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Sample records for fault system mt

  1. The 2015 M w 6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake: an infrequent fault rupture within the Crocker fault system of East Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wei, Shengji; Wang, Xin; Lindsey, Eric O.; Tongkul, Felix; Tapponnier, Paul; Bradley, Kyle; Chan, Chung-Han; Hill, Emma M.; Sieh, Kerry

    2017-12-01

    The M w 6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake of 2015 was a complete (and deadly) surprise, because it occurred well away from the nearest plate boundary in a region of very low historical seismicity. Our seismological, space geodetic, geomorphological, and field investigations show that the earthquake resulted from rupture of a northwest-dipping normal fault that did not reach the surface. Its unilateral rupture was almost directly beneath 4000-m-high Mt. Kinabalu and triggered widespread slope failures on steep mountainous slopes, which included rockfalls that killed 18 hikers. Our seismological and morphotectonic analyses suggest that the rupture occurred on a normal fault that splays upwards off of the previously identified normal Marakau fault. Our mapping of tectonic landforms reveals that these faults are part of a 200-km-long system of normal faults that traverse the eastern side of the Crocker Range, parallel to Sabah's northwestern coastline. Although the tectonic reason for this active normal fault system remains unclear, the lengths of the longest fault segments suggest that they are capable of generating magnitude 7 earthquakes. Such large earthquakes must occur very rarely, though, given the hitherto undetectable geodetic rates of active tectonic deformation across the region.

  2. Paleoseismology of the Mt. Narryer Fault Zone, West Central Western Australia: a Multi-Segment Intraplate Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, B. B.; Clark, D.; Hengesh, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Australia shear zone (WASZ) is a 2000 km long fault system within the intraplate region of Australia. A paleoseismological study of faults and fault-related folds comprising the Mount Narryer fault zone (MNfz) in the southern WASZ reveals a late Quaternary history of repeated morphogenic earthquake occurrence that has profoundly influenced the planform and course of the Murchison, Roderick, and Sanford Rivers. Folding in the near surface sediments is the predominant style of surface expression of reactivated basement faults which is consistent with other neotectonic structures throughout the Western Australia shear zone. CRN and OSL estimates of exposure and burial ages of fault-related folds and fold derived colluvium provide constraint on Late Quaternary slip rates on the underlying faults of ~0.05 - 0.1 mm/a. In the case of the Roderick River fault scarp, 2-3m high tectonic risers separating inset terraces where the Murchison River crosses the scarp are consistent with multiple late Quaternary seismic events on the order of magnitude Mw 7.1-7.3. Mid-Pleistocene ages of tectonically deformed strata in the MNfz are consistent with the timing of collision between the Australian extended margin and Savu-Rote ridge 0.2-1.8 Ma.

  3. A multidisciplinary approach to characterize the geometry of active faults: the example of Mt. Massico, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luiso, P.; Paoletti, V.; Nappi, R.; La Manna, M.; Cella, F.; Gaudiosi, G.; Fedi, M.; Iorio, M.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a multidisciplinary and multiscale study at Mt. Massico, Southern Italy. Mt. Massico is a carbonate horst located along the Campanian-Latial margin of the Tyrrhenian basin, bordered by two main NE-SW systems of faults, and by NW-SE and N-S trending faults. Our analysis deals with the modelling of the main NE-SW faults. These faults were capable during Plio-Pleistocene and are still active today, even though with scarce and low-energy seismicity (Mw maximum = 4.8). We inferred the pattern of the fault planes through a combined interpretation of 2-D hypocentral sections, a multiscale analysis of gravity field and geochemical data. This allowed us to characterize the geometry of these faults and infer their large depth extent. This region shows very striking gravimetric signatures, well-known Quaternary faults, moderate seismicity and a localized geothermal fluid rise. Thus, this analysis represents a valid case study for testing the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach, and employing it in areas with buried and/or silent faults of potential high hazard, such as in the Apennine chain.

  4. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  5. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  6. A pilot GIS database of active faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily): A tool for integrated hazard evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, Giovanni; Bonforte, Alessandro; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active faults affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referenced arc-features and associated database. Arc-type features, georeferenced into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, represent the five main fault systems that develop in the analysed region. The backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was collected from the literature and then stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty five alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us location, kinematics, landform, slip rate, etc. Although the system has been implemented according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the database represent a pilot backbone for digital storing of fault parameters, providing a powerful tool in modelling hazard related to the active tectonics of Mt. Etna. The database collects, organises and shares all scientific currently available information about the active faults of the volcano. Furthermore, thanks to the strong effort spent on defining the fields of the database, the structure proposed in this paper is open to the collection of further data coming from future improvements in the knowledge of the fault systems. By layering additional user-specific geographic information and managing the proposed database (topological querying) a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps can be produced by the user. This is a proposal of a backbone for a comprehensive geographical database of fault systems, universally applicable to other sites.

  7. Joint Inversion of 3d Mt/gravity/magnetic at Pisagua Fault.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bascur, J.; Saez, P.; Tapia, R.; Humpire, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work shows the results of a joint inversion at Pisagua Fault using 3D Magnetotellurics (MT), gravity and regional magnetic data. The MT survey has a poor coverage of study area with only 21 stations; however, it allows to detect a low resistivity zone aligned with the Pisagua Fault trace that it is interpreted as a damage zone. The integration of gravity and magnetic data, which have more dense sampling and coverage, adds more detail and resolution to the detected low resistivity structure and helps to improve the structure interpretation using the resulted models (density, magnetic-susceptibility and electrical resistivity). The joint inversion process minimizes a multiple target function which includes the data misfit, model roughness and coupling norms (crossgradient and direct relations) for all geophysical methods considered (MT, gravity and magnetic). This process is solved iteratively using the Gauss-Newton method which updates the model of each geophysical method improving its individual data misfit, model roughness and the coupling with the other geophysical models. For solving the model updates of magnetic and gravity methods were developed dedicated 3D inversion software codes which include the coupling norms with additionals geophysical parameters. The model update of the 3D MT is calculated using an iterative method which sequentially filters the priority model and the output model of a single 3D MT inversion process for obtaining the resistivity model coupled solution with the gravity and magnetic methods.

  8. Fault kinematics and active tectonics of the Sabah margin: Insights from the 2015, Mw 6.0, Mt. Kinabalu earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, S.; Tapponnier, P.; WANG, X.; Lindsey, E.; Sieh, K.

    2016-12-01

    A gravity-driven "Mega-Landslide" model has been evoked to explain the shortening seen offshore Sabah and Brunei in oil-company seismic data. Although this model is considered to account simultaneously for recent folding at the edge of the submarine NW Sabah trough and normal faulting on the Sabah shelf, such a gravity-driven model is not consistent with geodetic data or critical examination of extant structural restorations. The rupture that produced the 2015 Mw6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake is also inconsistent with the gravity-driven model. Our teleseismic analysis shows that the centroid depth of that earthquake's mainshock was 13 to 14 km, and its favored fault-plane solution is a 60° NW-dipping normal fault. Our finite-rupture model exhibits major fault slip between 5 and 15 km depth, in keeping with our InSAR analysis, which shows no appreciable surface deformation. Both the hypocentral depth and the depth of principal slip are far too deep to be explained by gravity-driven failure, as such a model would predict a listric normal fault connecting at a much shallower depth with a very gentle detachment. Our regional mapping of tectonic landforms also suggests the recent rupture is part of a 200-km long system of narrowly distributed active extension in northern Sabah. Taken together, the nature of the 2015 rupture, the belt of active normal faults, and structural consideration indicate that active tectonic shortening plays the leading role in controlling the overall deformation of northern Sabah and that deep-seated, onland normal faulting likely results from an abrupt change in the dip-angle of the collision interface beneath the Sabah accretionary prism.

  9. Fault management and systems knowledge

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  10. The engine fuel system fault analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Song, Hanqiang; Yang, Changsheng; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    For improving the reliability of the engine fuel system, the typical fault factor of the engine fuel system was analyzed from the point view of structure and functional. The fault character was gotten by building the fuel system fault tree. According the utilizing of fault mode effect analysis method (FMEA), several factors of key component fuel regulator was obtained, which include the fault mode, the fault cause, and the fault influences. All of this made foundation for next development of fault diagnosis system.

  11. Fault management for data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1993-01-01

    Issues related to automating the process of fault management (fault diagnosis and response) for data management systems are considered. Substantial benefits are to be gained by successful automation of this process, particularly for large, complex systems. The use of graph-based models to develop a computer assisted fault management system is advocated. The general problem is described and the motivation behind choosing graph-based models over other approaches for developing fault diagnosis computer programs is outlined. Some existing work in the area of graph-based fault diagnosis is reviewed, and a new fault management method which was developed from existing methods is offered. Our method is applied to an automatic telescope system intended as a prototype for future lunar telescope programs. Finally, an application of our method to general data management systems is described.

  12. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  13. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  14. Subaru FATS (fault tracking system)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi

    2000-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

  15. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  16. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  17. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  18. Randomness fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting a fault on a power line carrying a line parameter such as a load current. The apparatus monitors and analyzes the load current to obtain an energy value. The energy value is compared to a threshold value stored in a buffer. If the energy value is greater than the threshold value a counter is incremented. If the energy value is greater than a high value threshold or less than a low value threshold then a second counter is incremented. If the difference between two subsequent energy values is greater than a constant then a third counter is incremented. A fault signal is issued if the counter is greater than a counter limit value and either the second counter is greater than a second limit value or the third counter is greater than a third limit value.

  19. MER surface fault protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers surface fault protection design was influenced by the fact that the solar-powered rovers must recharge their batteries during the day to survive the night. the rovers needed to autonomously maintain thermal stability, initiate safe and reliable communication with orbiting assets or directly to Earth, while maintaining energy balance. This paper will describe the system fault protection design for the surface phase of the mission.

  20. Permeability evolution associated to creep and episodic slow slip of a fault affecting clay formations: Results from the FS fault activation experiment in Mt Terri (Switzerland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Birkholzer, J. T.; De Barros, L.; Cappa, F.

    2017-12-01

    There is a large spectrum of fault slow rupture processes such as stable creep and slow slip that radiate no or little seismic energy, and which relationships to normal earthquakes and fault permeability variations are enigmatic. Here we present measurements of a fault slow rupture, permeability variation and seismicity induced by fluid-injection in a fault affecting the Opalinus clay (Mt Terri URL, Switzerland) at a depth of 300 m. We observe multiple dilatant slow slip events ( 0.1-to-30 microm/s) associated with factor-of-1000 increase of permeability, and terminated by a magnitude -2.5 main seismic event associated with a swarm of very small magnitude ones. Using fully coupled numerical modeling, we calculate that the short term velocity strengthening behavior observed experimentally at laboratory scale is overcome by longer slip weakening that may be favored by slip induced dilation. Two monitoring points set across the fault allow estimating that, at the onset of the seismicity, the radius of the fault patch invaded by pressurized fluid is 9-to-11m which is in good accordance with a fault instability triggering when the dimensions of the critical slip distance are overcome. We then observe that the long term slip weakening is associated to an exponential permeability increase caused by a cumulated effective normal stress drop of about 3.4MPa which controls the successive slip activation of multiple fracture planes inducing a 0.1MPa shear stress drop in the fault zone. Therefore, our data suggest that the induced earthquake that terminated the rupture sequence may have represented enough dynamic stress release to arrest the fault permeability increase, suggesting the high sensitivity of the slow rupture processes to the structural heterogeneity of the fault zone hydromechanical properties.

  1. Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

  2. Seismic Activity Related to the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Volcano Eruption (Italy): Fault Plane Solutions and Stress Tensor Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, G.; Cammarata, L.; Cocina, O.; Maiolino, V.; Musumeci, C.; Privitera, E.

    2003-04-01

    Late on the night of October 26, 2002, a bi-lateral eruption started on both the eastern and the southeastern flanks of Mt. Etna. The opening of the eruptive fracture system on the NE sector and the reactivation of the 2001 fracture system, on the S sector, were accompanied by a strong seismic swarm recorded between October 26 and 28 and by sharp increase of volcanic tremor amplitude. After this initial phase, on October 29 another seismogenetic zone became active in the SE sector of the volcano. At present (January 2003) the eruption is still in evolution. During the whole period a total of 862 earthquakes (Md≫1) was recorded by the local permanent seismic network run by INGV - Sezione di Catania. The maximum magnitude observed was Md=4.4. We focus our attention on 55 earthquakes with magnitude Md≫ 3.0. The dataset consists of accurate digital pickings of P- and S-phases including first-motion polarities. Firstly earthquakes were located using a 1D velocity model (Hirn et alii, 1991), then events were relocated by using two different 3D velocity models (Aloisi et alii, 2002; Patane et alii, 2002). Results indicate that most of earthquakes are located to the east of the Summit Craters and to northeast of them. Fault plane solutions (FPS) obtained show prevalent strike-slip rupture mechanisms. The suitable FPSs were considered for the application of Gephart and Forsyth`s algorithm in order to evaluate seismic stress field characteristics. Taking into account the preliminary results we propose a kinematic model of the eastern flank eastward movement in response of the intrusion processes in the central part of the volcano. References Aloisi M., Cocina O., Neri G., Orecchio B., Privitera E. (2002). Seismic tomography of the crust underneath the Etna volcano, Sicily. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 4154, pp. 1-17 Hirn A., Nercessian A., Sapin M., Ferrucci F., Wittlinger G. (1991). Seismic heterogeneity of Mt. Etna: structure and activity. Geophys. J

  3. Coulomb Fault Mechanics at Work in the Proterozoic: Strike-Slip Faults and Regional-Scale Veining in the Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begbie, M. J.; Sibson, R. H.; Ghisetti, F. C.

    2005-12-01

    The Proterozoic Mt Isa inlier, comprising greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages intruded by granites during the Isan Orogeny (1590-1500 Ma), is disrupted by brittle, late- or post-orogenic strike-slip faults. The faults occur in two mutually cross-cutting sets; a set of NE-SW subvertical dextral strike-slip faults, and a conjugate set of NW-SE sinistral faults. These faults thus define a regional stress field with σ1 oriented approximately E-W and σ3 oriented approximately N-S. Locally, the faults outcrop as linear blade-like ridges of silicified microbreccias-cataclasites and quartz veining that extends for kilometres across the semi-arid terrain. The informally named Spinifex Fault is one of the dextral set of subvertical faults. This fault is a classic example of coulomb fault mechanics at work in the Proterozoic. The Spinifex Fault trends ~065° across an outcropping granitic pluton, the margins of which it offsets dextrally by ~0.75 km. Locally within the pluton, the fault refracts to ~075° across an amphibolite layer. In the surrounding granitic pluton the fault trace is comparatively inconspicuous and unmineralized but where it transects the amphibolite it is defined by an upstanding ridge of silicified microbreccia-cataclasite (~10 m thick). Associated with the Spinifex Fault is a swarm of predominantly extensional subvertical quartz veins (cm to m thick) trending 090-95° and a series of mineralised fault splays trending 070-080°. Extension veins define the σ1-σ2 plane, with the Spinifex fault lying at an angle of ~25-30° to the inferred σ1. These veins are composed of colloform and crustiform banded quartz, brecciated fragments of quartz vein and wallrock that are typically rimmed with cockade overgrowths and bladed quartz after calcite pseudomorphs. Mineralised fault splays are < 50 m or so wide with a composite brittle fabric comprising: (1) bounding subvertical cataclastic `walls' <10 m or so thick made up of silicified

  4. Fault detection and isolation for complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chan Shi; Bayuaji, Luhur; Samad, R.; Mustafa, M.; Abdullah, N. R. H.; Zain, Z. M.; Pebrianti, Dwi

    2017-07-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) is a method to monitor, identify, and pinpoint the type and location of system fault in a complex multiple input multiple output (MIMO) non-linear system. A two wheel robot is used as a complex system in this study. The aim of the research is to construct and design a Fault Detection and Isolation algorithm. The proposed method for the fault identification is using hybrid technique that combines Kalman filter and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Kalman filter is able to recognize the data from the sensors of the system and indicate the fault of the system in the sensor reading. Error prediction is based on the fault magnitude and the time occurrence of fault. Additionally, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is another algorithm used to determine the type of fault and isolate the fault in the system.

  5. Transient Faults in Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful technique particularly appropriate for the detection of errors caused by transient faults in computer systems was developed. The technique can be implemented in either software or hardware; the research conducted thus far primarily considered software implementations. The error detection technique developed has the distinct advantage of having provably complete coverage of all errors caused by transient faults that affect the output produced by the execution of a program. In other words, the technique does not have to be tuned to a particular error model to enhance error coverage. Also, the correctness of the technique can be formally verified. The technique uses time and software redundancy. The foundation for an effective, low-overhead, software-based certification trail approach to real-time error detection resulting from transient fault phenomena was developed.

  6. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modern technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  7. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modem technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  8. Managing Space System Faults: Coalescing NASA's Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Brian; Fesq, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Managing faults and their resultant failures is a fundamental and critical part of developing and operating aerospace systems. Yet, recent studies have shown that the engineering "discipline" required to manage faults is not widely recognized nor evenly practiced within the NASA community. Attempts to simply name this discipline in recent years has been fraught with controversy among members of the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM), Fault Management (FM), Fault Protection (FP), Hazard Analysis (HA), and Aborts communities. Approaches to managing space system faults typically are unique to each organization, with little commonality in the architectures, processes and practices across the industry.

  9. Critical fault patterns determination in fault-tolerant computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, E. J.; Losq, J.

    1978-01-01

    The method proposed tries to enumerate all the critical fault-patterns (successive occurrences of failures) without analyzing every single possible fault. The conditions for the system to be operating in a given mode can be expressed in terms of the static states. Thus, one can find all the system states that correspond to a given critical mode of operation. The next step consists in analyzing the fault-detection mechanisms, the diagnosis algorithm and the process of switch control. From them, one can find all the possible system configurations that can result from a failure occurrence. Thus, one can list all the characteristics, with respect to detection, diagnosis, and switch control, that failures must have to constitute critical fault-patterns. Such an enumeration of the critical fault-patterns can be directly used to evaluate the overall system tolerance to failures. Present research is focused on how to efficiently make use of these system-level characteristics to enumerate all the failures that verify these characteristics.

  10. Reconfigurable fault tolerant avionics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. M.; Asami, K.; Cho, Mengu

    This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable avionics system based on modern Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to be used in future generations of nano satellites. A major concern in satellite systems and especially nano satellites is to build robust systems with low-power consumption profiles. The system is designed to be flexible by providing the capability of reconfiguring itself based on its orbital position. As Single Event Upsets (SEU) do not have the same severity and intensity in all orbital locations, having the maximum at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the polar cusps, the system does not have to be fully protected all the time in its orbit. An acceptable level of protection against high-energy cosmic rays and charged particles roaming in space is provided within the majority of the orbit through software fault tolerance. Check pointing and roll back, besides control flow assertions, is used for that level of protection. In the minority part of the orbit where severe SEUs are expected to exist, a reconfiguration for the system FPGA is initiated where the processor systems are triplicated and protection through Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) with feedback is provided. This technique of reconfiguring the system as per the level of the threat expected from SEU-induced faults helps in reducing the average dynamic power consumption of the system to one-third of its maximum. This technique can be viewed as a smart protection through system reconfiguration. The system is built on the commercial version of the (XC5VLX50) Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA on bulk silicon with 324 IO. Simulations of orbit SEU rates were carried out using the SPENVIS web-based software package.

  11. Arc burst pattern analysis fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting an arcing fault on a power line carrying a load current. Parameters indicative of power flow and possible fault events on the line, such as voltage and load current, are monitored and analyzed for an arc burst pattern exhibited by arcing faults in a power system. These arcing faults are detected by identifying bursts of each half-cycle of the fundamental current. Bursts occurring at or near a voltage peak indicate arcing on that phase. Once a faulted phase line is identified, a comparison of the current and voltage reveals whether the fault is located in a downstream direction of power flow toward customers, or upstream toward a generation station. If the fault is located downstream, the line is de-energized, and if located upstream, the line may remain energized to prevent unnecessary power outages.

  12. Ultrareliable fault-tolerant control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L. D.; Slykhouse, R. A.; Booth, L. A., Jr.; Carson, T. M.; Davis, G. J.; Howard, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that fault-tolerant computer systems, such as on the Shuttles, based on redundant, independent operation are a viable alternative in fault tolerant system designs. The ultrareliable fault-tolerant control system (UFTCS) was developed and tested in laboratory simulations of an UH-1H helicopter. UFTCS includes asymptotically stable independent control elements in a parallel, cross-linked system environment. Static redundancy provides the fault tolerance. A polling is performed among the computers, with results allowing for time-delay channel variations with tight bounds. When compared with the laboratory and actual flight data for the helicopter, the probability of a fault was, for the first 10 hr of flight given a quintuple computer redundancy, found to be 1 in 290 billion. Two weeks of untended Space Station operations would experience a fault probability of 1 in 24 million. Techniques for avoiding channel divergence problems are identified.

  13. Fault tolerant data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustin, W. M.; Smither, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Described in detail are: (1) results obtained in modifying the onboard data management system software to a multiprocessor fault tolerant system; (2) a functional description of the prototype buffer I/O units; (3) description of modification to the ACADC and stimuli generating unit of the DTS; and (4) summaries and conclusions on techniques implemented in the rack and prototype buffers. Also documented is the work done in investigating techniques of high speed (5 Mbps) digital data transmission in the data bus environment. The application considered is a multiport data bus operating with the following constraints: no preferred stations; random bus access by all stations; all stations equally likely to source or sink data; no limit to the number of stations along the bus; no branching of the bus; and no restriction on station placement along the bus.

  14. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  15. Fault-tolerant processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A fault-tolerant, fiber optic interconnect, or backplane, which serves as a via for data transfer between modules. Fault tolerance algorithms are embedded in the backplane by dividing the backplane into a read bus and a write bus and placing a redundancy management unit (RMU) between the read bus and the write bus so that all data transmitted by the write bus is subjected to the fault tolerance algorithms before the data is passed for distribution to the read bus. The RMU provides both backplane control and fault tolerance.

  16. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  17. Intermittent/transient faults in digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. M.; Glazer, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Containment set techniques are applied to 8085 microprocessor controllers so as to transform a typical control system into a slightly modified version, shown to be crashproof: after the departure of the intermittent/transient fault, return to one proper control algorithm is assured, assuming no permanent faults occur.

  18. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  19. Software fault tolerance in computer operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Ravishankar K.; Lee, Inhwan

    1994-01-01

    This chapter provides data and analysis of the dependability and fault tolerance for three operating systems: the Tandem/GUARDIAN fault-tolerant system, the VAX/VMS distributed system, and the IBM/MVS system. Based on measurements from these systems, basic software error characteristics are investigated. Fault tolerance in operating systems resulting from the use of process pairs and recovery routines is evaluated. Two levels of models are developed to analyze error and recovery processes inside an operating system and interactions among multiple instances of an operating system running in a distributed environment. The measurements show that the use of process pairs in Tandem systems, which was originally intended for tolerating hardware faults, allows the system to tolerate about 70% of defects in system software that result in processor failures. The loose coupling between processors which results in the backup execution (the processor state and the sequence of events occurring) being different from the original execution is a major reason for the measured software fault tolerance. The IBM/MVS system fault tolerance almost doubles when recovery routines are provided, in comparison to the case in which no recovery routines are available. However, even when recovery routines are provided, there is almost a 50% chance of system failure when critical system jobs are involved.

  20. Resolving the fault systems with the magnetotelluric method in the western Ilan plain of NE Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Chen, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the study we attempt to use the magnetotelluric (MT) surveys to delineate the basement topography of the western part of the Ilan plain. The triangular plain is located on the extension part of the Okinawa Trough, and is thought to be a subsidence basin bounded by the Hsueshan Range in the north and the Central Range in the south. The basement of the basin is composed of Tertiary metamorphic rocks such as argillites and slates. The recent extension of the Okinawa Trough started from approximately 0.1 Ma and involved ENE- and WSW-trending normal faults that may extended into the Ilan plain area. However, high sedimentation rates as well as the frequent human activities have resulted in unconsolidated sediments with a thickness of over 100 meters, and caused the difficulties in observing the surface traces of the active faults in the area. Hence we deployed about 70 MT stations across the southwestern tip of the triangular plain. We also tried to resolve the subsurface faults the relief variations of the basement with the inverted resistivity images, since the saturated sediments are relatively conductive and the consolidated rocks are resistive. With the inverted MT images, we found that there are a series of N-S trending horsts and grabens in addition to the ENE-WSW normal fault systems. The ENE-WSW trending faults are dipping mainly toward the north in our study area in the western tip of the Ilan plain. The preliminary results suggest that a younger N-S trending normal fault system may modify the relief of the basement in the recent stage after the activation of the ENE-WSW normal faults. The findings of the MT resistivity images provide new information to further review the tectonic explanations of the region in the future.

  1. Intermittent/transient fault phenomena in digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the intermittent/transient (IT) fault study is presented. An interval survivability evaluation of digital systems for IT faults is discussed along with a method for detecting and diagnosing IT faults in digital systems.

  2. Fault detection and diagnosis of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing

    The rapid growth of the solar industry over the past several years has expanded the significance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. One of the primary aims of research in building-integrated PV systems is to improve the performance of the system's efficiency, availability, and reliability. Although much work has been done on technological design to increase a photovoltaic module's efficiency, there is little research so far on fault diagnosis for PV systems. Faults in a PV system, if not detected, may not only reduce power generation, but also threaten the availability and reliability, effectively the "security" of the whole system. In this paper, first a circuit-based simulation baseline model of a PV system with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed using MATLAB software. MATLAB is one of the most popular tools for integrating computation, visualization and programming in an easy-to-use modeling environment. Second, data collection of a PV system at variable surface temperatures and insolation levels under normal operation is acquired. The developed simulation model of PV system is then calibrated and improved by comparing modeled I-V and P-V characteristics with measured I--V and P--V characteristics to make sure the simulated curves are close to those measured values from the experiments. Finally, based on the circuit-based simulation model, a PV model of various types of faults will be developed by changing conditions or inputs in the MATLAB model, and the I--V and P--V characteristic curves, and the time-dependent voltage and current characteristics of the fault modalities will be characterized for each type of fault. These will be developed as benchmark I-V or P-V, or prototype transient curves. If a fault occurs in a PV system, polling and comparing actual measured I--V and P--V characteristic curves with both normal operational curves and these baseline fault curves will aid in fault diagnosis.

  3. Predeployment validation of fault-tolerant systems through software-implemented fault insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeck, Edward W.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.; Segall, Zary Z.

    1989-01-01

    Fault injection-based automated testing (FIAT) environment, which can be used to experimentally characterize and evaluate distributed realtime systems under fault-free and faulted conditions is described. A survey is presented of validation methodologies. The need for fault insertion based on validation methodologies is demonstrated. The origins and models of faults, and motivation for the FIAT concept are reviewed. FIAT employs a validation methodology which builds confidence in the system through first providing a baseline of fault-free performance data and then characterizing the behavior of the system with faults present. Fault insertion is accomplished through software and allows faults or the manifestation of faults to be inserted by either seeding faults into memory or triggering error detection mechanisms. FIAT is capable of emulating a variety of fault-tolerant strategies and architectures, can monitor system activity, and can automatically orchestrate experiments involving insertion of faults. There is a common system interface which allows ease of use to decrease experiment development and run time. Fault models chosen for experiments on FIAT have generated system responses which parallel those observed in real systems under faulty conditions. These capabilities are shown by two example experiments each using a different fault-tolerance strategy.

  4. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  5. Geometric incompatibility in a fault system.

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielov, A; Keilis-Borok, V; Jackson, D D

    1996-01-01

    Interdependence between geometry of a fault system, its kinematics, and seismicity is investigated. Quantitative measure is introduced for inconsistency between a fixed configuration of faults and the slip rates on each fault. This measure, named geometric incompatibility (G), depicts summarily the instability near the fault junctions: their divergence or convergence ("unlocking" or "locking up") and accumulation of stress and deformations. Accordingly, the changes in G are connected with dynamics of seismicity. Apart from geometric incompatibility, we consider deviation K from well-known Saint Venant condition of kinematic compatibility. This deviation depicts summarily unaccounted stress and strain accumulation in the region and/or internal inconsistencies in a reconstruction of block- and fault system (its geometry and movements). The estimates of G and K provide a useful tool for bringing together the data on different types of movement in a fault system. An analog of Stokes formula is found that allows determination of the total values of G and K in a region from the data on its boundary. The phenomenon of geometric incompatibility implies that nucleation of strong earthquakes is to large extent controlled by processes near fault junctions. The junctions that have been locked up may act as transient asperities, and unlocked junctions may act as transient weakest links. Tentative estimates of K and G are made for each end of the Big Bend of the San Andreas fault system in Southern California. Recent strong earthquakes Landers (1992, M = 7.3) and Northridge (1994, M = 6.7) both reduced K but had opposite impact on G: Landers unlocked the area, whereas Northridge locked it up again. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:11607673

  6. Transfer zones in listric normal fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Shamik

    Listric normal faults are common in passive margin settings where sedimentary units are detached above weaker lithological units, such as evaporites or are driven by basal structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. The geometries and styles of faulting vary with the types of detachment and form landward and basinward dipping fault systems. Complex transfer zones therefore develop along the terminations of adjacent faults where deformation is accommodated by secondary faults, often below seismic resolution. The rollover geometry and secondary faults within the hanging wall of the major faults also vary with the styles of faulting and contribute to the complexity of the transfer zones. This study tries to understand the controlling factors for the formation of the different styles of listric normal faults and the different transfer zones formed within them, by using analog clay experimental models. Detailed analyses with respect to fault orientation, density and connectivity have been performed on the experiments in order to gather insights on the structural controls and the resulting geometries. A new high resolution 3D laser scanning technology has been introduced to scan the surfaces of the clay experiments for accurate measurements and 3D visualizations. Numerous examples from the Gulf of Mexico have been included to demonstrate and geometrically compare the observations in experiments and real structures. A salt cored convergent transfer zone from the South Timbalier Block 54, offshore Louisiana has been analyzed in detail to understand the evolutionary history of the region, which helps in deciphering the kinematic growth of similar structures in the Gulf of Mexico. The dissertation is divided into three chapters, written in a journal article format, that deal with three different aspects in understanding the listric normal fault systems and the transfer zones so formed. The first chapter involves clay experimental models to understand the fault patterns in

  7. SUMC fault tolerant computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of the trade studies are presented. These trades cover: establishing the basic configuration, establishing the CPU/memory configuration, establishing an approach to crosstrapping interfaces, defining the requirements of the redundancy management unit (RMU), establishing a spare plane switching strategy for the fault-tolerant memory (FTM), and identifying the most cost effective way of extending the memory addressing capability beyond the 64 K-bytes (K=1024) of SUMC-II B. The results of the design are compiled in Contract End Item (CEI) Specification for the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer II (NSSC-II), IBM 7934507. The implementation of the FTM and memory address expansion.

  8. Fault tolerant filtering and fault detection for quantum systems driven by fields in single photon states

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Qing, E-mail: qing.gao.chance@gmail.com; Dong, Daoyi, E-mail: daoyidong@gmail.com; Petersen, Ian R., E-mail: i.r.petersen@gmai.com

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the fault tolerant filtering and fault detection problem for a class of open quantum systems driven by a continuous-mode bosonic input field in single photon states when the systems are subject to stochastic faults. Optimal estimates of both the system observables and the fault process are simultaneously calculated and characterized by a set of coupled recursive quantum stochastic differential equations.

  9. Continuation, south of Oaxaca City (southern Mexico) of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and of the Oaxaca Fault. Based in MT, gravity and magnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Belmonte-Jimenez, S.; Arango-Galván, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone constituting the boundary-suture between the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes (southern Mexico). South of Oaxaca City, the fault trace disappears and there are not clear evidences for its southward continuation at depth. The crust in southern México has been studied through seismic refraction, and seismological and magnetotelluric (MT) studies. The refraction studies did not image the Oaxaca Fault. However, previous regional MT studies suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary lies to the east of the Zaachila and Mitla sub-basins, which implies sinistral displacement along the Donaji Fault. Campos-Enriquez et al. (2009) established the shallow structure of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary based in detailed gravity and magnetic studies. This study enabled: 1) to establish the shallow structure of the composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. According to the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. At the same time,, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of a horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. This model implies that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault. A constraint for the accreation of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes. Thirty MT soundings were done in the area of the Central Valleys, Oaxaca City (southern Mexico). In particular we wanted to image the possible southward continuation of the Oaxaca Fault. 22 Mt sounding are located along two NE-SW profiles to the northern and to the south of the City of Oaxaca. To the north of Oaxaca City, the electrical resistivity distribution obtained show a clear discontinuity across the superficial trace of the Oaxaca

  10. Fault-tolerant continuous flow systems modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbi, B.; Tebbikh, H.; Alla, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a structural modelling of faults with hybrid Petri nets (HPNs) for the analysis of a particular class of hybrid dynamic systems, continuous flow systems. HPNs are first used for the behavioural description of continuous flow systems without faults. Then, faults' modelling is considered using a structural method without having to rebuild the model to new. A translation method is given in hierarchical way, it gives a hybrid automata (HA) from an elementary HPN. This translation preserves the behavioural semantics (timed bisimilarity), and reflects the temporal behaviour by giving semantics for each model in terms of timed transition systems. Thus, advantages of the power modelling of HPNs and the analysis ability of HA are taken. A simple example is used to illustrate the ideas.

  11. Immunity-Based Aircraft Fault Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported in this paper, we have developed and applied an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for aircraft fault detection, as an extension to a previous work on intelligent flight control (IFC). Though the prior studies had established the benefits of IFC, one area of weakness that needed to be strengthened was the control dead band induced by commanding a failed surface. Since the IFC approach uses fault accommodation with no detection, the dead band, although it reduces over time due to learning, is present and causes degradation in handling qualities. If the failure can be identified, this dead band can be further A ed to ensure rapid fault accommodation and better handling qualities. The paper describes the application of an immunity-based approach that can detect a broad spectrum of known and unforeseen failures. The approach incorporates the knowledge of the normal operational behavior of the aircraft from sensory data, and probabilistically generates a set of pattern detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults) in the behavior pattern indicating unsafe in-flight operation. We developed a tool called MILD (Multi-level Immune Learning Detection) based on a real-valued negative selection algorithm that can generate a small number of specialized detectors (as signatures of known failure conditions) and a larger set of generalized detectors for unknown (or possible) fault conditions. Once the fault is detected and identified, an adaptive control system would use this detection information to stabilize the aircraft by utilizing available resources (control surfaces). We experimented with data sets collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions using a piloted motion-base simulation facility. The reported results are from a collection of test cases that reflect the performance of the proposed immunity-based fault detection algorithm.

  12. 3-D GPR data analysis for high-resolution imaging of shallow subsurface faults: the Mt Vettore case study (Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercoli, Maurizio; Pauselli, Cristina; Frigeri, Alessandro; Forte, Emanuele; Federico, Costanzo

    2014-07-01

    The activation of Late Quaternary faults in the Central Apennines (Italy) could generate earthquakes with magnitude of about 6.5, and the Monte Vettore fault system probably belongs to the same category of seismogenetic faults. Such structure has been defined `silent', because of its geological and geomorphological evidences of past activation, but the absence of historical records in the seismic catalogues to be associated with its activation. The `Piano di Castelluccio' intramountain basin, resulting from the Quaternary activity of normal faults, is characterized by a secondary fault strand highlighted by a NW-SE fault scarp: it has been already studied through palaeoseismological trenches, which highlighted evidences of Quaternary shallow faulting due to strong earthquakes, and through a 2-D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey, showing the first geophysical signature of faulting for this site. Within the same place, a 3-D GPR volume over a 20 × 20 m area has been collected. The collection of radar echoes in three dimensions allows to map both the vertical and lateral continuity of shallow geometries of the fault zone (Fz), imaging features with high resolution, ranging from few metres to centimetres and therefore imaging also local variations at the microscale. Several geophysical markers of faulting, already highlighted on this site, have been taken as reference to plan the 3-D survey. In this paper, we provide the first 3-D subsurface imaging of an active shallow fault belonging to the Umbria-Marche Apennine highlighting the subsurface fault geometry and the stratigraphic sequence up to a depth of about 5 m. From our data, geophysical faulting signatures are clearly visible in three dimensions: diffraction hyperbolas, truncations of layers, local attenuated zones and varying dip of the layers have been detected within the Fz. The interpretation of the 3-D data set provided qualitative and quantitative geological information in addition to the fault location

  13. Fault Tolerant Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    The ART (Advanced Real-Time Technology) Project of Carnegie Mellon University is engaged in wide ranging research on hard real - time systems . The...including hardware and software fault tolerance using temporal redundancy and analytic redundancy to permit the construction of real - time systems whose

  14. The Morelia-Acambay Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez Bucio, M.; Soria-Caballero, D.; Garduño-Monroy, V.; Mennella, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the most actives and representative zones of Mexico geologically speaking. Research carried out in this area gives stratigraphic, seismologic and historical evidence of its recent activity during the quaternary (Martinez and Nieto, 1990). Specifically the Morelia-Acambay faults system (MAFS) consist in a series of normal faults of dominant direction E - W, ENE - WSW y NE - SW which is cut in center west of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fault system appeared during the early Miocene although the north-south oriented structures are older and have been related to the activity of the tectonism inherited from the "Basin and Range" system, but that were reactivated by the east- west faults. It is believed that the activity of these faults has contributed to the creation and evolution of the longed lacustrine depressions such as: Chapala, Zacapu, Cuitzeo, Maravatio y Acambay also the location of monogenetic volcanoes that conformed the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) and tend to align in the direction of the SFMA dominant effort. In a historical time different segments of the MAFS have been the epicenter of earthquakes from moderated to strong magnitude like the events of 1858 in Patzcuaro, Acambay in 1912, 1979 in Maravatio and 2007 in Morelia, among others. Several detailed analysis and semi-detailed analysis through a GIS platform based in the vectorial archives and thematic charts 1:50 000 scaled from the data base of the INEGI which has allowed to remark the influence of the MAFS segments about the morphology of the landscape and the identification of other structures related to the movement of the existent faults like fractures, alignments, collapses and others from the zone comprehended by the northwest of Morelia in Michoacán to the East of Acambay, Estado de México. Such analysis suggests that the fault segments possess a normal displacement plus a left component. In addition it can be

  15. Parameter Transient Behavior Analysis on Fault Tolerant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor); Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2003-01-01

    In a fault tolerant control (FTC) system, a parameter varying FTC law is reconfigured based on fault parameters estimated by fault detection and isolation (FDI) modules. FDI modules require some time to detect fault occurrences in aero-vehicle dynamics. This paper illustrates analysis of a FTC system based on estimated fault parameter transient behavior which may include false fault detections during a short time interval. Using Lyapunov function analysis, the upper bound of an induced-L2 norm of the FTC system performance is calculated as a function of a fault detection time and the exponential decay rate of the Lyapunov function.

  16. Fault-tolerant software - Experiment with the sift operating system. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunelle, J. E.; Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment conducted in the NASA Avionics Integrated Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) to investigate the implementation of fault-tolerant software techniques on fault-tolerant computer architectures, in particular the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) computer. The N-version programming and recovery block techniques were implemented on a portion of the SIFT operating system. The results indicate that, to effectively implement fault-tolerant software design techniques, system requirements will be impacted and suggest that retrofitting fault-tolerant software on existing designs will be inefficient and may require system modification.

  17. Late Quaternary faulting along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogan, George E.; Kellogg, Karl; Slemmons, D. Burton; Terhune, Christina L.

    1991-01-01

    The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, in California and Nevada, has a variety of impressive late Quaternary neotectonic features that record a long history of recurrent earthquake-induced faulting. Although no neotectonic features of unequivocal historical age are known, paleoseismic features from multiple late Quaternary events of surface faulting are well developed throughout the length of the system. Comparison of scarp heights to amount of horizontal offset of stream channels and the relationships of both scarps and channels to the ages of different geomorphic surfaces demonstrate that Quaternary faulting along the northwest-trending Furnace Creek fault zone is predominantly right lateral, whereas that along the north-trending Death Valley fault zone is predominantly normal. These observations are compatible with tectonic models of Death Valley as a northwest-trending pull-apart basin. The largest late Quaternary scarps along the Furnace Creek fault zone, with vertical separation of late Pleistocene surfaces of as much as 64 m (meters), are in Fish Lake Valley. Despite the predominance of normal faulting along the Death Valley fault zone, vertical offset of late Pleistocene surfaces along the Death Valley fault zone apparently does not exceed about 15 m. Evidence for four to six separate late Holocene faulting events along the Furnace Creek fault zone and three or more late Holocene events along the Death Valley fault zone are indicated by rupturing of Q1B (about 200-2,000 years old) geomorphic surfaces. Probably the youngest neotectonic feature observed along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, possibly historic in age, is vegetation lineaments in southernmost Fish Lake Valley. Near-historic faulting in Death Valley, within several kilometers south of Furnace Creek Ranch, is represented by (1) a 2,000-year-old lake shoreline that is cut by sinuous scarps, and (2) a system of young scarps with free-faceted faces (representing several faulting

  18. Implementation of Integrated System Fault Management Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Morris, Jon; Smith, Harvey; Turowski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Fault Management to support rocket engine test mission with highly reliable and accurate measurements; while improving availability and lifecycle costs. CORE ELEMENTS: Architecture, taxonomy, and ontology (ATO) for DIaK management. Intelligent Sensor Processes; Intelligent Element Processes; Intelligent Controllers; Intelligent Subsystem Processes; Intelligent System Processes; Intelligent Component Processes.

  19. Rupture Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of rupture synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a rupture of magnitude > M. The main object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {τij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ρkk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ≠ k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a

  20. Fault-tolerant cooperative output regulation for multi-vehicle systems with sensor faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Liguo; He, Xiao; Zhou, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a unified framework of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant cooperative output regulation (FTCOR) for a linear discrete-time multi-vehicle system with sensor faults. The FTCOR control law is designed through three steps. A cooperative output regulation (COR) controller is designed based on the internal mode principle when there are no sensor faults. A sufficient condition on the existence of the COR controller is given based on the discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation (DARE). Then, a decentralised fault diagnosis scheme is designed to cope with sensor faults occurring in followers. A residual generator is developed to detect sensor faults of each follower, and a bank of fault-matching estimators are proposed to isolate and estimate sensor faults of each follower. Unlike the current distributed fault diagnosis for multi-vehicle systems, the presented decentralised fault diagnosis scheme in each vehicle reduces the communication and computation load by only using the information of the vehicle. By combing the sensor fault estimation and the COR control law, an FTCOR controller is proposed. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the FTCOR controller.

  1. Stafford fault system: 120 million year fault movement history of northern Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Horton, J. Wright; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Stafford fault system, located in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain of the eastern United States, provides the most complete record of fault movement during the past ~120 m.y. across the Virginia, Washington, District of Columbia (D.C.), and Maryland region, including displacement of Pleistocene terrace gravels. The Stafford fault system is close to and aligned with the Piedmont Spotsylvania and Long Branch fault zones. The dominant southwest-northeast trend of strong shaking from the 23 August 2011, moment magnitude Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake is consistent with the connectivity of these faults, as seismic energy appears to have traveled along the documented and proposed extensions of the Stafford fault system into the Washington, D.C., area. Some other faults documented in the nearby coastal plain are clearly rooted in crystalline basement faults, especially along terrane boundaries. These coastal plain faults are commonly assumed to have undergone relatively uniform movement through time, with average slip rates from 0.3 to 1.5 m/m.y. However, there were higher rates during the Paleocene–early Eocene and the Pliocene (4.4–27.4 m/m.y), suggesting that slip occurred primarily during large earthquakes. Further investigation of the Stafford fault system is needed to understand potential earthquake hazards for the Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C., area. The combined Stafford fault system and aligned Piedmont faults are ~180 km long, so if the combined fault system ruptured in a single event, it would result in a significantly larger magnitude earthquake than the Mineral earthquake. Many structures most strongly affected during the Mineral earthquake are along or near the Stafford fault system and its proposed northeastward extension.

  2. A PC based fault diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Status Assessment (ISA) prototype expert system performs system level fault diagnosis using rules and models created by the user. The ISA evolved from concepts to a stand-alone demonstration prototype using OPS5 on a LISP Machine. The LISP based prototype was rewritten in C and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) to run on a Personal Computer (PC) and a graphics workstation. The ISA prototype has been used to demonstrate fault diagnosis functions of Space Station Freedom's Operation Management System (OMS). This paper describes the development of the ISA prototype from early concepts to the current PC/workstation version used today and describes future areas of development for the prototype.

  3. Simultaneous Sensor and Process Fault Diagnostics for Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, J.; Kwan, C.; Figueroa, F.; Xu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to extract fault features from sensor faults and process faults by using advanced fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms. A tank system that has some common characteristics to a NASA testbed at Stennis Space Center was used to verify our proposed algorithms. First, a generic tank system was modeled. Second, a mathematical model suitable for FDI has been derived for the tank system. Third, a new and general FDI procedure has been designed to distinguish process faults and sensor faults. Extensive simulations clearly demonstrated the advantages of the new design.

  4. Adaptive Fault-Resistant Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    An Architectural Overview of the Alpha Real-Time Distributed Kernel . In Proceeding., of the USEN[X Workshop on Microkernels and Other Kernel ...system and the controller are monolithic . We have noted earlier some of the problems of distributed systems-for exam- ple, the need to bound the...are monolithic . In practice, designers employ a layered structuring for their systems in order to manage complexity, and we expect that practical

  5. Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Distributed System Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Geser, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of abstraction for the design and analysis of fault tolerant distributed systems are discussed. These abstractions concern system messages, faults, fault masking voting, and communication. The abstractions are formalized in higher order logic, and are intended to facilitate specifying and verifying such systems in higher order theorem provers.

  6. Spatial distribution of soil radon as a tool to recognize active faulting on an active volcano: the example of Mt. Etna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Neri, Marco; Giammanco, Salvatore; Ferrera, Elisabetta; Patanè, Giuseppe; Zanon, Vittorio

    2011-09-01

    This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquakes depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fault tolerant system based on IDDQ testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibane, Badi; Hamdi, Belgacem; Mtibaa, Abdellatif; Bensalem, Brahim

    2018-06-01

    Offline test is essential to ensure good manufacturing quality. However, for permanent or transient faults that occur during the use of the integrated circuit in an application, an online integrated test is needed as well. This procedure should ensure the detection and possibly the correction or the masking of these faults. This requirement of self-correction is sometimes necessary, especially in critical applications that require high security such as automotive, space or biomedical applications. We propose a fault-tolerant design for analogue and mixed-signal design complementary metal oxide (CMOS) circuits based on the quiescent current supply (IDDQ) testing. A defect can cause an increase in current consumption. IDDQ testing technique is based on the measurement of power supply current to distinguish between functional and failed circuits. The technique has been an effective testing method for detecting physical defects such as gate-oxide shorts, floating gates (open) and bridging defects in CMOS integrated circuits. An architecture called BICS (Built In Current Sensor) is used for monitoring the supply current (IDDQ) of the connected integrated circuit. If the measured current is not within the normal range, a defect is signalled and the system switches connection from the defective to a functional integrated circuit. The fault-tolerant technique is composed essentially by a double mirror built-in current sensor, allowing the detection of abnormal current consumption and blocks allowing the connection to redundant circuits, if a defect occurs. Spices simulations are performed to valid the proposed design.

  8. What electrical measurements can say about changes in fault systems.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, T R; Mackie, R L

    1996-01-01

    Earthquake zones in the upper crust are usually more conductive than the surrounding rocks, and electrical geophysical measurements can be used to map these zones. Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements across fault zones that are parallel to the coast and not too far away can also give some important information about the lower crustal zone. This is because the long-period electric currents coming from the ocean gradually leak into the mantle, but the lower crust is usually very resistive and very little leakage takes place. If a lower crustal zone is less resistive it will be a leakage zone, and this can be seen because the MT phase will change as the ocean currents leave the upper crust. The San Andreas Fault is parallel to the ocean boundary and close enough to have a lot of extra ocean currents crossing the zone. The Loma Prieta zone, after the earthquake, showed a lot of ocean electric current leakage, suggesting that the lower crust under the fault zone was much more conductive than normal. It is hard to believe that water, which is responsible for the conductivity, had time to get into the lower crustal zone, so it was probably always there, but not well connected. If this is true, then the poorly connected water would be at a pressure close to the rock pressure, and it may play a role in modifying the fluid pressure in the upper crust fault zone. We also have telluric measurements across the San Andreas Fault near Palmdale from 1979 to 1990, and beginning in 1985 we saw changes in the telluric signals on the fault zone and east of the fault zone compared with the signals west of the fault zone. These measurements were probably seeing a better connection of the lower crust fluids taking place, and this may result in a fluid flow from the lower crust to the upper crust. This could be a factor in changing the strength of the upper crust fault zone. PMID:11607664

  9. Robust Fault Detection and Isolation for Stochastic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jemin; Gregory, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the formulation of a robust fault detection and isolation scheme that can precisely detect and isolate simultaneous actuator and sensor faults for uncertain linear stochastic systems. The given robust fault detection scheme based on the discontinuous robust observer approach would be able to distinguish between model uncertainties and actuator failures and therefore eliminate the problem of false alarms. Since the proposed approach involves precise reconstruction of sensor faults, it can also be used for sensor fault identification and the reconstruction of true outputs from faulty sensor outputs. Simulation results presented here validate the effectiveness of the robust fault detection and isolation system.

  10. Data-based fault-tolerant control for affine nonlinear systems with actuator faults.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chun-Hua; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the fault-tolerant control (FTC) problem for unknown nonlinear systems with actuator faults including stuck, outage, bias and loss of effectiveness. The upper bounds of stuck faults, bias faults and loss of effectiveness faults are unknown. A new data-based FTC scheme is proposed. It consists of the online estimations of the bounds and a state-dependent function. The estimations are adjusted online to compensate automatically the actuator faults. The state-dependent function solved by using real system data helps to stabilize the system. Furthermore, all signals in the resulting closed-loop system are uniformly bounded and the states converge asymptotically to zero. Compared with the existing results, the proposed approach is data-based. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fault Accommodation in Control of Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Lim, Kyong B.

    1998-01-01

    New synthesis techniques for the design of fault accommodating controllers for flexible systems are developed. Three robust control design strategies, static dissipative, dynamic dissipative and mu-synthesis, are used in the approach. The approach provides techniques for designing controllers that maximize, in some sense, the tolerance of the closed-loop system against faults in actuators and sensors, while guaranteeing performance robustness at a specified performance level, measured in terms of the proximity of the closed-loop poles to the imaginary axis (the degree of stability). For dissipative control designs, nonlinear programming is employed to synthesize the controllers, whereas in mu-synthesis, the traditional D-K iteration is used. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed techniques, they are applied to the control design of a structural model of a flexible laboratory test structure.

  12. Dynamic characteristics of a 20 kHz resonant power system - Fault identification and fault recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasynczuk, O.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed simulation of a dc inductor resonant driver and receiver is used to demonstrate the transient characteristics of a 20 kHz resonant power system during fault and overload conditions. The simulated system consists of a dc inductor resonant inverter (driver), a 50-meter transmission cable, and a dc inductor resonant receiver load. Of particular interest are the driver and receiver performance during fault and overload conditions and on the recovery characteristics following removal of the fault. The information gained from these studies sets the stage for further work in fault identification and autonomous power system control.

  13. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Functional Fault Models For Fault Isolation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    This project implements functional fault models (FFM) to automate the isolation of failures during ground systems operations. FFMs will also be used to recommend sensor placement to improve fault isolation capabilities. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators.

  14. Practical Methods for Estimating Software Systems Fault Content and Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, A.; Schneidewind, N.; Munson, J.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed techniques to discriminate between fault-prone software modules and those that are not, to estimate a software system's residual fault content, to identify those portions of a software system having the highest estimated number of faults, and to estimate the effects of requirements changes on software quality.

  15. Results of an electrical power system fault study (CDDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, N. R.; Johnson, Y. B.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the results of an electrical power system fault study which has been conducted over the last 2 and one-half years. First, the results of the literature search into electrical power system faults in space and terrestrial power system applications are reported. A description of the intended implementations of the power system faults into the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard is then presented. Then, the actual implementation of the faults into the breadboard is discussed along with a discussion describing the LASEPS breadboard. Finally, the results of the injected faults and breadboard failures are discussed.

  16. Fault reactivation: The Picuris-Pecos fault system of north-central New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, David Wilson

    The PPFS is a N-trending fault system extending over 80 km in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico. Precambrian basement rocks are offset 37 km in a right-lateral sense; however, this offset includes dextral strike-slip (Precambrian), mostly normal dip-slip (Pennsylvanian), mostly reverse dip-slip (Early Laramide), limited strike-slip (Late Laramide) and mostly normal dip-slip (Cenozoic). The PPFS is broken into at least 3 segments by the NE-trending Embudo fault and by several Laramide age NW-trending tear faults. These segments are (from N to S): the Taos, the Picuris, and the Pecos segments. On the east side of the Picuris segment in the Picuris Mountains, the Oligocene-Miocene age Miranda graben developed and represents a complex extension zone south of the Embudo fault. Regional analysis of remotely sensed data and geologic maps indicate that lineaments subparallel to the trace of the PPFS are longer and less frequent than lineaments that trend orthogonal to the PPFS. Significant cross cutting faults and subtle changes in fault trends in each segment are clear in the lineament data. Detailed mapping in the eastern Picuris Mountains showed that the favorably oriented Picuris segment was not reactivated in the Tertiary development of the Rio Grande rift. Segmentation of the PPFS and post-Laramide annealing of the Picuris segment are interpreted to have resulted in the development of the subparallel La Serna fault. The Picuris segment of the PPFS is offset by several E-ESE trending faults. These faults are Late Cenozoic in age and interpreted to be related to the uplift of the Picuris Mountains and the continuing sinistral motion on the Embudo fault. Differential subsidence within the Miranda graben caused the development of several synthetic and orthogonal faults between the bounding La Serna and Miranda faults. Analysis of over 10,000 outcrop scale brittle structures reveals a strong correlation between faults and fracture systems. The dominant

  17. Deep crustal faults and the origin and long-term flank stability of Mt. Etna : First results from the CIRCEE cruise (Oct. 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, Marc-Andre; Dominguez, Stephane; Mercier de Lepinay, Bernard; Pinheiro, Luis; Babonneau, Nathalie; Cattaneo, Antonio; LeFaou, Yann; Barreca, Giovanni; Micallef, Aaron; Rovere, Marzia

    2014-05-01

    The relation between deep crustal faults and the origin of Mount Etna, the largest and most active volcano in Europe has long been suspected due to its unusual geodynamic location. Results from a new marine geophysical survey offshore Eastern Sicily reveal the detailed geometry (location, length, dip and orientation) of a two-branched 200-km long, lithospheric scale fault system, long sought for as being the cause of Mount Etna. Using high-resolution bathymetry and seismic profiling, we image a 60-km long, previously unidentified, NW trending fault with evidence of recent displacement at the seafloor, offsetting Holocene sediments. This newly identified fault connects NE of Catania, to a known 40-km long, offshore-onshore fault system dissecting the southeastern flank of Mount Etna, generally interpreted as purely gravitational collapse structures. Geological and morphological field studies together with earthquake focal mechanisms indicate active dextral strike-slip motion along the onshore and shallow offshore portion of this 40 + 60 km long segment. The southern 100 km branch of the fault is associated with a sub-vertical lithospheric scale tear fault showing pure down to the East normal faulting and a 500+m thick elongate basin marked by syn-tectonic Plio-quaternary sediment fill. Together they represent two kinematically distinct strands of the long sought "STEP" (Subduction Tear Edge Propagator) fault, whose expression at depth controls the position of Mount Etna. Both 100-km long branches of the fault system are mechanically capable of generating magnitude 7 earthquakes (e.g. - like the 1693 Catania earthquake, the strongest in Italian history, causing 40,000 deaths). We conclude this deep-rooted lithospheric weakness guides gradual down slope creep of Mount Etna and may lead to long-term catastrophic flank collapse with associated tsunami by large-scale mass wasting.

  18. Audio-frequency magnetotelluric imaging of the Hijima fault, Yamasaki fault system, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Fuji-Ta, K.; Ujihara, N.; Inokuchi, H.; Oshiman, N.

    2010-04-01

    An audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey was undertaken at ten sites along a transect across the Hijima fault, a major segment of the Yamasaki fault system, Japan. The data were subjected to dimensionality analysis, following which two-dimensional inversions for the TE and TM modes were carried out. This model is characterized by (1) a clear resistivity boundary that coincides with the downward projection of the surface trace of the Hijima fault, (2) a resistive zone (>500 Ω m) that corresponds to Mesozoic sediment, and (3) shallow and deep two highly conductive zones (30-40 Ω m) along the fault. The shallow conductive zone is a common feature of the Yamasaki fault system, whereas the deep conductor is a newly discovered feature at depths of 800-1,800 m to the southwest of the fault. The conductor is truncated by the Hijima fault to the northeast, and its upper boundary is the resistive zone. Both conductors are interpreted to represent a combination of clay minerals and a fluid network within a fault-related fracture zone. In terms of the development of the fluid networks, the fault core of the Hijima fault and the highly resistive zone may play important roles as barriers to fluid flow on the northeast and upper sides of the conductive zones, respectively.

  19. SSME fault monitoring and diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Norman, Arnold M.; Gupta, U. K.

    1989-01-01

    An expert system, called LEADER, has been designed and implemented for automatic learning, detection, identification, verification, and correction of anomalous propulsion system operations in real time. LEADER employs a set of sensors to monitor engine component performance and to detect, identify, and validate abnormalities with respect to varying engine dynamics and behavior. Two diagnostic approaches are adopted in the architecture of LEADER. In the first approach fault diagnosis is performed through learning and identifying engine behavior patterns. LEADER, utilizing this approach, generates few hypotheses about the possible abnormalities. These hypotheses are then validated based on the SSME design and functional knowledge. The second approach directs the processing of engine sensory data and performs reasoning based on the SSME design, functional knowledge, and the deep-level knowledge, i.e., the first principles (physics and mechanics) of SSME subsystems and components. This paper describes LEADER's architecture which integrates a design based reasoning approach with neural network-based fault pattern matching techniques. The fault diagnosis results obtained through the analyses of SSME ground test data are presented and discussed.

  20. Interface For Fault-Tolerant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, Charles; Williamson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Interface unit and controller emulator developed for research on electronic helicopter-flight-control systems equipped with artificial intelligence. Interface unit interrupt-driven system designed to link microprocessor-based, quadruply-redundant, asynchronous, ultra-reliable, fault-tolerant control system (controller) with electronic servocontrol unit that controls set of hydraulic actuators. Receives digital feedforward messages from, and transmits digital feedback messages to, controller through differential signal lines or fiber-optic cables (thus far only differential signal lines have been used). Analog signals transmitted to and from servocontrol unit via coaxial cables.

  1. Distributed Fault-Tolerant Control of Networked Uncertain Euler-Lagrange Systems Under Actuator Faults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L

    2016-05-03

    This paper investigates the distributed fault-tolerant control problem of networked Euler-Lagrange systems with actuator and communication link faults. An adaptive fault-tolerant cooperative control scheme is proposed to achieve the coordinated tracking control of networked uncertain Lagrange systems on a general directed communication topology, which contains a spanning tree with the root node being the active target system. The proposed algorithm is capable of compensating for the actuator bias fault, the partial loss of effectiveness actuation fault, the communication link fault, the model uncertainty, and the external disturbance simultaneously. The control scheme does not use any fault detection and isolation mechanism to detect, separate, and identify the actuator faults online, which largely reduces the online computation and expedites the responsiveness of the controller. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a test-bed of multiple robot-arm cooperative control system is developed for real-time verification. Experiments on the networked robot-arms are conduced and the results confirm the benefits and the effectiveness of the proposed distributed fault-tolerant control algorithms.

  2. Grizzly Valley fault system, Sierra Valley, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Ryan; Stephenson, William; Odum, Jack; Briggs, Rich; Crone, Anthony; Angster, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Grizzly Valley fault system (GVFS) strikes northwestward across Sierra Valley, California and is part of a network of active, dextral strike-slip faults in the northern Walker Lane (Figure 1). To investigate Quaternary motion across the GVFS, we analyzed high-resolution (0.25 m) airborne LiDAR data (Figure 2) in combination with six, high-resolution, P-wave, seismic-reflection profiles [Gold and others, 2012]. The 0.5- to 2.0-km-long seismic-reflection profiles were sited orthogonal to suspected tectonic lineaments identified from previous mapping and our analysis of airborne LiDAR data. To image the upper 400–700 m of subsurface stratigraphy of Sierra Valley (Figure 3), we used a 230-kg accelerated weight drop source. Geophone spacing ranged from 2 to 5 m and shots were co-located with the geophones. The profiles reveal a highly reflective, deformed basal marker that we interpret to be the top of Tertiary volcanic rocks, overlain by a 120- to 300-m-thick suite of subhorizontal reflectors we interpret as Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine deposits. Three profiles image the principle active trace of the GVFS, which is a steeply dipping fault zone that offsets the volcanic rocks and the basin fill (Figures 4 & 5).

  3. Discrete Wavelet Transform for Fault Locations in Underground Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apisit, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a technique for detecting faults in underground distribution system is presented. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on traveling wave is employed in order to detect the high frequency components and to identify fault locations in the underground distribution system. The first peak time obtained from the faulty bus is employed for calculating the distance of fault from sending end. The validity of the proposed technique is tested with various fault inception angles, fault locations and faulty phases. The result is found that the proposed technique provides satisfactory result and will be very useful in the development of power systems protection scheme.

  4. RADC Fault Tolerant System Reliability Evaluation Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Adiagnostic fault handling circuitry for limited confi gurati ons 1epalrable 5ystes No TeS TSTsLmtda # H this point Por odic m ai ntenance qFo No *!i0 Teles...for using the "group" feature of MIREM. Groups must be inputted directly into an architectural file. Such a feature is needed for modeling internal...Sample System To Illustrate REST This system contains five sets which may be individual components or redundant groups of components, There are four

  5. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  6. Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

  7. Synthetic Modeling of A Geothermal System Using Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mega Saputra, Rifki; Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia has 40% of the world’s potential geothermal resources with estimated capacity of 28,910 MW. Generally, the characteristic of the geothermal system in Indonesia is liquid-dominated systems, which driven by volcanic activities. In geothermal exploration, electromagnetic methods are used to map structures that could host potential reservoirs and source rocks. We want to know the responses of a geothermal system using synthetic data of Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT). Due to frequency range, AMT and MT data can resolve the shallow and deeper structure, respectively. 1-D models have been performed using AMT and MT data. The results indicate that AMT and MT data give detailed conductivity distribution of geothermal structure.

  8. Structural superposition in fault systems bounding Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, Russell W.; Stanley, Richard G.; Ponce, David A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Simpson, Robert W.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2015-01-01

    Santa Clara Valley is bounded on the southwest and northeast by active strike-slip and reverse-oblique faults of the San Andreas fault system. On both sides of the valley, these faults are superposed on older normal and/or right-lateral normal oblique faults. The older faults comprised early components of the San Andreas fault system as it formed in the wake of the northward passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. On the east side of the valley, the great majority of fault displacement was accommodated by the older faults, which were almost entirely abandoned when the presently active faults became active after ca. 2.5 Ma. On the west side of the valley, the older faults were abandoned earlier, before ca. 8 Ma and probably accumulated only a small amount, if any, of the total right-lateral offset accommodated by the fault zone as a whole. Apparent contradictions in observations of fault offset and the relation of the gravity field to the distribution of dense rocks at the surface are explained by recognition of superposed structures in the Santa Clara Valley region.

  9. Hardware fault insertion and instrumentation system: Mechanization and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Automated test capability for extensive low-level hardware fault insertion testing is developed. The test capability is used to calibrate fault detection coverage and associated latency times as relevant to projecting overall system reliability. Described are modifications made to the NASA Ames Reconfigurable Flight Control System (RDFCS) Facility to fully automate the total test loop involving the Draper Laboratories' Fault Injector Unit. The automated capability provided included the application of sequences of simulated low-level hardware faults, the precise measurement of fault latency times, the identification of fault symptoms, and bulk storage of test case results. A PDP-11/60 served as a test coordinator, and a PDP-11/04 as an instrumentation device. The fault injector was controlled by applications test software in the PDP-11/60, rather than by manual commands from a terminal keyboard. The time base was especially developed for this application to use a variety of signal sources in the system simulator.

  10. Method and system for environmentally adaptive fault tolerant computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copenhaver, Jason L. (Inventor); Jeremy, Ramos (Inventor); Wolfe, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Brenner, Dean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method and system for adapting fault tolerant computing. The method includes the steps of measuring an environmental condition representative of an environment. An on-board processing system's sensitivity to the measured environmental condition is measured. It is determined whether to reconfigure a fault tolerance of the on-board processing system based in part on the measured environmental condition. The fault tolerance of the on-board processing system may be reconfigured based in part on the measured environmental condition.

  11. Long term fault system reorganization of convergent and strike-slip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.; McBeck, J.; Hatem, A. E.; Toeneboehn, K.; Beyer, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory and numerical experiments representing deformation over many earthquake cycles demonstrate that fault evolution includes episodes of fault reorganization that optimize work on the fault system. Consequently, the mechanical and kinematic efficiencies of fault systems do not increase monotonically through their evolution. New fault configurations can optimize the external work required to accommodate deformation, suggesting that changes in system efficiency can drive fault reorganization. Laboratory evidence and numerical results show that fault reorganization within accretion, strike-slip and oblique convergent systems is associated with increasing efficiency due to increased fault slip (frictional work and seismic energy) and commensurate decreased off-fault deformation (internal work and work against gravity). Between episodes of fault reorganization, fault systems may become less efficient as they produce increasing off fault deformation. For example, laboratory and numerical experiments show that the interference and interaction between different fault segments may increase local internal work or that increasing convergence can increase work against gravity produced by a fault system. This accumulation of work triggers fault reorganization as stored work provides the energy required to grow new faults that reorganize the system to a more efficient configuration. The results of laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that we should expect crustal fault systems to reorganize following periods of increasing inefficiency, even in the absence of changes to the tectonic regime. In other words, fault reorganization doesn't require a change in tectonic loading. The time frame of fault reorganization depends on fault system configuration, strain rate and processes that relax stresses within the crust. For example, stress relaxation may keep pace with stress accumulation, which would limit the increase in the internal work and gravitational work so that

  12. Fault Interaction and Stress Accumulation in Chaman Fault System, Balouchistan, Pakistan, Since 1892

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, M. S.; Shan, B.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The curved-shaped left-lateral Chaman fault is the Western boundary of the Indian plate, which is approximately 1000 km long. The Chaman fault is an active fault and also locus of many catastrophic earthquakes. Since the inception of strike-slip movement at 20-25Ma along the western collision boundary between Indian and Eurasian plates, the average geologically constrained slip rate of 24 to 35 mm/yr accounts for a total displacement of 460±10 km along the Chaman fault system (Beun et al., 1979; Lawrence et al., 1992). Based on earthquake triggering theory, the change in Coulomb Failure Stress (DCFS) either halted (shadow stress) or advances (positive stress) the occurrence of subsequent earthquakes. Several major earthquakes occurred in Chaman fault system, and this region is poorly studied to understand the earthquake/fault interaction and hazard assessment. In order to do so, we have analyzed the earthquakes catalog and collected significant earthquakes with M ≥6.2 since 1892. We then investigate the evolution of DCFS in the Chaman fault system is computed by integration of coseismic static and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation stress transfer since the 1892, using the codePSGRN/PSCMP (Wang et al., 2006). Moreover, for postseismic stress transfer simulation, we adopted linear Maxwell rheology to calculate the viscoelastic effects in this study. Our results elucidate that three out of four earthquakes are triggered by the preceding earthquakes. The 1892-earthquake with magnitude Mw6.8, which occurred on the North segment of Chaman fault has not influence the 1935-earthquake which occurred on Ghazaband fault, a parallel fault 20km east to Chaman fault. The 1935-earthquake with magnitude Mw7.7 significantly loaded the both ends of rupture with positive stress (CFS ≥0.01 Mpa), which later on triggered the 1975-earthquake with 23% of its rupture length where CFS ≥0.01 Mpa, on Chaman fault, and 1990-earthquke with 58% of its rupture length where CFS ≥0

  13. Fault Diagnosis of Power Systems Using Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E. , Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The power system operator's need for a reliable power delivery system calls for a real-time or near-real-time Al-based fault diagnosis tool. Such a tool will allow NASA ground controllers to re-establish a normal or near-normal degraded operating state of the EPS (a DC power system) for Space Station Alpha by isolating the faulted branches and loads of the system. And after isolation, re-energizing those branches and loads that have been found not to have any faults in them. A proposed solution involves using the Fault Diagnosis Intelligent System (FDIS) to perform near-real time fault diagnosis of Alpha's EPS by downloading power transient telemetry at fault-time from onboard data loggers. The FDIS uses an ANN clustering algorithm augmented with a wavelet transform feature extractor. This combination enables this system to perform pattern recognition of the power transient signatures to diagnose the fault type and its location down to the orbital replaceable unit. FDIS has been tested using a simulation of the LeRC Testbed Space Station Freedom configuration including the topology from the DDCU's to the electrical loads attached to the TPDU's. FDIS will work in conjunction with the Power Management Load Scheduler to determine what the state of the system was at the time of the fault condition. This information is used to activate the appropriate diagnostic section, and to refine if necessary the solution obtained. In the latter case, if the FDIS reports back that it is equally likely that the faulty device as 'start tracker #1' and 'time generation unit,' then based on a priori knowledge of the system's state, the refined solution would be 'star tracker #1' located in cabinet ITAS2. It is concluded from the present studies that artificial intelligence diagnostic abilities are improved with the addition of the wavelet transform, and that when such a system such as FDIS is coupled to the Power Management Load Scheduler, a faulty device can be located and isolated

  14. Formal Techniques for Synchronized Fault-Tolerant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1992-01-01

    We present the formal verification of synchronizing aspects of the Reliable Computing Platform (RCP), a fault-tolerant computing system for digital flight control applications. The RCP uses NMR-style redundancy to mask faults and internal majority voting to purge the effects of transient faults. The system design has been formally specified and verified using the EHDM verification system. Our formalization is based on an extended state machine model incorporating snapshots of local processors clocks.

  15. The mechanics of fault-bend folding and tear-fault systems in the Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesh, Nathan Philip

    This dissertation investigates the mechanics of fault-bend folding using the discrete element method (DEM) and explores the nature of tear-fault systems in the deep-water Niger Delta fold-and-thrust belt. In Chapter 1, we employ the DEM to investigate the development of growth structures in anticlinal fault-bend folds. This work was inspired by observations that growth strata in active folds show a pronounced upward decrease in bed dip, in contrast to traditional kinematic fault-bend fold models. Our analysis shows that the modeled folds grow largely by parallel folding as specified by the kinematic theory; however, the process of folding over a broad axial surface zone yields a component of fold growth by limb rotation that is consistent with the patterns observed in natural folds. This result has important implications for how growth structures can he used to constrain slip and paleo-earthquake ages on active blind-thrust faults. In Chapter 2, we expand our DEM study to investigate the development of a wider range of fault-bend folds. We examine the influence of mechanical stratigraphy and quantitatively compare our models with the relationships between fold and fault shape prescribed by the kinematic theory. While the synclinal fault-bend models closely match the kinematic theory, the modeled anticlinal fault-bend folds show robust behavior that is distinct from the kinematic theory. Specifically, we observe that modeled structures maintain a linear relationship between fold shape (gamma) and fault-horizon cutoff angle (theta), rather than expressing the non-linear relationship with two distinct modes of anticlinal folding that is prescribed by the kinematic theory. These observations lead to a revised quantitative relationship for fault-bend folds that can serve as a useful interpretation tool. Finally, in Chapter 3, we examine the 3D relationships of tear- and thrust-fault systems in the western, deep-water Niger Delta. Using 3D seismic reflection data and new

  16. NASA ground terminal communication equipment automated fault isolation expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Y. K.; Wetzel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    The prototype expert systems are described that diagnose the Distribution and Switching System I and II (DSS1 and DSS2), Statistical Multiplexers (SM), and Multiplexer and Demultiplexer systems (MDM) at the NASA Ground Terminal (NGT). A system level fault isolation expert system monitors the activities of a selected data stream, verifies that the fault exists in the NGT and identifies the faulty equipment. Equipment level fault isolation expert systems are invoked to isolate the fault to a Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) level. Input and sometimes output data stream activities for the equipment are available. The system level fault isolation expert system compares the equipment input and output status for a data stream and performs loopback tests (if necessary) to isolate the faulty equipment. The equipment level fault isolation system utilizes the process of elimination and/or the maintenance personnel's fault isolation experience stored in its knowledge base. The DSS1, DSS2 and SM fault isolation systems, using the knowledge of the current equipment configuration and the equipment circuitry issues a set of test connections according to the predefined rules. The faulty component or board can be identified by the expert system by analyzing the test results. The MDM fault isolation system correlates the failure symptoms with the faulty component based on maintenance personnel experience. The faulty component can be determined by knowing the failure symptoms. The DSS1, DSS2, SM, and MDM equipment simulators are implemented in PASCAL. The DSS1 fault isolation expert system was converted to C language from VP-Expert and integrated into the NGT automation software for offline switch diagnoses. Potentially, the NGT fault isolation algorithms can be used for the DSS1, SM, amd MDM located at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  17. A dynamic fault tree model of a propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Hong; Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Meshkat, Leila

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic fault tree model of the benchmark propulsion system, and solve it using Galileo. Dynamic fault trees (DFT) extend traditional static fault trees with special gates to model spares and other sequence dependencies. Galileo solves DFT models using a judicious combination of automatically generated Markov and Binary Decision Diagram models. Galileo easily handles the complexities exhibited by the benchmark problem. In particular, Galileo is designed to model phased mission systems.

  18. Real-time fault diagnosis for propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Delaat, John C.; Duyar, Ahmet

    1991-01-01

    Current research toward real time fault diagnosis for propulsion systems at NASA-Lewis is described. The research is being applied to both air breathing and rocket propulsion systems. Topics include fault detection methods including neural networks, system modeling, and real time implementations.

  19. Smart intimation and location of faults in distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari Krishna, K.; Srinivasa Rao, B.

    2018-04-01

    Location of faults in the distribution system is one of the most complicated problems that we are facing today. Identification of fault location and severity of fault within a short time is required to provide continuous power supply but fault identification and information transfer to the operator is the biggest challenge in the distribution network. This paper proposes a fault location method in the distribution system based on Arduino nano and GSM module with flame sensor. The main idea is to locate the fault in the distribution transformer by sensing the arc coming out from the fuse element. The biggest challenge in the distribution network is to identify the location and the severity of faults under different conditions. Well operated transmission and distribution systems will play a key role for uninterrupted power supply. Whenever fault occurs in the distribution system the time taken to locate and eliminate the fault has to be reduced. The proposed design was achieved with flame sensor and GSM module. Under faulty condition, the system will automatically send an alert message to the operator in the distribution system, about the abnormal conditions near the transformer, site code and its exact location for possible power restoration.

  20. Characterization of the faulted behavior of digital computers and fault tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Miner, Paul S.

    1989-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for efforts conducted at NASA-Langley since 1977, toward the characterization of the latent fault in digital fault-tolerant systems. Attention is given to the practical, high speed, generalized gate-level logic system simulator developed, as well as to the validation methodology used for the simulator, on the basis of faultable software and hardware simulations employing a prototype MIL-STD-1750A processor. After validation, latency tests will be performed.

  1. Fault tolerant architectures for integrated aircraft electronics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, K. N.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Schwartz, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Work into possible architectures for future flight control computer systems is described. Ada for Fault-Tolerant Systems, the NETS Network Error-Tolerant System architecture, and voting in asynchronous systems are covered.

  2. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (http://projet-sigma.com/index.html, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  3. Fault-tolerant power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volp, Jeffrey A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A fault-tolerant power distribution system which includes a plurality of power sources and a plurality of nodes responsive thereto for supplying power to one or more loads associated with each node. Each node includes a plurality of switching circuits, each of which preferably uses a power field effect transistor which provides a diode operation when power is first applied to the nodes and which thereafter provides bi-directional current flow through the switching circuit in a manner such that a low voltage drop is produced in each direction. Each switching circuit includes circuitry for disabling the power field effect transistor when the current in the switching circuit exceeds a preselected value.

  4. Modeling and Fault Simulation of Propellant Filling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunchun; Liu, Weidong; Hou, Xiaobo

    2012-05-01

    Propellant filling system is one of the key ground plants in launching site of rocket that use liquid propellant. There is an urgent demand for ensuring and improving its reliability and safety, and there is no doubt that Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a good approach to meet it. Driven by the request to get more fault information for FMEA, and because of the high expense of propellant filling, in this paper, the working process of the propellant filling system in fault condition was studied by simulating based on AMESim. Firstly, based on analyzing its structure and function, the filling system was modular decomposed, and the mathematic models of every module were given, based on which the whole filling system was modeled in AMESim. Secondly, a general method of fault injecting into dynamic system was proposed, and as an example, two typical faults - leakage and blockage - were injected into the model of filling system, based on which one can get two fault models in AMESim. After that, fault simulation was processed and the dynamic characteristics of several key parameters were analyzed under fault conditions. The results show that the model can simulate effectively the two faults, and can be used to provide guidance for the filling system maintain and amelioration.

  5. Timing of activity of two fault systems on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, V.; Guzzetta, L.; Giacomini, L.; Ferranti, L.; Massironi, M.; Palumbo, P.

    2015-10-01

    Here we discuss about two fault systems found in the Victoria and Shakespeare quadrangles of Mercury. The two fault sets intersect each other and show probable evidence for two stages of deformation. The most prominent system is N-S oriented and encompasses several tens to hundreds of kilometers long and easily recognizable fault segments. The other system strikes NE- SW and encompasses mostly degraded and short fault segments. The structural framework of the studied area and the morphological appearance of the faults suggest that the second system is older than the first one. We intend to apply the buffered crater counting technique on both systems to make a quantitative study of their timing of activity that could confirm the already clear morphological evidence.

  6. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  7. Modeling of a latent fault detector in a digital system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of modeling the detection time or latency period of a hardware fault in a digital system are proposed that explain how a computer detects faults in a computational mode. The objectives were to study how software reacts to a fault, to account for as many variables as possible affecting detection and to forecast a given program's detecting ability prior to computation. A series of experiments were conducted on a small emulated microprocessor with fault injection capability. Results indicate that the detecting capability of a program largely depends on the instruction subset used during computation and the frequency of its use and has little direct dependence on such variables as fault mode, number set, degree of branching and program length. A model is discussed which employs an analog with balls in an urn to explain the rate of which subsequent repetitions of an instruction or instruction set detect a given fault.

  8. Fault-tolerant Control of a Cyber-physical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxana, Rusu-Both; Eva-Henrietta, Dulf

    2017-10-01

    Cyber-physical systems represent a new emerging field in automatic control. The fault system is a key component, because modern, large scale processes must meet high standards of performance, reliability and safety. Fault propagation in large scale chemical processes can lead to loss of production, energy, raw materials and even environmental hazard. The present paper develops a multi-agent fault-tolerant control architecture using robust fractional order controllers for a (13C) cryogenic separation column cascade. The JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework) platform was used to implement the multi-agent fault tolerant control system while the operational model of the process was implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK environment. MACSimJX (Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension) toolbox was used to link the control system and the process model. In order to verify the performance and to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture several fault simulation scenarios were performed.

  9. Geophysical Characterization of the Hilton Creek Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, A. K.; Macy, K. P.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Polet, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Long Valley Caldera straddles the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Batholith and the western edge of the Basin and Range Province, and represents one of the largest caldera complexes on Earth. The caldera is intersected by numerous fault systems, including the Hartley Springs Fault System, the Round Valley Fault System, the Long Valley Ring Fault System, and the Hilton Creek Fault System, which is our main region of interest. The Hilton Creek Fault System appears as a single NW-striking fault, dipping to the NE, from Davis Lake in the south to the southern rim of the Long Valley Caldera. Inside the caldera, it splays into numerous parallel faults that extend toward the resurgent dome. Seismicity in the area increased significantly in May 1980, following a series of large earthquakes in the vicinity of the caldera and a subsequent large earthquake swarm which has been suggested to be the result of magma migration. A large portion of the earthquake swarms in the Long Valley Caldera occurs on or around the Hilton Creek Fault splays. We are conducting an interdisciplinary geophysical study of the Hilton Creek Fault System from just south of the onset of splay faulting, to its extension into the dome of the caldera. Our investigation includes ground-based magnetic field measurements, high-resolution total station elevation profiles, Structure-From-Motion derived topography and an analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms and statistics. Preliminary analysis of topographic profiles, of approximately 1 km in length, reveals the presence of at least three distinct fault splays within the caldera with vertical offsets of 0.5 to 1.0 meters. More detailed topographic mapping is expected to highlight smaller structures. We are also generating maps of the variation in b-value along different portions of the Hilton Creek system to determine whether we can detect any transition to more swarm-like behavior towards the North. We will show maps of magnetic anomalies, topography

  10. The San Andreas Fault System, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Maps of northern and southern California printed on flyleaf inside front cover and on adjacent pages show faults that have had displacement within the past 2 million years. Those that have had displacement within historical time are shown in red. Bands of red tint emphasize zones of historical displacement; bands of orange tint emphasize major faults that have had Quaternary displacement before historical time. Faults are dashed where uncertain, dotted where covered by sedimentary deposits, and queried when doubtful. Arrows indicate direction of relative movement; sawteeth on upper plate of thrust fault. These maps are reproductions, in major part, of selected plates from the "Fault Map of California," published in 1975 by the California Division of Mines and Geology at a scale of 1:750,000; the State map was compiled and data interpreted by Charles W. Jennings. New data about faults, not shown on the 1975 edition, required modest revisions, primarily additions however, most of the map was left unchanged because the California Division of Mines and Geology is currently engaged in a major revision and update of the 1975 edition. Because of the reduced scale here, names of faults and places were redrafted or omitted. Faults added to the reduced map are not as precise as on the original State map, and the editor of this volume selected certain faults and omitted others. Principal regions for which new information was added are the region north of the San Francisco Bay area and the offshore regions.Many people have contributed to the present map, but the editor is solely responsible for any errors and omissions. Among those contributing informally, but extensively, and the regions to which each contributed were G.A. Carver, onland region north of lat 40°N.; S.H. Clarke, offshore region north of Cape Mendocino; R.J. McLaughlin, onland region between lat 40°00' and 40°30' N. and long 123°30' and 124°30' W.; D.S. McCulloch offshore region between lat 35° and 40° N

  11. Results of an electrical power system fault study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall conducted a study of electrical power system faults with a view to the development of AI control systems for a spacecraft power system breadboard. The results of this study have been applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system, the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard. Some of the faults encountered in testing LASEPS included the shorting of a bus an a falloff in battery cell capacity.

  12. All-to-all sequenced fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus, program product and method enable nodal fault detection by sequencing communications between all system nodes. A master node may coordinate communications between two slave nodes before sequencing to and initiating communications between a new pair of slave nodes. The communications may be analyzed to determine the nodal fault.

  13. Estimation of Faults in DC Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Boyd, Stephen; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel optimization-based approach to estimating fault states in a DC power system. Potential faults changing the circuit topology are included along with faulty measurements. Our approach can be considered as a relaxation of the mixed estimation problem. We develop a linear model of the circuit and pose a convex problem for estimating the faults and other hidden states. A sparse fault vector solution is computed by using 11 regularization. The solution is computed reliably and efficiently, and gives accurate diagnostics on the faults. We demonstrate a real-time implementation of the approach for an instrumented electrical power system testbed, the ADAPT testbed at NASA ARC. The estimates are computed in milliseconds on a PC. The approach performs well despite unmodeled transients and other modeling uncertainties present in the system.

  14. Fault tolerant architectures for integrated aircraft electronics systems, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, K. N.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Schwartz, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The architectural basis for an advanced fault tolerant on-board computer to succeed the current generation of fault tolerant computers is examined. The network error tolerant system architecture is studied with particular attention to intercluster configurations and communication protocols, and to refined reliability estimates. The diagnosis of faults, so that appropriate choices for reconfiguration can be made is discussed. The analysis relates particularly to the recognition of transient faults in a system with tasks at many levels of priority. The demand driven data-flow architecture, which appears to have possible application in fault tolerant systems is described and work investigating the feasibility of automatic generation of aircraft flight control programs from abstract specifications is reported.

  15. High-Intensity Radiated Field Fault-Injection Experiment for a Fault-Tolerant Distributed Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Amy M.; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    Safety-critical distributed flight control systems require robustness in the presence of faults. In general, these systems consist of a number of input/output (I/O) and computation nodes interacting through a fault-tolerant data communication system. The communication system transfers sensor data and control commands and can handle most faults under typical operating conditions. However, the performance of the closed-loop system can be adversely affected as a result of operating in harsh environments. In particular, High-Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) environments have the potential to cause random fault manifestations in individual avionic components and to generate simultaneous system-wide communication faults that overwhelm existing fault management mechanisms. This paper presents the design of an experiment conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's HIRF Laboratory to statistically characterize the faults that a HIRF environment can trigger on a single node of a distributed flight control system.

  16. Fault-Tolerant Control For A Robotic Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam Sing

    1995-01-01

    Report describes first phase of continuing program of research on fault-tolerant control subsystem of telerobotic visual-inspection system. Goal of program to develop robotic system for remotely controlled visual inspection of structures in outer space.

  17. Software For Fault-Tree Diagnosis Of A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, Dave; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Liao, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Fault Tree Diagnosis System (FTDS) computer program is automated-diagnostic-system program identifying likely causes of specified failure on basis of information represented in system-reliability mathematical models known as fault trees. Is modified implementation of failure-cause-identification phase of Narayanan's and Viswanadham's methodology for acquisition of knowledge and reasoning in analyzing failures of systems. Knowledge base of if/then rules replaced with object-oriented fault-tree representation. Enhancement yields more-efficient identification of causes of failures and enables dynamic updating of knowledge base. Written in C language, C++, and Common LISP.

  18. Coulomb Stress Accumulation along the San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bridget; Sandwell, David

    2003-01-01

    Stress accumulation rates along the primary segments of the San Andreas Fault system are computed using a three-dimensional (3-D) elastic half-space model with realistic fault geometry. The model is developed in the Fourier domain by solving for the response of an elastic half-space due to a point vector body force and analytically integrating the force from a locking depth to infinite depth. This approach is then applied to the San Andreas Fault system using published slip rates along 18 major fault strands of the fault zone. GPS-derived horizontal velocity measurements spanning the entire 1700 x 200 km region are then used to solve for apparent locking depth along each primary fault segment. This simple model fits remarkably well (2.43 mm/yr RMS misfit), although some discrepancies occur in the Eastern California Shear Zone. The model also predicts vertical uplift and subsidence rates that are in agreement with independent geologic and geodetic estimates. In addition, shear and normal stresses along the major fault strands are used to compute Coulomb stress accumulation rate. As a result, we find earthquake recurrence intervals along the San Andreas Fault system to be inversely proportional to Coulomb stress accumulation rate, in agreement with typical coseismic stress drops of 1 - 10 MPa. This 3-D deformation model can ultimately be extended to include both time-dependent forcing and viscoelastic response.

  19. Sliding mode based fault detection, reconstruction and fault tolerant control scheme for motor systems.

    PubMed

    Mekki, Hemza; Benzineb, Omar; Boukhetala, Djamel; Tadjine, Mohamed; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    The fault-tolerant control problem belongs to the domain of complex control systems in which inter-control-disciplinary information and expertise are required. This paper proposes an improved faults detection, reconstruction and fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme for motor systems (MS) with typical faults. For this purpose, a sliding mode controller (SMC) with an integral sliding surface is adopted. This controller can make the output of system to track the desired position reference signal in finite-time and obtain a better dynamic response and anti-disturbance performance. But this controller cannot deal directly with total system failures. However an appropriate combination of the adopted SMC and sliding mode observer (SMO), later it is designed to on-line detect and reconstruct the faults and also to give a sensorless control strategy which can achieve tolerance to a wide class of total additive failures. The closed-loop stability is proved, using the Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results in healthy and faulty conditions confirm the reliability of the suggested framework. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of an experimental fault-tolerant memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. C.; Mccarthy, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental fault-tolerant memory system described in this paper has been designed to enable the modular addition of spares, to validate the theoretical fault-secure and self-testing properties of the translator/corrector, to provide a basis for experiments using the new testing and correction processes for recovery, and to determine the practicality of such systems. The hardware design and implementation are described, together with methods of fault insertion. The hardware/software interface, including a restricted single error correction/double error detection (SEC/DED) code, is specified. Procedures are carefully described which, (1) test for specified physical faults, (2) ensure that single error corrections are not miscorrections due to triple faults, and (3) enable recovery from double errors.

  1. Endurance exercise rescues progeroid aging and induces systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation in mtDNA mutator mice

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Adeel; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; Little, Jonathan P.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Thompson, James E.; Melov, Simon; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities. PMID:21368114

  2. Faulting and hydration of the Juan de Fuca plate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedimović, Mladen R.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Pablo Canales, J.; Dziak, Robert P.

    2009-06-01

    Multichannel seismic observations provide the first direct images of crustal scale normal faults within the Juan de Fuca plate system and indicate that brittle deformation extends up to ~ 200 km seaward of the Cascadia trench. Within the sedimentary layering steeply dipping faults are identified by stratigraphic offsets, with maximum throws of 110 ± 10 m found near the trench. Fault throws diminish both upsection and seaward from the trench. Long-term throw rates are estimated to be 13 ± 2 mm/kyr. Faulted offsets within the sedimentary layering are typically linked to larger offset scarps in the basement topography, suggesting reactivation of the normal fault systems formed at the spreading center. Imaged reflections within the gabbroic igneous crust indicate swallowing fault dips at depth. These reflections require local alteration to produce an impedance contrast, indicating that the imaged fault structures provide pathways for fluid transport and hydration. As the depth extent of imaged faulting within this young and sediment insulated oceanic plate is primarily limited to approximately Moho depths, fault-controlled hydration appears to be largely restricted to crustal levels. If dehydration embrittlement is an important mechanism for triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes within the subducting slab, then the limited occurrence rate and magnitude of intraslab seismicity at the Cascadia margin may in part be explained by the limited amount of water imbedded into the uppermost oceanic mantle prior to subduction. The distribution of submarine earthquakes within the Juan de Fuca plate system indicates that propagator wake areas are likely to be more faulted and therefore more hydrated than other parts of this plate system. However, being largely restricted to crustal levels, this localized increase in hydration generally does not appear to have a measurable effect on the intraslab seismicity along most of the subducted propagator wakes at the Cascadia margin.

  3. Functional Fault Modeling of a Cryogenic System for Real-Time Fault Detection and Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Lewis, Mark; Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Brown, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the model development process used to create a Functional Fault Model (FFM) of a liquid hydrogen (L H2) system that will be used for realtime fault isolation in a Fault Detection, Isolation and Recover (FDIR) system. The paper explains th e steps in the model development process and the data products required at each step, including examples of how the steps were performed fo r the LH2 system. It also shows the relationship between the FDIR req uirements and steps in the model development process. The paper concl udes with a description of a demonstration of the LH2 model developed using the process and future steps for integrating the model in a live operational environment.

  4. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

    2017-10-03

    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  5. Evaluation of reliability modeling tools for advanced fault tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert; Scheper, Charlotte

    1986-01-01

    The Computer Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) and Automated Reliability Interactice Estimation System (ARIES 82) reliability tools for application to advanced fault tolerance aerospace systems were evaluated. To determine reliability modeling requirements, the evaluation focused on the Draper Laboratories' Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) architecture as an example architecture for fault tolerance aerospace systems. Advantages and limitations were identified for each reliability evaluation tool. The CARE III program was designed primarily for analyzing ultrareliable flight control systems. The ARIES 82 program's primary use was to support university research and teaching. Both CARE III and ARIES 82 were not suited for determining the reliability of complex nodal networks of the type used to interconnect processing sites in the AIPS architecture. It was concluded that ARIES was not suitable for modeling advanced fault tolerant systems. It was further concluded that subject to some limitations (the difficulty in modeling systems with unpowered spare modules, systems where equipment maintenance must be considered, systems where failure depends on the sequence in which faults occurred, and systems where multiple faults greater than a double near coincident faults must be considered), CARE III is best suited for evaluating the reliability of advanced tolerant systems for air transport.

  6. Incipient fault detection and power system protection for spaceborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene M.

    1987-01-01

    A program was initiated to study the feasibility of using advanced terrestrial power system protection techniques for spacecraft power systems. It was designed to enhance and automate spacecraft power distribution systems in the areas of safety, reliability and maintenance. The proposed power management/distribution system is described as well as security assessment and control, incipient and low current fault detection, and the proposed spaceborne protection system. It is noted that the intelligent remote power controller permits the implementation of digital relaying algorithms with both adaptive and programmable characteristics.

  7. Comparing Different Fault Identification Algorithms in Distributed Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaabi, Salim

    A power system is a huge complex system that delivers the electrical power from the generation units to the consumers. As the demand for electrical power increases, distributed power generation was introduced to the power system. Faults may occur in the power system at any time in different locations. These faults cause a huge damage to the system as they might lead to full failure of the power system. Using distributed generation in the power system made it even harder to identify the location of the faults in the system. The main objective of this work is to test the different fault location identification algorithms while tested on a power system with the different amount of power injected using distributed generators. As faults may lead the system to full failure, this is an important area for research. In this thesis different fault location identification algorithms have been tested and compared while the different amount of power is injected from distributed generators. The algorithms were tested on IEEE 34 node test feeder using MATLAB and the results were compared to find when these algorithms might fail and the reliability of these methods.

  8. The 2016-2017 central Italy coseismic surface ruptures and their meaning with respect to foreseen active fault systems segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Civico, R.; Del Rio, L.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016-2017 a series of moderate to large normal faulting earthquakes struck central Italy producing severe damage in many towns including Amatrice, Norcia and Visso and resulting in 299 casualties and >20,000 homeless. The complex seismic sequence depicts a multiple activation of the Mt. Vettore-Mt. Bove (VBFS) and the Laga Mts. fault systems, which were considered in literature as independent segments characterizing a recent seismic gap in the region comprised between two modern seismic sequences: the 1997-1998 Colfiorito and the 2009 L'Aquila. We mapped in detail the coseismic surface ruptures following three mainshocks (Mw 6.0 on 24th August, Mw 5.9 and Mw 6.5 on 26th and 30th October, 2016, respectively). Primary surface ruptures were observed and recorded for a total length of 5.2 km, ≅10 km and ≅25 km, respectively, along closely-spaced, parallel or subparallel, overlapping or step-like synthetic and antithetic fault splays of the activated fault systems, in some cases rupturing repeatedly the same location. Some coseismic ruptures were mapped also along the Norcia Fault System, paralleling the VBFS about 10 km westward. We recorded geometric and kinematic characteristics of the normal faulting ruptures with an unprecedented detail thanks to almost 11,000 oblique photographs taken from helicopter flights soon after the mainshocks, verified and integrated with field data (more than 7000 measurements). We analyze the along-strike coseismic slip and slip vectors distribution to be observed in the context of the geomorphic expression of the disrupted slopes and their depositional and erosive processes. Moreover, we constructed 1:10.000 scale geologic cross-sections based on updated maps, and we reconstructed the net offset distribution of the activated fault system to be compared with the morphologic throws and to test a cause-effect relationship between faulting and first-order landforms. We provide a reconstruction of the 2016 coseismic rupture pattern as

  9. Software fault tolerance for real-time avionics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T.; Knight, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Avionics systems have very high reliability requirements and are therefore prime candidates for the inclusion of fault tolerance techniques. In order to provide tolerance to software faults, some form of state restoration is usually advocated as a means of recovery. State restoration can be very expensive for systems which utilize concurrent processes. The concurrency present in most avionics systems and the further difficulties introduced by timing constraints imply that providing tolerance for software faults may be inordinately expensive or complex. A straightforward pragmatic approach to software fault tolerance which is believed to be applicable to many real-time avionics systems is proposed. A classification system for software errors is presented together with approaches to recovery and continued service for each error type.

  10. Species mtDNA genetic diversity explained by infrapopulation size in a host-symbiont system.

    PubMed

    Doña, Jorge; Moreno-García, Marina; Criscione, Charles D; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2015-12-01

    Understanding what shapes variation in genetic diversity among species remains a major challenge in evolutionary ecology, and it has been seldom studied in parasites and other host-symbiont systems. Here, we studied mtDNA variation in a host-symbiont non-model system: 418 individual feather mites from 17 feather mite species living on 17 different passerine bird species. We explored how a surrogate of census size, the median infrapopulation size (i.e., the median number of individual parasites per infected host individual), explains mtDNA genetic diversity. Feather mite species genetic diversity was positively correlated with mean infrapopulation size, explaining 34% of the variation. As expected from the biology of feather mites, we found bottleneck signatures for most of the species studied but, in particular, three species presented extremely low mtDNA diversity values given their infrapopulation size. Their star-like haplotype networks (in contrast with more reticulated networks for the other species) suggested that their low genetic diversity was the consequence of severe bottlenecks or selective sweeps. Our study shows for the first time that mtDNA diversity can be explained by infrapopulation sizes, and suggests that departures from this relationship could be informative of underlying ecological and evolutionary processes.

  11. Fault Injection and Monitoring Capability for a Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Yates, Amy M.; Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2010-01-01

    The Configurable Fault-Injection and Monitoring System (CFIMS) is intended for the experimental characterization of effects caused by a variety of adverse conditions on a distributed computation system running flight control applications. A product of research collaboration between NASA Langley Research Center and Old Dominion University, the CFIMS is the main research tool for generating actual fault response data with which to develop and validate analytical performance models and design methodologies for the mitigation of fault effects in distributed flight control systems. Rather than a fixed design solution, the CFIMS is a flexible system that enables the systematic exploration of the problem space and can be adapted to meet the evolving needs of the research. The CFIMS has the capabilities of system-under-test (SUT) functional stimulus generation, fault injection and state monitoring, all of which are supported by a configuration capability for setting up the system as desired for a particular experiment. This report summarizes the work accomplished so far in the development of the CFIMS concept and documents the first design realization.

  12. Reliability of Fault Tolerant Control Systems. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, N. Eva

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports Part I of a two part effort, that is intended to delineate the relationship between reliability and fault tolerant control in a quantitative manner. Reliability analysis of fault-tolerant control systems is performed using Markov models. Reliability properties, peculiar to fault-tolerant control systems are emphasized. As a consequence, coverage of failures through redundancy management can be severely limited. It is shown that in the early life of a syi1ein composed of highly reliable subsystems, the reliability of the overall system is affine with respect to coverage, and inadequate coverage induces dominant single point failures. The utility of some existing software tools for assessing the reliability of fault tolerant control systems is also discussed. Coverage modeling is attempted in Part II in a way that captures its dependence on the control performance and on the diagnostic resolution.

  13. Use of Fuzzy Logic Systems for Assessment of Primary Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Ivica; Jozsa, Lajos; Baus, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    In electric power systems, grid elements are often subjected to very complex and demanding disturbances or dangerous operating conditions. Determining initial fault or cause of those states is a difficult task. When fault occurs, often it is an imperative to disconnect affected grid element from the grid. This paper contains an overview of possibilities for using fuzzy logic in an assessment of primary faults in the transmission grid. The tool for this task is SCADA system, which is based on information of currents, voltages, events of protection devices and status of circuit breakers in the grid. The function model described with the membership function and fuzzy logic systems will be presented in the paper. For input data, diagnostics system uses information of protection devices tripping, states of circuit breakers and measurements of currents and voltages before and after faults.

  14. Distributed asynchronous microprocessor architectures in fault tolerant integrated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the implementation of fault tolerant digital flight control and navigation systems for rotorcraft application. It is shown that in implementing fault tolerance at the systems level using advanced LSI/VLSI technology, aircraft physical layout and flight systems requirements tend to define a system architecture of distributed, asynchronous microprocessors in which fault tolerance can be achieved locally through hardware redundancy and/or globally through application of analytical redundancy. The effects of asynchronism on the execution of dynamic flight software is discussed. It is shown that if the asynchronous microprocessors have knowledge of time, these errors can be significantly reduced through appropiate modifications of the flight software. Finally, the papear extends previous work to show that through the combined use of time referencing and stable flight algorithms, individual microprocessors can be configured to autonomously tolerate intermittent faults.

  15. Quasi-dynamic earthquake fault systems with rheological heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brietzke, G. B.; Hainzl, S.; Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic risk and hazard estimates mostly use pure empirical, stochastic models of earthquake fault systems tuned specifically to the vulnerable areas of interest. Although such models allow for reasonable risk estimates, such models cannot allow for physical statements of the described seismicity. In contrary such empirical stochastic models, physics based earthquake fault systems models allow for a physical reasoning and interpretation of the produced seismicity and system dynamics. Recently different fault system earthquake simulators based on frictional stick-slip behavior have been used to study effects of stress heterogeneity, rheological heterogeneity, or geometrical complexity on earthquake occurrence, spatial and temporal clustering of earthquakes, and system dynamics. Here we present a comparison of characteristics of synthetic earthquake catalogs produced by two different formulations of quasi-dynamic fault system earthquake simulators. Both models are based on discretized frictional faults embedded in an elastic half-space. While one (1) is governed by rate- and state-dependent friction with allowing three evolutionary stages of independent fault patches, the other (2) is governed by instantaneous frictional weakening with scheduled (and therefore causal) stress transfer. We analyze spatial and temporal clustering of events and characteristics of system dynamics by means of physical parameters of the two approaches.

  16. Advanced Information Processing System - Fault detection and error handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles, including tactical and transport aircraft, and manned and autonomous spacecraft. A proof-of-concept (POC) system is now in the detailed design and fabrication phase. This paper gives an overview of a preliminary fault detection and error handling philosophy in AIPS.

  17. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  18. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-03-17

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  19. All row, planar fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  20. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  1. A fault-tolerant intelligent robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Tso, Kam Sing

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the concept, design, and features of a fault-tolerant intelligent robotic control system being developed for space and commercial applications that require high dependability. The comprehensive strategy integrates system level hardware/software fault tolerance with task level handling of uncertainties and unexpected events for robotic control. The underlying architecture for system level fault tolerance is the distributed recovery block which protects against application software, system software, hardware, and network failures. Task level fault tolerance provisions are implemented in a knowledge-based system which utilizes advanced automation techniques such as rule-based and model-based reasoning to monitor, diagnose, and recover from unexpected events. The two level design provides tolerance of two or more faults occurring serially at any level of command, control, sensing, or actuation. The potential benefits of such a fault tolerant robotic control system include: (1) a minimized potential for damage to humans, the work site, and the robot itself; (2) continuous operation with a minimum of uncommanded motion in the presence of failures; and (3) more reliable autonomous operation providing increased efficiency in the execution of robotic tasks and decreased demand on human operators for controlling and monitoring the robotic servicing routines.

  2. Fault detection in rotor bearing systems using time frequency techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Faults such as misalignment, rotor cracks and rotor to stator rub can exist collectively in rotor bearing systems. It is an important task for rotor dynamic personnel to monitor and detect faults in rotating machinery. In this paper, the rotor startup vibrations are utilized to solve the fault identification problem using time frequency techniques. Numerical simulations are performed through finite element analysis of the rotor bearing system with individual and collective combinations of faults as mentioned above. Three signal processing tools namely Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) are compared to evaluate their detection performance. The effect of addition of Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) on three time frequency techniques is presented. The comparative study is focused towards detecting the least possible level of the fault induced and the computational time consumed. The computation time consumed by HHT is very less when compared to CWT based diagnosis. However, for noisy data CWT is more preferred over HHT. To identify fault characteristics using wavelets a procedure to adjust resolution of the mother wavelet is presented in detail. Experiments are conducted to obtain the run-up data of a rotor bearing setup for diagnosis of shaft misalignment and rotor stator rubbing faults.

  3. Event-Triggered Fault Detection of Nonlinear Networked Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyi; Chen, Ziran; Wu, Ligang; Lam, Hak-Keung; Du, Haiping

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the problem of fault detection for nonlinear discrete-time networked systems under an event-triggered scheme. A polynomial fuzzy fault detection filter is designed to generate a residual signal and detect faults in the system. A novel polynomial event-triggered scheme is proposed to determine the transmission of the signal. A fault detection filter is designed to guarantee that the residual system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the desired performance. Polynomial approximated membership functions obtained by Taylor series are employed for filtering analysis. Furthermore, sufficient conditions are represented in terms of sum of squares (SOSs) and can be solved by SOS tools in MATLAB environment. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  4. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  5. Measurement and analysis of operating system fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, I.; Tang, D.; Iyer, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology to model and evaluate the fault tolerance characteristics of operational software. The methodology is illustrated through case studies on three different operating systems: the Tandem GUARDIAN fault-tolerant system, the VAX/VMS distributed system, and the IBM/MVS system. Measurements are made on these systems for substantial periods to collect software error and recovery data. In addition to investigating basic dependability characteristics such as major software problems and error distributions, we develop two levels of models to describe error and recovery processes inside an operating system and on multiple instances of an operating system running in a distributed environment. Based on the models, reward analysis is conducted to evaluate the loss of service due to software errors and the effect of the fault-tolerance techniques implemented in the systems. Software error correlation in multicomputer systems is also investigated.

  6. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  7. Object-oriented fault tree models applied to system diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    When a diagnosis system is used in a dynamic environment, such as the distributed computer system planned for use on Space Station Freedom, it must execute quickly and its knowledge base must be easily updated. Representing system knowledge as object-oriented augmented fault trees provides both features. The diagnosis system described here is based on the failure cause identification process of the diagnostic system described by Narayanan and Viswanadham. Their system has been enhanced in this implementation by replacing the knowledge base of if-then rules with an object-oriented fault tree representation. This allows the system to perform its task much faster and facilitates dynamic updating of the knowledge base in a changing diagnosis environment. Accessing the information contained in the objects is more efficient than performing a lookup operation on an indexed rule base. Additionally, the object-oriented fault trees can be easily updated to represent current system status. This paper describes the fault tree representation, the diagnosis algorithm extensions, and an example application of this system. Comparisons are made between the object-oriented fault tree knowledge structure solution and one implementation of a rule-based solution. Plans for future work on this system are also discussed.

  8. Application of remote sensing analysis and MT method for identification geothermal prospect zone in Mt. Endut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, A. M.; Permadi, A. N.; Wildan, D.; Sobirin, R.; Supriyanto

    2017-07-01

    Mount Endut is located at Banten Province, 40 km southward Rangkasbitung City, with geographic UTM position between 9261000-9274000 N and 639000-652000 E. Preliminary survey at Mt. Endut was geological and geochemical survey in 2006, resistivity survey and MT survey in 2007 with 27 measurement point. All survey conducted by Pusat Sumber Daya Geologi (PSDG). According to result of premilinary survey, Mt. Endut is dominated by quartenary volcanic rock produced by Mt. Endut, which breakthrough tertiary sediment layer. NE to SW normal fault produced surface manifestation, namely Cikawah (CKW) hot spring and Handeleum (HDL) hot spring. According to SiO2 and NaK geothermometer, subsurface temperature of Mt Endut is ranging from 162 to 180 °C. Apparent resistivity maps show that thermal manifestation areas coincide with pronounced high anomaly due to resistive intrusion bodies contrast to conductive sedimentary basements. In order to delineate permeability zone, fracture fault density (FFD) analysis from remote sensing image is carry out. FFD analysis from lansdat 7 image shows the area on westward flank of Mt. Endut have high fracture fault density (162-276 m/km2), higher than it's surrounding area and can be assume that area is weak zone and have high permeability. That's structure density anomaly coincide with low resistivity from Magnetotelluric data. Resistivity structure from Magnetotelluric data shows western flank have low permeability layer (14-27 Ohmm) with average thickness 250 m. Below this layer there is layer with higher resistivity (37-100 Ohmm) with ±1000 m depth and interpreted as shallow reservoir. Massive resistif intrusive bodies act controlled the surface manifestation, and act as boundary and bounded the geothermal system in western part of Mt. Endut.

  9. Investigating Crustal Scale Fault Systems Controlling Volcanic and Hydrothermal Fluid Processes in the South-Central Andes, First Results from a Magnetotelluric Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, R.; Mitchell, T. M.; Moorkamp, M.; Araya, J.; Cembrano, J. M.; Yanez, G. A.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2017-12-01

    At convergent plate boundaries, volcanic orogeny is largely controlled by major thrust fault systems that act as magmatic and hydrothermal fluid conduits through the crust. In the south-central Andes, the volcanically and seismically active Tinguiririca and Planchon-Peteroa volcanoes are considered to be tectonically related to the major El Fierro thrust fault system. These large scale reverse faults are characterized by 500 - 1000m wide hydrothermally altered fault cores, which possess a distinct conductive signature relative to surrounding lithology. In order to establish the subsurface architecture of these fault systems, such conductivity contrasts can be detected using the magnetotelluric method. In this study, LEMI fluxgate-magnetometer long-period and Metronix broadband MT data were collected at 21 sites in a 40km2 survey grid that surrounds this fault system and associated volcanic complexes. Multi-remote referencing techniques is used together with robust processing to obtain reliable impedance estimates between 100 Hz and 1,000s. Our preliminary inversion results provide evidence of structures within the 10 - 20 km depth range that are attributed to this fault system. Further inversions will be conducted to determine the approximate depth extent of these features, and ultimately provide constraints for future geophysical studies aimed to deduce the role of these faults in volcanic orogeny and hydrothermal fluid migration processes in this region of the Andes.

  10. Fault tolerant hypercube computer system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madan, Herb S. (Inventor); Chow, Edward (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fault-tolerant multiprocessor computer system of the hypercube type comprising a hierarchy of computers of like kind which can be functionally substituted for one another as necessary is disclosed. Communication between the working nodes is via one communications network while communications between the working nodes and watch dog nodes and load balancing nodes higher in the structure is via another communications network separate from the first. A typical branch of the hierarchy reporting to a master node or host computer comprises, a plurality of first computing nodes; a first network of message conducting paths for interconnecting the first computing nodes as a hypercube. The first network provides a path for message transfer between the first computing nodes; a first watch dog node; and a second network of message connecting paths for connecting the first computing nodes to the first watch dog node independent from the first network, the second network provides an independent path for test message and reconfiguration affecting transfers between the first computing nodes and the first switch watch dog node. There is additionally, a plurality of second computing nodes; a third network of message conducting paths for interconnecting the second computing nodes as a hypercube. The third network provides a path for message transfer between the second computing nodes; a fourth network of message conducting paths for connecting the second computing nodes to the first watch dog node independent from the third network. The fourth network provides an independent path for test message and reconfiguration affecting transfers between the second computing nodes and the first watch dog node; and a first multiplexer disposed between the first watch dog node and the second and fourth networks for allowing the first watch dog node to selectively communicate with individual ones of the computing nodes through the second and fourth networks; as well as, a second watch dog node

  11. PV System Component Fault and Failure Compilation and Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Lavrova, Olga; Gooding, Renee Lynne

    This report describes data collection and analysis of solar photovoltaic (PV) equipment events, which consist of faults and fa ilures that occur during the normal operation of a distributed PV system or PV power plant. We present summary statistics from locations w here maintenance data is being collected at various intervals, as well as reliability statistics gathered from that da ta, consisting of fault/failure distributions and repair distributions for a wide range of PV equipment types.

  12. On the design of fault-tolerant robotic manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert

    1993-01-01

    Robotic systems are finding increasing use in space applications. Many of these devices are going to be operational on board the Space Station Freedom. Fault tolerance has been deemed necessary because of the criticality of the tasks and the inaccessibility of the systems to maintenance and repair. Design for fault tolerance in manipulator systems is an area within robotics that is without precedence in the literature. In this paper, we will attempt to lay down the foundations for such a technology. Design for fault tolerance demands new and special approaches to design, often at considerable variance from established design practices. These design aspects, together with reliability evaluation and modeling tools, are presented. Mechanical architectures that employ protective redundancies at many levels and have a modular architecture are then studied in detail. Once a mechanical architecture for fault tolerance has been derived, the chronological stages of operational fault tolerance are investigated. Failure detection, isolation, and estimation methods are surveyed, and such methods for robot sensors and actuators are derived. Failure recovery methods are also presented for each of the protective layers of redundancy. Failure recovery tactics often span all of the layers of a control hierarchy. Thus, a unified framework for decision-making and control, which orchestrates both the nominal redundancy management tasks and the failure management tasks, has been derived. The well-developed field of fault-tolerant computers is studied next, and some design principles relevant to the design of fault-tolerant robot controllers are abstracted. Conclusions are drawn, and a road map for the design of fault-tolerant manipulator systems is laid out with recommendations for a 10 DOF arm with dual actuators at each joint.

  13. InSAR observations of strain accumulation and fault creep along the Chaman Fault system, Pakistan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, Heresh; Amelung, Falk

    2016-08-01

    We use 2004-2011 Envisat synthetic aperture radar imagery and InSAR time series methods to estimate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation in the Chaman Fault system in Pakistan and Afghanistan. At 29 N we find long-term slip rates of 16 ± 2.3 mm/yr for the Ghazaband Fault and of 8 ± 3.1 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. This makes the Ghazaband Fault one of the most hazardous faults of the plate boundary zone. We further identify a 340 km long segment displaying aseismic surface creep along the Chaman Fault, with maximum surface creep rate of 8.1 ± 2 mm/yr. The observation that the Chaman Fault accommodates only 30% of the relative plate motion between India and Eurasia implies that the remainder is accommodated south and east of the Katawaz block microplate.

  14. A Fault Recognition System for Gearboxes of Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiling; Huang, Haiyue; Yin, Zidong

    2017-12-01

    Costs of maintenance and loss of power generation caused by the faults of wind turbines gearboxes are the main components of operation costs for a wind farm. Therefore, the technology of condition monitoring and fault recognition for wind turbines gearboxes is becoming a hot topic. A condition monitoring and fault recognition system (CMFRS) is presented for CBM of wind turbines gearboxes in this paper. The vibration signals from acceleration sensors at different locations of gearbox and the data from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system are collected to CMFRS. Then the feature extraction and optimization algorithm is applied to these operational data. Furthermore, to recognize the fault of gearboxes, the GSO-LSSVR algorithm is proposed, combining the least squares support vector regression machine (LSSVR) with the Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO) algorithm. Finally, the results show that the fault recognition system used in this paper has a high rate for identifying three states of wind turbines’ gears; besides, the combination of date features can affect the identifying rate and the selection optimization algorithm presented in this paper can get a pretty good date feature subset for the fault recognition.

  15. ROBUS-2: A Fault-Tolerant Broadcast Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Miner, Paul S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reliable Optical Bus (ROBUS) is the core communication system of the Scalable Processor-Independent Design for Enhanced Reliability (SPIDER), a general-purpose fault-tolerant integrated modular architecture currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center. The ROBUS is a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast communication system with medium access control by means of time-indexed communication schedule. ROBUS-2 is a developmental version of the ROBUS providing guaranteed fault-tolerant services to the attached processing elements (PEs), in the presence of a bounded number of faults. These services include message broadcast (Byzantine Agreement), dynamic communication schedule update, clock synchronization, and distributed diagnosis (group membership). The ROBUS also features fault-tolerant startup and restart capabilities. ROBUS-2 is tolerant to internal as well as PE faults, and incorporates a dynamic self-reconfiguration capability driven by the internal diagnostic system. This version of the ROBUS is intended for laboratory experimentation and demonstrations of the capability to reintegrate failed nodes, dynamically update the communication schedule, and tolerate and recover from correlated transient faults.

  16. Structural control on the CO2 release west of Mt. Epomeo resurgent block (Ischia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vita, S.; Marotta, E.; Ventura, G.; Chiodini, G.

    2003-04-01

    Volcanism at Ischia started more than 150 ka B.P. and continued until the last eruption occurred in 1302 A.D. Ischia is dominated by the caldera forming eruption of Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff (55 ka), which was followed by block resurgence inside the caldera from 33 ka B.P. Resurgence influenced the volcanic activity determining the conditions for magma ascent mainly along the eastern edge of the resurgent block. The resurgent area has a poligonal shape resulting from reactivation of regional faults and by activation of faults related to volcanotectonism. The western sector is bordered by inward dipping, high angle strike-slip/reverse faults testifying a compressional stress regime in this area. These features are cut by late outward dipping normal faults due to gravitational stress. The activity of the volcanic system is testified by seismicity and thermal manifestations. Fumarolic activity concentrates along the faults that borders westward the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block, where the Green Tuff overlies fractured lavas. The structural data show that, outside the most active degassing zone, fractures show a NNW-SSE strike and dip toward Mt. Epomeo. These fractures delimit the northern sector of Mt. Epomeo and show strike and dip consistent with the inward dipping reverse faults. Inside the degassing area fractures show a NW-SE strike and dip outward Mt. Epomeo. These gravity-related faults cut the lavas where the hydrothermal circulation is active. The dip direction of the NW-SE striking fractures within the degassing zone is not consistent with that of the strike-slip/reverse faults (i.e. towards NE) but agrees well with that of the gravity-induced faults (dip direction towards SW). Inside the degassing zone, NW-SE striking faults with lengths not exceeding the hydrothermalized extension occur. This arrangement indicate that the syn-resurgence faults act as permeability barriers, whereas the youngest faults act as the main fluid pathway.

  17. Probabilistic fault tree analysis of a radiation treatment system.

    PubMed

    Ekaette, Edidiong; Lee, Robert C; Cooke, David L; Iftody, Sandra; Craighead, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Inappropriate administration of radiation for cancer treatment can result in severe consequences such as premature death or appreciably impaired quality of life. There has been little study of vulnerable treatment process components and their contribution to the risk of radiation treatment (RT). In this article, we describe the application of probabilistic fault tree methods to assess the probability of radiation misadministration to patients at a large cancer treatment center. We conducted a systematic analysis of the RT process that identified four process domains: Assessment, Preparation, Treatment, and Follow-up. For the Preparation domain, we analyzed possible incident scenarios via fault trees. For each task, we also identified existing quality control measures. To populate the fault trees we used subjective probabilities from experts and compared results with incident report data. Both the fault tree and the incident report analysis revealed simulation tasks to be most prone to incidents, and the treatment prescription task to be least prone to incidents. The probability of a Preparation domain incident was estimated to be in the range of 0.1-0.7% based on incident reports, which is comparable to the mean value of 0.4% from the fault tree analysis using probabilities from the expert elicitation exercise. In conclusion, an analysis of part of the RT system using a fault tree populated with subjective probabilities from experts was useful in identifying vulnerable components of the system, and provided quantitative data for risk management.

  18. A three-dimensional study of fault zone architecture: Results from the SEMP fault system, Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, E. K.; Dolan, J. F.; Sammis, C. G.; Hacker, B.; Cole, J.; Ratschbacher, L.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most exciting frontiers in earthquake science is the linkage between the internal structure and mechanical behavior of fault zones. Little is known about how fault-zone structure varies as a function of depth, yet such understanding is vital if we are to understand the mechanical instabilities that control the nucleation and propagation of seismic ruptures. This has led us to the Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg [SEMP] fault system in Austria, a major left-lateral strike-slip fault that has accommodated ~ 60 km of displacement during Oligo-Miocene time. Differential exhumation of the SEMP has resulted in a fault zone that reveals a continuum of structural levels along strike. This provides us with a unique opportunity to directly observe how fault-zone properties change with depth, from near-surface levels, down through the seismogenic crust, across the brittle-ductile transition, and into the uppermost part of the lower crust in western Austria. Here we present results from four key outcrops and discuss the mechanical implications of these new data. Our brittle outcrop at Gstatterboden has been exhumed from at least 4 km depth. Here the SEMP juxtaposes limestone of the Wettersteinkalk on the south against Rauwacken dolomite to the north. Faulting has produced extremely asymmetric damage, extensively shattering and shearing the dolomite while leaving the limestone largely intact. Measurements of outcrop-scale faults and fractures in the dolomite, combined with analysis of grain-size-distributions, suggest that strain has progressively localized to a zone ~ 10 m wide. These findings are compared to those from two outcrops (Kitzlochklamm and Liechtensteinklamm) that bracket the brittle-ductile transition, exhumed from depths of = 10 km. Here, the SEMP juxtaposes Greywacke Zone rocks on the north against carbonate mylonites of the Klammkalk to the south. We calculate the strain gradient in the ductile Klammkalk rocks by analyzing the lattice preferred

  19. A deep crustal fluid channel into the San Andreas Fault system near Parkfield, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becken, M.; Ritter, O.; Park, S.K.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Weckmann, U.; Weber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data from 66 sites along a 45-km-long profile across the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were inverted to obtain the 2-D electrical resistivity structure of the crust near the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). The most intriguing feature of the resistivity model is a steeply dipping upper crustal high-conductivity zone flanking the seismically defined SAF to the NE, that widens into the lower crust and appears to be connected to a broad conductivity anomaly in the upper mantle. Hypothesis tests of the inversion model suggest that upper and lower crustal and upper-mantle anomalies may be interconnected. We speculate that the high conductivities are caused by fluids and may represent a deep-rooted channel for crustal and/or mantle fluid ascent. Based on the chemical analysis of well waters, it was previously suggested that fluids can enter the brittle regime of the SAF system from the lower crust and mantle. At high pressures, these fluids can contribute to fault-weakening at seismogenic depths. These geochemical studies predicted the existence of a deep fluid source and a permeable pathway through the crust. Our resistivity model images a conductive pathway, which penetrates the entire crust, in agreement with the geochemical interpretation. However, the resistivity model also shows that the upper crustal branch of the high-conductivity zone is located NE of the seismically defined SAF, suggesting that the SAF does not itself act as a major fluid pathway. This interpretation is supported by both, the location of the upper crustal high-conductivity zone and recent studies within the SAFOD main hole, which indicate that pore pressures within the core of the SAF zone are not anomalously high, that mantle-derived fluids are minor constituents to the fault-zone fluid composition and that both the volume of mantle fluids and the fluid pressure increase to the NE of the SAF. We further infer from the MT model that the resistive Salinian block

  20. Systems and Methods for Determining Inertial Navigation System Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharadwaj, Raj Mohan (Inventor); Bageshwar, Vibhor L. (Inventor); Kim, Kyusung (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) includes a primary inertial navigation system (INS) unit configured to receive accelerometer measurements from an accelerometer and angular velocity measurements from a gyroscope. The primary INS unit is further configured to receive global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals from a GNSS sensor and to determine a first set of kinematic state vectors based on the accelerometer measurements, the angular velocity measurements, and the GNSS signals. The INS further includes a secondary INS unit configured to receive the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements and to determine a second set of kinematic state vectors of the vehicle based on the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements. A health management system is configured to compare the first set of kinematic state vectors and the second set of kinematic state vectors to determine faults associated with the accelerometer or the gyroscope based on the comparison.

  1. A Fault Tree Approach to Analysis of Organizational Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Belle Ruth; Stephens, Kent G.

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method of examing communication in an organization by focusing on: (1) the complex interrelationships in human systems, particularly in communication systems; (2) interactions across subsystems and system boundaries; and (3) the need to select and "prioritize" channels which will eliminate noise in the…

  2. Fault geometric complexity and how it may cause temporal slip-rate variation within an interacting fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, Ramon

    2010-05-01

    Slip-rates along individual faults may differ as a function of measurement time scale. Short-term slip-rates may be higher than the long term rate and vice versa. For example, vertical slip-rates along the Wasatch Fault, Utah are 1.7+/-0.5 mm/yr since 6ka, <0.6 mm/yr since 130ka, and 0.5-0.7 mm/yr since 10Ma (Friedrich et al., 2003). Following conventional earthquake recurrence models like the characteristic earthquake model, this observation implies that the driving strain accumulation rates may have changed over the respective time scales as well. While potential explanations for such slip-rate variations may be found for example in the reorganization of plate tectonic motion or mantle flow dynamics, causing changes in the crustal velocity field over long spatial wavelengths, no single geophysical explanation exists. Temporal changes in earthquake rate (i.e., event clustering) due to elastic interactions within a complex fault system may present an alternative explanation that requires neither variations in strain accumulation rate or nor changes in fault constitutive behavior for frictional sliding. In the presented study, we explore this scenario and investigate how fault geometric complexity, fault segmentation and fault (segment) interaction affect the seismic behavior and slip-rate along individual faults while keeping tectonic stressing-rate and frictional behavior constant in time. For that, we used FIMozFric--a physics-based numerical earthquake simulator, based on Okada's (1992) formulations for internal displacements and strains due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space. Faults are divided into a large number of equal-sized fault patches which communicate via elastic interaction, allowing implementation of geometrically complex, non-planar faults. Each patch has assigned a static and dynamic friction coefficient. The difference between those values is a function of depth--corresponding to the temperature-dependence of velocity-weakening that is

  3. Fault Tolerance Middleware for a Multi-Core System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Springer, Paul L.; Zima, Hans P.; James, Mark; Wagner, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Fault Tolerance Middleware (FTM) provides a framework to run on a dedicated core of a multi-core system and handles detection of single-event upsets (SEUs), and the responses to those SEUs, occurring in an application running on multiple cores of the processor. This software was written expressly for a multi-core system and can support different kinds of fault strategies, such as introspection, algorithm-based fault tolerance (ABFT), and triple modular redundancy (TMR). It focuses on providing fault tolerance for the application code, and represents the first step in a plan to eventually include fault tolerance in message passing and the FTM itself. In the multi-core system, the FTM resides on a single, dedicated core, separate from the cores used by the application. This is done in order to isolate the FTM from application faults and to allow it to swap out any application core for a substitute. The structure of the FTM consists of an interface to a fault tolerant strategy module, a responder module, a fault manager module, an error factory, and an error mapper that determines the severity of the error. In the present reference implementation, the only fault tolerant strategy implemented is introspection. The introspection code waits for an application node to send an error notification to it. It then uses the error factory to create an error object, and at this time, a severity level is assigned to the error. The introspection code uses its built-in knowledge base to generate a recommended response to the error. Responses might include ignoring the error, logging it, rolling back the application to a previously saved checkpoint, swapping in a new node to replace a bad one, or restarting the application. The original error and recommended response are passed to the top-level fault manager module, which invokes the response. The responder module also notifies the introspection module of the generated response. This provides additional information to the

  4. Paleoseismology of Sinistral-Slip Fault System, Focusing on the Mae Chan Fault, on the Shan Plateau, SE Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtiss, E. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Wiwegwin, W.; Weldon, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Shan Plateau, which includes portions of Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam lies between the dextral NS-trending Sagaing and SE-trending Red River faults and contains 14 active E-W sinistral-slip faults, including the Mae Chan Fault (MCF) in northern Thailand. The last ground-rupturing earthquake to occur on the broader sinistral fault system was the M6.8 Tarlay earthquake in Myanmar in March 2011 on the Nam Ma fault immediately north of the MCF the last earthquake to occur on the MCF was a M4.0 in the 5th century that destroyed the entire city of Wiang Yonok (Morley et al., 2011). We report on a trenching study of the MCF, which is part of a broader study to create a regional seismic hazard map of the entire Shan Plateau. By studying the MCF, which appears to be representative of the sinistral faults, and easy to work on, we hope to characterize both it and the other unstudied faults in the system. As part of a paleoseismology training course we dug two trenches at the Pa Tueng site on the MCF, within an offset river channel and the trenches exposed young sediment with abundant charcoal (in process of dating), cultural artifacts, and evidence for the last two (or three) ground-rupturing earthquakes on the fault. We hope to use the data from this site to narrow the recurrence interval, which is currently to be 2,000-4,000 years and the slip rate of 1-2 mm/year, being developed at other sites on the fault. By extrapolating the data of the MCF to the other faults we will have a better understanding of the whole fault system. Once we have characterized the MCF, we plan to use geomorphic offsets and strain rates from regional GPS to relatively estimate the activity of the other faults in this sinistral system.

  5. A diagnosis system using object-oriented fault tree models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceborne computing systems must provide reliable, continuous operation for extended periods. Due to weight, power, and volume constraints, these systems must manage resources very effectively. A fault diagnosis algorithm is described which enables fast and flexible diagnoses in the dynamic distributed computing environments planned for future space missions. The algorithm uses a knowledge base that is easily changed and updated to reflect current system status. Augmented fault trees represented in an object-oriented form provide deep system knowledge that is easy to access and revise as a system changes. Given such a fault tree, a set of failure events that have occurred, and a set of failure events that have not occurred, this diagnosis system uses forward and backward chaining to propagate causal and temporal information about other failure events in the system being diagnosed. Once the system has established temporal and causal constraints, it reasons backward from heuristically selected failure events to find a set of basic failure events which are a likely cause of the occurrence of the top failure event in the fault tree. The diagnosis system has been implemented in common LISP using Flavors.

  6. Dataflow models for fault-tolerant control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Dataflow concepts are used to generate a unified hardware/software model of redundant physical systems which are prone to faults. Basic results in input congruence and synchronization are shown to reduce to a simple model of data exchanges between processing sites. Procedures are given for the construction of congruence schemata, the distinguishing features of any correctly designed redundant system.

  7. Managing systems faults on the commercial flight deck: Analysis of pilots' organization and prioritization of fault management information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, William H.

    1993-01-01

    In rare instances, flight crews of commercial aircraft must manage complex systems faults in addition to all their normal flight tasks. Pilot errors in fault management have been attributed, at least in part, to an incomplete or inaccurate awareness of the fault situation. The current study is part of a program aimed at assuring that the types of information potentially available from an intelligent fault management aiding concept developed at NASA Langley called 'Faultfinde' (see Abbott, Schutte, Palmer, and Ricks, 1987) are an asset rather than a liability: additional information should improve pilot performance and aircraft safety, but it should not confuse, distract, overload, mislead, or generally exacerbate already difficult circumstances.

  8. Is there a "blind" strike-slip fault at the southern end of the San Jacinto Fault system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymofyeyeva, E.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the interseismic deformation at the southern end of the San Jacinto fault system using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. To complement the continuous GPS measurements from the PBO network, we have conducted campaign-style GPS surveys of 19 benchmarks along Highway 78 in the years 2012, 2013, and 2014. We processed the campaign GPS data using GAMIT to obtain horizontal velocities. The data show high velocity gradients East of the surface trace of the Coyote Creek Fault. We also processed InSAR data from the ascending and descending tracks of the ENVISAT mission between the years 2003 and 2010. The InSAR data were corrected for atmospheric artifacts using an iterative common point stacking method. We combined average velocities from different look angles to isolate the fault-parallel velocity field, and used fault-parallel velocities to compute strain rate. We filtered the data over a range of wavelengths prior to numerical differentiation, to reduce the effects of noise and to investigate both shallow and deep sources of deformation. At spatial wavelengths less than 2km the strain rate data show prominent anomalies along the San Andreas and Superstition Hills faults, where shallow creep has been documented by previous studies. Similar anomalies are also observed along parts of the Coyote Creek Fault, San Felipe Fault, and an unmapped southern continuation of the Clark strand of the San Jacinto Fault. At wavelengths on the order of 20km, we observe elevated strain rates concentrated east of the Coyote Creek Fault. The long-wavelength strain anomaly east of the Coyote Creek Fault, and the localized shallow creep observed in the short-wavelength strain rate data over the same area suggest that there may be a "blind" segment of the Clark Fault that accommodates a significant portion of the deformation on the southern end of the San Jacinto Fault.

  9. A Voyager attitude control perspective on fault tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. D.; Litty, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    In current spacecraft design, a trend can be observed to achieve greater fault tolerance through the application of on-board software dedicated to detecting and isolating failures. Whether fault tolerance through software can meet the desired objectives depends on very careful consideration and control of the system in which the software is imbedded. The considered investigation has the objective to provide some of the insight needed for the required analysis of the system. A description is given of the techniques which have been developed in this connection during the development of the Voyager spacecraft. The Voyager Galileo Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) fault tolerant design is discussed to emphasize basic lessons learned from this experience. The central driver of hardware redundancy implementation on Voyager was known as the 'single point failure criterion'.

  10. Fault trees for decision making in systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Howard E.

    1975-10-09

    The application of fault tree analysis (FTA) to system safety and reliability is presented within the framework of system safety analysis. The concepts and techniques involved in manual and automated fault tree construction are described and their differences noted. The theory of mathematical reliability pertinent to FTA is presented with emphasis on engineering applications. An outline of the quantitative reliability techniques of the Reactor Safety Study is given. Concepts of probabilistic importance are presented within the fault tree framework and applied to the areas of system design, diagnosis and simulation. The computer code IMPORTANCE ranks basic events and cut setsmore » according to a sensitivity analysis. A useful feature of the IMPORTANCE code is that it can accept relative failure data as input. The output of the IMPORTANCE code can assist an analyst in finding weaknesses in system design and operation, suggest the most optimal course of system upgrade, and determine the optimal location of sensors within a system. A general simulation model of system failure in terms of fault tree logic is described. The model is intended for efficient diagnosis of the causes of system failure in the event of a system breakdown. It can also be used to assist an operator in making decisions under a time constraint regarding the future course of operations. The model is well suited for computer implementation. New results incorporated in the simulation model include an algorithm to generate repair checklists on the basis of fault tree logic and a one-step-ahead optimization procedure that minimizes the expected time to diagnose system failure.« less

  11. Identification of active fault using analysis of derivatives with vertical second based on gravity anomaly data (Case study: Seulimeum fault in Sumatera fault system)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hududillah, Teuku Hafid; Simanjuntak, Andrean V. H.; Husni, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Gravity is a non-destructive geophysical technique that has numerous application in engineering and environmental field like locating a fault zone. The purpose of this study is to spot the Seulimeum fault system in Iejue, Aceh Besar (Indonesia) by using a gravity technique and correlate the result with geologic map and conjointly to grasp a trend pattern of fault system. An estimation of subsurface geological structure of Seulimeum fault has been done by using gravity field anomaly data. Gravity anomaly data which used in this study is from Topex that is processed up to Free Air Correction. The step in the Next data processing is applying Bouger correction and Terrin Correction to obtain complete Bouger anomaly that is topographically dependent. Subsurface modeling is done using the Gav2DC for windows software. The result showed a low residual gravity value at a north half compared to south a part of study space that indicated a pattern of fault zone. Gravity residual was successfully correlate with the geologic map that show the existence of the Seulimeum fault in this study space. The study of earthquake records can be used for differentiating the active and non active fault elements, this gives an indication that the delineated fault elements are active.

  12. Conditions of Fissuring in a Pumped-Faulted Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Marin, M.; Burbey, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    Earth fissuring associated with subsidence from groundwater pumping is problematic in many arid-zone heavily pumped basins such as Las Vegas Valley. Long-term pumping at rates considerably greater than the natural recharge rate has stressed the heterogeneous aquifer system resulting in a complex stress-strain regime. A rigorous artificial recharge program coupled with increased surface-water importation has allowed water levels to appreciably recover, which has led to surface rebound in some localities. Nonetheless, new fissures continue to appear, particularly near basin-fill faults that behave as barriers to subsidence bowls. The purpose of this research is to develop a series of computational models to better understand the influence that structure (faults), pumping, and hydrostratigraphy has in the generation and propagation of fissures. The hydrostratigraphy of Las Vegas Valley consists of aquifers, aquitards and a relatively dry vadoze zone that may be as thick as 100m in much of the valley. Quaternary faults are typically depicted as scarps resulting from pre- pumping extensional tectonic events and are probably not responsible for the observed strain. The models developed to simulate the stress-strain and deformation processes in a faulted pumped aquifer-aquitard system of Las Vegas use the ABAQUS CAE (Complete ABAQUS Environment) software system. ABAQUS is a sophisticated engineering industry finite-element modeling package capable of simulating the complex fault- fissure system described here. A brittle failure criteria based on the tensile strength of the materials and the acting stresses (from previous models) are being used to understand how and where fissures are likely to form. , Hypothetical simulations include the role that faults and the vadose zone may play in fissure formation

  13. A System for Fault Management and Fault Consequences Analysis for NASA's Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano; Spirkovska, Liljana; Baskaran, Vijaykumar; Aaseng, Gordon; McCann, Robert S.; Ossenfort, John; Smith, Irene; Iverson, David L.; Schwabacher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration program envisions the utilization of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for human exploration of the space environment in the vicinity of Mars and/or asteroids. Communication latencies with ground control of as long as 20+ minutes make it imperative that DSH operations be highly autonomous, as any telemetry-based detection of a systems problem on Earth could well occur too late to assist the crew with the problem. A DSH-based development program has been initiated to develop and test the automation technologies necessary to support highly autonomous DSH operations. One such technology is a fault management tool to support performance monitoring of vehicle systems operations and to assist with real-time decision making in connection with operational anomalies and failures. Toward that end, we are developing Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS), a tool that combines dynamic and interactive graphical representations of spacecraft systems, systems modeling, automated diagnostic analysis and root cause identification, system and mission impact assessment, and mitigation procedure identification to help spacecraft operators (both flight controllers and crew) understand and respond to anomalies more effectively. In this paper, we describe four major architecture elements of ACAWS: Anomaly Detection, Fault Isolation, System Effects Analysis, and Graphic User Interface (GUI), and how these elements work in concert with each other and with other tools to provide fault management support to both the controllers and crew. We then describe recent evaluations and tests of ACAWS on the DSH testbed. The results of these tests support the feasibility and strength of our approach to failure management automation and enhanced operational autonomy

  14. Study of fault tolerant software technology for dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Zacharias, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The major aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using systems-based failure detection isolation and compensation (FDIC) techniques in building fault-tolerant software and extending them, whenever possible, to the domain of software fault tolerance. First, it is shown that systems-based FDIC methods can be extended to develop software error detection techniques by using system models for software modules. In particular, it is demonstrated that systems-based FDIC techniques can yield consistency checks that are easier to implement than acceptance tests based on software specifications. Next, it is shown that systems-based failure compensation techniques can be generalized to the domain of software fault tolerance in developing software error recovery procedures. Finally, the feasibility of using fault-tolerant software in flight software is investigated. In particular, possible system and version instabilities, and functional performance degradation that may occur in N-Version programming applications to flight software are illustrated. Finally, a comparative analysis of N-Version and recovery block techniques in the context of generic blocks in flight software is presented.

  15. Geophysical and geochemical methods applied to investigate fissure-related hydrothermal systems on the summit area of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maucourant, Samuel; Giammanco, Salvatore; Greco, Filippo; Dorizon, Sophie; Del Negro, Ciro

    2014-06-01

    A multidisciplinary approach integrating self-potential, soil temperature, heat flux, CO2 efflux and gravity gradiometry signals was used to investigate a relatively small fissure-related hydrothermal system near the summit of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Measurements were performed through two different surveys carried out at the beginning and at the end of July 2009, right after the end of the long-lived 2008-2009 flank eruption and in coincidence with an increase in diffuse flank degassing related to a reactivation of the volcano, leading to the opening of a new summit vent (NSEC). The main goal was to use a multidisciplinary approach to the detection of hidden fractures in an area of evident near-surface hydrothermal activity. Despite the different methodologies used and the different geometry of the sampling grid between the surveys, all parameters concurred in confirming that the study area is crossed by faults related with the main fracture systems of the south flank of the volcano, where a continuous hydrothermal circulation is established. Results also highlighted that hydrothermal activity in this area changed both in space and in time. These changes were a clear response to variations in the magmatic system, notably to migration of magma at various depth within the main feeder system of the volcano. The results suggest that this specific area, initially chosen as the optimal test-site for the proposed approach, can be useful in order to get information on the potential reactivation of the summit craters of Mt. Etna.

  16. A distributed fault-detection and diagnosis system using on-line parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, T.-H.; Merrill, W.; Duyar, A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a model-based fault-detection and diagnosis system (FDD) is reviewed. The system can be used as an integral part of an intelligent control system. It determines the faults of a system from comparison of the measurements of the system with a priori information represented by the model of the system. The method of modeling a complex system is described and a description of diagnosis models which include process faults is presented. There are three distinct classes of fault modes covered by the system performance model equation: actuator faults, sensor faults, and performance degradation. A system equation for a complete model that describes all three classes of faults is given. The strategy for detecting the fault and estimating the fault parameters using a distributed on-line parameter identification scheme is presented. A two-step approach is proposed. The first step is composed of a group of hypothesis testing modules, (HTM) in parallel processing to test each class of faults. The second step is the fault diagnosis module which checks all the information obtained from the HTM level, isolates the fault, and determines its magnitude. The proposed FDD system was demonstrated by applying it to detect actuator and sensor faults added to a simulation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The simulation results show that the proposed FDD system can adequately detect the faults and estimate their magnitudes.

  17. Magnetometric and gravimetric surveys in fault detection over Acambay System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Serrano, A.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.

    2013-05-01

    In commemoration of the centennial of the Acambay intraplate earthquake of November 19th 1912, we carry out gravimetric and magnetometric surveys to define the structure of faults caused by this event. The study area is located approximately 11 km south of Acambay, in the Acambay-Tixmadeje fault system, where we performed two magnetometric surveys, the first consisting of 17 lines with a spacing of 35m between lines and 5m between stations, and the second with a total of 12 lines with the same spacing, both NW. In addition to these two lines we performed gravimetric profiles located in the central part of each magnetometric survey, with a spacing of 25m between stations, in order to correlate the results of both techniques, the lengths of such profiles were of 600m and 550m respectively. This work describes the data processing including directional derivatives, analytical signal and inversion, by means of which we obtain results of magnetic variations and anomaly traits highly correlated with those faults. It is of great importance to characterize these faults given the large population growth in the area and settlement houses on them, which involves a high risk in the security of the population, considering that these are active faults and cannot be discard earthquakes associated with them, so it is necessary for the authorities and people have relevant information to these problem.

  18. Vibration Signature Analysis of a Faulted Gear Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Huang, S.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Townsend, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive procedure in predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions is presented. Experimental data was obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Time synchronous averaged vibration data was recorded throughout the test as the fault progressed from a small single pit to severe pitting over several teeth, and finally tooth fracture. A numerical procedure based on the Winger-Ville distribution was used to examine the time averaged vibration data. Results from the Wigner-Ville procedure are compared to results from a variety of signal analysis techniques which include time domain analysis methods and frequency analysis methods. Using photographs of the gear tooth at various stages of damage, the limitations and accuracy of the various techniques are compared and discussed. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of the different approaches as well as the applicability of the Wigner-Ville method in predicting gear faults.

  19. Encoder fault analysis system based on Moire fringe error signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xu; Chen, Wei; Wan, Qiu-hua; Lu, Xin-ran; Xie, Chun-yu

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the problem of any fault and wrong code in the practical application of photoelectric shaft encoder, a fast and accurate encoder fault analysis system is researched from the aspect of Moire fringe photoelectric signal processing. DSP28335 is selected as the core processor and high speed serial A/D converter acquisition card is used. And temperature measuring circuit using AD7420 is designed. Discrete data of Moire fringe error signal is collected at different temperatures and it is sent to the host computer through wireless transmission. The error signal quality index and fault type is displayed on the host computer based on the error signal identification method. The error signal quality can be used to diagnosis the state of error code through the human-machine interface.

  20. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization validation methodology. [in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A validation method for the synchronization subsystem of a fault-tolerant computer system is presented. The high reliability requirement of flight-crucial systems precludes the use of most traditional validation methods. The method presented utilizes formal design proof to uncover design and coding errors and experimentation to validate the assumptions of the design proof. The experimental method is described and illustrated by validating the clock synchronization system of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer. The design proof of the algorithm includes a theorem that defines the maximum skew between any two nonfaulty clocks in the system in terms of specific system parameters. Most of these parameters are deterministic. One crucial parameter is the upper bound on the clock read error, which is stochastic. The probability that this upper bound is exceeded is calculated from data obtained by the measurement of system parameters. This probability is then included in a detailed reliability analysis of the system.

  1. Transparent Ada rendezvous in a fault tolerant distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racine, Roger

    1986-01-01

    There are many problems associated with distributing an Ada program over a loosely coupled communication network. Some of these problems involve the various aspects of the distributed rendezvous. The problems addressed involve supporting the delay statement in a selective call and supporting the else clause in a selective call. Most of these difficulties are compounded by the need for an efficient communication system. The difficulties are compounded even more by considering the possibility of hardware faults occurring while the program is running. With a hardware fault tolerant computer system, it is possible to design a distribution scheme and communication software which is efficient and allows Ada semantics to be preserved. An Ada design for the communications software of one such system will be presented, including a description of the services provided in the seven layers of an International Standards Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnect (OSI) model communications system. The system capabilities (hardware and software) that allow this communication system will also be described.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

  3. Geophysical setting of the Wabash Valley fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Ravat, D.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretation of existing regional magnetic and gravity data and new local high-resolution aeromagnetic data provides new insights on the tectonic history and structural development of the Wabash Valley Fault System in Illinois and Indiana. Enhancement of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies reveal numerous NW- to NNE-trending ultramafic dikes and six intrusive complexes (including those at Hicks Dome and Omaha Dome). Inversion models indicate that the interpreted dikes are narrow (???3 m), lie at shallow depths (500 km long and generally >50 km wide) and with deep basins (locally >3 km thick), the ancestral Wabash Valley faults express, in comparison, minor tectonic structures and probably do not represent a failed rift arm. There is a lack of any obvious relation between the Wabash Valley Fault System and the epicenters of historic and prehistoric earthquakes. Five prehistoric earthquakes lie conspicuously near structures associated with the Commerce geophysical lineament, a NE-trending magnetic and gravity lineament lying oblique to the Wabash Valley Fault System and possibly extending over 600 km from NE Arkansas to central Indiana.

  4. Application Research of Fault Tree Analysis in Grid Communication System Corrective Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhenwei; Kang, Mei

    2018-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply the fault tree analysis method to the corrective maintenance field of grid communication system. Through the establishment of the fault tree model of typical system and the engineering experience, the fault tree analysis theory is used to analyze the fault tree model, which contains the field of structural function, probability importance and so on. The results show that the fault tree analysis can realize fast positioning and well repairing of the system. Meanwhile, it finds that the analysis method of fault tree has some guiding significance to the reliability researching and upgrading f the system.

  5. A Solid-State Fault Current Limiting Device for VSC-HVDC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larruskain, D. Marene; Zamora, Inmaculada; Abarrategui, , Oihane; Iturregi, Araitz

    2013-08-01

    Faults in the DC circuit constitute one of the main limitations of voltage source converter VSC-HVDC systems, as the high fault currents can damage seriously the converters. In this article, a new design for a fault current limiter (FCL) is proposed, which is capable of limiting the fault current as well as interrupting it, isolating the DC grid. The operation of the proposed FCL is analysed and verified with the most usual faults that can occur in overhead lines.

  6. A Fault Tolerant System for an Integrated Avionics Sensor Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system methodology for the Transport Systems Research Vehicle in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment is described. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates in the presence of possible failures both in ground-based navigation aids, and in on-board flight control and inertial sensors. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationships between the various sensors arising from the aircraft point mass equations of motion. The estimation and failure detection performance of the software implementation (called FINDS) of the developed system was analyzed on a nonlinear digital simulation of the research aircraft. Simulation results showing the detection performance of FINDS, using a dual redundant sensor compliment, are presented for bias, hardover, null, ramp, increased noise and scale factor failures. In general, the results show that FINDS can distinguish between normal operating sensor errors and failures while providing an excellent detection speed for bias failures in the MLS, indicated airspeed, attitude and radar altimeter sensors.

  7. cost and benefits optimization model for fault-tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The factors involved in economic assessment of fault tolerant systems (FTS) and fault tolerant flight control systems (FTFCS) are discussed. Algorithms for optimization and economic analysis of FTFCS are documented.

  8. Reliability modeling of fault-tolerant computer based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.

    1987-01-01

    Digital fault-tolerant computer-based systems have become commonplace in military and commercial avionics. These systems hold the promise of increased availability, reliability, and maintainability over conventional analog-based systems through the application of replicated digital computers arranged in fault-tolerant configurations. Three tightly coupled factors of paramount importance, ultimately determining the viability of these systems, are reliability, safety, and profitability. Reliability, the major driver affects virtually every aspect of design, packaging, and field operations, and eventually produces profit for commercial applications or increased national security. However, the utilization of digital computer systems makes the task of producing credible reliability assessment a formidable one for the reliability engineer. The root of the problem lies in the digital computer's unique adaptability to changing requirements, computational power, and ability to test itself efficiently. Addressed here are the nuances of modeling the reliability of systems with large state sizes, in the Markov sense, which result from systems based on replicated redundant hardware and to discuss the modeling of factors which can reduce reliability without concomitant depletion of hardware. Advanced fault-handling models are described and methods of acquiring and measuring parameters for these models are delineated.

  9. Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor and VLSI-Based Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-15

    54590 170 Table 1: Statistics for the Benchmark Programs pages are distributed amongst the groups of the reconfigured memory in proportion to the...distances are proportional to only the logarithm of the sure that possesses relevance to a system which consists of alare nmbe ofhomgenouseleent...and comn.unication overhead resulting from faults communicating with all of the other elements in the system the network to degrade proportionately to

  10. Distributed Systems: Interconnection and Fault Tolerance Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    real - time operating system , a number of new techniques have to be...problem is at the heart of a successful implementation of a real - time operating system in a distributed environment. Our studies of the issues...land, College Park MD 20742, January 1991. [i1] 6 lafur Gudmundsson, Daniel Moss6, Ashok K. Agrawala, and Satish K. Tripathi. MARUTI a hard real - time operating system .

  11. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-13

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can bemore » input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.« less

  12. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-14

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can bemore » input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.« less

  13. Fault detection and isolation in motion monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-Jin; Suk, Myoung Hoon; Prabhakaran, B

    2012-01-01

    Pervasive computing becomes very active research field these days. A watch that can trace human movement to record motion boundary as well as to study of finding social life pattern by one's localized visiting area. Pervasive computing also helps patient monitoring. A daily monitoring system helps longitudinal study of patient monitoring such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's or obesity monitoring. Due to the nature of monitoring sensor (on-body wireless sensor), however, signal noise or faulty sensors errors can be present at any time. Many research works have addressed these problems any with a large amount of sensor deployment. In this paper, we present the faulty sensor detection and isolation using only two on-body sensors. We have been investigating three different types of sensor errors: the SHORT error, the CONSTANT error, and the NOISY SENSOR error (see more details on section V). Our experimental results show that the success rate of isolating faulty signals are an average of over 91.5% on fault type 1, over 92% on fault type 2, and over 99% on fault type 3 with the fault prior of 30% sensor errors.

  14. Fault recovery for real-time, multi-tasking computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelly, Gerald B. (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor); Stange, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    System and methods for providing a recoverable real time multi-tasking computer system are disclosed. In one embodiment, a system comprises a real time computing environment, wherein the real time computing environment is adapted to execute one or more applications and wherein each application is time and space partitioned. The system further comprises a fault detection system adapted to detect one or more faults affecting the real time computing environment and a fault recovery system, wherein upon the detection of a fault the fault recovery system is adapted to restore a backup set of state variables.

  15. Sensor fault detection and isolation system for a condensation process.

    PubMed

    Castro, M A López; Escobar, R F; Torres, L; Aguilar, J F Gómez; Hernández, J A; Olivares-Peregrino, V H

    2016-11-01

    This article presents the design of a sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system for a condensation process based on a nonlinear model. The condenser is modeled by dynamic and thermodynamic equations. For this work, the dynamic equations are described by three pairs of differential equations which represent the energy balance between the fluids. The thermodynamic equations consist in algebraic heat transfer equations and empirical equations, that allow for the estimation of heat transfer coefficients. The FDI system consists of a bank of two nonlinear high-gain observers, in order to detect, estimate and to isolate the fault in any of both outlet temperature sensors. The main contributions of this work were the experimental validation of the condenser nonlinear model and the FDI system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Large-scale splay faults on a strike-slip fault system: The Yakima Folds, Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The Yakima Folds (YF) comprise anticlines above reverse faults cutting flows of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group of central Washington State. The YF are bisected by the ~1100-km-long Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), which is an alignment of topographic features including known faults. There is considerable debate about the origin and earthquake potential of both the YF and OWL, which lie near six major dams and a large nuclear waste storage site. Here I show that the trends of the faults forming the YF relative to the OWL match remarkably well the trends of the principal stress directions at the end of a vertical strike-slip fault. This comparison and the termination of some YF against the OWL are consistent with the YF initially forming as splay faults caused by an along-strike decrease in the amount of strike-slip on the OWL. The hypothesis is that the YF faults initially developed as splay faults in the early to mid Miocene under NNW-oriented principal compressive stress, but the anticlines subsequently grew with thrust motion after the principal compressive stress direction rotated to N-S or NNE after the mid-Miocene. A seismic profile across one of the YF anticlines shows folding at about 7 km depth, indicating deformation of sub-basalt strata. The seismic profile and the hypothesized relationship between the YF and the OWL suggest that the structures are connected in the middle or lower crust, and that the faults forming the YF are large-scale splay faults associated with a major strike-slip fault system.

  17. The CAFE Experiment: A Joint Seismic and MT Investigation of the Cascadia Subduction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    In this thesis we present results from inversion of data using dense arrays of collocated seismic and magnetotelluric stations located in the Cascadia...implicit in the standard MT inversion provides tools that enable us to generate a more accurate MT model. This final MT model clearly demonstrates...references within, Hacker, 2008) have given us the tools to better interpret geophysical evidence. Improvements in the thermal modeling of subduction zones

  18. Study on fault-tolerant processors for advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    1990-01-01

    Issues related to the reliability of a redundant system with large main memory are addressed. The Fault-Tolerant Processor (FTP) for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is used as a basis for the presentation. When the system is free of latent faults, the probability of system crash due to multiple channel faults is shown to be insignificant even when voting on the outputs of computing channels is infrequent. Using channel error maskers (CEMs) is shown to improve reliability more effectively than increasing redundancy or the number of channels for applications with long mission times. Even without using a voter, most memory errors can be immediately corrected by those CEMs implemented with conventional coding techniques. In addition to their ability to enhance system reliability, CEMs (with a very low hardware overhead) can be used to dramatically reduce not only the need of memory realignment, but also the time required to realign channel memories in case, albeit rare, such a need arises. Using CEMs, two different schemes were developed to solve the memory realignment problem. In both schemes, most errors are corrected by CEMs, and the remaining errors are masked by a voter.

  19. The Trans-Rocky Mountain Fault System - A Fundamental Precambrian Strike-Slip System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of a major Precambrian continental-scale, two-stage conjugate strike-slip fault system - here designated as the Trans-Rocky Mountain fault system - provides new insights into the architecture of the North American continent. The fault system consists chiefly of steep linear to curvilinear, en echelon, braided and branching ductile-brittle shears and faults, and local coeval en echelon folds of northwest strike, that cut indiscriminately across both Proterozoic and Archean cratonic elements. The fault system formed during late stages of two distinct tectonic episodes: Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic orogenies at about 2.70 and 1.70 billion years (Ga). In the Archean Superior province, the fault system formed (about 2.70-2.65 Ga) during a late stage of the main deformation that involved oblique shortening (dextral transpression) across the region and progressed from crystal-plastic to ductile-brittle deformation. In Paleoproterozoic terranes, the fault system formed about 1.70 Ga, shortly following amalgamation of Paleoproterozoic and Archean terranes and the main Paleoproterozoic plastic-fabric-producing events in the protocontinent, chiefly during sinistral transpression. The postulated driving force for the fault system is subcontinental mantle deformation, the bottom-driven deformation of previous investigators. This model, based on seismic anisotropy, invokes mechanical coupling and subsequent shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere such that a major driving force for plate motion is deep-mantle flow.

  20. Provable Transient Recovery for Frame-Based, Fault-Tolerant Computing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a formal verification of the transient fault recovery aspects of the Reliable Computing Platform (RCP), a fault-tolerant computing system architecture for digital flight control applications. The RCP uses NMR-style redundancy to mask faults and internal majority voting to purge the effects of transient faults. The system design has been formally specified and verified using the EHDM verification system. Our formalization accommodates a wide variety of voting schemes for purging the effects of transients.

  1. ARGES: an Expert System for Fault Diagnosis Within Space-Based ECLS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachura, David W.; Suleiman, Salem A.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    ARGES (Atmospheric Revitalization Group Expert System) is a demonstration prototype expert system for fault management for the Solid Amine, Water Desorbed (SAWD) CO2 removal assembly, associated with the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System. ARGES monitors and reduces data in real time from either the SAWD controller or a simulation of the SAWD assembly. It can detect gradual degradations or predict failures. This allows graceful shutdown and scheduled maintenance, which reduces crew maintenance overhead. Status and fault information is presented in a user interface that simulates what would be seen by a crewperson. The user interface employs animated color graphics and an object oriented approach to provide detailed status information, fault identification, and explanation of reasoning in a rapidly assimulated manner. In addition, ARGES recommends possible courses of action for predicted and actual faults. ARGES is seen as a forerunner of AI-based fault management systems for manned space systems.

  2. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  3. Hidden Markov models for fault detection in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Padhraic J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a system failure monitoring method and apparatus which learns the symptom-fault mapping directly from training data. The invention first estimates the state of the system at discrete intervals in time. A feature vector x of dimension k is estimated from sets of successive windows of sensor data. A pattern recognition component then models the instantaneous estimate of the posterior class probability given the features, p(w(sub i) (vertical bar)/x), 1 less than or equal to i isless than or equal to m. Finally, a hidden Markov model is used to take advantage of temporal context and estimate class probabilities conditioned on recent past history. In this hierarchical pattern of information flow, the time series data is transformed and mapped into a categorical representation (the fault classes) and integrated over time to enable robust decision-making.

  4. Hidden Markov models for fault detection in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Padhraic J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a system failure monitoring method and apparatus which learns the symptom-fault mapping directly from training data. The invention first estimates the state of the system at discrete intervals in time. A feature vector x of dimension k is estimated from sets of successive windows of sensor data. A pattern recognition component then models the instantaneous estimate of the posterior class probability given the features, p(w(sub i) perpendicular to x), 1 less than or equal to i is less than or equal to m. Finally, a hidden Markov model is used to take advantage of temporal context and estimate class probabilities conditioned on recent past history. In this hierarchical pattern of information flow, the time series data is transformed and mapped into a categorical representation (the fault classes) and integrated over time to enable robust decision-making.

  5. Fault-tolerant reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1997-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Each division performs independently of the others (asynchronous operation). All communications between the divisions are asynchronous. Each chassis substitutes its own spare sensor reading in the 2/3 vote if a sensor reading from one of the other chassis is faulty or missing. Therefore the presence of at least two valid sensor readings in excess of a set point is required before terminating the output to the hardware logic of a scram inhibition signal even when one of the four sensors is faulty or when one of the divisions is out of service.

  6. Fault-tolerant reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1997-04-15

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Each division performs independently of the others (asynchronous operation). All communications between the divisions are asynchronous. Each chassis substitutes its own spare sensor reading in the 2/3 vote if a sensor reading from one of the other chassis is faulty or missing. Therefore the presence of at least two valid sensor readings in excess of a set point is required before terminating the output to the hardware logic of a scram inhibition signal even when one of the four sensors is faulty or when one of the divisions is out of service. 16 figs.

  7. A fault isolation method based on the incidence matrix of an augmented system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changxiong; Chen, Liping; Ding, Jianwan; Wu, Yizhong

    2018-03-01

    A new approach is proposed for isolating faults and fast identifying the redundant sensors of a system in this paper. By introducing fault signal as additional state variable, an augmented system model is constructed by the original system model, fault signals and sensor measurement equations. The structural properties of an augmented system model are provided in this paper. From the viewpoint of evaluating fault variables, the calculating correlations of the fault variables in the system can be found, which imply the fault isolation properties of the system. Compared with previous isolation approaches, the highlights of the new approach are that it can quickly find the faults which can be isolated using exclusive residuals, at the same time, and can identify the redundant sensors in the system, which are useful for the design of diagnosis system. The simulation of a four-tank system is reported to validate the proposed method.

  8. The art of fault-tolerant system reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1990-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial of the methods and tools used for the reliability analysis of fault-tolerant systems is presented. Emphasis is on the representation of architectural features in mathematical models. Details of the mathematical solution of complex reliability models are not presented. Instead the use of several recently developed computer programs--SURE, ASSIST, STEM, PAWS--which automate the generation and solution of these models is described.

  9. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  10. Vehicle fault diagnostics and management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Jagadeesh; Gowthamsachin

    2017-11-01

    This project is a kind of advanced automatic identification technology, and is more and more widely used in the fields of transportation and logistics. It looks over the main functions with like Vehicle management, Vehicle Speed limit and Control. This system starts with authentication process to keep itself secure. Here we connect sensors to the STM32 board which in turn is connected to the car through Ethernet cable, as Ethernet in capable of sending large amounts of data at high speeds. This technology involved clearly shows how a careful combination of software and hardware can produce an extremely cost-effective solution to a problem.

  11. Sensor fault diagnosis of singular delayed LPV systems with inexact parameters: an uncertain system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, Amir Hossein; Shafiee, Masoud; Puig, Vicenc

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, sensor fault diagnosis of a singular delayed linear parameter varying (LPV) system is considered. In the considered system, the model matrices are dependent on some parameters which are real-time measurable. The case of inexact parameter measurements is considered which is close to real situations. Fault diagnosis in this system is achieved via fault estimation. For this purpose, an augmented system is created by including sensor faults as additional system states. Then, an unknown input observer (UIO) is designed which estimates both the system states and the faults in the presence of measurement noise, disturbances and uncertainty induced by inexact measured parameters. Error dynamics and the original system constitute an uncertain system due to inconsistencies between real and measured values of the parameters. Then, the robust estimation of the system states and the faults are achieved with H∞ performance and formulated with a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The designed UIO is also applicable for fault diagnosis of singular delayed LPV systems with unmeasurable scheduling variables. The efficiency of the proposed approach is illustrated with an example.

  12. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models aremore » imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.« less

  13. Fault Analysis of Space Station DC Power Systems-Using Neural Network Adaptive Wavelets to Detect Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun; Dolce, James L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of neural network adaptive wavelets for fault diagnosis of space station power system. The method combines wavelet transform with neural network by incorporating daughter wavelets into weights. Therefore, the wavelet transform and neural network training procedure become one stage, which avoids the complex computation of wavelet parameters and makes the procedure more straightforward. The simulation results show that the proposed method is very efficient for the identification of fault locations.

  14. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  15. The continuation of the Kazerun fault system across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Homayon

    2009-08-01

    The Kazerun (or Kazerun-Qatar) fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault zone in the Zagros mountain belt of Iran. It probably originated as a structure in the Panafrican basement. This fault system played an important role in the sedimentation and deformation of the Phanerozoic cover sequence and is still seismically active. No previous studies have reported the continuation of this important and ancient fault system northward across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. The Isfahan fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that passes west of Isfahan city and is here recognized for the first time. This important fault system is about 220 km long and is seismically active in the basement as well as the sedimentary cover sequence. This fault system terminates to the south near the Main Zagros Thrust and to the north at the southern boundary of the Urumieh-Dokhtar zone. The Isfahan fault system is the boundary between the northern and southern parts of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, which have fundamentally different stratigraphy, petrology, geomorphology, and geodynamic histories. Similarities in the orientations, kinematics, and geologic histories of the Isfahan and Kazerun faults and the way they affect the magnetic basement suggest that they are related. In fact, the Isfahan fault is a continuation of the Kazerun fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that has been offset by about 50 km of dextral strike-slip displacement along the Main Zagros Thrust.

  16. Incipient fault detection study for advanced spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, G. Martin; Black, Michael C.; Hovenga, J. Mike; Mcclure, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A feasibility study to investigate the application of vibration monitoring to the rotating machinery of planned NASA advanced spacecraft components is described. Factors investigated include: (1) special problems associated with small, high RPM machines; (2) application across multiple component types; (3) microgravity; (4) multiple fault types; (5) eight different analysis techniques including signature analysis, high frequency demodulation, cepstrum, clustering, amplitude analysis, and pattern recognition are compared; and (6) small sample statistical analysis is used to compare performance by computation of probability of detection and false alarm for an ensemble of repeated baseline and faulted tests. Both detection and classification performance are quantified. Vibration monitoring is shown to be an effective means of detecting the most important problem types for small, high RPM fans and pumps typical of those planned for the advanced spacecraft. A preliminary monitoring system design and implementation plan is presented.

  17. A new fault diagnosis algorithm for AUV cooperative localization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongyang; Miao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Multiple AUVs cooperative localization as a new kind of underwater positioning technology, not only can improve the positioning accuracy, but also has many advantages the single AUV does not have. It is necessary to detect and isolate the fault to increase the reliability and availability of the AUVs cooperative localization system. In this paper, the Extended Multiple Model Adaptive Cubature Kalmam Filter (EMMACKF) method is presented to detect the fault. The sensor failures are simulated based on the off-line experimental data. Experimental results have shown that the faulty apparatus can be diagnosed effectively using the proposed method. Compared with Multiple Model Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter and Multi-Model Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter, both accuracy and timelines have been improved to some extent.

  18. Reliability of Fault Tolerant Control Systems. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, N. Eva

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports Part II of a two part effort that is intended to delineate the relationship between reliability and fault tolerant control in a quantitative manner. Reliability properties peculiar to fault-tolerant control systems are emphasized, such as the presence of analytic redundancy in high proportion, the dependence of failures on control performance, and high risks associated with decisions in redundancy management due to multiple sources of uncertainties and sometimes large processing requirements. As a consequence, coverage of failures through redundancy management can be severely limited. The paper proposes to formulate the fault tolerant control problem as an optimization problem that maximizes coverage of failures through redundancy management. Coverage modeling is attempted in a way that captures its dependence on the control performance and on the diagnostic resolution. Under the proposed redundancy management policy, it is shown that an enhanced overall system reliability can be achieved with a control law of a superior robustness, with an estimator of a higher resolution, and with a control performance requirement of a lesser stringency.

  19. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  20. The effects of growth and collapse on the magmatic system below Mt Taranaki, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procter, Jonathan; Marcroft, Grace; Zellmer, Georg; Zernack, Anke

    2017-04-01

    Mt. Taranaki exhibits one of the best long-term records of volcanic growth and destruction of any volcano worldwide, making it ideal for understanding the long-term effects of changing lithostatic pressure, or loading and unloading, on the magma chamber and magma supply. The ring-plain around Mt. Taranaki houses volcaniclastic deposits that provide a near continuous record of the evolution of the volcano, yet these records have remained relatively unexploited when investigating the interrelated cyclical phases of volcano collapse and growth, the geochemical evolution of the centre, and the consequent time-varying hazard potential. In this study, we systematically sampled pumice-rich tephra and pumice-rich mass flow deposits that were stratigraphically immediately before and after the 24,801 ± 268 years BP Pungarehu Formation debris avalanche ( 7.5 km3). Crystals (clinopyroxene and plagioclase) were characterised in detail. Mg and Fe zoning across selected crystals from samples pre-and post-debris avalanche were found to have completely equilibrated, yet zoning patterns in Al remained intact and showed major differences in their formation, allowing for the calculation of diffusion rates. These have enabled the determination of maximum residence times (depths and pressure regimes) of the magma system. It is intended that this technique will be applied across the stratigraphic record, which contains 14 collapse events. This will provide insights into crustal magma transport and residence times, and the propagation of fissures and the buoyancy of the magma pre- and post-collapse, in order to characterise the evolution of the centre and quantify the long-term relationship between magmatic rise and volcano growth and destruction.

  1. Fault detection and diagnosis in a spacecraft attitude determination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirmoradi, F. N.; Sassani, F.; de Silva, C. W.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a new scheme for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in spacecraft attitude determination (AD) sensors. An integrated attitude determination system, which includes measurements of rate and angular position using rate gyros and vector sensors, is developed. Measurement data from all sensors are fused by a linearized Kalman filter, which is designed based on the system kinematics, to provide attitude estimation and the values of the gyro bias. Using this information the erroneous sensor measurements are corrected, and unbounded sensor measurement errors are avoided. The resulting bias-free data are used in the FDD scheme. The FDD algorithm uses model-based state estimation, combining the information from the rotational dynamics and kinematics of a spacecraft with the sensor measurements to predict the future sensor outputs. Fault isolation is performed through extended Kalman filters (EKFs). The innovation sequences of EKFs are monitored by several statistical tests to detect the presence of a failure and to localize the failures in all AD sensors. The isolation procedure is developed in two phases. In the first phase, two EKFs are designed, which use subsets of measurements to provide state estimates and form residuals, which are used to verify the source of the fault. In the second phase of isolation, testing of multiple hypotheses is performed. The generalized likelihood ratio test is utilized to identify the faulty components. In the scheme developed in this paper a relatively small number of hypotheses is used, which results in faster isolation and highly distinguishable fault signatures. An important feature of the developed FDD scheme is that it can provide attitude estimations even if only one type of sensors is functioning properly.

  2. Upper crustal fault reactivation and the potential of triggered earthquakes on the Atacama Fault System, N-Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Pia; Ewiak, Oktawian; Thomas, Ziegenhagen; Monika, Sobiesiak; Bernd, Schurr; Gabriel, Gonzalez; Onno, Oncken

    2016-04-01

    The Atacama Fault System (AFS) is an active trench-parallel fault system, located in the forearc of N-Chile directly above the subduction zone interface. Due to its well-exposed position in the hyper arid forearc of N-Chile it is the perfect target to investigate the interaction between the deformation cycle in the overriding forearc and the subduction zone seismic cycle of the underlying megathrust. Although the AFS and large parts of the upper crust are devoid of any noteworthy seismicity, at least three M=7 earthquakes in the past 10 ky have been documented in the paleoseismological record, demonstrating the potential of large events in the future. We apply a two-fold approach to explore fault activation and reactivation patterns through time and to investigate the triggering potential of upper crustal faults. 1) A new methodology using high-resolution topographic data allows us to investigate the number of past earthquakes for any given segment of the fault system as well as the amount of vertical displacement of the last increment. This provides us with a detailed dataset of past earthquake rupture of upper plate faults which is potentially linked to large subduction zone earthquakes. 2) The IPOC Creepmeter array (http://www.ipoc-network.org/index.php/observatory/creepmeter.html) provides us with high-resolution time series of fault displacement accumulation for 11 stations along the 4 most active branches of the AFS. This array monitors the displacement across the fault with 2 samples/min with a resolution of 1μm. Collocated seismometers record the seismicity at two of the creepmeters, whereas the regional seismicity is provided by the IPOC Seismological Networks. Continuous time series of the creepmeter stations since 2009 show that the shallow segments of the fault do not creep permanently. Instead the accumulation of permanent deformation occurs by triggered slip caused by local or remote earthquakes. The 2014 Mw=8.2 Pisagua Earthquake, located close to

  3. Active Fault Topography and Fault Outcrops in the Central Part of the Nukumi fault, the 1891 Nobi Earthquake Fault System, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Ueta, K.; Inoue, D.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, N.

    2010-12-01

    It is important to evaluate the magnitude of earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults are often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for known these paleoseismic records. We have been studied the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. Geomorphological, geological and reconnaissance microearthquake surveys are concluded. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. The study area of this work is the southeastern Nukumi fault and the northwestern Neodani fault. We interpret DEM using shaded relief map and stereoscopic bird's-eye view made from 2m mesh DEM data which is obtained by airborne laser scanner of Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd. Aerial photographic survey is for confirmation of DEM interpretation using 1/16,000 scale photo. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault . From Ogotani 2km southeastern of Nukumi pass which is located at the southeastern end of surface rupture along the Nukumi fault by previous study to Neooppa 9km southeastern of Nukumi pass, we can interpret left lateral topographies and small uphill-facing fault scarps on the terrace surface by detail DEM investigation. These topographies are unrecognized by aerial photographic survey because of heavy vegetation. We have found several new

  4. Six years of atmospheric CO2 observations at Mt. Fuji recorded with a battery-powered measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shohei; Mukai, Hitoshi; Terao, Yukio; Machida, Toshinobu; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2017-03-01

    We developed a battery-powered carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement system for monitoring at the summit of Mt. Fuji (3776 m a.s.l.), which experiences very low temperatures (below -20 °C) and severe environmental conditions without access to gridded electricity for 10 months (from September to June). Our measurement system used 100 batteries to run the measurement unit during these months. These batteries were charged during the 2-month summer season when gridded electricity was available, using a specially designed automatic battery-charging system. We installed this system in summer 2009 at the Mt. Fuji weather station; observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration were taken through December 2015. Measurements were never interrupted by a lack of battery power except for two cases in which lightning damaged a control board. Thus we obtained CO2 data during about 94 % of the 6-year period. Analytical performances (stability and accuracy) were better than 0.1 ppm, as tested by checking working standards and comparisons with flask sampling.Observational results showed that CO2 mole fractions at Mt. Fuji demonstrated clear seasonal variation. The trend and the variability of the CO2 growth rate observed at Mt. Fuji were very similar to those of the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO). Seasonally, the concentration at Mt. Fuji was 2-10 ppm lower in summer and 2-12 ppm higher in winter than those at MLO. The lower concentrations at Mt. Fuji in summer are mainly attributed to episodes of air mass transport from Siberia or China, where CO2 is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere. On the other hand, the relatively higher concentrations in winter seem to reflect the high percentage of air masses originating from China or Southeast Asia during this period, which carry increased anthropogenic carbon dioxide. These results show that Mt. Fuji is not very influenced by local sources but rather by the sources and sinks over a very large region.Thus we conclude that, as this system could

  5. A System for Fault Management for NASA's Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Spirkovska, Liljana; Aaseng, Gordon B.; Mccann, Robert S.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Ossenfort, John P.; Smith, Irene Skupniewicz; Iverson, David L.; Schwabacher, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration program envisions the utilization of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for human exploration of the space environment in the vicinity of Mars and/or asteroids. Communication latencies with ground control of as long as 20+ minutes make it imperative that DSH operations be highly autonomous, as any telemetry-based detection of a systems problem on Earth could well occur too late to assist the crew with the problem. A DSH-based development program has been initiated to develop and test the automation technologies necessary to support highly autonomous DSH operations. One such technology is a fault management tool to support performance monitoring of vehicle systems operations and to assist with real-time decision making in connection with operational anomalies and failures. Toward that end, we are developing Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS), a tool that combines dynamic and interactive graphical representations of spacecraft systems, systems modeling, automated diagnostic analysis and root cause identification, system and mission impact assessment, and mitigation procedure identification to help spacecraft operators (both flight controllers and crew) understand and respond to anomalies more effectively. In this paper, we describe four major architecture elements of ACAWS: Anomaly Detection, Fault Isolation, System Effects Analysis, and Graphic User Interface (GUI), and how these elements work in concert with each other and with other tools to provide fault management support to both the controllers and crew. We then describe recent evaluations and tests of ACAWS on the DSH testbed. The results of these tests support the feasibility and strength of our approach to failure management automation and enhanced operational autonomy.

  6. Field- to nano-scale evidence for weakening mechanisms along the fault of the 2016 Amatrice and Norcia earthquakes, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Billi, Andrea; Carminati, Eugenio; Cavallo, Andrea; Doglioni, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    In August and October 2016, two normal fault earthquakes (Mw 6.0 and Mw 6.5, respectively) struck the Amatrice-Norcia area in the central Apennines, Italy. The mainshocks nucleated at depths of 7-9 km with the co-seismic slip propagating upward along the Mt. Gorzano Fault (MGF) and Mt. Vettore Fault System (MVFS). To recognize possible weakening mechanisms along the carbonate-hosted seismogenic faults that generated the Amatrice-Norcia earthquakes, the fresh co-seismic fault exposure (i.e., "nastrino") exposed along the Mt. Vettoretto Fault was sampled and analyzed. This exposed fault belongs to the MVFS and was exhumed from 2-3 km depth. Over the fresh fault surface, phyllosilicates concentrated and localized along mm- to μm-thick layers, and truncated clasts and fluid-like structures were found. At the nano-scale, instead of their common platy-lamellar crystallographic texture, the analyzed phyllosilicates consist of welded nm-thick nanospherules and nanotubes similar to phyllosilicates deformed in rotary shear apparatus at seismic velocities or altered under high hydrothermal temperatures (> 250 °C). Moreover, the attitude of the Mt. Vettoretto Fault and its kinematics inferred from exposed slickenlines are consistent with the co-seismic fault and slip vectors obtained from the focal mechanisms computed for the 2016 mainshocks. All these pieces of evidence suggest that the Mt. Vettoretto Fault slipped seismically during past earthquakes and that co-seismic slip was assisted and facilitated at depths of < 3 km by phyllosilicate-rich layers and overpressured fluids. The same weakening processes may also have been decisive in facilitating the co-seismic slip propagation during the 2016 Mw 6.0 Amatrice and Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquakes. The microstructures found along the Mt. Vettoretto Fault, which is certainly a seismogenic fault, provide a realistic synoptic picture of co-seismic processes and weakening mechanisms that may occur in carbonate-hosted seismogenic

  7. Expert systems for fault diagnosis in nuclear reactor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalel, N. A.; Nicholson, H.

    1990-11-01

    An expert system for accident analysis and fault diagnosis for the Loss Of Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor, a small scale pressurized water reactor, was developed for a personal computer. The knowledge of the system is presented using a production rule approach with a backward chaining inference engine. The data base of the system includes simulated dependent state variables of the LOFT reactor model. Another system is designed to assist the operator in choosing the appropriate cooling mode and to diagnose the fault in the selected cooling system. The response tree, which is used to provide the link between a list of very specific accident sequences and a set of generic emergency procedures which help the operator in monitoring system status, and to differentiate between different accident sequences and select the correct procedures, is used to build the system knowledge base. Both systems are written in TURBO PROLOG language and can be run on an IBM PC compatible with 640k RAM, 40 Mbyte hard disk and color graphics.

  8. Failure Detecting Method of Fault Current Limiter System with Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Yoshio; Asano, Masakuni; Ohkuma, Takeshi; Sato, Yoshibumi; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    A fault current limiter (FCL) is extensively needed to suppress fault current, particularly required for trunk power systems connecting high-voltage transmission lines, such as 500kV class power system which constitutes the nucleus of the electric power system. We proposed a new type FCL system (rectifier type FCL), consisting of solid-state diodes, DC reactor and bypass AC reactor, and demonstrated the excellent performances of this FCL by developing the small 6.6kV and 66kV model. It is important to detect the failure of power devices used in the rectifier under the normal operating condition, for keeping the excellent reliability of the power system. In this paper, we have proposed a new failure detecting method of power devices most suitable for the rectifier type FCL. This failure detecting system is simple and compact. We have adapted the proposed system to the 66kV prototype single-phase model and successfully demonstrated to detect the failure of power devices.

  9. A footwall system of faults associated with a foreland thrust in Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, A. J.

    1993-05-01

    Some recent structural geology models of faulting have promoted the idea of a rigid footwall behaviour or response under the main thrust fault, especially for fault ramps or fault-bend folds. However, a very well-exposed thrust fault in the Montana fold and thrust belt shows an intricate but well-ordered system of subsidiary minor faults in the footwall position with respect to the main thrust fault plane. Considerable shortening has occurred off the main fault in this footwall collapse zone and the distribution and style of the minor faults accord well with published patterns of aftershock foci associated with thrust faults. In detail, there appear to be geometrically self-similar fault systems from metre length down to a few centimetres. The smallest sets show both slip and dilation. The slickensides show essentially two-dimensional displacements, and three slip systems were operative—one parallel to the bedding, and two conjugate and symmetric about the bedding (acute angle of 45-50°). A reconstruction using physical analogue models suggests one possible model for the evolution and sequencing of slip of the thrust fault system.

  10. Fault Tolerant Software Technology for Distributed Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    RAY.) &-TR-88-296 I Fin;.’ Technical Report ,r 19,39 i A28 3329 F’ULT TOLERANT SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY FOR DISTRIBUTED COMPUTER SYSTEMS Georgia Institute...GrfisABN 34-70IiWftlI NO0. IN?3. NO IACCESSION NO. 158 21 7 11. TITLE (Incld security Cassification) FAULT TOLERANT SOFTWARE FOR DISTRIBUTED COMPUTER ...Technology for Distributed Computing Systems," a two year effort performed at Georgia Institute of Technology as part of the Clouds Project. The Clouds

  11. Modeling the Fault Tolerant Capability of a Flight Control System: An Exercise in SCR Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chris; Cortellessa, Vittorio; DelGobbo, Diego; Mili, Ali; Napolitano, Marcello

    2000-01-01

    In life-critical and mission-critical applications, it is important to make provisions for a wide range of contingencies, by providing means for fault tolerance. In this paper, we discuss the specification of a flight control system that is fault tolerant with respect to sensor faults. Redundancy is provided by analytical relations that hold between sensor readings; depending on the conditions, this redundancy can be used to detect, identify and accommodate sensor faults.

  12. Subsurface structure identification of active fault based on magnetic anomaly data (Case study: Toru fault in Sumatera fault system)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Andrean V. H.; Husni, Muhammad; Syirojudin, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Toru segment, which is one of the active faults and located in the North of Sumatra, broke in 1984 ago on Pahae Jahe's earthquake with a magnitude 6.4 at the northern part of the fault which has a length of 23 km, and also broke again at the same place in 2008. The event of recurrence is very fast, which only 25 years old have repeatedly returned. However, in the elastic rebound theory, it probably happen with a fracture 50 cm and an average of the shear velocity 20 mm/year. The average focus of the earthquake sourced at a depth of 10 km and 23 km along its fracture zones, which can generate enough shaking 7 MMI and could breaking down buildings and create landslides on the cliff. Due to its seismic activity, this study was made to identify the effectiveness of this fault with geophysical methods. Geophysical methods such as gravity, geomagnetic and seismology are powerful tools for detecting subsurface structures of local, regional as well as of global scales. This study used to geophysical methods to discuss about total intensity of the geomagnetic anomaly data, resulted in the distribution of susceptibility values corresponding to the fault movement. The geomagnetic anomalies data was obtained from Geomag, such as total intensity measured by satellite. Data acquisition have been corrected for diurnal variations and reduced by IGRF. The study of earthquake records can be used for differentiating the active and non active fault elements. Modeling has been done using several methods, such as pseudo-gravity, reduce to pole, and upward or downward continuation, which is used to filter the geomagnetic anomaly data because the data has not fully representative of the fault structure. The results indicate that rock layers of 0 - 100 km depth encountered the process of intrusion and are dominated by sedimentary rocks that are paramagnetic, and that the ones of 100 - 150 km depth experienced the activity of subducting slab consisting of basalt and granite which are

  13. Late Quaternary slip rate determination by CRN dating on the Haiyuan fault, China, and implication for complex geometry fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrau, Rémi; Klinger, Yann; Van der Woerd, Jérôme; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Li, Zhanfei; Xu, Xiwei

    2017-04-01

    Late Quaternary slip rate determination by CRN dating on the Haiyuan fault, China, and implication for complex geometry fault systems Matrau Rémi, Klinger Yann, Van der Woerd Jérôme, Liu-Zeng Jing, Li Zhanfei, Xu Xiwei The Haiyuan fault in Gansu Province, China, is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault forming the northeastern boundary of the Tibetan plateau and accommodating part of the deformation from the India-Asia collision. Geomorphic and geodetic studies of the Haiyuan fault show slip rates ranging from 4 mm/yr to 19 mm/yr from east to west along 500 km of the fault. Such discrepancy could be explained by the complex geometry of the fault system, leading to slip distribution on multiple branches. Combining displacement measurements of alluvial terraces from high-resolution Pléiades images and 10Be - 26Al cosmogenic radionuclides (CRN) dating, we bracket the late Quaternary slip rate along the Hasi Shan fault segment (37°00' N, 104°25' E). At our calibration site, terrace riser offsets for 5 terraces ranging from 6 m to 227 m and CRN ages ranging from 6.5±0.6 kyr to 41±4 kyr - yield geological left-lateral slip rates from 2.0 mm/yr to 4.4 mm/yr. We measured consistent terrace riser offset values along the entire 25 km-long segment, which suggests that some external forcing controls the regional river-terrace emplacement, regardless of each specific catchment. Hence, we extend our slip rate determination to the entire Hasi Shan fault segment to be 4.0±1.0 mm/yr since the last 40 kyr. This rate is consistent with other long-term rates of 4 mm/yr to 5 mm/yr east and west of Hasi Shan - as well as geodetic rates of 4 mm/yr to 6 mm/yr west of Hasi Shan. However, Holocene terraces and moraines offsets have suggested higher rates of 15 to 20 mm/yr further west. Such disparate rates may be explained by slip distribution on multiple branches. In particular, the Zhongwei fault splay in the central part of the Haiyuan fault, with a slip rate of 4-5 mm/yr could

  14. Mt. Etna plumbing system revealed by combined textural, compositional, and thermobarometric studies in clinopyroxenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomoni, P. P.; Coltorti, M.; Bryce, J. G.; Fahnestock, M. F.; Guitreau, M.

    2016-04-01

    Coupled textural and in situ geochemical studies of clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts, from both historical and recent eruptions of Mt. Etna volcano, provide a means to investigate the processes occurring in the deepest portion of the feeding system (>10 km depth). Five distinct textures were recognized: (1) normal oscillatory zoning, (2) normal zoning with Fe-rich rim, (3) sieve-textured core, (4) reverse oscillatory zoning, and (5) dusty rim. Electron microprobe analyses indicate an almost constant diopside-augite composition, with a slight enrichment in the enstatite for more recent erupted cpx. Core-to-rim compositional profiles, performed along the cpx, reveal distinct compositional characteristics. Normal oscillatory zoning is often characterized by a sharp increase in FeO (Δ ~ 2 wt%) accompanied by a drop in Al2O3 on the outermost 30 μm. Reverse oscillatory zoning, by contrast, exhibits a drop in FeO, Al2O3 (Δ ~ 2 wt%), and a remarkable crystal rim increase in MgO (up to 5 wt%). Similar compositional changes are evident in dusty-textured rims, which are characterized by dissolution edges and overgrowth containing glass pockets and channels. No significant compositional variations have been observed across crystals with sieve-textured cores. Trace element concentrations show enrichments in Sr, La, Zr, and REE, together with a decreasing La/Yb ratio (from ~7 to ~4) in rims of normally zoned crystals. Cpx with reverse zoning and dusty rims has low Sr, La, Zr, and REE contents toward crystal rims. Thermometers and barometers, based on equilibrium cpx-melt pairs, suggest that cpx cores start nucleating at 720 MPa, with the majority of them forming between 600 and 400 MPa but continuing to crystallize until very shallow depths (<100 MPa). Normal oscillatory-zoned phenocrysts surrounded by rims form at pressures shallower than 400 MPa, while reverse zoning and dusty rims occur between 400 and 500 MPa. Coupled petrologic and thermobarometric studies on both

  15. A comparative study of sensor fault diagnosis methods based on observer for ECAS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Wei; Zou, Nannan; Chen, Long; Cui, Xiaoli

    2017-03-01

    The performance and practicality of electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) system are highly dependent on the state information supplied by kinds of sensors, but faults of sensors occur frequently. Based on a non-linearized 3-DOF 1/4 vehicle model, different methods of fault detection and isolation (FDI) are used to diagnose the sensor faults for ECAS system. The considered approaches include an extended Kalman filter (EKF) with concise algorithm, a strong tracking filter (STF) with robust tracking ability, and the cubature Kalman filter (CKF) with numerical precision. We propose three filters of EKF, STF, and CKF to design a state observer of ECAS system under typical sensor faults and noise. Results show that three approaches can successfully detect and isolate faults respectively despite of the existence of environmental noise, FDI time delay and fault sensitivity of different algorithms are different, meanwhile, compared with EKF and STF, CKF method has best performing FDI of sensor faults for ECAS system.

  16. Functional Fault Modeling of a Cryogenic System for Real-Time Fault Detection and Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Lewis, Mark; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Perotti, Jose

    2009-01-01

    When setting out to model and/or simulate a complex mechanical or electrical system, a modeler is faced with a vast array of tools, software, equations, algorithms and techniques that may individually or in concert aid in the development of the model. Mature requirements and a well understood purpose for the model may considerably shrink the field of possible tools and algorithms that will suit the modeling solution. Is the model intended to be used in an offline fashion or in real-time? On what platform does it need to execute? How long will the model be allowed to run before it outputs the desired parameters? What resolution is desired? Do the parameters need to be qualitative or quantitative? Is it more important to capture the physics or the function of the system in the model? Does the model need to produce simulated data? All these questions and more will drive the selection of the appropriate tools and algorithms, but the modeler must be diligent to bear in mind the final application throughout the modeling process to ensure the model meets its requirements without needless iterations of the design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the considerations and techniques used in the process of creating a functional fault model of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) system that will be used in a real-time environment to automatically detect and isolate failures.

  17. ISHM-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics for avionics based on a distributed intelligent agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhong, Zhengqiang; Xu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated system health management-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics and model for avionics is proposed. With avionics becoming increasingly complicated, precise and comprehensive avionics fault diagnostics has become an extremely complicated task. For the proposed fault diagnostic system, specific approaches, such as the artificial immune system, the intelligent agents system and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, are used to conduct deep fault avionics diagnostics. Through this proposed fault diagnostic system, efficient and accurate diagnostics can be achieved. A numerical example is conducted to apply the proposed hybrid diagnostics to a set of radar transmitters on an avionics system and to illustrate that the proposed system and model have the ability to achieve efficient and accurate fault diagnostics. By analyzing the diagnostic system's feasibility and pragmatics, the advantages of this system are demonstrated.

  18. A rapid calculation system for tsunami propagation in Japan by using the AQUA-MT/CMT solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, W.; Yamamoto, N.; Kimura, H.; Takahashi, N.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a rapid calculation system of geodetic deformations and tsunami propagation in and around Japan. The system automatically conducts their forward calculations by using point source parameters estimated by the AQUA system (Matsumura et al., 2006), which analyze magnitude, hypocenter, and moment tensors for an event occurring in Japan in 3 minutes of the origin time at the earliest. An optimized calculation code developed by Nakamura and Baba (2016) is employed for the calculations on our computer server with 12 core processors of Intel Xeon 2.60 GHz. Assuming a homogeneous fault slip in the single fault plane as the source fault, the developed system calculates each geodetic deformation and tsunami propagation by numerically solving the 2D linear long-wave equations for the grid interval of 1 arc-min from two fault orientations simultaneously; i.e., one fault and its conjugate fault plane. Because fault models based on moment tensor analyses of event data are used, the system appropriately evaluate tsunami propagation even for unexpected events such as normal faulting in the subduction zone, which differs with the evaluation of tsunami arrivals and heights from a pre-calculated database by using fault models assuming typical types of faulting in anticipated source areas (e.g., Tatehata, 1998; Titov et al., 2005; Yamamoto et al., 2016). By the complete automation from event detection to output graphical figures, the calculation results can be available via e-mail and web site in 4 minutes of the origin time at the earliest. For moderate-sized events such as M5 to 6 events, the system helps us to rapidly investigate whether amplitudes of tsunamis at nearshore and offshore stations exceed a noise level or not, and easily identify actual tsunamis at the stations by comparing with obtained synthetic waveforms. In the case of using source models investigated from GNSS data, such evaluations may be difficult because of the low resolution of sources due to a low

  19. Measurement and analysis of workload effects on fault latency in real-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Michael H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the need to address fault latency in highly reliable real-time control computer systems. It is noted that the effectiveness of all known recovery mechanisms is greatly reduced in the presence of multiple latent faults. The presence of multiple latent faults increases the possibility of multiple errors, which could result in coverage failure. The authors present experimental evidence indicating that the duration of fault latency is dependent on workload. A synthetic workload generator is used to vary the workload, and a hardware fault injector is applied to inject transient faults of varying durations. This method makes it possible to derive the distribution of fault latency duration. Experimental results obtained from the fault-tolerant multiprocessor at the NASA Airlab are presented and discussed.

  20. Fault Detection and Diagnosis System for the Air-conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Nobuo

    The fault detection and diagnosis system, the FDD system, for the HVAC was initiated around the middle of 1970s in Japan but it still remains at the elementary stage. The HVAC is really one of the most complicated and large scaled system for the FDD system. Besides, the maintenance engineering was never focussed as the target of the academic study since after the war, but the FDD system for some kinds of the components and subsystems has been developed for the sake of the practical industrial needs. Recently, international cooperative study in the IEA Annex 25 on the energy conservation for the building and community targetted on the BOFD, the building optimization, fault detection and diagnosis. Not a few academic peaple from various engineering field got interested and, moreover, some national projects seem to start in the European countries. The author has reviewed the state of the art of the FDD and BO as well based on the references and the experience at the IEA study.

  1. An Autonomous Distributed Fault-Tolerant Local Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a fault-tolerant, GPS-independent (Global Positioning System) distributed autonomous positioning system for static/mobile objects and present solutions for providing highly-accurate geo-location data for the static/mobile objects in dynamic environments. The reliability and accuracy of a positioning system fundamentally depends on two factors; its timeliness in broadcasting signals and the knowledge of its geometry, i.e., locations and distances of the beacons. Existing distributed positioning systems either synchronize to a common external source like GPS or establish their own time synchrony using a scheme similar to a master-slave by designating a particular beacon as the master and other beacons synchronize to it, resulting in a single point of failure. Another drawback of existing positioning systems is their lack of addressing various fault manifestations, in particular, communication link failures, which, as in wireless networks, are increasingly dominating the process failures and are typically transient and mobile, in the sense that they typically affect different messages to/from different processes over time.

  2. Coso MT Site Locations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2011-05-04

    This data includes the locations of the MT data collected in and around the Coso Geothermal field that covered the West Flank area. These are the data that the 3D MT models were created from that were discussed in Phase 1 of the West Flank FORGE project. The projected coordinate system is NAD 1927 State Plane California IV FIPS 0404 and the Projection is Lambert Conformal Conic. Units are in feet.

  3. Fault tolerant system with imperfect coverage, reboot and server vacation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Madhu; Meena, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    This study is concerned with the performance modeling of a fault tolerant system consisting of operating units supported by a combination of warm and cold spares. The on-line as well as warm standby units are subject to failures and are send for the repair to a repair facility having single repairman which is prone to failure. If the failed unit is not detected, the system enters into an unsafe state from which it is cleared by the reboot and recovery action. The server is allowed to go for vacation if there is no failed unit present in the system. Markov model is developed to obtain the transient probabilities associated with the system states. Runge-Kutta method is used to evaluate the system state probabilities and queueing measures. To explore the sensitivity and cost associated with the system, numerical simulation is conducted.

  4. Map and Data for Quaternary Faults and Fault Systems on the Island of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Eric C.; Burgmann, Roland; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Dart, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report and digitally prepared, GIS-based map is one of a series of similar products covering individual states or regions of United States that show the locations, ages, and activity rates of major earthquake-related features such as faults and fault-related folds. It is part of a continuing the effort to compile a comprehensive Quaternary fault and fold map and database for the United States, which is supported by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program. Guidelines for the compilation of the Quaternary fault and fold maps for the United States were published by Haller and others (1993) at the onset of this project. This compilation of Quaternary surface faulting and folding in Hawai`i is one of several similar state and regional compilations that were planned for the United States. Reports published to date include West Texas (Collins and others, 1996), New Mexico (Machette and others, 1998), Arizona (Pearthree, 1998), Colorado (Widmann and others, 1998), Montana (Stickney and others, 2000), Idaho (Haller and others, 2005), and Washington (Lidke and others, 2003). Reports for other states such as California and Alaska are still in preparation. The primary intention of this compilation is to aid in seismic-hazard evaluations. The report contains detailed information on the location and style of faulting, the time of most recent movement, and assigns each feature to a slip-rate category (as a proxy for fault activity). It also contains the name and affiliation of the compiler, date of compilation, geographic and other paleoseismologic parameters, as well as an extensive set of references for each feature. The map (plate 1) shows faults, volcanic rift zones, and lineaments that show evidence of Quaternary surface movement related to faulting, including data on the time of most recent movement, sense of movement, slip rate, and continuity of surface expression. This compilation is presented as a digitally prepared map product

  5. Reactive system verification case study: Fault-tolerant transputer communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis; Hamory, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactive program is one which engages in an ongoing interaction with its environment. A system which is controlled by an embedded reactive program is called a reactive system. Examples of reactive systems are aircraft flight management systems, bank automatic teller machine (ATM) networks, airline reservation systems, and computer operating systems. Reactive systems are often naturally modeled (for logical design purposes) as a composition of autonomous processes which progress concurrently and which communicate to share information and/or to coordinate activities. Formal (i.e., mathematical) frameworks for system verification are tools used to increase the users' confidence that a system design satisfies its specification. A framework for reactive system verification includes formal languages for system modeling and for behavior specification and decision procedures and/or proof-systems for verifying that the system model satisfies the system specifications. Using the Ostroff framework for reactive system verification, an approach to achieving fault-tolerant communication between transputers was shown to be effective. The key components of the design, the decoupler processes, may be viewed as discrete-event-controllers introduced to constrain system behavior such that system specifications are satisfied. The Ostroff framework was also effective. The expressiveness of the modeling language permitted construction of a faithful model of the transputer network. The relevant specifications were readily expressed in the specification language. The set of decision procedures provided was adequate to verify the specifications of interest. The need for improved support for system behavior visualization is emphasized.

  6. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, Parameswaran; Shin, Kang G.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1990-01-01

    Existing fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms are compared and contrasted. These include the following: software synchronization algorithms, such as convergence-averaging, convergence-nonaveraging, and consistency algorithms, as well as probabilistic synchronization; hardware synchronization algorithms; and hybrid synchronization. The worst-case clock skews guaranteed by representative algorithms are compared, along with other important aspects such as time, message, and cost overhead imposed by the algorithms. More recent developments such as hardware-assisted software synchronization and algorithms for synchronizing large, partially connected distributed systems are especially emphasized.

  7. Mt. Everest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-259-009 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- This south-looking, summer-time view of Mt. Everest (center) - with strong sense of three dimension because of reduced amount of snow - and neighboring peaks of the Himalayas. Clouds cover lower slopes in India.

  8. Simultaneous Event-Triggered Fault Detection and Estimation for Stochastic Systems Subject to Deception Attacks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunji; Wu, QingE; Peng, Li

    2018-01-23

    In this paper, a synthesized design of fault-detection filter and fault estimator is considered for a class of discrete-time stochastic systems in the framework of event-triggered transmission scheme subject to unknown disturbances and deception attacks. A random variable obeying the Bernoulli distribution is employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring deception attacks. To achieve a fault-detection residual is only sensitive to faults while robust to disturbances, a coordinate transformation approach is exploited. This approach can transform the considered system into two subsystems and the unknown disturbances are removed from one of the subsystems. The gain of fault-detection filter is derived by minimizing an upper bound of filter error covariance. Meanwhile, system faults can be reconstructed by the remote fault estimator. An recursive approach is developed to obtain fault estimator gains as well as guarantee the fault estimator performance. Furthermore, the corresponding event-triggered sensor data transmission scheme is also presented for improving working-life of the wireless sensor node when measurement information are aperiodically transmitted. Finally, a scaled version of an industrial system consisting of local PC, remote estimator and wireless sensor node is used to experimentally evaluate the proposed theoretical results. In particular, a novel fault-alarming strategy is proposed so that the real-time capacity of fault-detection is guaranteed when the event condition is triggered.

  9. Interplanetary Radiation and Fault Tolerant Mini-Star Tracker System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Paceley, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. is partnering with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate's Avionics Design Division and Flight Mechanics & Analysis Division to develop and test a prototype small, low-weight, low-power, radiation-hardened, fault-tolerant mini-star tracker (fig. 1). The project is expected to enable Draper Laboratory and its small business partner, L-1 Standards and Technologies, Inc., to develop a new guidance, navigation, and control sensor product for the growing small sat technology market. The project also addresses MSFC's need for sophisticated small sat technologies to support a variety of science missions in Earth orbit and beyond. The prototype star tracker will be tested on the night sky on MSFC's Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory (ALAMO) telescope. The specific goal of the project is to address the need for a compact, low size, weight, and power, yet radiation hardened and fault tolerant star tracker system that can be used as a stand-alone attitude determination system or incorporated into a complete attitude determination and control system for emerging interplanetary and operational CubeSat and small sat missions.

  10. Investigation of an advanced fault tolerant integrated avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. R.; Cottrell, D.; Flanders, J.; Javornik, A.; Rusovick, M.

    1986-01-01

    Presented is an advanced, fault-tolerant multiprocessor avionics architecture as could be employed in an advanced rotorcraft such as LHX. The processor structure is designed to interface with existing digital avionics systems and concepts including the Army Digital Avionics System (ADAS) cockpit/display system, navaid and communications suites, integrated sensing suite, and the Advanced Digital Optical Control System (ADOCS). The report defines mission, maintenance and safety-of-flight reliability goals as might be expected for an operational LHX aircraft. Based on use of a modular, compact (16-bit) microprocessor card family, results of a preliminary study examining simplex, dual and standby-sparing architectures is presented. Given the stated constraints, it is shown that the dual architecture is best suited to meet reliability goals with minimum hardware and software overhead. The report presents hardware and software design considerations for realizing the architecture including redundancy management requirements and techniques as well as verification and validation needs and methods.

  11. Seismic interpretation of the deep structure of the Wabash Valley Fault System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bear, G.W.; Rupp, J.A.; Rudman, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretations of newly available seismic reflection profiles near the center of the Illinois Basin indicate that the Wabash Valley Fault System is rooted in a series of basement-penetrating faults. The fault system is composed predominantly of north-northeast-trending high-angle normal faults. The largest faults in the system bound the 22-km wide 40-km long Grayville Graben. Structure contour maps drawn on the base of the Mount Simon Sandstone (Cambrian System) and a deeper pre-Mount Simon horizon show dip-slip displacements totaling at least 600 meters across the New Harmony fault. In contrast to previous interpretations, the N-S extent of significant fault offsets is restricted to a region north of 38?? latitude and south of 38.35?? latitude. This suggests that the graben is not a NE extension of the structural complex composed of the Rough Creek Fault System and the Reelfoot Rift as previously interpreted. Structural complexity on the graben floor also decreases to the south. Structural trends north of 38?? latitude are offset laterally across several large faults, indicating strike-slip motions of 2 to 4 km. Some of the major faults are interpreted to penetrate to depths of 7 km or more. Correlation of these faults with steep potential field gradients suggests that the fault positions are controlled by major lithologic contacts within the basement and that the faults may extend into the depth range where earthquakes are generated, revealing a potential link between specific faults and recently observed low-level seismicity in the area.

  12. Association of the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summervile with a 12º bend in the East Coast fault system and triple-fault junctions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marple, R.; Miller, R.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic-reflection data were integrated with other geophysical, geologic, and seismicity data to better determine the location and nature of buried faults in the Charleston, South Carolina, region. Our results indicate that the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summerville are related to local stresses caused by a 12?? bend in the East Coast fault system (ECFS) and two triple-fault junctions. One triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northwest-trending Ashley River fault with the two segments of the ECFS north and south of the bend. The other triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northeast-trending Summerville fault and a newly discovered northwest-trending Berkeley fault with the ECFS about 10 km north of the bend. The Summerville fault is a northwest-dipping border fault of the Triassic-age Jedburg basin that is undergoing reverse-style reactivation. This reverse-style reactivation is unusual because the Summerville fault parallels the regional stress field axis, suggesting that the reactivation is from stresses applied by dextral motion on the ECFS. The southwest-dip and reverse-type motion of the Berkeley fault are interpreted from seismicity data and a seismic-reflection profile in the western part of the study area. Our results also indicate that the East Coast fault system is a Paleozoic basement fault and that its reactivation since early Mesozoic time has fractured through the overlying allochthonous terranes.

  13. Distributed Evaluation Functions for Fault Tolerant Multi-Rover Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian; Turner, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    The ability to evolve fault tolerant control strategies for large collections of agents is critical to the successful application of evolutionary strategies to domains where failures are common. Furthermore, while evolutionary algorithms have been highly successful in discovering single-agent control strategies, extending such algorithms to multiagent domains has proven to be difficult. In this paper we present a method for shaping evaluation functions for agents that provide control strategies that both are tolerant to different types of failures and lead to coordinated behavior in a multi-agent setting. This method neither relies of a centralized strategy (susceptible to single point of failures) nor a distributed strategy where each agent uses a system wide evaluation function (severe credit assignment problem). In a multi-rover problem, we show that agents using our agent-specific evaluation perform up to 500% better than agents using the system evaluation. In addition we show that agents are still able to maintain a high level of performance when up to 60% of the agents fail due to actuator, communication or controller faults.

  14. The Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault System: Learning from the Past to Forecast the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. P.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Hecker, S.

    2007-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is located within the Pacific-North American plate boundary. As a result, the region has the highest density of active faults per square kilometer of any urban center in the US. Between the Farallon Islands and Livermore, the faults of the San Andreas fault system are slipping at a rate of about 40 mm/yr. Approximately 25 percent of this rate is accommodated by the Hayward fault and its continuation to the north, the Rodgers Creek fault. The Hayward fault extends 88 km from Warm Springs on the south into San Pablo Bay on the north, traversing the most heavily urbanized part of the Bay Area. The Rodgers Creek fault extends another 63 km, passing through Santa Rosa and ending south of Healdsburg. Geologic, seismologic, and geodetic studies during the past ten years have significantly increased our knowledge of this system. In particular, paleoseismic studies of the timing of past earthquakes have provided critical new information for improving our understanding of how these faults may work in time and space, and for estimating the probability of future earthquakes. The most spectacular result is an 11-earthquake record on the southern Hayward fault that extends back to A.D. 170. It suggests an average time interval between large earthquakes of 170 years for this period, with a shorter interval of 140 years for the five most recent earthquakes. Paleoseismic investigations have also shown that prior to the most recent large earthquake on the southern Hayward fault in 1868, large earthquakes occurred on the southern Hayward fault between 1658 and1786, on the northern Hayward fault between 1640 and 1776, and on the Rodgers Creek fault between 1690 and 1776. These could have been three separate earthquakes. However, the overlapping radiocarbon dates for these paleoearthquakes allow the possibility that these faults may have ruptured together in several different combinations: a combined southern and northern Hayward fault earthquake, a Rodgers

  15. Neotectonics of interior Alaska and the late Quaternary slip rate along the Denali fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Matmon, Ari; Schwartz, David P.; Seitz, Gordon G.

    2017-01-01

    The neotectonics of southern Alaska (USA) are characterized by a several hundred kilometers–wide zone of dextral transpressional that spans the Alaska Range. The Denali fault system is the largest active strike-slip fault system in interior Alaska, and it produced a Mw 7.9 earthquake in 2002. To evaluate the late Quaternary slip rate on the Denali fault system, we collected samples for cosmogenic surface exposure dating from surfaces offset by the fault system. This study includes data from 107 samples at 19 sites, including 7 sites we previously reported, as well as an estimated slip rate at another site. We utilize the interpreted surface ages to provide estimated slip rates. These new slip rate data confirm that the highest late Quaternary slip rate is ∼13 mm/yr on the central Denali fault near its intersection with the eastern Denali and the Totschunda faults, with decreasing slip rate both to the east and west. The slip rate decreases westward along the central and western parts of the Denali fault system to 5 mm/yr over a length of ∼575 km. An additional site on the eastern Denali fault near Kluane Lake, Yukon, implies a slip rate of ∼2 mm/yr, based on geological considerations. The Totschunda fault has a maximum slip rate of ∼9 mm/yr. The Denali fault system is transpressional and there are active thrust faults on both the north and south sides of it. We explore four geometric models for southern Alaska tectonics to explain the slip rates along the Denali fault system and the active fault geometries: rotation, indentation, extrusion, and a combination of the three. We conclude that all three end-member models have strengths and shortcomings, and a combination of rotation, indentation, and extrusion best explains the slip rate observations.

  16. Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 2: Army fault tolerant architecture design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) hardware architecture and components and the operating system. The architectural and operational theory of the AFTA Fault Tolerant Data Bus is discussed. The test and maintenance strategy developed for use in fielded AFTA installations is presented. An approach to be used in reducing the probability of AFTA failure due to common mode faults is described. Analytical models for AFTA performance, reliability, availability, life cycle cost, weight, power, and volume are developed. An approach is presented for using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to describe and design AFTA's developmental hardware. A plan is described for verifying and validating key AFTA concepts during the Dem/Val phase. Analytical models and partial mission requirements are used to generate AFTA configurations for the TF/TA/NOE and Ground Vehicle missions.

  17. Structural setting and kinematics of Nubian fault system, SE Western Desert, Egypt: An example of multi-reactivated intraplate strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakran, Shawky; Said, Said Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Detailed surface geological mapping and subsurface seismic interpretation have been integrated to unravel the structural style and kinematic history of the Nubian Fault System (NFS). The NFS consists of several E-W Principal Deformation Zones (PDZs) (e.g. Kalabsha fault). Each PDZ is defined by spectacular E-W, WNW and ENE dextral strike-slip faults, NNE sinistral strike-slip faults, NE to ENE folds, and NNW normal faults. Each fault zone has typical self-similar strike-slip architecture comprising multi-scale fault segments. Several multi-scale uplifts and basins were developed at the step-over zones between parallel strike-slip fault segments as a result of local extension or contraction. The NNE faults consist of right-stepping sinistral strike-slip fault segments (e.g. Sin El Kiddab fault). The NNE sinistral faults extend for long distances ranging from 30 to 100 kms and cut one or two E-W PDZs. Two nearly perpendicular strike-slip tectonic regimes are recognized in the NFS; an inactive E-W Late Cretaceous - Early Cenozoic dextral transpression and an active NNE sinistral shear.

  18. Advanced power system protection and incipient fault detection and protection of spaceborne power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don

    1989-01-01

    This research concentrated on the application of advanced signal processing, expert system, and digital technologies for the detection and control of low grade, incipient faults on spaceborne power systems. The researchers have considerable experience in the application of advanced digital technologies and the protection of terrestrial power systems. This experience was used in the current contracts to develop new approaches for protecting the electrical distribution system in spaceborne applications. The project was divided into three distinct areas: (1) investigate the applicability of fault detection algorithms developed for terrestrial power systems to the detection of faults in spaceborne systems; (2) investigate the digital hardware and architectures required to monitor and control spaceborne power systems with full capability to implement new detection and diagnostic algorithms; and (3) develop a real-time expert operating system for implementing diagnostic and protection algorithms. Significant progress has been made in each of the above areas. Several terrestrial fault detection algorithms were modified to better adapt to spaceborne power system environments. Several digital architectures were developed and evaluated in light of the fault detection algorithms.

  19. Geology and structure of the North Boqueron Bay-Punta Montalva Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig Silva, Coral Marie

    The North Boqueron Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone is an active fault system that cuts across the Lajas Valley in southwestern Puerto Rico. The fault zone has been recognized and mapped based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (ML < 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions and structural field data suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east-west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults oriented mostly toward the northeast. Evidence for recent displacement consists of fractures and small normal faults oriented mostly northeast found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, Areas of preferred erosion, within the alluvial fan, trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the on-land projection of the North Boqueron Bay Fault. Beyond the faulted alluvial fan and southeast of the Lajas Valley, the Northern Boqueron Bay Fault joins with the Punta Montalva Fault. The Punta Montalva Fault is defined by a strong topographic WNW lineament along which stream channels are displaced left laterally 200 meters and Miocene strata are steeply tilted to the south. Along the western end of the fault zone in northern Boqueron Bay, the older strata are only tilted 3° south and are covered by flat lying Holocene sediments. Focal mechanisms solutions along the western end suggest NW-SE shortening, which is inconsistent with left lateral strain partitioning along the fault zone. The limited deformation of older strata and inconsistent strain partitioning may be explained by a westerly propagation of the fault system from the southwest end. The limited geomorphic structural expression along the North Boqueron Bay Fault segment

  20. The X-38 Spacecraft Fault-Tolerant Avionics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouba,Coy; Buscher, Deborah; Busa, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    In 1995 NASA began an experimental program to develop a reusable crew return vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station. The purpose of the CRV was threefold: (i) to bring home an injured or ill crewmember; (ii) to bring home the entire crew if the Shuttle fleet was grounded; and (iii) to evacuate the crew in the case of an imminent Station threat (i.e., fire, decompression, etc). Built at the Johnson Space Center, were two approach and landing prototypes and one spacecraft demonstrator (called V201). A series of increasingly complex ground subsystem tests were completed, and eight successful high-altitude drop tests were achieved to prove the design concept. In this program, an unprecedented amount of commercial-off-the-shelf technology was utilized in this first crewed spacecraft NASA has built since the Shuttle program. Unfortunately, in 2002 the program was canceled due to changing Agency priorities. The vehicle was 80% complete and the program was shut down in such a manner as to preserve design, development, test and engineering data. This paper describes the X-38 V201 fault-tolerant avionics system. Based on Draper Laboratory's Byzantine-resilient fault-tolerant parallel processing system and their "network element" hardware, each flight computer exchanges information on a strict timescale to process input data, compare results, and issue voted vehicle output commands. Major accomplishments achieved in this development include: (i) a space qualified two-fault tolerant design using mostly COTS (hardware and operating system); (ii) a single event upset tolerant network element board, (iii) on-the-fly recovery of a failed processor; (iv) use of synched cache; (v) realignment of memory to bring back a failed channel; (vi) flight code automatically generated from the master measurement list; and (vii) built in-house by a team of civil servants and support contractors. This paper will present an overview of the avionics system and the hardware

  1. Fault-tolerance in Two-dimensional Topological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    This thesis is a collection of ideas with the general goal of building, at least in the abstract, a local fault-tolerant quantum computer. The connection between quantum information and topology has proven to be an active area of research in several fields. The introduction of the toric code by Alexei Kitaev demonstrated the usefulness of topology for quantum memory and quantum computation. Many quantum codes used for quantum memory are modeled by spin systems on a lattice, with operators that extract syndrome information placed on vertices or faces of the lattice. It is natural to wonder whether the useful codes in such systems can be classified. This thesis presents work that leverages ideas from topology and graph theory to explore the space of such codes. Homological stabilizer codes are introduced and it is shown that, under a set of reasonable assumptions, any qubit homological stabilizer code is equivalent to either a toric code or a color code. Additionally, the toric code and the color code correspond to distinct classes of graphs. Many systems have been proposed as candidate quantum computers. It is very desirable to design quantum computing architectures with two-dimensional layouts and low complexity in parity-checking circuitry. Kitaev's surface codes provided the first example of codes satisfying this property. They provided a new route to fault tolerance with more modest overheads and thresholds approaching 1%. The recently discovered color codes share many properties with the surface codes, such as the ability to perform syndrome extraction locally in two dimensions. Some families of color codes admit a transversal implementation of the entire Clifford group. This work investigates color codes on the 4.8.8 lattice known as triangular codes. I develop a fault-tolerant error-correction strategy for these codes in which repeated syndrome measurements on this lattice generate a three-dimensional space-time combinatorial structure. I then develop an

  2. Slip distribution, strain accumulation and aseismic slip on the Chaman Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Chaman fault system is a transcurrent fault system developed due to the oblique convergence of the India and Eurasia plates in the western boundary of the India plate. To evaluate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation along and across the Chaman Fault system, we use 2003-2011 Envisat SAR imagery and InSAR time-series methods to obtain a ground velocity field in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. We correct the InSAR data for different sources of systematic biases including the phase unwrapping errors, local oscillator drift, topographic residuals and stratified tropospheric delay and evaluate the uncertainty due to the residual delay using time-series of MODIS observations of precipitable water vapor. The InSAR velocity field and modeling demonstrates the distribution of deformation across the Chaman fault system. In the central Chaman fault system, the InSAR velocity shows clear strain localization on the Chaman and Ghazaband faults and modeling suggests a total slip rate of ~24 mm/yr distributed on the two faults with rates of 8 and 16 mm/yr, respectively corresponding to the 80% of the total ~3 cm/yr plate motion between India and Eurasia at these latitudes and consistent with the kinematic models which have predicted a slip rate of ~17-24 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. In the northern Chaman fault system (north of 30.5N), ~6 mm/yr of the relative plate motion is accommodated across Chaman fault. North of 30.5 N where the topographic expression of the Ghazaband fault vanishes, its slip does not transfer to the Chaman fault but rather distributes among different faults in the Kirthar range and Sulaiman lobe. Observed surface creep on the southern Chaman fault between Nushki and north of City of Chaman, indicates that the fault is partially locked, consistent with the recorded M<7 earthquakes in last century on this segment. The Chaman fault between north of the City of Chaman to North of Kabul, does not show an increase in the rate of strain

  3. Characterizing the Alpine Fault Strike Slip System Using a Novel Method for Analyzing GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, A. J.; Dimitrova, L. L.; Wallace, L. M.; Williams, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Arthur's Pass section of the Alpine Fault exhibits no shear component in the spatial derivatives of the VDoHS rates, in marked contrast to the Alpine Fault segments just northeast and southwest, suggesting that post-seismic deformation related to the 1994 Arthur's Pass earthquake is masking the signal from the Alpine Fault beneath. We characterize in detail the transfer of slip further north into the Marlborough Fault System, where we find much of the slip on the Alpine Fault passes onto the Kelly and Hope Faults, in accord with previous geological studies.

  4. The stress shadow effect: a mechanical analysis of the evenly-spaced parallel strike-slip faults in the San Andreas fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Parallel evenly-spaced strike-slip faults are prominent in the southern San Andreas fault system, as well as other settings along plate boundaries (e.g., the Alpine fault) and within continental interiors (e.g., the North Anatolian, central Asian, and northern Tibetan faults). In southern California, the parallel San Jacinto, Elsinore, Rose Canyon, and San Clemente faults to the west of the San Andreas are regularly spaced at ~40 km. In the Eastern California Shear Zone, east of the San Andreas, faults are spaced at ~15 km. These characteristic spacings provide unique mechanical constraints on how the faults interact. Despite the common occurrence of parallel strike-slip faults, the fundamental questions of how and why these fault systems form remain unanswered. We address this issue by using the stress shadow concept of Lachenbruch (1961)—developed to explain extensional joints by using the stress-free condition on the crack surface—to present a mechanical analysis of the formation of parallel strike-slip faults that relates fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness to fault strength, crustal strength, and the crustal stress state. We discuss three independent models: (1) a fracture mechanics model, (2) an empirical stress-rise function model embedded in a plastic medium, and (3) an elastic-plate model. The assumptions and predictions of these models are quantitatively tested using scaled analogue sandbox experiments that show that strike-slip fault spacing is linearly related to the brittle-crust thickness. We derive constraints on the mechanical properties of the southern San Andreas strike-slip faults and fault-bounded crust (e.g., local fault strength and crustal/regional stress) given the observed fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness, which is obtained by defining the base of the seismogenic zone with high-resolution earthquake data. Our models allow direct comparison of the parallel faults in the southern San Andreas system with other similar strike

  5. Resistivity structure and geochemistry of the Jigokudani Valley hydrothermal system, Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Tanbo, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Takakura, Shinichi; Nogami, Kenji; Ushioda, Masashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Zenshiro; Matsunaga, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    This study clarifies the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley near Mt. Tateyama volcano in Japan by using a combination of audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey and hot-spring water analysis in order to assess the potential of future phreatic eruptions in the area. Repeated phreatic eruptions in the area about 40,000 years ago produced the current valley morphology, which is now an active solfatara field dotted with hot springs and fumaroles indicative of a well-developed hydrothermal system. The three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure of the hydrothermal system was modeled by using the results of an AMT survey conducted at 25 locations across the valley in 2013-2014. The model suggests the presence of a near-surface highly conductive layer of < 50 m in thickness across the entire valley, which is interpreted as a cap rock layer. Immediately below the cap rock is a relatively resistive body interpreted as a gas reservoir. Field measurements of temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were taken at various hot springs across the valley, and 12 samples of hot-spring waters were analyzed for major ion chemistry and H2O isotopic ratios. All hot-spring waters had low pH and could be categorized into three types on the basis of the Cl-/SO 42 - concentration ratio, with all falling largely on a mixing line between magmatic fluids and local meteoric water (LMW). The geochemical analysis suggests that the hydrothermal system includes a two-phase zone of vapor-liquid. A comparison of the resistivity structure and the geochemically inferred structure suggests that a hydrothermal reservoir is present at a depth of approximately 500 m, from which hot-spring water differentiates into the three observed types. The two-phase zone appears to be located immediately beneath the cap rock structure. These findings suggest that the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley exhibits a number of factors that could trigger a future phreatic eruption.

  6. Reliability model derivation of a fault-tolerant, dual, spare-switching, digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A computer based reliability projection aid, tailored specifically for application in the design of fault-tolerant computer systems, is described. Its more pronounced characteristics include the facility for modeling systems with two distinct operational modes, measuring the effect of both permanent and transient faults, and calculating conditional system coverage factors. The underlying conceptual principles, mathematical models, and computer program implementation are presented.

  7. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Large-Scale Systems With Actuator Faults.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongming; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Shaocheng

    2017-09-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy output-constrained tracking fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale stochastic nonlinear systems of pure-feedback form. The nonlinear systems considered in this paper possess the unstructured uncertainties, unknown interconnected terms and unknown nonaffine nonlinear faults. The fuzzy logic systems are employed to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of structured uncertainties can be solved. An adaptive fuzzy state observer is designed to solve the nonmeasurable state problem. By combining the barrier Lyapunov function theory, adaptive decentralized and stochastic control principles, a novel fuzzy adaptive output-constrained FTC approach is constructed. All the signals in the closed-loop system are proved to be bounded in probability and the system outputs are constrained in a given compact set. Finally, the applicability of the proposed controller is well carried out by a simulation example.

  8. In-flight Fault Detection and Isolation in Aircraft Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Allanach, Jeffrey; Poll, Scott; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of test design for real-time fault detection and isolation (FDI) in the flight control system of fixed-wing aircraft. We focus on the faults that are manifested in the control surface elements (e.g., aileron, elevator, rudder and stabilizer) of an aircraft. For demonstration purposes, we restrict our focus on the faults belonging to nine basic fault classes. The diagnostic tests are performed on the features extracted from fifty monitored system parameters. The proposed tests are able to uniquely isolate each of the faults at almost all severity levels. A neural network-based flight control simulator, FLTZ(Registered TradeMark), is used for the simulation of various faults in fixed-wing aircraft flight control systems for the purpose of FDI.

  9. The emergence of asymmetric normal fault systems under symmetric boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpfer, Martin P. J.; Childs, Conrad; Manzocchi, Tom; Walsh, John J.; Nicol, Andrew; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    Many normal fault systems and, on a smaller scale, fracture boudinage often exhibit asymmetry with one fault dip direction dominating. It is a common belief that the formation of domino and shear band boudinage with a monoclinic symmetry requires a component of layer parallel shearing. Moreover, domains of parallel faults are frequently used to infer the presence of a décollement. Using Distinct Element Method (DEM) modelling we show, that asymmetric fault systems can emerge under symmetric boundary conditions. A statistical analysis of DEM models suggests that the fault dip directions and system polarities can be explained using a random process if the strength contrast between the brittle layer and the surrounding material is high. The models indicate that domino and shear band boudinage are unreliable shear-sense indicators. Moreover, the presence of a décollement should not be inferred on the basis of a domain of parallel faults alone.

  10. An Ontology for Identifying Cyber Intrusion Induced Faults in Process Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James; Guan, Jian

    This paper presents an ontological framework that permits formal representations of process control systems, including elements of the process being controlled and the control system itself. A fault diagnosis algorithm based on the ontological model is also presented. The algorithm can identify traditional process elements as well as control system elements (e.g., IP network and SCADA protocol) as fault sources. When these elements are identified as a likely fault source, the possibility exists that the process fault is induced by a cyber intrusion. A laboratory-scale distillation column is used to illustrate the model and the algorithm. Coupled with a well-defined statistical process model, this fault diagnosis approach provides cyber security enhanced fault diagnosis information to plant operators and can help identify that a cyber attack is underway before a major process failure is experienced.

  11. From experiment to design -- Fault characterization and detection in parallel computer systems using computational accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Keun Soo

    This dissertation summarizes experimental validation and co-design studies conducted to optimize the fault detection capabilities and overheads in hybrid computer systems (e.g., using CPUs and Graphics Processing Units, or GPUs), and consequently to improve the scalability of parallel computer systems using computational accelerators. The experimental validation studies were conducted to help us understand the failure characteristics of CPU-GPU hybrid computer systems under various types of hardware faults. The main characterization targets were faults that are difficult to detect and/or recover from, e.g., faults that cause long latency failures (Ch. 3), faults in dynamically allocated resources (Ch. 4), faults in GPUs (Ch. 5), faults in MPI programs (Ch. 6), and microarchitecture-level faults with specific timing features (Ch. 7). The co-design studies were based on the characterization results. One of the co-designed systems has a set of source-to-source translators that customize and strategically place error detectors in the source code of target GPU programs (Ch. 5). Another co-designed system uses an extension card to learn the normal behavioral and semantic execution patterns of message-passing processes executing on CPUs, and to detect abnormal behaviors of those parallel processes (Ch. 6). The third co-designed system is a co-processor that has a set of new instructions in order to support software-implemented fault detection techniques (Ch. 7). The work described in this dissertation gains more importance because heterogeneous processors have become an essential component of state-of-the-art supercomputers. GPUs were used in three of the five fastest supercomputers that were operating in 2011. Our work included comprehensive fault characterization studies in CPU-GPU hybrid computers. In CPUs, we monitored the target systems for a long period of time after injecting faults (a temporally comprehensive experiment), and injected faults into various types of

  12. The Evergreen basin and the role of the Silver Creek fault in the San Andreas fault system, San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Graymer, Russell W.; Williams, Robert; Ponce, David A.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Stephenson, William J.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The Evergreen basin is a 40-km-long, 8-km-wide Cenozoic sedimentary basin that lies mostly concealed beneath the northeastern margin of the Santa Clara Valley near the south end of San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The basin is bounded on the northeast by the strike-slip Hayward fault and an approximately parallel subsurface fault that is structurally overlain by a set of west-verging reverse-oblique faults which form the present-day southeastward extension of the Hayward fault. It is bounded on the southwest by the Silver Creek fault, a largely dormant or abandoned fault that splays from the active southern Calaveras fault. We propose that the Evergreen basin formed as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in the right step from the Silver Creek fault to the Hayward fault during a time when the Silver Creek fault served as a segment of the main route by which slip was transferred from the central California San Andreas fault to the Hayward and other East Bay faults. The dimensions and shape of the Evergreen basin, together with palinspastic reconstructions of geologic and geophysical features surrounding it, suggest that during its lifetime, the Silver Creek fault transferred a significant portion of the ∼100 km of total offset accommodated by the Hayward fault, and of the 175 km of total San Andreas system offset thought to have been accommodated by the entire East Bay fault system. As shown previously, at ca. 1.5–2.5 Ma the Hayward-Calaveras connection changed from a right-step, releasing regime to a left-step, restraining regime, with the consequent effective abandonment of the Silver Creek fault. This reorganization was, perhaps, preceded by development of the previously proposed basin-bisecting Mount Misery fault, a fault that directly linked the southern end of the Hayward fault with the southern Calaveras fault during extinction of pull-apart activity. Historic seismicity indicates that slip below a depth of 5 km is mostly transferred from the Calaveras

  13. Imaging the complexity of an active normal fault system: The 1997 Colfiorito (central Italy) case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiaraluce, L.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Chiarabba, C.; Cocco, M.

    2003-01-01

    Six moderate magnitude earthquakes (5 < Mw < 6) ruptured normal fault segments of the southern sector of the North Apennine belt (central Italy) in the 1997 Colfiorito earthquake sequence. We study the progressive activation of adjacent and nearby parallel faults of this complex normal fault system using ???1650 earthquake locations obtained by applying a double-difference location method, using travel time picks and waveform cross-correlation measurements. The lateral extent of the fault segments range from 5 to 10 km and make up a broad, ???45 km long, NW trending fault system. The geometry of each segment is quite simple and consists of planar faults gently dipping toward SW with an average dip of 40??-45??. The fault planes are not listric but maintain a constant dip through the entire seismogenic volume, down to 8 km depth. We observe the activation of faults on the hanging wall and the absence of seismicity in the footwall of the structure. The observed fault segmentation appears to be due to the lateral heterogeneity of the upper crust: preexisting thrusts inherited from Neogene's compressional tectonic intersect the active normal faults and control their maximum length. The stress tensor obtained by inverting the six main shock focal mechanisms of the sequence is in agreement with the tectonic stress active in the inner chain of the Apennine, revealing a clear NE trending extension direction. Aftershock focal mechanisms show a consistent extensional kinematics, 70% of which are mechanically consistent with the main shock stress field.

  14. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  15. Fault Detection of Bearing Systems through EEMD and Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Han; Ahn, Jong-Hyo; Koh, Bong-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a fault detection and diagnosis method for bearing systems using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based feature extraction, in conjunction with particle swarm optimization (PSO), principal component analysis (PCA), and Isomap. First, a mathematical model is assumed to generate vibration signals from damaged bearing components, such as the inner-race, outer-race, and rolling elements. The process of decomposing vibration signals into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and extracting statistical features is introduced to develop a damage-sensitive parameter vector. Finally, PCA and Isomap algorithm are used to classify and visualize this parameter vector, to separate damage characteristics from healthy bearing components. Moreover, the PSO-based optimization algorithm improves the classification performance by selecting proper weightings for the parameter vector, to maximize the visualization effect of separating and grouping of parameter vectors in three-dimensional space. PMID:29143772

  16. First Results from a Forward, 3-Dimensional Regional Model of a Transpressional San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a 3-dimensional fault interaction model, with the fault system specified by the geometry and tectonics of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. We use the forward model for earthquake generation on interacting faults of Fitzenz and Miller [2001] that incorporates the analytical solutions of Okada [85,92], GPS-constrained tectonic loading, creep compaction and frictional dilatancy [Sleep and Blanpied, 1994, Sleep, 1995], and undrained poro-elasticity. The model fault system is centered at the Big Bend, and includes three large strike-slip faults (each discretized into multiple subfaults); 1) a 300km, right-lateral segment of the SAF to the North, 2) a 200km-long left-lateral segment of the Garlock fault to the East, and 3) a 100km-long right-lateral segment of the SAF to the South. In the initial configuration, three shallow-dipping faults are also included that correspond to the thrust belt sub-parallel to the SAF. Tectonic loading is decomposed into basal shear drag parallel to the plate boundary with a 35mm yr-1 plate velocity, and East-West compression approximated by a vertical dislocation surface applied at the far-field boundary resulting in fault-normal compression rates in the model space about 4mm yr-1. Our aim is to study the long-term seismicity characteristics, tectonic evolution, and fault interaction of this system. We find that overpressured faults through creep compaction are a necessary consequence of the tectonic loading, specifically where high normal stress acts on long straight fault segments. The optimal orientation of thrust faults is a function of the strike-slip behavior, and therefore results in a complex stress state in the elastic body. This stress state is then used to generate new fault surfaces, and preliminary results of dynamically generated faults will also be presented. Our long-term aim is to target measurable properties in or around fault zones, (e.g. pore pressures, hydrofractures, seismicity

  17. Neural adaptive observer-based sensor and actuator fault detection in nonlinear systems: Application in UAV.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Alireza; Aboutalebi, Payam; Yen, Kang K; Sargolzaei, Arman

    2017-03-01

    A new online detection strategy is developed to detect faults in sensors and actuators of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. In this design, the weighting parameters of the Neural Network (NN) are updated by using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Online adaptation of these weighting parameters helps to detect abrupt, intermittent, and incipient faults accurately. We apply the proposed fault detection system to a nonlinear dynamic model of the WVU YF-22 unmanned aircraft for its evaluation. The simulation results show that the new method has better performance in comparison with conventional recurrent neural network-based fault detection strategies. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptive robust fault-tolerant control for linear MIMO systems with unmatched uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Jiang, Bin; Yan, Xing-Gang; Mao, Zehui

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, two novel fault-tolerant control design approaches are proposed for linear MIMO systems with actuator additive faults, multiplicative faults and unmatched uncertainties. For time-varying multiplicative and additive faults, new adaptive laws and additive compensation functions are proposed. A set of conditions is developed such that the unmatched uncertainties are compensated by actuators in control. On the other hand, for unmatched uncertainties with their projection in unmatched space being not zero, based on a (vector) relative degree condition, additive functions are designed to compensate for the uncertainties from output channels in the presence of actuator faults. The developed fault-tolerant control schemes are applied to two aircraft systems to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

  19. Fault tolerance of artificial neural networks with applications in critical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Arras, Michael K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the fault tolerance characteristics of time continuous recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN) that can be used to solve optimization problems. The principle of operations and performance of these networks are first illustrated by using well-known model problems like the traveling salesman problem and the assignment problem. The ANNs are then subjected to 13 simultaneous 'stuck at 1' or 'stuck at 0' faults for network sizes of up to 900 'neurons'. The effects of these faults is demonstrated and the cause for the observed fault tolerance is discussed. An application is presented in which a network performs a critical task for a real-time distributed processing system by generating new task allocations during the reconfiguration of the system. The performance degradation of the ANN under the presence of faults is investigated by large-scale simulations, and the potential benefits of delegating a critical task to a fault tolerant network are discussed.

  20. Orion GN&C Fault Management System Verification: Scope And Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Denise; Weiler, David; Flanary, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term ability to meet mission goals and to provide for the safety of the public, ground personnel, and any crew members, nearly all spacecraft include a fault management (FM) system. For a manned vehicle such as Orion, the safety of the crew is of paramount importance. The goal of the Orion Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) fault management system is to detect, isolate, and respond to faults before they can result in harm to the human crew or loss of the spacecraft. Verification of fault management/fault protection capability is challenging due to the large number of possible faults in a complex spacecraft, the inherent unpredictability of faults, the complexity of interactions among the various spacecraft components, and the inability to easily quantify human reactions to failure scenarios. The Orion GN&C Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) team has developed a methodology for bounding the scope of FM system verification while ensuring sufficient coverage of the failure space and providing high confidence that the fault management system meets all safety requirements. The methodology utilizes a swarm search algorithm to identify failure cases that can result in catastrophic loss of the crew or the vehicle and rare event sequential Monte Carlo to verify safety and FDIR performance requirements.

  1. Nonlinear dynamic failure process of tunnel-fault system in response to strong seismic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihua; Lan, Hengxing; Zhang, Yongshuang; Gao, Xing; Li, Langping

    2013-03-01

    Strong earthquakes and faults have significant effect on the stability capability of underground tunnel structures. This study used a 3-Dimensional Discrete Element model and the real records of ground motion in the Wenchuan earthquake to investigate the dynamic response of tunnel-fault system. The typical tunnel-fault system was composed of one planned railway tunnel and one seismically active fault. The discrete numerical model was prudentially calibrated by means of the comparison between the field survey and numerical results of ground motion. It was then used to examine the detailed quantitative information on the dynamic response characteristics of tunnel-fault system, including stress distribution, strain, vibration velocity and tunnel failure process. The intensive tunnel-fault interaction during seismic loading induces the dramatic stress redistribution and stress concentration in the intersection of tunnel and fault. The tunnel-fault system behavior is characterized by the complicated nonlinear dynamic failure process in response to a real strong seismic event. It can be qualitatively divided into 5 main stages in terms of its stress, strain and rupturing behaviors: (1) strain localization, (2) rupture initiation, (3) rupture acceleration, (4) spontaneous rupture growth and (5) stabilization. This study provides the insight into the further stability estimation of underground tunnel structures under the combined effect of strong earthquakes and faults.

  2. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  3. Award ER25750: Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance Systems Indiana University Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2013-03-08

    The main purpose of the Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance in Systems initiative has been to conduct research with a goal of providing end-to-end fault tolerance on a systemwide basis for applications and other system software. While fault tolerance has been an integral part of most high-performance computing (HPC) system software developed over the past decade, it has been treated mostly as a collection of isolated stovepipes. Visibility and response to faults has typically been limited to the particular hardware and software subsystems in which they are initially observed. Little fault information is shared across subsystems, allowing little flexibility ormore » control on a system-wide basis, making it practically impossible to provide cohesive end-to-end fault tolerance in support of scientific applications. As an example, consider faults such as communication link failures that can be seen by a network library but are not directly visible to the job scheduler, or consider faults related to node failures that can be detected by system monitoring software but are not inherently visible to the resource manager. If information about such faults could be shared by the network libraries or monitoring software, then other system software, such as a resource manager or job scheduler, could ensure that failed nodes or failed network links were excluded from further job allocations and that further diagnosis could be performed. As a founding member and one of the lead developers of the Open MPI project, our efforts over the course of this project have been focused on making Open MPI more robust to failures by supporting various fault tolerance techniques, and using fault information exchange and coordination between MPI and the HPC system software stack from the application, numeric libraries, and programming language runtime to other common system components such as jobs schedulers, resource managers, and monitoring tools.« less

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation...

  6. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation...

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation...

  9. Fault detection for piecewise affine systems with application to ship propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Linlin, Li; Ding, Steven X; Qiu, Jianbin; Peng, Kaixiang

    2017-09-09

    In this paper, the design approach of non-synchronized diagnostic observer-based fault detection (FD) systems is investigated for piecewise affine processes via continuous piecewise Lyapunov functions. Considering that the dynamics of piecewise affine systems in different regions can be considerably different, the weighting matrices are used to weight the residual of each region, so as to optimize the fault detectability. A numerical example and a case study on a ship propulsion system are presented in the end to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation Methods for Fault-Tolerant avionics and control systems, working group meeting 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the first working group meeting on validation methods for fault tolerant computer design are presented. The state of the art in fault tolerant computer validation was examined in order to provide a framework for future discussions concerning research issues for the validation of fault tolerant avionics and flight control systems. The development of positions concerning critical aspects of the validation process are given.

  11. Soil gas studies along the Trans-Challis fault system near Idaho City, Boise County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, J.H.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    Soil gases were sampled along several traverses that cross the Trans-Challis fault system in central Idaho. Anomalous carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, hydrocarbon, and sulfur gas concentrations coincide with faults and known mineralized areas. Anomalies in areas not known to be mineralized may reflect undiscovered mineral deposits or concealed faults. Soil gases may be a useful exploration guide for mineral deposits in this terrane.

  12. Hierarchical specification of the SIFT fault tolerant flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Schwartz, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The specification and mechanical verification of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) flight control system is described. The methodology employed in the verification effort is discussed, and a description of the hierarchical models of the SIFT system is given. To meet the objective of NASA for the reliability of safety critical flight control systems, the SIFT computer must achieve a reliability well beyond the levels at which reliability can be actually measured. The methodology employed to demonstrate rigorously that the SIFT computer meets as reliability requirements is described. The hierarchy of design specifications from very abstract descriptions of system function down to the actual implementation is explained. The most abstract design specifications can be used to verify that the system functions correctly and with the desired reliability since almost all details of the realization were abstracted out. A succession of lower level models refine these specifications to the level of the actual implementation, and can be used to demonstrate that the implementation has the properties claimed of the abstract design specifications.

  13. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledgemore » that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.« less

  14. Kinematics of polygonal fault systems: observations from the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Thilo; Magee, Craig; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Huuse, Mads; Taylor, Kevin G.

    2017-12-01

    Layer-bound, low-displacement normal faults, arranged into a broadly polygonal pattern, are common in many sedimentary basins. Despite having constrained their gross geometry, we have a relatively poor understanding of the processes controlling the nucleation and growth (i.e. the kinematics) of polygonal fault systems. In this study we use high-resolution 3-D seismic reflection and borehole data from the northern North Sea to undertake a detailed kinematic analysis of faults forming part of a seismically well-imaged polygonal fault system hosted within the up to 1000 m thick, Early Palaeocene-to-Middle Miocene mudstones of the Hordaland Group. Growth strata and displacement-depth profiles indicate faulting commenced during the Eocene to early Oligocene, with reactivation possibly occurring in the late Oligocene to middle Miocene. Mapping the position of displacement maxima on 137 polygonal faults suggests that the majority (64%) nucleated in the lower 500 m of the Hordaland Group. The uniform distribution of polygonal fault strikes in the area indicates that nucleation and growth were not driven by gravity or far-field tectonic extension as has previously been suggested. Instead, fault growth was likely facilitated by low coefficients of residual friction on existing slip surfaces, and probably involved significant layer-parallel contraction (strains of 0.01-0.19) of the host strata. To summarize, our kinematic analysis provides new insights into the spatial and temporal evolution of polygonal fault systems.

  15. Probabilistic evaluation of on-line checks in fault-tolerant multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, V. S. S.; Hoskote, Yatin V.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of fault-tolerant multiprocessor systems that use concurrent error detection (CED) schemes is much more difficult than the analysis of conventional fault-tolerant architectures. Various analytical techniques have been proposed to evaluate CED schemes deterministically. However, these approaches are based on worst-case assumptions related to the failure of system components. Often, the evaluation results do not reflect the actual fault tolerance capabilities of the system. A probabilistic approach to evaluate the fault detecting and locating capabilities of on-line checks in a system is developed. The various probabilities associated with the checking schemes are identified and used in the framework of the matrix-based model. Based on these probabilistic matrices, estimates for the fault tolerance capabilities of various systems are derived analytically.

  16. Stress field rotation or block rotation: An example from the Lake Mead fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ron, Hagai; Nur, Amos; Aydin, Atilla

    1990-01-01

    The Coulomb criterion, as applied by Anderson (1951), has been widely used as the basis for inferring paleostresses from in situ fault slip data, assuming that faults are optimally oriented relative to the tectonic stress direction. Consequently if stress direction is fixed during deformation so must be the faults. Freund (1974) has shown that faults, when arranged in sets, must generally rotate as they slip. Nur et al., (1986) showed how sufficiently large rotations require the development of new sets of faults which are more favorably oriented to the principal direction of stress. This leads to the appearance of multiple fault sets in which older faults are offset by younger ones, both having the same sense of slip. Consequently correct paleostress analysis must include the possible effect of fault and material rotation, in addition to stress field rotation. The combined effects of stress field rotation and material rotation were investigated in the Lake Meade Fault System (LMFS) especially in the Hoover Dam area. Fault inversion results imply an apparent 60 degrees clockwise (CW) rotation of the stress field since mid-Miocene time. In contrast structural data from the rest of the Great Basin suggest only a 30 degrees CW stress field rotation. By incorporating paleomagnetic and seismic evidence, the 30 degrees discrepancy can be neatly resolved. Based on paleomagnetic declination anomalies, it is inferred that slip on NW trending right lateral faults caused a local 30 degrees counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation of blocks and faults in the Lake Mead area. Consequently the inferred 60 degrees CW rotation of the stress field in the LMFS consists of an actual 30 degrees CW rotation of the stress field (as for the entire Great Basin) plus a local 30 degrees CCW material rotation of the LMFS fault blocks.

  17. Stress field rotation or block rotation: An example from the Lake Mead fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, Hagai; Nur, Amos; Aydin, Atilla

    1990-02-01

    The Coulomb criterion, as applied by Anderson (1951), has been widely used as the basis for inferring paleostresses from in situ fault slip data, assuming that faults are optimally oriented relative to the tectonic stress direction. Consequently if stress direction is fixed during deformation so must be the faults. Freund (1974) has shown that faults, when arranged in sets, must generally rotate as they slip. Nur et al., (1986) showed how sufficiently large rotations require the development of new sets of faults which are more favorably oriented to the principal direction of stress. This leads to the appearance of multiple fault sets in which older faults are offset by younger ones, both having the same sense of slip. Consequently correct paleostress analysis must include the possible effect of fault and material rotation, in addition to stress field rotation. The combined effects of stress field rotation and material rotation were investigated in the Lake Meade Fault System (LMFS) especially in the Hoover Dam area. Fault inversion results imply an apparent 60 degrees clockwise (CW) rotation of the stress field since mid-Miocene time. In contrast structural data from the rest of the Great Basin suggest only a 30 degrees CW stress field rotation. By incorporating paleomagnetic and seismic evidence, the 30 degrees discrepancy can be neatly resolved. Based on paleomagnetic declination anomalies, it is inferred that slip on NW trending right lateral faults caused a local 30 degrees counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation of blocks and faults in the Lake Mead area. Consequently the inferred 60 degrees CW rotation of the stress field in the LMFS consists of an actual 30 degrees CW rotation of the stress field (as for the entire Great Basin) plus a local 30 degrees CCW material rotation of the LMFS fault blocks.

  18. Recent deformation on the San Diego Trough and San Pedro Basin fault systems, offshore Southern California: Assessing evidence for fault system connectivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, J. M.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The seismic hazard posed by offshore faults for coastal communities in Southern California is poorly understood and may be considerable, especially when these communities are located near long faults that have the ability to produce large earthquakes. The San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) and San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) systems are active northwest striking, right-lateral faults in the Inner California Borderland that extend offshore between San Diego and Los Angeles. Recent work shows that the SDTF slip rate accounts for 25% of the 6-8 mm/yr of deformation accommodated by the offshore fault network, and seismic reflection data suggest that these two fault zones may be one continuous structure. Here, we use recently acquired CHIRP, high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection, and multibeam bathymetric data in combination with USGS and industry MCS profiles to characterize recent deformation on the SDTF and SPBF zones and to evaluate the potential for an end-to-end rupture that spans both fault systems. The SDTF offsets young sediments at the seafloor for 130 km between the US/Mexico border and Avalon Knoll. The northern SPBF has robust geomorphic expression and offsets the seafloor in the Santa Monica Basin. The southern SPBF lies within a 25-km gap between high-resolution MCS surveys. Although there does appear to be a through-going fault at depth in industry MCS profiles, the low vertical resolution of these data inhibits our ability to confirm recent slip on the southern SPBF. Empirical scaling relationships indicate that a 200-km-long rupture of the SDTF and its southern extension, the Bahia Soledad fault, could produce a M7.7 earthquake. If the SDTF and the SPBF are linked, the length of the combined fault increases to >270 km. This may allow ruptures initiating on the SDTF to propagate within 25 km of the Los Angeles Basin. At present, the paleoseismic histories of the faults are unknown. We present new observations from CHIRP and coring surveys at

  19. Early Tertiary transtension-related deformation and magmatism along the Tintina fault system, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, A.B.; Roeske, S.M.; Bradley, D.C.; Friedman, R.; Layer, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Transtensional deformation was concentrated in a zone adjacent to the Tintina strike-slip fault system in Alaska during the early Tertiary. The deformation occurred along the Victoria Creek fault, the trace of the Tintina system that connects it with the Kaltag fault; together the Tintina and Kaltag fault systems girdle Alaska from east to west. Over an area of ???25 by 70 km between the Victoria Creek and Tozitna faults, bimodal volcanics erupted; lacustrine and fluvial rocks were deposited; plutons were emplaced and deformed; and metamorphic rocks cooled, all at about the same time. Plutonic and volcanic rocks in this zone yield U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 60 Ma; 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages from those plutons and adjacent metamorphic rocks are also ca. 60 Ma. Although early Tertiary magmatism occurred over a broad area in central Alaska, meta- morphism and ductile deformation accompanied that magmatism in this one zone only. Within the zone of deformation, pluton aureoles and metamorphic rocks display consistent NE-SW-stretching lineations parallel to the Victoria Creek fault, suggesting that deformation processes involved subhorizontal elongation of the package. The most deeply buried metamorphic rocks, kyanite-bearing metapelites, occur as lenses adjacent to the fault, which cuts the crust to the Moho (Beaudoin et al., 1997). Geochronologic data and field relationships suggest that the amount of early Tertiary exhumation was greatest adjacent to the Victoria Creek fault. The early Tertiary crustal-scale events that may have operated to produce transtension in this area are (1) increased heat flux and related bimodal within-plate magmatism, (2) movement on a releasing stepover within the Tintina fault system or on a regional scale involving both the Tintina and the Kobuk fault systems, and (3) oroclinal bending of the Tintina-Kaltag fault system with counterclockwise rotation of western Alaska. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Heteromeric MT1/MT2 Melatonin Receptors Modulate Photoreceptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Kenkichi; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Journé, Anne-Sophie; Kamal, Maud; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Dussaud, Sébastien; Gbahou, Florence; Yettou, Katia; Liu, Cuimei; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Jockers, Ralf; Tosini, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The formation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromers elicits signaling diversification and holds great promise for improved drug selectivity. Most studies have been conducted in heterologous expression systems; however, in vivo validation is missing from most cases thus questioning the physiological significance of GPCR heteromerization. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors have been shown to exist as homo- and heteromers in vitro. We show here that the effect of melatonin on rod photoreceptor light sensitivity is mediated by melatonin MT1/MT2 receptor heteromers. This effect involves activation of the heteromer-specific PLC/PKC pathway and is abolished in MT1−/− and MT2−/− mice as well as in mice overexpressing a non-functional MT2 receptor mutant that competes with the formation of functional MT1/MT2 heteromers in photoreceptor cells. This study establishes the essential role of melatonin receptor heteromers in retinal function and supports the physiological importance of GPCR heteromerization. Finally, our work may have important therapeutic implications, as the heteromer complex may provide a unique pharmacological target to improve photoreceptor functioning and to extend the viability of photoreceptors during aging. PMID:24106342

  1. Fault Isolation Filter for Networked Control System with Event-Triggered Sampling Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanbin; Sauter, Dominique; Xu, Bugong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the sensor data is transmitted only when the absolute value of difference between the current sensor value and the previously transmitted one is greater than the given threshold value. Based on this send-on-delta scheme which is one of the event-triggered sampling strategies, a modified fault isolation filter for a discrete-time networked control system with multiple faults is then implemented by a particular form of the Kalman filter. The proposed fault isolation filter improves the resource utilization with graceful fault estimation performance degradation. An illustrative example is given to show the efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:22346590

  2. Research into a distributed fault diagnosis system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Suxiang; Jiao, Weidong; Lou, Yongjian; Shen, Xiaomei

    2005-12-01

    CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) is a solution to distributed computing methods over heterogeneity systems, which establishes a communication protocol between distributed objects. It takes great emphasis on realizing the interoperation between distributed objects. However, only after developing some application approaches and some practical technology in monitoring and diagnosis, can the customers share the monitoring and diagnosis information, so that the purpose of realizing remote multi-expert cooperation diagnosis online can be achieved. This paper aims at building an open fault monitoring and diagnosis platform combining CORBA, Web and agent. Heterogeneity diagnosis object interoperate in independent thread through the CORBA (soft-bus), realizing sharing resource and multi-expert cooperation diagnosis online, solving the disadvantage such as lack of diagnosis knowledge, oneness of diagnosis technique and imperfectness of analysis function, so that more complicated and further diagnosis can be carried on. Take high-speed centrifugal air compressor set for example, we demonstrate a distributed diagnosis based on CORBA. It proves that we can find out more efficient approaches to settle the problems such as real-time monitoring and diagnosis on the net and the break-up of complicated tasks, inosculating CORBA, Web technique and agent frame model to carry on complemental research. In this system, Multi-diagnosis Intelligent Agent helps improve diagnosis efficiency. Besides, this system offers an open circumstances, which is easy for the diagnosis objects to upgrade and for new diagnosis server objects to join in.

  3. Software-Implemented Fault Tolerance in Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1994-01-01

    Software-implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) is used in many computer-based command, control, and communications (C(3)) systems to provide the nearly continuous availability that they require. In the communications subsystem of Space Station Alpha, SIFT algorithms are used to detect and recover from failures in the data and command link between the Station and its ground support. The paper presents a review of these algorithms and discusses how such techniques can be applied to similar systems found in applications such as manufacturing control, military communications, and programmable devices such as pacemakers. With support from the Tracking and Communication Division of NASA's Johnson Space Center, researchers at the University of Wyoming are developing a testbed for evaluating the effectiveness of these algorithms prior to their deployment. This testbed will be capable of simulating a variety of C(3) system failures and recording the response of the Space Station SIFT algorithms to these failures. The design of this testbed and the applicability of the approach in other environments is described.

  4. Newport-Inglewood-Carlsbad-Coronado Bank Fault System Nearshore Southern California: Testing models for Quaternary deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J. T.; Sorlien, C. C.; Cormier, M.; Bauer, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The San Andreas fault system is distributed across hundreds of kilometers in southern California. This transform system includes offshore faults along the shelf, slope and basin- comprising part of the Inner California Continental Borderland. Previously, offshore faults have been interpreted as being discontinuous and striking parallel to the coast between Long Beach and San Diego. Our recent work, based on several thousand kilometers of deep-penetration industry multi-channel seismic reflection data (MCS) as well as high resolution U.S. Geological Survey MCS, indicates that many of the offshore faults are more geometrically continuous than previously reported. Stratigraphic interpretations of MCS profiles included the ca. 1.8 Ma Top Lower Pico, which was correlated from wells located offshore Long Beach (Sorlien et. al. 2010). Based on this age constraint, four younger (Late) Quaternary unconformities are interpreted through the slope and basin. The right-lateral Newport-Inglewood fault continues offshore near Newport Beach. We map a single fault for 25 kilometers that continues to the southeast along the base of the slope. There, the Newport-Inglewood fault splits into the San Mateo-Carlsbad fault, which is mapped for 55 kilometers along the base of the slope to a sharp bend. This bend is the northern end of a right step-over of 10 kilometers to the Descanso fault and about 17 km to the Coronado Bank fault. We map these faults for 50 kilometers as they continue over the Mexican border. Both the San Mateo - Carlsbad with the Newport-Inglewood fault and the Coronado Bank with the Descanso fault are paired faults that form flower structures (positive and negative, respectively) in cross section. Preliminary kinematic models indicate ~1km of right-lateral slip since ~1.8 Ma at the north end of the step-over. We are modeling the slip on the southern segment to test our hypothesis for a kinematically continuous right-lateral fault system. We are correlating four

  5. Interaction between fault systems in a complex tectonic setting: Insights from InSAR and Teleseismic analysis of the 2015 Lake Saurez and 2016 Muji fault earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjundiah, P.; Barbot, S.; Wei, S.; Tapponnier, P.; Feng, W.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Pamir Plateau is a complex and important component of the India-Eurasia Collision zone. Despite being similar to the Tibetan plateau in elevation and collision processes, quite a bit is still unknown about the structure and the tectonic processes occurring in this region. We aim to better understand the structure, stress and deformation patterns in the northern and central Pamir plateau by analysing InSAR, teleseismic, and optical data for two large earthquakes that occurred in this region between December 2015 (Mw 7.2, Lake Saurez) and November 2016 (Mw 6.6 Muji Fault). We constrain the fault geometry by precisely relocating aftershocks using the double difference technique implemented in HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth 2000). We used Okada's (1992) Green Functions to invert for slip on the fault with a rectangular dislocation and edgreen to numerically invert for the slip in a layered medium (Wang et al. 2005). The combined datasets highlight the existence of an oblique fault between two major thrust fault systems i.e. the Darwas & the Karakoram faults. The December 2015 event highlights complexity in this fault system. The combination of data sets used in this study highlights the existence of a seismic gap south of Lake Karakul as well as coupling between the Muji and Darwas-Karakoram fault systems. We emphasise the role of smaller faults and their interactions in accommodating the overall strain and tectonics in the Pamir region and their effect on estimating local seismic hazard.

  6. Fault diagnostic instrumentation design for environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; You, K. C.; Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    As a development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. As part of continous development efforts, a program to evaluate, design, and demonstrate advanced instrumentation fault diagnostics was successfully completed. Fault tolerance designs for reliability and other instrumenation capabilities to increase maintainability were evaluated and studied.

  7. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  8. Adaptive sensor-fault tolerant control for a class of multivariable uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Khebbache, Hicham; Tadjine, Mohamed; Labiod, Salim; Boulkroune, Abdesselem

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with the active fault tolerant control (AFTC) problem for a class of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uncertain nonlinear systems subject to sensor faults and external disturbances. The proposed AFTC method can tolerate three additive (bias, drift and loss of accuracy) and one multiplicative (loss of effectiveness) sensor faults. By employing backstepping technique, a novel adaptive backstepping-based AFTC scheme is developed using the fact that sensor faults and system uncertainties (including external disturbances and unexpected nonlinear functions caused by sensor faults) can be on-line estimated and compensated via robust adaptive schemes. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is rigorously proven using a Lyapunov approach. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is illustrated by two simulation examples. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal fault-tolerant control strategy of a solid oxide fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojuan; Gao, Danhui

    2017-10-01

    For solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development, load tracking, heat management, air excess ratio constraint, high efficiency, low cost and fault diagnosis are six key issues. However, no literature studies the control techniques combining optimization and fault diagnosis for the SOFC system. An optimal fault-tolerant control strategy is presented in this paper, which involves four parts: a fault diagnosis module, a switching module, two backup optimizers and a controller loop. The fault diagnosis part is presented to identify the SOFC current fault type, and the switching module is used to select the appropriate backup optimizer based on the diagnosis result. NSGA-II and TOPSIS are employed to design the two backup optimizers under normal and air compressor fault states. PID algorithm is proposed to design the control loop, which includes a power tracking controller, an anode inlet temperature controller, a cathode inlet temperature controller and an air excess ratio controller. The simulation results show the proposed optimal fault-tolerant control method can track the power, temperature and air excess ratio at the desired values, simultaneously achieving the maximum efficiency and the minimum unit cost in the case of SOFC normal and even in the air compressor fault.

  10. Delivery and application of precise timing for a traveling wave powerline fault locator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has successfully operated an in-house developed powerline fault locator system since 1986. The BPA fault locator system consists of remotes installed at cardinal power transmission line system nodes and a central master which polls the remotes for traveling wave time-of-arrival data. A power line fault produces a fast rise-time traveling wave which emanates from the fault point and propagates throughout the power grid. The remotes time-tag the traveling wave leading edge as it passes through the power system cardinal substation nodes. A synchronizing pulse transmitted via the BPA analog microwave system on a wideband channel sychronizes the time-tagging counters in the remote units to a different accuracy of better than one microsecond. The remote units correct the raw time tags for synchronizing pulse propagation delay and return these corrected values to the fault locator master. The master then calculates the power system disturbance source using the collected time tags. The system design objective is a fault location accuracy of 300 meters. BPA's fault locator system operation, error producing phenomena, and method of distributing precise timing are described.

  11. Fire safety in transit systems fault tree analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-09-01

    Fire safety countermeasures applicable to transit vehicles are identified and evaluated. This document contains fault trees which illustrate the sequences of events which may lead to a transit-fire related casualty. A description of the basis for the...

  12. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology of major strands of the San Andreas fault system: Chapter 38

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Thomas; Scharer, Katherine M.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system in California is one of the best-studied faults in the world, both in terms of the long-term geologic history and paleoseismic study of past surface ruptures. In this paper, we focus on the Quaternary to historic data that have been collected from the major strands of the San Andreas fault system, both on the San Andreas Fault itself, and the major subparallel strands that comprise the plate boundary, including the Calaveras-Hayward- Rogers Creek-Maacama fault zone and the Concord-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs fault zone in northern California, and the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults in southern California. The majority of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American lithospheric plates is accommodated by these faults, with the San Andreas slipping at about 34 mm/yr in central California, decreasing to about 20 mm/yr in northern California north of its juncture with the Calaveras and Concord faults. The Calaveras-Hayward-Rogers Creek-Maacama fault zone exhibits a slip rate of 10-15 mm/yr, whereas the rate along the Concord-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs fault zone is lower at about 5 mm/yr. In southern California, the San Andreas exhibits a slip rate of about 35 mm/yr along the Mojave section, decreasing to as low as 10-15 mm/yr along its juncture with the San Jacinto fault, and about 20 mm/yr in the Coachella Valley. The San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones exhibit rates of about 15 and 5 mm/yr, respectively. The average recurrence interval for surface-rupturing earthquakes along individual elements of the San Andreas fault system range from 100-500 years and is consistent with slip rate at those sites: higher slip rates produce more frequent or larger earthquakes. There is also evidence of short-term variations in strain release (slip rate) along various fault sections, as expressed as “flurries” or clusters of earthquakes as well as periods of relatively fewer surface ruptures in these relatively short records. This

  13. A real-time moment-tensor inversion system (GRiD-MT-3D) using 3-D Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, A.; Furumura, T.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a real-time moment-tensor inversion system using 3-D Green's functions (GRiD-MT-3D) by improving the current system (GRiD-MT; Tsuruoka et al., 2009), which uses 1-D Green's functions for longer periods than 20 s. Our moment-tensor inversion is applied to the real-time monitoring of earthquakes occurring beneath Kanto basin area. The basin, which is constituted of thick sediment layers, lies on the complex subduction of the Philippine-Sea Plate and the Pacific Plate that can significantly affect the seismic wave propagation. We compute 3-D Green's functions using finite-difference-method (FDM) simulations considering a 3-D velocity model, which is based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012), that includes crust, mantle, and subducting plates. The 3-D FDM simulations are computed over a volume of 468 km by 432 km by 120 km in the EW, NS, and depth directions, respectively, that is discretized into 0.25 km grids. Considering that the minimum S wave velocity of the sedimentary layer is 0.5 km/s, simulations can compute seismograms up to 0.5 Hz. We calculate Green's functions between 24,700 sources, which are distributed every 0.1° in the horizontal direction and every 9 km in depth direction, and 13 F-net stations. To compute this large number of Green's functions, we used the EIC parallel computer of ERI. The reciprocity theory, which switches the source and station positions, is used to reduce total computation costs. It took 156 hours to compute all the Green's functions. Results show that at long-periods (T>15 s), only small differences are observed between the 3-D and 1-D Green's functions as indicated by high correlation coefficients of 0.9 between the waveforms. However, at shorter periods (T<10 s), the differences become larger and the correlation coefficients drop to 0.5. The effect of the 3-D heterogeneous structure especially affects the Green's functions for the ray paths that across complex geological

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of fault creep across an active salt system, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, K.; Mueller, K. J.; Furuya, M.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    First order conditions that control creeping behavior on faults include the strength of faulted materials, fault maturity and stress changes associated with seismic cycles. We present mapping of surface strain from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) of actively creeping faults in Eastern Utah that form by reactivation of older joints and faults. A nine-year record of displacement across the region using descending ERS scenes from 1992-2001 suggests maximum slip rates of 1 mm/yr. Time series analysis shows near steady rates across the region consistent with the proposed ultra-weak nature of these faults as suggested by their dilating nature, based on observations of sinkholes, pit chains and recently opened fissures along their lengths. Slip rates along the faults in the main part of the array are systematically faster with closer proximity to the Colorado River Canyon, consistent with mechanical modeling of the boundary conditions that control the overall salt system. Deeply incised side tributaries coincide with and control the edges of the region with higher strain rates. Comparison of D:L scaling at decadal scales in fault bounded grabens (as defined by InSAR) with previous measurements of total slip (D) to length (L) is interpreted to suggest that faults reached nearly their current lengths relatively quickly (i.e. displaying low displacement to length scaling). We argue this may then have been followed by along strike slip distributions where the centers of the grabens slip more rapidly than their endpoints, resulting in a higher D:L ratio over time. InSAR mapping also points to an increase in creep rates in overlap zones where two faults became hard-linked at breached relay ramps. Additionally, we see evidence for soft-linkage, where displacement profiles along a graben coincide with obvious fault segments. While an endmember case (ultra-weak faults sliding above a plastic substrate), structures in this region highlight mechanical

  15. System and method for bearing fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.; Theisen, Peter J.

    2010-08-17

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from the operating motor and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  16. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Nowak, Michael P.; Dimino, Steven A.

    2010-12-07

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  17. A hierarchically distributed architecture for fault isolation expert systems on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miksell, Steve; Coffer, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Axiomatic Fault Isolating Expert Systems (SAFTIES) system deals with the hierarchical distribution of control and knowledge among independent expert systems doing fault isolation and scheduling of Space Station subsystems. On its lower level, fault isolation is performed on individual subsystems. These fault isolation expert systems contain knowledge about the performance requirements of their particular subsystem and corrective procedures which may be involved in repsonse to certain performance errors. They can control the functions of equipment in their system and coordinate system task schedules. On a higher level, the Executive contains knowledge of all resources, task schedules for all systems, and the relative priority of all resources and tasks. The executive can override any subsystem task schedule in order to resolve use conflicts or resolve errors that require resources from multiple subsystems. Interprocessor communication is implemented using the SAFTIES Communications Interface (SCI). The SCI is an application layer protocol which supports the SAFTIES distributed multi-level architecture.

  18. Study on Unified Chaotic System-Based Wind Turbine Blade Fault Diagnostic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ying-Che; Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Li, Yu-Chung

    At present, vibration signals are processed and analyzed mostly in the frequency domain. The spectrum clearly shows the signal structure and the specific characteristic frequency band is analyzed, but the number of calculations required is huge, resulting in delays. Therefore, this study uses the characteristics of a nonlinear system to load the complete vibration signal to the unified chaotic system, applying the dynamic error to analyze the wind turbine vibration signal, and adopting extenics theory for artificial intelligent fault diagnosis of the analysis signal. Hence, a fault diagnostor has been developed for wind turbine rotating blades. This study simulates three wind turbine blade states, namely stress rupture, screw loosening and blade loss, and validates the methods. The experimental results prove that the unified chaotic system used in this paper has a significant effect on vibration signal analysis. Thus, the operating conditions of wind turbines can be quickly known from this fault diagnostic system, and the maintenance schedule can be arranged before the faults worsen, making the management and implementation of wind turbines smoother, so as to reduce many unnecessary costs.

  19. Design of on-board Bluetooth wireless network system based on fault-tolerant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zheng; Zhang, Xiangqi; Yu, Shijie; Tian, Hexiang

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the Bluetooth wireless data transmission technology is applied in on-board computer system, to realize wireless data transmission between peripherals of the micro-satellite integrating electronic system, and in view of the high demand of reliability of a micro-satellite, a design of Bluetooth wireless network based on fault-tolerant technology is introduced. The reliability of two fault-tolerant systems is estimated firstly using Markov model, then the structural design of this fault-tolerant system is introduced; several protocols are established to make the system operate correctly, some related problems are listed and analyzed, with emphasis on Fault Auto-diagnosis System, Active-standby switch design and Data-Integrity process.

  20. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  1. Aksu-Dinar Fault System: Its bearing on the evolution of the Isparta Angle (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Özacar, Arda; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Özkaptan, Murat; Gülyüz, Erhan; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Uzel, Bora; McPhee, Peter; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    The Isparta Angle is a triangular structure in SW Turkey with NE-SW trending western and NW-SE trending eastern flanks. Aksu Fault is located within the core of this structure and have been taken-up large E-W shortening and sinistral translation since the Late Miocene. It is an inherited structure which emplaced Antalya nappes over the Beydaǧları Platform during the late Eocene to Late Miocene and was reactivated by the Pliocene as a high angle reverse fault to accommodate the counter-clockwise rotation of Beydaǧları and SW Anatolia. On the other hand, the Dinar Fault is a normal fault with slight sinistral component has been active since Pliocene. These two structures are collinear and delimit areas with clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations. The areas to the north and east of these structures rotated clockwise while southern and western areas are rotated counter-clockwise. We claim that the Dinar-Aksu Fault System facilitate rotational deformation in the region as a scissor like mechanism about a pivot point north of Burdur. This mechanism resulted in the normal motion along the Dinar and reverse motion along the Aksu faults with combined sinistral translation component on both structures. We claim that the driving force for the motion of these faults and counter-clockwise rotation of the SW Anatolia seems to be slab-pull forces exerted by the east dipping Antalya Slab, a relic of Tethys oceanic lithosphere. The research for this paper is supported by TUBITAK - Grant Number 111Y239. Key words: Dinar Fault, Aksu Fault, Isparta Angle, SW Turkey, Burdur Pivot, Normal Fault, Reverse Fault

  2. A Dynamic Finite Element Method for Simulating the Physics of Faults Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, E.; Mora, P.; Gross, L.; Weatherley, D.

    2004-12-01

    We introduce a dynamic Finite Element method using a novel high level scripting language to describe the physical equations, boundary conditions and time integration scheme. The library we use is the parallel Finley library: a finite element kernel library, designed for solving large-scale problems. It is incorporated as a differential equation solver into a more general library called escript, based on the scripting language Python. This library has been developed to facilitate the rapid development of 3D parallel codes, and is optimised for the Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator Major National Research Facility (ACcESS MNRF) supercomputer, a 208 processor SGI Altix with a peak performance of 1.1 TFlops. Using the scripting approach we obtain a parallel FE code able to take advantage of the computational efficiency of the Altix 3700. We consider faults as material discontinuities (the displacement, velocity, and acceleration fields are discontinuous at the fault), with elastic behavior. The stress continuity at the fault is achieved naturally through the expression of the fault interactions in the weak formulation. The elasticity problem is solved explicitly in time, using the Saint Verlat scheme. Finally, we specify a suitable frictional constitutive relation and numerical scheme to simulate fault behaviour. Our model is based on previous work on modelling fault friction and multi-fault systems using lattice solid-like models. We adapt the 2D model for simulating the dynamics of parallel fault systems described to the Finite-Element method. The approach uses a frictional relation along faults that is slip and slip-rate dependent, and the numerical integration approach introduced by Mora and Place in the lattice solid model. In order to illustrate the new Finite Element model, single and multi-fault simulation examples are presented.

  3. System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1990-01-01

    An electrical ground fault detection and limitation system for employment with a nuclear reactor utilizing a liquid metal coolant. Elongate electromagnetic pumps submerged within the liquid metal coolant and electrical support equipment experiencing an insulation breakdown occasion the development of electrical ground fault current. Without some form of detection and control, these currents may build to damaging power levels to expose the pump drive components to liquid metal coolant such as sodium with resultant undesirable secondary effects. Such electrical ground fault currents are detected and controlled through the employment of an isolated power input to the pumps and with the use of a ground fault control conductor providing a direct return path from the affected components to the power source. By incorporating a resistance arrangement with the ground fault control conductor, the amount of fault current permitted to flow may be regulated to the extent that the reactor may remain in operation until maintenance may be performed, notwithstanding the existence of the fault. Monitors such as synchronous demodulators may be employed to identify and evaluate fault currents for each phase of a polyphase power, and control input to the submerged pump and associated support equipment.

  4. Geophysical characterization of transtensional fault systems in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M.; Keranen, K. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Feldman, J. D.; Keller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) and Walker Lane belt (WL) accommodate ~25% of plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Faults within the Mina deflection link the ECSZ and the WL, transferring strain from the Owens Valley and Death Valley-Fish Lake Valley fault systems to the transcurrent faults of the central Walker Lane. During the mid to late Miocene the majority of strain between these systems was transferred through the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain (SPLM) extensional complex via a shallowly dipping detachment. Strain transfer has since primarily migrated north to the Mina Deflection; however, high-angle faults bounding sedimentary basins and discrepancies between geodetic and geologic models indicate that the SPLM complex may still actively transfer a portion of the strain from the ECSZ to the WL on a younger set of faults. Establishing the pattern and amount of active strain transfer within the SPLM region is required for a full accounting of strain accommodation, and provides insight into strain partitioning at the basin scale within a broader transtensional zone. To map the active structures in and near Clayton Valley, within the SPLM region, we collected seismic reflection and refraction profiles and a dense grid of gravity readings that were merged with existing gravity data. The primary goals were to determine the geometry of the high-angle fault system, the amount and sense of offset along each fault set, connectivity of the faults, and the relationship of these faults to the Miocene detachment. Seismic reflection profiles imaged the high-angle basin-bounding normal faults and the detachment in both the footwall and hanging wall. The extensional basin is ~1 km deep, with a steep southeastern boundary, a gentle slope to the northwest, and a sharp boundary on the northwest side, suggestive of another fault system. Two subparallel dip-slip faults bound the southeast (deeper) basin margin with a large lateral velocity change (from ~2

  5. Imaging the crustal structure of Haiti's transpressional fault system using seismicity and tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possee, D.; Keir, D.; Harmon, N.; Rychert, C.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Calais, E.; Boisson, D.; Ulysse, S. M. J.; Guerrier, K.; Momplaisir, R.; Prepetit, C.

    2017-12-01

    Oblique convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates has partitioned strain across an extensive transpressional fault system that bisects Haiti. Most recently the 2010, MW7.0 earthquake ruptured multiple thrust faults in southern Haiti. However, while the rupture mechanism has been well studied, how these faults are segmented and link to deformation across the plate boundary is still debated. Understanding the link between strain accumulation and faulting in Haiti is also key to future modelling of seismic hazards. To assess seismic activity and fault structures we used data from 31 broadband seismic stations deployed on Haiti for 16-months. Local earthquakes were recorded and hypocentre locations determined using a 1D velocity model. A high-quality subset of the data was then inverted using travel-time tomography for relocated hypocentres and 2D images of Vp and Vp/Vs crustal structure. Earthquake locations reveal two clusters of seismic activity, the first delineates faults associated with the 2010 earthquake and the second shows activity 100km further east along a thrust fault north of Lake Enriquillo (Dominican Republic). The velocity models show large variations in seismic properties across the plate boundary; shallow low-velocity zones with a 5-8% decrease in Vp and high Vp/Vs ratios of 1.85-1.95 correspond to sedimentary basins that form the low-lying terrain on Haiti. We also image a region with a 4-5% decrease in Vp and an increased Vp/Vs ratio of 1.80-1.85 dipping south to a depth of 20km beneath southern Haiti. This feature matches the location of a major thrust fault and suggests a substantial damage zone around this fault. Beneath northern Haiti a transition to lower Vp/Vs values of 1.70-1.75 reflects a compositional change from mafic facies such as the Caribbean large igneous province in the south, to arc magmatic facies associated with the Greater Antilles arc in the north. Our seismic images are consistent with the fault system across

  6. How does the architecture of a fault system controls magma upward migration through the crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrieta, P. C.; Cembrano, J. M.; Stanton-Yonge, A.; Hurtado, D.

    2017-12-01

    The orientation and relative disposition of adjacent faults locally disrupt the regional stress field, thus enhancing magma flow through previous or newly created favorable conduits. Moreover, the brittle-plastic transition (BPT), due to its stronger rheology, governs the average state of stress of shallower portions of the fault system. Furthermore, the BPT may coincide with the location of transient magma reservoirs, from which dikes can propagate upwards into the upper crust, shaping the inner structure of the volcanic arc. In this work, we examine the stress distribution in strike-slip duplexes with variable geometry, along with the critical fluid overpressure ratio (CFOP), which is the minimum value required for individual faults to fracture in tension. We also determine the stress state disruption of the fault system when a dike is emplaced, to answer open questions such as: what is the nature of favorable pathways for magma to migrate? what is the architecture influence on the feedback between fault system kinematics and magma injection? To this end, we present a 3D coupled hydro-mechanical finite element model of the continental lithosphere, where faults are represented as continuum volumes with an elastic-plastic rheology. Magma flow upon fracturing is modeled through non-linear Stoke's flow, coupling solid and fluid equilibrium. A non-linear sensitivity analysis is performed in function of tectonic, rheology and geometry inputs, to assess which are the first-order factors that governs the nature of dike emplacement. Results show that the CFOP is heterogeneously distributed in the fault system, and within individual fault segments. Minimum values are displayed near fault intersections, where local kinematics superimpose on regional tectonic loading. Furthermore, when magma is transported through a fault segment, the CFOP is now minimized in faults with non-favorable orientations. This suggests that these faults act as transient pathways for magma to

  7. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  8. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  9. An Integrated Fault Tolerant Robotic Controller System for High Reliability and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Tso, Kam S.; Hecht, Myron

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts and features of a fault-tolerant intelligent robotic control system being developed for applications that require high dependability (reliability, availability, and safety). The system consists of two major elements: a fault-tolerant controller and an operator workstation. The fault-tolerant controller uses a strategy which allows for detection and recovery of hardware, operating system, and application software failures.The fault-tolerant controller can be used by itself in a wide variety of applications in industry, process control, and communications. The controller in combination with the operator workstation can be applied to robotic applications such as spaceborne extravehicular activities, hazardous materials handling, inspection and maintenance of high value items (e.g., space vehicles, reactor internals, or aircraft), medicine, and other tasks where a robot system failure poses a significant risk to life or property.

  10. Data-driven simultaneous fault diagnosis for solid oxide fuel cell system using multi-label pattern identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuanghong; Cao, Hongliang; Yang, Yupu

    2018-02-01

    Fault diagnosis is a key process for the reliability and safety of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems. However, it is difficult to rapidly and accurately identify faults for complicated SOFC systems, especially when simultaneous faults appear. In this research, a data-driven Multi-Label (ML) pattern identification approach is proposed to address the simultaneous fault diagnosis of SOFC systems. The framework of the simultaneous-fault diagnosis primarily includes two components: feature extraction and ML-SVM classifier. The simultaneous-fault diagnosis approach can be trained to diagnose simultaneous SOFC faults, such as fuel leakage, air leakage in different positions in the SOFC system, by just using simple training data sets consisting only single fault and not demanding simultaneous faults data. The experimental result shows the proposed framework can diagnose the simultaneous SOFC system faults with high accuracy requiring small number training data and low computational burden. In addition, Fault Inference Tree Analysis (FITA) is employed to identify the correlations among possible faults and their corresponding symptoms at the system component level.

  11. Fault Deformation and Segmentation of the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon, and San Onofre Trend Fault Systems from New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Inner California Borderlands (ICB) is situated off the coast of southern California and northern Baja. The structural and geomorphic characteristics of the area record a middle Oligocene transition from subduction to microplate capture along the California coast. Marine stratigraphic evidence shows large-scale extension and rotation overprinted by modern strike-slip deformation. Geodetic and geologic observations indicate that approximately 6-8 mm/yr of Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by offshore strike-slip faulting in the ICB. The farthest inshore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon (NIRC) Fault is a dextral strike-slip system that is primarily offshore for approximately 120 km from San Diego to the San Joaquin Hills near Newport Beach, California. Based on trenching and well data, the NIRC Fault Holocene slip rate is 1.5-2.0 mm/yr to the south and 0.5-1.0 mm/yr along its northern extent. An earthquake rupturing the entire length of the system could produce an Mw 7.0 earthquake or larger. West of the main segments of the NIRC Fault is the San Onofre Trend (SOT) along the continental slope. Previous work concluded that this is part of a strike-slip system that eventually merges with the NIRC Fault. Others have interpreted this system as deformation associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust fault purported to underlie most of the region. In late 2013, we acquired the first high-resolution 3D Parallel Cable (P-Cable) seismic surveys of the NIRC and SOT faults as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project aboard the R/V New Horizon. Analysis of these data volumes provides important new insights and constraints on the fault segmentation and transfer of deformation. Based on this new data, we've mapped several small fault strands associated with the SOT that appear to link up with a westward jog in right-lateral fault splays of the NIRC Fault on the shelf and then narrowly radiate southwards. Our

  12. Robust fault detection of wind energy conversion systems based on dynamic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Nasser; Sadrnia, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of faults in wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) is inevitable. In order to detect the occurred faults at the appropriate time, avoid heavy economic losses, ensure safe system operation, prevent damage to adjacent relevant systems, and facilitate timely repair of failed components; a fault detection system (FDS) is required. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have gained a noticeable position in FDSs and they have been widely used for modeling of complex dynamical systems. One method for designing an FDS is to prepare a dynamic neural model emulating the normal system behavior. By comparing the outputs of the real system and neural model, incidence of the faults can be identified. In this paper, by utilizing a comprehensive dynamic model which contains both mechanical and electrical components of the WECS, an FDS is suggested using dynamic RNNs. The presented FDS detects faults of the generator's angular velocity sensor, pitch angle sensors, and pitch actuators. Robustness of the FDS is achieved by employing an adaptive threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is capable to detect the faults shortly and it has very low false and missed alarms rate.

  13. Robust Fault Detection of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Based on Dynamic Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Nasser; Sadrnia, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of faults in wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) is inevitable. In order to detect the occurred faults at the appropriate time, avoid heavy economic losses, ensure safe system operation, prevent damage to adjacent relevant systems, and facilitate timely repair of failed components; a fault detection system (FDS) is required. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have gained a noticeable position in FDSs and they have been widely used for modeling of complex dynamical systems. One method for designing an FDS is to prepare a dynamic neural model emulating the normal system behavior. By comparing the outputs of the real system and neural model, incidence of the faults can be identified. In this paper, by utilizing a comprehensive dynamic model which contains both mechanical and electrical components of the WECS, an FDS is suggested using dynamic RNNs. The presented FDS detects faults of the generator's angular velocity sensor, pitch angle sensors, and pitch actuators. Robustness of the FDS is achieved by employing an adaptive threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is capable to detect the faults shortly and it has very low false and missed alarms rate. PMID:24744774

  14. The 2017 Jiuzhaigou Earthquake: A Complicated Event Occurred in a Young Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianbao; Yue, Han; Shen, Zhengkang; Fang, Lihua; Zhan, Yan; Sun, Xiangyu

    2018-03-01

    The Minshan Uplift Zone (MUZ) is located at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which is the junction of three tectonic terranes. The observed discrepancy between a high uplifting and low shortening rate over the MUZ is attributed to the intrusion of a viscous lower crust. In the last 50 years, several significant earthquakes occurred at the boundaries of the MUZ, that is, the Huya and Mingjiang faults. On 8 August 2017, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake (Mw 6.5) occurred on the northern extension of the Huya fault. We adopt a joint inversion of the interferometric synthetic aperture radar and teleseismic body wave data to investigate the rupture process of this event. The obtained slip model is dominated by left-lateral strike slips on a subvertical fault presenting significant shallow slip deficit. The rupture initiation is composed of both thrust and strike-slip mechanisms producing a non-double-couple solution. We also resolve a secondary fault branch forming an obtuse angle with the main fault plane at its northern end. These phenomena indicate that the northern Huya fault is a young (less mature) fault system. Focal mechanisms of the regional earthquakes demonstrate that the northern and southern Huya faults present different combinations of strike-slip and reversed motion. We attribute such discrepancy to the lateral extension of the viscous lower crust, which appears to extrude to the east beyond the northern Huya fault, in comparison with that confined under the MUZ near the southern Huya fault. This conceptual model is also supported by geomorphological and magnetotelluric observations.

  15. Interseismic Deformation on the San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, P.

    2001-12-01

    Interseismic deformation measurements are most often interpreted in terms of steady slip on buried elastic dislocations. While such models often yield slip-rates that are in reasonable accord with geologic observations, they are: 1) inconsistent with observations of transient deformation following large earthquakes, and 2) tend to predict locking depths significantly deeper than recent large earthquakes. An alternate two-dimensional model of repeating earthquakes that break an elastic plate of thickness H, overlying a viscoelastic half-space with relaxation time tR (Savage and Prescott, 1978) involves 5 parameters; H, tR, t, T, and ˙ {s}, where t is the time since the last quake, T is the earthquake cycle time, and ˙ {s} is the slip-rate. Many parts of the SAF system involve multiple parallel faults, which further increases the number of parameters to be estimated. All hope is not lost, however, if we make use of a priori constraints on slip-rate from geologic studies, and utilize measurements of time dependent strain following the 1906 earthquake, in addition to the present day spatial distribution of deformation-rate. GPS data from the Carrizo Plain segment of the SAF imply a considerably larger relaxation time than inferred from the post-1906 strain-rate transient. This indicates that either the crustal structure differs significantly between northern and central California, or that the simple model is deficient, either due to time-dependent down-dip slip following large earthquakes or non-linear rheology. To test the effect of regional variations in H and tR, I analyze data from the northern San Francisco Bay area (Prescott et al, 2001, JGR), and include the SAF, the Hayward-Rogers Creek (HRC), and Concord-Green Valley faults (CGV). Non-linear optimization using simulated annealing and constrained non-linear least squares yields an optimal model with: H ~ 10 km, tR ~ 34 years, TSAF = 205 years, ˙ {s}SAF ~ 18 mm/yr, tHRC = 225 years, T{ HRC} = 630 years, and

  16. Method and system for fault accommodation of machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai Frank (Inventor); Subbu, Rajesh Venkat (Inventor); Rausch, Randal Thomas (Inventor); Frederick, Dean Kimball (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for multi-objective fault accommodation using predictive modeling is disclosed. The method includes using a simulated machine that simulates a faulted actual machine, and using a simulated controller that simulates an actual controller. A multi-objective optimization process is performed, based on specified control settings for the simulated controller and specified operational scenarios for the simulated machine controlled by the simulated controller, to generate a Pareto frontier-based solution space relating performance of the simulated machine to settings of the simulated controller, including adjustment to the operational scenarios to represent a fault condition of the simulated machine. Control settings of the actual controller are adjusted, represented by the simulated controller, for controlling the actual machine, represented by the simulated machine, in response to a fault condition of the actual machine, based on the Pareto frontier-based solution space, to maximize desirable operational conditions and minimize undesirable operational conditions while operating the actual machine in a region of the solution space defined by the Pareto frontier.

  17. Integrated multiple-model adaptive fault identification and reconfigurable fault-tolerant control for Lead-Wing close formation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Ke

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the attitude and position tracking control problem for Lead-Wing close formation systems in the presence of loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place or hardover failure. In close formation flight, Wing unmanned aerial vehicle movements are influenced by vortex effects of the neighbouring Lead unmanned aerial vehicle. This situation allows modelling of aerodynamic coupling vortex-effects and linearisation based on optimal close formation geometry. Linearised Lead-Wing close formation model is transformed into nominal robust H-infinity models with respect to Mach hold, Heading hold, and Altitude hold autopilots; static feedback H-infinity controller is designed to guarantee effective tracking of attitude and position while manoeuvring Lead unmanned aerial vehicle. Based on H-infinity control design, an integrated multiple-model adaptive fault identification and reconfigurable fault-tolerant control scheme is developed to guarantee asymptotic stability of close-loop systems, error signal boundedness, and attitude and position tracking properties. Simulation results for Lead-Wing close formation systems validate the efficiency of the proposed integrated multiple-model adaptive control algorithm.

  18. Automated Generation of Fault Management Artifacts from a Simple System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Andrew K.; Day, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of off-nominal behavior - failure modes and fault propagation - in complex systems is often based purely on engineering intuition; specific cases are assessed in an ad hoc fashion as a (fallible) fault management engineer sees fit. This work is an attempt to provide a more rigorous approach to this understanding and assessment by automating the creation of a fault management artifact, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) through querying a representation of the system in a SysML model. This work builds off the previous development of an off-nominal behavior model for the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We further developed the previous system model to more fully incorporate the ideas of State Analysis, and it was restructured in an organizational hierarchy that models the system as layers of control systems while also incorporating the concept of "design authority". We present software that was developed to traverse the elements and relationships in this model to automatically construct an FMEA spreadsheet. We further discuss extending this model to automatically generate other typical fault management artifacts, such as Fault Trees, to efficiently portray system behavior, and depend less on the intuition of fault management engineers to ensure complete examination of off-nominal behavior.

  19. The weakest t-norm based intuitionistic fuzzy fault-tree analysis to evaluate system reliability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mohit; Yadav, Shiv Prasad

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a new approach of intuitionistic fuzzy fault-tree analysis is proposed to evaluate system reliability and to find the most critical system component that affects the system reliability. Here weakest t-norm based intuitionistic fuzzy fault tree analysis is presented to calculate fault interval of system components from integrating expert's knowledge and experience in terms of providing the possibility of failure of bottom events. It applies fault-tree analysis, α-cut of intuitionistic fuzzy set and T(ω) (the weakest t-norm) based arithmetic operations on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy sets to obtain fault interval and reliability interval of the system. This paper also modifies Tanaka et al.'s fuzzy fault-tree definition. In numerical verification, a malfunction of weapon system "automatic gun" is presented as a numerical example. The result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of reliability analysis methods. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and kinematics of the Sumatran Fault System in North Sumatra (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Philippon, Melody; von Hagke, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Lithospheric-scale faults related to oblique subduction are responsible for some of the most hazardous earthquakes reported worldwide. The mega-thrust in the Sunda sector of the Sumatran oblique subduction has been intensively studied, especially after the infamous 2004 Mw 9.1 earthquake, but its onshore kinematic complement within the Sumatran subduction, the transform Sumatran Fault System, has received considerably less attention. In this paper, we apply a combination of analysis of Digital Elevation Models (ASTER GDEM) and field evidence to resolve the kinematics of the leading edge of deformation of the northern sector of the Sumatran Fault System. To this end, we mapped the northernmost tip of Sumatra, including the islands to the northwest, between 4.5°N and 6°N. Here, major topographic highs are related to different faults. Using field evidence and our GDEM structural mapping, we can show that in the area where the fault bifurcates into two fault strands, two independent kinematic regimes evolve, both consistent with the large-scale framework of the Sumatran Fault System. Whereas the eastern branch is a classic Riedel system, the western branch features a fold-and-thrust belt. The latter contractional feature accommodated significant amounts (c. 20%) of shortening of the system in the study area. Our field observations of the tip of the NSFS match a strain pattern with a western contractional domain (Pulau Weh thrust splay) and an eastern extensional domain (Pulau Aceh Riedel system), which are together characteristic of the tip of a propagating strike-slip fault, from a mechanical viewpoint. For the first time, we describe the strain partitioning resulting from the propagation of the NSFS in Sumatra mainland. Our study helps understanding complex kinematics of an evolving strike-slip system, and stresses the importance of field studies in addition to remote sensing and geophysical studies.

  1. Scaling Relations of Earthquakes on Inland Active Mega-Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotani, S.; Matsushima, S.; Azuma, T.; Irikura, K.; Kitagawa, S.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2005, The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) has been publishing 'National Seismic Hazard Maps for Japan' to provide useful information for disaster prevention countermeasures for the country and local public agencies, as well as promote public awareness of disaster prevention of earthquakes. In the course of making the year 2009 version of the map, which is the commemorate of the tenth anniversary of the settlement of the Comprehensive Basic Policy, the methods to evaluate magnitude of earthquakes, to predict strong ground motion, and to construct underground structure were investigated in the Earthquake Research Committee and its subcommittees. In order to predict the magnitude of earthquakes occurring on mega-fault systems, we examined the scaling relations for mega-fault systems using 11 earthquakes of which source processes were analyzed by waveform inversion and of which surface information was investigated. As a result, we found that the data fit in between the scaling relations of seismic moment and rupture area by Somerville et al. (1999) and Irikura and Miyake (2001). We also found that maximum displacement of surface rupture is two to three times larger than the average slip on the seismic fault and surface fault length is equal to length of the source fault. Furthermore, compiled data of the source fault shows that displacement saturates at 10m when fault length(L) is beyond 100km, L>100km. By assuming the fault width (W) to be 18km in average of inland earthquakes in Japan, and the displacement saturate at 10m for length of more than 100 km, we derived a new scaling relation between source area and seismic moment, S[km^2] = 1.0 x 10^-17 M0 [Nm] for mega-fault systems that seismic moment (M0) exceeds 1.8×10^20 Nm.

  2. PLAT: An Automated Fault and Behavioural Anomaly Detection Tool for PLC Controlled Manufacturing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arup; Qin, Shiming; Lee, Jooyeoun

    2016-01-01

    Operational faults and behavioural anomalies associated with PLC control processes take place often in a manufacturing system. Real time identification of these operational faults and behavioural anomalies is necessary in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we present an automated tool, called PLC Log-Data Analysis Tool (PLAT) that can detect them by using log-data records of the PLC signals. PLAT automatically creates a nominal model of the PLC control process and employs a novel hash table based indexing and searching scheme to satisfy those purposes. Our experiments show that PLAT is significantly fast, provides real time identification of operational faults and behavioural anomalies, and can execute within a small memory footprint. In addition, PLAT can easily handle a large manufacturing system with a reasonable computing configuration and can be installed in parallel to the data logging system to identify operational faults and behavioural anomalies effectively. PMID:27974882

  3. PLAT: An Automated Fault and Behavioural Anomaly Detection Tool for PLC Controlled Manufacturing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arup; Qin, Shiming; Lee, Jooyeoun; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Operational faults and behavioural anomalies associated with PLC control processes take place often in a manufacturing system. Real time identification of these operational faults and behavioural anomalies is necessary in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we present an automated tool, called PLC Log-Data Analysis Tool (PLAT) that can detect them by using log-data records of the PLC signals. PLAT automatically creates a nominal model of the PLC control process and employs a novel hash table based indexing and searching scheme to satisfy those purposes. Our experiments show that PLAT is significantly fast, provides real time identification of operational faults and behavioural anomalies, and can execute within a small memory footprint. In addition, PLAT can easily handle a large manufacturing system with a reasonable computing configuration and can be installed in parallel to the data logging system to identify operational faults and behavioural anomalies effectively.

  4. Simultaneous fault detection and control design for switched systems with two quantized signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Park, Ju H; Ye, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of simultaneous fault detection and control design for switched systems with two quantized signals is presented in this paper. Dynamic quantizers are employed, respectively, before the output is passed to fault detector, and before the control input is transmitted to the switched system. Taking the quantized errors into account, the robust performance for this kind of system is given. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for the existence of fault detector/controller are presented in the framework of linear matrix inequalities, and fault detector/controller gains and the supremum of quantizer range are derived by a convex optimized method. Finally, two illustrative examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neotectonic Geomorphology of the Owen Stanley Oblique-slip Fault System, Eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.

    2003-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown that the Australia-Woodlark plate boundary bisects the Papuan Peninsula of Papua New Guinea and that interplate motion along the boundary varies from about 19 mm/yr of orthogonal opening in the area of the western Woodlark spreading center and D'Entrecasteaux Islands, to about 12 mm/yr of highly oblique opening in the central part of the peninsula, to about 10 mm/yr of transpressional motion on the western part of the peninsula. We have compiled a GIS database for the peninsula that includes a digital elevation model, geologic map, LANDSAT and radar imagery, and earthquake focal mechanisms. This combined data set demonstrates the regional importance of the 600-km-long Owen Stanley fault system (OSFS) in accommodating interplate motion and controlling the geomorphology and geologic exposures of the peninsula. The OSFS originated as a NE-dipping, reactivated Oligocene-Early Miocene age ophiolitic suture zone between an Australian continental margin and the Melanesian arc system. Pliocene to recent motion on the plate boundary has reactivated motion on the former NE-dipping thrust fault either as a NE-dipping normal fault in the eastern area or as a more vertical strike-slip fault in the western area. The broadly arcuate shape of the OSFS is probably an inherited feature from the original thrust fault. Faults in the eastern area (east of 148° E) exhibit characteristics expected for normal and oblique slip faults including: discontinuous fault traces bounding an upthrown highland block and a downthrown coastal plain or submarine block, transfer faults parallel to the opening direction, scarps facing to both the northeast and southwest, and spatial association with recent volcanism. Faults in the western area (west of 148° E) exibit characteristics expected for left-lateral strike-slip faults including: linear and continuous fault trace commonly confined to a deep, intermontane valley and sinistral offsets and deflections of rivers and

  6. Deformation rates across the San Andreas Fault system, central California determined by geology and geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Sarah J.

    The San Andreas fault system is a transpressional plate boundary characterized by sub-parallel dextral strike-slip faults separating internally deformed crustal blocks in central California. Both geodetic and geologic tools were used to understand the short- and long-term partitioning of deformation in both the crust and the lithospheric mantle across the plate boundary system. GPS data indicate that the short-term discrete deformation rate is ˜28 mm/yr for the central creeping segment of the San Andreas fault and increases to 33 mm/yr at +/-35 km from the fault. This gradient in deformation rates is interpreted to reflect elastic locking of the creeping segment at depth, distributed off-fault deformation, or some combination of these two mechanisms. These short-term fault-parallel deformation rates are slower than the expected geologic slip rate and the relative plate motion rate. Structural analysis of folds and transpressional kinematic modeling were used to quantify long-term distributed deformation adjacent to the Rinconada fault. Folding accommodates approximately 5 km of wrench deformation, which translates to a deformation rate of ˜1 mm/yr since the start of the Pliocene. Integration with discrete offset on the Rinconada fault indicates that this portion of the San Andreas fault system is approximately 80% strike-slip partitioned. This kinematic fold model can be applied to the entire San Andreas fault system and may explain some of the across-fault gradient in deformation rates recorded by the geodetic data. Petrologic examination of mantle xenoliths from the Coyote Lake basalt near the Calaveras fault was used to link crustal plate boundary deformation at the surface with models for the accommodation of deformation in the lithospheric mantle. Seismic anisotropy calculations based on xenolith petrofabrics suggest that an anisotropic mantle layer thickness of 35-85 km is required to explain the observed shear wave splitting delay times in central

  7. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine during fault conditions

    DOEpatents

    Krefta, Ronald John; Walters, James E.; Gunawan, Fani S.

    2004-05-25

    Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine driven by an inverter is provided. The method allows for monitoring a signal indicative of a fault condition. The method further allows for generating during the fault condition a respective signal configured to maintain a field weakening current even though electrical power from an energy source is absent during said fault condition. The level of the maintained field-weakening current enables the machine to operate in a safe mode so that the inverter is protected from excess voltage.

  8. Response of deformation patterns to reorganizations of the southern San Andreas fault system since ca. 1.5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.; Fattaruso, L.; Dorsey, R. J.; Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Between ~1.5 and 1.1 Ma, the southern San Andreas fault system underwent a major reorganization that included initiation of the San Jacinto fault and termination of slip on the extensional West Salton detachment fault. The southern San Andreas fault itself has also evolved since this time, with several shifts in activity among fault strands within San Gorgonio Pass. We use three-dimensional mechanical Boundary Element Method models to investigate the impact of these changes to the fault network on deformation patterns. A series of snapshot models of the succession of active fault geometries explore the role of fault interaction and tectonic loading in abandonment of the West Salton detachment fault, initiation of the San Jacinto fault, and shifts in activity of the San Andreas fault. Interpreted changes to uplift patterns are well matched by model results. These results support the idea that growth of the San Jacinto fault led to increased uplift rates in the San Gabriel Mountains and decreased uplift rates in the San Bernardino Mountains. Comparison of model results for vertical axis rotation to data from paleomagnetic studies reveals a good match to local rotation patterns in the Mecca Hills and Borrego Badlands. We explore the mechanical efficiency at each step in the evolution, and find an overall trend toward increased efficiency through time. Strain energy density patterns are used to identify regions of off-fault deformation and potential incipient faulting. These patterns support the notion of north-to-south propagation of the San Jacinto fault during its initiation. The results of the present-day model are compared with microseismicity focal mechanisms to provide additional insight into the patterns of off-fault deformation within the southern San Andreas fault system.

  9. Interseismic deformation and moment deficit along the Manila subduction zone and the Philippine Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y. J.; Yu, S. B.; Loveless, J. P.; Bacolcol, T.; Woessner, J.; Solidum, R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Sunda plate converges obliquely with the Philippine Sea plate with a rate of ~100 mm/yr and results in the sinistral slip along the 1300 km-long Philippine fault. Using GPS data from 1998 to 2013 as well as a block modeling approach, we decompose the crustal motion into multiple rotating blocks and elastic deformation associated with fault slip at block boundaries. Our preferred model composed of 8 blocks, produces a mean residual velocity of 3.4 mm/yr at 93 GPS stations. Estimated long-term slip rates along the Manila subduction zone show a gradual southward decrease from 66 mm/yr at the northwest tip of Luzon to 60 mm/yr at the southern portion of the Manila Trench. We infer a low coupling fraction of 11% offshore northwest Luzon and a coupling fraction of 27% near the subduction of Scarborough Seamount. The accumulated strain along the Manila subduction zone at latitudes 15.5°~18.5°N could be balanced by earthquakes with composite magnitudes of Mw 8.7 and Mw 8.9 based on a recurrence interval of 500 years and 1000 years, respectively. Estimates of sinistral slip rates on the major splay faults of the Philippine fault system in central Luzon increase from east to west: sinistral slip rates are 2 mm/yr on the Dalton fault, 8 mm/yr on the Abra River fault, and 12 mm/yr on the Tubao fault. On the southern segment of the Philippine fault (Digdig fault), we infer left-lateral slip of ~20 mm/yr. The Vigan-Aggao fault in northwest Luzon exhibits significant reverse slip of up to 31 mm/yr, although deformation may be distributed across multiple offshore thrust faults. On the Northern Cordillera fault, we calculate left-lateral slip of ~7 mm/yr. Results of block modeling suggest that the majority of active faults in Luzon are fully locked to a depth of 15-20 km. Inferred moment magnitudes of inland large earthquakes in Luzon fall in the range of Mw 7.0-7.5 based on a recurrence interval of 100 years. Using the long-term plate convergence rate between the Sunda plate

  10. Techniques for Fault Detection and Visualization of Telemetry Dependence Relationships for Root Cause Fault Analysis in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Nathaniel

    This thesis explores new ways of looking at telemetry data, from a time-correlative perspective, in order to see patterns within the data that may suggest root causes of system faults. It was thought initially that visualizing an animated Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) matrix for telemetry channels would be sufficient to give new understanding; however, testing showed that the high dimensionality and inability to easily look at change over time in this approach impeded understanding. Different correlative techniques, combined with the time curve visualization proposed by Bach et al (2015), were adapted to visualize both raw telemetry and telemetry data correlations. Review revealed that these new techniques give insights into the data, and an intuitive grasp of data families, which show the effectiveness of this approach for enhancing system understanding and assisting with root cause analysis for complex aerospace systems.

  11. Integral Sliding Mode Fault-Tolerant Control for Uncertain Linear Systems Over Networks With Signals Quantization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Ying; Park, Ju H; Ye, Dan

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new robust fault-tolerant compensation control method for uncertain linear systems over networks is proposed, where only quantized signals are assumed to be available. This approach is based on the integral sliding mode (ISM) method where two kinds of integral sliding surfaces are constructed. One is the continuous-state-dependent surface with the aim of sliding mode stability analysis and the other is the quantization-state-dependent surface, which is used for ISM controller design. A scheme that combines the adaptive ISM controller and quantization parameter adjustment strategy is then proposed. Through utilizing H ∞ control analytical technique, once the system is in the sliding mode, the nature of performing disturbance attenuation and fault tolerance from the initial time can be found without requiring any fault information. Finally, the effectiveness of our proposed ISM control fault-tolerant schemes against quantization errors is demonstrated in the simulation.

  12. A Novel Mittag-Leffler Kernel Based Hybrid Fault Diagnosis Method for Wheeled Robot Driving System.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianfeng; Song, Mumin; Zhou, Fengyu; Chen, Zhumin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The wheeled robots have been successfully applied in many aspects, such as industrial handling vehicles, and wheeled service robots. To improve the safety and reliability of wheeled robots, this paper presents a novel hybrid fault diagnosis framework based on Mittag-Leffler kernel (ML-kernel) support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) fusion. Using sensor data sampled under different running conditions, the proposed approach initially establishes multiple principal component analysis (PCA) models for fault feature extraction. The fault feature vectors are then applied to train the probabilistic SVM (PSVM) classifiers that arrive at a preliminary fault diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of preliminary results, a novel ML-kernel based PSVM classifier is proposed in this paper, and the positive definiteness of the ML-kernel is proved as well. The basic probability assignments (BPAs) are defined based on the preliminary fault diagnosis results and their confidence values. Eventually, the final fault diagnosis result is archived by the fusion of the BPAs. Experimental results show that the proposed framework not only is capable of detecting and identifying the faults in the robot driving system, but also has better performance in stability and diagnosis accuracy compared with the traditional methods.

  13. A Novel Mittag-Leffler Kernel Based Hybrid Fault Diagnosis Method for Wheeled Robot Driving System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianfeng; Song, Mumin; Chen, Zhumin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The wheeled robots have been successfully applied in many aspects, such as industrial handling vehicles, and wheeled service robots. To improve the safety and reliability of wheeled robots, this paper presents a novel hybrid fault diagnosis framework based on Mittag-Leffler kernel (ML-kernel) support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) fusion. Using sensor data sampled under different running conditions, the proposed approach initially establishes multiple principal component analysis (PCA) models for fault feature extraction. The fault feature vectors are then applied to train the probabilistic SVM (PSVM) classifiers that arrive at a preliminary fault diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of preliminary results, a novel ML-kernel based PSVM classifier is proposed in this paper, and the positive definiteness of the ML-kernel is proved as well. The basic probability assignments (BPAs) are defined based on the preliminary fault diagnosis results and their confidence values. Eventually, the final fault diagnosis result is archived by the fusion of the BPAs. Experimental results show that the proposed framework not only is capable of detecting and identifying the faults in the robot driving system, but also has better performance in stability and diagnosis accuracy compared with the traditional methods. PMID:26229526

  14. Tectonic reversal of the western Doruneh Fault System: Implications for Central Asian tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Hamid Reza; Esterabi Ashtiani, Marzieh; Guest, Bernard; Yassaghi, Ali; Ghassemi, Mohammad Reza; Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Naeimi, Amir

    2015-10-01

    The left-lateral Doruneh Fault System (DFS) bounds the north margin of the Central Iranian microplate and has played an important role in the structural evolution of the Turkish-Iranian plateau. The western termination of the DFS is a sinistral synthetic branch fault array that shows clear kinematic evidence of having undergone recent slip sense inversion from a dextral array to a sinistral array in the latest Neogene or earliest Quaternary. Similarly, kinematic evidence from the Anarak Metamorphic complex suggests that this complex initially developed at a transpressive left-stepping termination of the DFS and that it was inverted in the latest Neogene to a transtensional fault termination. The recognition that the DFS and other faults in NE Iran were inverted from dextral to sinistral strike slip in the latest Neogene and the likely connection between the DFS and the Herat Fault of Afghanistan suggests that prior to the latest Miocene, all of the north Iranian and northern Afghan ranges were part of a distributed dextral fault network that extended from the west Himalayan syntaxes to the western Alborz. Also, the recognition that regional slip sense inversion occurred across northern and northeastern Iran after the latest Miocene invalidates tectonic models that extrapolate Pleistocene to recent fault slip kinematics and rates back beyond this time.

  15. Palaeopermeability structure within fault-damage zones: A snap-shot from microfracture analyses in a strike-slip system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomila, Rodrigo; Arancibia, Gloria; Mitchell, Thomas M.; Cembrano, Jose M.; Faulkner, Daniel R.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding fault zone permeability and its spatial distribution allows the assessment of fluid-migration leading to precipitation of hydrothermal minerals. This work is aimed at unraveling the conditions and distribution of fluid transport properties in fault zones based on hydrothermally filled microfractures, which reflect the ''frozen-in'' instantaneous advective hydrothermal activity and record palaeopermeability conditions of the fault-fracture system. We studied the Jorgillo Fault, an exposed 20 km long, left-lateral strike-slip fault, which juxtaposes Jurassic gabbro against metadiorite belonging to the Atacama Fault System in northern Chile. Tracings of microfracture networks of 19 oriented thin sections from a 400 m long transect across the main fault trace was carried out to estimate the hydraulic properties of the low-strain fault damagezone, adjacent to the high-strain fault core, by assuming penny-shaped microfractures of constant radius and aperture within an anisotropic fracture system. Palaeopermeability values of 9.1*10-11 to 3.2*10-13 m2 in the gabbro and of 5.0*10-10 to 1.2*10-13 m2 in the metadiorite were determined, both decreasing perpendicularly away from the fault core. Fracture porosity values range from 40.00% to 0.28%. The Jorgillo Fault has acted as a left-lateral dilational fault-bend, generating large-scale dilation sites north of the JF during co-seismic activity.

  16. Expert System for Test Program Set Fault Candidate Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Mark Herbst Mr. Paul Janusz Mr. Wayne Lee Ms. Patricia Lyon Ms. Sharyn McDowell Mr. Richard Payne Ms. Elizabeth Parliman Mr. Albert Stanbury Ms. Allison...SMCAR-ESP-L AMSMC-QA(R) AMSMC-QAK-B(R), R. Fer Rock Island, IL 61299-6000 28 Commander U.S. Army Materiel Command ATTN: AMCQA-E, Mr. Chris Neubert AMCPD...ATTN: AMSEL-PA-MT-S, Mr. Paul Kogut Mr. Andy Mills AMSEL-PA AMSEL-PA-DL AMSEL-RD-SE-CRM-CM AMSEL-RD-SE-AST Ft. Monmouth, NJ 07703-5023 35 Director U.S

  17. Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-07

    On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03881

  18. 3D Constraints On Fault Architecture and Strain Distribution of the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon and San Onofre Trend Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Inner California Borderlands (ICB) is situated off the coast of southern California and northern Baja. The structural and geomorphic characteristics of the area record a middle Oligocene transition from subduction to microplate capture along the California coast. Marine stratigraphic evidence shows large-scale extension and rotation overprinted by modern strike-slip deformation. Geodetic and geologic observations indicate that approximately 6-8 mm/yr of Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by offshore strike-slip faulting in the ICB. The farthest inshore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon (NIRC) Fault is a dextral strike-slip system that is primarily offshore for approximately 120 km from San Diego to the San Joaquin Hills near Newport Beach, California. Based on trenching and well data, the NIRC Fault Holocene slip rate is 1.5-2.0 mm/yr to the south and 0.5-1.0 mm/yr along its northern extent. An earthquake rupturing the entire length of the system could produce an Mw 7.0 earthquake or larger. West of the main segments of the NIRC Fault is the San Onofre Trend (SOT) along the continental slope. Previous work concluded that this is part of a strike-slip system that eventually merges with the NIRC Fault. Others have interpreted this system as deformation associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust Fault purported to underlie most of the region. In late 2013, we acquired the first high-resolution 3D Parallel Cable (P-Cable) seismic surveys of the NIRC and SOT faults as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project. Analysis of stratigraphy and 3D mapping of this new data has yielded a new kinematic fault model of the area that provides new insight on deformation caused by interactions in both compressional and extensional regimes. For the first time, we can reconstruct fault interaction and investigate how strain is distributed through time along a typical strike-slip margin using 3D constraints on fault

  19. Two-Phase Exhumation of the Santa Rosa Mountains: Low- and High-Angle Normal Faulting During Initiation and Evolution of the Southern San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Cody C.; Spotila, James A.; Axen, Gary; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Luther, Amy; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2017-12-01

    Low-angle detachment fault systems are important elements of oblique-divergent plate boundaries, yet the role detachment faulting plays in the development of such boundaries is poorly understood. The West Salton Detachment Fault (WSDF) is a major low-angle normal fault that formed coeval with localization of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Salton Trough, CA. Apatite U-Th/He thermochronometry (AHe; n = 29 samples) and thermal history modeling of samples from the Santa Rosa Mountains (SRM) reveal that initial exhumation along the WSDF began at circa 8 Ma, exhuming footwall material from depths of >2 to 3 km. An uplifted fossil (Miocene) helium partial retention zone is present in the eastern SRM, while a deeper crustal section has been exhumed along the Pleistocene high-angle Santa Rosa Fault (SFR) to much higher elevations in the southwest SRM. Detachment-related vertical exhumation rates in the SRM were 0.15-0.36 km/Myr, with maximum fault slip rates of 1.2-3.0 km/Myr. Miocene AHe isochrons across the SRM are consistent with northeast crustal tilting of the SRM block and suggest that the post-WSDF vertical exhumation rate along the SRF was 1.3 km/Myr. The timing of extension initiation in the Salton Trough suggests that clockwise rotation of relative plate motions that began at 8 Ma is associated with initiation of the southern San Andreas system. Pleistocene regional tectonic reorganization was contemporaneous with an abrupt transition from low- to high-angle faulting and indicates that local fault geometry may at times exert a fundamental control on rock uplift rates along strike-slip fault systems.

  20. Numerical simulations of earthquakes and the dynamics of fault systems using the Finite Element method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, L. M.; Mora, P.; Weatherley, D.; Gross, L.; Xing, H.

    2006-12-01

    Simulations using the Finite Element method are widely used in many engineering applications and for the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). Computational models based on the solution of PDEs play a key role in earth systems simulations. We present numerical modelling of crustal fault systems where the dynamic elastic wave equation is solved using the Finite Element method. This is achieved using a high level computational modelling language, escript, available as open source software from ACcESS (Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator), the University of Queensland. Escript is an advanced geophysical simulation software package developed at ACcESS which includes parallel equation solvers, data visualisation and data analysis software. The escript library was implemented to develop a flexible Finite Element model which reliably simulates the mechanism of faulting and the physics of earthquakes. Both 2D and 3D elastodynamic models are being developed to study the dynamics of crustal fault systems. Our final goal is to build a flexible model which can be applied to any fault system with user-defined geometry and input parameters. To study the physics of earthquake processes, two different time scales must be modelled, firstly the quasi-static loading phase which gradually increases stress in the system (~100years), and secondly the dynamic rupture process which rapidly redistributes stress in the system (~100secs). We will discuss the solution of the time-dependent elastic wave equation for an arbitrary fault system using escript. This involves prescribing the correct initial stress distribution in the system to simulate the quasi-static loading of faults to failure; determining a suitable frictional constitutive law which accurately reproduces the dynamics of the stick/slip instability at the faults; and using a robust time integration scheme. These dynamic models generate data and information that can be used for earthquake forecasting.

  1. Detection of High-impedance Arcing Faults in Radial Distribution DC Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Button, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    High voltage, low current arcing faults in DC power systems have been researched at the NASA Glenn Research Center in order to develop a method for detecting these 'hidden faults', in-situ, before damage to cables and components from localized heating can occur. A simple arc generator was built and high-speed and low-speed monitoring of the voltage and current waveforms, respectively, has shown that these high impedance faults produce a significant increase in high frequency content in the DC bus voltage and low frequency content in the DC system current. Based on these observations, an algorithm was developed using a high-speed data acquisition system that was able to accurately detect high impedance arcing events induced in a single-line system based on the frequency content of the DC bus voltage or the system current. Next, a multi-line, radial distribution system was researched to see if the arc location could be determined through the voltage information when multiple 'detectors' are present in the system. It was shown that a small, passive LC filter was sufficient to reliably isolate the fault to a single line in a multi-line distribution system. Of course, no modification is necessary if only the current information is used to locate the arc. However, data shows that it might be necessary to monitor both the system current and bus voltage to improve the chances of detecting and locating high impedance arcing faults

  2. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  3. Energy-efficient fault tolerance in multiprocessor real-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yifeng

    The recent progress in the multiprocessor/multicore systems has important implications for real-time system design and operation. From vehicle navigation to space applications as well as industrial control systems, the trend is to deploy multiple processors in real-time systems: systems with 4 -- 8 processors are common, and it is expected that many-core systems with dozens of processing cores will be available in near future. For such systems, in addition to general temporal requirement common for all real-time systems, two additional operational objectives are seen as critical: energy efficiency and fault tolerance. An intriguing dimension of the problem is that energy efficiency and fault tolerance are typically conflicting objectives, due to the fact that tolerating faults (e.g., permanent/transient) often requires extra resources with high energy consumption potential. In this dissertation, various techniques for energy-efficient fault tolerance in multiprocessor real-time systems have been investigated. First, the Reliability-Aware Power Management (RAPM) framework, which can preserve the system reliability with respect to transient faults when Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) is applied for energy savings, is extended to support parallel real-time applications with precedence constraints. Next, the traditional Standby-Sparing (SS) technique for dual processor systems, which takes both transient and permanent faults into consideration while saving energy, is generalized to support multiprocessor systems with arbitrary number of identical processors. Observing the inefficient usage of slack time in the SS technique, a Preference-Oriented Scheduling Framework is designed to address the problem where tasks are given preferences for being executed as soon as possible (ASAP) or as late as possible (ALAP). A preference-oriented earliest deadline (POED) scheduler is proposed and its application in multiprocessor systems for energy-efficient fault tolerance is

  4. A no-fault compensation system for medical injury is long overdue.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, David; Breen, Kerry J

    2012-09-03

    The 2011 report of the Productivity Commission (PC) recommended the establishment of a no-fault national injury insurance scheme limited to "catastrophic" injury, including medical injury. The report is welcome, but represents a missed opportunity to establish simultaneously a much-needed no-fault scheme for all medical injuries. The existing indemnity scheme based on negligence remains a slow, costly, inefficient, ill targeted and stress-creating system. A fault-based negligence scheme cannot deter non-intentional errors and does little to identify or prevent systems failures. In addition, it discourages reporting, and thus is antithetical to the modern focus on universal patient safety. A no-fault scheme has the potential to be fairer, quicker and no more costly, and to contribute to patient safety. No-fault schemes have been in place in at least six developed countries for many years. This extensive experience in comparable countries should be examined to assist Australia to design an effective, comprehensive system. Before implementing the recommendations of the PC, the federal government should ask the Commission to study and promptly report on an ancillary no-fault scheme that covers all medical injury.

  5. Unraveling the Earthquake History of the Denali Fault System, Alaska: Filling a Blank Canvas With Paleoearthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. P.; Haeussler, P. J.; Seitz, G. G.; Dawson, T. E.; Stenner, H. D.; Matmon, A.; Crone, A. J.; Personius, S.; Burns, P. B.; Cadena, A.; Thoms, E.

    2005-12-01

    Developing accurate rupture histories of long, high-slip-rate strike-slip faults is is especially challenging where recurrence is relatively short (hundreds of years), adjacent segments may fail within decades of each other, and uncertainties in dating can be as large as, or larger than, the time between events. The Denali Fault system (DFS) is the major active structure of interior Alaska, but received little study since pioneering fault investigations in the early 1970s. Until the summer of 2003 essentially no data existed on the timing or spatial distribution of past ruptures on the DFS. This changed with the occurrence of the M7.9 2002 Denali fault earthquake, which has been a catalyst for present paleoseismic investigations. It provided a well-constrained rupture length and slip distribution. Strike-slip faulting occurred along 290 km of the Denali and Totschunda faults, leaving unruptured ?140km of the eastern Denali fault, ?180 km of the western Denali fault, and ?70 km of the eastern Totschunda fault. The DFS presents us with a blank canvas on which to fill a chronology of past earthquakes using modern paleoseismic techniques. Aware of correlation issues with potentially closely-timed earthquakes we have a) investigated 11 paleoseismic sites that allow a variety of dating techniques, b) measured paleo offsets, which provide insight into magnitude and rupture length of past events, at 18 locations, and c) developed late Pleistocene and Holocene slip rates using exposure age dating to constrain long-term fault behavior models. We are in the process of: 1) radiocarbon-dating peats involved in faulting and liquefaction, and especially short-lived forest floor vegetation that includes outer rings of trees, spruce needles, and blueberry leaves killed and buried during paleoearthquakes; 2) supporting development of a 700-900 year tree-ring time-series for precise dating of trees used in event timing; 3) employing Pb 210 for constraining the youngest ruptures in

  6. Validation Methods Research for Fault-Tolerant Avionics and Control Systems: Working Group Meeting, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, J. W. (Editor); Trivedi, K. S. (Editor); Clary, J. B. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The validation process comprises the activities required to insure the agreement of system realization with system specification. A preliminary validation methodology for fault tolerant systems documented. A general framework for a validation methodology is presented along with a set of specific tasks intended for the validation of two specimen system, SIFT and FTMP. Two major areas of research are identified. First, are those activities required to support the ongoing development of the validation process itself, and second, are those activities required to support the design, development, and understanding of fault tolerant systems.

  7. Fault recovery characteristics of the fault tolerant multi-processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The fault handling performance of the fault tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) was investigated. Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles byzantine or lying faults. It is pointed out that these weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good LRU (line replaceable unit) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software. It is concluded that fault injection can help detect and analyze the behavior of a system in the ultra-reliable regime. Although fault injection testing cannot be exhaustive, it has been demonstrated that it provides a unique capability to unmask problems and to characterize the behavior of a fault-tolerant system.

  8. Comparative study of superconducting fault current limiter both for LCC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Geon; Khan, Umer Amir; Lim, Sung-Woo; Shin, Woo-ju; Seo, In-Jin; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2015-11-01

    High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) system has been evaluated as the optimum solution for the renewable energy transmission and long-distance power grid connections. In spite of the various advantages of HVDC system, it still has been regarded as an unreliable system compared to AC system due to its vulnerable characteristics on the power system fault. Furthermore, unlike AC system, optimum protection and switching device has not been fully developed yet. Therefore, in order to enhance the reliability of the HVDC systems mitigation of power system fault and reliable fault current limiting and switching devices should be developed. In this paper, in order to mitigate HVDC fault, both for Line Commutated Converter HVDC (LCC-HVDC) and Voltage Source Converter HVDC (VSC-HVDC) system, an application of resistive superconducting fault current limiter which has been known as optimum solution to cope with the power system fault was considered. Firstly, simulation models for two types of LCC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC system which has point to point connection model were developed. From the designed model, fault current characteristics of faulty condition were analyzed. Second, application of SFCL on each types of HVDC system and comparative study of modified fault current characteristics were analyzed. Consequently, it was deduced that an application of AC-SFCL on LCC-HVDC system with point to point connection was desirable solution to mitigate the fault current stresses and to prevent commutation failure in HVDC electric power system interconnected with AC grid.

  9. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Peltzer, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  10. Method and system for early detection of incipient faults in electric motors

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G; Kim, Kyusung

    2003-07-08

    A method and system for early detection of incipient faults in an electric motor are disclosed. First, current and voltage values for one or more phases of the electric motor are measured during motor operations. A set of current predictions is then determined via a neural network-based current predictor based on the measured voltage values and an estimate of motor speed values of the electric motor. Next, a set of residuals is generated by combining the set of current predictions with the measured current values. A set of fault indicators is subsequently computed from the set of residuals and the measured current values. Finally, a determination is made as to whether or not there is an incipient electrical, mechanical, and/or electromechanical fault occurring based on the comparison result of the set of fault indicators and a set of predetermined baseline values.

  11. Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Majid; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB(®) environment.

  12. Effect of faults on fluid flow and chloride contamination in a carbonate aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maslia, M.L.; Prowell, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    A unified, multidiscipline hypothesis is proposed to explain the anomalous pattern by which chloride has been found in water of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia. Analyses of geophysical, hydraulic, water chemistry, and aquifer test data using the equivalent porous medium (EPM) approach are used to support the hypothesis and to improve further the understanding of the fracture-flow system in this area. Using the data presented herein we show that: (1) four major northeast-southwest trending faults, capable of affecting the flow system of the Upper Floridan aquifer, can be inferred from structural analysis of geophysical data and from regional fault patterns; (2) the proposed faults account for the anomalous northeastward elongation of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer; (3) the faults breach the nearly impermeable units that confine the Upper Floridan aquifer from below, allowing substantial quantities of water to leak vertically upward; as a result, aquifer transmissivity need not be excessively large (as previously reported) to sustain the heavy, long-term pumpage at Brunswick without developing a steep cone of depression in the potentiometric surface; (4) increased fracturing at the intersection of the faults enhances the development of conduits that allow the upward migration of high-chloride water in response to pumping from the Upper Floridan aquifer; and (5) the anomalous movement of the chloride plume is almost entirely controlled by the faults. ?? 1990.

  13. Evaluating the performance of a fault detection and diagnostic system for vapor compression equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Breuker, M.S.; Braun, J.E.

    This paper presents a detailed evaluation of the performance of a statistical, rule-based fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) technique presented by Rossi and Braun (1997). Steady-state and transient tests were performed on a simple rooftop air conditioner over a range of conditions and fault levels. The steady-state data without faults were used to train models that predict outputs for normal operation. The transient data with faults were used to evaluate FDD performance. The effect of a number of design variables on FDD sensitivity for different faults was evaluated and two prototype systems were specified for more complete evaluation. Good performancemore » was achieved in detecting and diagnosing five faults using only six temperatures (2 input and 4 output) and linear models. The performance improved by about a factor of two when ten measurements (three input and seven output) and higher order models were used. This approach for evaluating and optimizing the performance of the statistical, rule-based FDD technique could be used as a design and evaluation tool when applying this FDD method to other packaged air-conditioning systems. Furthermore, the approach could also be modified to evaluate the performance of other FDD methods.« less

  14. Fault Rupture Model of the 2016 Gyeongju, South Korea, Earthquake and Its Implication for the Underground Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchide, Takahiko; Song, Seok Goo

    2018-03-01

    The 2016 Gyeongju earthquake (ML 5.8) was the largest instrumentally recorded inland event in South Korea. It occurred in the southeast of the Korean Peninsula and was preceded by a large ML 5.1 foreshock. The aftershock seismicity data indicate that these earthquakes occurred on two closely collocated parallel faults that are oblique to the surface trace of the Yangsan fault. We investigate the rupture properties of these earthquakes using finite-fault slip inversion analyses. The obtained models indicate that the ruptures propagated NNE-ward and SSW-ward for the main shock and the large foreshock, respectively. This indicates that these earthquakes occurred on right-step faults and were initiated around a fault jog. The stress drops were up to 62 and 43 MPa for the main shock and the largest foreshock, respectively. These high stress drops imply high strength excess, which may be overcome by the stress concentration around the fault jog.

  15. The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.

  16. The rapid detection of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) in water using a prototype gas sensor system.

    PubMed

    de Lacy Costello, B P J; Sivanand, P S; Ratcliffe, N M; Reynolds, D M

    2005-01-01

    The gasoline additive Methyl-tertiary-Butyl Ether (MtBE) is the second most common contaminant of groundwater in the USA and represents an important soil contaminant. This compound has been detected in the groundwater in at least 27 states as a result of leaking underground storage facilities (gasoline storage tanks and pipelines). Since the health effects of MtBE are unclear the potential threat to drinking water supplies is serious. Therefore, the ability to detect MtBE at low levels (ppb) and on-line at high-risk groundwater sites would be highly desirable. This paper reports the use of 'commercial' and metal oxide sensor arrays for the detection of MtBE in drinking and surface waters at low ppb level (microg.L(-1) range). The output responses from some of the sensors were found to correlate well with MtBE concentrations under laboratory conditions.

  17. Comparison between wavelet and wavelet packet transform features for classification of faults in distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvind, Pratul

    2012-11-01

    The ability to identify and classify all ten types of faults in a distribution system is an important task for protection engineers. Unlike transmission system, distribution systems have a complex configuration and are subjected to frequent faults. In the present work, an algorithm has been developed for identifying all ten types of faults in a distribution system by collecting current samples at the substation end. The samples are subjected to wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network in order to yield better classification results. A comparison of results between wavelet transform and wavelet packet transform is also presented thereby justifying the feature extracted from wavelet packet transform yields promising results. It should also be noted that current samples are collected after simulating a 25kv distribution system in PSCAD software.

  18. Mt, St. Helens, Mt. Adams, and Mt. Rainier, WA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of Mt. St. Helens (46.5N, 122.0W), taken 12 years after the volcanic eruption on 18 May 1980, in which the top 1300 ft. of the 9,677 ft. mountain was blown away, shows the rapid vegetation recovery within the blast area. Many fir trees have grown to heights of 20 ft. within the 150 square mile devastated area. Mt. Adams, an extinct volcano is just to the west and Mt. Rainier is to the north. Checkerboard logging can be seen throughout.

  19. Mountain building, strike-slip faulting, and landscape evolution in the Marlborough Fault System, NZ: Insights from new low-temperature thermochronology and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, A. R.; Collett, C.; Flowers, R. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Upton, P.

    2016-12-01

    The 150 km wide Marlborough Fault System (MFS) and adjacent dextral-reverse Alpine Fault accommodate oblique convergence of the Australian and Pacific plates in a broad transform boundary that extends for much of the South Island New Zealand. Understanding the deformation history of the Marlborough region offers the opportunity to study topographic evolution in a strike-slip setting and a fuller picture of the evolving New Zealand plate boundary as the MFS lies at the transition from oceanic Pacific plate subduction to oblique continental collision. Here we present low-temperature thermochronology from the MFS to place new limits on the timing and style of mountain building. We sampled a range of elevations spanning 2 km within and adjacent to the Kaikoura Mountains, which stand high as topographic anomalies above active strike-slip faults. Young apatite (U-Th)/He ages ( 2-5 Ma) on both sides of range-bounding faults are consistent with regional distributed deformation since the Pliocene initiation of strike-slip faulting. However, large differences in both zircon helium and apatite fission track ages, from Paleogene/Neogene ages within hanging walls to unreset >100 Ma ages in footwalls, indicate an early phase of fault-related vertical exhumation. Thermal modeling using the QTQt program reveals two phases of exhumation within the Kaikoura Ranges: rapid cooling at 15-12 Ma localized to hanging wall rocks and regional rapid cooling reflected in all samples starting at 4-5 Ma. These results and landscape evolution models suggest that, despite the presence of active mountain front faults, much of the topographic relief in this region may predate the onset of strike-slip faulting and that portions of the Marlborough Faults are re-activated thrusts that coincide with the early development of the transpressive plate boundary. Regional exhumation after 5 Ma likely reflects increased proximity to the migrating Pacific plate subduction zone and the buoyant Chatham Rise.

  20. Effect of Common Faults on the Performance of Different Types of Vapor Compression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhimin; Domanski, Piotr A.; Payne, W. Vance

    2016-01-01

    The effect of faults on the cooling capacity, coefficient of performance, and sensible heat ratio, was analyzed and compared for five split and rooftop systems, which use different types of expansion devices, compressors and refrigerants. The study applied multivariable polynomial and normalized performance models, which were developed for the studied systems for both fault-free and faulty conditions based on measurements obtained in a laboratory under controlled conditions. The analysis indicated differences in responses and trends between the studied systems, which underscores the challenge to devise a universal FDD algorithm for all vapor compression systems and the difficulty to develop a methodology for rating the performance of different FDD algorithms. PMID:26929732

  1. Effect of Common Faults on the Performance of Different Types of Vapor Compression Systems.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhimin; Domanski, Piotr A; Payne, W Vance

    2016-04-05

    The effect of faults on the cooling capacity, coefficient of performance, and sensible heat ratio, was analyzed and compared for five split and rooftop systems, which use different types of expansion devices, compressors and refrigerants. The study applied multivariable polynomial and normalized performance models, which were developed for the studied systems for both fault-free and faulty conditions based on measurements obtained in a laboratory under controlled conditions. The analysis indicated differences in responses and trends between the studied systems, which underscores the challenge to devise a universal FDD algorithm for all vapor compression systems and the difficulty to develop a methodology for rating the performance of different FDD algorithms.

  2. Geometry and kinematics of the eastern Lake Mead fault system in the Virgin Mountains, Nevada and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, Sue; Campagna, David J.; Anderson, R. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Mead fault system is a northeast-striking, 130-km-long zone of left-slip in the southeast Great Basin, active from before 16 Ma to Quaternary time. The northeast end of the Lake Mead fault system in the Virgin Mountains of southeast Nevada and northwest Arizona forms a partitioned strain field comprising kinematically linked northeast-striking left-lateral faults, north-striking normal faults, and northwest-striking right-lateral faults. Major faults bound large structural blocks whose internal strain reflects their position within a left step-over of the left-lateral faults. Two north-striking large-displacement normal faults, the Lakeside Mine segment of the South Virgin–White Hills detachment fault and the Piedmont fault, intersect the left step-over from the southwest and northeast, respectively. The left step-over in the Lake Mead fault system therefore corresponds to a right-step in the regional normal fault system.Within the left step-over, displacement transfer between the left-lateral faults and linked normal faults occurs near their junctions, where the left-lateral faults become oblique and normal fault displacement decreases away from the junction. Southward from the center of the step-over in the Virgin Mountains, down-to-the-west normal faults splay northward from left-lateral faults, whereas north and east of the center, down-to-the-east normal faults splay southward from left-lateral faults. Minimum slip is thus in the central part of the left step-over, between east-directed slip to the north and west-directed slip to the south. Attenuation faults parallel or subparallel to bedding cut Lower Paleozoic rocks and are inferred to be early structures that accommodated footwall uplift during the initial stages of extension.Fault-slip data indicate oblique extensional strain within the left step-over in the South Virgin Mountains, manifested as east-west extension; shortening is partitioned between vertical for extension-dominated structural

  3. Using the GeoFEST Faulted Region Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Donnellan, Andrea; Judd, Michele A.; Norton, Charles D.; Baker, Teresa; Tisdale, Edwin R.; Li, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    GeoFEST (the Geophysical Finite Element Simulation Tool) simulates stress evolution, fault slip and plastic/elastic processes in realistic materials, and so is suitable for earthquake cycle studies in regions such as Southern California. Many new capabilities and means of access for GeoFEST are now supported. New abilities include MPI-based cluster parallel computing using automatic PYRAMID/Parmetis-based mesh partitioning, automatic mesh generation for layered media with rectangular faults, and results visualization that is integrated with remote sensing data. The parallel GeoFEST application has been successfully run on over a half-dozen computers, including Intel Xeon clusters, Itanium II and Altix machines, and the Apple G5 cluster. It is not separately optimized for different machines, but relies on good domain partitioning for load-balance and low communication, and careful writing of the parallel diagonally preconditioned conjugate gradient solver to keep communication overhead low. Demonstrated thousand-step solutions for over a million finite elements on 64 processors require under three hours, and scaling tests show high efficiency when using more than (order of) 4000 elements per processor. The source code and documentation for GeoFEST is available at no cost from Open Channel Foundation. In addition GeoFEST may be used through a browser-based portal environment available to approved users. That environment includes semi-automated geometry creation and mesh generation tools, GeoFEST, and RIVA-based visualization tools that include the ability to generate a flyover animation showing deformations and topography. Work is in progress to support simulation of a region with several faults using 16 million elements, using a strain energy metric to adapt the mesh to faithfully represent the solution in a region of widely varying strain.

  4. Geophysical model of Mt. Labo geothermal field, Southeastern Luzon, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Los Banos, C.F. Jr.; Layugan, D.B.; Maneja, F.C.

    1996-12-31

    The geophysical model of Mt. Labo geothermal field, based on the results of the regional gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys, indicates a geothermal reservoir centered beneath the Mabahong Labo thermal ground. The heat source of the present hydrothermal system is provided by a cooling intrusive body, mapped as a gravity high, associated with the Mt. Labo volcanic activity. The geothermal fluids circulate along fractures within the low-density reservoir rocks of the Susung Dalaga Formation. This reservoir rock shows relatively high resistivity values of 30 to 40 ohm-m. Directly overlying the resistive reservoir, occurring between -1000 m to -1500 m, ismore » a thick alteration halo formed within the basal unit of the Labo Volcanics (Lbu). The predominantly hydrous, low-temperature clay minerals which compose the alteration halo give low resistivity values of 1 to 4 ohm-m. Outflow of hot fluids to the south-southwest, which possibly feeds the thermal springs at Kilbay and Alawihaw, may be channeled along the thinning low resistivity Lbu. The geophysical model also shows a possible separate hydrothermal system in the west associated with a relatively shallower intrusive body, also defined by positive gravity values. This intrusion, which could be related to the cluster of volcanic domes located south of Bakilid Fault, may provide the heat that drives the hot springs at Kilbay and Alawihaw. It could also be possible that the Kilbay and Alawihaw springs originate from both systems. Based on the interpretation of the gravity and MT data, wells LB-1D and LB-5D lie closest to the intrusive, LB-313 and LB-4D are located in the center of the resource, while LB-2D and LB-6D lie along the margin or outside of the resource. The size of this resource, as defined by the 5 ohm-m MT low resistivity anomaly, is about 10 sq. km.« less

  5. Computing and Visualizing the Complex Dynamics of Earthquake Fault Systems: Towards Ensemble Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J.; Rundle, P.; Donnellan, A.; Li, P.

    2003-12-01

    We consider the problem of the complex dynamics of earthquake fault systems, and whether numerical simulations can be used to define an ensemble forecasting technology similar to that used in weather and climate research. To effectively carry out such a program, we need 1) a topological realistic model to simulate the fault system; 2) data sets to constrain the model parameters through a systematic program of data assimilation; 3) a computational technology making use of modern paradigms of high performance and parallel computing systems; and 4) software to visualize and analyze the results. In particular, we focus attention of a new version of our code Virtual California (version 2001) in which we model all of the major strike slip faults extending throughout California, from the Mexico-California border to the Mendocino Triple Junction. We use the historic data set of earthquakes larger than magnitude M > 6 to define the frictional properties of all 654 fault segments (degrees of freedom) in the model. Previous versions of Virtual California had used only 215 fault segments to model the strike slip faults in southern California. To compute the dynamics and the associated surface deformation, we use message passing as implemented in the MPICH standard distribution on a small Beowulf cluster consisting of 10 cpus. We are also planning to run the code on significantly larger machines so that we can begin to examine much finer spatial scales of resolution, and to assess scaling properties of the code. We present results of simulations both as static images and as mpeg movies, so that the dynamical aspects of the computation can be assessed by the viewer. We also compute a variety of statistics from the simulations, including magnitude-frequency relations, and compare these with data from real fault systems.

  6. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  7. An Ice Core Melter System for Continuous Major and Trace Chemical Analyses of a New Mt. Logan Summit Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fisher, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The ice core melter system at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute has been recently modified and updated to allow high-resolution (<1-2 cm ice/sample), continuous and coregistered sampling of ice cores, most notably the 2001 Mt. Logan summit ice core (187 m to bedrock), for analyses of 34 trace elements (Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, REE suite) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 8 major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, MSA) by ion chromatography (IC), stable water isotopes (δ 18O, δ D, d) and volcanic tephra. The UMaine continuous melter (UMCoM) system is housed in a dedicated clean room with HEPA filtered air. Standard clean room procedures are employed during melting. A Wagenbach-style continuous melter system has been modified to include a pure Nickel melthead that can be easily dismantled for thorough cleaning. The system allows melting of both ice and firn without wicking of the meltwater into unmelted core. Contrary to ice core melter systems in which the meltwater is directly channeled to online instruments for continuous flow analyses, the UMCoM system collects discrete samples for each chemical analysis under ultraclean conditions. Meltwater from the pristine innermost section of the ice core is split between one fraction collector that accumulates ICP-MS samples in acid pre-cleaned polypropylene vials under a class-100 HEPA clean bench, and a second fraction collector that accumulates IC samples. A third fraction collector accumulates isotope and tephra samples from the potentially contaminated outer portion of the core. This method is advantageous because an archive of each sample remains for subsequent analyses (including trace element isotope ratios), and ICP-MS analytes are scanned for longer intervals and in replicate. Method detection limits, calculated from de-ionized water blanks passed through the entire UMCoM system, are below 10% of average Mt

  8. TROUBLE 3: A fault diagnostic expert system for Space Station Freedom's power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Designing Space Station Freedom has given NASA many opportunities to develop expert systems that automate onboard operations of space based systems. One such development, TROUBLE 3, an expert system that was designed to automate the fault diagnostics of Space Station Freedom's electric power system is described. TROUBLE 3's design is complicated by the fact that Space Station Freedom's power system is evolving and changing. TROUBLE 3 has to be made flexible enough to handle changes with minimal changes to the program. Three types of expert systems were studied: rule-based, set-covering, and model-based. A set-covering approach was selected for TROUBLE 3 because if offered the needed flexibility that was missing from the other approaches. With this flexibility, TROUBLE 3 is not limited to Space Station Freedom applications, it can easily be adapted to handle any diagnostic system.

  9. A Modified No-fault Malpractice System Can Resolve Multiple Healthcare System Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Sacopulos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Medical professional liability in the United States, as measured by total premiums paid by physicians and healthcare facilities, costs approximately $30 billion a year in direct expenses, less than 2% of the entire annual healthcare expenditures. Only a fraction of those dollars reach patients who are negligently injured. Nonetheless, the tort system has far-reaching effects that create substantial indirect costs. Medical malpractice litigation is pervasive and physicians practice defensively to avoid being named in a suit. Those extra expenditures provide little value to patients. Despite an elaborate existing tort system, patient safety remains a vexing problem. Many injured patients are denied access to timely, reasonable remedies. We propose a no-fault system supplemented by a variation of the traditional tort system whereby physicians are incentivized to follow evidence-based guidelines. The proposed system would guarantee a substantial decrease in, but not elimination of, litigation. The system would lower professional liability premiums. Injured patients would ordinarily be compensated with no-fault disability and life insurance proceeds. To the extent individual physicians pose a recurrent danger, their care would be reviewed on an administrative level. Savings would be invested in health information technology and purchase of insurance coverage for the uninsured. We propose a financial model based on publicly accessible sources. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0577-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18979149

  10. Assessment on the influence of resistive superconducting fault current limiter in VSC-HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Geon; Khan, Umer Amir; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Park, Byung-Bae; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Due to fewer risk of commutation failures, harmonic occurrences and reactive power consumptions, Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based HVDC system is known as the optimum solution of HVDC power system for the future power grid. However, the absence of suitable fault protection devices for HVDC system hinders the efficient VSC-HVDC power grid design. In order to enhance the reliability of the VSC-HVDC power grid against the fault current problems, the application of resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SFCLs) could be considered. Also, SFCLs could be applied to the VSC-HVDC system with integrated AC Power Systems in order to enhance the transient response and the robustness of the system. In this paper, in order to evaluate the role of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC systems and to determine the suitable position of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC power systems integrated with AC power System, a simulation model based on Korea Jeju-Haenam HVDC power system was designed in Matlab Simulink/SimPowerSystems. This designed model was composed of VSC-HVDC system connected with an AC microgrid. Utilizing the designed VSC-HVDC systems, the feasible locations of resistive SFCLs were evaluated when DC line-to-line, DC line-to-ground and three phase AC faults were occurred. Consequently, it was found that the simulation model was effective to evaluate the positive effects of resistive SFCLs for the effective suppression of fault currents in VSC-HVDC systems as well as in integrated AC Systems. Finally, the optimum locations of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC transmission systems were suggested based on the simulation results.

  11. Active faults system and related potential seismic events near Ulaanbaatar, capital of Mongolia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlupp, Antoine; Ferry, Matthieu; Munkhuu, Ulziibat; Sodnomsambuu, Demberel; Al-Ashkar, Abeer

    2013-04-01

    The region of Ulaanbaatar lies several hundred kilometers from large known active faults that produced magnitude 6 to 8+ earthquakes during the last century. Beside the Hustai fault, which displays a clear morphological expression, no active fault was previously described less than 100 km from the city. In addition, no large historical (i.e. more recent than the 16th c.) earthquakes are known in this region. However, since 2005 a very dense seismic activity has developed over the Emeelt Township area, a mere 10 km from Ulaanbaatar. The activity is characterized by numerous low magnitude events (M<2.8), which are distributed linearly along several tens of kilometers where no active fault has been identified. This raises several questions: Is this seismicity associated to a -yet- unknown active fault? If so, are there other unknown active faults near Ulaanbaatar? Hence, we deployed a multi-disciplinary approach including morpho-tectonic, near-surface geophysical and paleoseismological investigations. We describe four large active faults west and south of Ulaanbaatar, three of them are newly discovered (Emeelt, Sharai, Avdar), one was previously known (Hustai) but without precise study on its seismic potential. The Emeelt seismicity can be mapped over 35 km along N150 and corresponds in the field to a smoothed, but clear, active fault morphology that can be mapped along a 10-km-long section. The fault dips at ~30° NE (GPR and surface morphology observations) and uplifts the eastern block. The age of the last surface rupture observed in trenches is about 10 ka (preliminary OSL dating). Considering a rupture length of 35 km, a full segment rupture would be comparable to the 1967 Mogod earthquake with a magnitude as large as Mw 7. It has to be considered today as a possible scenario for the seismic risk of Ulaanbaatar. The 90-km-long Hustai Range Fault System, oriented WSW-ENE and located about 10 km west of Ulaanbaatar, displays continuous microseismicity with five

  12. Towards an operational fault isolation expert system for French telecommunication satellite Telecom 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haziza, M.

    1990-10-01

    The DIAMS satellite fault isolation expert system shell concept is described. The project, initiated in 1985, has led to the development of a prototype Expert System (ES) dedicated to the Telecom 1 attitude and orbit control system. The prototype ES has been installed in the Telecom 1 satellite control center and evaluated by Telecom 1 operations. The development of a fault isolation ES covering a whole spacecraft (the French telecommunication satellite Telecom 2) is currently being undertaken. Full scale industrial applications raise stringent requirements in terms of knowledge management and software development methodology. The approach used by MATRA ESPACE to face this challenge is outlined.

  13. Structural system reliability calculation using a probabilistic fault tree analysis method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torng, T. Y.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) method for calculating structural system reliability is summarized. The proposed PFTA procedure includes: developing a fault tree to represent the complex structural system, constructing an approximation function for each bottom event, determining a dominant sampling sequence for all bottom events, and calculating the system reliability using an adaptive importance sampling method. PFTA is suitable for complicated structural problems that require computer-intensive computer calculations. A computer program has been developed to implement the PFTA.

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of the Belgian not-only-fault system for medical incidents.

    PubMed

    Vandersteegen, Tom; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    In 2010, the Belgian compensation system for medical incidents was reformed, in order to overcome some important deficiencies of court procedures. This resulted in a not-only-fault compensation system, following the establishment of the Fund for Medical Accidents (FMA). This paper seeks to clarify the main advantages and disadvantages of this reform. After all, the legislator paid little attention to the impact on physicians, who also seem to be insufficiently informed. However, currently the FMA experiences a significant delay in processing compensation requests. The true effects of the not-only-fault system for patients and physicians as well as for health care quality therefore still remain unclear today.

  15. Flight elements: Fault detection and fault management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.

    1990-01-01

    Fault management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent fault detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of fault tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing fault isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time fault detection and fault management system and an information management system.

  16. Response of deformation patterns to reorganization of the southern San Andreas fault system since ca. 1.5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattaruso, Laura A.; Cooke, Michele L.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Housen, Bernard A.

    2016-12-01

    Between 1.5 and 1.1 Ma, the southern San Andreas fault system underwent a major reorganization that included initiation of the San Jacinto fault zone and termination of slip on the extensional West Salton detachment fault. The southern San Andreas fault itself has also evolved since this time, with several shifts in activity among fault strands within San Gorgonio Pass. We use three-dimensional mechanical Boundary Element Method models to investigate the impact of these changes to the fault network on deformation patterns. A series of snapshot models of the succession of active fault geometries explore the role of fault interaction and tectonic loading in abandonment of the West Salton detachment fault, initiation of the San Jacinto fault zone, and shifts in activity of the San Andreas fault. Interpreted changes to uplift patterns are well matched by model results. These results support the idea that initiation and growth of the San Jacinto fault zone led to increased uplift rates in the San Gabriel Mountains and decreased uplift rates in the San Bernardino Mountains. Comparison of model results for vertical-axis rotation to data from paleomagnetic studies reveals a good match to local rotation patterns in the Mecca Hills and Borrego Badlands. We explore the mechanical efficiency at each step in the modeled fault evolution, and find an overall trend toward increased efficiency through time. Strain energy density patterns are used to identify regions of incipient faulting, and support the notion of north-to-south propagation of the San Jacinto fault during its initiation.

  17. On providing the fault-tolerant operation of information systems based on open content management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratov, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Modern information systems designed to service a wide range of users, regardless of their subject area, are increasingly based on Web technologies and are available to users via Internet. The article discusses the issues of providing the fault-tolerant operation of such information systems, based on free and open source content management systems. The toolkit available to administrators of similar systems is shown; the scenarios for using these tools are described. Options for organizing backups and restoring the operability of systems after failures are suggested. Application of the proposed methods and approaches allows providing continuous monitoring of the state of systems, timely response to the emergence of possible problems and their prompt solution.

  18. Response analysis of curved bridge with unseating failure control system under near-fault ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Ye; Sun, Guangjun; Li, Hongjing

    2018-01-01

    Under the action of near-fault ground motions, curved bridges are prone to pounding, local damage of bridge components and even unseating. A multi-scale fine finite element model of a typical three-span curved bridge is established by considering the elastic-plastic behavior of piers and pounding effect of adjacent girders. The nonlinear time-history method is used to study the seismic response of the curved bridge equipped with unseating failure control system under the action of near-fault ground motion. An in-depth analysis is carried to evaluate the control effect of the proposed unseating failure control system. The research results indicate that under the near-fault ground motion, the seismic response of the curved bridge is strong. The unseating failure control system perform effectively to reduce the pounding force of the adjacent girders and the probability of deck unseating.

  19. Redundancy management for efficient fault recovery in NASA's distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Pandya, Mihir; Yau, Kitty

    1991-01-01

    The management of redundancy in computer systems was studied and guidelines were provided for the development of NASA's fault-tolerant distributed systems. Fault recovery and reconfiguration mechanisms were examined. A theoretical foundation was laid for redundancy management by efficient reconfiguration methods and algorithmic diversity. Algorithms were developed to optimize the resources for embedding of computational graphs of tasks in the system architecture and reconfiguration of these tasks after a failure has occurred. The computational structure represented by a path and the complete binary tree was considered and the mesh and hypercube architectures were targeted for their embeddings. The innovative concept of Hybrid Algorithm Technique was introduced. This new technique provides a mechanism for obtaining fault tolerance while exhibiting improved performance.

  20. Using gravity as a proxy for stress accumulation in complex fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Tyler Joseph

    The gravity signal contains information regarding changes in density at all depths and can be used as a proxy for the strain accumulation in fault networks. A general method for calculating the total, dilatational, and free-air gravity for fault systems with arbitrary geometry, slip motion, and number of fault segments is presented. The technique uses a Green's function approach for a fault buried within an elastic half-space with an underlying driver plate forcing the system. A stress-evolution time-dependent earthquake fault model was used to create simulated slip histories over the San Andreas Fault network in California. Using a sum of the gravity signals from each fault segment in the model, via coseismic gravity Green's functions, a time-dependent gravity model was created. The steady-state gravity from the long term plate motion generates a signal over five years with magnitudes of +/- ˜2 muGal; the current limit of portable instrument observations. Moderate to large events generate signal magnitudes in the range of ˜10 muGal to ˜80 muGal, well within the range of ground based observations. The complex fault network geometry of California significantly affects the spatial extent of the gravity signal from the three events studied. Statistical analysis of 55 000 years of simulated slip histories were used to investigate the use of the dilatational gravity signal as a proxy for precursory stress and strain changes. Results indicate that the precursory dilatational gravity signal is dependent upon the fault orientation with respect the tectonic loading plate velocity. This effect is interpreted as a consequence of preferential amplification of the shear stress or reduction of the normal stress, depending on the steady-state regime investigated. Finally, solutions for the corresponding gravity gradients of the coseismic dilatational gravity signals are developed for a vertical strike-slip fault. Gravity gradient solutions exhibit similar spatial distributions

  1. The analysis and study of fault systems in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Tsai, C.; Lee, C.

    2004-12-01

    Taiwan is located in the boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Due to different subduction, two arc-trench systems in different direction were happened. One is Luzon arc-trench system in N-S direction; the other one is called Ryukyu arc-trench system in E-W direction. The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin which was formed by extension of Eurasian plate, and the tectonic setting in this area has a series of normal-faults and igneous bodies. According to previous studies, we know that Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough (SPOT) have evolved at least two main tensional phases of Okinawa Trough, the first phase probably came up in early Pleistocene and struck in NE-SW direction; and the second phases occurred during late Pleistocene and Holocene changed the direction to E-W. In this study, we have used seismic data collected by R/V Chiu-Lien, Ocean Research I, and R/V L'Atalante to explain the normal-fault systems in the SPOT area. We integrate seismic profiles with corrected bathymetry to relocate these normal faults. Our results show these normal fault systems has two main strikes, respectively N60° E and N80° E. We find that most of N60° E faults are located in the northern slope of SPOT and landward to Taiwan. The N80° E faults are found in the southern slop and center area of SPOT. Compare with the faults and a new topographic map, we find there were a lot of faults around the canyon, such as North-Mienhua Canyon. We suggest that the origin of the canyon is probably due to these tectonic forces. The canyon is a weak area, and is eroded much fast than the surrounding continental shelf. Passing through a series of erosional processes, the canyon becomes what looks like today. We find a lot of graben structure located in the center of SPOT. This area is the extension axis of SPOT right now. We also find many possible igneous rocks in the seismic profiles, some of them are intrusions and the others penetrate the seabed along the weak zone and

  2. A review of fault tolerant control strategies applied to proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijoux, Etienne; Steiner, Nadia Yousfi; Benne, Michel; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Pérez, Brigitte Grondin

    2017-08-01

    Fuel cells are powerful systems for power generation. They have a good efficiency and do not generate greenhouse gases. This technology involves a lot of scientific fields, which leads to the appearance of strongly inter-dependent parameters. This makes the system particularly hard to control and increases fault's occurrence frequency. These two issues call for the necessity to maintain the system performance at the expected level, even in faulty operating conditions. It is called "fault tolerant control" (FTC). The present paper aims to give the state of the art of FTC applied to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The FTC approach is composed of two parts. First, a diagnosis part allows the identification and the isolation of a fault; it requires a good a priori knowledge of all the possible faults. Then, a control part allows an optimal control strategy to find the best operating point to recover/mitigate the fault; it requires the knowledge of the degradation phenomena and their mitigation strategies.

  3. A Fault Tree Approach to Analysis of Behavioral Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kent G.

    Developed at Brigham Young University, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a technique for enhancing the probability of success in any system by analyzing the most likely modes of failure that could occur. It provides a logical, step-by-step description of possible failure events within a system and their interaction--the combinations of potential…

  4. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  5. Operations management system advanced automation: Fault detection isolation and recovery prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Matt

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to address the global fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR) requirements for Operation's Management System (OMS) automation within the Space Station Freedom program. This shall be accomplished by developing a selected FDIR prototype for the Space Station Freedom distributed processing systems. The prototype shall be based on advanced automation methodologies in addition to traditional software methods to meet the requirements for automation. A secondary objective is to expand the scope of the prototyping to encompass multiple aspects of station-wide fault management (SWFM) as discussed in OMS requirements documentation.

  6. Self-stabilizing byzantine-fault-tolerant clock synchronization system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for rapid Byzantine-fault-tolerant self-stabilizing clock synchronization are provided. The systems and methods are based on a protocol comprising a state machine and a set of monitors that execute once every local oscillator tick. The protocol is independent of specific application specific requirements. The faults are assumed to be arbitrary and/or malicious. All timing measures of variables are based on the node's local clock and thus no central clock or externally generated pulse is used. Instances of the protocol are shown to tolerate bursts of transient failures and deterministically converge with a linear convergence time with respect to the synchronization period as predicted.

  7. Anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System in NW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.

    2012-03-01

    In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular: 1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly

  8. Indirect adaptive fuzzy fault-tolerant tracking control for MIMO nonlinear systems with actuator and sensor failures.

    PubMed

    Bounemeur, Abdelhamid; Chemachema, Mohamed; Essounbouli, Najib

    2018-05-10

    In this paper, an active fuzzy fault tolerant tracking control (AFFTTC) scheme is developed for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) unknown nonlinear systems in the presence of unknown actuator faults, sensor failures and external disturbance. The developed control scheme deals with four kinds of faults for both sensors and actuators. The bias, drift, and loss of accuracy additive faults are considered along with the loss of effectiveness multiplicative fault. A fuzzy adaptive controller based on back-stepping design is developed to deal with actuator failures and unknown system dynamics. However, an additional robust control term is added to deal with sensor faults, approximation errors, and external disturbances. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the stability of the closed loop system. Numerical simulations on a quadrotor are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 1: Army fault tolerant architecture overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Digital computing systems needed for Army programs such as the Computer-Aided Low Altitude Helicopter Flight Program and the Armored Systems Modernization (ASM) vehicles may be characterized by high computational throughput and input/output bandwidth, hard real-time response, high reliability and availability, and maintainability, testability, and producibility requirements. In addition, such a system should be affordable to produce, procure, maintain, and upgrade. To address these needs, the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) is being designed and constructed under a three-year program comprised of a conceptual study, detailed design and fabrication, and demonstration and validation phases. Described here are the results of the conceptual study phase of the AFTA development. Given here is an introduction to the AFTA program, its objectives, and key elements of its technical approach. A format is designed for representing mission requirements in a manner suitable for first order AFTA sizing and analysis, followed by a discussion of the current state of mission requirements acquisition for the targeted Army missions. An overview is given of AFTA's architectural theory of operation.

  10. Rolling bearing fault diagnosis and health assessment using EEMD and the adjustment Mahalanobis-Taguchi system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junxun; Cheng, Longsheng; Yu, Hui; Hu, Shaolin

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACTSFor the timely identification of the potential <span class="hlt">faults</span> of a rolling bearing and to observe its health condition intuitively and accurately, a novel <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis and health assessment model for a rolling bearing based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method and the adjustment Mahalanobis-Taguchi <span class="hlt">system</span> (AMTS) method is proposed. The specific steps are as follows: First, the vibration signal of a rolling bearing is decomposed by EEMD, and the extracted features are used as the input vectors of AMTS. Then, the AMTS method, which is designed to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional Mahalanobis-Taguchi <span class="hlt">system</span> and to extract the key features, is proposed for <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis. Finally, a type of HI concept is proposed according to the results of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis to accomplish the health assessment of a bearing in its life cycle. To validate the superiority of the developed method proposed approach, it is compared with other recent method and proposed methodology is successfully validated on a vibration data-set acquired from seeded defects and from an accelerated life test. The results show that this method represents the actual situation well and is able to accurately and effectively identify the <span class="hlt">fault</span> type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481899','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481899"><span>Current Sensor <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a current sensor <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control <span class="hlt">system</span> of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the <span class="hlt">fault</span> residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain <span class="hlt">faults</span> and slow-variation offset <span class="hlt">faults</span> in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection <span class="hlt">system</span> are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25970258</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040068095','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040068095"><span>Human Factors Considerations for Safe Recovery from <span class="hlt">Faults</span> In Flight Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pritchett, Amy; Belcastro, C. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is now possible - and important - to develop <span class="hlt">systems</span> to help resolve Flight Control <span class="hlt">System</span> (FCS) <span class="hlt">faults</span>. From a human factors viewpoint, it is imperative that these <span class="hlt">systems</span> take on roles, and provide functions, that are the most supportive to the pilot, given the stress, time pressure and workload they may experience following a FCS <span class="hlt">fault</span>. FCS <span class="hlt">fault</span> recovery <span class="hlt">systems</span> may provide several different functions, including alerting, control assistance, and decision aiding. The biggest human factors questions are in the role suitable for the technology, and its specific functioning to achieve that role. Specifically, for these <span class="hlt">systems</span> to be effective, they must meet the fundamental requirements that (1) they alert pilots to problems early enough that the pilot can reasonably resolve the <span class="hlt">fault</span> and regain control of the aircraft and that (2) if the aircraft s handling qualities are severely degraded the HMS provide the appropriate stability augmentation to help the pilot stabilize and control the aircraft. This project undertook several research steps to develop such <span class="hlt">systems</span>, focusing on the capabilities of pilots and on realistically attainable technologies. The ability to estimate which functions are the most valuable will help steer <span class="hlt">system</span> development in the directions that can establish the highest safety levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556358"><span>State Tracking and <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Diagnosis for Dynamic <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Using Labeled Uncertainty Graph.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Gan; Feng, Wenquan; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Hongbo</p> <p>2015-11-05</p> <p>Cyber-physical <span class="hlt">systems</span> such as autonomous spacecraft, power plants and automotive <span class="hlt">systems</span> become more vulnerable to unanticipated failures as their complexity increases. Accurate tracking of <span class="hlt">system</span> dynamics and <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis are essential. This paper presents an efficient state estimation method for dynamic <span class="hlt">systems</span> modeled as concurrent probabilistic automata. First, the Labeled Uncertainty Graph (LUG) method in the planning domain is introduced to describe the state tracking and <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis processes. Because the <span class="hlt">system</span> model is probabilistic, the Monte Carlo technique is employed to sample the probability distribution of belief states. In addition, to address the sample impoverishment problem, an innovative look-ahead technique is proposed to recursively generate most likely belief states without exhaustively checking all possible successor modes. The overall algorithms incorporate two major steps: a roll-forward process that estimates <span class="hlt">system</span> state and identifies <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and a roll-backward process that analyzes possible <span class="hlt">system</span> trajectories once the <span class="hlt">faults</span> have been detected. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by applying it to a real world domain: the power supply control unit of a spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17668662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17668662"><span><span class="hlt">Fault</span> detection in mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> with friction phenomena: an online neural approximation approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Rovithakis, George A; Parisini, Thomas</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the problem of <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection in mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> performing linear motion, under the action of friction phenomena is addressed. The friction effects are modeled through the dynamic LuGre model. The proposed architecture is built upon an online neural network (NN) approximator, which requires only <span class="hlt">system</span>'s position and velocity. The friction internal state is not assumed to be available for measurement. The neural <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection methodology is analyzed with respect to its robustness and sensitivity properties. Rigorous <span class="hlt">fault</span> detectability conditions and upper bounds for the detection time are also derived. Extensive simulation results showing the effectiveness of the proposed methodology are provided, including a real case study on an industrial actuator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/0502/pdf/of01-502.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/0502/pdf/of01-502.pdf"><span>Relationship of <span class="hlt">faults</span> in basin sediments to the gravity and magnetic expression of their underlying <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Baldyga, Christopher A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Gravity and magnetic surveys were performed along the western flanks of the Santa Rita Mountain range located in southeastern Arizona to develop an understanding of the relationship between surface <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps within the basin fill sediments and theirgeophysical response of the <span class="hlt">faults</span> at depth within the bedrock. Data were acquired for three profiles, one of them along the northern terrace of Montosa Canyon, and the other two along the northern and southern terraces of Cottonwood Canyon. A total of 122 gravity stations were established as well as numerous magnetic data collected by a truckmounted cesium-vapor magnetometer. In addition, aeromagnetic data previously acquired were interpreted to obtain a geologically sound model, which produced a good fit to the data. Gravity anomalies associated with <span class="hlt">faults</span> exhibiting surface rupture were more pronounced than the respective magnetic anomalies. More credence was given to the gravity data when determining <span class="hlt">fault</span> structures and it was found in all three profiles that <span class="hlt">faults</span> at depth projected through alluvium at a steeper dip than the bedrock <span class="hlt">fault</span> indicating brittle behavior within the overlying sediments. The gravity data also detected a significant horst and graben structure within Cottonwood Canyon. The aeromagnetic data did not provide any insight into the response of the minor <span class="hlt">faults</span> but rather served to verify the regional response of the whole profile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3058134','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3058134"><span>Segregation of <span class="hlt">mt</span>DNA Throughout Human Embryofetal Development: m.3243A > G as a Model <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Monnot, Sophie; Gigarel, Nadine; Samuels, David C; Burlet, Philippe; Hesters, Laetitia; Frydman, Nelly; Frydman, René; Kerbrat, Violaine; Funalot, Benoit; Martinovic, Jelena; Benachi, Alexandra; Feingold, Josué; Munnich, Arnold; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Steffann, Julie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Mitochondrial DNA (<span class="hlt">mt</span>DNA) mutations cause a wide range of serious diseases with high transmission risk and maternal inheritance. Tissue heterogeneity of the heteroplasmy rate (“mutant load”) accounts for the wide phenotypic spectrum observed in carriers. Owing to the absence of therapy, couples at risk to transmit such disorders commonly ask for prenatal (PND) or preimplantation diagnosis (PGD). The lack of data regarding heteroplasmy distribution throughout intrauterine development, however, hampers the implementation of such procedures. We tracked the segregation of the m.3243A > G mutation (<span class="hlt">MT</span>-TL1 gene) responsible for the MELAS syndrome in the developing embryo/fetus, using tissues and cells from eight carrier females, their 38 embryos and 12 fetuses. Mutant <span class="hlt">mt</span>DNA segregation was found to be governed by random genetic drift, during oogenesis and somatic tissue development. The size of the bottleneck operating for m.3243A > G during oogenesis was shown to be individual-dependent. Comparison with data we achieved for the m.8993T > G mutation (<span class="hlt">MT</span>-ATP6 gene), responsible for the NARP/Leigh syndrome, indicates that these mutations differentially influence <span class="hlt">mt</span>DNA segregation during oogenesis, while their impact is similar in developing somatic tissues. These data have major consequences for PND and PGD procedures in <span class="hlt">mt</span>DNA inherited disorders. Hum Mutat 32:116–125, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21120938</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMGP11G..03A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMGP11G..03A"><span>New geophysical views of <span class="hlt">Mt</span>.Melbourne Volcano (East Antarctica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armadillo, E.; Gambetta, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Bozzo, E.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Melbourne volcano is located along the transition between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift <span class="hlt">System</span>. Recent volcanic activity is suggested by the occurrence of blankets of pyroclastic pumice and scoria fall around the eastern and southern flanks of <span class="hlt">Mt</span> Melbourne and by pyroclastic layers interbedded with the summit snows. Geothermal activity in the crater area of Mount Melbourne may be linked to the intrusion of dykes within the last 200 years. Geophysical networks suggest that Mount Melbourne is a quiescent volcano, possibly characterised by slow internal dynamics. During the 2002-2003 Italian Antarctic campaign a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was performed within the TIMM (Tectonics and Interior of <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Melbourne area) project. This helicopter-borne survey was flown at low-altitude and in drape-mode configuration (305 m above terrain) with a line separation less than 500 m. Our new high-resolution magnetic maps reveal the largely ice-covered magmatic and tectonic patters in the <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Melbourne volcano area. Additionally, in the frame of the UK-Italian ISODYN-WISE project (2005-06), an airborne ice-sounding radar survey was flown. We combine the sub-ice topography with images and models of the interior of <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Melbourne volcano, as derived from the high resolution aeromagnetic data and land gravity data. Our new geophysical maps and models also provide a new tool to study the regional setting of the volcano. In particular we re-assess whether there is geophysical evidence for coupling between strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span>, the Terror Rift, and Mount Melbourne volcano.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6325V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6325V"><span>Active tectonic extension across the Alto Tiberina normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> from GPS data modeling and InSAR velocity maps: new perspectives within TABOO Near <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vadacca, Luigi; Anderlini, Letizia; Casarotti, Emanuele; Serpelloni, Enrico; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Stramondo, Salvatore</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Alto Tiberina <span class="hlt">fault</span> (ATF) is a low-angle (east-dipping at 15°) normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> (LANF) 70 km long placed in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (central Italy), characterized by SW-NE oriented extension occurring at rates of 2-3 mm/yr. These rates were measured by continuous GPS stations belonging to several networks, which are denser in the study area thanks to additional sites recently installed in the framework of the INGV national RING network and of the ATF observatory. In this area historical and instrumental earthquakes mainly occur on west-dipping high-angle normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Within this context the ATF has accumulated 2 km of displacement over the past 2 Ma, but at the same time the deformation processes active along this misoriented <span class="hlt">fault</span>, as well as its mechanical behavior, are still unknown. We tackle this issue by solving for interseismic deformation models obtained by two different methods. At first, through the 2D and 3D finite element modeling, we define the effects of locking depth, synthetic and antithetic <span class="hlt">fault</span> activity and lithology on the velocity gradient measured along the ATF <span class="hlt">system</span>. Subsequently through a block modeling approach, we model the GPS velocities by considering the major <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> as bounds of rotating blocks, while estimating the corresponding geodetic <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip-rates and maps of heterogeneous <span class="hlt">fault</span> coupling. Thanks to the latest imaging of the ATF deep structure obtained from seismic profiles, we improve the proposed models by modeling the <span class="hlt">fault</span> as a complex rough surface to understand where the stress accumulations are located and the interseismic coupling changes. The preliminary results obtained show firstly that the observed extension is mainly accommodated by interseismic deformation on both the ATF and antithetic <span class="hlt">faults</span>, highlighting the important role of this LANF inside an active tectonic contest. Secondarily, using the ATF surface "topography", we find an interesting correlation between microseismicty and creeping portions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MSSP..101..121W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MSSP..101..121W"><span>An information transfer based novel framework for <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause tracing of complex electromechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the processing industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Rongxi; Gao, Xu; Gao, Jianmin; Gao, Zhiyong; Kang, Jiani</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>As one of the most important approaches for analyzing the mechanism of <span class="hlt">fault</span> pervasion, <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause tracing is a powerful and useful tool for detecting the fundamental causes of <span class="hlt">faults</span> so as to prevent any further propagation and amplification. Focused on the problems arising from the lack of systematic and comprehensive integration, an information transfer-based novel data-driven framework for <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause tracing of complex electromechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the processing industry was proposed, taking into consideration the experience and qualitative analysis of conventional <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause tracing methods. Firstly, an improved symbolic transfer entropy method was presented to construct a directed-weighted information model for a specific complex electromechanical <span class="hlt">system</span> based on the information flow. Secondly, considering the feedback mechanisms in the complex electromechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span>, a method for determining the threshold values of weights was developed to explore the disciplines of <span class="hlt">fault</span> propagation. Lastly, an iterative method was introduced to identify the <span class="hlt">fault</span> development process. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause was traced by analyzing the changes in information transfer between the nodes along with the <span class="hlt">fault</span> propagation pathway. An actual <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause tracing application of a complex electromechanical <span class="hlt">system</span> is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. A unique <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause is obtained regardless of the choice of the initial variable. Thus, the proposed framework can be flexibly and effectively used in <span class="hlt">fault</span> root cause tracing for complex electromechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the processing industry, and formulate the foundation of <span class="hlt">system</span> vulnerability analysis and condition prediction, as well as other engineering applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059069&hterms=1041&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231041','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059069&hterms=1041&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231041"><span>FTAPE: A <span class="hlt">fault</span> injection tool to measure <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The paper introduces FTAPE (<span class="hlt">Fault</span> Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant computers. The tool combines <span class="hlt">system</span>-wide <span class="hlt">fault</span> injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. <span class="hlt">Faults</span> are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of <span class="hlt">fault</span> propagation. The errors/<span class="hlt">fault</span> ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28678721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28678721"><span>Observer-Based Adaptive <span class="hlt">Fault</span>-Tolerant Tracking Control of Nonlinear Nonstrict-Feedback <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Chengwei; Liu, Jianxing; Xiong, Yongyang; Wu, Ligang</p> <p>2017-06-28</p> <p>This paper studies an output-based adaptive <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant control problem for nonlinear <span class="hlt">systems</span> with nonstrict-feedback form. Neural networks are utilized to identify the unknown nonlinear characteristics in the <span class="hlt">system</span>. An observer and a general <span class="hlt">fault</span> model are constructed to estimate the unavailable states and describe the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, respectively. Adaptive parameters are constructed to overcome the difficulties in the design process for nonstrict-feedback <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Meanwhile, dynamic surface control technique is introduced to avoid the problem of ''explosion of complexity''. Furthermore, based on adaptive backstepping control method, an output-based adaptive neural tracking control strategy is developed for the considered <span class="hlt">system</span> against actuator <span class="hlt">fault</span>, which can ensure that all the signals in the resulting closed-loop <span class="hlt">system</span> are bounded, and the <span class="hlt">system</span> output signal can be regulated to follow the response of the given reference signal with a small error. Finally, the simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the control strategy proposed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340792"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">Fault</span>-Tolerant Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Large-Scale <span class="hlt">Systems</span> With Unknown Dead Zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Mou; Tao, Gang</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this paper, an adaptive neural <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant control scheme is proposed and analyzed for a class of uncertain nonlinear large-scale <span class="hlt">systems</span> with unknown dead zone and external disturbances. To tackle the unknown nonlinear interaction functions in the large-scale <span class="hlt">system</span>, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is employed to approximate them. To further handle the unknown approximation errors and the effects of the unknown dead zone and external disturbances, integrated as the compounded disturbances, the corresponding disturbance observers are developed for their estimations. Based on the outputs of the RBFNN and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant control scheme is designed for uncertain nonlinear large-scale <span class="hlt">systems</span> by using a decentralized backstepping technique. The closed-loop stability of the adaptive control <span class="hlt">system</span> is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking performance is achieved under the integrated effects of unknown dead zone, actuator <span class="hlt">fault</span>, and unknown external disturbances. Simulation results of a mass-spring-damper <span class="hlt">system</span> are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant control scheme for uncertain nonlinear large-scale <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4379147','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4379147"><span><span class="hlt">Fault</span> Diagnosis for the Heat Exchanger of the Aircraft Environmental Control <span class="hlt">System</span> Based on the Strong Tracking Filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aircraft environmental control <span class="hlt">system</span> (ECS) is a critical aircraft <span class="hlt">system</span>, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system’s efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the <span class="hlt">fault</span> occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger <span class="hlt">faults</span> are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding <span class="hlt">fault</span>-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a <span class="hlt">fault</span>-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger <span class="hlt">fault</span> simulation is conducted to generate <span class="hlt">fault</span> data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis of the heat exchanger. PMID:25823010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Geo....17..806Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Geo....17..806Y"><span>Duplex development and abandonment during evolution of the Lewis thrust <span class="hlt">system</span>, southern Glacier National Park, Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, An; Kelty, Thomas K.; Davis, Gregory A.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>Geologic mapping in southern Glacier National Park, Montana, reveals the presence of two duplexes sharing the same floor thrust <span class="hlt">fault</span>, the Lewis thrust. The westernmost duplex (Brave Dog Mountain) includes the low-angle Brave Dog roof <span class="hlt">fault</span> and Elk Mountain imbricate <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the easternmost (Rising Wolf Mountain) duplex includes the low-angle Rockwell roof <span class="hlt">fault</span> and <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Henry imbricate <span class="hlt">system</span>. The geometry of these duplexes suggests that they differ from previously described geometric-kinematic models for duplex development. Their low-angle roof <span class="hlt">faults</span> were preexisting structures that were locally utilized as roof <span class="hlt">faults</span> during the formation of the imbricate <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Crosscutting of the Brave Dog <span class="hlt">fault</span> by the <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Henry imbricate <span class="hlt">system</span> indicates that the two duplexes formed at different times. The younger Rockwell-<span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Henry duplex developed 20 km east of the older Brave Dog-Elk Mountain duplex; the roof <span class="hlt">fault</span> of the former is at a higher structural level. Field relations confirm that the low-angle Rockwell <span class="hlt">fault</span> existed across the southern Glacier Park area prior to localized formation of the <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Henry imbricate thrusts beneath it. These thrusts kinematically link the Rockwell and Lewis <span class="hlt">faults</span> and may be analogous to P shears that form between two synchronously active <span class="hlt">faults</span> bounding a simple shear <span class="hlt">system</span>. The abandonment of one duplex and its replacement by another with a new and higher roof <span class="hlt">fault</span> may have been caused by (1) warping of the older and lower Brave Dog roof <span class="hlt">fault</span> during the formation of the imbricate <span class="hlt">system</span> (Elk Mountain) beneath it, (2) an upward shifting of the highest level of a simple shear <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Lewis plate to a new decollement level in subhorizontal belt strata (= the Rockwell <span class="hlt">fault</span>) that lay above inclined strata within the first duplex, and (3) a reinitiation of P-shear development (= <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Henry imbricate <span class="hlt">faults</span>) between the Lewis thrust and the subparallel, synkinematic Rockwell <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917002F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917002F"><span>Experimental approach to domino-style basement <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> with evaporites during extension and subsequent inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferrer, Oriol; McClay, Ken</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Salt is mechanically weaker than other sedimentary rocks in rift basins. During extension it commonly acts as a strain localizer, decoupling supra- and sub-salt deformation. In this scenario the movement of the subsalt <span class="hlt">faults</span> combined with the salt migration commonly constraint the development of syncline basins. The shape of these synclines is basically controlled by the thickness and strength of the overlying salt section, as well as by the shapes of the extensional <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and the magnitudes and slip rates along the <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The inherited extensional structure, and particularly the continuity of the salt section, plays a key role if the rift basin is subsequently inverted. This research utilizes scaled physical models to analyse the interplay between subsalt structures and suprasalt units during both extension and inversion in domino-style basement <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The experimental program includes twelve analogue models to analyze how the thickness and stratigraphy of the salt unit as well as the thickness of the pre-extensional cover constraint the structural style during extension and subsequent inversion. Different models with the same setup have been used to examine the kinematic evolution. Model kinematics was documented and analyzed combining high-resolution photographs and sub-millimeter resolution scanners. The vertical sections carried out at the end of the experiments have been used to characterize the variations of the structures along strike using new methodologies (3D voxel models in image processing software and 3D seismic). The experimental results show that after extension, rift <span class="hlt">systems</span> with salt affected by domino-style basement <span class="hlt">faults</span> don't show the classical growth stratal wedges. In this case synclinal basins develop above the salt on the hangingwall of the basement <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The evolution of supra- and subsalt deformation is initially decoupled by the salt layer. Salt migrates from the main depocenters towards the edges of the basin constraining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T31G..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T31G..02O"><span>New Geologic Data on the Seismic Risks of the Most Dangerous <span class="hlt">Fault</span> on Shore in Central Japan, the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Active <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okumura, K.; Kondo, H.; Toda, S.; Takada, K.; Kinoshita, H.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Ten years have past since the first official assessment of the long-term seismic risks of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line active <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> (ISTL) in 1996. The disaster caused by the1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken-Nanbu) earthquake urged the Japanese government to initiated a national project to assess the long-term seismic risks of on-shore active <span class="hlt">faults</span> using geologic information. ISTL was the first target of the 98 significant <span class="hlt">faults</span> and the probability of a M7 to M8 event turned out to be the highest among them. After the 10 years of continued efforts to understand the ISTL, now it is getting ready to revise the assessment. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> mapping and segmentation: The most active segment of the Gofukuji <span class="hlt">fault</span> (~1 cm/yr left-lateral strike slip, R=500~800 yrs.) had been maped only for less than 10 km. Adjacent segments were much less active. This large slip on such a short segment was contradictory. However, detailed topographic study including Lidar survey revealed the length of the Gofukuji <span class="hlt">fault</span> to be 25 km or more. High slip rate with frequent earthquakes may be restricted to the Gofukuji <span class="hlt">fault</span> while the 1996 assessment modeled frequent >100 km rupture scenario. The geometry of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> is controversial especially on the left-lateral strike-slip section of the ISTL. There are two models of high-angle Middel ISTL and low-angle Middle ISTL with slip partitioning. However, all geomorphic and shallow geologic data supports high-angle almost pure strike slip on the <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the Middle ISTL. CRIEPI's 3- dimensional trenching in several sites as well as the previous results clearly demonstrated repeated pure strike-slip offset during past a few events. In Middle ISTL, there is no evidence of recent activity of pre-existing low-angle thrust <span class="hlt">faults</span> that are inferred to be active from shallow seismic survey. Separation of high (~3000 m) mountain ranges and low (<1000 m) basin floor requires significant dip-slip component, but basin-fill sediments and geology of the range do not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1861b0001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1861b0001S"><span>A new array <span class="hlt">system</span> for multiphysics (<span class="hlt">MT</span>, LOTEM, and microseismics) with focus on reservoir monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strack, K.; Davydycheva, S.; Hanstein, T.; Smirnov, M.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Over the last 6 years we developed an array <span class="hlt">system</span> for electromagnetic acquisition (magnetotelluric & long offset transient electromagnetics [LOTEM]) that includes microseismic acquisition. While predominantly used for magnetotellurics, we focus on the autonomous operation as reservoir monitoring <span class="hlt">system</span> including a shallow borehole receiver and 100/150 KVA transmitter. A marine extension is also under development. For Enhanced Oil recovery (EOR), in addition to reservoir flood front movements, reservoir seal integrity has become an issue [1]. Seal integrity is best addressed with microseismics while the water flood front is best addressed with electromagnetics. Since the flooded reservoir is conductive and the hydrocarbon saturated part is resistive, you need both magnetic and electric fields. The fluid imaging is addressed using electromagnetics. To overcome the volume-focus inherent to electromagnetics a new methodology to focus the sensitivity under the receiver is proposed. Field data and 3D modeling confirm this could increase the efficiency of LOTEM to reservoir monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065606&hterms=tick&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtick','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065606&hterms=tick&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtick"><span>Validation of <span class="hlt">fault</span>-free behavior of a reliable multiprocessor <span class="hlt">system</span> - FTMP: A case study. [<span class="hlt">Fault</span>-Tolerant Multi-Processor avionics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clune, E.; Segall, Z.; Siewiorek, D.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A program of experiments has been conducted at NASA-Langley to test the <span class="hlt">fault</span>-free performance of a <span class="hlt">Fault</span>-Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) avionics <span class="hlt">system</span> for next-generation aircraft. Baseline measurements of an operating FTMP <span class="hlt">system</span> were obtained with respect to the following parameters: instruction execution time, frame size, and the variation of clock ticks. The mechanisms of frame stretching were also investigated. The experimental results are summarized in a table. Areas of interest for future tests are identified, with emphasis given to the implementation of a synthetic workload generation mechanism on FTMP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......209A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......209A"><span>Sliding Mode Approaches for Robust Control, State Estimation, Secure Communication, and <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Diagnosis in Nuclear <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ablay, Gunyaz</p> <p></p> <p>Using traditional control methods for controller design, parameter estimation and <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis may lead to poor results with nuclear <span class="hlt">systems</span> in practice because of approximations and uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">system</span> models used, possibly resulting in unexpected plant unavailability. This experience has led to an interest in development of robust control, estimation and <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis methods. One particularly robust approach is the sliding mode control methodology. Sliding mode approaches have been of great interest and importance in industry and engineering in the recent decades due to their potential for producing economic, safe and reliable designs. In order to utilize these advantages, sliding mode approaches are implemented for robust control, state estimation, secure communication and <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis in nuclear plant <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In addition, a sliding mode output observer is developed for <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis in dynamical <span class="hlt">systems</span>. To validate the effectiveness of the methodologies, several nuclear plant <span class="hlt">system</span> models are considered for applications, including point reactor kinetics, xenon concentration dynamics, an uncertain pressurizer model, a U-tube steam generator model and a coupled nonlinear nuclear reactor model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959836"><span>Adaptively Adjusted Event-Triggering Mechanism on <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Detection for Networked Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu-Long; Lim, Cheng-Chew; Shi, Peng</p> <p>2016-12-08</p> <p>This paper studies the problem of adaptively adjusted event-triggering mechanism-based <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection for a class of discrete-time networked control <span class="hlt">system</span> (NCS) with applications to aircraft dynamics. By taking into account the <span class="hlt">fault</span> occurrence detection progress and the <span class="hlt">fault</span> occurrence probability, and introducing an adaptively adjusted event-triggering parameter, a novel event-triggering mechanism is proposed to achieve the efficient utilization of the communication network bandwidth. Both the sensor-to-control station and the control station-to-actuator network-induced delays are taken into account. The event-triggered sensor and the event-triggered control station are utilized simultaneously to establish new network-based closed-loop models for the NCS subject to <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Based on the established models, the event-triggered simultaneous design of <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection filter (FDF) and controller is presented. A new algorithm for handling the adaptively adjusted event-triggering parameter is proposed. Performance analysis verifies the effectiveness of the adaptively adjusted event-triggering mechanism, and the simultaneous design of FDF and controller.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.T12A..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.T12A..01L"><span>Uplifted Yellow river terraces across the Haiyuan <span class="hlt">fault</span>, China and their implications to geometrical complexity of strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; van der Woerd, J.; Li, Z.; Klinger, Y.; Matrau, R.; Shao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Wang, P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Geometrical complexities and discontinues, such as <span class="hlt">fault</span> bends, splays and step-overs, are common along large strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Numerical and observational studies show that geometrical complexities above some threshold degree may inhibit thoroughgoing rupture, limiting rupture length and the size of the resulting earthquake. Studying the fine structure and long-term evolution of <span class="hlt">fault</span> step-overs would help us better understand their effect on earthquake ruptures. In this study, we focus on a prominent geometrical "knot" on the left-lateral Haiyuan <span class="hlt">fault</span>, where the <span class="hlt">fault</span> curves with multi-strand splays bounding the Mijia Shan-Hasi Shan ranges. Incidentally, the Yellow river flows between the Mijia Shan and Hasi Shan and cuts a deep gorge when crossing the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. On the western bank of the river, a series of at least twelve levels of fluvial strath terraces perch above river bed, and are capped with no more than 5 meters of alluvial deposits. We measured the terrace heights above river bed, using RTK and UAV surveys. We collected quartz-rich pebbles of yellow river gravel for cosmogenic radio nuclide (CRN), and silt layers within gravel and the overlying loess cap for optimally stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to constrain the terrace formation ages. Quartz-rich pebbles were sampled both in hand-dug pit for depth-profile method and surface samples on terrace surfaces. The CRN age results were corrected in terms of inheritance and shielding by loess. The dates and heights of serial terraces yielded an average uplift rate of 2±0.34 mm/yr, which represents the late Quaternary uplifting rate of the Mijia Shan. The uplift of the Mijia Shan-Hasi Shan may result from the oblique shear of positive flower in the deep crust of the left-lateral Haiyuan <span class="hlt">fault</span>. We further speculate that with progressively uplifted mountain ranges, the active <span class="hlt">fault</span> trace shifts with time among the multi-strands of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. In addition, the coincidence of prominent uplifted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ammi.conf..311Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ammi.conf..311Z"><span><span class="hlt">Fault</span> Diagnosis <span class="hlt">System</span> of Wind Turbine Generator Based on Petri Net</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Han</p> <p></p> <p>Petri net is an important tool for discrete event dynamic <span class="hlt">systems</span> modeling and analysis. And it has great ability to handle concurrent phenomena and non-deterministic phenomena. Currently Petri nets used in wind turbine <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis have not participated in the actual <span class="hlt">system</span>. This article will combine the existing fuzzy Petri net algorithms; build wind turbine control <span class="hlt">system</span> simulation based on Siemens S7-1200 PLC, while making matlab gui interface for migration of the <span class="hlt">system</span> to different platforms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890064700&hterms=image+alignment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Balignment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890064700&hterms=image+alignment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Balignment"><span>Evidence for Phanerozoic reactivation of the Najd <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span> in AVHRR, TM, and SPOT images of central Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Andre, Constance G.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>SPOT stereoscopic and TM multispectral images support evidence in AVHRR thermal-IR images of a major unmapped shear zone in Phanerozoic cover rocks southeast of the ancient Najd <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span> in the Arabian Shield. This shear zone and <span class="hlt">faults</span> of the Najd share a common alignment, orientation, and sinistral sense of movement. These similarities suggest a 200-km extension of the Najd <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span> and reactivation since it formed in the late Precambrian. Topographic and lithologic features in the TM and SPOT data along one of three <span class="hlt">faults</span> inferred from the AVHRR data indicate sinistral offsets up to 2.5 km, en echelon folds and secondary <span class="hlt">faults</span> like those predicted by models of left-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. The age of the affected outcrops indicates reactivation of Najd <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the Cretaceous, judging from TM and SPOT data or in the Tertiary, based on AVHRR data. The total length of the <span class="hlt">system</span> visible at the surface measures 1300 km. If the Najd <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span> is extrapolated beneath sands of the Empty Quarter to <span class="hlt">faults</span> of a similar trend in South Yemen, the shear zone would span the Arabian Plate. Furthermore, if extensions into the Arabian Sea bed and into Egypt proposed by others are considered, it would exceed 3000 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.V51C0363S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.V51C0363S"><span>Soil gas anomalies along the Watukosek <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, East Java, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sciarra, A.; Ruggiero, L.; Bigi, S.; Mazzini, A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Two soil gas surveys were carried out in the Sidoarjo district (East Java, Indonesia) to investigate the gas leaking properties along fractured zones that coincide with a strike-slip <span class="hlt">system</span> in NE Java, the Watukosek <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span>. This structure has been the focus of attention since the beginning of the spectacular Lusi mud eruption on the 29th May 2006. This <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> appear to be a sinistral strike-slip <span class="hlt">system</span> that originates from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, intersects the active Lusi eruption site displaying a <span class="hlt">system</span> of antithetic <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and extends towards the NE of Java where mud volcanic structures reside. In the Lusi region we completed two geochemical surveys (222Rn and 220Rn activity, CO2 and CH4 flux and concentration) along four profiles crossing the Watukosek <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. In May 2015 two profiles ( 1.2 km long) were performed inside the 7 km2 embankment area framing the erupted mud breccia zone and across regions characterized by intense fracturing and surface deformation. In April 2017 two additional profiles ( 4 km long) were carried out in the northern and southern part outside the Lusi embankment mud eruption area, intersecting the direction of main Watukosek <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. All the profiles highlight that the fractured zones have the highest 222Rn activity, CO2 and CH4 flux and concentration values. The relationship existing among the measured parameters suggest that the Watukosek <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> acts as a preferential pathway for active rise of deep fluids. In addition the longer profiles outside the embankment show very high average values of CO2 (5 - 8 %,v/v) and 222Rn (17 - 11.5 kBq/m3), while soil gas collected along the profiles inside the Lusi mud eruption are CH4-dominant (up to 4.5%,v/v).This suggests that inside the embankment area (i.e. covered by tens of meters thick deposits of erupted mud breccia) the seepage is overall methane-dominated. This is likely the result of microbial reactions ongoing in the organic-rich sediments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..318...27N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..318...27N"><span>Volatile behavior and trace metal transport in the magmatic-geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> at Pūtauaki (<span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Edgecumbe), New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norling, B.; Rowe, M. C.; Chambefort, I.; Tepley, F. J.; Morrow, S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The present-day hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> beneath the Kawerau Geothermal Field, in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, is likely heated from the Pūtauaki (<span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Edgecumbe) magma <span class="hlt">system</span>. The aim of this work, as an analog for present day processes, is to identify whether or not earlier erupted Pūtauaki magmas show evidence for volatile exsolution. This may have led to the transfer of volatile components from the magmatic to hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. To accomplish this, minerals and melt inclusions from volcanic products were analyzed for abundances of volatile and ore-forming elements (S, Cl, Li, Cu, Sn, Mo, W, Sb, As, and Tl). The variations in abundance of these elements were used to assess magma evolution and volatile exsolution or fluxing in the magma <span class="hlt">system</span>. Melt inclusions suggest the evolution of Pūtauaki andesite-dacite magmas is predominantly driven by crystallization processes resulting in rhyodacite-rhyolite glass compositions (although textural and geochemical evidence still indicate a role for magma mixing). Measured mineral-melt partition coefficients for trace metals of interest indicates that, with the exception of Tl in biotite, analyzed metals are all incompatible in Pūtauaki crystallization products. Excluding Li and Cu, other volatile and ore metals recorded in melt inclusions behave incompatibly, with concentrations increasing during evolution from rhyodacitic to rhyolitic melt compositions. Li and Cu appear to have increased mobility likely resulting from diffusive exchange post-crystallization, and may be related to late volatile fluxing. Although S and Cl concentrations decrease with melt evolution, no mineralogical evidence exists to indicate the exsolution and mobility of ore-forming metals from the magma at the time of crystallization. This observation cannot rule out the potential for post-crystallization volatile exsolution and ore-forming metal mobilization, which may only be recorded as diffusive re-equilibration of more rapidly diffusing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930045600&hterms=power+distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpower%2Bdistribution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930045600&hterms=power+distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpower%2Bdistribution"><span>Single-phase power distribution <span class="hlt">system</span> power flow and <span class="hlt">fault</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Alternative methods for power flow and <span class="hlt">fault</span> analysis of single-phase distribution <span class="hlt">systems</span> are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and <span class="hlt">fault</span> analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056119&hterms=design+verification&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddesign%2Bverification','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056119&hterms=design+verification&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddesign%2Bverification"><span>Space Station automated <span class="hlt">systems</span> testing/verification and the Galileo Orbiter <span class="hlt">fault</span> protection design/verification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Landano, M. R.; Easter, R. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Aspects of Space Station automated <span class="hlt">systems</span> testing and verification are discussed, taking into account several program requirements. It is found that these requirements lead to a number of issues of uncertainties which require study and resolution during the Space Station definition phase. Most, if not all, of the considered uncertainties have implications for the overall testing and verification strategy adopted by the Space Station Program. A description is given of the Galileo Orbiter <span class="hlt">fault</span> protection design/verification approach. Attention is given to a mission description, an Orbiter description, the design approach and process, the <span class="hlt">fault</span> protection design verification approach/process, and problems of 'stress' testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526106"><span>Enhanced <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant quantum computing in d-level <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campbell, Earl T</p> <p>2014-12-05</p> <p>Error-correcting codes protect quantum information and form the basis of <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant quantum computing. Leading proposals for <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant quantum computation require codes with an exceedingly rare property, a transversal non-Clifford gate. Codes with the desired property are presented for d-level qudit <span class="hlt">systems</span> with prime d. The codes use n=d-1 qudits and can detect up to ∼d/3 errors. We quantify the performance of these codes for one approach to quantum computation known as magic-state distillation. Unlike prior work, we find performance is always enhanced by increasing d.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T11A4544W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T11A4544W"><span>Updated mapping and seismic reflection data processing along the Queen Charlotte <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, southeast Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walton, M. A. L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Rohr, K.; Roland, E. C.; Trehu, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Queen Charlotte <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (QCF) is an obliquely convergent strike-slip <span class="hlt">system</span> that accommodates offset between the Pacific and North America plates in southeast Alaska and western Canada. Two recent earthquakes, including a M7.8 thrust event near Haida Gwaii on 28 October 2012, have sparked renewed interest in the margin and led to further study of how convergent stress is accommodated along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Recent studies have looked in detail at offshore structure, concluding that a change in strike of the QCF at ~53.2 degrees north has led to significant differences in stress and the style of strain accommodation along-strike. We provide updated <span class="hlt">fault</span> mapping and seismic images to supplement and support these results. One of the highest-quality seismic reflection surveys along the Queen Charlotte <span class="hlt">system</span> to date, EW9412, was shot aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing in 1994. The survey was last processed to post-stack time migration for a 1999 publication. Due to heightened interest in high-quality imaging along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, we have completed updated processing of the EW9412 seismic reflection data and provide prestack migrations with water-bottom multiple reduction. Our new imaging better resolves <span class="hlt">fault</span> and basement surfaces at depth, as well as the highly deformed sediments within the Queen Charlotte Terrace. In addition to re-processing the EW9412 seismic reflection data, we have compiled and re-analyzed a series of publicly available USGS seismic reflection data that obliquely cross the QCF. Using these data, we are able to provide updated maps of the Queen Charlotte <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, adding considerable detail along the northernmost QCF where it links up with the Chatham Strait and Transition <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Our results support conclusions that the changing geometry of the QCF leads to fundamentally different convergent stress accommodation north and south of ~53.2 degrees; namely, reactivated splay <span class="hlt">faults</span> to the north vs. thickening of sediments and the upper crust to the south</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887019"><span>Adjustable Parameter-Based Distributed <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Estimation Observer Design for Multiagent <span class="hlt">Systems</span> With Directed Graphs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, a novel adjustable parameter (AP)-based distributed <span class="hlt">fault</span> estimation observer (DFEO) is proposed for multiagent <span class="hlt">systems</span> (MASs) with the directed communication topology. First, a relative output estimation error is defined based on the communication topology of MASs. Then a DFEO with AP is constructed with the purpose of improving the accuracy of <span class="hlt">fault</span> estimation. Based on H ∞ and H 2 with pole placement, multiconstrained design is given to calculate the gain of DFEO. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed DFEO design with AP.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJC....90..932G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJC....90..932G"><span>Prescribed-performance <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant control for feedback linearisable <span class="hlt">systems</span> with an aircraft application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Gang; Wang, Jinzhi; Wang, Xianghua</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>This paper investigates <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant control (FTC) for feedback linearisable <span class="hlt">systems</span> (FLSs) and its application to an aircraft. To ensure desired transient and steady-state behaviours of the tracking error under actuator <span class="hlt">faults</span>, the dynamic effect caused by the actuator failures on the error dynamics of a transformed model is analysed, and three control strategies are designed. The first FTC strategy is proposed as a robust controller, which relies on the explicit information about several parameters of the actuator <span class="hlt">faults</span>. To eliminate the need for these parameters and the input chattering phenomenon, the robust control law is later combined with the adaptive technique to generate the adaptive FTC law. Next, the adaptive control law is further improved to achieve the prescribed performance under more severe input disturbance. Finally, the proposed control laws are applied to an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) subject to actuator failures, which confirms the effectiveness of the proposed strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JIEIB..97..413T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JIEIB..97..413T"><span>Voltage Based Detection Method for High Impedance <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in a Distribution <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mini Shaji; Bhaskar, Namrata; Prakash, Anupama</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>High-impedance <span class="hlt">faults</span> (HIFs) on distribution feeders cannot be detected by conventional protection schemes, as HIFs are characterized by their low <span class="hlt">fault</span> current level and waveform distortion due to the nonlinearity of the ground return path. This paper proposes a method to identify the HIFs in distribution <span class="hlt">system</span> and isolate the faulty section, to reduce downtime. This method is based on voltage measurements along the distribution feeder and utilizes the sequence components of the voltages. Three models of high impedance <span class="hlt">faults</span> have been considered and source side and load side breaking of the conductor have been studied in this work to capture a wide range of scenarios. The effect of neutral grounding of the source side transformer is also accounted in this study. The results show that the algorithm detects the HIFs accurately and rapidly. Thus, the faulty section can be isolated and service can be restored to the rest of the consumers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9528391D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9528391D"><span><span class="hlt">Fault</span> tolerant features and experiments of ANTS distributed real-time <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dominic-Savio, Patrick; Lo, Jien-Chung; Tufts, Donald W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The ANTS project at the University of Rhode Island introduces the concept of Active Nodal Task Seeking (ANTS) as a way to efficiently design and implement dependable, high-performance, distributed computing. This paper presents the <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerant design features that have been incorporated in the ANTS experimental <span class="hlt">system</span> implementation. The results of performance evaluations and <span class="hlt">fault</span> injection experiments are reported. The <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant version of ANTS categorizes all computing nodes into three groups. They are: the up-and-running green group, the self-diagnosing yellow group and the failed red group. Each available computing node will be placed in the yellow group periodically for a routine diagnosis. In addition, for long-life missions, ANTS uses a monitoring scheme to identify faulty computing nodes. In this monitoring scheme, the communication pattern of each computing node is monitored by two other nodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMSA....9...87C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMSA....9...87C"><span>H∞ robust <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant controller design for an autonomous underwater vehicle's navigation control <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Xiang-Qin; Qu, Jing-Yuan; Yan, Zhe-Ping; Bian, Xin-Qian</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In order to improve the security and reliability for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) navigation, an H∞ robust <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant controller was designed after analyzing variations in state-feedback gain. Operating conditions and the design method were then analyzed so that the control problem could be expressed as a mathematical optimization problem. This permitted the use of linear matrix inequalities (LMI) to solve for the H∞ controller for the <span class="hlt">system</span>. When considering different actuator failures, these conditions were then also mathematically expressed, allowing the H∞ robust controller to solve for these events and thus be <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant. Finally, simulation results showed that the H∞ robust <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant controller could provide precise AUV navigation control with strong robustness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880047636&hterms=aircraft+diagnosis+expert+system&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daircraft%2Bdiagnosis%2Bexpert%2Bsystem','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880047636&hterms=aircraft+diagnosis+expert+system&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daircraft%2Bdiagnosis%2Bexpert%2Bsystem"><span>An evaluation of a real-time <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis expert <span class="hlt">system</span> for aircraft applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schutte, Paul C.; Abbott, Kathy H.; Palmer, Michael T.; Ricks, Wendell R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">fault</span> monitoring and diagnosis expert <span class="hlt">system</span> called Faultfinder was conceived and developed to detect and diagnose in-flight failures in an aircraft. Faultfinder is an automated intelligent aid whose purpose is to assist the flight crew in <span class="hlt">fault</span> monitoring, <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis, and recovery planning. The present implementation of this concept performs monitoring and diagnosis for a generic aircraft's propulsion and hydraulic subsystems. This implementation is capable of detecting and diagnosing failures of known and unknown (i.e., unforseeable) type in a real-time environment. Faultfinder uses both rule-based and model-based reasoning strategies which operate on causal, temporal, and qualitative information. A preliminary evaluation is made of the diagnostic concepts implemented in Faultfinder. The evaluation used actual aircraft accident and incident cases which were simulated to assess the effectiveness of Faultfinder in detecting and diagnosing failures. Results of this evaluation, together with the description of the current Faultfinder implementation, are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1209350','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1209350"><span>Methods for locating ground <span class="hlt">faults</span> and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja</p> <p>2015-08-11</p> <p>Methods for determining a ground <span class="hlt">fault</span> or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion <span class="hlt">systems</span> are described. A method for determining a ground <span class="hlt">fault</span> within an energy conversion <span class="hlt">system</span> may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion <span class="hlt">system</span>. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion <span class="hlt">system</span> may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion <span class="hlt">system</span>. In one embodiment, the energy conversion <span class="hlt">system</span> may be a photovoltaic <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.T51B2915Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.T51B2915Y"><span>Pore pressure control on <span class="hlt">faulting</span> behavior in a block-gouge <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Pore fluid pressure in a <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection/extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic <span class="hlt">fault</span> remain poorly understood; yet they are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on <span class="hlt">faulting</span> behavior. The model couples pore network fluid flow and mechanics of the solid grains. We conceptualize the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks; the block material is represented by a group of contact-bonded grains and the gouge is composed of unbonded grains. A pore network is extracted from the particulate pack of the block-gouge <span class="hlt">system</span> with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on the geometry of the local pore space. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). The model updates the pore network regularly in response to deformation of the solid matrix. We study the <span class="hlt">fault</span> stability in the presence of a pressure inhomogeneity (gradient) across the gouge layer, and compare it with the case of homogeneous pore pressure. We consider both normal and thrust <span class="hlt">faulting</span> scenarios with a focus on the onset of shear failure along the block-gouge interfaces. Numerical simulations show that the slip behavior is characterized by intermittent dynamics, which is evident in the number of slipping contacts at the block-gouge interfaces and the total kinetic energy of the gouge particles. Numerical results also show that, for the case of pressure inhomogeneity, the onset of slip occurs earlier for the side with higher pressure, and that this onset appears to be controlled by the maximum pressure of both sides</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018SedG..365...62L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018SedG..365...62L"><span>Sedimentary evidence of historical and prehistorical earthquakes along the Venta de Bravo <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span>, Acambay Graben (Central Mexico)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacan, Pierre; Ortuño, María; Audin, Laurence; Perea, Hector; Baize, Stephane; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Zúñiga, F. Ramón</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The Venta de Bravo normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> is one of the longest structures in the intra-arc <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. It defines, together with the Pastores <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, the 80 km long southern margin of the Acambay Graben. We focus on the westernmost segment of the Venta de Bravo <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and provide new paleoseismological information, evaluate its earthquake history, and assess the related seismic hazard. We analyzed five trenches, distributed at three different sites, in which Holocene surface <span class="hlt">faulting</span> offsets interbedded volcanoclastic, fluvio-lacustrine and colluvial deposits. Despite the lack of known historical destructive earthquakes along this <span class="hlt">fault</span>, we found evidence of at least eight earthquakes during the late Quaternary. Our results indicate that this is one of the major seismic sources of the Acambay Graben, capable of producing by itself earthquakes with magnitudes (MW) up to 6.9, with a slip rate of 0.22-0.24 mm yr- 1 and a recurrence interval between 1940 and 2390 years. In addition, a possible multi-<span class="hlt">fault</span> rupture of the Venta de Bravo <span class="hlt">Fault</span> together with other <span class="hlt">faults</span> of the Acambay Graben could result in a MW > 7 earthquake. These new slip rates, earthquake recurrence rates, and estimation of slips per event help advance our understanding of the seismic hazard posed by the Venta de Bravo <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and provide new parameters for further hazard assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1010/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1010/"><span>The Quaternary Silver Creek <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wentworth, Carl M.; Williams, Robert A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Graymer, Russell W.; Stephenson, William J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The northwest-trending Silver Creek <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is a 40-km-long strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the eastern Santa Clara Valley, California, that has exhibited different behaviors within a changing San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> over the past 10-15 Ma. Quaternary alluvium several hundred meters thick that buries the northern half of the Silver Creek <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, and that has been sampled by drilling and imaged in a detailed seismic reflection profile, provides a record of the Quaternary history of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. We assemble evidence from areal geology, stratigraphy, paleomagnetics, ground-water hydrology, potential-field geophysics, and reflection and earthquake seismology to determine the long history of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in order to evaluate its current behavior. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> formed in the Miocene more than 100 km to the southeast, as the southwestern <span class="hlt">fault</span> in a 5-km-wide right step to the Hayward <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, within which the 40-km-long Evergreen pull-apart basin formed. Later, this basin was obliquely cut by the newly recognized <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Misery <span class="hlt">Fault</span> to form a more direct connection to the Hayward <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, although continued growth of the basin was sufficient to accommodate at least some late Pliocene alluvium. Large offset along the San Andreas-Calaveras-<span class="hlt">Mt</span> Misery-Hayward <span class="hlt">Faults</span> carried the basin northwestward almost to its present position when, about 2 Ma, the <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> was reorganized. This led to near abandonment of the <span class="hlt">faults</span> bounding the pull-apart basin in favor of right slip extending the Calaveras <span class="hlt">Fault</span> farther north before stepping west to the Hayward <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, as it does today. Despite these changes, the Silver Creek <span class="hlt">Fault</span> experienced a further 200 m of dip slip in the early Quaternary, from which we infer an associated 1.6 km or so of right slip, based on the ratio of the 40-km length of the strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> to a 5-km depth of the Evergreen Basin. This dip slip ends at a mid-Quaternary unconformity, above which the upper 300 m of alluvial cover exhibits a structural sag at the <span class="hlt">fault</span> that we interpret as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10322E..3IL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10322E..3IL"><span>Study on <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis and load feedback control <span class="hlt">system</span> of combine harvester</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Ying; Wang, Kun</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In order to timely gain working status parameters of operating parts in combine harvester and improve its operating efficiency, <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis and load feedback control <span class="hlt">system</span> is designed. In the <span class="hlt">system</span>, rotation speed sensors were used to gather these signals of forward speed and rotation speeds of intermediate shaft, conveying trough, tangential and longitudinal flow threshing rotors, grain conveying auger. Using C8051 single chip microcomputer (SCM) as processor for main control unit, <span class="hlt">faults</span> diagnosis and forward speed control were carried through by rotation speed ratio analysis of each channel rotation speed and intermediate shaft rotation speed by use of multi-sensor fused fuzzy control algorithm, and these processing results would be sent to touch screen and display work status of combine harvester. Field trials manifest that <span class="hlt">fault</span> monitoring and load feedback control <span class="hlt">system</span> has good man-machine interaction and the <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis method based on rotation speed ratios has low false alarm rate, and the <span class="hlt">system</span> can realize automation control of forward speed for combine harvester.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024503','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024503"><span>Cost and benefits design optimization model for <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerant flight control <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rose, J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Requirements and specifications for a method of optimizing the design of <span class="hlt">fault</span>-tolerant flight control <span class="hlt">systems</span> are provided. Algorithms that could be used for developing new and modifying existing computer programs are also provided, with recommendations for follow-on work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=robot&pg=6&id=EJ1144883','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=robot&pg=6&id=EJ1144883"><span>Mobile Robot Lab Project to Introduce Engineering Students to <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Diagnosis in Mechatronic <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús Manuel; Mandow, Anthony; Fernández-Lozano, Jesús; García-Cerezo, Alfonso</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes lab work for learning <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection and diagnosis (FDD) in mechatronic <span class="hlt">systems</span>. These skills are important for engineering education because FDD is a key capability of competitive processes and products. The intended outcome of the lab work is that students become aware of the importance of faulty conditions and learn to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mt0233.photos.101497p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mt0233.photos.101497p/"><span>2. BUILDING <span class="hlt">MT</span>76A AND <span class="hlt">MT</span>76B FROM STREET, BUILDING <span class="hlt">MT</span>76A IN ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. BUILDING <span class="hlt">MT</span>-76-A AND <span class="hlt">MT</span>-76-B FROM STREET, BUILDING <span class="hlt">MT</span>-76-A IN FOREGROUND - Fort Keogh, Livestock & Range Research Station, 3 miles west of Miles City on U.S. Highway 10, Miles City, Custer County, <span class="hlt">MT</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008773&hterms=Sysml&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSysml','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008773&hterms=Sysml&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSysml"><span>Toward a Model-Based Approach to Flight <span class="hlt">System</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Day, John; Murray, Alex; Meakin, Peter</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Fault</span> Protection (FP) is a distinct and separate <span class="hlt">systems</span> engineering sub-discipline that is concerned with the off-nominal behavior of a <span class="hlt">system</span>. Flight <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> protection is an important part of the overall flight <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> engineering effort, with its own products and processes. As with other aspects of <span class="hlt">systems</span> engineering, the FP domain is highly amenable to expression and management in models. However, while there are standards and guidelines for performing FP related analyses, there are not standards or guidelines for formally relating the FP analyses to each other or to the <span class="hlt">system</span> hardware and software design. As a result, the material generated for these analyses are effectively creating separate models that are only loosely-related to the <span class="hlt">system</span> being designed. Development of approaches that enable modeling of FP concerns in the same model as the <span class="hlt">system</span> hardware and software design enables establishment of formal relationships that has great potential for improving the efficiency, correctness, and verification of the implementation of flight <span class="hlt">system</span> FP. This paper begins with an overview of the FP domain, and then continues with a presentation of a SysML/UML model of the FP domain and the particular analyses that it contains, by way of showing a potential model-based approach to flight <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> protection, and an exposition of the use of the FP models in FSW engineering. The analyses are small examples, inspired by current real-project examples of FP analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T41F..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T41F..02C"><span>Late Quaternary Slip Rate Along the Selaha <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, Central Segment of the Xianshuihe <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">System</span>, Eastern Tibet, and Regional Paleoclimate Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chevalier, M. L.; Bai, M.; Pan, J.; Replumaz, A.; Leloup, P. H.; Li, H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The left-slip Xianshuihe <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> in E Tibet is considered as one of the most tectonically active <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> in China. Studying its activity, especially its slip rate at different time scales, is essential to evaluate regional earthquake hazards. Here, we focus on the central segment, where the Xianshuihe <span class="hlt">fault</span> splays into three branches: the Selaha, Yalahe and Zheduotang <span class="hlt">faults</span>. We use 10Be cosmogenic dating at 3 sites where the active Selaha <span class="hlt">fault</span> cuts and left-laterally offsets moraine crests and levees. By matching their emplacement ages with their offsets, we obtain a conservative late Quaternary horizontal slip-rate of 5.7-12 mm/yr at TG levees and SLH moraine, or 9.6-9.9 mm/yr assuming that the slip rate should be constant between the two nearby sites. At YJG moraine, we obtain a lower slip rate of 4.4±0.5 mm/yr, most likely because the parallel Zheduotang <span class="hlt">fault</span> shares the slip rate at this longitude, therefore suggesting a 5 mm/yr slip rate along the Zheduotang <span class="hlt">fault</span>. A higher slip rate along the short ( 60 km) and discontinuous Selaha <span class="hlt">fault</span> compared to that along the long ( 300 km) and linear Ganzi <span class="hlt">fault</span> (7 mm/yr) suggests a high earthquake hazard in the densely populated city of Kangding. Using the moraine ages that we determined here in addition to our previous studies in the same region allows us to study the timing and extent of past glaciations in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. This is essential to reconstruct regional paleoclimate and to understand variations in the atmospheric circulation due to the high-altitude low latitude Tibetan Plateau, in order to possibly predict future climate changes. We dated 6 glacial deposits from SE Tibet using 10Be cosmogenic dating on 68 boulders and only found advances during the Last Glacial Maximum (limited) and Marine Isotope Stage-6 (extensive), with no signal in between. That the two coldest periods are LGM and MIS-6 is in agreement with the Northern hemisphere cooling cycles, suggesting that in SE Tibet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820021146','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820021146"><span>Problems related to the integration of <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerant aircraft electronic <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic <span class="hlt">system</span> are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent <span class="hlt">systems</span> are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerant aircraft electronic <span class="hlt">system</span> is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic <span class="hlt">systems</span> are discussed. Issues of <span class="hlt">system</span> resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerant aircraft electronic <span class="hlt">systems</span> is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6041...33D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6041...33D"><span>Development and realization of the open <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis <span class="hlt">system</span> based on XPE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deng, Hui; Wang, TaiYong; He, HuiLong; Xu, YongGang; Zeng, JuXiang</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>To make the complex mechanical equipment work in good service, the technology for realizing an embedded open <span class="hlt">system</span> is introduced systematically, including open hardware configuration, customized embedded operation <span class="hlt">system</span> and open software structure. The ETX technology is adopted in this <span class="hlt">system</span>, integrating the CPU main-board functions, and achieving the quick, real-time signal acquisition and intelligent data analysis with applying DSP and CPLD data acquisition card. Under the open configuration, the signal bus mode such as PCI, ISA and PC/104 can be selected and the styles of the signals can be chosen too. In addition, through customizing XPE <span class="hlt">system</span>, adopting the EWF (Enhanced Write Filter), and realizing the open <span class="hlt">system</span> authentically, the stability of the <span class="hlt">system</span> is enhanced. Multi-thread and multi-task programming techniques are adopted in the software programming process. Interconnecting with the remote <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis center via the net interface, cooperative diagnosis is conducted and the intelligent degree of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis is improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......146P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......146P"><span>Tools for Evaluating <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pourarian, Shokouh</p> <p></p> <p>Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control <span class="hlt">systems</span> that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building <span class="hlt">systems</span> routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and some secondary <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, secondary <span class="hlt">systems</span>, such as fan coil units and dual duct <span class="hlt">systems</span>, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary <span class="hlt">systems</span>, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC <span class="hlt">systems</span> unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary <span class="hlt">systems</span> function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJTPE.125..505T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJTPE.125..505T"><span>A Practical Study of the 66kV <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Current Limiter (FCL) <span class="hlt">System</span> with Rectifier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tokuda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Yoshio; Yuguchi, Kyosuke; Ohkuma, Takeshi; Hobara, Natsuro; Takahashi, Yoshihisa</p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">fault</span> current limiter (FCL) is extensively expected to suppress <span class="hlt">fault</span> current, particularly required for trunk power <span class="hlt">systems</span> heavily connected high-voltage transmission lines, such as 500kV class power <span class="hlt">system</span> which constitutes the nucleus of the electric power <span class="hlt">system</span>. By installing such FCL in the power <span class="hlt">system</span>, the <span class="hlt">system</span> interconnection is possible without the need to raise the capacity of the circuit breakers, and facilities can be configured for efficiency, among other benefits. For these reasons, <span class="hlt">fault</span> current limiters based on various principles of operation have been developed both in Japan and abroad. In this paper, we have proposed a new type of FCL <span class="hlt">system</span>, consisting of solid-state diodes, DC coil and bypass AC coil, and described the specification of distribution power <span class="hlt">system</span> and 66kV model at the island power <span class="hlt">system</span> and the superconducting cable power <span class="hlt">system</span>. Also we have made a practical study of 66kV class, which is the testing items and the future subjects of the rectifier type FCL <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......174K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......174K"><span>Fractures, <span class="hlt">Faults</span>, and Hydrothermal <span class="hlt">Systems</span> of Puna, Hawaii, and Montserrat, Lesser Antilles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kenedi, Catherine Lewis</p> <p></p> <p>The focus of this work is to use geologic and geophysical methods to better understand the <span class="hlt">faults</span> and fracture <span class="hlt">systems</span> at Puna, in southeastern Hawaii, and southern Montserrat, in the Lesser Antilles. The particular interest is understanding and locating the deep fracture networks that are necessary for fluid circulation in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The dissertation first presents a study in which identification of large scale <span class="hlt">faulting</span> places Montserrat into a tectonic context. Then follow studies of Puna and Montserrat that focus on <span class="hlt">faults</span> and fractures of the deep hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The first chapter consists of the results of the SEA-CALIPSO experiment seismic reflection data, recorded on a 48 channel streamer with the active source as a 2600 in3 airgun. This chapter discusses volcaniclastic debris fans off the east coast of Montserrat and <span class="hlt">faults</span> off the west coast. The work places Montserrat in a transtensional environment (influenced by oblique subduction) as well as in a complex local stress regime. One conclusion is that the stress regime is inconsistent with the larger arc due to the influence of local magmatism and stress. The second chapter is a seismic study of the Puna hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> (PHS) along the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone. The PHS occurs at a left step in the rift, where a fracture network has been formed between <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. It is a productive geothermal field, extracting steam and reinjecting cooled, condensed fluids. A network of eight borehole seismometers recorded >6000 earthquakes. Most of the earthquakes are very small (< M.2), and shallow (1-3 km depth), likely the result of hydrothermal fluid reinjection. Deeper earthquakes occur along the rift as well as along the south-dipping <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane that originates from the rift zone. Seismic methods applied to the PHS data set, after the initial recording, picking, and locating earthquakes, include a tomographic inversion of the P-wave first arrival data. This model indicates a high</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004997','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004997"><span>GTEX: An expert <span class="hlt">system</span> for diagnosing <span class="hlt">faults</span> in satellite ground stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schlegelmilch, Richard F.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A proof of concept expert <span class="hlt">system</span> called Ground Terminal Expert (GTEX) was developed at The University of Akron in collaboration with NASA Lewis Research Center. The objective of GTEX is to aid in diagnosing data <span class="hlt">faults</span> occurring with a digital ground terminal. This strategy can also be applied to the Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) technology. An expert <span class="hlt">system</span> which detects and diagnoses <span class="hlt">faults</span> would enhance the performance of the VSAT by improving reliability and reducing maintenance time. GTEX is capable of detecting <span class="hlt">faults</span>, isolating the cause and recommending appropriate actions. Isolation of <span class="hlt">faults</span> is completed to board-level modules. A graphical user interface provides control and a medium where data can be requested and cryptic information logically displayed. Interaction with GTEX consists of user responses and input from data files. The use of data files provides a method of simulating dynamic interaction between the digital ground terminal and the expert <span class="hlt">system</span>. GTEX as described is capable of both improving reliability and reducing the time required for necessary maintenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390200"><span>A Negative Selection Immune <span class="hlt">System</span> Inspired Methodology for <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Diagnosis of Wind Turbines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alizadeh, Esmaeil; Meskin, Nader; Khorasani, Khashayar</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>High operational and maintenance costs represent as major economic constraints in the wind turbine (WT) industry. These concerns have made investigation into <span class="hlt">fault</span> diagnosis of WT <span class="hlt">systems</span> an extremely important and active area of research. In this paper, an immune <span class="hlt">system</span> (IS) inspired methodology for performing <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection and isolation (FDI) of a WT <span class="hlt">system</span> is proposed and developed. The proposed scheme is based on a self nonself discrimination paradigm of a biological IS. Specifically, the negative selection mechanism [negative selection algorithm (NSA)] of the human body is utilized. In this paper, a hierarchical bank of NSAs are designed to detect and isolate both individual as well as simultaneously occurring <span class="hlt">faults</span> common to the WTs. A smoothing moving window filter is then utilized to further improve the reliability and performance of the FDI scheme. Moreover, the performance of our proposed scheme is compared with another state-of-the-art data-driven technique, namely the support vector machines (SVMs) to demonstrate and illustrate the superiority and advantages of our proposed NSA-based FDI scheme. Finally, a nonparametric statistical comparison test is implemented to evaluate our proposed methodology with that of the SVM under various <span class="hlt">fault</span> severities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849782"><span>An expert <span class="hlt">system</span> for the quantification of <span class="hlt">fault</span> rates in construction fall accidents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Talat Birgonul, M; Dikmen, Irem; Budayan, Cenk; Demirel, Tuncay</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Expert witness reports, prepared with the aim of quantifying <span class="hlt">fault</span> rates among parties, play an important role in a court's final decision. However, conflicting <span class="hlt">fault</span> rates assigned by different expert witness boards lead to iterative objections raised by the related parties. This unfavorable situation mainly originates due to the subjectivity of expert judgments and unavailability of objective information about the causes of accidents. As a solution to this shortcoming, an expert <span class="hlt">system</span> based on a rule-based <span class="hlt">system</span> was developed for the quantification of <span class="hlt">fault</span> rates in construction fall accidents. The aim of developing DsSafe is decreasing the subjectivity inherent in expert witness reports. Eighty-four inspection reports prepared by the official and authorized inspectors were examined and root causes of construction fall accidents in Turkey were identified. Using this information, an evaluation form was designed and submitted to the experts. Experts were asked to evaluate the importance level of the factors that govern fall accidents and determine the <span class="hlt">fault</span> rates under different scenarios. Based on expert judgments, a rule-based expert <span class="hlt">system</span> was developed. The accuracy and reliability of DsSafe were tested with real data as obtained from finalized court cases. DsSafe gives satisfactory results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041795','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041795"><span>Significant earthquakes on the Enriquillo <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, Hispaniola, 1500-2010: Implications for seismic hazard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bakun, William H.; Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Historical records indicate frequent seismic activity along the north-east Caribbean plate boundary over the past 500 years, particularly on the island of Hispaniola. We use accounts of historical earthquakes to assign intensities and the intensity assignments for the 2010 Haiti earthquakes to derive an intensity attenuation relation for Hispaniola. The intensity assignments and the attenuation relation are used in a grid search to find source locations and magnitudes that best fit the intensity assignments. Here we describe a sequence of devastating earthquakes on the Enriquillo <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> in the eighteenth century. An intensity magnitude MI 6.6 earthquake in 1701 occurred near the location of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the accounts of the shaking in the 1701 earthquake are similar to those of the 2010 earthquake. A series of large earthquakes migrating from east to west started with the 18 October 1751 MI 7.4–7.5 earthquake, probably located near the eastern end of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the Dominican Republic, followed by the 21 November 1751 MI 6.6 earthquake near Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and the 3 June 1770 MI 7.5 earthquake west of the 2010 earthquake rupture. The 2010 Haiti earthquake may mark the beginning of a new cycle of large earthquakes on the Enriquillo <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> after 240 years of seismic quiescence. The entire Enriquillo <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> appears to be seismically active; Haiti and the Dominican Republic should prepare for future devastating earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991sct..conf..103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991sct..conf..103S"><span>GTEX: An expert <span class="hlt">system</span> for diagnosing <span class="hlt">faults</span> in satellite ground stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlegelmilch, Richard F.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>A proof of concept expert <span class="hlt">system</span> called Ground Terminal Expert (GTEX) was developed at The University of Akron in collaboration with NASA Lewis Research Center. The objective of GTEX is to aid in diagnosing data <span class="hlt">faults</span> occurring with a digital ground terminal. This strategy can also be applied to the Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) technology. An expert <span class="hlt">system</span> which detects and diagnoses <span class="hlt">faults</span> would enhance the performance of the VSAT by improving reliability and reducing maintenance time. GTEX is capable of detecting <span class="hlt">faults</span>, isolating the cause and recommending appropriate actions. Isolation of <span class="hlt">faults</span> is completed to board-level modules. A graphical user interface provides control and a medium where data can be requested and cryptic information logically displayed. Interaction with GTEX consists of user responses and input from data files. The use of data files provides a method of simulating dynamic interaction between the digital ground terminal and the expert <span class="hlt">system</span>. GTEX as described is capable of both improving reliability and reducing the time required for necessary maintenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51A1601L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51A1601L"><span>A Study on Management Standards and Manual of Water supply <span class="hlt">system</span> for the response of <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Baekdu Volcanic Eruption in South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, G.; Jee, Y.; Kim, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Korea is regarded as a safety area from the volcanic disaster, however, the countermeasures for <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Baekdu volcanic eruption has been discussed because the possibility of the volcanic eruption had been heightened and various experimental results show risk of <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Baekdu volcanic eruption. The purpose of study is to establish management standards and manual for water supply <span class="hlt">system</span> through the analysis of the volcanic ash effect to the water supply <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In this study, similar case study for the water supply <span class="hlt">system</span> to the volcanic ash damage had been investigated. Present status of water supply <span class="hlt">system</span> and response manual for water supply <span class="hlt">systems</span> also had been investigated. And then problems of present response manual using had been estimated. As the result, damage according to <span class="hlt">Mt</span>. Baekdu volcanic eruption on the water supply <span class="hlt">system</span> could be forecasted. And the direction of management standard and response manual has been established. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-2-2] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4494391','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4494391"><span>GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic <span class="hlt">Fault</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> in the West Eifel (Germany)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berberich, Gabriele; Schreiber, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Simple Summary In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, approx. 3,000 Red Wood Ant (RWA; Formica rufa-group) mounds had been identified and correlated with tectonically active gas-permeable <span class="hlt">faults</span>, mostly strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Linear alignment of RWA mounds and soil gas anomalies distinctly indicate the course of these <span class="hlt">faults</span>, while clusters of mounds indicate crosscut zones of <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. This demonstrates that RWA are bioindicators for identifying active <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> and useful where information on the active regime is incomplete or the resolution by technical means is insufficient. Abstract In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> documented by quartz and ore veins and <span class="hlt">fault</span> planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S) reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..279a2014N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..279a2014N"><span>Experimental investigation into the <span class="hlt">fault</span> response of superconducting hybrid electric propulsion electrical power <span class="hlt">system</span> to a DC rail to rail <span class="hlt">fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nolan, S.; Jones, C. E.; Munro, R.; Norman, P.; Galloway, S.; Venturumilli, S.; Sheng, J.; Yuan, W.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Hybrid electric propulsion aircraft are proposed to improve overall aircraft efficiency, enabling future rising demands for air travel to be met. The development of appropriate electrical power <span class="hlt">systems</span> to provide thrust for the aircraft is a significant challenge due to the much higher required power generation capacity levels and complexity of the aero-electrical power <span class="hlt">systems</span> (AEPS). The efficiency and weight of the AEPS is critical to ensure that the benefits of hybrid propulsion are not mitigated by the electrical power train. Hence it is proposed that for larger aircraft (~200 passengers) superconducting power <span class="hlt">systems</span> are used to meet target power densities. Central to the design of the hybrid propulsion AEPS is a robust and reliable electrical protection and <span class="hlt">fault</span> management <span class="hlt">system</span>. It is known from previous studies that the choice of protection <span class="hlt">system</span> may have a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the AEPS. Hence an informed design process which considers the key trades between choice of cable and protection requirements is needed. To date the <span class="hlt">fault</span> response of a voltage source converter interfaced DC link rail to rail <span class="hlt">fault</span> in a superconducting power <span class="hlt">system</span> has only been investigated using simulation models validated by theoretical values from the literature. This paper will present the experimentally obtained <span class="hlt">fault</span> response for a variety of different types of superconducting tape for a rail to rail DC <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The paper will then use these as a platform to identify key trades between protection requirements and cable design, providing guidelines to enable future informed decisions to optimise hybrid propulsion electrical power <span class="hlt">system</span> and protection design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014341','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014341"><span>Retardations in <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep rates before local moderate earthquakes along the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, central California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Burford, R.O.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Records of shallow aseismic slip (<span class="hlt">fault</span> creep) obtained along parts of the San Andreas and Calaveras <span class="hlt">faults</span> in central California demonstrate that significant changes in creep rates often have been associated with local moderate earthquakes. An immediate postearthquake increase followed by gradual, long-term decay back to a previous background rate is generally the most obvious earthquake effect on <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep. This phenomenon, identified as aseismic afterslip, usually is characterized by above-average creep rates for several months to a few years. In several cases, minor step-like movements, called coseismic slip events, have occurred at or near the times of mainshocks. One extreme case of coseismic slip, recorded at Cienega Winery on the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> 17.5 km southeast of San Juan Bautista, consisted of 11 mm of sudden displacement coincident with earthquakes of ML=5.3 and ML=5.2 that occurred 2.5 minutes apart on 9 April 1961. At least one of these shocks originated on the main <span class="hlt">fault</span> beneath the winery. Creep activity subsequently stopped at the winery for 19 months, then gradually returned to a nearly steady rate slightly below the previous long-term average. The phenomena mentioned above can be explained in terms of simple models consisting of relatively weak material along shallow reaches of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> responding to changes in load imposed by sudden slip within the underlying seismogenic zone. In addition to coseismic slip and afterslip phenomena, however, pre-earthquake retardations in creep rates also have been observed. Onsets of significant, persistent decreases in creep rates have occurred at several sites 12 months or more before the times of moderate earthquakes. A 44-month retardation before the 1979 ML=5.9 Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras <span class="hlt">fault</span> was recorded at the Shore Road creepmeter site 10 km northwest of Hollister. Creep retardation on the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> near San Juan Bautista has been evident in records from one creepmeter site for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PApGe.126..499B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PApGe.126..499B"><span>Retardations in <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep rates before local moderate earthquakes along the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, central California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burford, Robert O.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Records of shallow aseismic slip (<span class="hlt">fault</span> creep) obtained along parts of the San Andreas and Calaveras <span class="hlt">faults</span> in central California demonstrate that significant changes in creep rates often have been associated with local moderate earthquakes. An immediate postearthquake increase followed by gradual, long-term decay back to a previous background rate is generally the most obvious earthquake effect on <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep. This phenomenon, identified as aseismic afterslip, usually is characterized by above-average creep rates for several months to a few years. In several cases, minor step-like movements, called coseismic slip events, have occurred at or near the times of mainshocks. One extreme case of coseismic slip, recorded at Cienega Winery on the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> 17.5 km southeast of San Juan Bautista, consisted of 11 mm of sudden displacement coincident with earthquakes of M L =5.3 and M L =5.2 that occurred 2.5 minutes apart on 9 April 1961. At least one of these shocks originated on the main <span class="hlt">fault</span> beneath the winery. Creep activity subsequently stopped at the winery for 19 months, then gradually returned to a nearly steady rate slightly below the previous long-term average. The phenomena mentioned above can be explained in terms of simple models consisting of relatively weak material along shallow reaches of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> responding to changes in load imposed by sudden slip within the underlying seismogenic zone. In addition to coseismic slip and afterslip phenomena, however, pre-earthquake retardations in creep rates also have been observed. Onsets of significant, persistent decreases in creep rates have occurred at several sites 12 months or more before the times of moderate earthquakes. A 44-month retardation before the 1979 M L =5.9 Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras <span class="hlt">fault</span> was recorded at the Shore Road creepmeter site 10 km northwest of Hollister. Creep retardation on the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> near San Juan Bautista has been evident in records from one creepmeter</p> </li> <li> <p><a