatty acids) when FASII is blocked. These mutants show cross-resistance to inhibitors of other FASII enzymes and are infectious in mice. Clinical isolates bearing fabD polymorphisms also bypass FASII inhibition. We propose that fatty acid-rich environments within the host, in the presence of FASII inhibitors, might favour the emergence of staphylococcal strains displaying resistance to multiple FASII inhibitors. PMID:27703138

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium sp. Strain IPPAS B-1200 with a Unique Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Starikov, Alexander Y.; Usserbaeva, Aizhan A.; Sinetova, Maria A.; Sarsekeyeva, Fariza K.; Zayadan, Bolatkhan K.; Ustinova, Vera V.; Kupriyanova, Elena V.; Los, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS strain B-1200, isolated from Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan, and characterized by the unique fatty acid composition of its membrane lipids, which are enriched with myristic and myristoleic acids. The approximate genome size is 3.4 Mb, and the predicted number of coding sequences is 3,119. PMID:27856596

  13. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  14. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  16. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  17. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi.

  18. Liver fatty acid binding protein is required for high rates of hepatic fatty acid oxidation but not for the action of PPARalpha in fasting mice.

    PubMed

    Erol, Erdal; Kumar, Leena S; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Kelly, Daniel P; Binas, Bert

    2004-02-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been proposed to limit the availability of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) for oxidation and for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), a fatty acid binding transcription factor that determines the capacity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Here, we used L-FABP null mice to test this hypothesis. Under fasting conditions, this mutation reduced beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) plasma levels as well as BHB release and palmitic acid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes. However, the capacity for ketogenesis was not reduced: BHB plasma levels were restored by octanoate injection; BHB production and palmitic acid oxidation were normal in liver homogenates; and hepatic expression of key PPAR-alpha target (MCAD, mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase, ACO, CYP4A3) and other (CPT1, LCAD) genes of mitochondrial and extramitochondrial LCFA oxidation and ketogenesis remained at wild-type levels. During standard diet, mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase mRNA was selectively reduced in L-FABP null liver. These results suggest that under fasting conditions, hepatic L-FABP contributes to hepatic LCFA oxidation and ketogenesis by a nontranscriptional mechanism, whereas L-FABP can activate ketogenic gene expression in fed mice. Thus, the mechanisms whereby L-FABP affects fatty acid oxidation may vary with physiological condition.

  19. Effect of acetate formation pathway and long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase on the free fatty acid production in E. coli expressing acy-ACP thioesterase from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mai; Zhang, Xiujun; Agrawal, Arpita; San, Ka-Yiu

    2012-07-01

    (pXZ18) produced similar level of C14, C16:1 and C16 free fatty acids, and the free fatty acid compositions of both strains did not change significantly with time. In addition, the strains bearing the fadD mutation showed significant differences in the quantities of free fatty acids found in the broth. Finally, we examined two potential screening methods for selecting and isolating high free fatty acids producing cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellular fatty acid and soluble protein composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and related organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Calhoon, D A; Mayberry, W R; Slots, J

    1981-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid and protein content of twenty-five representative strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetecomitans isolated from juvenile and adult periodontitis patients was compared to that of 15 reference strains of oral and nonoral Actinobacillus species and Haemophilus aphrophilus. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of the fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The predominant fatty acids of all 40 strains examined were 14:0, 3-OH 14:0, 16 delta, and 16:0. Actinobacillus seminis (ATCC 15768) was unlike the other strains examined because of a greater amount of 14:0 detected. The soluble protein analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. aphrophilus, and nonoral Actinobacillus species possessed distinct protein profiles attesting to the validity of separating these organisms into different species. Established biotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans could not be differentiated on the basis of fatty acid or protein profiles. PMID:7287893

  1. Effect of 2 ppm ozone exposure on rat lung lipid fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, J.L.; Bassett, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Based on in vitro studies, the initial damage to lung cells by ozone exposure is believed to result in part from the breakdown of lipid polyunsaturated fatty acids to aldehydes, ozonides, and peroxides. The present study measured lipid breakdown products in lungs isolated from rats pretreated with (1-/sup 14/C)acetate 12 h before exposure for 4 h to either air or 2 ppm ozone. Lipid fatty acid breakdown was indicated by a 112% increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances on ozone exposure and by changes in chemical and radioactive measurements of mono- and dicarboxylic acids formed by treatment of lipid fractions with hydrogen peroxide. Ozone exposure resulted in a 63% increase in recovery of short-chain fatty acids accounted for by increased recoveries of malonic acid by 37%, hexanoic acid by 47%, nonanoic acid by 118%, and azelaic acid by 107%. Recovery of glutaric acid was enhanced 15-fold by ozone exposure. Although decreases in tissue arachidonic acid could not be detected, oleic acid was significantly decreased by 36%. Recovery of radiolabel as short-chain fatty acids was increased by 65% on ozone exposure and was mainly accounted for by enhanced labeling of nonanoic and glutaric acid fractions. The failure to observe significant increases in /sup 14/C recovery in the other fractions suggested ozone-induced breakdown of unlabeled fatty acids. These results demonstrate the cleavage of unsaturated fatty acid double bonds following in vivo exposure of lungs to ozone. Breakdown of arachidonic and oleic acids was specifically identified by increased recoveries of glutaric and nonanoic acids, respectively.

  2. The Phosphatidylcholine Diacylglycerol Cholinephosphotransferase Is Required for Efficient Hydroxy Fatty Acid Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaohui; Ren, Zhonghai; Lu, Chaofu

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified an enzyme, phosphatidylcholine diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), that plays an important role in directing fatty acyl fluxes during triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. The PDCT mediates a symmetrical interconversion between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and diacylglycerol (DAG), thus enriching PC-modified fatty acids in the DAG pool prior to forming TAG. We show here that PDCT is required for the efficient metabolism of engineered hydroxy fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. When a fatty acid hydroxylase (FAH12) from castor (Ricinus communis) was expressed in Arabidopsis seeds, the PDCT-deficient mutant accumulated only about half the amount of hydroxy fatty acids compared with that in the wild-type seeds. We also isolated a PDCT from castor encoded by the RcROD1 (Reduced Oleate Desaturation1) gene. Seed-specific coexpression of this enzyme significantly increased hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in wild type-FAH12 and in a previously produced transgenic Arabidopsis line coexpressing a castor diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2. Analyzing the TAG molecular species and regiochemistry, along with analysis of fatty acid composition in TAG and PC during seed development, indicate that PDCT acts in planta to enhance the fluxes of fatty acids through PC and enrich the hydroxy fatty acids in DAG, and thus in TAG. In addition, PDCT partially restores the oil content that is decreased in FAH12-expressing seeds. Our results add a new gene in the genetic toolbox for efficiently engineering unusual fatty acids in transgenic oilseeds. PMID:22371508

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Gil, A

    2002-10-01

    Inflammation is overall a protective response, whose main goal is to liberate the human being of cellular lesions caused by micro-organisms, toxins, allergens, etc., as well as its consequences, and of death cells and necrotic tissues. Chronic inflammation, which is detrimental to tissues, is the basic pathogenic mechanism of hypersensitivity reactions against xenobiotics. Other frequent pathologies, for instance atherosclerosis, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis are also chronic inflammatory diseases. Chemical mediators of inflammation are derived from blood plasma or different cell-type activity. Biogenic amines, eicosanoids and cytokines are within the most important mediators of inflammatory processes. The different activities of eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) versus those derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) are one of the most important mechanisms to explain why n-3, or omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in many inflammatory diseases. Dietary supplements ranging 1-8 g per day of n-3 PUFA have been reportedly beneficial in the treatment of IBD, eczema, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, recent experimental studies in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis, induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid, have documented that treatment with n-3 long-chain PUFA reduces mucosal damage as assessed by biochemical and histological markers of inflammation. Moreover, the defence antioxidant system in this model is enhanced in treated animals, provided that the n-3 PUFA supply is adequately preserved from oxidation.

  4. [Possible route for thiamine participation in fatty acid synthesis].

    PubMed

    Buko, V U; Larin, F S

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of thiamine partaking in the synthesis of fatty acids through the functions unrelated to the catalytic properties of thiamine-diphosphate was studied. Rats kept on a fat-free ration devoid of thiamine were given thiamine of thiochrome with no vitaminic properties. The total fatty acids content in different tissues and incorporation therein of tagged acetate and pyruvate was determined, while the fatty acids composition of the liver was investigated by using gas chromatography. Thiamine and thiochrome produced a similar effect on a number of the study factors, i.e. they forced down the total acids level in the spleen, intensified incorporation of tagged acetate and pyruvate in fatty acids of the heart and uniformly changed the fatty acids composition in the liver. It is suggested that the unindirectional effects of thiamine and thiochrome is due to the oxidative transformation of thiamine into thiochrome.

  5. [Fat and fatty acids chosen in chocolates content].

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The objective of present work was to comparison of fat and chosen fatty acid in chocolates with, approachable on national market. In the investigations on fat and fatty acids content in the milk chocolates, there were used 14 chocolates, divided into 3 groups either without, with supplements and stuffing. Crude fat content in the chocolates was determined on Soxhlet automatic apparatus. The saturated ad nsaturated acids content was determined using gas chromatographic method. Content of fat and fatty cids in chocolates were differentiation. The highest crude fat content was finding in chocolates with tuffing (31.8%) and without supplements (28.9%). The sum of saturated fatty acids content in fat above 62%) was highest and low differentiation in the chocolates without supplements. Among of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids depended from kind of chocolates dominated, palmitic, stearic, oleic and, linoleic acids. Supplements of nut in chocolates had on influence of high oleic and linoleic level

  6. Sex Differences in Long Chain Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Burnett, David A.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.

    1979-01-01

    Female sex and estrogen administration are associated with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; the basis for this has not been fully elucidated. Inasmuch as hepatic lipoprotein production is also influenced by FFA availability and triglyceride biosynthesis, we investigated sex differences in FFA utilization in rat hepatocyte suspensions and in the components of the triglyceride biosynthetic pathway. Isolated adult rat hepatocyte suspensions were incubated with albumin-bound [14C]oleate for up to 15 min. At physiological and low oleate concentrations, cells from females incorporated significantly more 14C into glycerolipids, especially triglycerides, and into oxidation products than did male cells, per milligram cell protein. At 0.44 mM oleate, incorporation into triglycerides in female cells was approximately twice that in male cells. Comparable sex differences were observed in cells from fasted animals and when [14C]-glycerol incorporation was measured. At higher oleate concentrations, i.e., fatty acid:albumin mole ratios in excess of 2:1, these sex differences were no longer demonstrable, suggesting that maximal rates of fatty acid esterification and oxidation were similar in female and male cells. In female and male hepatic microsomes, specific activities of long chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and diglyceride acyltransferase were similar, but glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity was slightly greater in females at certain substrate concentrations. Microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into total glycerolipids was not significantly greater in females. In further contrast to intact cells, microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into triglycerides, although significantly greater in female microsomes, accounted for only a small fraction of the fatty acid esterified. The binding affinity and stoichiometry of partially purified female hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) were similar to

  7. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  8. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  10. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  11. Site-selective Alkane Dehydrogenation of Fatty Acids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-14

    dehydrogenation of fatty acids Contract/Grant#: FA9550-10-1-0532 Final Reporting Period: 15 September 2011 to 14 September 2011...directly incorporate fatty acids into the ligand. The preparation of the acyl phosphines (1-5) was easily accomplished starting from the corresponding...AFOSR Final Report Final Report 
 The proposed research examines the site-selective dehydrogenation of alkanes. The alkanes employed were fatty

  12. Stimulation by epinephrine of the membrane transport of long chain fatty acid in the adipocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Abumrad, N.A.; Perry, P.R.; Whitesell, R.R.

    1985-08-25

    In isolated rat adipocytes, epinephrine rapidly stimulates the transport of long chain fatty acid across the plasma membrane. At a concentration of unbound oleate of 0.1 microM and 5 min exposure to the hormone, the minimal effective concentration of epinephrine is 0.03 and the optimal concentration 0.3 microM (0.01 and 0.1 microgram/ml). The stimulated rates are 5-10-fold the basal rate of influx or efflux. The hormone effect is on the transport process specifically as shown by isolation of the product of transport in either direction as unesterified fatty acid and inhibition by the transport inhibitors phloretin and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. This effect of epinephrine on transport coordinates physiologically with lipase activation to bring about fatty acid release from adipose tissue.

  13. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in lepidopteran caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Alborn, Hans T; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Suckling, David M; Nishida, Ritsuo; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a previous study, we showed that N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in larval Spodoptera litura plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation which might be an explanation for caterpillars synthesizing FACs despite an increased risk of attracting natural enemies. However, the presence of FACs in lepidopteran species outside these families of agricultural interest is not well known. We conducted FAC screening of 29 lepidopteran species, and found them in 19 of these species. Thus, FACs are commonly synthesized through a broad range of lepidopteran caterpillars. Since all FAC-containing species had N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and/or N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine in common, and the evolutionarily earliest species among them had only these two FACs, these glutamine conjugates might be the evolutionarily older FACs. Furthermore, some species had glutamic acid conjugates, and some had hydroxylated FACs. Comparing the diversity of FACs with lepidopteran phylogeny indicates that glutamic acid conjugates can be synthesized by relatively primitive species, while hydroxylation of fatty acids is limited mostly to larger and more developed macrolepidopteran species.

  14. Modulating fatty acid oxidation in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C.; Recchia, Fabio A.

    2011-01-01

    In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for ‘metabolic therapy’ of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit. PMID:21289012

  15. Modulating fatty acid oxidation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C; Recchia, Fabio A

    2011-05-01

    In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for 'metabolic therapy' of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit.

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of palm olein-based fatty thiohydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Ab

    2010-01-01

    Fatty thiohydroxamic acids (FTAs) have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and thiohydroxamic acid by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RMIM) as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The FTAs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (95 %) was obtained when the process was carried out for 30 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 6.0: 1.0 at 40 °C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product.

  17. 6-methyl-8-hexadecenoic acid: A novel fatty acid from the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, N M; Maldonado, M E

    1988-07-01

    The novel fatty acid 7-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (1) was identified in the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata. Other interesting fatty acids identified were 14-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (2), better known through its methyl ester as one of the components of the sex attractant of the female dermestid beetle, and the saturated fatty acid 3-methylheptadecanoic (3), known to possess larvicidal activity. The main phospholipid fatty acids encountered inD. anchorata were palmitic (16∶0), behenic (22∶0) and 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid (26∶2), which together accounted for 50% of the total phospholipid fatty acid mixture.

  18. RNAi knockdown of fatty acid elongase1 alters fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianghua; Lang, Chunxiu; Wu, Xuelong; Liu, Renhu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Dongqing; Chen, Jinqing; Wu, Guanting

    2015-10-23

    The quality and end-use of oil from oilseed crops is determined by its fatty acid composition. In particular, the relative proportions of erucic and oleic acids are key selection traits for breeders. The goal of our research is to genetically improve the nutritional quality of Brassica napus cultivar CY2, the oil of which is high in erucic acid (about 40%) and low in oleic acid (about 20%). Here, we report the use of a seed-specific napin A promoter to drive the knockdown of BnFAE1 in transgenic CY2. Southern blotting results confirmed the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of BnFAE1 were greatly decreased in BnFAE1-Ri lines compared with the CY2 cultivar. Knockdown of BnFAE1 sharply decreased the levels of erucic acid (less than 3%), largely increased the contents of oleic acid (more than 60%) and slightly increased the polyunsaturated chain fatty acids. Compared with high erucic acid parents, expression of BnFAE1 was dramatically decreased in developing F1 seeds derived from reciprocally crossed BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars. In addition, F1 seeds derived from reciprocal crosses between BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars showed significantly increased oleic acid (more than 52%) and sharply decreased erucic acid (less than 4%), demonstrating that the RNAi construct of BnFAE1 can effectively interfere with the target gene in F1 seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BnFAE1 is a reliable target for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil quality promotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  20. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...

  1. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...

  2. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862....

  3. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understandingmore » of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.« less

  4. Fatty acid composition of seed oil from Fremontodendron californicum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid composition of the low water-use shrub Fremontodendron californicum was examined by high temperature capillary gas chromatography. The ground seeds were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to obtain the oil (25.6% w/w) and for subsequent determination of the fatty acid c...

  5. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  11. DETERGENCY OF THE 12 TO 18 CARBON SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    saturated fatty acids ) were explored to determine the relationship of the detergencies of such systems to the physico-chemical nature (HLB, hydrophile...suggested that in such systems the chief action is van der Waals adsorption between hydr oxide mole ratio adducts of tridecyl alcohol are poor detergents of the saturated fatty acids .

  12. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  13. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  14. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  16. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  17. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  18. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  19. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors affecting human colostrum fatty acid profile: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Cavouras, Dionisis; Boutsikou, Theodora; Briana, Despina D.; Lantzouraki, Dimitra Z.; Paliatsiou, Stella; Volaki, Paraskevi; Bratakos, Sotiris; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    The role of maternal colostrum to infant development has been extensively studied and presented. Among the main factors which contribute to breast milk composition are maternal diet, age and body mass index, parity, duration of pregnancy and stage of lactation. This study aims to investigate the potential impact of several factors including demographic (i.e. maternal age and nationality) on the colostrum fatty acid profile. Colostrum was collected the third day postpartum in a Greek maternity hospital. Certain lipid quality indices and fatty acid ratios were estimated and results were statistically processed. The main identified fatty acids were palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1ω-9), and linoleic (C18:2ω-6) acids. Among fatty acids, saturated fatty acids predominated (47.61%), followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (39.26%), while polyunsaturated fatty acids had the lowest proportion (13.13%). Values of lipid quality indices were within the reported in the literature ranges. Maternal body mass index, nationality, age, mode of delivery, gender and fetal weight percentile were studied in respect to their potential influence on the fatty acid profile of colostrum fat. Results suggest that colostrum fatty acid profile was mainly dependent on maternal nationality and age rather than mode of delivery and maternal BMI. Regarding the effect of maternal nationality, significant differences were found for saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Of the most interesting findings is that colostrum fat from older (≥35 years) mothers had less saturated fat and more appropriate LQIs values. Finally, a reversed correlation was observed between the customized centile of the infants and the colostrum fat content. PMID:28410426

  1. Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Ferreira, I C F R; Carvalho, A M; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Cámara, M; Tardío, J

    2012-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as α-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of traditional food resources, studying the fatty acids profile of 20 wild vegetables by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results show that species in which leaves are predominant in their edible parts have in general the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios: Rumex pulcher (5.44), Cichorium intybus (5.14) and Papaver rhoeas (5.00). Due to the low n-6/n-3 ratios of the majority of the samples, they can be considered interesting sources of n-3 fatty acids, especially those with higher total fat amount, such as Bryonia dioica, Chondrilla juncea or Montia fontana, with the highest contents of α-linolenic acid (67.78, 56.27 and 47.65%, respectively). The wild asparaguses of Asparagus acutifolius and Tamus communis stand out for their linoleic acid content (42.29 and 42.45%, respectively). All these features reinforce the interest of including wild plants in diet, as an alternative to the variety of vegetables normally used.

  2. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lewis, Annette K.; Hildebrand, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  3. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  4. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Yu, Chao; Feng, Dexin; Cheng, Tao; Meng, Xin; Liu, Wei; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo

    2012-04-03

    As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing 'TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3) improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn't strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-'tesA-ΔfadL) produced 4.8 g L⁻¹ extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h⁻¹ g⁻¹ dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-'tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain pACY-'tesA could also be chosen as

  5. Influence of changes in dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental and fetal fatty acid profile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Amusquivar, Encarnación; Herrera, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could be modified in the fetus by maternal dietary fatty acids, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets that differed only in the non-vitamin lipid component. The diets contained either 10 g palm, sunflower, olive or fish oil (FOD)/100 g diet. A total of 5-6 rats were studied in each group. At day 20 of gestation, corresponding to 1.5 days prior parturition, the fatty acids in maternal adipose tissue were closely related to the fatty acid composition in the corresponding diet. An important proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) appeared in maternal liver and plasma, although it was lower in the FOD than in the other groups. Except for saturated fatty acids, the proportion of individual fatty acids in the placenta correlated linearly with that in maternal plasma. Also, PUFA in fetal plasma and liver showed significant correlations with PUFA in maternal plasma. Again, AA showed the lowest proportion in the plasma and liver of the FOD group. Therefore, the maternal dietary fatty acid composition influences maternal and fetal plasma and tissue composition, and an increase in dietary omega-3 fatty acids decreases the amount of AA in maternal and fetal tissues.

  6. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  7. Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Patarra, R F; Leite, J; Pereira, R; Baptista, J; Neto, A I

    2013-04-01

    The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54 g (per 100 g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1 n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2 n-6). The α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34% ± 0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47% ± 0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied.

  8. Fatty acids as modulators of neutrophil recruitment, function and survival.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Hosana G; Takeo Sato, Fabio; Curi, Rui; Vinolo, Marco A R

    2016-08-15

    Neutrophils are well-known to act in the destruction of invading microorganisms. They have also been implicated in the activation of other immune cells including B- and T-lymphocytes and in the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation from where they migrate to tissues to perform their effector functions. Neutrophils are in constant contact with fatty acids that can modulate their function, activation and fate (survival or cell death) through different mechanisms. In this review, the effects of fatty acids pertaining to five classes, namely, long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and omega-3 (n-3), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-9 (n-9) unsaturated fatty acids, on neutrophils and the relevance of these effects for disease development are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: does origin matter?

    PubMed

    Dawczynski, Christine; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have aimed to unravel the contribution of different types of dietary fatty acids to human health and disease. Investigations have consistently shown that high consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is harmful to human health, in particular cardiovascular health. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer 'generally recognized as safe', and trans-fatty acids are not permitted in the U.S. food supply. On the other hand, recent studies analyzing the association between circulating trans-fatty acids and disease have revealed that some ruminant-specific trans-fatty acids are associated with a reduction in incidence of disease. In this special report, we highlight recent findings and point out perspectives for future studies on this topic.

  10. Fatty acids and the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Christopher L.; Frye, Melinda A.; Pagliassotti, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a burgeoning public health concernin westernized nations. The obesity-related disorder is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and liver failure. Although the underlying pathogenesis of NAFLD is unclear, increasing evidence suggests that excess saturated fatty acids presented to or stored within the liver may play a role in both the development and progression of the disorder. Aputative mechanism linking saturated fatty acids to NAFLD may been doplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, excess saturated fatty acids may induce an ER stress response that, if left unabated, can activate stress signaling pathways, cause hepatocyte cell death, and eventually lead to liver dysfunction. In the current review we discuss the involvement of saturated fatty acids in the pathogenesis of NAFLD with particular emphasis on the role of ER stress. PMID:21328622

  11. Identification of naturally isolated southern Louisiana's algal strains and the effect of higher Co2 content on fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four naturally isolated microalgae were evaluated for their potential use in the production of biodiesel, and were identified using genomic DNA, and 16S or 18S rRNA gene amplification followed by sequencing. High correlation was found with known nucleotide sequence identities at 98 % with Sellaphora...

  12. Cloning and functional expression of the first plant fatty acid elongase specific for Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zank, T K; Zähringer, U; Lerchl, J; Heinz, E

    2000-12-01

    In order to elucidate the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plants we searched for a cDNA encoding a Delta(6)-specific PUFA elongase from Physcomitrella patens, which is known to contain high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4 Delta(5,8,11,14)). An EST clone from P. patens was identified by its low homology to the yeast gene ELO1, which is required for the elongation of medium-chain fatty acids. We functionally characterized this cDNA by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the presence of several fatty acids. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the transgenic yeast revealed that the cDNA encodes a protein that leads to the elongation of the C(18) Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 Delta(6,9,12)) and stearidonic acid (18:4 Delta(6,9,12,15)), which were recovered to 45-51% as their elongation products. In contrast, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids were hardly elongated and we could not measure any elongation of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (including 18:1 Delta(6)), indicating that the elongase is highly specific for the polyunsaturated nature of the fatty acid acting as substrate.

  13. Overproduction of a Functional Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Enzyme Blocks Fatty Acid Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, Satyanarayana; Cronan, John E.

    1998-01-01

    β-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetase II (KAS II) is one of three Escherichia coli isozymes that catalyze the elongation of growing fatty acid chains by condensation of acyl-ACP with malonyl-ACP. Overexpression of this enzyme has been found to be extremely toxic to E. coli, much more so than overproduction of either of the other KAS isozymes, KAS I or KAS III. The immediate effect of KAS II overproduction is the cessation of phospholipid synthesis, and this inhibition is specifically due to the blockage of fatty acid synthesis. To determine the cause of this inhibition, we examined the intracellular pools of ACP, coenzyme A (CoA), and their acyl thioesters. Although no significant changes were detected in the acyl-ACP pools, the CoA pools were dramatically altered by KAS II overproduction. Malonyl-CoA increased to about 40% of the total cellular CoA pool upon KAS II overproduction from a steady-state level of around 0.5% in the absence of KAS II overproduction. This finding indicated that the conversion of malonyl-CoA to fatty acids had been blocked and could be explained if either the conversion of malonyl-CoA to malonyl-ACP and/or the elongation reactions of fatty acid synthesis had been blocked. Overproduction of malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of malonyl-CoA to malonyl-ACP, partially relieved the toxicity of KAS II overproduction, consistent with a model in which high levels of KAS II blocks access of the other KAS isozymes to malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase. PMID:9721301

  14. Rates and Products of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis from [1-14C]Acetate in Chloroplasts Isolated from Leaves of 16:3 and 18:3 Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Susan E.; Heinz, Ernst; Roughan, P. Grattan

    1984-01-01

    Chloroplasts highly active in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids from [1-14C]acetate were prepared from leaves of Solanum nodiflorum, Chenopodium quinoa, Carthamus tinctorius, and Pisum sativum. These preparations were used to test whether the various additions to incubation media found to stimulate the synthesis of particular lipid classes in vitro by Spinacia oleracea chloroplasts were applicable generally. Chloroplasts from 18:3 plants incorporated a greater proportion of radioactivity into unesterified fatty acids under control conditions than did those from 16:3 plants. Supplying exogenous sn-glycerol 3-phosphate or Triton X-100 to chloroplasts increased the synthesis of glycerolipids in all cases and accentuated the capacity of chloroplasts from 18:3 plants to accumulate phosphatidic acid rather than the diacylglycerol accumulated by chloroplasts from 16:3 plants. The UDP-galactose-dependent synthesis of labeled diacylgalactosylglycerol was much less active in incubations of chloroplasts from 18:3 plants also containing sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and Triton X-100 compared with similar incubations from 16:3 plants. Exogenous CoA stimulated total fatty acid synthesis in all chloroplast preparations and the further addition of ATP diverted radioactivity from the unesterified fatty acid to acyl-CoA. The results have been discussed in terms of the two pathway hypothesis for lipid synthesis in leaves. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16663528

  15. Free fatty acids normalize a rosiglitazone-induced visfatin release.

    PubMed

    Haider, Dominik G; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Schaller, Georg; Artwohl, Michaela; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Prager, Gerhard; Roden, Michael; Wolzt, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The detrimental effect of elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) on insulin sensitivity can be improved by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unknown whether this salutary action of TZD is associated with altered release of the insulin-mimetic adipocytokine visfatin. In this study, we investigated whether visfatin concentrations are altered by FFA and TZD treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study 16 healthy volunteers received an infusion of triglycerides/heparin to increase plasma FFA after 3 wk of treatment with rosiglitazone (8 mg/day, n = 8) or placebo (n = 8), and circulating plasma visfatin was measured. As a corollary, human adipocytes were incubated with synthetic fatty acids and rosiglitazone to assess visfatin release in vitro. The results were that rosiglitazone treatment increased systemic plasma visfatin concentrations from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 ng/ml (P < 0.01). Lipid infusion caused a marked elevation of plasma FFA but had no effect on circulating visfatin in controls. In contrast, elevated visfatin concentrations in subjects receiving rosiglitazone were normalized by lipid infusion. In isolated adipocytes, visfatin was released into supernatant medium by acute addition and long-term treatment of rosiglitazone. This secretion was blocked by synthetic fatty acids and by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Akt. In conclusion, release of the insulin-mimetic visfatin may represent a major mechanism of metabolic TZD action. The presence of FFA antagonizes this action, which may have implications for visfatin bioactivity.

  16. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  17. [Trans fatty acids (elaidic and vaccenic) in the human milk].

    PubMed

    Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Stachowska, Ewa; Janus, Tomasz; Barcz, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The structure of trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFAs) includes at least one double bond with a trans configuration. Numerous studies have shown that TFAs influence negative changes in blood lipid profile, may initiate or accelerate the course of many inflammatory diseases, and reduce n-6 and n-3 fatty acids' utilization. Their presence in tissues and systemic fluids is mainly the result of ingestion of TFA-containing foods. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration profiles of elaidic and vaccenic acids in human milk, and the existence of potential correlations between the levels of trans-unsaturated fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The study group consisted of 53 lactating women, aged 18-39 years, 5-6 weeks after delivery. Elaidic and vaccenic acid levels were determined in human milk. Fatty acid methyl esters were injected onto the capillary column of an Agilent 6890M gas chromatography system integrated with an autosampler. Geometrical and positional isomers of fatty acids were identified by comparing their retention times with those of the fatty acid standards from Sigma-Aldrich. The content of individual fatty acids was determined from the reference curves and expressed in mg/mL. The level of elaidic acid was 0.2572 ± 0.1811 mg/mL, and the level of vaccenic acid was 0.2736 ± 0.1852 mg/mL. No negative correlations between the levels of the analyzed TFAs and PUFAs were observed in human milk. The levels of elaidic and vaccenic acid were similar and had no negative influence on the levels of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

  18. Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, M; Endo, A

    1976-01-18

    Inhibitory effect of 44 species of fatty acids on cholesterol synthesis has been examined with a rat liver enzyme system. In the case of saturated fatty acids, the inhibitory activity increased with chain length to a maximum at 11 to 14 carbons, after which activity decreased rapidly. The inhibition increased with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Introduction of a hydroxy group at the alpha-position of fatty acids abolished the inhibition, while the inhibition was enhanced by the presence of a hydroxy group located in an intermediate position of the chain. Branched chain fatty acids having a methyl group at the terminal showed much higher activity than the corresponding saturated straight chain fatty acids with the same number of carbons. With respect to the mechanism for inhibition, tridecanoate was found to inhibit acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase specifically without affecting the other reaction steps in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonate and linoleate, were specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. On the other hand, ricinoleate (hydroxy acid) and phytanate (branched-chain acid) diminished the conversion of mevalonate to sterols by inhibiting a step or steps between squalene and lanosterol.

  19. Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robin G

    2010-01-01

    The influence of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on health outcomes is widely recognized. The adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acids docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in particular can increase gestation length and improve infant cognitive and visual performance. Adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to reduce the incidence of preterm birth in some populations. Research on prenatal omega-3 intake and other outcomes, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, is inconclusive. Women in the United States consume low levels of omega-3 fatty acids compared to omega-6 fatty acids; this dietary pattern is associated with poor health outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acids are found primarily in fish, yet many pregnant women avoid fish because of concerns about potential mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination. It is important for prenatal care providers to assess women's diets for omega-3 fatty acid intake and ensure that pregnant women are consuming between 200 and 300 mg daily from safe food sources. Purified fish, algal oil supplements, and DHA-enriched eggs are alternative sources for pregnant women who do not eat fish.

  20. Fatty acids are precursors of alkylamines in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R; Huang, Y

    1992-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans contains novel phospholipids of which the structures of three have been previously described. These three lipids contain both fatty acids and alkylamines. Both the fatty acid and alkylamine constituents were found to be composed of a mixture of species, of which C15, C16, and C17 saturated and monounsaturated alkyl chains predominated. Alkylamines contained a relatively higher proportion of saturated species. Progression of bacterial growth through the mid-log to stationary phases was accompanied by an increase in the proportions of C15 and C17 alkyl chains in both fatty acid and alkylamine constituents. Radiolabeled palmitic acid was found to be rapidly incorporated into both fatty acid and alkylamine components of phosphatidylglyceroylalkylamine, which is the precursor of the more-complex phosphoglycolipids found in major amounts in D. radiodurans. After culturing D. radiodurans in the presence of a mixture of palmitic acids labeled with 14C and 3H in the 1 and 9,10 positions, respectively, the same 14C/3H ratio was recovered in both fatty acid and alkylamine constituents, strongly suggesting that alkylamines are derived from intact fatty acids rather than by a de novo pathway. The results identify a novel product of fatty acid metabolism which has not to date been observed in any other organism. Images PMID:1429439

  1. Regulation of the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Atlantic Salmon Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruyter, Bente; Berge, Gerd Marit; Sun, Yajing; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter

    2016-01-01

    Limited availability of the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have led to an interest in better understanding of the n-3 biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The biosynthesis of alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA involves several complex reaction steps including desaturation-, elongation- and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. The aims of the present experiments were to gain more knowledge on how this biosynthesis is regulated over time by different doses and fatty acid combinations. Hepatocytes isolated from salmon were incubated with various levels and combinations of oleic acid, EPA and DHA. Oleic acid led to a higher expression of the Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (fad) genes Δ6fad_a, Δ6fad_b, Δ6fad_c and the elongase genes elovl2 compared with cells cultured in medium enriched with DHA. Further, the study showed rhythmic variations in expression over time. Levels were reached where a further increase in specific fatty acids given to the cells not stimulated the conversion further. The gene expression of Δ6fad_a_and Δ6fad_b responded similar to fatty acid treatment, suggesting a co-regulation of these genes, whereas Δ5fad and Δ6fad_c showed a different regulation pattern. EPA and DHA induced different gene expression patterns, especially of Δ6fad_a. Addition of radiolabelled alpha-linolenic acid to the hepatocytes confirmed a higher degree of elongation and desaturation in cells treated with oleic acid compared to cells treated with DHA. This study suggests a complex regulation of the conversion process of n-3 fatty acids. Several factors, such as that the various gene copies are differently regulated, the gene expression show rhythmic variations and gene expression only affected to a certain level, determines when you get the maximum conversion of the beneficial n-3 fatty acids. PMID:27973547

  2. Fatty acid composition of umbilical arteries and veins: possible implications for the fetal EFA-status.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, G; van Houwelingen, A C; Simonis, M; Gerrard, J M

    1989-06-01

    Fatty acid compositions were determined of phospholipids, isolated from umbilical arteries and veins, obtained from Dutch neonates after vaginal delivery, terminating normal pregnancy. The fatty acid profiles of the cord vessels were characterized by the absence of eicosapentaenoic (timnodonic) acid, a low (2-3%) content of linoleic acid and reasonable amounts of arachidonic acid (10-15%) and docosahexaenoic (cervonic) acid (3-5%). Significant amounts of Mead acid (1-4%) and its direct elongation product (0.5-2%) were also observed. In each cord, the efferent blood vessels contained significantly more Mead acid and other fatty acids of the oleic acid (n-9) family and less fatty acids of the linoleic (n-6) and linolenic (n-3) families than the afferent blood vessel. This indicates that the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of 'downstream' neonatal tissue may be marginal. No signs of EFA-deficiency were observed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture, or in blood vessels from adults. In all cords 22:5(n-6) was significantly higher in the artery compared to the vein, whereas for all other (n-6) fatty acids this difference was negative. Since the synthesis of 22:5(n-6) is known to be stimulated when the required amount of cervonic acid, 22:6(n-3), is too low, our observations also suggest that the cervonic acid status of the neonates investigated was not optimal. Further studies are in progress to relate these findings to maternal EFA status and complications of pregnancy.

  3. Analysis of corynomycolic acids and other fatty acids produced by Corynebacterium lepus grown on kerosene.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D G; Zajic, J E; Gracey, D E

    1979-01-01

    The saponifiable carboxylic acids of the extracellular product of Corynebacterium lepus grown on kerosene have been isolated and characterized. About 25% of these acids were a mixture of simple, saturated fatty acids ranging from C13 to C24 and including both even and odd homologues. The distribution of these acids was bimodal, with maxima at C15 and C21. The other 75% of the acids was a mixture of corynomycolic acids [R1--CH(OH)--CH(R2)--COOH] ranging from C28 to C43. The R1 alkyl fragments varied from C16 to C25, and R2 fragments varied from C6 to C14. Both even and odd corynomycolic acid homologues were observed, and the distribution had a single pronounced maximum at C32 and C33. Bacterial utilization of the carboxylic oxidation products of the kerosene substrate is suggested to account for the wide distribution in chain length of these saturated fatty acids and for the observation of both even and odd homologues. PMID:422512

  4. Recent trends in the advanced analysis of bioactive fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena

    2010-01-20

    The consumption of dietary fats have been long associated to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, asthma, and cardiovascular disease; although some controversy still exists in the role of dietary fats in human health, certain fats have demonstrated their positive effect in the modulation of abnormal fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism, both of them associated to chronic diseases. Among the different fats, some fatty acids can be used as functional ingredients such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), stearidonic acid (STA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), among others. The present review is focused on recent developments in FAs analysis, covering sample preparation methods such as extraction, fractionation and derivatization as well as new advances in chromatographic methods such as GC and HPLC. Special attention is paid to trans fatty acids due its increasing interest for the food industry.

  5. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: Meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H Y; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y; Steffen, Lyn M; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Ferruci, Luigi; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Rich, Stephen S; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I; Hu, Frank B; Chasman, Daniel I; Psaty, Bruce M; Arnett, Donna K; King, Irena B; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M; Lemaitre, Rozenn N

    2015-07-01

    Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid. We conducted meta-analyses (N = 11 668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein), and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma versus erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid for docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  8. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  9. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Vallim, T.; Salter, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors. PMID:20227267

  10. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  11. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Paulo Gonçalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-03-15

    In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant loss of precursors that compromises the process yield. In the present study, we aimed for dynamic expression of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene FAA1 to regulate FFA and acyl-CoA pools in order to improve fatty alcohol production yields. We analyzed the metabolite dynamics of a faa1Δ faa4Δ strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high levels of FFAs not being converted to the final product. To address the issue, we expressed the MmCAR + Adh5 pathway together with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei to enable fatty alcohol production simultaneously from FFA and acyl-CoA, respectively. Then, we expressed FAA1 under the control of different promoters in order to balance FFA and acyl-CoA interconversion rates and to achieve optimal levels for conversion to fatty alcohols. Expressing FAA1 under control of the HXT1 promoter led to an increased accumulation of fatty alcohols per OD600 up to 41% while FFA levels were decreased by 63% compared with the control strain. Fine-tuning and dynamic regulation of key metabolic steps can be used to improve cell factories when the rates of downstream reactions are limiting. This avoids loss of

  12. Influence of ethanol and temperature on the cellular fatty acid composition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Baleiras Couto, M M; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1995-03-01

    Changes in the fatty acid profile of Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains, isolated from different sources, after growth at increasing concentrations of ethanol and/or decreasing temperatures were determined. Differences in fatty acid composition between Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains at standard conditions (25 degrees C, 0% initial ethanol) were observed and could be related to ethanol tolerance. Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain isolated from wine showed the highest ethanol tolerance in relation to growth rate. Surprisingly, an increase in ethanol concentration or a decrease in growth temperature caused a decrease in the degree of unsaturation of total cellular fatty acids. On the other hand, the mean chain length increased (high ethanol concentration) or decreased (low temperature) depending on the stress factor. When both stress situations (high ethanol concentration and low temperature) were present at the same time, the degree of unsaturation remained approximately constant. With decreasing temperatures, the C16/C18 ratio increased in studies of initial ethanol content below 5%, and above 5% ethanol, decreased.

  13. Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Quideau, Sylvie A.; McIntosh, Anne C.S.; Norris, Charlotte E.; Lloret, Emily; Swallow, Mathew J.B.; Hannam, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) are key components of microbial cell membranes. The analysis of PLFAs extracted from soils can provide information about the overall structure of terrestrial microbial communities. PLFA profiling has been extensively used in a range of ecosystems as a biological index of overall soil quality, and as a quantitative indicator of soil response to land management and other environmental stressors. The standard method presented here outlines four key steps: 1. lipid extraction from soil samples with a single-phase chloroform mixture, 2. fractionation using solid phase extraction columns to isolate phospholipids from other extracted lipids, 3. methanolysis of phospholipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and 4. FAME analysis by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Two standards are used, including 1,2-dinonadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(19:0/19:0)) to assess the overall recovery of the extraction method, and methyl decanoate (MeC10:0) as an internal standard (ISTD) for the GC analysis. PMID:27685177

  14. Fatty Acids in Energy Metabolism of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vavilin, Valentin; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the current hypotheses regarding energy metabolism in the neurons and astroglia. Recently, it was shown that up to 20% of the total brain's energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. However, the existing hypotheses consider glucose, or its derivative lactate, as the only main energy substrate for the brain. Astroglia metabolically supports the neurons by providing lactate as a substrate for neuronal mitochondria. In addition, a significant amount of neuromediators, glutamate and GABA, is transported into neurons and also serves as substrates for mitochondria. Thus, neuronal mitochondria may simultaneously oxidize several substrates. Astrocytes have to replenish the pool of neuromediators by synthesis de novo, which requires large amounts of energy. In this review, we made an attempt to reconcile β-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis. We suggest that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously. We provide experimental evidence that isolated neuronal mitochondria may oxidize palmitoyl carnitine in the presence of other mitochondrial substrates. We also suggest that variations in the brain mitochondrial metabolic phenotype may be associated with different mtDNA haplogroups. PMID:24883315

  15. beta-Hydroxy fatty acid production by ischemic rabbit heart.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, K H; Koen, A E; Hull, F E

    1982-01-01

    beta-Hydroxymyristate, -palmitate, and -stearate were produced by and accumulated in isolated rabbit heart when perfused ischemically for 2-10 min by the nonrecirculating langendorff technique with 0.75 mM palmitate and 0.16 mM albumin. Tissue fractionation into mitochondria and cytosol showed that by 2 min of ischemia 44% of beta-hydroxypalmitate and 38% beta-hydroxystearate was located in the cytosol; this percentage increased to greater than 50% by 5 min of ischemia. Lipid fractionation studies showed that by 10 min these two beta-hydroxy fatty acids were distributed approximately as 60% acylcarnitine, 20% acyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and 20% free fatty acids. All three chemical forms of beta-hydroxypalmitate were found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. After 10 min of ischemia beta-hydroxypalmitoyl-CoA and beta-hydroxystearoyl-CoA constituted at least 16% of the incremental long-chain acyl-CoA, whereas beta-hydroxypalmitoylcarnitine and b-hydroxystearoylcarnitine constituted 8% of the incremental long-chain acylcarnitine. These data suggests that myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA oxidation is limited during ischemia. Substrate accumulates and is transferred to the cytosol where it accumulates primarily as beta-hydroxyacylcarnitine. PMID:6799549

  16. CONTENT OF AMINO ACIDS, FATTY ACIDS AND SOME GLYCIDES IN THE FUNGUS STACHYBOTRYS ALTERNANS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The amino acid, fatty acid, and glycide content of the mycelium of Stachybotrys alternans was determined, and, for purposes of comparison, of some...unsaturated fatty acids. In the case of Stachybotrys alternans the individual strains exhibited small differences in the composition with respect to these...substances. Differences in the occurrence of amino acids and fatty acids were found in some strains of Stachybotrys alternans even after long-lasting

  17. An optimized method for measuring fatty acids and cholesterol in stable isotope-labeled cells.

    PubMed

    Argus, Joseph P; Yu, Amy K; Wang, Eric S; Williams, Kevin J; Bensinger, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Stable isotope labeling has become an important methodology for determining lipid metabolic parameters of normal and neoplastic cells. Conventional methods for fatty acid and cholesterol analysis have one or more issues that limit their utility for in vitro stable isotope-labeling studies. To address this, we developed a method optimized for measuring both fatty acids and cholesterol from small numbers of stable isotope-labeled cultured cells. We demonstrate quantitative derivatization and extraction of fatty acids from a wide range of lipid classes using this approach. Importantly, cholesterol is also recovered, albeit at a modestly lower yield, affording the opportunity to quantitate both cholesterol and fatty acids from the same sample. Although we find that background contamination can interfere with quantitation of certain fatty acids in low amounts of starting material, our data indicate that this optimized method can be used to accurately measure mass isotopomer distributions for cholesterol and many fatty acids isolated from small numbers of cultured cells. Application of this method will facilitate acquisition of lipid parameters required for quantifying flux and provide a better understanding of how lipid metabolism influences cellular function. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Novel fatty acid esters of p-coumaryl alcohol in epicuticular wax of apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, B D; Schmidt, W F; Kirk, M C; Barnes, S

    2001-08-01

    Hexane extracts of epicuticular wax from cv. Gala apples were noted to have an unusual, broad absorbance maximum at approximately 258 nm, which led us to isolate and identify the primary UV-absorbing compounds. Column and thin-layer chromatography yielded a fraction that gave a series of paired, 260-nm-absorbing peaks on C(18) HPLC. These were shown to be a family of phenolic fatty acid esters, for which retention times increased with increasing fatty acid chain length, and paired peaks were esters of two related phenolics with the same fatty acid moiety. Alkaline hydrolysis of the esters released two water-soluble phenolics separable by C(18) HPLC. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry gave a molecular mass of 150 for both, and (1)H NMR plus UV absorbance spectra identified them as E and Z isomers of p-coumaryl alcohol. Alkaline cleavage of the fatty acid esters in the presence of methanol or ethanol resulted in partial derivatization of E-p-coumaryl alcohol to the corresponding gamma-O-methyl or O-ethyl ether. Gradient HMQC NMR of the HPLC-purified stearate ester of E-p-coumaryl alcohol indicated that fatty acid esterification occurs at the gamma-OH rather than at the 4-OH on the phenyl ring. This is the first report of fatty acid esters of monolignols as a natural plant product.

  19. Fatty Acid Phytyl Ester Synthesis in Chloroplasts of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence. PMID:22623494

  20. Separation and quantitation of free fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aveldano, M I; VanRollins, M; Horrocks, L A

    1983-01-01

    Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on octadecylsilyl columns separates mixtures of either free fatty acids or fatty acid methyl esters prepared from mammalian tissue phospholipids. Acetonitrile-water mixtures are used for the elution of esters. Aqueous phosphoric acid is substituted for water for the separation of the free acids. Unsaturated compounds are detected and quantitated by their absorption at 192 nm. Saturates are detected better at 205 nm. The order of elution of fatty acids in complex mixtures varies as a function of acetonitrile concentration. At any given concentration, some compounds overlap. However, by varying the solvent strength, any fatty acid of interest can be resolved including many geometrical and positional isomers. Methyl esters prefractionated according to unsaturation by argentation thin-layer chromatography (TLC) are rapidly and completely separated by elution with CH3CN alone. Argentation TLC-reverse phase HPLC can be used as an analytical as well as a preparative procedure. Octylsilyl columns are used for rapid resolution and improved detection of minor or low ultraviolet-absorbing components in the fractions. For example, monoenoic fatty acids with up to 32 carbons have been detected in bovine brain glycerophospholipids. Specific radioactivities of 3H- and 14C-labeled fatty acids and the distribution of radioactivity among acyl groups from complex lipids are measured. The method is not recommended for complete compositional analysis, but is useful for determinations of specific radioactivities during studies on turnover and metabolic conversions of labeled fatty acids.

  1. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  2. Two new conjugated ketonic fatty acids from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica.

    PubMed

    Yao, Da-Lei; Zhang, Chang-Hao; Li, Ren; Luo, Jie; Jin, Mei; Piao, Jin-Hua; Zheng, Ming-Shan; Cui, Jiong-Mo; Son, Jong Keun; Li, Gao

    2015-04-01

    The present study was designed to isolate and characterize novel chemical constituents of the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. (Juglandaceae). The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, CD, UV, and IR) and by the comparisons of spectroscopic data with the reported values in the literatures. Two long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 and 2) were obtained and identified as (S)-(8E,10E)-12-hydroxy-7-oxo-8,10-octadecadienoic acid (1) and (S)-(8E, 10E)-12-hydroxy-7-oxo-8,10-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and structural elucidation of the two new conjugated ketonic fatty acids from this genus. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acids are potential endogenous regulators of aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Goodfriend, T L; Ball, D L; Elliott, M E; Morrison, A R; Evenson, M A

    1991-05-01

    Adrenal glomerulosa cells washed with delipidated albumin produced increased amounts of aldosterone in response to angiotensin-II (AII) or (Bu)2cAMP. Albumin treatment also increased binding of 125I-labeled AII to high affinity binding sites on adrenal cells. Lipid extracts of albumin solutions that were used to wash cells inhibited AII binding and aldosterone responses by washed glomerulosa cells. Chromatographic fractionation and mass spectroscopic analysis indicated that the inhibitors removed from cells by albumin were long chain fatty acids. Exogenous fatty acids not only inhibited AII binding, but they inhibited basal aldosterone production and increments in aldosterone caused by AII or dbcAMP, suggesting an effect on postreceptor steps in aldosteronogenesis. The most potent and most abundant fatty acids removed from adrenal cells were oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic. These fatty acids inhibited at micromolar concentrations in the absence of albumin and at somewhat higher concentrations in its presence. Cells that had been washed, then inhibited by exogenous oleic acid in vitro, were restored to their enhanced responsiveness by a second albumin wash, making it unlikely that cell damage is the mechanism of inhibition by fatty acids. Responses of fasciculata cells were not potentiated by albumin washes, and cortisol production was less sensitive than aldosterone production to exogenous fatty acids. Binding of ANP to glomerulosa cells was not affected by albumin or fatty acids. These results combined with clinical correlations make it plausible that unesterified fatty acids are naturally occurring regulators of the adrenal glomerulosa. Insulin's ability to lower plasma levels of fatty acids may be one way that it causes sodium retention.

  4. Cinnamyl alcohols and methyl esters of fatty acids from Wedelia prostrata callus cultures.

    PubMed

    El-Mawla, Ahmed M A Abd; Farag, Salwa F; Beuerle, Till

    2011-01-01

    Two methyl esters of fatty acids, namely octadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl stearate) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl palmitate), in addition to four cinnamyl alcohol derivatives, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol 4-O-glucoside (coniferin), were isolated from callus cultures of Wedelia prostrata. The structure of coniferin was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods, while the other compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography in comparison with standards.

  5. Plasma Free Fatty Acids in Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Ozturk, Mustafa; Ozturk, Ozlem; Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Sertoglu, Erdim; Aydin, Hakan; Yilmaz, Ali; Cemal Yenen, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the free fatty acids differences in plasma between hyperemesis gravidarum(HG) and healthy pregnant in first trimester pregnancy. We aimed to compare the plasma levels of DHA, AA and EPA, between HG patients and healthy pregnant women. Fifty-two pregnants were involved in the study. Twenty-six pregnants of them were HG as study group, and twenty-six pregnants were enrolled as healthy pregnant women at the similar gestational age. The saturated fatty acids C14, C15, C16, C18, C20, C22, and C24; the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA); the omega-6 fatty acids linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), and homo-gamma-linolenic acid; and the omega-9 fatty acids oleic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid were analysed by gas chromatography. Statistically differences was not seen between the groups with maternal age, gestational age, or plasma levels of EPA, DHA, and AA. Statistically significant difference was seen between the groups with plasma levels of C20 and C22(p(<)0.05). C20 was declined but C22 was rised in the HG patients. EPA, DHA, or AA, which related to placental and fetal neural development are not changing from Hyperemesis gravidarum.

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  7. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  8. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids accelerate airway repair by activating FFA4 in club cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Park, Soo-Jin; Kang, Saeromi; Koh, Jung-Min; Sato, Koichi; Chung, Hae-Young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2017-06-01

    A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) named free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4, also known as GPR120) was found to act as a GPCR for ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its expression has been reported in lung epithelial club cells. We investigated whether supplementation of the ω-3 fatty acids benefits lung health. Omacor (7.75 mg/kg), clinically prescribed preparation of ω-3 fatty acids, and FFA4-knockout mice were utilized in a naphthalene-induced mouse model of acute airway injury (1 injection of 30 mg/kg ip). Naphthalene injection induced complete destruction of bronchiolar epithelial cells within a day. Appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed after 21 days in control mice. It was found, however, that supplementation of Omacor accelerated the recovery. The appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed between 7 and 14 days after naphthalene injury in Omacor-treated mice. In isolated club cells, ω-3 fatty acids were found to stimulate cell proliferation and migration but to inhibit cell differentiation. With the use of pharmacological tools and FFA4-knockout mice, FFA4 was found to be responsible for ω-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation in vitro in club cells. Furthermore, accelerated recovery from naphthalene-induced airway injury in Omacor-treated mice was not observed in FFA4-knockout mice in vivo. Present findings indicate that ω-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation of bronchiole epithelial cells through FFA4 is responsible for Omacor-induced accelerated recovery from airway injury. Therefore, intermittent administration of Omacor needs to be tested for acute airway injury because ω-3 fatty acids stimulate proliferation but inhibit differentiation of club cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. FAX1, a Novel Membrane Protein Mediating Plastid Fatty Acid Export

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nannan; Gügel, Irene Luise; Giavalisco, Patrick; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis in plants occurs in plastids, and thus, export for subsequent acyl editing and lipid assembly in the cytosol and endoplasmatic reticulum is required. Yet, the transport mechanism for plastid fatty acids still remains enigmatic. We isolated FAX1 (fatty acid export 1), a novel protein, which inserts into the chloroplast inner envelope by α-helical membrane-spanning domains. Detailed phenotypic and ultrastructural analyses of FAX1 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that FAX1 function is crucial for biomass production, male fertility and synthesis of fatty acid-derived compounds such as lipids, ketone waxes, or pollen cell wall material. Determination of lipid, fatty acid, and wax contents by mass spectrometry revealed that endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-derived lipids decreased when FAX1 was missing, but levels of several plastid-produced species increased. FAX1 over-expressing lines showed the opposite behavior, including a pronounced increase of triacyglycerol oils in flowers and leaves. Furthermore, the cuticular layer of stems from fax1 knockout lines was specifically reduced in C29 ketone wax compounds. Differential gene expression in FAX1 mutants as determined by DNA microarray analysis confirmed phenotypes and metabolic imbalances. Since in yeast FAX1 could complement for fatty acid transport, we concluded that FAX1 mediates fatty acid export from plastids. In vertebrates, FAX1 relatives are structurally related, mitochondrial membrane proteins of so-far unknown function. Therefore, this protein family might represent a powerful tool not only to increase lipid/biofuel production in plants but also to explore novel transport systems involved in vertebrate fatty acid and lipid metabolism. PMID:25646734

  10. Fatty acids regulation of inflammatory and metabolic genes.

    PubMed

    Masi, Laureane N; Rodrigues, Alice C; Curi, Rui

    2013-07-01

    Fatty acids influence human health and diseases in various ways. In recent years, much work has been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids control short-term and long-term cellular functions. We have reviewed herein the most recent studies on modulation of gene expression by fatty acids. A number of genes respond to transcription factors and present a transcription factor response element in their promoter regions. Fatty acids may exert their effects on metabolism by regulating gene transcription via transcription factors. Understanding how fatty acids control expression of metabolic genes is a promising strategy to be investigated by aiming to treat metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fatty acids exert many of their biological effects through the modulation of the activity of transcription factors, such as sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and liver X receptors. Fatty acid action through transcription factors controls the expression of several inflammatory and metabolic genes.

  11. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  12. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  13. Temperature adaptation in yeasts: the role of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Suutari, M; Liukkonen, K; Laakso, S

    1990-08-01

    Studies on the yeasts Candida oleophila, Candida utilis, Lipomyces starkeyi, Rhodosporidium toruloides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed the existence of three different temperature adaptation responses involving changes in fatty acid composition. These conclusions were drawn by determining the growth rates, total cellular fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, degree of unsaturation, and the mean chain length of fatty acids over a range of growth temperatures. Within temperatures permitting growth, there were no changes in the major fatty acids of any of the yeasts, but the absolute amounts and relative compositions of the fatty acids did alter. In S. cerevisiae there were temperature-induced changes in the mean fatty acid chain length, whereas in R. toruloides there were changes in the degree of unsaturation. C. oleophila, C. utilis and L. starkeyi showed both responses, depending on whether the growth temperature was above or below 20-26 degrees C. Below 20-26 degrees C temperature-dependent changes were observed in the mean chain length whereas above 20-26 degrees C there were changes in the degree of unsaturation.

  14. It is all about fluidity: Fatty acids and macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Phagocytosis is an early and fundamental step for the effective clearance of disease causing agents. The ability to engulf and kill pathogens is considered as a major effector function of macrophages. In their phagocytic role macrophages are part of the first line of innate immune defense. A number of studies investigating fatty acid effects on macrophage phagocytosis have been conducted over many years. In vitro-data consistently report that alterations in macrophage membrane fatty acid composition are linked to an altered phagocytic capacity, i.e. an increase in membrane unsaturated fatty acid content is associated with an increase in engulfment and killing rate. The mode of action of fatty acids seems to be the modulation of the physical nature of the macrophage plasma membrane. It appears that the saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio of macrophage membrane phospholipids is of importance in determining macrophage phagocytic capacity. Available in vivo-data are less clear. At present, there is a lack of systematic studies elucidating key factors such as fatty acid efficacy, effective dose or dosing intervals. Without this knowledge the targeted modulation of macrophage phagocytosis in vivo by fatty acids is still a distant possibility.

  15. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  16. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  17. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  18. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  19. Fatty Acid-Related Phylogeny of Myxobacteria as an Approach to Discover Polyunsaturated Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ronald; Pistorius, Dominik; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    In an analysis of 47 aerobic myxobacterial strains, representing 19 genera in suborders Cystobacterineae, Nannocystineae, Sorangiineae, and a novel isolate, “Aetherobacter” SBSr008, an enormously diverse array of fatty acids (FAs) was found. The distribution of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) supports the reported clustering of strains in the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA genes. This finding additionally allows the prediction and assignment of the novel isolate SBSr008 into its corresponding taxon. Sorangiineae predominantly contains larger amounts of SCFA (57 to 84%) than BCFA. On the other hand, Cystobacterineae exhibit significant BCFA content (53 to 90%), with the exception of the genus Stigmatella. In Nannocystineae, the ratio of BCFA and SCFA seems dependent on the taxonomic clade. Myxobacteria could also be identified and classified by using their specific and predominant FAs as biomarkers. Nannocystineae is remarkably unique among the suborders for its absence of hydroxy FAs. After the identification of arachidonic (AA) FA in Phaselicystidaceae, eight additional polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) belonging to the omega-6 and omega-3 families were discovered. Here we present a comprehensive report of FAs found in aerobic myxobacteria. Gliding bacteria belonging to Flexibacter and Herpetosiphon were chosen for comparative analysis to determine their FA profiles in relation to the myxobacteria. PMID:21317327

  20. Retinoic acid stimulates essential fatty acid-supplemented human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1997-05-01

    The effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation of essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient and of EFA-supplemented adult human keratinocytes was investigated. EFA-deficient cell strains were supplied with one of four different fatty acid-supplemented media at the P0 to P1 passage. All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 or 1.0 microM was added to the cultures at the P1 to P2 passage. At passage P3, and 3 and 7 d thereafter, the cell growth rate was determined. The fatty acid content of cultures grown in each medium was measured using gas chromatography. All the EFA media "normalized" the cellular fatty acid composition and drastically decreased the cell number and total DNA and protein of the cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM prevented the loss of cell viability and growth usually associated with EFA supplementation but did not affect the control (EFA deficient) or 18:1 fatty acid-supplemented cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM altered the fatty acid content of the EFA-supplemented cultures. A statistically significant increase in 14:0, 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, and 20:4 fatty acids occurred, whereas the amounts of 18:0 and 18:2 fatty acids decreased. The largest changes were in 16:1 fatty acid (8-14%) and 18:2 fatty acid (12-5%). All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 microM also affected both cell growth and fatty acid composition without induction of the CRABP II message. These studies demonstrate that all-trans retinoic acid stimulates the growth of EFA-supplemented keratinocyte cultures while also altering the fatty acid composition of the cells.

  1. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-09-01

    Human beings evolved consuming a diet that contained about equal amounts of n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids. Over the past 100-150 y there has been an enormous increase in the consumption of n-6 fatty acids due to the increased intake of vegetable oils from corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, cottonseed, and soybeans. Today, in Western diets, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ranges from approximately 20-30:1 instead of the traditional range of 1-2:1. Studies indicate that a high intake of n-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. n-3 Fatty acids, however, have antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties. These beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids have been shown in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and, in some patients with renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of the studies were carried out with fish oils [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. However, alpha-linolenic acid, found in green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, rapeseed, and walnuts, desaturates and elongates in the human body to EPA and DHA and by itself may have beneficial effects in health and in the control of chronic diseases.

  2. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  3. THE BASIS OF STABILITY IN LYSINE AND ARGININE SALTS OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LINOLEIC ACID , STABILIZATION), (* FATTY ACIDS , STABILITY), (*AMINO ACIDS , SALTS), (*ANTIOXIDANTS, AMINO ACIDS ), DEHYDRATED FOODS, ADDITIVES...PRESERVATION, COMPLEX COMPOUNDS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, INFRARED SPECTRA, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CRYSTAL LATTICES, MOLECULAR ISOMERISM, FATTY ACID ESTERS

  4. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues.

    PubMed

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive