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Sample records for faunal composition middle

  1. Faunal assemblage composition and paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake, a Middle Stone Age locality in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; Brophy, Juliet K; Lewis, Patrick J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2008-12-01

    Plovers Lake is a dolomitic cave infill located approximately 45km northwest of Johannesburg in the Bloubank Valley, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Excavations between 2002-2004 revealed a rich and diverse fauna, a moderate-sized stone tool assemblage of Middle Stone Age (MSA) character, and human skeletal remains. Two principal depositional units are recognized: 1) a disturbed ex situ component that was likely displaced from 2) an otherwise relatively undisturbed in situ component from which the human skeletal material was recovered. The in situ depositional unit is bracketed by 2 flowstone layers, with U-series dates of 62.9 (+/-1.3)ka for the capping flowstone and 88.7 (+/-1.6)ka for the underlying flowstone. A single isochron ESR date of 75.6 (+/-5.6)ka corroborates the U-series dates. This paper presents an analysis of the mammalian, bird, and reptile faunas recovered from these two units. The two faunal assemblages show close correspondence in taphonomic, taxonomic, and ecological composition, supporting a common origin for both the ex situ and in situ components. Although human skeletal material, cut-marked bone, and stone tools have been recovered, these indications are too rare to consider Plovers Lake a human occupation site. Instead, a high abundance of carnivores, coprolites, and carnivore damaged bones point to brown hyenas as the principal, though not exclusive, bone accumulating agent. In the absence of a significant taphonomic bias relating to accumulating agent, Plovers Lake allows us to document an environment occupied by MSA humans, even if the humans were not resident in the cave itself. We reconstruct the paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake as predominantly grassland, though it was colder, moister, and more wooded than at present. Paleoclimatic conditions appear to have been as different from historic norms as those seen in several fossil localities in the Western Cape, pointing to greater environmental heterogeneity than has previously been

  2. New burgess shale fossil sites reveal middle cambrian faunal complex.

    PubMed

    Collins, D; Briggs, D; Morris, S C

    1983-10-14

    Soft-bodied and lightly sclerotized Burgess shale fossils have been found at more than a dozen new localities in an area extending for 20 kilometers along the front of the Cathedral Escarpment in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation of the Canadian Rockies. Five different fossil assemblages from four stratigraphic levels have been recognized. These assemblages represent distinct penecontemporaneous marine communities that together make up a normal fore-reef faunal complex.

  3. Middle Permian cephalopods from central Peninsular Malaysia: implications for faunal migration through the southern Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Masatoshi; Leman, Mohd Shafeea; Ehiro, Masayuki

    2001-10-01

    A Wordian (Middle Permian) cephalopod fauna consisting of four ammonoid species, Tauroceras aff. scrobiculatum (Gemmellaro), Agathiceras sp., Bamyaniceras orientale n. sp. and Pronoritidae gen. and sp. indet., and two nautiloid species, Tainoceras sp. and Orthocerida fam. indet., were recovered from the Bera South area, southern Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The outcrop represents the southernmost extent of the Bera Formation. Bamyaniceras and Tainoceras are recorded in Malaysia for the first time. The presence of T. aff. scrobiculatum suggests a regional correlation with an ammonoid-bearing bed of Sungai Cheroh, western Pahang, and permits global correlations with strata of northeastern Iraq, northern Oman and Sicily (Italy). A possible eastwards faunal migration through the southern Tethys is suggested.

  4. Learning by Heart: Cultural Patterns in the Faunal Processing Sequence during the Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Lozano, Sergi; Pastó, Ignasi; Riba, David; Vaquero, Manuel; Peris, Josep Fernández; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald

    2013-01-01

    Social learning, as an information acquisition process, enables intergenerational transmission and the stabilisation of cultural forms, generating and sustaining behavioural traditions within human groups. Archaeologically, such social processes might become observable by identifying repetitions in the record that result from the execution of standardised actions. From a zooarchaeological perspective, the processing and consumption of carcasses may be used to identify these types of phenomena at the sites. To investigate this idea, several faunal assemblages from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain, MIS 9-5e) and Gran Dolina TD10-1 (Burgos, Spain, MIS 9) were analysed. The data show that some butchery activities exhibit variability as a result of multiple conditioning factors and, therefore, the identification of cultural patterns through the resulting cut-marks presents additional difficulties. However, other activities, such as marrow removal by means of intentional breakage, seem to reflect standardised actions unrelated to the physical characteristics of the bones. The statistical tests we applied show no correlation between the less dense areas of the bones and the location of impacts. Comparison of our experimental series with the archaeological samples indicates a counter-intuitive selection of the preferred locus of impact, especially marked in the case of Bolomor IV. This fact supports the view that bone breakage was executed counter-intuitively and repetitively on specific sections because it may have been part of an acquired behavioural repertoire. These reiterations differ between levels and sites, suggesting the possible existence of cultural identities or behavioural predispositions dependant on groups. On this basis, the study of patterns could significantly contribute to the identification of occupational strategies and organisation of the hominids in a territory. In this study, we use faunal data in identifying the mechanics of intergenerational

  5. Early and Middle Pleistocene Faunal and hominins dispersals through Southwestern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Belmaker, Miriam

    2011-06-01

    This review summarizes the paleoecology of the Early and Middle Pleistocene of southwestern Asia, based on both flora and fauna, retrieved from a series of 'windows' provided by the excavated sites. The incomplete chrono-stratigraphy of this vast region does not allow to accept the direct chronological correlation between the available sites and events of faunal and hominin dispersals from Africa. It also demonstrates that hominins survived in a mixed landscape of open parkland with forested surrounding hills. In addition, the prevailing environmental conditions are not sufficient to explain successful adaptations to new ecological niches away from the African savanna of the bearers of 'core and flake' and the Acheulian industries, The differences in knapping and secondary shaping of stone artifacts probably reflect the learned traditions of different groups of hominins. The current distribution of lithic industries across Eurasia is undoubtedly incomplete due to lack of cultural continuities as well as paucity of field research in several sub-regions. This observation supports the contention that what we view as a constant stream of migrants was actually interrupted many times. The continuous occupation of southwestern Asia by the makers of the Acheulian is in contrast with neighboring regions such as the Iranian plateau and Eastern Europe. A more complex model is required to explain the recorded Eurasian archaeological-cultural mosaic.

  6. Monsoon control on faunal composition of planktic foraminifera in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, P.; Siccha, M.; Kucera, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-12-01

    Being among the most productive open ocean basins, sea surface properties in the Arabian Sea are highly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoonal wind system. During boreal summer wind direction from the southwest induces strong upwelling along the coast off Somalia and Oman. Vertical transport of cold and nutrient-rich deep-water masses by Ekman pumping reduces sea surface temperature and triggers primary productivity. Reversed cold and dry winds during boreal winter lead to cooling of the surface- and subsurface-waters and hereby to deep convective mixing, bringing nutrients into the photic zone and enhancing primary productivity especially in the northern part of the Arabian Sea. Here, we study the influence of the different seasonal monsoon systems on the faunal composition of planktic foraminifera, in order to improve our understanding how the faunal community record is influenced by the respective monsoon systems and to provide baseline information for the reconstruction of ancient monsoon conditions. We used published core-top foraminiferal databases, significantly increased in spatial coverage by new contributions. The resulting combined database consists of 413 core-top samples spanning the Arabian Sea and the Northern Indian Ocean to 10° S. The seasonal sea surface properties at these stations could be binned into categories of different monsoon influence, based on satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentrations. Interpretation of species response to environmental control is based on multivariate statistical analyses of each of the categorical bins. First results show that samples influenced only by winter- and summer monsoon conditions, respectively, feature specifiable faunal composition. Globigerina bulloides is mostly associated with summer upwelling conditions, whereas Globigerina falconensis and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are typical species of winter conditions. Redundancy analysis reveals preferences of species populations with

  7. The Ichthyofauna of an Intermittently Open Estuary: Implications of Bar Breaching and Low Salinities on Faunal Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, G. C.; Potter, I. C.; Hyndes, G. A.; de Lestang, S.

    1997-07-01

    Fish in the shallows of the intermittently open Moore River Estuary in South-western Australia were sampled monthly between February 1994 and February 1995. The bar at the estuary mouth became sufficiently scoured out by freshwater discharge on two occasions, totallingc. 41 days, to allow seawater to penetrate the system. Although saltwater intrusion on one of these occasions resulted in salinities in the mouth rising to 25 for a short period, the mean monthly salinities never exceeded 7·4 in the lower reaches and 4·5 in the middle and upper reaches. Despite the protracted periods when this estuary was closed, some marine species, which typically use estuaries as nursery areas (marine estuarine opportunists), such as the mulletsMugil cephalusandAldrichetta forsteriand the whiting speciesSillago schomburgkiiandSillago burrus, were relatively abundant in this system. However, other marine species, such as the atherinidAtherinomorus ogilbyi, the gerreidGerres subfasciatusand the clupeidHyperlophus vittatus, which are common in the lower reaches of nearby permanently open estuaries, were rare in the Moore River Estuary, possibly reflecting a preference of these species for high salinities. Furthermore, the estuarine speciesAtherinosoma elongataandCraterocephalus mugiloides, which typically occupy the basins of permanently open estuaries where salinities are usually >20, were not caught in the Moore River Estuary. The composition of the ichthyofauna changed progressively in an upstream direction, reflecting mainly a decline in the number of marine species and an increase in the density of estuarine species along this axis. The mean number of species and the densities of six of the eight most abundant species were significantly greater during the night than the day. Since the degree of variation among samples was also far less at night than during the day, there appears to be a marked tendency for a particular suite of species to congregate in the shallows at night

  8. Composition, export and faunal utilization of drift vegetation in the salt river submarine canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josselyn, Michael N.; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Niesen, Thomas M.; Cowen, Robert; Hurley, Ann C.; Connor, Judith; Hawes, Sandra

    1983-10-01

    Submarine canyons may be particularly important in the transport process of drift seagrasses and seaweeds from highly productive shallow lagoon areas to deeper water. We studied the composition, export, and faunal utilization of shallow, nearshore benthic vegetation as it was transported to offshore areas via the Salt River submarine canyon on the island of St Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The study was conducted using a saturation diving system (NULS-1: Hydrolab) during two missions in April and August, 1980. Using bottom drifters deployed in Salt River Bay and the submarine canyon, we recorded net benthic current flow up to 2 cm s -1 moving out of the lagoon and down the canyon to deeper water. Using bottom nets set up at the canyon head and at the 29 m isobar, and from transect surveys and drift clump samples, we determined drift plant export rates and drift clump biomass and species composition. The dominant drift plants were Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme and algae in the genera Dictyota, Dictyopterus, and Diloplus. During the second mission, the seagrass Halophila decipiens became more abundant, both in the drift and in large patches along the canyon floor. In both missions, more drift was collected in the nets during high wind conditions than during calmer days. Calculated turnover times ranged from 0·01 to 4·4 days for algae in the order Dictyotales and 4·4 to 18 days for Thalassia blades. Total exported biomass of drift vegetation varied between 1·4 to 65·1 kg wet wt day -1. Samples of drift vegetation contained mostly juvenile forms of both invertebrates and fishes, but in relatively low numbers. Faunal numbers were most strongly related to rate of drift movement.

  9. Elements of regional beetle faunas: faunal variation and compositional breakpoints along climate, land cover and geographical gradients.

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani; Alahuhta, Janne

    2015-03-01

    Regional faunas are structured by historical, spatial and environmental factors. We studied large-scale variation in four ecologically different beetle groups (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Carabidae, Hydrophiloidea, Cerambycidae) along climate, land cover and geographical gradients, examined faunal breakpoints in relation to environmental variables, and investigated the best fit pattern of assemblage variation (i.e. randomness, checkerboards, nestedness, evenly spaced, Gleasonian, Clementsian). We applied statistical methods typically used in the analysis of local ecological communities to provide novel insights into faunal compositional patterns at large spatial grain and geographical extent. We found that spatially structured variation in climate and land cover accounted for most variation in each beetle group in partial redundancy analyses, whereas the individual effect of each explanatory variable group was generally much less important in accounting for variation in provincial species composition. We also found that climate variables were most strongly associated with faunal breakpoints, with temperature-related variables alone accounting for about 20% of variation at the first node of multivariate regression tree for each beetle group. The existence of faunal breakpoints was also shown by the 'elements of faunal structure' analyses, which suggested Clementsian gradients across the provinces, that is, that there were two or more clear groups of species responding similarly to the underlying ecological gradients. The four beetle groups showed highly similar biogeographical patterns across our study area. The fact that temperature was related to faunal breakpoints in the species composition of each beetle group suggests that climate sets a strong filter to the distributions of species at this combination of spatial grain and spatial extent. This finding held true despite the ecological differences among the four beetle groups, ranging from fully aquatic to fully

  10. Species effects on ecosystem processes are modified by faunal responses to habitat composition.

    PubMed

    Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Dyson, Kirstie E; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Luque, Patricia; Pierce, Graham J; Raffaelli, Dave; Paterson, David M; White, Piran C L

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneity is a well-recognized feature of natural environments, and the spatial distribution and movement of individual species is primarily driven by resource requirements. In laboratory experiments designed to explore how different species drive ecosystem processes, such as nutrient release, habitat heterogeneity is often seen as something which must be rigorously controlled for. Most small experimental systems are therefore spatially homogeneous, and the link between environmental heterogeneity and its effects on the redistribution of individuals and species, and on ecosystem processes, has not been fully explored. In this paper, we used a mesocosm system to investigate the relationship between habitat composition, species movement and sediment nutrient release for each of four functionally contrasting species of marine benthic invertebrate macrofauna. For each species, various habitat configurations were generated by selectively enriching patches of sediment with macroalgae, a natural source of spatial variability in intertidal mudflats. We found that the direction and extent of faunal movement between patches differs with species identity, density and habitat composition. Combinations of these factors lead to concomitant changes in nutrient release, such that habitat composition effects are modified by species identity (in the case of NH4-N) and by species density (in the case of PO4-P). It is clear that failure to accommodate natural patterns of spatial heterogeneity in such studies may result in an incomplete understanding of system behaviour. This will be particularly important for future experiments designed to explore the effects of species richness on ecosystem processes, where the complex interactions reported here for single species may be compounded when species are brought together in multi-species combinations.

  11. Middle Permian brachiopods from central Peninsular Malaysia — faunal affinities between Malaysia and west Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Masatoshi; Leman, Mohd Shafeea; Shi, Guang R.

    2001-02-01

    A moderately diverse Permian brachiopod fauna is described from a new rock unit, the Bera Formation, in the Bera District, central Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The fauna consists of 19 taxa, including 14 genera and 17 (both identified and unidentified) typically Tethyan species. The fauna appears to be correlative on the basis of brachiopods with the Neoschwagerina-Yabeina fusulinid Zones in Indochina and South China. In particular, it has strong linkage to Member C ( Yabeina beds) of the Sisophon Limestone, west Cambodia. This is indicated by three of the Bera species — Urushtenoidea chaoi (Ching), Spyridiophora gubleri Termier and Termier, and Transennatia termierorum sp. nov., being shared with the Cambodian fauna. A possible early Capitanian (Middle Permian) age is proposed for the Bera brachiopod fauna.

  12. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  13. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  14. Faunal breaks and species composition of Indo-Pacific corals: the role of plate tectonics, environment and habitat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Keith, S. A.; Baird, A. H.; Hughes, T. P.; Madin, J. S.; Connolly, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Species richness gradients are ubiquitous in nature, but the mechanisms that generate and maintain these patterns at macroecological scales remain unresolved. We use a new approach that focuses on overlapping geographical ranges of species to reveal that Indo-Pacific corals are assembled within 11 distinct faunal provinces. Province limits are characterized by co-occurrence of multiple species range boundaries. Unexpectedly, these faunal breaks are poorly predicted by contemporary environmental conditions and the present-day distribution of habitat. Instead, faunal breaks show striking concordance with geological features (tectonic plates and mantle plume tracks). The depth range over which a species occurs, its larval development rate and genus age are important determinants of the likelihood that species will straddle faunal breaks. Our findings indicate that historical processes, habitat heterogeneity and species colonization ability account for more of the present-day biogeographical patterns of corals than explanations based on the contemporary distribution of reefs or environmental conditions. PMID:23698011

  15. Faunal breaks and species composition of Indo-Pacific corals: the role of plate tectonics, environment and habitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Keith, S A; Baird, A H; Hughes, T P; Madin, J S; Connolly, S R

    2013-07-22

    Species richness gradients are ubiquitous in nature, but the mechanisms that generate and maintain these patterns at macroecological scales remain unresolved. We use a new approach that focuses on overlapping geographical ranges of species to reveal that Indo-Pacific corals are assembled within 11 distinct faunal provinces. Province limits are characterized by co-occurrence of multiple species range boundaries. Unexpectedly, these faunal breaks are poorly predicted by contemporary environmental conditions and the present-day distribution of habitat. Instead, faunal breaks show striking concordance with geological features (tectonic plates and mantle plume tracks). The depth range over which a species occurs, its larval development rate and genus age are important determinants of the likelihood that species will straddle faunal breaks. Our findings indicate that historical processes, habitat heterogeneity and species colonization ability account for more of the present-day biogeographical patterns of corals than explanations based on the contemporary distribution of reefs or environmental conditions.

  16. Dietary flexibility of Australopithecus afarensis in the face of paleoecological change during the middle Pliocene: Faunal evidence from Hadar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan G; Reed, Kaye E; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Campisano, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    One approach to understanding the context of changes in hominin paleodiets is to examine the paleodiets and paleohabitats of contemporaneous mammalian taxa. Recent carbon isotopic studies suggest that the middle Pliocene was marked by a major shift in hominin diets, characterized by a significant increase in C4 foods in Australopithecus-grade species, including Australopithecus afarensis. To contextualize previous isotopic studies of A. afarensis, we employed stable isotopes to examine paleodiets of the mammalian fauna contemporaneous with A. afarensis at Hadar, Ethiopia. We used these data to inform our understanding of paleoenvironmental change through the deposition of the Hadar Formation. While the majority of the taxa in the Hadar fauna were C4 grazers, most show little change in the intensity of C4 food consumption over the 0.5 million-year interval sampled. Two taxa (equids and bovins) do show increases in C4 consumption through the Hadar Formation and into the younger, overlying Busidima Formation. Changes in the distributions of C4-feeders, C3-feeders and mixed-C3/C4-feeders in the sampled intervals are consistent with evidence of dietary reconstructions based on ecomorphology, and with habitats reconstructed using community structure analyses. Meanwhile, A. afarensis is one of many mammalian taxa whose C4 consumption does not show directional change over the intervals sampled. In combination with a wide range of carbon and oxygen isotopic composition for A. afarensis as compared to the other large mammal taxa, these results suggest that the C3/C4 dietary flexibility of A. afarensis was relatively unusual among most of its mammalian cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. East Antarctic Ice Sheet fluctuations during the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition inferred from faunal and biogeochemical data on planktonic foraminifera (ODP Hole 747A, Kerguelen Plateau)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verducci, M.; Foresi, L.M.; Scott, G.H.; ,; Sprovieri, M.; Lirer, F.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed study of faunal and biogeochemical changes that occurred at ODP Hole 747A in the Kerguelen Plateau region of the Southern Ocean during the middle Miocene (14.8-11.8 Ma). Abundance fluctuations of several planktonic foraminiferal taxa, stable oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca ratios have been integrated as a multi-proxy approach to reach a better understanding of the growth modality and fluctuations of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) during this period. A 7°C decrease in Sea Surface Temperature (SST), an abrupt turnover in the planktonic foraminiferal assemblage, a 1.5‰ shift towards heavier δ18O values (Mi3 event) and a related shift towards heavier seawater δ118O values between 13.9 and 13.7 Ma, are interpreted to reflect rapid surface water cooling and EAIS expansion. Hole 747A data suggest a major change in the variability of the climate system fostered by EAIS expansion between 13.9 and 13.7 Ma. Ice sheet fluctuations were greater during the interval 14.8-13.9 Ma compared with those from 13.7 to 11.8 Ma, whereas the latter interval was characterized by a more stable EAIS. In our opinion, the middle Miocene ice sheet expansion in Antarctica represents a first step towards the development of the modern permanent ice sheet

  18. The megaepifauna of the Dogger Bank (North Sea): species composition and faunal characteristics 1991-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnewald, Moritz; Türkay, Michael

    2012-03-01

    During a long-term study in the summer months of the years 1991-2008, 176 megaepifaunal species were recorded through a series of beam trawl surveys on a grid of fixed stations on the Dogger Bank (central North Sea). This paper gives a qualitative overview on species composition throughout the research period, determined from samples collected during 15 cruises. In recent years, a number of species with more oceanic distribution patterns (e.g. species from SW British coasts) has been collected. In spite of these newcomers, there was a slight decrease in total species numbers during the research period.

  19. Bryozoan faunal composition and community structure from the continental shelf off Cap de Creus (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell, T.; Zabala, M.; Dominguez-Carrió, C.; Gili, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Bryozoan specimens obtained in 2009-2010 from the continental shelf off Cap de Creus (Northwestern Mediterranean) were studied. Samples were collected using a Rauschert sled at depths ranging from 61 to 225 m. Bryozoans were present in all 26 samples examined, although they were only abundant in 20 of them. A total of 113 species of Bryozoa were identified (2 Ctenostomata, 90 Cheilostomata and 21 Cyclostomata), most of them are well known to science, although a few of the species have barely or never been cited in the Mediterranean Sea (Hincksinoflustra octodon, Alderina imbellis, Escharella immersa, Neolagenipora collaris and Escharina johnstoni), or are currently poorly described (Lagenipora lepralioides). The species Palmicellaria aff. aviculifera (sensu Gautier, 1957) is redescribed, for which the new name of Palmiskenea gautieri is proposed. Species richness, abundance and biomass were linked to the availability of suitable substrates. Multivariate analysis in relation to environmental data showed that the spatial distribution of the bryozoan species was related to the sediment type. Samples from areas dominated by silt and sandy sediments showed few or no bryozoans, whereas coarse sands and gravels presented higher diversity, abundance and biomass. Within the depth range studied, the faunistic composition of the bryozoan assemblages was similar for the whole continental shelf off Cap de Creus. The bulk of bryozoans was found near the canyon rim. This is related to the proximity of the submarine canyon and its associated hydrological processes. The high diversity and abundance of the bryozoan community located on the circalittoral and shelf-edge off Cap de Creus reflect the presence of critical habitats that are essential for the design of marine protected areas.

  20. Impact Event and Radiolarian Faunal Turnover across the Middle-upper Norian Transition in the Upper Triassic of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, T.; Sato, H.; Yamashita, D.; Uno, K.

    2014-12-01

    It has long been recognized that marine biotic turnover events took place at around the Norian/Rhaetian boundary in the Late Triassic. Although the causes of these Norian to Rhaetian biotic turnover events are still the subject of debate, extraterrestrial impacts have been proposed to account for the biotic turnover. A Norian impact event has been inferred from a platinum group element (PGE) concentration anomaly, Os isotope negative excursion, and the presence of Ni-rich magnetite and microspherules, in claystone layer within middle to upper Norian bedded chert succession in the Sakahogi section, Mino Belt, central Japan. Previous osmium isotope studies have revealed that the anomalously high PGE abundances resulted from a large chondritic impactor (3.3-7.8 km in diameter). To evaluate the biotic and environmental effects of such an impact event, we report on new micropaleontological data from the Sakahogi section across the ejecta layer. Detailed high-resolution sampling and biostratigraphic data showed that the ejecta layer occurs at the base of the radiolarian Trialatus robustus-Lysemelas olbia zone and is correlated with the middle to late Norian boundary. The biostratigraphc analysis revealed that no mass extinction of radiolarians occurred at the impact event horizon. Only one species became extinct at the ejecta horizon and the extinction rate of radiolarians is estimated to be about 5% at the horizon. However, major turnovers in radiolarians occur above the ejecta horizon, in the Trialatus robustus-Lysemelas olbia zone; this turnover is associated with deposition of a spicular chert, suggesting temporal changes in marine ecosystems after the impact event.

  1. Artiodactyls from the Pondaung Formation (Myanmar): new data and reevaluation of the South Asian Faunal Province during the Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métais, Grégoire; Soe, Aung Naing; Marivaux, Laurent; Beard, K. Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Although Asia is thought to have played a critical role in the radiation of artiodactyls, the fossil record of stem selenodonts (“dichobunoids”) remains dramatically poor in tropical Asian regions. In this study, we report a new dichobunid genus and species Cadutherium kyaukmagyii and a new basal ruminant genus and species Irrawadymeryx pondaungi, from the late Middle Eocene Pondaung Formation, Central Myanmar. Although the scarcity of the present material prevents any attempts to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Cadutherium with contemporaneous forms from other Holarctic landmasses, this new form shed new light on the diversity of these small rabbit-like ungulates during a key period of their evolutionary history. Reexamination of the small-bodied artiodactyls from Pondaung leads us to propose new identifications of certain published specimens and, in turn, to investigate the temporal and geographic distribution of taxa recognized in the Pondaung Formation. Although fragmentary, these potential new taxa reveal an unsuspected diversity of small forms among artiodactyls of Pondaung. This addition to the Eocene record of dichobunoids and early ruminants provides further insight in the diversity of dental patterns among small artiodactyls from the Pondaung Formation and attests to the antiquity of these groups in Southeast Asia.

  2. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2013-04-01

    intermediate percentages of organic matter in which at least some sand fraction is present. A strict interpretation based on the known modern distribution of A. beccarii would confine the species to upper shoreface environments (Hayward et al. 2004). The relatively high frequency values of B. marginata indicate a correlation with organic matter enrichment, with seasonal low oxygen content. This hypothesis is testified also by the increase of the opportunistic species V. bradyana. The temporal presence of V. bradyana assemblage indicates a strong influence of Asopos River run-off, with interplay of increasing food availability and low oxygen concentration Three main ostracod assemblages were distinguished from the bottom to the top of the sediment core: At the lower part of the core ostracod assemblage consists mainly of Costa edwardsii, Cytheridea neapolitana, Callistocythere spp., Pterygocythereis jonesii and Leptocythere spp. At the middle part, Costa edwardsii is the dominant species with relative abundances up to 80% of the total ostracod fauna. At the upper part Costa edwardsii is the most abundant species (20-40% of the total fauna) accompanied mainly by Loxoconcha spp., Xestoleberis spp. and Cyprideis torosa. Ostracod abundance and diversity decrease towards the upper unit of the studied core. These data, and AMS radiocarbon ages determined for foraminifera and ostracods, provide evidence of a change from oceanic influence to estuarine influence. This event is also contemporaneous with the period which is generally characterized by increased evaporation rate (initially at the tropic seas), retreat of glaciers and increased rainfalls (Fairbanks, 1989). Fairbanks, R.G., 1989. A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637-642. Hayward, B.W., Sabaa, A.T., Grenfell, H.R., 2004. Benthic foraminifera and the Late Quaternary (last 150 ka) palaeoceanographic and

  3. Further contributions to the Hydradephaga (Coleoptera, Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae) fauna of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records, distributions and faunal composition

    PubMed Central

    Alarie, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) of Prince Edward Island, Canada were surveyed during the years 2004–2005. A total of 2450 individuals from 79 species were collected from 98 different localities, among which 30 species are newly recorded from that region. Among these, Acilius sylvanus Hilsenhoff, Rhantus consimilis Motschulsky and Neoporus sulcipennis (Fall) stand out as representing the easternmost reports of these species in Canada. Once removed, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte (Gyrinidae) is reinstated in the faunal list of Prince Edward Island. According to this study and literature 84 species of Hydradephaga are currently known from Prince Edward Island. The Nearctic component of the fauna is made up of 68 species (80.9%) and the Holarctic component of 16 species (19.1%). Most species are characteristic of the Boreal and Atlantic Maritime Ecozones and have a transcontinental distribution. In an examination of the Hydradephaga of insular portions of Atlantic Canada, we found that despite significantly different land areas and different distances to the neighbouring continental mainland the island faunas of Prince Edward Island and insular Newfoundland are very similar in the number of species (84 and 94 species respectively) despite differences in composition. With a land area significantly larger than that of Prince Edward Island, however, the fauna of Cape Breton Island was 39% smaller consisting of 53 species. This difference could be due to the comparative lack of collecting efforts on Cape Breton Island. PMID:27408603

  4. Further contributions to the Hydradephaga (Coleoptera, Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae) fauna of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records, distributions and faunal composition.

    PubMed

    Alarie, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) of Prince Edward Island, Canada were surveyed during the years 2004-2005. A total of 2450 individuals from 79 species were collected from 98 different localities, among which 30 species are newly recorded from that region. Among these, Acilius sylvanus Hilsenhoff, Rhantus consimilis Motschulsky and Neoporus sulcipennis (Fall) stand out as representing the easternmost reports of these species in Canada. Once removed, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte (Gyrinidae) is reinstated in the faunal list of Prince Edward Island. According to this study and literature 84 species of Hydradephaga are currently known from Prince Edward Island. The Nearctic component of the fauna is made up of 68 species (80.9%) and the Holarctic component of 16 species (19.1%). Most species are characteristic of the Boreal and Atlantic Maritime Ecozones and have a transcontinental distribution. In an examination of the Hydradephaga of insular portions of Atlantic Canada, we found that despite significantly different land areas and different distances to the neighbouring continental mainland the island faunas of Prince Edward Island and insular Newfoundland are very similar in the number of species (84 and 94 species respectively) despite differences in composition. With a land area significantly larger than that of Prince Edward Island, however, the fauna of Cape Breton Island was 39% smaller consisting of 53 species. This difference could be due to the comparative lack of collecting efforts on Cape Breton Island.

  5. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T. chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T. ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T. chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T. ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T. chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T. ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T. chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

  7. THE THREATENED AND THE IRREPLACEABLE: IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate an approach to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. First, we determine...

  8. Island life in the Cretaceous - faunal composition, biogeography, evolution, and extinction of land-living vertebrates on the Late Cretaceous European archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Csiki-Sava, Zoltán; Buffetaut, Eric; Ősi, Attila; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Brusatte, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Late Cretaceous was a time of tremendous global change, as the final stages of the Age of Dinosaurs were shaped by climate and sea level fluctuations and witness to marked paleogeographic and faunal changes, before the end-Cretaceous bolide impact. The terrestrial fossil record of Late Cretaceous Europe is becoming increasingly better understood, based largely on intensive fieldwork over the past two decades, promising new insights into latest Cretaceous faunal evolution. We review the terrestrial Late Cretaceous record from Europe and discuss its importance for understanding the paleogeography, ecology, evolution, and extinction of land-dwelling vertebrates. We review the major Late Cretaceous faunas from Austria, Hungary, France, Spain, Portugal, and Romania, as well as more fragmentary records from elsewhere in Europe. We discuss the paleogeographic background and history of assembly of these faunas, and argue that they are comprised of an endemic ‘core’ supplemented with various immigration waves. These faunas lived on an island archipelago, and we describe how this insular setting led to ecological peculiarities such as low diversity, a preponderance of primitive taxa, and marked changes in morphology (particularly body size dwarfing). We conclude by discussing the importance of the European record in understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction and show that there is no clear evidence that dinosaurs or other groups were undergoing long-term declines in Europe prior to the bolide impact. PMID:25610343

  9. Island life in the Cretaceous - faunal composition, biogeography, evolution, and extinction of land-living vertebrates on the Late Cretaceous European archipelago.

    PubMed

    Csiki-Sava, Zoltán; Buffetaut, Eric; Ősi, Attila; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous was a time of tremendous global change, as the final stages of the Age of Dinosaurs were shaped by climate and sea level fluctuations and witness to marked paleogeographic and faunal changes, before the end-Cretaceous bolide impact. The terrestrial fossil record of Late Cretaceous Europe is becoming increasingly better understood, based largely on intensive fieldwork over the past two decades, promising new insights into latest Cretaceous faunal evolution. We review the terrestrial Late Cretaceous record from Europe and discuss its importance for understanding the paleogeography, ecology, evolution, and extinction of land-dwelling vertebrates. We review the major Late Cretaceous faunas from Austria, Hungary, France, Spain, Portugal, and Romania, as well as more fragmentary records from elsewhere in Europe. We discuss the paleogeographic background and history of assembly of these faunas, and argue that they are comprised of an endemic 'core' supplemented with various immigration waves. These faunas lived on an island archipelago, and we describe how this insular setting led to ecological peculiarities such as low diversity, a preponderance of primitive taxa, and marked changes in morphology (particularly body size dwarfing). We conclude by discussing the importance of the European record in understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction and show that there is no clear evidence that dinosaurs or other groups were undergoing long-term declines in Europe prior to the bolide impact.

  10. Fine-Scale Vertical Stratification and Guild Composition of Saproxylic Beetles in Lowland and Montane Forests: Similar Patterns despite Low Faunal Overlap

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Matthias; Procházka, Jiří; Schlaghamerský, Jiří; Cizek, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The finer scale patterns of arthropod vertical stratification in forests are rarely studied and poorly understood. Further, there are no studies investigating whether and how altitude affects arthropod vertical stratification in temperate forests. We therefore investigated the fine-scale vertical stratification of diversity and guild structure of saproxylic beetles in temperate lowland and montane forests and compared the resulting patterns between the two habitats. Methods The beetles were sampled with flight intercept traps arranged into vertical transects (sampling heights 0.4, 1.2, 7, 14, and 21 m). A triplet of such transects was installed in each of the five sites in the lowland and in the mountains; 75 traps were used in each forest type. Results 381 species were collected in the lowlands and 236 species in the mountains. Only 105 species (21%) were found at both habitats; in the montane forest as well as in the lowlands, the species richness peaked at 1.2 m, and the change in assemblage composition was most rapid near the ground. The assemblages clearly differed between the understorey (0.4 m, 1.2 m) and the canopy (7 m, 14 m, 21 m) and between the two sampling heights within the understorey, but less within the canopy. The stratification was better pronounced in the lowland, where canopy assemblages were richer than those near the forest floor (0.4 m). In the mountains the samples from 14 and 21 m were more species poor than those from the lower heights. The guild structure was similar in both habitats. Conclusions The main patterns of vertical stratification and guild composition were strikingly similar between the montane and the lowland forest despite the low overlap of their faunas. The assemblages of saproxylic beetles were most stratified near ground. The comparisons of species richness between canopy and understorey may thus give contrasting results depending on the exact sampling height in the understorey. PMID:26978783

  11. Oxygen isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the middle atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao-Chang; Blake, Geoffrey A; Lewis, Brenton R; Yung, Yuk L

    2007-01-02

    The isotopic composition of long-lived trace molecules provides a window into atmospheric transport and chemistry. Carbon dioxide is a particularly powerful tracer, because its abundance remains >100 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in the mesosphere. Here, we successfully reproduce the isotopic composition of CO(2) in the middle atmosphere, which has not been previously reported. The mass-independent fractionation of oxygen in CO(2) can be satisfactorily explained by the exchange reaction with O((1)D). In the stratosphere, the major source of O((1)D) is O(3) photolysis. Higher in the mesosphere, we discover that the photolysis of (16)O(17)O and (16)O(18)O by solar Lyman-alpha radiation yields O((1)D) 10-100 times more enriched in (17)O and (18)O than that from ozone photodissociation at lower altitudes. This latter source of heavy O((1)D) has not been considered in atmospheric simulations, yet it may potentially affect the "anomalous" oxygen signature in tropospheric CO(2) that should reflect the gross carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. Additional laboratory and atmospheric measurements are therefore proposed to test our model and validate the use of CO(2) isotopic fractionation as a tracer of atmospheric chemical and dynamical processes.

  12. Diversification of rhacophorid frogs provides evidence for accelerated faunal exchange between India and Eurasia during the Oligocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Tang; Li, Yang; Klaus, Sebastian; Rao, Ding-Qi; Hillis, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of the Indian subcontinent to Eurasia triggered a massive faunal and floral exchange, with Gondwanan taxa entering into Asia and vice versa. The traditional view on the Indian–Asian collision assumes contact of the continental plates during the Early Eocene. Many biogeographic studies rely on this assumption. However, the exact mode and timing of this geological event is still under debate. Here we address, based on an extensive phylogenetic analysis of rhacophorid tree frogs, if there was already a Paleogene biogeographic link between Southeast Asia and India; in which direction faunal exchange occurred between India and Eurasia within the Rhacophoridae; and if the timing of the faunal exchange correlates with one of the recently suggested geological models. Rhacophorid tree frogs showed an early dispersal from India to Asia between 46 and 57 Ma, as reconstructed from the fossil record. During the Middle Eocene, however, faunal exchange ceased, followed by increase of rhacophorid dispersal events between Asia and the Indian subcontinent during the Oligocene that continued until the Middle Miocene. This corroborates recent geological models that argue for a much later final collision between the continental plates. We predict that the Oligocene faunal exchange between the Indian subcontinent and Asia, as shown here for rhacophorid frogs, also applies for other nonvolant organisms with an Indian–Asian distribution, and suggest that previous studies that deal with this faunal interchange should be carefully reinvestigated. PMID:23401521

  13. Faunal Communities Are Invariant to Fragmentation in Experimental Seagrass Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Scott R.; Lombana, Alfonso V.; Orth, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Human-driven habitat fragmentation is cited as one of the most pressing threats facing many coastal ecosystems today. Many experiments have explored the consequences of fragmentation on fauna in one foundational habitat, seagrass beds, but have either surveyed along a gradient of existing patchiness, used artificial materials to mimic a natural bed, or sampled over short timescales. Here, we describe faunal responses to constructed fragmented landscapes varying from 4–400 m2 in two transplant garden experiments incorporating live eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). In experiments replicated within two subestuaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA across multiple seasons and non-consecutive years, we comprehensively censused mesopredators and epifaunal communities using complementary quantitative methods. We found that community properties, including abundance, species richness, Simpson and functional diversity, and composition were generally unaffected by the number of patches and the size of the landscape, or the intensity of sampling. Additionally, an index of competition based on species co-occurrences revealed no trends with increasing patch size, contrary to theoretical predictions. We extend conclusions concerning the invariance of animal communities to habitat fragmentation from small-scale observational surveys and artificial experiments to experiments conducted with actual living plants and at more realistic scales. Our findings are likely a consequence of the rapid life histories and high mobility of the organisms common to eelgrass beds, and have implications for both conservation and restoration, suggesting that even small patches can rapidly promote abundant and diverse faunal communities. PMID:27244652

  14. Environmental and faunal change in the Jurassic Sundance Seaway, western United States: a stratigraphic palaeobiological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danise, Silvia; Holland, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how regional ecosystems respond to sea level and environmental perturbations is a main challenge in palaeoecology. Here we use quantitative abundance estimates, integrated within a sequence stratigraphic and environmental framework, to reconstruct benthic community changes through the 13 myr history of the Jurassic Sundance Seaway in the western United States. Faunal censuses of macroinvertebrates were obtained from marine rocks of the Gypsum Spring, Sundance and Twin Creek formations at 44 localities in Wyoming, Montana and South Dakota. Fossils were identified to species wherever possible. Ordination of samples shows a main turnover event at the Middle-Upper Jurassic transition, which coincided with the shift from carbonate to siliciclastic depositional systems in the Seaway. This shift was probably initiated by the northward migration of the North American Plate, which moved the study area from subtropical latitudes, fostering an arid climate, into progressively more humid conditions, and possibly also by global cooling at this time. Turnover was not uniform across the onshore-offshore gradient, but was higher in offshore environments, in both carbonate and siliciclastic settings. Both the Jaccard and the Bray-Curtis similarity measures indicate that taxonomic similarity decreases from onshore to offshore in successive third-order depositional sequences, although similarity values are low for both onshore and offshore environments The higher resilience of onshore communities to third-order sea-level fluctuations and to the change from a carbonate to a siliciclastic system was driven by a few abundant eurytopic species that persisted from the opening to the closing of the Seaway and that were not restricted to single depositional environments or sequences. Lower stability in offshore facies was instead controlled by the presence of more volatile stenotopic species. Such increased onshore stability in community composition contrasts with the well

  15. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  16. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  17. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation.

  18. Is There a Compositional Signature That Could Explain Middle Latitude Ionospheric Signatures during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, A. G.; Qian, L.; Wang, W.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Solomon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    GUVI data are used in this presentation to determine if there are compositional changes at middle and high latitudes during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) that could explain observations of middle latitude ionospheric signatures during these events. A mechanism currently exists that can explain why the equatorial anomalies respond significantly to SSWs. In this mechanism the E - region dynamo is perturbed by upwardly propagating tides and gravity waves. The changing electric field can then alter the response of the equatorial anomalies to these events. It is more difficult to understand why the middle-latitude, F2-region ionosphere could respond to these events as it is, at most, weakly dependent on the E-region dynamo. Here we look at whether there are changes in composition during these events that are not seen at other times and postulate a mechanism by which these composition changes could occur.

  19. Hierarchical faunal filters: An approach to assessing effects of habitat and nonnative species on native fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Rahel, F.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors related to the occurrence of species across multiple spatial and temporal scales is critical to the conservation and management of native fishes, especially for those species at the edge of their natural distribution. We used the concept of hierarchical faunal filters to provide a framework for investigating the influence of habitat characteristics and normative piscivores on the occurrence of 10 native fishes in streams of the North Platte River watershed in Wyoming. Three faunal filters were developed for each species: (i) large-scale biogeographic, (ii) local abiotic, and (iii) biotic. The large-scale biogeographic filter, composed of elevation and stream-size thresholds, was used to determine the boundaries within which each species might be expected to occur. Then, a local abiotic filter (i.e., habitat associations), developed using binary logistic-regression analysis, estimated the probability of occurrence of each species from features such as maximum depth, substrate composition, submergent aquatic vegetation, woody debris, and channel morphology (e.g., amount of pool habitat). Lastly, a biotic faunal filter was developed using binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of occurrence of each species relative to the abundance of nonnative piscivores in a reach. Conceptualising fish assemblages within a framework of hierarchical faunal filters is simple and logical, helps direct conservation and management activities, and provides important information on the ecology of fishes in the western Great Plains of North America. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  20. Theoretic analysis of middle ear gas composition under conditions of nonphysiologic ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ostfeld, E J; Silberberg, A

    1992-05-01

    As gas flows in and out of the nasopharynx, the pressure in that region fluctuates. It drops below or rises above atmospheric pressure, which is itself not constant but is subject to changes in altitude and weather. Such pressure changes in the nasopharynx produce a pumping of gas into and out of the middle ear. The net amount of middle ear gas transferred from or to the nasopharynx will, component for component, in steady state exactly equal the amount of middle ear gas transferred to or from the microcirculation by means of diffusional absorption by (or release from) the mucosa. In the case of a permanently patulous eustachian tube, a single parameter, characteristic of the rate of ventilation through the open eustachian tube, is found to determine the gas composition in the middle ear, whereas in the case of a middle ear ventilated by tympanostomy, two rate-of-ventilation parameters, one for gas flow through the ventilation tube and one for flow through a periodically open eustachian tube, determine the steady state gas composition. A high rate of ventilation favors absorption of oxygen and venting of carbon dioxide from the middle ear in both cases.

  1. Faunal histories from Holocene ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Mark; Hoelzel, A Rus; Carvalho, Gary R; Hofreiter, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies using ancient DNA have been instrumental in advancing understanding of the impact of Holocene climate change on biodiversity. Ancient DNA has been used to track demography, migration and diversity, and is providing new insights into the long-term dynamics of species and population distributions. The Holocene is key to understanding how the past has impacted on the present, as it bridges the gap between contemporary phylogeographic studies and those with inference on Pleistocene patterns, based on ancient DNA studies. Here, we examine the major patterns of Holocene faunal population dynamics and connectivity; highlighting the dynamic nature of species and population responses to Holocene climatic change, thereby providing an 'analogue' for understanding potential impacts of future change.

  2. Satellite-Borne Measurements of Middle-Atmosphere Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; McCormick, M. P.

    1987-11-01

    A number of satellite experiments have been launched in recent years with the goal of providing fundamental data needed for analysis of photochemistry, radiation, dynamics, and transport processes. Collectively, these experiments have accumulated information on the vertical and horizontal distributions of a host of minor constituents in the middle atmosphere. The combined satellite data set includes new global measurements of O3, NO2, N2O, HNO3, CH4, H2O, and aerosols, and more-limited data on CO, N2O5, ClONO2, HNO4, COF2, and CH3Cl. These data have provided descriptions of (1) the geographic extent and year-to-year change in the recently discovered Antarctic ozone hole; (2) interannual variability in N2O and CH4; (3) the winter high latitude NO2 `cliff'; (4) exchange of NO2 from the mesosphere to the stratosphere during polar night; (5) a lower limit total odd nitrogen distribution that displays a maximum that exceeds model calculated values; (6) variations in the newly discovered polar stratospheric clouds (PSCS) seen in the north and south polar regions; and (7) details of latitudinal and temporal aerosol variability. The existing satellite data set is deficient in certain key measurements including OH, HO2, H2O2, polar night N2O5, radiatively important aerosol properties, and simultaneous measurements of aerosols and gases involved in heterogeneous processes.

  3. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  4. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  5. The ecology of extinction: molluscan feeding and faunal turnover in the Caribbean Neogene.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, J A; Jackson, J B C; Johnson, K G; Fortunato, H M; Heitz, A; Alvarez, M; Jung, P

    2002-01-01

    Molluscan faunal turnover in the Plio-Pleistocene of the tropical western Atlantic has been attributed to drops in temperature or primary productivity, but these competing hypotheses have not been assessed ecologically. To test these alternatives, we compiled data on changing molluscan life habits and trophic composition over 12 million years derived from 463 newly made collections from the southwestern Caribbean. Shelf ecosystems have altered markedly in trophic structure since the Late Pliocene. Predatory gastropods and suspension-feeding bivalves declined significantly in abundance, but not in diversity, and reef-dwellers became common. By contrast, all other ecological life habits remained remarkably stable. Food-web changes strongly support the hypothesis that declining regional nutrient supply had an increasing impact on regional macroecology, culminating in a faunal turnover. PMID:11916472

  6. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  7. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  8. Variations in ion composition at middle and low latitudes from Isis 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes absolute ion concentration measurements with an ion mass spectrometer on the Isis 2 satellite and discusses features of the ion composition near a fixed altitude of 1400 km as they relate to longitudinal and latitudinal variations at low and middle latitudes. Two distinct classes of daytime ionospheric behavior are observed. The data obtained confirm the strong solar-geomagnetic seasonal control over the topside ion distribution. The new phenomena associated with the observed longitudinal dependence of the ion composition at 1400 km demonstrate the existence of complex physical processes which take place in this region of the ionosphere.

  9. Variations in ion composition at middle and low latitudes from Isis 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes absolute ion concentration measurements with an ion mass spectrometer on the Isis 2 satellite and discusses features of the ion composition near a fixed altitude of 1400 km as they relate to longitudinal and latitudinal variations at low and middle latitudes. Two distinct classes of daytime ionospheric behavior are observed. The data obtained confirm the strong solar-geomagnetic seasonal control over the topside ion distribution. The new phenomena associated with the observed longitudinal dependence of the ion composition at 1400 km demonstrate the existence of complex physical processes which take place in this region of the ionosphere.

  10. Deconstructing mammal dispersals and faunal dynamics in SW Europe during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationships between climate change and faunal dynamics in south-west Europe, disentangling the asynchronous and diachronous dispersal bioevents of large mammals across geographical and ecological boundaries, analysing biodiversity and its changes through time. The analysis of local versus regional biological dynamics may shed new light on whether turnovers and ecological and evolutionary changes developed because of global climate changes and related phenomena, or because of intrinsic biological factors. The SW European Quaternary fossil record is particularly suitable for studying the role of climate change at local and regional levels because of the complex physiographic and climatic heterogeneity of the study area, the presence of important geographical/ecological barriers and the complex history of invasions of species of varying geographical origin and provenance. The data base consists of taxonomically revised lists of large mammal species from selected SW European local faunal assemblages ranging in age from the Early to the late Middle Pleistocene (middle Villafranchian to early Aurelian European Land Mammal Ages). The new biochronological scheme proposed here allows for the comparison of local turnovers and biodiversity trends, yielding a better understanding of the action of geographical/ecological barriers that either prevented the range of some taxa from reaching some regions or caused delays in the dispersal of a taxon in some territories. The results obtained provide evidence that major environmental perturbations, triggering dispersal events and removing keystone species, modified the structure of the pre-existing mammalian faunas, merging previously independently-evolved taxa into new palaeo-communities. The coupled action of climatic changes and internal biotic dynamics thus caused the Quaternary SW European faunal complexes to significantly restructure. Diachroneity in local turnover across the study area

  11. Faunal reorganisation in terrestrial mammalian communities: evidence from France during the Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridault, Anne

    2010-05-01

    The Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition is characterized by rapid oscillations between warm and cold episodes. Their impact on ecosystem dynamics was particularly pronounced in north-western Europe where hunter-gatherer societies experienced a succession of environmental transformations, including the expansion and dispersal of biotic communities and changing herbivore habitats. Recent archaeozoological studies and AMS direct dating on mammalian bones/or bone collagen allow to map and precise this process at a supra-regional scale (France). At regional scales (i.e. Paris Basin & Jura-Northern French Alps), results indicate a rapid faunal reorganisation at the end of Lateglacial that will be presented in detail. Composition of faunal assemblages remains then unchanged during the Early Holocene. By contrast, significant herbivore habitat changes are recorded during the Early Holocene by other proxies (pollen data and isotopic data) and a decrease in Red Deer size through time is evidenced by osteometrical analyses. Hypotheses regarding the kind of adaptation process experienced by the faunal communities through time will be presented. Factors that may have controlled the observed changes will be discussed.

  12. The origin of Eurasian Mammoth Faunas (Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2014-07-01

    turnover led to the formation of the earliest pan-Eurasian Mammoth Fauna at around 460 ka BP. The sister taxa of several species involved in Mammoth Faunas underwent separate evolution in Central Asia, thus indicating ecological differences between the Asian core steppe and Eurasian tundra-steppe habitats. During temperate and humid stages of the late Middle to Late Pleistocene periods the transcontinental reach of the steppe-tundra biome collapsed. As a result, the majority of the characteristic mammal species were forced back to continental steppe or Arctic tundra refugia, only returning during subsequent cold stages when the formation of a new and more evolved Mammoth Fauna began. The maximum geographic extension of the Palaearctic Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex occurred during the Late Pleistocene, when it covered an area of up to 190 degrees of longitude and 40 degrees of latitude.

  13. Stetson Pit, Dare County, North Carolina: An integrated chronologic, faunal, and floral record of subsurface coastal quaternary sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    York, L.L.; Wehmiller, J. F.; Cronin, T. M.; Ager, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous split spoon samples from a drill hole penetrating 34 m of coastal plain sediments at Stetson Pit in Dare County, North Carolina were taken for lithologic, aminostratigraphic, faunal (ostracodes) and floral (pollen) analyses. Three distinct aminozones are recognized in the subsurface section based upon D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine (A/I) values in each of the molluscan species Mulinia lateralis and Mercenaria sp. Ostracode zonations in the subsurface section are based on percentages of 80 thermophilic and cryophilic species (those living today south and north of Cape Hatteras) and the percentages of brackish water species. Five assemblage zones are delineated. Six pollen assemblage zones are also delineated within the subsurface section based upon study of 48 sediment samples. The subsurface record at Stetson Pit is interpreted to represent portions of four interglacials based upon the combined faunal, floral and aminostratigraphic data. The two younger aminozones, with amino acid age estimates of 100,000??20,000 yr (-7.2 to -11.2 m MSL) and 300,000-500,000 yr (-13 to -14.2 m MSL), represent portions of middle/late Pleistocene interglacials. The lower aminozone (-17.4 to -33 m MSL) spans an interval that probably includes at least two interglacials (based upon faunal and floral records) and has an age estimated to be between 800,000 and 1,300,000 yr. Boundaries delineated by faunal, floral, and amino acid methods do not always coincide, due to sampling constraints and phase lags between the different records. One major unconformity (at -17.4 m MSL) in the Stetson Pit section is easily recognized from lithologic characteristics and may represent a hiatus of as much as 800,000 yr. Lithologic changes associated with all other zone boundaries are subtle and would probably not be considered significant in the absence of faunal, floral, or amino acid data. ?? 1989.

  14. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  15. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  16. Teaching Composition through Comprehension: A Survey of Teaching English Composition to Foreign Students and Its Application to the English Program at the Middle East Technical University in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekmekci, Ozden

    This thesis describes a method for teaching English composition, with the parallel development of comprehension skills, to students in the Middle East Technical University. A survey of techniques for teaching English composition to foreign students is provided along with a discussion of the steps usually followed in writing instruction. The…

  17. A review of benthic faunal surveys in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Frederic H.

    1973-01-01

    During the past 60 years, considerable effort has been expended in studies of the relations of the biotic community and physicochemical characteristics of San Francisco Bay water. In very recent years these studies have emphasized the relations between the 'state of health' of bottom-living invertebrates (the benthos) and the levels of pollutants in the bay. Benthic organisms, generally sessile, are unable to escape deleterious environmental changes, and they reflect these changes in alterations of normal species composition of assemblages and species abundance. Data that expands understanding of these relations in urbanized areas such as San Francisco Bay are critical. Because of the implications of such data in control of water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a review of the results and major conclusions of San Francisco Bay benthic surveys. The size and species composition of faunal assemblages are largely controlled by the salinity of the water, the texture of the bottom sediments, and locally by wastes discharged into the bay. Efforts to describe the structure and function of benthic communities of the bay and to quantify the effects of waste discharge on them have been hampered by inconsistent and often faulty sampling methodology and species identification. Studies made show a lack of information on the normal life processes of the organisms concerned. The diversity index (a mathematical expression of the number of kinds of organisms present at a location), commonly used to describe the 'health' of the benthic community, has been employed without regard for the need for standardizing methodology and species identifications or for understanding natural biological processes that affect such mathematical indices. There are few reliable quantitative data on the distribution of benthic organisms in San Francisco Bay with which future assessments of the 'health' of the benthic community might be compared. Methods for study of the benthos must be

  18. Asteroid compositional rings: Clues to the compositions of primordial planetesimals in the middle solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of asteroid taxonomic types at distances between 2.1 and 5.3 AU is discussed. There are four major, overlapping but compositionally distinct rings of asteroids present within this range of heliocentric distance. The rings, within which 80% of each of 4 major taxonomic types (S, C, P, and D) fall, are centered at 2.6 (0.7), 2.9 (0.8), 3.4 (0.7), and 4.6 (1.5) AU respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the ring widths in AU. The overall physical resemblence between the asteroid rings and planetary rings is poor; physically the asteroid belt more closely resembles a debris strewn satellite system. Once the mineralogy of these taxonomic types is established, and complications arising from postaccretionary metamorphism are dealt with, they may be used as probes of physical conditions in the early solar system. The identification of primordial planetesimals can be used in studying the siblings of the planetesimals responsible for the final stage of planetary accretion.

  19. Implications for faunal habitat related to altered macrophyte structure in regulated lakes in northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Meeker, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Water-level regulation has altered the plant species composition and thus the structure of nearshore aquatic macrophyte communities in two regulated lakes in northern Minnesota as compared with a nearby unregulated lake. Results of previous faunal studies in the regulated lakes were used as a basis for assessing the effects of vegetation changes on faunal communities. The unregulated lake with mean annual water-level fluctuations of 1.6 m supported structurally diverse plant communities and varied faunal habitat at all depths studied. Mean annual fluctuations on one regulated lake were reduced to 1.1 m, and dense beds of four erect aquatic macrophytes dominated the 1.75-m depth that was never dewatered. We suggest that this lack of plant diversity and structural complexity resulted in diminished habitat for invertebrates, reduced availability of invertebrates as food for waterbirds and fish, reduced winter food supplies for muskrats, and reduced feeding efficiency for adult northern pike, yellow perch, and muskellunge. Mean annual fluctuations in the other regulated lake were increased to 2.7 m, and rosette and mat-forming species dominated the 1.25-m depth that was affected by winter drawdowns. We suggest that the lack of larger canopy plants resulted in poor habitat for invertebrates, reduced availability of invertebrates as food for waterbirds and fish, and poor nursery and adult feeding habitat for many species of fish. In addition, the timing and extent of winter drawdowns reduced access to macrophytes as food for muskrats and as spawning habitat for northern pike and yellow perch. In regulated lakes throughout the world, indirect effects on aquatic fauna resulting from alteration of wetland and aquatic macrophyte communities should be considered when water-level management plans are developed.

  20. Yield Hypersurfaces of a Three-Layer Composite Shell With a Fiber-Reinforced Middle Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyasov, M. H.; Jahangirov, A. A.

    2014-07-01

    Plastic yield conditions for three-layer fibrous composite shells and plates, whose middle layer (matrix) is reiforced with thin fibers and outer ones (coverings) are homogeneous and isotropic, are determined. It is assumed that the matrix, fibers, and coverings are perfectly plastic (without hardening) and their properties in tension and compression are different. The fibers and coverings are thin to an extent their transverse dimensions can be neglected. The contact between the covering and matrix and between the matrix and fibers is perfect. It is also assumed that neutral surfaces arise in the construction, whose strain rate grows linearly with distance from the surfaces. Expressions for the yield hypersurfaces in terms of bending moments and membrane forces are derived.

  1. An asteroid impact in the Late Triassic triggered mid-Norian radiolarian faunal turnover in the Panthalassa Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, T.; Sato, H.; Yamashita, D.; Ikehara, M.; Yasukawa, K.; Fujinaga, K.; Kato, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

    2015-12-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element (PGE) concentrations in Upper Triassic (middle-upper Norian) pelagic bedded chert succession in Japan, have been attributed to an extraterrestrial source and impact event that formed the 90-km-diameter Manicouagan crater in Canada. Previous geochemical studies have revealed that the anomalously high PGE abundances resulted from a large chondritic impactor (3.3-7.8 km in diameter). Here we report evidence that the Late Triassic impact triggered the remarkable faunal turnover of siliceous plankton (radiolaria) in the Panthalassa Ocean. Radiolarian species data indicate that this faunal turnover records the largest extinction and origination rates within the 30 Myr interval in the Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic. Our high-resolution biostratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical data revealed that there are two paleoenvironmental events in the initial phase of the radiolarian faunal turnover interval: (1) the post-impact shutdown of primary productivity within the timespan of 104 years, and (2) significant and sustained reduction in the sinking flux of radiolarian silica for 0.4-0.6 Myr after the impact. A sharp reduction in marine primary and secondary productivity, triggered by a large impact, may have also played an important role in the extinction of Norian marine faunas (ammonoids, monotid bivalves, and conodonts) in the Panthalassa Ocean.

  2. Structural Composition of Myocardial Infarction Scar in Middle-aged Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogatyryov, Yevgen; Tomanek, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether the structural composition of the scar in middle-aged post–myocardial infraction (MI) rats is affected by the biological sex of the animals. A large MI was induced in 12-month-old male (M-MI) and female (F-MI) Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after the MI, rats with transmural infarctions, greater than 50% of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, were evaluated. The extent of LV remodeling and fractional volumes of fibrillar collagen (FC), myofibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (SM) cells, and surviving cardiac myocytes (CM) in the scars were compared between the two sexes. The left ventricle of post-MI male and female rats underwent a similar degree of remodeling as evidenced by the analogous scar thinning ratio (0.46 ± 0.02 vs. 0.42 ± 0.05) and infarct expansion index (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.12 ± 0.08), respectively. Most important, the contents of major structural components of the scar revealed no evident difference between M-MI and F-MI rats (interstitial FC, 80.74 ± 2.08 vs. 82.57 ± 4.53; myofibroblasts, 9.59 ± 1.68 vs.9.56 ± 1.15; vascular SM cells, 2.27 ± 0.51 vs. 3.38 ± 0.47; and surviving CM, 3.26 ± 0.39 vs. 3.05 ± 0.38, respectively). Our data are the first to demonstrate that biological sex does not influence the structural composition of a mature scar in middle-aged post-MI rats. PMID:23867842

  3. Taxonomic and behavioral components of faunal comparisons over time: The bees of Boulder County past and present (Colorado, USA) (Hymenoptera: Anthophila)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historical and recent studies of Boulder County, Colorado (USA) bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) illustrate the potential and the pitfalls of using comparative collection data to evaluate faunal composition and change over time. A compilation of bee records from Boulder Co., CO (USA) (Scott et al., 2...

  4. Melting barriers to faunal exchange across ocean basins.

    PubMed

    McKeon, C Seabird; Weber, Michele X; Alter, S Elizabeth; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Crandall, Eric D; Barshis, Daniel J; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan D; Oleson, Kirsten L L

    2016-02-01

    Accelerated loss of sea ice in the Arctic is opening routes connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for longer periods each year. These changes may increase the ease and frequency with which marine birds and mammals move between the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Indeed, recent observations of birds and mammals suggest these movements have intensified in recent decades. Reconnection of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins will present both challenges to marine ecosystem conservation and an unprecedented opportunity to examine the ecological and evolutionary consequences of interoceanic faunal exchange in real time. To understand these changes and implement effective conservation of marine ecosystems, we need to further develop modeling efforts to predict the rate of dispersal and consequences of faunal exchange. These predictions can be tested by closely monitoring wildlife dispersal through the Arctic Ocean and using modern methods to explore the ecological and evolutionary consequences of these movements.

  5. Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

  6. Faunal change, environmental variability and late Pliocene hominin evolution.

    PubMed

    Bobe, René; Behrensmeyer, Anna K; Chapman, Ralph E

    2002-04-01

    Global change during the late Pliocene was manifested in declining temperatures, increased amplitude of climate cycles, and shifts in the periodicity of orbital climate forcing. Linking these changes to the evolution of African continental faunas and to hominin evolution requires well-documented fossil evidence that can be examined through substantial periods of time. The Omo sequence of southern Ethiopia provides such a database, and we use it to analyze change in the abundances of mammal taxa at different levels of temporal and taxonomic resolution between 4 and 2 Ma. This study provides new evidence for shifts through time in the ecological dominance of suids, cercopithecids, and bovids, and for a trend from more forested to more open woodland habitats. Superimposed on these long-term trends are two episodes of faunal change, one involving a marked shift in the abundances of different taxa at about 2.8+/-0.1 Ma, and the second the transition at 2.5 Ma from a 200-ka interval of faunal stability to marked variability over intervals of about 100 ka. The first appearance of Homo, the earliest artefacts, and the extinction of non-robust Australopithecus in the Omo sequence coincide in time with the beginning of this period of high variability. We conclude that climate change caused significant shifts in vegetation in the Omo paleo-ecosystem and is a plausible explanation for the gradual ecological change from forest to open woodland between 3.4 and 2.0 Ma, the faunal shift at 2.8 +/-0.1 Ma, and the change in the tempo of faunal variability of 2.5 Ma. Climate forcing in the late Pliocene is more clearly indicated by population shifts within the Omo mammal community than by marked turnover at the species level. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Hydrothermal fluid composition at Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Temporal and spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Anna M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter J.; Zierenberg, Robert

    Hydrothermal fluids were collected in July 2000 from the Dead Dog and Ore Drilling Program (ODP) Mound vent fields at Middle Valley, a sediment-covered spreading center on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Measured fluid temperatures varied from 187° to 281°C in focused flow vents and 40°C in ODP Hole 1035F. Cl concentrations indicate that ODP Mound fluids undergo phase separation in the subsurface, whereas Dead Dog fluids do not. The lack of phase separation at Dead Dog is consistent with other geochemical indicators of lower subsurface temperatures. Cooling and equilibration with quartz after phase separation at the ODP Mound results in exit temperatures and silica concentrations that are indistinguishable from those at Dead Dog. The sulfur isotopic composition of aqueous ΣH2S indicates extensive reduction of seawater SO4 and leaching of basaltic sulfur at both areas. A new area of venting, which resulted from drilling operations during ODP Leg 169, was discovered on the eastern side of the ODP Mound. The fluids in the new area have compositions that are similar to those of Hole 1035H and Shiner Bock, except for lower H2 and higher H2S concentrations. These differences reflect the conversion of pyrite to pyrrhotite in the ODP Mound as fluids react with sulfide minerals during upflow. Fluid temperatures and compositions have remained constant between 1990 and 2000 indicating that subsurface reaction zone conditions did not change over this period. Near constant concentrations of sediment-derived mobile trace elements suggest that the residence time of fluids in a high-temperature reservoir exceeds 10 years.

  8. Birth weight, postnatal weight gain and adult body composition in five low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Adair, Linda; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Fall, Caroline H D; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Osmond, Clive; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Stein, Aryeh D.; Victora, Cesar G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate associations between birth weight (BW), infancy and childhood weight gain and adult body composition. Methods Subjects included participants of five birth cohort studies from low and middle income nations (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, South Africa; n=3432). We modeled adult body composition as a function of BW and conditional weight gain (CW), representing changes in weight trajectory relative to peers, in three age intervals (0-12m, 12-24m, 24m-mid childhood). Results In 34 of 36 site- and sex-specific models, regression coefficients associated with BW and CWs were higher for adult fat-free than for fat mass. The strength of coefficients predicting fat-free mass relative to those predicting fat mass was greatest for birth weight, intermediate for CWs through 24 months, and weaker thereafter. However, because fat masses were smaller and showed larger variances than fat-free masses, weaker relationships with fat mass still yielded modest but significant increases in adult % body fat (PBF). CW at 12 months and mid-childhood tended to be strongest predictors of PBF, while BW was generally the weakest predictor of PBF. For most early growth measures, a 1 SD change predicted less than a 1% change in adult body fat, suggesting that any health impacts of early growth on changes in adult body composition are likely to be small in these cohorts. Conclusions Birth weight and weight trajectories up to 24 months tend to be more strongly associated with adult fat-free mass than with fat mass, while weight trajectories in mid-childhood predict both fat mass and fat-free mass. PMID:22121058

  9. Stable isotope, chemical, and mineral compositions of the Middle Proterozoic Lijiaying Mn deposit, Shaanxi Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeh, Hsueh-Wen; Hein, James R.; Ye, Jie; Fan, Delian

    1999-01-01

    The Lijiaying Mn deposit, located about 250 km southwest of Xian, is a high-quality ore characterized by low P and Fe contents and a mean Mn content of about 23%. The ore deposit occurs in shallow-water marine sedimentary rocks of probable Middle Proterozoic age. Carbonate minerals in the ore deposit include kutnahorite, calcite, Mn calcite, and Mg calcite. Carbon (−0.4 to −4.0‰) and oxygen (−3.7 to −12.9‰) isotopes show that, with a few exceptions, those carbonate minerals are not pristine low-temperature marine precipitates. All samples are depleted in rare earth elements (REEs) relative to shale and have negative Eu and positive Ce anomalies on chondrite-normalized plots. The Fe/Mn ratios of representative ore samples range from about 0.034 to <0.008 and P/Mn from 0.0023 to <0.001. Based on mineralogical data, the low ends of those ranges of ratios are probably close to ratios for the pure Mn minerals. Manganese contents have a strong positive correlation with Ce anomaly values and a moderate correlation with total REE contents. Compositional data indicate that kutnahorite is a metamorphic mineral and that most calcites formed as low-temperature marine carbonates that were subsequently metamorphosed. The braunite ore precursor mineral was probably a Mn oxyhydroxide, similar to those that formed on the deep ocean-floor during the Cenozoic. Because the Lijiaying precursor mineral formed in a shallow-water marine environment, the atmospheric oxygen content during the Middle Proterozoic may have been lower than it has been during the Cenozoic.

  10. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  11. A model of onshore-offshore change in faunal diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Onshore-offshore patterns of faunal change occurred at many taxonomic scales during the Paleozoic Era, ranging from replacement of the Cambrian evolutionary fauna by the Paleozoic fauna to the environmental expansion of many orders and classes. A simple mathematical model is constructed to investigate such change. The environmental gradient across the marine shelf-slope is treated as a linear array of discrete habitats, each of which holds a set number of species, as observed in the fossil record. During any interval of time, some portion of the species in each habitat becomes extinct by background processes, with rates of extinction varying among both clades and habitats, as also observed in the record. After extinction, species are replaced from within the habitat and from immediately adjacent habitats, with proportions dependent on surviving species. This model leads to the prediction that extinction-resistant clades will always diversify at the expense of extinction-prone clades. But if extinction intensity is highest in nearshore habitats, extinction-resistant clades will expand preferentially in the onshore direction, build up diversity there, and then diversify outward toward the offshore. Thus, onshore-offshore patterns of diversification may be the expectation for faunal change quite independently of whether or not clades originate onshore. When the model is parameterized for Paleozoic trilobites and brachiopods, numerical solutions exhibit both a pattern of faunal change and a time span for diversification similar to that seen in the fossil record. They also generate structure similar to that seen in global diversification, including logistic patterns of growth, declining origination but constant extinction within clades through time, and declining overall extinction across clades through time.

  12. A model of onshore-offshore change in faunal diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Onshore-offshore patterns of faunal change occurred at many taxonomic scales during the Paleozoic Era, ranging from replacement of the Cambrian evolutionary fauna by the Paleozoic fauna to the environmental expansion of many orders and classes. A simple mathematical model is constructed to investigate such change. The environmental gradient across the marine shelf-slope is treated as a linear array of discrete habitats, each of which holds a set number of species, as observed in the fossil record. During any interval of time, some portion of the species in each habitat becomes extinct by background processes, with rates of extinction varying among both clades and habitats, as also observed in the record. After extinction, species are replaced from within the habitat and from immediately adjacent habitats, with proportions dependent on surviving species. This model leads to the prediction that extinction-resistant clades will always diversify at the expense of extinction-prone clades. But if extinction intensity is highest in nearshore habitats, extinction-resistant clades will expand preferentially in the onshore direction, build up diversity there, and then diversify outward toward the offshore. Thus, onshore-offshore patterns of diversification may be the expectation for faunal change quite independently of whether or not clades originate onshore. When the model is parameterized for Paleozoic trilobites and brachiopods, numerical solutions exhibit both a pattern of faunal change and a time span for diversification similar to that seen in the fossil record. They also generate structure similar to that seen in global diversification, including logistic patterns of growth, declining origination but constant extinction within clades through time, and declining overall extinction across clades through time.

  13. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  14. Projected climate-induced faunal change in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J; Shafer, Sarah L; White, Denis; Kareiva, Peter; Maurer, Edwin P; Blaustein, Andrew R; Bartlein, Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    Climate change is predicted to be one of the greatest drivers of ecological change in the coming century. Increases in temperature over the last century have clearly been linked to shifts in species distributions. Given the magnitude of projected future climatic changes, we can expect even larger range shifts in the coming century. These changes will, in turn, alter ecological communities and the functioning of ecosystems. Despite the seriousness of predicted climate change, the uncertainty in climate-change projections makes it difficult for conservation managers and planners to proactively respond to climate stresses. To address one aspect of this uncertainty, we identified predictions of faunal change for which a high level of consensus was exhibited by different climate models. Specifically, we assessed the potential effects of 30 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future-climate simulations on the geographic ranges of 2954 species of birds, mammals, and amphibians in the Western Hemisphere. Eighty percent of the climate projections based on a relatively low greenhouse-gas emissions scenario result in the local loss of at least 10% of the vertebrate fauna over much of North and South America. The largest changes in fauna are predicted for the tundra, Central America, and the Andes Mountains where, assuming no dispersal constraints, specific areas are likely to experience over 90% turnover, so that faunal distributions in the future will bear little resemblance to those of today.

  15. Projected climate-induced faunal change in the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawler, J.J.; Shafer, S.L.; White, D.; Kareiva, P.; Maurer, E.P.; Blaustein, A.R.; Bartlein, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to be one of the greatest drivers of ecological change in the coming century. Increases in temperature over the last century have clearly been linked to shifts in species distributions. Given the magnitude of projected future climatic changes, we can expect even larger range shifts in the coming century. These changes will, in turn, alter ecological communities and the functioning of ecosystems. Despite the seriousness of predicted climate change, the uncertainty in climate-change projections makes it difficult for conservation managers and planners to proactively respond to climate stresses. To address one aspect of this uncertainty, we identified predictions of faunal change for which a high level of consensus was exhibited by different climate models. Specifically, we assessed the potential effects of 30 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future-climate simulations on the geographic ranges of 2954 species of birds, mammals, and amphibians in the Western Hemisphere. Eighty percent of the climate projections based on a relatively low greenhouse-gas emissions scenario result in the local loss of at least 10% of the vertebrate fauna over much of North and South America. The largest changes in fauna are predicted for the tundra, Central America, and the Andes Mountains where, assuming no dispersal constraints, specific areas are likely to experience over 90% turnover, so that faunal distributions in the future will bear little resemblance to those of today. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Faunal response to sea-level and climate change in a short-lived seaway: Jurassic of the Western Interior, USA.

    PubMed

    Danise, Silvia; Holland, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how regional ecosystems respond to sea-level and environmental perturbations is a main challenge in palaeoecology. Here we use quantitative abundance estimates, integrated within a sequence stratigraphic and environmental framework, to reconstruct benthic community changes through the 13 myr history of the Jurassic Sundance Seaway in the western United States. Sundance Seaway communities are notable for their low richness and high dominance relative to most areas globally in the Jurassic, and this probably reflects steep temperature and salinity gradients along the 2000 km length of the Seaway that hindered colonization of species from the open ocean. Ordination of samples shows a main turnover event at the Middle-Upper Jurassic transition, which coincided with a shift from carbonate to siliciclastic depositional systems in the Seaway, probably initiated by northward drift from subtropical latitudes to more humid temperate latitudes, and possibly global cooling. Turnover was not uniform across the onshore-offshore gradient, but was higher in offshore environments. The higher resilience of onshore communities to third-order sea-level fluctuations and to the change from a carbonate to a siliciclastic system was driven by a few abundant eurytopic species that persisted from the opening to the closing of the Seaway. Lower stability in offshore facies was instead controlled by the presence of more volatile stenotopic species. Such increased onshore stability in community composition contrasts with the well-documented onshore increase in taxonomic turnover rates, and this study underscores how ecological analyses of relative abundance may contrast with taxonomically based analyses. We also demonstrate the importance of a stratigraphic palaeobiological approach to reconstructing the links between environmental and faunal gradients, and how their evolution through time produces local stratigraphic changes in community composition.

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Bacterial and Faunal Communities Associated with Deep-Sea Wood Falls.

    PubMed

    Pop Ristova, Petra; Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Rossel, Pamela E; Boetius, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas. By combining fingerprinting of bacterial communities by ARISA and 454 sequencing with in situ and ex situ biogeochemical measurements, we show that sunken wood logs have a locally confined long-term impact (> 3y) on the sediment geochemistry and community structure. We confirm previous hypotheses of different successional stages in wood degradation including a sulphophilic one, attracting chemosynthetic fauna from nearby seep systems. Wood experiments deployed at similar water depths (1100-1700 m), but in hydrographically different oceanic regions harbored different wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic faunal communities, and chemosynthetic species. Similarly, bacterial communities on sunken wood logs were more similar within one geographic region than between different seas. Diverse sulphate-reducing bacteria of the Deltaproteobacteria, the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria Sulfurovum as well as members of the Acidimicrobiia and Bacteroidia dominated the wood falls in the Eastern Mediterranean, while Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia colonized the Norwegian Sea wood logs. Fauna and bacterial wood-associated communities changed between 1 to 3 years of immersion, with sulphate-reducers and sulphide-oxidizers increasing in proportion, and putative cellulose degraders decreasing with time. Only 6% of all bacterial genera, comprising the core community, were found at any time on

  18. Faunal diversity during rainy season in reclaimed sodic land of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Srivastava, S P; Tandon, Pankaj; Azad, B S

    2009-07-01

    Faunal diversity is an indicator of soil amelioration. Estimating the population size or density of an animal species in an area is fundamental to understand its status and demography and to plan for its management and conservation. Considering this, faunal diversity in reclamed sodic land was monitored during rainy season 2000-01 at different locations of district viz., Aligarh, Etah, Fatehpur, Mainpuri and Raebareli in Uttar Pradesh. The Shannon-Weiner species diversity index (H) of different fauna complex of each location was compared with zero years (1995-1996) indexes (before reclamation). Insects diversity index, in reclaimed sodic soil, varied from 3.8178 (Fatehpur: Bariyampur) to 4.623 (Fatehpur: Katoghan), which was 3.028 in zero year at Katoghan in Fatehpur 'H' index of other-arthropods ranged widely from 0.9743 (Etah: Bawali) to 2.0674 (Mainpuri: Pundari). The species diversity index of molluscs registered as high as 1.8637 at Ladhauwa site in Aligarh, which exhibited identical with Saripur site of Raebareli. 'H' index of mammal resulted with the highest (2.19) at Pundari in district Mainpuri. The avifauna and amphibian's indices were recovered maximal at Saripur site of Raebareli and Bariyampur site of Fatehpur respectively. Our result revealed that various fauna enriched with soil reclamation, which is good indicator of restoration of land, primarily due to soil-arthropods and earthworms and its eventual improvement along with succeeding rice-wheat cropping system widespread over there. It clearly shows that soil fauna strongly affects the composition of natural vegetation and we suggest that this knowledge might improve the restoration and conservation of biodiversity.

  19. Lower and Middle Devonian Malvinokaffric ostracods from the Precordillera Basin of San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, María J.; Rustán, Juan J.; Sterren, Andrea F.

    2013-08-01

    Ostracod from the upper Lower to Middle Devonian rocks of the Argentine Precordillera Basin (Talacasto and Punta Negra formations) are studied. One new genus Pircawayra nov. gen., and five species (including three new: Pircawayra gigantea nov. gen. and sp., Lapazites trinodis nov. sp. and Keslingiella? teresae nov. sp.) are defined. The recorded ostracod fauna closely resembles that coeval from Bolivia and South Africa, exhibiting a remarkable endemism, not only at the genus level, but also at the species level. In addition to its low-diversity, the Malvinokaffric ostracod association is also characterized by having large, thick, coarsely ornamented and swollen valves. The similar ostracod composition from the Andean and South African basins suggests faunal exchange between these two areas. Based on the ostracod faunas, the Malvinokaffric Realm is clearly recognizable at least up to the Middle Devonian.

  20. Insect faunal succession on decaying rabbit carcasses in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Meenakshi; Singh, Devinder

    2003-09-01

    Insect faunal succession on decaying rabbit carcasses was carried out at Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab), India, from March 1997 to December 1999. Four stages of decomposition were recognized, i.e., fresh, bloated, decay, and dry. A total of 38 insect species belonging to four orders and 13 families were recorded. Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera dominated the carrion fauna. Calliphorids were the first to arrive in all the seasons of the year. Five species of Calliphoridae, four of Sarcophagidae, ten of Muscidae, and one each from Anthomyiidae and Otitidae were observed on rabbit carcasses. Representatives of six Coleopteran families, i.e., Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Cleridae, Dermestidae, Tenebrionidae, and Silphidae, were recorded. Eight species belonging to family Formicidae (Hymenoptera) were also collected during the present studies. Only one species of Lepidoptera was observed on carrion.

  1. Behavior of carbonate shelf communities in the Upper Triassic of Nevada: Evidence of impact mediated faunal turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Hogler, J.A. . Museum of Paleontology)

    1993-04-01

    The carbonate shelf sediments of the Luning and Gabbs Formations of Nevada span the last several million years of the Triassic. This richly fossiliferous sequence provides a relatively continuous record of benthic community behavior during a long interval of global biotic turnover. Upper Carnian-Lower Norian and Upper Norian sea floors in this region were inhabited by a variety of invertebrate communities, all of them mollusc-dominated. Across a range of offshore shelf to basinal environments and throughout repeated community replacements, the most abundant and diverse taxa were infaunal and epifaunal bivalves and ammonites. The sequence of Upper Triassic molluscan communities was interrupted by a Lower or Middle Norian interval of brachiopod-dominated faunas. Although preserved in similar offshore carbonate shelf sediments, these communities are nearly devoid of the infaunal bivalves and ammonites that characterize both older and younger assemblages in the section. This pattern, of a temporary replacement of molluscan communities by brachiopod faunas, mimics that reported for some shelf assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. That brief resurgence of brachiopods is linked to a sharp drop in marine primary productivity, which suggests that a disruption of planktonic food chains may also have occurred early in the Norian. The timing and pattern of Carnian-Norian faunal and physical events and their resemblance to K/T sequences are consistent with the proposal that an asteroid impact played a role in the Upper Triassic faunal transition.

  2. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications

    PubMed Central

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928

  3. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications.

    PubMed

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java.

  4. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For the difference verification on the change in mean for each group and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were respectively used. As a result, for physical composition, the body fat rate decreased in the swimming group. Moreover, the difference verification result showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. For physical strength, the difference verification result for each group showed that the swimming group had a statistically significant difference in flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. Moreover, the difference verification result between the groups showed a statistically significant difference only for flexibility. For blood lipids, as a result of the difference verification for each group, T-C and TG showed a significant decrease, and HDL-C, a significant increase. However, in the difference verification result between the groups, only T-C and TG showed a statistically significant difference. With these results, it is considered that regular swimming exercise is effective for improving the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. PMID:26535217

  5. Contextualizing the "Behavior Gap": Student Prosocial Behavior and Racial Composition in Urban Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Adam M.; Geller, Joanna D.; Nation, Maury

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging student prosocial behavior (PSB) is a challenge for urban middle schools. The issue of student behavior is a racialized one, as Black students generally evince more negative behavioral outcomes than their White peers. This racial "behavior gap" may be conditional on the school environment. This study examines how one element…

  6. The structure and composition of Holocene coral reefs in the Middle Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toth, Lauren T.; Stathakopoulos, Anastasios; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-07-21

    The Florida Keys reef tract (FKRT) is the largest coral-reef ecosystem in the continental United States. The modern FKRT extends for 362 kilometers along the coast of South Florida from Dry Tortugas National Park in the southwest, through the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), to Fowey Rocks reef in Biscayne National Park in the northeast. Most reefs along the FKRT are sheltered by the exposed islands of the Florida Keys; however, large channels are located between the islands of the Middle Keys. These openings allow for tidal transport of water from Florida Bay onto reefs in the area. The characteristics of the water masses coming from Florida Bay, which can experience broad swings in temperature, salinity, nutrients, and turbidity over short periods of time, are generally unfavorable or “inimical” to coral growth and reef development.Although reef habitats are ubiquitous throughout most of the Upper and Lower Keys, relatively few modern reefs exist in the Middle Keys most likely because of the impacts of inimical waters from Florida Bay. The reefs that are present in the Middle Keys generally are poorly developed compared with reefs elsewhere in the region. For example, Acropora palmata has been the dominant coral on shallow-water reefs in the Caribbean over the last 1.5 million years until populations of the coral declined throughout the region in recent decades. Although A. palmata was historically abundant in the Florida Keys, it was conspicuously absent from reefs in the Middle Keys. Instead, contemporary reefs in the Middle Keys have been dominated by occasional massive (that is, boulder or head) corals and, more often, small, non-reef-building corals.Holocene reef cores have been collected from many locations along the FKRT; however, despite the potential importance of the history of reefs in the Middle Florida Keys to our understanding of the environmental controls on reef development throughout the FKRT, there are currently no published

  7. Intra-Site Variability in the Still Bay Fauna at Blombos Cave: Implications for Explanatory Models of the Middle Stone Age Cultural and Technological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    To explain cultural and technological innovations in the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, scholars invoke several factors. A major question in this research theme is whether MSA technocomplexes are adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions and subsistence strategies or, on the contrary, to a wide range of different foraging behaviours. While faunal studies provide key information for addressing these factors, most analyses do not assess intra-technocomplex variability of faunal exploitation (i.e. variability within MSA phases). In this study, we assess the spatial variability of the Still Bay fauna in one phase (M1) of the Blombos Cave sequence. Analyses of taxonomic composition, taphonomic alterations and combustion patterns reveal important faunal variability both across space (lateral variation in the post-depositional history of the deposits, spatial organisation of combustion features) and over time (fine-scale diachronic changes throughout a single phase). Our results show how grouping material prior to zooarchaeological interpretations (e.g. by layer or phase) can induce a loss of information. Finally, we discuss how multiple independent subdivisions of archaeological sequences can improve our understanding of both the timing of different changes (for example in technology, culture, subsistence, environment) and how they may be inter-related. PMID:26658195

  8. Mechanisms of speciation and faunal enrichment in Atlantic parrotfishes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Ross; Karg, Frances; Leao de Moura, Rodrigo; Victor, Benjamin C; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2006-09-01

    Relationships based on mtDNA and nDNA sequences were used to assess effects of two major geographic barriers (the >30 myo Atlantic ocean and the approximately 11 myo Amazon-Orinoco outflow) on speciation among Atlantic parrotfishes (Sparisoma and Nicholsina). Allopatric distributions of sister taxa implicate isolating actions of both barriers in all recent speciation in these fishes, with no clear indications that any speciation resulted from other mechanisms. Molecular clock estimates of the timing of lineage splits indicate that both barriers acted by limiting dispersal well after they formed, although the Amazon barrier also may have been a vicariance agent. Fluctuations in sealevel, climate, and ocean-current dynamics over the past approximately 10 my likely produced marked variation in the effectiveness of both barriers, but particularly the Amazon barrier, allowing intermittent dispersal leading to establishment and allopatric speciation. A dynamic Amazon barrier represents a major engine of West Atlantic faunal enrichment that has repeatedly facilitated bidirectional dispersal, allopatric speciation, and remixing of the Caribbean and Brazilian faunas.

  9. Impact of a scallop drag on the sediment chemistry, microbiota, and faunal assemblages of a shallow subtidal marine benthic community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watling, Les; Findlay, Robert H.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Schick, Daniel F.

    2001-12-01

    Scallops are usually obtained by means of a heavy metal dredge that is pulled over the sea bottom. Most studies of the impact of this gear type have shown that larger invertebrates, in particular, are severely disturbed. These studies, however, have been conducted on coarse sediments, ranging from sands to cobble, and have dealt only with faunal changes. In this paper the impact of a New England type scallop dredge on the fauna and sedimentary nutritional characteristics of a silty sand community is detailed. The site, in the Damariscotta River, Maine, USA, was sampled during the fall and winter prior to, then again immediately following, the dragging event, and twice more over the ensuing six months. Loss of surficial sediment, lowered food quality of the sediment (as measured by microbial populations, enzyme hydrolysable amino acids, and chlorophyll a), and changes in the faunal composition of the dragged site were observed. While some taxa returned to the drag track relatively quickly, others such as the cumaceans, phoxocephalid and photid amphipods, and nephtyid polychaetes, were not seen in abundances comparable to those of the adjacent undragged site until the food quality also recovered.

  10. Drilling constraints on bimodal volcanism and subsequent formation of contrasted uppermost crustal compositions at the middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Mukae, N.; Nagase, T.; Tindell, T.; Totsuka, S.; Uno, Y.; Yonezu, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Shipboard Scientist, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a young and actively spreading back-arc basin, extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. The OT is believed to be in an initial rifting stage (starting from 6-9 Ma), prior to the normal/stable seafloor spreading which constitutes the main stage of back-arc basin formation. Two drilling cruises ‒ the IODP Exp. 331 and SIP CK14-04 D/V Chikyu Cruise (Exp. 907) in 2010 and 2014 ‒ were conducted at the Iheya North Knoll, middle OT. The Iheya North Knoll is a domal volcanic complex consisting of small volcanic bodies. On these cruises, pumiceous gravel and altered rhyolitic rocks, as well as hemi-pelagic sediments, hydrothermal clay and Kuroko-type ores, were recovered from the upper 200 m of the crust. From Feb. 11, 2016 to Mar. 17, 2016, the SIP CK16-01 (Exp. 908) D/V Chikyu cruise was conducted at Iheya North Knoll and the sediment-covered rifting center of the Iheya-Minor Ridge area, middle OT. The Iheya-Minor ridge area is also an active hydrothermal field, located 25 km southeast of the Iheya North Knoll. In this area, basaltic rocks are widely distributed, and drilling has confirmed that the basaltic materials continue to 120 m below the seafloor. From an igneous petrological point of view, the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough are characterized by bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, with a compositional gap between SiO2 = 56-66 wt%. The origin of the rhyolitic rock has been interpreted as magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the existence of an active basalt-hosted hydrothermal field in the Iheya-Minor ridge area suggests the presence of hot basaltic rocks at a shallow position in the crust, and reaching recharged seawater at this depth. Furthermore, the composition of felsic rocks just after the compositional gap (SiO2 = 67 wt%) is very similar to that of the minimum melt of a granitic system, and experimental partial melt of hydrous basalt. Therefore

  11. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Bacterial and Faunal Communities Associated with Deep-Sea Wood Falls

    PubMed Central

    Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Rossel, Pamela E.; Boetius, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas. By combining fingerprinting of bacterial communities by ARISA and 454 sequencing with in situ and ex situ biogeochemical measurements, we show that sunken wood logs have a locally confined long-term impact (> 3y) on the sediment geochemistry and community structure. We confirm previous hypotheses of different successional stages in wood degradation including a sulphophilic one, attracting chemosynthetic fauna from nearby seep systems. Wood experiments deployed at similar water depths (1100–1700 m), but in hydrographically different oceanic regions harbored different wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic faunal communities, and chemosynthetic species. Similarly, bacterial communities on sunken wood logs were more similar within one geographic region than between different seas. Diverse sulphate-reducing bacteria of the Deltaproteobacteria, the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria Sulfurovum as well as members of the Acidimicrobiia and Bacteroidia dominated the wood falls in the Eastern Mediterranean, while Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia colonized the Norwegian Sea wood logs. Fauna and bacterial wood-associated communities changed between 1 to 3 years of immersion, with sulphate-reducers and sulphide-oxidizers increasing in proportion, and putative cellulose degraders decreasing with time. Only 6% of all bacterial genera, comprising the core community, were found at any time

  12. Testing three pipelines for 18S rDNA-based metabarcoding of soil faunal diversity.

    PubMed

    Yang, ChenXue; Ji, YingQiu; Wang, XiaoYang; Yang, ChunYang; Yu, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    A number of basic and applied questions in ecology and environmental management require the characterization of soil and leaf litter faunal diversity. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of barcode-gene amplicons ('metabarcoding') have made it possible to survey biodiversity in a robust and efficient way. However, one obstacle to the widespread adoption of this technique is the need to choose amongst many candidates for bioinformatic processing of the raw sequencing data. We compare three candidate pipelines for the processing of 18S small subunit rDNA metabarcode data from solid substrates: (i) USEARCH/CROP, (ii) Denoiser/UCLUST, and (iii) OCTUPUS. The three pipelines produced reassuringly similar and highly correlated assessments of community composition that are dominated by taxa known to characterize the sampled environments. However, OCTUPUS appears to inflate phylogenetic diversity, because of higher sequence noise. We therefore recommend either the USEARCH/CROP or Denoiser/UCLUST pipelines, both of which can be run within the QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) environment.

  13. The effect of nitrogen loading on a brackish estuarine faunal community: A stable isotope approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keats, R.A.; Osher, L.J.; Neckles, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems worldwide face increased nutrient enrichment from shoreline and watershed development and atmospheric pollution. We investigated the response of the faunal community of a small microtidal estuary dominated by Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass) in Maine, United States, to increased nitrogen loading using an in situ mesocosm enrichment experiment. Community response was characterized by assessing quantitative shifts in macroin-vertebrate community composition and identifying changes in food web structure using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of producers and consumers. The community was dominated by brackish water invertebrates including midge larvae, oligochaetes, damselfly larvae, amphipods, and ostracods. Experimental nutrient additions resulted in significantly lower densities of herbivorous chironomids and predatory damselflies and greater densities of deposit feeding oligochaetes. Grazing midge larvae (Chironomidae: Dicrotendipes, Cricotopus) consumed epiphytic algae under both natural and enriched conditions. Deposit feeding Chironomus was dependent on allochthonous sources of detritus under natural conditions and exhibited a shift to autochthonous sources of detritus under enriched conditions. Predatory Enallagma primarily consumed grazing chironomids under all but the highest loading conditions. Experimental nutrient loading resulted in an increase in generalist deposit feeders dependent on autochthonous sources of detritus.

  14. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2–3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2–3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men. PMID:25426463

  15. Benthic foraminifera (Protista) as tools in deep-water palaeoceanography: environmental influences on faunal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gooday, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    Foraminiferal research lies at the border between geology and biology. Benthic foraminifera are a major component of marine communities, highly sensitive to environmental influences, and the most abundant benthic organisms preserved in the deep-sea fossil record. These characteristics make them important tools for reconstructing ancient oceans. Much of the recent work concerns the search for palaeoceanographic proxies, particularly for the key parameters of surface primary productivity and bottom-water oxygenation. At small spatial scales, organic flux and pore-water oxygen profiles are believed to control the depths at which species live within the sediment (their 'microhabitats'). Epifaunal/shallow infaunal species require oxygen and labile food and prefer relatively oligotrophic settings. Some deep infaunal species can tolerate anoxia and are closely linked to redox fronts within the sediment; they consume more refractory organic matter, and flourish in relatively eutrophic environments. Food and oxygen availability are also key factors at large (i.e. regional) spatial scales. Organic flux to the sea floor, and its seasonality, strongly influences faunal densities, species compositions and diversity parameters. Species tend to be associated with higher or lower flux rates and the annual flux range of 2-3 g Corg m-2 appears to mark an important faunal boundary. The oxygen requirements of benthic foraminifera are not well understood. It has been proposed that species distributions reflect oxygen concentrations up to fairly high values (3 ml l-1 or more). Other evidence suggests that oxygen only begins to affect community parameters at concentrations < 0.5 ml l-1. Different species clearly have different thresholds, however, creating species successions along oxygen gradients. Other factors such as sediment type, hydrostatic pressure and attributes of bottom-water masses (particularly carbonate undersaturation and current flow) influence foraminiferal distributions

  16. Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L. A.; Aranda da Silva, A.; Bett, B. J.; Cowie, G. L.; Dissard, D.; Gage, J. D.; Hughes, D. J.; Jeffreys, R.; Lamont, P. A.; Larkin, K. E.; Murty, S. J.; Schumacher, S.; Whitcraft, C.; Woulds, C.

    2009-03-01

    strongly influenced the taxonomic composition of all faunal groups. Calcareous foraminiferans dominated the seasonally and permanently hypoxic sites (136-300 m); agglutinated foraminiferans were relatively more abundant at deeper stations where oxygen concentrations were >0.13 mL L -1(=5.80 μM). Polychaetes were the main macrofaunal taxon within the OMZ; calcareous macrofauna and megafauna (molluscs and echinoderms) were rare or absent where oxygen levels were lowest. The rarity of larger animals between 300 and 700 m on the Pakistan Margin, compared with the abundant macrofauna in the OMZ core off Oman, is the most notable contrast between the two sides of the Arabian Sea. This difference probably reflects the slightly higher oxygen levels and better food quality on the western side.

  17. Tracing dust transport from Middle-East over Delhi in March 2012 using metal and lead isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Malherbe, J.; Barre, J. P. G.; Berail, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2016-05-01

    A severe dust-storm which was originated in Middle-East crossed over Delhi during March 20-22, 2012. We have collected these dust-storm (DS) aerosol samples, and analyzed them for selected metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Zn) together with after dust-storm (ADS) and winter (WS) samples. High aerosol mass loadings were observed in DS samples (1097-1965 μg/m3). On the contrary, metals derived prominently from the anthropogenic sources were found lower in concentration compared to that of ADS and WS aerosols. We observed significantly high concentrations of Ni and V (which are abundantly found in crude oils of Middle-East origin) in the DS samples than that of ADS and WS samples. Also enrichment factor (EF) of these metals with respect to Fe shows no significant enrichment (<10). Fe (and Sr) concentrations were also 3-5 fold higher in DS samples compared to ADS and WS. These results suggest that Ni and V can be used as tracers for dust aerosols transported from Middle-East region. Lead isotope signatures can tell about the variation in the sources of urban aerosols. Therefore Pb isotope analyses of these samples were performed using MC-ICP-MS. The isotope ratios, 208Pb/206Pb is determined to be (mean ± sd) 2.1315 ± 0.0018, 2.1370 ± 0.0022 and 2.1389 ± 0.0016, whereas 206Pb/207Pb is 1.1311 ± 0.0022, 1.1244 ± 0.0017 and 1.1233 ± 0.0016 in DS, ADS and WS aerosols, respectively. There is a clear distinction in Pb isotope composition between DS and urban (ADS and WS) aerosols. Further, these results suggest that in urban aerosols, Pb is less radiogenic in nature compared to that of in transported dust aerosols collected in New Delhi.

  18. Fish faunal resurgence in Lake Nabugabo, East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, L.J.; Chapman, Colin A.; Schofield, P.J.; Olowo, J.P.; Kaufman, L.S.; Seehausen, O.; Ogutu-Ohwayo., R.

    2003-01-01

     In Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, a small satellite of the equatorial Lake Victoria, approximately 50% of the indigenous fish species disappeared from the open waters subsequent to establishment of the introduced predatory Nile perch (   Lates niloticus ). However, several of these species persisted in wetland refugia. Over the past decade, Nile perch in Lake Nabugabo have been intensively fished. Herein we report a resurgence of some indigenous species in open waters. In a multiyear study, we used annual transects in inshore and offshore waters of exposed ( no wetland ) and wetland habitats to document the pattern of resurgence. In 1995, haplochromine cichlids were largely confined to inshore areas, particularly wetland ecotones, and were rare in Nile perch stomachs, as were most other indigenous species. By 2000 haplochromine cichlids were abundant in inshore and offshore areas of both exposed and wetland transects. Several indigenous noncichlids also reappeared in the main lake, including three of the four original mormyrid species. Between 1995 and 1999, there was a dramatic increase in the proportion of haplochromines in the diet of Nile perch. When haplochromines were rare ( 1995 ), Nile perch switched from an invertebrate-dominated diet to piscivory at a large size ( 30 cm total length ). In 2000, however, Nile perch were strongly piscivorous by 5–10 cm total length. The pattern of faunal loss and recovery in Lake Nabugabo demonstrates the importance of refugia in providing the seeds of resurgence and provides a model with which to understand some changes in Lake Victoria.

  19. Biochronology, paleobiogeography and faunal turnover in western Mediterranean Cenozoic mammals.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Maria R

    2009-12-01

    Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from Sardinia contribute substantial information for reconstructing the complex history of the western Mediterranean. The occurrence of endemic perissodactyls in Eocene marine and marsh deposits suggests the existence of ecological or physical barriers between the Corso-Sardinian massif and the Iberian-Occitanic area. At the end of the Oligocene, isolation of Sardinia was almost complete, although a migration from Europe occurred at the beginning of the Early Miocene, as indicated by the unbalanced endemic fauna from Oschiri. During the Late Miocene, the Tusco-Sardinian palaeobioprovince came into existence as an isolated region inhabited by the quite diversified, but notably endemic, Oreopithecus fauna. Sardinia was definitely isolated from Tuscany by the Messinian, but temporary connections with the European mainland possibly allowed the colonization of forerunners of some Sardinian Pliocene taxa. During the Plio-Pleistocene, Sardinia maintained permanent isolation. However, sea level drop, resulting in a relatively short distance between Sardinia and the European mainland, allowed different migratory events. From the Late Pliocene to the Late Pleistocene-Holocene, two main mammalian faunal complexes (FC) can be recognized: the Nesogoral FC (Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene) and the Microtus (Tyrrhenicola) FC (late Early Pleistocene-Early Holocene). At the transition from Nesogoral to Microtus (Tyrrhenicola) FC, approximately 47% of the genera and 76% of the species disappeared, while approximately 58% of the genera and 71% of the species appeared. A noticeable turnover followed the arrival of Neolithic man and his accompanying fauna. Nonetheless, Praemegaceros was still present at about 7000 years BP, while Microtus (Tyrrhenicola) and Prolagus are respectively recorded in the Bronze and Iron Ages.

  20. Preservation of rodent bones from El Harhoura 2 cave (Morocco, Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic): Microstructure, mineralogy, crystallinity and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farre, Bastien; Massard, Pierre; Nouet, Julius; Dauphin, Yannicke

    2014-04-01

    Thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffraction X (DRX) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR) have been used to study the structure, mineralogy, crystallinity and bulk composition of fossil rodent long bones extracted from a succession of sedimentary layers in a cave from Morocco (Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic, El Harhoura 2). The microstructure of fossil bones is well-preserved at this scale of observation, and encrusted deposits are rare. All bones are preserved in apatite, but the crystallinity is modified, as well as the crystallite shape, the organic content and the organic-mineral ratio. No fluor enrichment has been observed. Alone or together, the studied parameters do not show a regular trend from the upper to the lower layers of the cave. The preservation of the fossil bones does not confirm the sequence of arid and humid periods inferred from taphonomic analyses.

  1. The satellite power system - Assessment of the environmental impact on middle atmosphere composition and on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Park, C.; Pfister, L.; Woodward, H. T.; Turco, R. P.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Kropp, T.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical models were developed to calculate the total deposition of watervapor, hydrogen, CO2, CO, SO2, and NO in the middle atmosphere from operation of heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV) used to build a satellite solar power system (SPS). The effects of the contaminants were examined for their effects on the upper atmosphere. One- and two-dimensional models were formulated for the photochemistry of the upper atmosphere and for rocket plumes and reentry. An SPS scenario of 400 launches per year for 10 yr was considered. The build-up of the contaminants in the atmosphere was projected to have no significant effects, even at the launch latitude. Neither would there by any dangerous ozone depletion. It was found that H, OH, and HO2 species would double in the thermosphere. No measurable changes in climate were foreseen.

  2. The satellite power system - Assessment of the environmental impact on middle atmosphere composition and on climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Park, C.; Pfister, L.; Woodward, H. T.; Turco, R. P.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Kropp, T.

    Numerical models were developed to calculate the total deposition of watervapor, hydrogen, CO2, CO, SO2, and NO in the middle atmosphere from operation of heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV) used to build a satellite solar power system (SPS). The effects of the contaminants were examined for their effects on the upper atmosphere. One- and two-dimensional models were formulated for the photochemistry of the upper atmosphere and for rocket plumes and reentry. An SPS scenario of 400 launches per year for 10 yr was considered. The build-up of the contaminants in the atmosphere was projected to have no significant effects, even at the launch latitude. Neither would there by any dangerous ozone depletion. It was found that H, OH, and HO2 species would double in the thermosphere. No measurable changes in climate were foreseen.

  3. Text Composition by Deaf and Hearing Middle-School Students: The Role of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamargot, Denis; Lambert, Eric; Thebault, Claire; Dansac, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the compositional performances of deaf and hearing students and to investigate the relationships between these performances and working memory capacities. Fifteen prelingually deaf, sign-using students and 15 hearing students composed a descriptive text and performed working memory tasks. The deaf students had…

  4. Microdistribution of Faunal Assemblages at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D. K.; Rogers, Alex D.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Tyler, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of vent biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and hydrothermal activity in a vent field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of hydrothermal activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m2 of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from vent sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to vent sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m−2), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m−2), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m−2), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m−2). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for vent fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in δ34S values of primary consumers with distance from vent sources, and variation in their δ13C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the vent fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a vent environment over a greater extent than previous studies

  5. Microdistribution of faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Rogers, Alex D; Sweeting, Christopher J; Tyler, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of vent biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and hydrothermal activity in a vent field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of hydrothermal activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m(2) of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from vent sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to vent sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m(-2)), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m(-2)). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for vent fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in δ(34)S values of primary consumers with distance from vent sources, and variation in their δ(13)C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the vent fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a vent environment over a greater extent than previous studies

  6. Seasonal dynamic of morpho-physiological properties and the lipid composition of Plantago media (Plantaginaceae) in the Middle Volga region.

    PubMed

    Rozentsvet, Olga; Grebenkina, Tatyana; Nesterov, Viktor; Bogdanova, Elena

    2016-07-01

    The changes in morpho-physiological properties and lipid composition have been studied in the leaves of the plant Plantago media collected from two different places in the Middle Volga region during the summer of 2010. The plants gathered from the first plot (P1 plants) grew on plain ground in the midst of typical meadow-steppe perennial plants. The plants of the second group (P2 plants) grew on a flat slope of the South-West exposition, in the grass community. The leaves of the plants Р1 had lower specific area densities but larger areas and masses; they accumulated more levels lipid peroxide products. The changes in lipid compositions depended on the growth phase and habitats. Correlations between morpho-physiological parameters and certain lipids have been established. The amounts of galactolipids (GL) have been shown to correlate with the leaf areas. When the leaf areas were reduced, a ratio between phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) decreased. The result of our study showed that gradual changes of morphometrical parameters were accompanied by the alterations in biomass structure and modifications in lipids and fatty acids (FA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  8. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  9. Story composition skills of middle-grade students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Vallecorsa, A L; Garriss, E

    1990-09-01

    This study examined the story composition abilities of learning disabled (LD) and normally achieving young adolescents as indicated by measures of writing category, cohesion, and fluency. Findings suggest that although adolescents with learning disabilities have a rudimentary knowledge of story form, this knowledge is less well developed than that of their nondisabled peers. Students with learning disabilities also had greater coherence problems in their writing and were less fluent writers. Several important age trends were noted when results of this investigation were compared with outcomes from a similar investigation involving younger students.

  10. Living deep-sea benthic foraminifera from the Cap de Creus Canyon (western Mediterranean): Faunal-geochemical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Rosales, L. A.; Koho, K. A.; Duijnstee, I. A. P.; de Stigter, H. C.; García, R.; Koning, E.; Epping, E.

    2012-06-01

    Rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera were sampled along a depth transect from the Cap de Creus Canyon and the adjacent slope. Well-stained individuals were studied in the top 5 cm of sediment and the faunal abundances and assemblages were compared against pore-water geochemistry and biochemical composition of the sediment. Total standing stocks (TSS) of foraminifera were positively correlated with the chloroplastic pigment equivalents inventory (CPEinv; here interpreted as food quantity) and the ratio of chlorophyll-a and phaeopigment inventories (Chl-ainv/Phaeoinv; here interpreted as food quality), suggesting food quality as well as quantity play an important role in structuring the foraminiferal community. Food quality and food quantity were also identified by detrended correspondence analyses (DCA) as being the most important environmental parameters shaping the foraminiferal community structure (abundance and faunal composition). In addition, sediment redox chemistry (based here on pore-water nitrate) played an important role in controlling the foraminiferal diversity (H‧) as a negative correlation was seen between this parameter and pore-water nitrate penetration depth (NPD). No conclusive evidence of intense physical disturbance on the benthic canyon community was observed, although it could be anticipated in the area due to shelf-water downwelling (SWD) and dense shelf-water cascading (DSWC). However, foraminiferal faunas living in the canyon head and upper canyon environments may profit from the higher organic-matter availability, which is likely to be related to SWD and DSWC. The similarity between the deeper canyon and slope faunas suggests that sediment characteristics and the associated organic-matter transported by SWC and DSWC do not have a permanent effect at these depths.

  11. Stable isotopic compositions of early calcite cements in the Middle Devonian Coralville Formation (Cedar Valley Group), eastern Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Ludvigson, G.A.; Gonzalez, L.S.; Witzke, B.J. . Dept. of Geology Iowa DNR-Geological Survey Bureau, Iowa City, IA ); Plocher, O.W. )

    1993-03-01

    The Middle-Upper Devonian Cedar Valley Gp in Iowa is subdivided into four formations each representing a broad transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycle of deposition. Cycles consist of basal open marine facies that shallow upward into capping peritidal facies. Results from ongoing diagenetic studies of the Coralville Fm (late Givetian), the second T-R cycle of the Cedar Valley Gp, have focused attention on the origins of early cements. Early calcite cements in the Coralville Fm of Johnson County, Iowa, include blocky equant spars filling fenestral voids in birdseye limestones of the Iowa City Mbr and isopachous bladed spars that occur throughout the Coralville. Bladed spars fill stromatactis and microkarstic voids in the Iowa City Mbr, and sheltered voids in underlying open-marine skeletal packstones of the Cou Falls Mbr (lower Coralville cycle). The bladed spars include nonluminescent inclusion-free domains that contain up to 4,000 ppm Mg, and luminescent inclusion-rich domains that contain less than 2,000 ppm Mg. Birdseye spars have a constructive oscillatory luminescent-nonluminescent zonation controlled by Mn contents and contain less than 1,000 ppm Mg. Nonluminescent domains in bladed spars have the heaviest oxygen isotopic compositions of all components in the Coralville, similar to the isotopically heaviest nonluminescent brachiopods but have [delta][sup 13]C values ranging from [minus]3 to [minus]5 [per thousand]. They are interpreted to have precipitated from marine fluids saturated by CO[sub 2] produced from bacterial oxidation of organic matter. Altered luminescent domains in the bladed spars have the same [delta][sup 13]C compositions, but have widely varying [delta][sup 18]O compositions, ranging to [minus]9 [per thousand].

  12. Cumacean (Peracarida, Crustacea) endemism and faunal overlap in Antarctic deep-sea basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2011-03-01

    At least 155 morphotypes of Cumaceans have been determined from samples collected by various expeditions over the past 15 years. Among them, only 38 species were previously described, while at least 116 morphotypes (75%) represent species new to science. The faunal overlap of Antarctic Cumacea (Peracarida) is calculated between various deep-sea basins, between the deep sea and the shelf, and between different shelf areas of Antarctica and the Sub Antarctic islands. The degree of endemism is high (about 80%) for the Antarctic Cumacea, but within the Antarctic regions faunal overlaps are detectable. Maximal faunal overlap (about 50%) is found among the Antarctic shelf regions, but the deep-sea basins of the Antarctic Peninsula region and the Weddell Sea have also a high (about 30%) species overlap. Including the new findings of Cumacea from the various deep-sea basins, the overlap between the Antarctic shelf and the deep sea is only 18%.

  13. Effect of wheat middlings-based total mixed ration on milk production and composition responses of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Laudadio, V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of feeding pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) containing wheat middlings (WM) from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Appulo) as a corn grain substitute on milk yield and composition performance was measured in Comisana×Leccese crossbred lactating ewes. Forty ewes were divided into 2 equal groups and fed 1 of the 2 experimental diets for 18 wk. The control diet contained 255 g of corn/kg of dry matter (DM) as the main starch source, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 g of WM/kg of DM. To evaluate the in vivo digestibility of pelleted TMR, 4 adult rams were placed in metabolic cages and their individual feces and urine were collected. In the performance trial, ewe milk yield was recorded daily and individual milk samples were analyzed weekly for milk composition and to determine milk renneting parameters. The ewes fed both diets showed similar DM, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes. Digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein of the 2 TMR was similar, but neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher in the WM diet. In the milking trial, the WM diet increased milk fat percentage and yield but had no effect on milk yield, protein, lactose, and clotting properties compared with the control diet. Our findings indicate that WM can be fed to lactating ewes as an alternative to more traditional concentrate sources such as corn. Feeding 50% of WM in a lactation diet supported milking performance in a manner similar a corn-based diet. Moreover, the results may be applied in countries where corn cultivation is adversely affected by the high cost of production.

  14. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition is associated with the risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Tsai, Michael; Manson, Joann E; Djousse, Luc; Gaziano, J Michael; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2011-09-01

    Experimental studies have suggested different effects of various fats on blood pressure. However, epidemiologic evidence of these relations remains limited and inconsistent. We therefore assessed the association of fatty acid (FA) composition in erythrocyte membranes with the risk of hypertension. We selected 516 cases of incident hypertension and 516 matched controls during 12.9 y of follow-up in the Women's Health Study. Erythrocyte FA was measured in baseline bloods using GC. After controlling matching factors and lifestyle factors, erythrocyte SFA showed a positive association, whereas total cis PUFA, cis (n-3) PUFA, and the ratio of PUFA:SFA (PS ratio) showed an inverse association with the risk of hypertension. The multivariable RR of hypertension across the increasing quartiles of erythrocyte FA subtypes were 1.00, 1.19, 1.44, and 1.76 for total SFA; 1.00, 0.84, 0.88, and 0.56 for total cis PUFA; 1.00, 0.87, 0.66, and 0.65 for cis (n-3) PUFA; and 1.00, 0.99, 0.70, and 0.51 for the PS ratio. After further adjusting for obesity-related metabolic factors, these associations were attenuated and remained significant only for the PS ratio. cis MUFA, cis (n-6) PUFA, and trans unsaturated FA in erythrocyte membranes were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Our study showed that FA composition in erythrocyte membranes is associated with the risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women. However, after controlling for obesity-related metabolic factors, the associations remained significant only for the PS ratio.

  15. Effects of circuit exercise and Tai Chi on body composition in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei; Lin, Zin-Rong; Fan, Chun-Hao

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the impact of circuit exercise and Tai Chi exercise on body composition in middle-aged and older women. The present cohort study included 180 women (aged 45-75 years) who were divided into a circuit exercise group, Tai Chi group and control group. The exercise program consisted of 60 min of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The circuit exercises were carried out with intensity controlled by heart rate (60-80% of work). The Tai Chi group practiced Yang style with the same frequency, but with intensity of 50-60% of work. Blood pressure and body composition were assessed. The differences in all variables and the relative changes between baseline and 12 weeks' follow up were evaluated. The circuit exercise group showed a significant decrease in body mass index, systolic blood pressure and body fat mass, and an increase in total body muscle mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and basal metabolic rate. The Tai Chi group showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure. Increases in the basal metabolic rate (1.3 ± 3.0%), total body muscle mass (1.8 ± 4.3%), lean body mass (1.9 ± 4.3%) and bone mineral content (1.8 ± 4.2%), and decreases in body mass index (-2.2 ± 7.8%), body fat (-6.5 ± 10.7%) and diastolic pressure (-1.2 ± 9.4%) were significantly greater in the circuit exercise group than in Tai Chi or control group. Circuit exercise for 12 weeks increases lean body mass and basal metabolic rate more effectively than Tai Chi exercise. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Determining the Cause of the Late Triassic Adamanian-Revueltian Vertebrate Faunal Turnover in Western North America: Climate Change, Bolide Impact, or no Extinction at All?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Triassic was one of the most critical intervals in terrestrial vertebrate history, during which both adaptive radiation and extinction played roles in shaping the future of Mesozoic ecosystems. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the transition from the globally diverse ecosystems of the Triassic to the more uniformly dinosaur-dominated ecosystems of the later Mesozoic was complex, involving a variety of environmental changes on both local and global levels. The Adamanian-Revueltian faunal turnover is a putative faunal turnover event identified in the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of the western United States which involved a decline in diversity among crocodylian-line archosaurs and the extinction of several taxa coincident with the appearance or increase in abundance of other taxa. Careful lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic work in Petrified Forest National Park in northern Arizona has identified the stratigraphic horizon at which this turnover is likely to have occurred, and sedimentology and improved radioisotopic calibration indicates that the turnover was early Alaunian (middle Norian) and at least roughly coincident with both the Manicouagan bolide impact and an abrupt shift towards a more arid climate in the western United States. However, testing the reality of the turnover and its coincidence with particular environmental changes requires the application of statistical methods highly dependent on the sample sizes and stratigraphic distribution of vertebrate fossils. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that for some vertebrates, the turnover is characterized by changes in abundance rather than range termination, which is more difficult to evaluate statistically, and that some fossils can only be assigned to higher taxa. Moreover, radioisotopic calibration of the putative turnover horizon is coarse, suggesting that correlating faunal turnovers to distant events is more difficult than correlating them to local environmental

  17. Arab American college students' physical activity and body composition: reconciling Middle East-West differences using the socioecological model.

    PubMed

    Kahan, David

    2011-03-01

    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical activity (PA) and body composition (I also considered body image and food and eating behavior). To analyze responses, I used a combination of deductive coding, which used levels of the SE model and demographic variable groupings, and inductive coding, to search for common themes among participants within and between research questions. Results revealed that (a) the context of physical activity participation differed by gender; (b) ideal body image was conflicted and varied by gender; and (c) consumption of cultural foods diminished along with Arab social customs related to eating. Interpersonal and cultural/community levels of the SE model were identified as primary influences, with parents regulating and instilling values backed by cultural norms to preserve Arab identity, especially in women. Finally, I identified an indeterminate adjustment period, during which immigrants transitioned between physical activity purpose/form in the Middle East and the United States.

  18. Tectonic and glacio-eustatic influences on Late Cambrian-Early Devonian first-order stratigraphic and faunal suites in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.B.N. )

    1991-02-01

    The Late Cambrian to middle Devonian stratigraphic and faunal record i the western United States may be divided into at least five first-order or primary depositional cycles delimited by tectonically controlled sea level changes. These tectonically controlled sea level changes essentially are changes in rate of platform subsidence. Rate of platform subsidence is reflected in changes in the succession of depositional environments. Tectonically controlled sea level changes are reflected in the succession of faunas as well as in the depositional environment record. The primary rate of subsidence-related sea level changes took place at the following times: latest Cambrian, latest Ibexian (Early Ordovician), and late Early Devonian. A prominent set of glacio-eustatic sea level changes occurred in the latest Ordovician-earliest Silurian. That glacial interval was one in which significant mass mortalities and subsequent re-radiations took place among marine invertebrates. Although the boundaries of the first-order cycles, both in the stratigraphic depositional cycles appear to be diachronous across the Great Basin, the rock suites comprising the cycles are delimited clearly. Second-order cycles may be recognized within the first-order cycles, both in the stratigraphic and faunal record. The second-order cycles also reflect sea level changes. Major oceanic surface water currents were deflected around plate and related platform margins during intervals of regression from the platform, enhancing upwelling along the plate margins during such intervals.

  19. Tidal, diel and semi-lunar changes in the faunal assemblage of an intertidal salt marsh creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Henrietta; Cattrijsse, Andre; Vincx, Magda

    2003-03-01

    The utilisation of a brackish estuarine marsh by nekton was investigated over a semi-lunar cycle in August 1994. Nekton migrating in and out of the intertidal creeks of the marsh 'Het Verdronken Land van Saeftinghe' in the Westerschelde estuary, SW Netherlands, was sampled passively during seven complete tidal cycles. Sampling one tidal cycle yielded three consecutive flood samples and four consecutive ebb samples. Sampling occurred every 2-3 days, covering diel, tidal and semi-lunar situations, thus allowing comparison of tidal, diel and semi-lunar influences on the composition of the intertidal fauna. Two different tidal-migration modes were observed. The mysid shrimp, Mesopodopsis slabberi, showed maximum abundance around high tide. For the remaining common species, the mysid ( Neomysis integer), the shrimp ( Palaemonetes varians), the crab ( Carcinus maenas) and the goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) and the amphipod ( Corophium volutator), highest densities were recorded during lower water heights. The faunal assemblage shifts between the different tidal stages. On two occasions, consecutive day and night samples were taken. Total densities were higher during the night samples. During spring tide, difference in community composition was noticed between the night and the day samples. During neap tide, day-night differences were less clear. Recorded total densities were highest during spring tide and lowest during neap tide. At maximum water levels, a drop in total density was observed. A shift in community composition occurred between spring and neap tides.

  20. Faunal characteristics of the Southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico: implications for biodiversity analysis and assessment

    Treesearch

    Rosamonde R. Cook; Curtis H. Flather; Kenneth R. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    To define the faunal context within which local and regional resource management decisions are made, conservation of biological diversity requires an understanding of regional species occurrence patterns. Our study focused on the Southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico and included the San Juan, the Sangre de Cristo, and the Jemez Mountains. Across this region, we...

  1. African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene-Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deMenocal, Peter B.

    2004-03-01

    Environmental theories of African faunal evolution state that important evolutionary changes during the Pliocene-Pleistocene interval (the last ca. 5.3 million years) were mediated by changes in African climate or shifts in climate variability. Marine sediment sequences demonstrate that subtropical African climate periodically oscillated between markedly wetter and drier conditions, paced by earth orbital variations, with evidence for step-like (±0.2 Ma) increases in African climate variability and aridity near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, coincident with the onset and intensification of high-latitude glacial cycles. Analysis of the best dated and most complete African mammal fossil databases indicates African faunal assemblage and, perhaps, speciation changes during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, suggesting more varied and open habitats at 2.9-2.4 Ma and after 1.8 Ma. These intervals correspond to key junctures in early hominid evolution, including the emergence of our genus Homo. Pliocene-Pleistocene shifts in African climate, vegetation, and faunal assemblages thus appear to be roughly contemporary, although detailed comparisons are hampered by sampling gaps, dating uncertainties, and preservational biases in the fossil record. Further study of possible relations between African faunal and climatic change will benefit from the accelerating pace of important new fossil discoveries, emerging molecular biomarker methods for reconstructing African paleovegetation changes, tephra correlations between terrestrial and marine sequences, as well as continuing collaborations between the paleoclimatic and paleoanthropological communities.

  2. Evolution and biogeography of Haemonchus contortus, linking faunal dynamics in space and time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    History is the foundation that informs about the nuances of faunal assembly that are essential in understanding the dynamic nature of the host-parasite interface. All of our knowledge begins and ends with evolution, ecology and biogeography as these interacting facets determine the history of biodi...

  3. [Effects of different afforestation types on soil faunal diversity in Horqin Sand Land].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong

    2012-04-01

    In order to deeply understand the effects of afforestation on the soil faunal diversity in mobile sand land, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of soil animals in the mobile sand land and its adjacent about 30 years old forest land and shrub land in Hrqin Sand Land. Afforestation on the mobile sand land had remarkable effects on the soil properties, especially the soil environment in shrub land, in which, the soil water content, pH, and nutrient contents were improved. In the three lands investigated, a total of 485 individuals belonging to 11 soil animal groups were collected, among which, Acarina and Collembola were the dominant groups, Corrodentia was the common group, and the others were of rare groups. From the mobile sand land to shrub land to forest land, the soil faunal density decreased, group richness and Shannon index increased, and evenness declined, but no significant differences were observed in these indices among these three lands. It was suggested that afforestation on mobile sand land could improve the soil environment and enhance soil faunal diversity, but there was a limitation to take 30 years old plantations as test objects to investigate the effects of afforestation on soil faunal diversity in mobile sand land.

  4. Episodic processes, invasion and faunal mosaics in evolutionary and ecological time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Episodes of ecological perturbation and faunal turnover represent crises for global biodiversity and have occurred periodically across Earth history on a continuum linking deep evolutionary and shallow ecological time. Major extinction events and biodiversity crises across the 540 milion years of th...

  5. Mammal faunal change in the zone of the Paleogene hyperthermals ETM2 and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, A. E.

    2015-09-01

    "Hyperthermals" are past intervals of geologically rapid global warming that provide the opportunity to study the effects of climate change on existing faunas over thousands of years. A series of hyperthermals is known from the early Eocene (~ 56-54 million years ago), including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and two subsequent hyperthermals (Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 - ETM2 - and H2). The later hyperthermals occurred during warming that resulted in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), the hottest sustained period of the Cenozoic. The PETM has been comprehensively studied in marine and terrestrial settings, but the terrestrial biotic effects of ETM2 and H2 are relatively unknown. Two carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) have been described in the northern part of the Bighorn Basin, WY, USA, and related to ETM2 and H2. An ~ 80 m thick zone of stratigraphic section in the extraordinarily dense, well-studied terrestrial mammal fossil record along the Fifteenmile Creek (FC) in the south-central part of the basin spans the levels at which the CIEs occur in the northern Bighorn Basin. High-resolution, multiparameter paleoecological analysis of this part of the FC section reveals two episodes of significant faunal change - faunal events B-1 and B-2 - characterized by significant peaks in species diversity and turnover and changes in abundance and relative body size. Faunal events B-1 and B-2 are hypothesized to be related to the CIEs in the northern part of the basin and hence to the climatic and environmental change of ETM2 and H2. In contrast with the PETM, change at faunal events B-1 and B-2 is less extreme, is not driven by immigration and involves a proliferation of body sizes, although abundance shifts tend to favor smaller congeners. The response at faunal events B-1 and B-2 is distinctive in its high proportion of species losses, potentially related to heightened species vulnerability in response to changes already underway in the lead-up to the EECO

  6. Faunal communities at sites of gas- and oil-bearing fluids in Lake Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskaya, Tamara I.; Sitnikova, Tatiana Y.; Kiyashko, Sergei I.; Kalmychkov, Gennady V.; Pogodaeva, Tatiana V.; Mekhanikova, Irina V.; Naumova, Tatiana V.; Shubenkova, Olga V.; Chernitsina, Svetlana M.; Kotsar, Oleg V.; Chernyaev, Evgeny S.; Khlystov, Oleg M.

    2012-12-01

    Macro- and meiofaunal communities were examined at four geomorphologically distinct sites with different gas- and oil-bearing fluid characteristics in the northern, central and southern basins of Lake Baikal. All sites had elevated concentrations of bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate and chloride ions in pore fluids, with highest values at the Frolikha vent. Elevated levels of iron ions were found in pore waters of the St. Petersburg methane seep and the Gorevoy Utes oil seep. The chemical composition of pore waters at the Malenky mud volcano was similar to that reported in earlier work. Consistent with published data, the Frolikha vent (northern basin) and the St. Petersburg methane seep (central basin) were characterised by methane of mixed genesis (thermogenic + biogenic), whereas the methane source was mainly thermogenic at the Gorevoy Utes oil seep (central basin) and biogenic at the Malenky mud volcano (southern basin). In contrast to marine seep ecosystems, the macrofauna was dominated only by amphipods, giant planarians and oligochaetes, whereas bivalves were absent; the meiofauna was similar to its marine counterpart, being dominated by nematodes, cyclops, harpacticoids and ostracods. A statistically significant positive relationship was revealed between faunal abundance and the availability of bacterial mats on seep sediments. Moreover, ANOVA tests showed significant increases in both meiozoobenthic and macrozoobenthic densities at "hot spot" vent/seep sites relative to discharge-free reference sites. The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen at various trophic levels of these benthic vent/seep communities was found to differ markedly from that reported by earlier studies for the pelagic and other benthic food webs in Lake Baikal. As in marine seeps, the macrofauna had variable isotopic signatures. Light δ13C and δ15N values suggest the utilization of chemosynthetically fixed and/or methane-derived organic matter. By contrast, the heavy δ13C

  7. An atlas of paste fabrics and supplemental paste compositional data from late middle preclassic-period ceramics at the Maya site of Holtun, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Michael G; Pierce, Daniel; Kovacevich, Brigitte; Glascock, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    This data article contains an atlas of paste fabrics and supplemental paste compositional data generated from Late Middle Preclassic-period ceramics at the Maya site of Holtun, Guatemala. The data include maps showing locations of archeological contexts, excavation profiles, photographs and photomicrographs of sherds and paste fabrics, and compositional data produced by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Research Reactor, University of Missouri (MURR). The NAA data include a biplot and table of canonical discriminant analyses, Mahalonobis distance calculations, and Euclidian distance searches between the samples.

  8. Association of body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis with metabolic risk factor clustering among middle-aged Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linfeng; Wang, Zengwu; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Manlu

    2017-06-01

    Body composition monitor (BCM) based on the bioelectric impedance analysis is very convenient to use. However, whether percentage body fat (PBF) and visceral fat index (VFI) that acquired by BCM are superior to anthropometric measures is unknown. The study explored whether PBF and VFI are better than anthropometric indexes [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist circumference to height ratio(WHtR)] in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in a representive sample across China which included 9574 Chinese men and women that were investigated in 2009-2010. PBF and VFI were compared with the BMI, WC, and WHtR through the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression. The results showed that the AUC for VFI was higher than BMI and PBF but lower than WHtR and WC in both men and Women. The AUC for WHtR, WC, VFI, BMI and PBF was 0.710, 0.706, 0.700, 0.693, 0.656 in men and 0.705, 0.699, 0.698, 0.675, 0.657 in women, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) tended to increase with all the indexes. The curve of ORs for WHtR was steepest and the curve for PBF was flattest in both men and women; the curve for VFI was similar to WC in women, but flatter than WC in men. From the data we concluded that VFI seems better than BMI and PBF, but not superior to WC and WHtR in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in the middle-aged Chinese.

  9. Determination of the Concentration and Composition of PM10 during the Middle Eastern Dust Storms in Sanandaj, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Gilas; Teymouri, Pari; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Maleki, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the Middle East dust storm episodes on the concentration and composition of PM10 during April to September 2013 in Sanandaj City, western Iran. Sampling was once every six days, and on dusty days using an Omni air sampler. The PM10 sample was collected on polytetrafluoroethylene filters. Average of 24 h values of PM10 mass concentrations was determined. Half of each sample filter and blank filter was analyzed for water -soluble ions and the other half was digested for metal analysis. The average PM10 concentration was 160.63 μg/m3. The lowest and highest concentrations of PM10 were in May and June respectively. The average PM10 concentration during the non-dusty days was 96.88 (μg /m3). Nevertheless, it increased by 4.8 times during the dusty days. Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, and Na+ accounted for 71% of total water-soluble ions on the dusty days. During the dusty days, the dominant elements in PM10 were Na, Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe contributing to 95.72% of total measured metals. The correlation coefficient and enrichment factor analysis have shown that on dusty days, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Sr, and V were the elements with the crustal sources. Concentrations of PM10 during dusty days were considerably higher than that during non-dusty days. In addition, concentrations of water-soluble ions and metals were also higher during dusty days.

  10. Effect of a twelve week exercise programme on cardio-respiratory and body composition variables in non-obese young and middle-aged females

    PubMed Central

    White, Gail M.; Young, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-week exercise programme consisting of jogging, calistnenics, and recreational activities on the cardiorespiratory function and body composition of 15 young and 15 middle-aged nonobese women 21-32 and 34-57 years, respectively. The exercise programme was 3 days per week for an average of 45 minutes each session. Pre- and post-programme data were obtained on: age, height, total body weight, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, vital capacity, submaximal heart rate, supra-iliac skinfold, thigh skinfold, waist girth, cup size, body density, and percent fat. The t-test was used to test the difference between the young and middle-aged groups before and after the exercise programme and to test the pre- and post-programme mean values of each group. No differences between the groups or changes due to the exercise programme were observed on total body weight. No significant cardiorespiratory differences were found between the two groups at either test period, however, the young group decreased significantly (p < .01) in submaximal HR and the middle-aged group decreased significantly in resting (p < .01) and submaximal (p < .001) HR illustrating the positive effect of the programme. No significant body composition differences were found between the two groups at the pre-test. At the post-test the middle-aged group had a significantly (p < .10) larger thigh skinfold thickness than the young group. The young group did not change significantly on body composition measures from pre- to post-test. In contrast, the middle-aged group increased significantly in body density (p < .01) and decreased in percent body fat (p < .01) due to a significant (p < .01) reduction in supra-iliac skinfold thickness from 21.67 ± 2.35 to 18.13 ± 2.08 mm. The data were compared with data from other studies using similar age groups. The pre-test percent fat of the young group (25.07 ± .74) was similar to values reported in other

  11. Abrupt transitions between macrobenthic faunal assemblages across seagrass bed margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. S. K.; Hamylton, S.

    2013-10-01

    The nature of the transition from one contrasting macrobenthic assemblage to another across interfaces between intertidal seagrass and unvegetated sand was investigated in the subtropical Moreton Bay Marine Park, eastern Australia, via six two-dimensional core lattices. The same pattern of transition was manifested in each lattice. Macrofaunal abundance, species density (both observed and estimated total) and assemblage composition did not vary with distance away from the interface within the 0.75 m wide marginal bands of each habitat type. Neither were there significant differences in assemblage metrics or composition between the marginal and non-edge regions of either habitat. There were, however, very marked differences in assemblage composition, abundance and species density across the 25 cm wide strip on either side of the actual interface, the interacting assemblages reacting symmetrically. All these differences therefore took place over an ecotone distance of only 0.5 m at most. Spatial trends in assemblage metrics across the boundary zone were captured accurately by second and third order polynomial regression models. It also appeared that edge effects on individual species within the seagrass were a variable local response not a consistent effect of closeness to the bare sand.

  12. Middle East Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA ...

  13. Middle Triassic pteridosperms (Pinophyta) of the Timan-Pechora basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichkova, A. I.; Esenina, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The collection of fossil plants sampled by geologists from VNIGRI at the end of the 20th century from Triassic continental sections drilled by many wells and cropping out in several natural localities and stored at the Museum of Petroleum Geology and Paleontology of the same institute was critically revised. The use of the epidermal method for the study of plant remains with consideration of recent publications dedicated to continental sections of Central Europe made it possible to substantially broaden the taxonomic composition of the Triassic flora and first specify the composition of its pteridosperm representatives. Unlike the Triassic floras of Western Europe, the pteridosperms the Pechora region appeared to be relatively diverse. They number 37 species of 11 genera, which are confined to the upper part of the Triassic sequence: Anguran and Naryan-Mar formations and their analogs. The Middle Triassic, mainly, Ladinian, age of these formations is reliably substantiated both by paleontological (vertebrate and palynological) data and by results of the comparative analysis of the Anguran-Naryan-Mar taphofloras and coeval European type floras dated back to the Anisian-Ladinian by marine faunal remains. The stratigraphic significance of pteridospermous plant remains becomes undoubted for continental sections of the Timan-Pechora basin, while the genera Scytophyllum, Kalantarium, and Kirjamkenia may be considered with respect to their diversity and abundance as representing orthostratigraphic taxa.

  14. Lithostratigraphic, conodont, and other faunal links between lower Paleozoic strata in northern and central Alaska and northeastern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Gagiev, Mussa; Bradley, Dwight C.; Repetski, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Lower Paleozoic platform carbonate strata in northern Alaska (parts of the Arctic Alaska, York, and Seward terranes; herein called the North Alaska carbonate platform) and central Alaska (Farewell terrane) share distinctive lithologic and faunal features, and may have formed on a single continental fragment situated between Siberia and Laurentia. Sedimentary successions in northern and central Alaska overlie Late Proterozoic metamorphosed basement; contain Late Proterozoic ooid-rich dolostones, Middle Cambrian outer shelf deposits, and Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian shallow-water platform facies, and include fossils of both Siberian and Laurentian biotic provinces. The presence in the Alaskan terranes of Siberian forms not seen in wellstudied cratonal margin sequences of western Laurentia implies that the Alaskan rocks were not attached to Laurentia during the early Paleozoic.The Siberian cratonal succession includes Archean basement, Ordovician shallow-water siliciclastic rocks, and Upper Silurian–Devonian evaporites, none of which have counterparts in the Alaskan successions, and contains only a few of the Laurentian conodonts that occur in Alaska. Thus we conclude that the lower Paleozoic platform successions of northern and central Alaska were not part of the Siberian craton during their deposition, but may have formed on a crustal fragment rifted away from Siberia during the Late Proterozoic. The Alaskan strata have more similarities to coeval rocks in some peri-Siberian terranes of northeastern Russia (Kotelny, Chukotka, and Omulevka). Lithologic ties between northern Alaska, the Farewell terrane, and the peri-Siberian terranes diminish after the Middle Devonian, but Siberian afµnities in northern and central Alaskan biotas persist into the late Paleozoic.

  15. ESR and U-series analyses of faunal material from Cuddie Springs, NSW, Australia: implications for the timing of the extinction of the Australian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Aubert, Maxime; Spooner, Nigel; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Müller, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    The timing and cause of late Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Australia are subjects of a debate that has become polarised by two vigorously defended views. One contends that the late Pleistocene extinction was a short event caused by humans colonising the Australian continent, whereas the other promotes a gradual demise of the fauna, over a period of at least 10-20 ka, due to a combination of climatic changes and ecological pressures by humans. Cuddie Springs is central to this debate as it is the only site known in continental Australia where archaeological and megafauna remains co-occur. We have analysed more than 60 bones and teeth from the site by laser ablation ICP-MS to determine U, and Th concentrations and distributions, and those with sufficiently high U concentrations were analysed for U-series isotopes. Twenty-nine teeth were analysed by ESR. These new results, as well as previously published geochronological data, contradict the hypothesis that the clastic sediments of Stratigraphic Unit 6 (SU6) are in primary context with the faunal, archaeological and other materials found in SU6, and that all have ages consistent with the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) estimates of 30-36 ka. These young OSL results were used to argue for a relatively recent age of the extinct fauna. Our results imply that SU6 is either significantly older than the OSL results, or that a large fraction of the faunal material and the charcoal found in SU6 was derived from older, lateral deposits. Our U and Th laser ablation ICPMS results as well as the REE profiles reported by Trueman et al. [2008. Comparing rates of recystallisation and the potential for preservation of biomolecules from the distribution of trace elements in fossil bones. C.R. Palevol. General Paleontology (Taphonomy and Fossilization) 7, 145-158] contradict the interpretation of previously reported rare earth element compositions of bones, and the argument based thereon for the primary context of faunal

  16. Multiproxy record of late Quaternary climate change and Middle Stone Age human occupation at Wonderkrater, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backwell, Lucinda R.; McCarthy, Terence S.; Wadley, Lyn; Henderson, Zoë; Steininger, Christine M.; Bonita deKlerk; Barré, Magali; Lamothe, Michel; Chase, Brian M.; Woodborne, Stephan; Susino, George J.; Bamford, Marion K.; Sievers, Christine; Brink, James S.; Rossouw, Lloyd; Pollarolo, Luca; Trower, Gary; Scott, Louis; d'Errico, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Here we provide a multiproxy record of climate change and human occupation at Wonderkrater, a spring and peat mound site situated in the interior of southern Africa. Recently extracted sediment cores yielded a number of Middle Stone Age (MSA) artefacts, prompting exploratory excavation of the sediments to understand better the geomorphology of the site, age of the sediments, cultural lithic sequence, vegetation and faunal remains, and to try to establish whether human use of the site was to some extent climatically driven. Excavations yielded late Pleistocene mammal fauna and flora, and three small MSA lithic assemblages with age estimates of 30 ka, >45 ka and 138.01 ± 7.7 ka. The upper layers comprise peat that preserves macrobotanical and faunal remains, implying local fen conditions in Acacia savanna woodland at 12 ka. Below the upper peat layers, a 1 m-thick layer of white sand yielded two MSA lithic assemblages in association with faunal remains dated to between 30.8 ± 0.7 ka and >45 ka. Clay underlying the sand has an OSL age of 63.1 ± 5.8 ka, and sandy peat below it has an Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) age of 70 ± 10 ka. Faunal remains in the lower sand levels, and dental stable carbon isotope analysis of herbivores, indicate a substantial grassland component in the landscape during late MIS 3 (>45 ka). Charcoal, phytolith and pollen data show a change from moderately warm and dry grassy savanna woodland in the lower sand levels, to cooler and wetter grassland with woody shrubs in the uppermost levels by 30 ka. The conditions that resulted in the deposition of the sand also attracted people to the site, but whether it served as an oasis in an arid landscape, or was occupied during wet phases, is unclear. The composition of the lithic assemblages, which include many tools suitable for cutting, suggest that the peat mound may have been used as a place to harvest reeds, process plant materials and butcher animals that were either deliberately or

  17. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontana crassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable. PMID:24855441

  18. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  19. Distribution and spatial variation of hydrothermal faunal assemblages at Lucky Strike (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) revealed by high-resolution video image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvelier, Daphne; Sarrazin, Jozée; Colaço, Ana; Copley, Jon; Desbruyères, Daniel; Glover, Adrian G.; Tyler, Paul; Serrão Santos, Ricardo

    2009-11-01

    Whilst the fauna inhabiting hydrothermal vent structures in the Atlantic Ocean is reasonably well known, less is understood about the spatial distributions of the fauna in relation to abiotic and biotic factors. In this study, a major active hydrothermal edifice (Eiffel Tower, at 1690 m depth) on the Lucky Strike vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)) was investigated. Video transects were carried out by ROV Victor 6000 and complete image coverage was acquired. Four distinct assemblages, ranging from dense larger-sized Bathymodiolus mussel beds to smaller-sized mussel clumps and alvinocaridid shrimps, and two types of substrata were defined based on high definition photographs and video imagery. To evaluate spatial variation, faunal distribution was mapped in three dimensions. A high degree of patchiness characterizes this 11 m high sulfide structure. The differences observed in assemblage and substratum distribution were related to habitat characteristics (fluid exits, depth and structure orientation). Gradients in community structure were observed, which coincided with an increasing distance from the fluid exits. A biological zonation model for the Eiffel Tower edifice was created in which faunal composition and distribution can be visually explained by the presence/absence of fluid exits.

  20. Foraminiferal faunal estimates of paleotemperature: Circumventing the no-analog problem yields cool ice age tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mix, A.C.; Morey, A.E.; Pisias, N.G.; Hostetler, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the tropics to climate change, particularly the amplitude of glacial-to-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature (SST), is one of the great controversies in paleoclimatology. Here we reassess faunal estimates of ice age SSTs, focusing on the problem of no-analog planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the equatorial oceans that confounds both classical transfer function and modern analog methods. A new calibration strategy developed here, which uses past variability of species to define robust faunal assemblages, solves the no-analog problem and reveals ice age cooling of 5??to 6??C in the equatorial current systems of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Classical transfer functions underestimated temperature changes in some areas of the tropical oceans because core-top assemblages misrepresented the ice age faunal assemblages. Our finding is consistent with some geochemical estimates and model predictions of greater ice age cooling in the tropics than was inferred by Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) [1981] and thus may help to resolve a long-standing controversy. Our new foraminiferal transfer function suggests that such cooling was limited to the equatorial current systems, however, and supports CLIMAP's inference of stability of the subtropical gyre centers.

  1. U-series and radiocarbon analyses of human and faunal remains from Wajak, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Storm, Paul; Wood, Rachel; Stringer, Chris; Bartsiokas, Antonis; de Vos, John; Aubert, Maxime; Kinsley, Les; Grün, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Laser ablation U-series dating results on human and faunal bone fragments from Wajak, Indonesia, indicate a minimum age of between 37.4 and 28.5 ka (thousands of years ago) for the whole assemblage. These are significantly older than previously published radiocarbon estimates on bone carbonate, which suggested a Holocene age for a human bone fragment and a late Pleistocene age for a faunal bone. The analysis of the organic components in the faunal material show severe degradation and a positive δ(13)C ratio indicate a high degree of secondary carbonatisation. This may explain why the thermal release method used for the original age assessments yielded such young ages. While the older U-series ages are not in contradiction with the morphology of the Wajak human fossils or Javanese biostratigraphy, they will require a reassessment of the evolutionary relationships of modern human remains in Southeast Asia and Oceania. It can be expected that systematic direct dating of human fossils from this area will lead to further revisions of our understanding of modern human evolution.

  2. Faunal re-evaluation of Mid-Pliocene conditions in the western equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mid-Pliocene low-latitude Pacific faunal (planktic foraminifer) sea surface temperature (SST) estimates are normally based upon the Modern Analog Technique (MAT). In the Eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), where upwelling of cool water predominates, MAT can be used to discern both cooling and warming in Neogene records. SST today is ???30??C in the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) warm pool, the upper limit of the modern calibration data, and past warming above that level is difficult to assess using faunal methods. Mid-Pliocene fossil samples from the WEP have been analyzed using several variations of MAT with different outcomes and associated levels of confidence. While SST above ???30??C in the WEP during the mid-Pliocene cannot be ruled out due to the limitations of the method, temperatures this warm seem unlikely. In addition to the mid-Pliocene, planktic foraminifer assemblages from the coretop, last glacial maximum, last interglacial and the penultimate glacial (Marine Isotope Stage 6) show striking similarity to each other which suggests little to no change in the region between times of global climate extremes. There is generally good agreement between the Mg/Ca paleothermometer and MAT derived faunal SST estimates. Both suggest stability of the WEP warm pool.

  3. Learning To Write in Urban Elementary and Middle Schools: An Investigation of Teachers' Written Feedback on Student Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clare, Lindsay; Valdes, Rosa; Patthey-Chavez, G. Genevieve

    This study investigated the nature of written instructor responses to student writings and the relationship of these written responses to the quality of subsequent student work in urban elementary and middle schools. Most of the 22 instructors who submitted the study's body of student writings (n=114) provided their students with some sort of…

  4. Black people don't exercise in my neighborhood: Perceived racial composition and leisure-time physical activity among middle class blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Ray, Rashawn

    2017-08-01

    Using a sample of middle class blacks and whites living in urban and suburban areas, this article focuses on how perceptions of the racial composition of neighborhoods influence leisure-time physical activity. Using an ordinal representation of an underlying continuous indication of the perceived percentage of blacks and whites within an egocentric neighborhood, the results show that black men are significantly less likely to be physically active in neighborhoods perceived as predominately white. Alternatively, they are more likely to be physically active in neighborhoods perceived as racially diverse and predominately black. Conversely, for black women, white women, and white men, physical activity increases as the perception of one's neighborhood becomes increasingly white. Black women are significantly less likely to engage in physical activity in neighborhoods perceived as predominately black and urban. Drawing upon the intersectionality framework, I discuss how perceptions of criminalization and safety lead to different levels of leisure-time physical activity for middle class black women and men relative to their white middle class counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Geochemistry, faunal composition and trophic structure in reducing sediments on the southwest South Georgia margin.

    PubMed

    Bell, James B; Aquilina, Alfred; Woulds, Clare; Glover, Adrian G; Little, Crispin T S; Reid, William D K; Hepburn, Laura E; Newton, Jason; Mills, Rachel A

    2016-09-01

    Despite a number of studies in areas of focused methane seepage, the extent of transitional sediments of more diffuse methane seepage, and their influence upon biological communities is poorly understood. We investigated an area of reducing sediments with elevated levels of methane on the South Georgia margin around 250 m depth and report data from a series of geochemical and biological analyses. Here, the geochemical signatures were consistent with weak methane seepage and the role of sub-surface methane consumption was clearly very important, preventing gas emissions into bottom waters. As a result, the contribution of methane-derived carbon to the microbial and metazoan food webs was very limited, although sulfur isotopic signatures indicated a wider range of dietary contributions than was apparent from carbon isotope ratios. Macrofaunal assemblages had high dominance and were indicative of reducing sediments, with many taxa common to other similar environments and no seep-endemic fauna, indicating transitional assemblages. Also similar to other cold seep areas, there were samples of authigenic carbonate, but rather than occurring as pavements or sedimentary concretions, these carbonates were restricted to patches on the shells of Axinulus antarcticus (Bivalvia, Thyasiridae), which is suggestive of microbe-metazoan interactions.

  6. Geochemistry, faunal composition and trophic structure in reducing sediments on the southwest South Georgia margin

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina, Alfred; Woulds, Clare; Glover, Adrian G.; Little, Crispin T. S.; Hepburn, Laura E.; Newton, Jason; Mills, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a number of studies in areas of focused methane seepage, the extent of transitional sediments of more diffuse methane seepage, and their influence upon biological communities is poorly understood. We investigated an area of reducing sediments with elevated levels of methane on the South Georgia margin around 250 m depth and report data from a series of geochemical and biological analyses. Here, the geochemical signatures were consistent with weak methane seepage and the role of sub-surface methane consumption was clearly very important, preventing gas emissions into bottom waters. As a result, the contribution of methane-derived carbon to the microbial and metazoan food webs was very limited, although sulfur isotopic signatures indicated a wider range of dietary contributions than was apparent from carbon isotope ratios. Macrofaunal assemblages had high dominance and were indicative of reducing sediments, with many taxa common to other similar environments and no seep-endemic fauna, indicating transitional assemblages. Also similar to other cold seep areas, there were samples of authigenic carbonate, but rather than occurring as pavements or sedimentary concretions, these carbonates were restricted to patches on the shells of Axinulus antarcticus (Bivalvia, Thyasiridae), which is suggestive of microbe–metazoan interactions. PMID:27703692

  7. Geochemistry, faunal composition and trophic structure in reducing sediments on the southwest South Georgia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James B.; Aquilina, Alfred; Woulds, Clare; Glover, Adrian G.; Little, Crispin T. S.; Reid, William D. K.; Hepburn, Laura E.; Newton, Jason; Mills, Rachel A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite a number of studies in areas of focused methane seepage, the extent of transitional sediments of more diffuse methane seepage, and their influence upon biological communities is poorly understood. We investigated an area of reducing sediments with elevated levels of methane on the South Georgia margin around 250 m depth and report data from a series of geochemical and biological analyses. Here, the geochemical signatures were consistent with weak methane seepage and the role of sub-surface methane consumption was clearly very important, preventing gas emissions into bottom waters. As a result, the contribution of methane-derived carbon to the microbial and metazoan food webs was very limited, although sulfur isotopic signatures indicated a wider range of dietary contributions than was apparent from carbon isotope ratios. Macrofaunal assemblages had high dominance and were indicative of reducing sediments, with many taxa common to other similar environments and no seep-endemic fauna, indicating transitional assemblages. Also similar to other cold seep areas, there were samples of authigenic carbonate, but rather than occurring as pavements or sedimentary concretions, these carbonates were restricted to patches on the shells of Axinulus antarcticus (Bivalvia, Thyasiridae), which is suggestive of microbe-metazoan interactions.

  8. Partially polycrystalline GaN1- x As x alloys grown on GaAs in the middle composition range achieving a smaller band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Lin, Kuang-I.; Liu, Yu-Xuan; Lin, Hao-Hsiung; Cheng, Yung-Chen

    2017-08-01

    GaN1- x As x alloys have been successfully grown on (100) GaAs substrates over a wide composition range (0.15 < x < 0.98) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. In the middle composition range, the weak and broad (111) diffraction peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns. These diffraction peaks most likely come from small crystalline grains within the amorphous matrix and are unlike the entirely amorphous GaNAs alloys grown on sapphire and Pyrex glass. A transmission electron microscopy micrograph of the GaN0.50As0.50 alloy also shows a weak periodic structure consisting of small polycrystalline grains. To study the band gap and the As-affected spin-orbit band to conduction-band minimum transition, photomodulated reflectance is utilized. The band gap energies range from 0.78 to 2.15 eV (3.4 eV for end-point compounds GaN). Finally, the original and modified band anticrossing (BAC) models for GaNAs alloys were thoroughly verified over the entire composition range. Remarkably, the band gap energies of the partially polycrystalline GaNAs alloys agree well with those obtained using the original BAC model in the middle composition range because the model has been developed for crystalline materials. These results improve the growth of highly mismatched GaNAs alloys with different substrates and should expedite studies of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells fabricated using such a single ternary alloy system.

  9. The Middle Atmosphere Program: A special project for the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, T.

    1982-04-01

    Areas of concern are: dynamics, structure, and atmospheric composition of the middle atmosphere in Antarctica; particle precipitation and interaction of the middle atmosphere with the lower ionosphere; atmospheric pollution; and the difference between the northern and southern polar middle atmosphere.

  10. The Middle Atmosphere Program: A special project for the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirasawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    Areas of concern are: dynamics, structure, and atmospheric composition of the middle atmosphere in Antarctica; particle precipitation and interaction of the middle atmosphere with the lower ionosphere; atmospheric pollution; and the difference between the northern and southern polar middle atmosphere.

  11. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  12. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  13. Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

  14. Ecosystem-level consequences of migratory faunal depletion caused by dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.; Greathouse, E.A.; Freeman, B.J.; Limburg, K.E.; Waldman, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Humans have been damming rivers for millennia, and our more ambitious efforts over the past century have arguably altered river ecosystems more extensively than any other anthropogenic activity. Effects of damming on river biota include decimation of migratory fauna (e.g., diadromous and potamodromous fishes and crustaceans), lost fisheries, and imperilment of obligate riverine taxa. Although effects of dams on biota have been widely documented, ecosystem-level consequences of faunal depletion caused by dams are only beginning to be appreciated. We discuss consequences to river ecosystems of altering distributions and abundances of migratory fauna, which often provide trophic subsidies and may strongly influence the structure of local habitats and communities. It is well documented that anadromous fishes can provide a major input of nutrients and energy to freshwater systems when spawning adults return from the sea. Other less-studied taxa that migrate between distinct portions of riverine systems (e.g., acipencerids, catostomids, and prochilodontids) may similarly provide trophic transfers within undammed river systems, in addition to modifying local communities and habitats through feeding and spawning activities. Experimental faunal exclusions have demonstrated strong potential effects of some amphidromous shrimps and potamodromous fishes on benthic organic matter and algal and invertebrate communities. Depletion of these animals above dams is likely to significantly affect ecosystem processes such as primary production and detrital processing. The decline of freshwater mussels isolated by dams from their migratory fish hosts has likely lowered stream productivity, nutrient retention and benthic stability. Greater focus on effects of dams on ecosystem processes, as mediated by faunal change, would improve our ability to assess the costs and benefits of future river management strategies.

  15. "Long-term callisthenic exercise-related changes in blood lipids, homocysteine, nitric oxide levels and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women".

    PubMed

    Guzel, Nevin Atalay; Pınar, Lamia; Colakoglu, Filiz; Karacan, Selma; Ozer, Cigdem

    2012-06-30

    "Regular physical exercise plays an important role in reducing obesity, preventing hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipids and reducing systemic blood pressure. But the question about the nature of the relationship between homocysteine, nitric oxide and physical activity remains unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of callisthenic exercises on plasma lipids, homocysteine (Hcy), total nitric oxide (NOx) and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women. Forty-two middle-aged women (ages: 28-49; mean: 41.40 ± 7.3 years) were asked to perform a callisthenic exercise 50 min per session, 3 times per week for 12 weeks in a sports hall. Before and after the exercise, plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride), Hcy and NO were determined. Body composition, including body mass index, fat percentage, fat free mass, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were measured. After a 12-week callisthenic exercise program, plasma NOx and Hcy levels were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.05). Body composition parameters, lipid profile, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Aerobic callisthenic exercises characterized by 50 min/day and 3 days/week resulted in positive changes in important health parameters like reducing obesity, lowering blood lipids and increasing plasma NOx. Cardiovascular improvements might be dependent on the increase of NOx values. But callisthenic exercise in such intensity did not lower the plasma Hcy level. Moreover, Hcy level increased significantly. The result shows that if the Hcy is in the normal levels in healthy subjects, long-term callisthenic exercise do not decrease the Hcy levels despite some beneficial effects on health. On the contrary, the Hcy levels are increased by long-term callisthenic exercises."

  16. Positive effect of exercise training at maximal fat oxidation intensity on body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Cao, Liquan; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 10 weeks of supervised exercise training at the maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity would improve important variables of body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women. A longitudinal study design was employed to evaluate the effects of FATmax exercise training. Thirty women (45-59 years old; BMI 28·2 ± 1·8 kg m(-2) ; body fat 38·9 ± 4·1%) were randomly allocated into the Exercise and Control groups, n = 15 in each group. Body composition, FATmax, predicted VO2 max, lipid profile, plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and serum leptin concentration were measured before and after the experimental period. The Exercise group was trained at the individualized FATmax intensity, 5 days per week and 1 h per day for 10 weeks. No diet control was introduced during the experimental period for all participants. Exercise group obtained significant decreases in body mass, BMI, body fat % and abdominal fat mass, as well as the concentrations of triglycerides, serum leptin and blood glucose. The activity of lipoprotein lipase was increased in trained participants. There were no changes in these variables in the Control group. In addition, there was no significant change in daily energy intake for all participants before and after the experimental period. In conclusion, the 10-week FATmax exercise training achieved improvements in body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women. This result suggests FATmax is an effective exercise training intensity for obesity treatment.

  17. A reinterpretation of the Pleistocene human and faunal association at Las Buitreras Cave, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis A.; Martin, Fabiana M.

    2008-12-01

    The faunal assemblage recovered from Layers VIII-VII at Las Buitreras Cave has been considered as associated with human artifacts. On that basis, the previous analysis had concluded that human hunters had exploited ground sloths at the end of the Pleistocene. A reanalysis of the bones as well as the rest of the evidence suggests that there is no basis for that conclusion. On the contrary, it is suggested here that the lower layers at Las Buitreras are the result of the use of the cave as a den by ground sloths.

  18. Biochronology and paleoclimatic implications of Middle Eocene to Oligocene planktic foraminiferal faunas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.

    1983-01-01

    Planktic foraminiferal assemblages have been analyzed quantitatively in six DSDP sites in the Atlantic (Site 363), Pacific (Sites 292, 77B, 277), and Indian Ocean (Sites 219, 253) in order to determine the nature of the faunal turnover during Middle Eocene to Oligocene time. Biostratigraphic ranges of taxa and abundance distributions of dominant species are presented and illustrate striking similarities in faunal assemblages of low latitude regions in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. A high resolution biochronology, based on dominant faunal characteristics and 55 datum events, permits correlation between all three oceans with a high degree of precision. Population studies provide a view of the global impact of the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic changes occurring during Middle Eocene to Oligocene time. Planktic foraminiferal assemblage changes indicate a general cooling trend between Middle Eocene to Oligocene time, consistent with previously published oxygen isotope data. Major faunal changes, indicating cooling episodes, occur, however, at discrete intervals: in the Middle Eocene 44-43 Ma (P13), the Middle/Late Eocene boundary 41-40 Ma ( P14 P15), the Late Eocene 39-38 Ma ( P15 P16), the Eocene/Oligocene boundary 37-36 Ma (P18), and the Late Oligocene 31-29 Ma ( P20 P21). With the exception of the E 0 boundary, faunal changes occur abruptly during short stratigraphic intervals, and are characterized by major species extinctions and first appearances. The Eocene/Oligocene boundary cooling is marked primarily by increasing abundances of cool water species. This suggests that the E 0 boundary cooling, which marks a major event in the oxygen isotope record affected planktic faunas less than during other cooling episodes. Planktic foraminiferal faunas indicate that the E 0 boundary event is part of a continued cooling trend which began during the Middle Eocene. Two hiatus intervals are recognized in low and high latitude sections at the Middle/Late Eocene

  19. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  20. Aircraft-borne aerosol chemical composition measurements in the lower to middle troposphere over southern West Africa: Biomass burning, urban outflow plumes, and long-range transport.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, Anneke; Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Sauer, Daniel; Schlager, Hans; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    During the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016, aircraft-borne in-situ aerosol chemical composition measurements were performed over southern West Africa (SWA). This presentation will focus on the submicron particle measurements done with a Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) on board of the DLR Falcon aircraft during twelve research flights from Lomé, Togo, covering the altitude range from the boundary layer (BL) to the middle troposphere (12 km). A preliminary analysis of the results shows typical baseline total non-refractory aerosol mass loadings of 1.5 to 2.8 μg m-3 in the BL, and 0.4 to 1.1 μg m-3above. Up to half of the baseline aerosol mass in the BL appears to consist of sulphate, compared to only 10 to 35 % above the BL; organic matter dominates in the middle troposphere. During several flights, the DLR Falcon crossed a pronounced and seemingly widespread aerosol layer at 2—4.5 km altitude, partly in or slightly above the BL. The AMS data indicate that about half of the non-refractory aerosol mass in the middle of this layer consisted of organic matter. We consider it likely that these aerosol particles were produced by biomass burning in Central Africa. Emissions from cities and industrial areas were also intercepted, as well as enhancements in some species at higher altitudes. Trajectory analysis suggests that an increase of the organics to more than 2.5 μg m-3 observed at 8 km during one flight came from the Arabian Peninsula. Several ammonium peaks during the same flight at higher altitudes were traced back to the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone (ASMA).

  1. The major composition of a middle-late Eocene salt lake in the Yunying depression of Jianghan Basin of Middle China based on analyses of fluid inclusions in halite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fan-Wei; Galamay, A. R.; Ni, Pei; Yang, Chun-He; Li, Yin-Ping; Zhuo, Qin-Gong

    2014-05-01

    During the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition in eastern China, abundant halites formed in non-marine areas. Many continental salt deposits from inland salt lakes were formed in eastern China in faulted basins as a result of the northward movement and collision of the Indo-China Plate with the Eurasian Plate, including the Bohai Gulf Basin. However, a marine transgression versus a non-marine origin of these evaporites remains to be determined. Primary fluid inclusions trapped in halite deposits can directly record the composition of evaporated seawater or salt lake water, such as those in the Cretaceous halite in the Khorat Plateau (Laos and Thailand) area can resolve the origins of the evaporate deposits; recent fluid inclusions data in the Khorat Plateau coincide with the predicted secular variation of seawater and are comparable to other fluid inclusions in Cretaceous marine halite, indicating these fluid inclusions are directly related to a marine transgression. Our analyses in this study shows that the average K+, Mg2+, and SO42- contents are 8.8, 5.0, and 6.8 g/l, respectively, in the primary fluid inclusions in halite of middle-late Eocene from the Yunying depression of China. These numbers are much less than those in the contemporary Spanish primary fluid inclusions in halite precipitated from seawater (16.4, 36.3, and 12.5 g/l for K+, Mg2+, and SO42-, respectively). Furthermore, Br contents of all fluid inclusion samples in halite from the Yunying depression are lower than 2 ppm (vs. 55-58 ppm at the base of Spanish contemporary marine halite), and their δ37Cl values range from -0.11‰ to +2.94‰ (vs. -0.09‰ to -0.24‰ in sylvite of Spanish deposit), indicating that the compositions of the middle-late Eocene brines trapped in halite in the Yunying depression of China are very different from those derived from the contemporary seawater, and are considered to be resulted from evaporation of an inland saline lake water with little influence of seawater.

  2. Planktonic foraminiferal bioevents and faunal turnover across the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary in north of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishzad, B.; Khaje Tash, R.

    2009-04-01

    In the north of Iran in the Galanderud area, similar to those known from the eastern Tethys realm, experienced unusually adverse environmental conditions for planktic foraminifera during the last two million years of the terminal Cretaceous to early Danian. This section is studied to determine the foraminiferal biozones of the upper Cretaceous to lower Paleocene and to detect patterns of foraminiferal changes across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. All late Maastrichtian planktic foraminiferal biozones CF1 to CF4, and Danian biozones P0 (Parvularugoglobogerina extensa) P1a (Parvularugoglobogerina eugubina) and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides are present. Faunal studies show that all but four of the Cretaceous species identified disappeared at or below the K-T boundary in zone CF1 (P. hantkeninoides). Another four species (Heterohelix globulosa, H. dentata, H. monmouthensis, G. cretacea) appear to have survived in to the early Danian. Early disappearances appear to be environmentally controlled. Coarse ornamented species with small populations disappeared first, where as small species will little or no ornamented and generally large populations tended to survive after the environment changing. This indicates a pattern of gradual and selective faunal turnover in planktonic foraminifera during the latest Maastrichtian and in to the earliest Danian that is similar to that observed at the El kef stratotype of Tunisia, as well as K-T sequences in west of Iran, Egypt, Italy, Spain and Mexico.

  3. Faunal Drivers of Soil Flux Dynamics via Alterations in Crack Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, Keita; Caylor, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Organismal activity, in addition to its role in ecological feedbacks, has the potential to serve as instigators or enhancers of atmospheric and hydrologic processes via alterations in soil structural regimes. We investigated the biomechanical effect of faunal activity on soil carbon dynamics via changes in soil crack structure, focusing on three dryland soil systems: bioturbated, biocompacted and undisturbed soils. Carbon fluxes were characterized using a closed-system respiration chamber, with CO2 concentration differences measured using an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). Results show that faunal influences play a divergent biomechanics role in bulk soil cracking: bioturbation induced by belowground fauna creates "surficial" (shallow, large, well-connected) networks relative to the "systematic" (deep, moderate, poorly connected) networks created by aboveground fauna. The latter also shows a "memory" of past wetting/drying events in the consolidated soil through a crack layering effect. These morphologies further drive differences in soil carbon flux: under dry conditions, bioturbated and control soils show a persistently high and low mean carbon flux, respectively, while biocompacted soils show a large diurnal trend, with daytime lows and nighttime highs comparable to the control and bioturbated soils, respectively. Overall fluxes under wet conditions are considerably higher, but also more variable, though higher mean fluxes are observed in the biocompacted and bioturbated soils. Our results suggest that the increased surface area in the bioturbated soils create enhanced but constant diffusive processes, whereas the increased thermal gradient in the biocompacted soils create novel convective processes that create high fluxes that are diurnal in nature.

  4. Predicting faunal fire responses in heterogeneous landscapes: the role of habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Sitters, Holly; York, Alan; Di Stefano, Julian

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the effects of fire on biota is important for biodiversity conservation in fire-prone landscapes. Time since fire is often used to predict the occurrence of fauna, yet for many species, it is a surrogate variable and it is temporal change in resource availability to which animals actually respond. Therefore prediction of fire-fauna relationships will be uncertain if time since fire is not strongly related to resources. In this study, we used a space-for-time substitution across a large diverse landscape to investigate interrelationships between the occurrence of ground-dwelling mammals, time since fire, and structural resources. We predicted that much variation in habitat structure would remain unexplained by time since fire and that habitat structure would predict species' occurrence better than time since fire. In line with predictions, we found that time since fire was moderately correlated with habitat structure yet was a poor surrogate for mammal occurrence. Variables representing habitat structure were better predictors of occurrence than time since fire for all species considered. Our results suggest that time since fire is unlikely to be a useful surrogate for ground-dwelling mammals in heterogeneous landscapes. Faunal conservation in fire-prone landscapes will benefit from a combined understanding of fauna-resource relationships and the ways in which fire (including planned fires and wildfires) alters the spatial and temporal distribution of faunal resources.

  5. The first Late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo; Smith, Krister T.; Guerrero-Arenas, Rosalia; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    To date, the terrestrial faunal record of the North American late Eocene has been recovered from its subtropical and temperate regions. We report the first late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America, in southern Mexico. Fossil specimens were collected from mudstones that crop out in the Municipality of Santiago Yolomécatl, in northwestern Oaxaca. Previously published K-Ar ages of 32.9 ± 0.9 and 35.7 ± 1.0 Ma in overlain nearby volcanic rocks and biostratigraphy of these new localities suggests a Chadronian mammal age for this new local fauna. The assemblage is composed by two turtle taxa, Rhineura, two caniform taxa, a sciurid, a jimomyid rodent, a geomyine rodent, Gregorymys, Leptochoerus, Perchoerus probus, Merycoidodon, a protoceratid, Poebrotherium, Nanotragulus, Miohippus assinoboiensis, a chalicotherid, a tapiroid, cf. Amynodontopsis, Trigonias and the hymenopteran ichnofossils Celliforma curvata and Fictovichnus sciuttoi. The records of these taxa in northwestern Oaxaca greatly expand southerly their former geographic distribution in North America. The records of the geomorph rodents and Nanotragulus extend their former known biochronological range to the late Eocene. The hymenopteran ichnofossils in the localities suggest the presence of a bare soil after periodic waterlogging, under a sub-humid to sub-arid climate. This new local fauna represents the first glimpse of Eocene vertebrate and invertebrate terrestrial life from tropical North America.

  6. Is the spring water responsible for the fossilization of faunal remains at Florisbad, South Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Rod M.

    2006-01-01

    It is has been suggested that faunal remains at Florisbad were fossilized in a spring context due to the mineralized spring water. However, the environment conducive to the precipitation of CaCO3 and other authigenic minerals was formed largely through the salinization of the organic layers and clay, and the mineralization of the groundwater. Factors contributing to this favorable environment include: CaCO3 saturation, pH, the decomposition of halophytes, Eh, rainfall, biomineralization, and aeolian deposition. With the exception of pH, none of the above factors feature in a spring context, with evidence suggesting that the spring water may historically never have carried sufficient minerals for fossilization, and that contact with the spring water may actually have resulted in the demineralization of previously fossilized material. In light of this evidence, it is concluded that the fossilization of faunal remains at Florisbad took place in a sedimentary organic matter and clay environment and could not have taken place in the spring vents where there is an undersaturation of Ca.

  7. Faunal Influences on Fracture-Induced Carbon Flux Dynamics in Dryland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, K. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Organismal activity, in addition to its role in ecological feedbacks, ha the potential to serve as instigators or enhancers of atmospheric and hydrologic fluxes via alterations in soil structural regimes. We investigated the effect of faunally-induced crack morphology on soil carbon dynamics in three dryland soil systems in central Kenya: bioturbated soils, biocompacted soils, and undisturbed soils. Carbon fluxes were characterized using a closed-system respiration chamber, with CO2 concentration differences measured using an infrared gas analyzer. Results show that faunal influenes play a divergent biomechanical role in bulk soil cracking morphology and topology: macrofauna-induced bioturbation creates shallow, large, well-connected networks relative to those from megaherbivore-induced biocompaction, with the latter showing a "memory" of past drying events through a crack layering effect. These morphologies may further drive differences in soil carbon flux: under dry conditions, bioturbated and control soils show a persistently high and low mean carbon flux, respectively - biocompacted soils suggest a diurnal trend, with daytime lows and nighttime highs comparable to the control and bioturbated soils, respectively. Overall fluxes under wet conditions are considerably higher, but also more variable, though higher mean carbon fluxes are observed in the biocompacted and bioturbated soils. Our results suggest that fracture morphology induced in biocompacted soils may enhance diffusive fluxes that are typical in undisturbed soils to levels that are as high as those from macrofaunal respiration, but that particular physical conditions in fracture morphology and topology may be necessary as a prerequisite.

  8. Fish assemblage composition and mapped mesohabitat features over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Daniel K.; Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2016-01-21

    This report documents differences in the mapped spatial extents and physical characteristics of in-channel fish habitat evaluated at the mesohabitat scale during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow) and summer 2012 (low streamflow) at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico starting about 3 kilometers downstream from Cochiti Dam and ending about 40 kilometers upstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir. The results of mesohabitat mapping, physical characterization, and fish assemblage surveys are summarized from the data that were collected. The report also presents general comparisons of physical mesohabitat data, such as wetted area and substrate type, and biological mesohabitat data, which included fish assemblage composition, species richness, Rio Grande silvery minnow relative abundance, and Rio Grande silvery minnow catch per unit effort.

  9. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Christina L

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

  10. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  11. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Meiofaunal abundances and faunal similarity on the continental rise off the coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohal, Melissa; Thistle, David; Easton, Erin E.

    2014-11-01

    Metazoan meiofauna (e.g., nematodes, benthic copepods) play important roles in deep-sea sediment communities, but information as basic as standing stocks is not known for much of the world ocean. We therefore sampled six stations: one near the 2700-m isobath and one near the 3700-m isobath off northern, central, and southern California. We counted benthic copepods, both Desmoscolecidae and nondesmoscolecid nematodes, kinorhynchs, nauplii, and ostracods from multiple-corer samples. Nematodes from our 2700-m and 3700-m stations, and ostracods and nauplii from our 3700-m stations, were unusually abundant compared to those from other stations from comparable depths in the Pacific. Off California, the abundances of benthic copepods, kinorhynchs, and nondesmoscolecids at the 2700-m stations were significantly greater than those at the 3700-m stations. Abundance of benthic copepods was correlated with the percentage of medium sand in the sediment, so sediment texture could be important to them. That of kinorhynchs was correlated with the concentration of chloroplastic-pigment equivalents and percentage nitrogen, so consumable material from the euphotic zone could be important to them. In contrast to the usual pattern of decreasing abundance with depth, Desmoscolecidae abundance in the central region was greater at the 3700-m than at the 2700-m station. The three regions differed significantly in both kinorhynch and ostracod abundances, independently of depth. In the food-poor deep sea, animals are expected to be more abundant where food is plentiful. Unexpectedly, ostracod abundance was negatively correlated with all food variables. A possible explanation is that the natural enemies of ostracods are abundant where food is abundant. Multivariate faunal similarity at 2700 m differed significantly from that at 3700 m, independently of regions. Benthic copepods were most responsible for the difference. Regions also differed in multivariate faunal similarity independently of

  13. Mammal faunal response to the Paleogene hyperthermals ETM2 and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    Scientists are increasingly turning to deep-time fossil records to decipher the long-term consequences of climate change in the race to preserve modern biotas from anthropogenically driven global warming. "Hyperthermals" are past intervals of geologically rapid global warming that provide the opportunity to study the effects of climate change on existing faunas over thousands of years. A series hyperthermals is known from the early Eocene (∼56-54 million years ago), including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and two subsequent hyperthermals, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) and H2. The later hyperthermals occurred following the onset of warming at the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), the hottest sustained period of the Cenozoic. The PETM has been comprehensively studied in marine and terrestrial settings, but the terrestrial biotic effects of ETM2 and H2 are unknown. Their geochemical signatures have been located in the northern part of the Bighorn Basin, WY, USA, and their levels can be extrapolated to an extraordinarily dense, well-studied terrestrial mammal fossil record in the south-central part of the basin. High-resolution, multi-parameter paleoecological analysis reveals significant peaks in species diversity and turnover and changes in abundance and relative body size at the levels of ETM2 and H2 in the south-central Bighorn Basin record. In contrast with the PETM, faunal change at the later hyperthermals is less extreme, does not include immigration and involves a proliferation of body sizes, although abundance shifts tend to favor smaller congeners. Faunal response at ETM2 and H2 is distinctive in its high proportion of species losses potentially related to heightened species vulnerability in response to the changes already underway at the beginning of the EECO. Faunal response at ETM2 and H2 is also distinctive in high proportions of beta richness, suggestive of increased geographic dispersal related to transient increases in habitat

  14. Biofacies zonation of middle Miocene benthic foraminifera, southeastern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.C.

    1987-05-01

    The quantitative distribution of benthic foraminifera across the middle Miocene margin of the southeastern San Joaquin basin constitutes a useful tool in applying benthic biofacies zonation to the interpretation of marine paleoenvironments. A middle Miocene transect (near the Luisian/Relizian boundary) was completed across the margin of the southeastern San Joaquin basin near Bakersfild, California. Surface and subsurface fauna encompass strandline through bathyal environments. Quantitative analyses of these fauna result in a useful biofacies zonation for the middle Miocene which can be applied to the interpretation of middle Miocene paleobathymetric and paleogeographic reconstructions, basin analysis, and subsidence histories of the San Joaquin basin. In addition, these data suggest that vertical faunal migration of continental slope fauna has occurred between the middle Miocene and Recent. During the early and middle Miocene, marine temperatures were warmer than today and lower latitudinal gradients prevailed. Stepwise climatic cooling since the middle Miocene has been accompanied by the latitudinal adjustment of surface isotherms, strengthening of the permanent thermocline, and the associated migration of temperature-sensitive planktonic and benthic biofacies. Sedimentologic and seismic evidence in the southeastern San Joaquin basin suggests that present-day lower bathyal biofacies may have been at shallower depths during the middle Miocene. Such migrations would have a significant impact on paleoenvironmental interpretations. Middle Miocene faunal transects from the southeastern San Joaquin basin are compared with equivalent Holocene transects from the eastern Pacific, and differences are discussed in light of this proposal.

  15. Composition of gaseous organic carbon during ECOCEM in Beirut, Lebanon: new observational constraints for VOC anthropogenic emission evaluation in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Thérèse; Borbon, Agnès; Afif, Charbel; Sauvage, Stéphane; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaimoz, Cécile; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    The relative importance of eastern Mediterranean emissions is suspected to be largely underestimated compared to other regions worldwide. Here we use detailed speciated measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity of VOC urban emission composition and the consistency of regional and global emission inventories downscaled to Lebanon (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, EMEP; Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project, ACCMIP; and MACCity, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megaCITY Zoom for the Environment). The assessment was conducted through the comparison of the emission ratios (ERs) extracted from the emission inventories to the ones obtained from the hourly observations collected at a suburban site in Beirut, Lebanon, during summer and winter ECOCEM (Emissions and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Eastern Mediterranean) campaigns. The observed ERs were calculated using two independent methods. ER values from both methods agree very well and are comparable to the ones of the road transport sector from near-field measurements for more than 80 % of the species. There is no significant seasonality in ER for more than 90 % of the species, unlike the seasonality usually observed in other cities worldwide. Regardless of the season, ERs agree within a factor of 2 between Beirut and other representative cities worldwide, except for the unburned fuel fraction and ethane. ERs of aromatics (except benzene) are higher in Beirut compared to northern post-industrialized countries and even the Middle Eastern city Mecca. The comparison of the observed ER to the ones extracted from the ACCMIP and MACCity global emission inventories suggests that the overall speciation of anthropogenic sources for major hydrocarbons that act as ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in ACCMIP is better represented than other species. The comparison of the specific road transport ERs, relative

  16. Faunal community use of enhanced and natural oyster reefs in Delaware Bay: A field study and classroom inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Jenny L.

    In addition to its value as a fisheries resource, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is a reef building, cornerstone species that provides ecosystem services to the environment. Oysters provide habitat for associated resident and transient species. With widespread declines in oyster populations, restoration efforts have focused on improving oyster stocks and enhancing the ecosystem services they provide. Community-based oyster restoration programs engage the public and local community in planning, construction and/or monitoring of restoration projects. Since 2007, a K-12 student centered community-based restoration venture, Project PORTS, Promoting Oyster Restoration Through Schools, has been working to educate students, promote stewardship values, and enhance oyster habitat in the Delaware Bay. The overarching goals of the present study were to (1) assess fish and macroinvertebrate utilization on the Project PORTS community-created, subtidal, low-relief oyster restoration area in the Delaware Bay, and (2) convert the data collected into a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) activity that can be implemented in the classroom. I examined six subtidal natural oyster reefs of varying oyster densities and one community-based restoration reef as habitat for fishes and invertebrates. Sampling methods on these low-relief reefs consisted of otter trawl tows and benthic habitat tray collections. Results revealed that the enhancement area supported a diverse faunal community consistent with nearby, natural oyster habitats. Data collected during the field study were then transformed into an educational lesson plan, "One Fish, Two Fish-Assessing Habitat Value of Restored Oyster Reefs", that fulfilled national and state (NJ) curriculum standards. The lesson was piloted in a middle school classroom and student learning was evaluated through summative assessments pre and post-participation in the activity. Results of the assessments indicated that

  17. Dispersed Remnants of a Northeast Pacific Fringing Arc: Upper Paleozoic Terranes of Permian McCLOUD Faunal Affinity, Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Meghan

    1987-12-01

    Two fragmentary, subparallel belts of terranes within the western North American Cordillera contain upper Paleozoic rocks and are characterized by contrasting lithotectonic assemblages and contrasting Permian faunal affinity. These two belts are (A) volcanic-arc related successions of Permian McCloud faunal affinity (McCloud belt) and (B) subduction-related accretionary complexes of Permian Tethy an faunal affinity (Cache Creek belt). This paper supports the hypothesis that the fragmentary terranes of the McCloud belt once constituted parts of a northeast Pacific fringing-arc system and, in constrast to some earlier interpretations, concludes that the volcanic arc evolved above an eastward dipping subduction zone. The absolute distance between this arc and western North America during the late Paleozoic cannot be constrained, however, there is little evidence to suggest closure of a major (>10³ km) ocean basin or protracted periods of westward dipping subduction. Parts of Devonian to Permian volcanic island arc sequences of the western U.S. Cordillera are represented in the northern Sierra, eastern Klamath, Bilk Creek, Grindstone, and Chilliwack terranes. These scattered volcanic arc remnants share several fundamental characteristics: (1) The sequences were constructed across continental-affinity basement assemblages. (2) They underwent similar tectonic evolution during late Paleozoic time, such as coeval pulses in volcanism and related depositional histories. (3) They contain Early Permian McCloud-type fauna, of distinctive biogeographic affinity. (4) McCloud belt terranes are spatially and possibly genetically related to westward lying accretionary complexes of the Cache Creek belt which contain fragments of Upper Triassic blueschist and Permian limestone blocks bearing Tethyan Permian fusulinids and corals. Based on the presence of distinctive Early Permian McCloud fauna, the island arc remnants discussed in this paper are referred to as the McCloud belt. The

  18. Rare Earth Element Compositions of Chlorite-rich Hydrothermal Sediments in the middle Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Yang, S.; Humphris, S. E.; Cai, D.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been used as powerful tracers in the study of hot fluid-rock reaction in hydrothermal system. However, the behavior of the REEs during interaction of hydrothermal solution with rocks remains to be clarified more quantitatively. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the East Asian continental margin, is characterized by thick terrigenous sediment and ubiquitous volcanic-hydrothermal activities. In this study, the sediments collected during IODP Expedition 331 to the mid-OT were determined for mineralogical and REEs as well as Nd isotopic compositions, aiming to investigate the geochemical behavior of REEs during hydrothermal processes. All samples were separated into bulk and clay-size (˂ 2 μm) fractions and pretreated by 1N HCl to remove carbonate and other unstable components. The hydrothermal sediments in the mid-OT is dominated by Mg-rich chlorite based on the XRD analysis, especially the clay-size fraction comprising pure chlorite. The clay-size samples bear different mineralogical and geochemical compositions between the upper and lower parts in this hydrothermal area. All hydrothermal samples are relatively enriched in HREEs in the residues. The upper clays have higher values of δEu and (La/Yb)N as well as LREEs concentration than the lower part, while the bulk samples have weak REE differentiation. In the 1N HCl leachates, the concentrations of REEs in the bulk samples are higher than in the clays in the lower part but LREEs are obviously enriched in the upper clays. We infer that the grain size may be an important factor controlling the behavior of REEs in the mid-OT hydrothermal system. Both bulk and clay samples show negative Eu anomalies relative to chondrite, similar as the detrital sediments and volcanic rocks. This study confirms the hypothesis that HREEs patterns are constant throughout the system compatible with higher LREEs mobility as chlorine ion complexes in acidic solutions (Mills and Elderfield 1995; Douville

  19. Early Tertiary marine fossils from northern Alaska: implications for Arctic Ocean paleogeography and faunal evolution.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.; Brouwers, E.M.; Carter, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Marine mollusks and ostracodes indicate a post-Danian Paleocene to early Eocene (Thanetian to Ypresian) age for a fauna from the Prince Creek Formation at Ocean Point, northern Alaska, that also contains genera characteristic of the Cretaceous and Neogene-Quaternary. The life-assocation of heterochronous taxa at Ocean Point resulted from an unusual paleogeographic setting, the nearly complete isolation of the Arctic Ocean from about the end of the Cretaceous until sometime in the Eocene, in which relict Cretaceous taxa survived into Tertiary time while endemic taxa evolved in situ; these later migrated to the northern mid- latitudes. Paleobiogeographic affinities of the Ocean Point assocation with mild temperate faunas of the London Basin (England), Denmark, and northern Germany indicate that a shallow, intermittent Paleocene seaway extended through the Norwegian-Greenland Sea to the North Sea Basin. Early Tertiary Arctic Ocean paleogeography deduced from faunal evidence agrees with that inferred from plate-tectonic reconstructions.-Authors

  20. Faunal isotope records reveal trophic and nutrient dynamics in twentieth century Yellowstone grasslands.

    PubMed

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Nelson, Abigail A; Koch, Paul L; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-23

    Population sizes and movement patterns of ungulate grazers and their predators have fluctuated dramatically over the past few centuries, largely owing to overharvesting, land-use change and historic management. We used δ(13)C and δ(15)N values measured from bone collagen of historic and recent gray wolves and their potential primary prey from Yellowstone National Park to gain insight into the trophic dynamics and nutrient conditions of historic and modern grasslands. The diet of reintroduced wolves closely parallels that of the historic population. We suggest that a significant shift in faunal δ(15)N values over the past century reflects impacts of anthropogenic environmental changes on grassland ecosystems, including grazer-mediated shifts in grassland nitrogen cycle processes.

  1. Faunal change in the Turkana Basin during the late Oligocene and Miocene.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Meave; Grossman, Ari; Gutiérrez, Mercedes; Fleagle, John G

    2011-01-01

    Faunal evolution over the last 65 million years of earth's history was dominated by mammalian radiations, but much of this era is poorly represented in Africa. Mammals first appeared early in the Mesozoic, living alongside dinosaurs for millions of years, but it was not until the extinction of dinosaurs 65 myr ago that the first major explosion of mammalian taxa took place. The Cenozoic (65 Ma to Recent) witnessed repeated and dynamic events involving the radiation, evolution, and extinction of mammalian faunas. Two of these events, each marking the extinction of one diverse fauna and subsequent establishment of another equally diverse fauna, both involving advanced catarrhine primates, are recorded in sites in the Turkana Basin, despite the poorly represented record of Cenozoic faunas elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. The first of these events occurred at the Oligocene-Miocene transition and the other at the Miocene-Pliocene transition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Faunal isotope records reveal trophic and nutrient dynamics in twentieth century Yellowstone grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Nelson, Abigail A.; Koch, Paul L.; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Population sizes and movement patterns of ungulate grazers and their predators have fluctuated dramatically over the past few centuries, largely owing to overharvesting, land-use change and historic management. We used δ13C and δ15N values measured from bone collagen of historic and recent gray wolves and their potential primary prey from Yellowstone National Park to gain insight into the trophic dynamics and nutrient conditions of historic and modern grasslands. The diet of reintroduced wolves closely parallels that of the historic population. We suggest that a significant shift in faunal δ15N values over the past century reflects impacts of anthropogenic environmental changes on grassland ecosystems, including grazer-mediated shifts in grassland nitrogen cycle processes. PMID:22675135

  3. Scrapheap Challenge: A novel bulk-bone metabarcoding method to investigate ancient DNA in faunal assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Dáithí C.; Haile, James; Dortch, Joe; White, Nicole E.; Haouchar, Dalal; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Allcock, Richard J.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Highly fragmented and morphologically indistinct fossil bone is common in archaeological and paleontological deposits but unfortunately it is of little use in compiling faunal assemblages. The development of a cost-effective methodology to taxonomically identify bulk bone is therefore a key challenge. Here, an ancient DNA methodology using high-throughput sequencing is developed to survey and analyse thousands of archaeological bones from southwest Australia. Fossils were collectively ground together depending on which of fifteen stratigraphical layers they were excavated from. By generating fifteen synthetic blends of bulk bone powder, each corresponding to a chronologically distinct layer, samples could be collectively analysed in an efficient manner. A diverse range of taxa, including endemic, extirpated and hitherto unrecorded taxa, dating back to c.46,000 years BP was characterized. The method is a novel, cost-effective use for unidentifiable bone fragments and a powerful molecular tool for surveying fossils that otherwise end up on the taxonomic “scrapheap”. PMID:24288018

  4. Effect of growth hormone on body composition and visceral adiposity in middle-aged men with visceral obesity.

    PubMed

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Dejonge, Lilian; Redman, Stephen; Smith, Steven R

    2007-11-01

    GH replacement in GH-deficient adults results in an improvement in metabolic status. GH might also decrease visceral adiposity in obese adults that are not GH deficient. Our objective was to determine the effects of supraphysiological GH therapy on the metabolic syndrome and visceral adiposity in men with low blood levels of IGF-I and the durability of these effects after stopping GH therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month intervention trial followed by a blinded follow-up period of 6 months. Thirty nondiabetic middle-aged men with central adiposity (body mass index > 27 kg/m(2); waist circumference > 102 cm) participated. After 6 months of GH therapy, we observed an increase in weight and lean body mass (2.5 +/- 0.6 kg, P < 0.05 compared with baseline and placebo) and 8.8% reduction in visceral adiposity. GH increased resting energy expenditure by 172.5 +/- 41.6 kcal/24 h after 6 months of therapy. Fasting insulin, glucose, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for insulin resistance increased during GH therapy. The effects of GH on fatness and visceral adiposity disappeared shortly after GH withdrawal, but weight remained increased over baseline and when compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). These data suggest that GH therapy is associated with small but statistically significant decreases in visceral adiposity and an increase in lean mass and body weight. In viscerally obese subjects, supraphysiological GH administration is not an effective treatment; however, additional studies are needed to evaluate the effects of low-dose, physiological GH treatment.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fine Particulate Matter Mass and Chemical Composition: The Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdeen, Ziad; Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Schauer, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m3, with an average of 28.7 μg/m3. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m3) in the summer (April–June) months compared to winter (October–December) months (26.0 μg/m3) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East. PMID:25045751

  6. Mechanics and composition of middle cerebral arteries from simulated microgravity rats with and without 1-h/d -Gx gravitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiu-Hua; Zhang, Li-Fan; Gao, Fang; Bai, Yun-Gang; Boscolo, Marco; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate further from the biomechanical aspect whether microgravity-induced cerebral vascular mal-adaptation might be a contributing factor to postflight orthostatic intolerance and the underlying mechanism accounting for the potential effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG) in preventing this adverse effect. Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were isolated from 28-day SUS (tail-suspended, head-down tilt rats to simulate microgravity effect), S+D (SUS plus 1-h/d -Gx gravitation by normal standing to simulate IAG), and CON (control) rats. Vascular myogenic reactivity and circumferential stress-strain and axial force-pressure relationships and overall stiffness were examined using pressure arteriography and calculated. Acellular matrix components were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that myogenic reactivity is susceptible to previous pressure-induced, serial constrictions. During the first-run of pressure increments, active MCAs from SUS rats can strongly stiffen their wall and maintain the vessels at very low strains, which can be prevented by the simulated IAG countermeasure. The strains are 0.03 and 0.14 respectively for SUS and S+D, while circumferential stress being kept at 0.5 (106 dyn/cm2). During the second-run pressure steps, both the myogenic reactivity and active stiffness of the three groups declined. The distensibility of passive MCAs from S+D is significantly higher than CON and SUS, which may help to attenuate the vasodilatation impairment at low levels of pressure. Collagen and elastin percentages were increased and decreased, respectively, in MCAs from SUS and S+D as compared with CON; however, elastin was higher in S+D than SUS rats. Susceptibility to previous myogenic constrictions seems to be a self-limiting protective mechanism in cerebral small resistance arteries to prevent undue cerebral vasoconstriction during orthostasis at 1-G environment. Alleviating of active stiffening and increasing of

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in fine particulate matter mass and chemical composition: the Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Qasrawi, Radwan; Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m(3), with an average of 28.7 μg/m(3). Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m(3)) in the summer (April-June) months compared to winter (October-December) months (26.0 μg/m(3)) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East.

  8. Six-year longitudinal changes in body composition of middle-aged and elderly Japanese: age and sex differences in appendicular skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Itsuko; Koda, Michiko; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about longitudinal changes of body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in middle-aged and elderly individuals. We evaluated longitudinal changes of body composition, and age and sex differences in appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Participants were 1454 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged 40-79 years. Body composition at baseline and 6-year follow up was measured by DXA. Fat increased significantly in men of all ages, and in women aged in their 40s and 50s. Among men, arm lean tissue mass (LTM) changed by 0.9%, -0.5%, -1.4% and -3.7%, respectively, for the 40s to the 70s, and decreased significantly in the 60s and 70s. Leg LTM in men changed by -0.4%, -1.3%, -1.7% and -3.9%, respectively, and decreased significantly from the 50s to the 70s. Compared with the preceding age groups, significant differences were observed between the 60s and 70s in arm and leg LTM change in men. Among women, arm LTM changed by 0.7%, 0.2%, 1.6% and -1.5%, respectively, which was significant in the 60s and 70s. Leg LTM decreased significantly in all age groups of women by -2.0%, -2.8%, -2.4% and -3.9%, respectively. With respect to sex differences, leg LTM loss rates were significantly higher in women than men at the 40s and 50s. Longitudinal data suggest that arm and leg LTM decreased markedly in men in their 70s, and leg LTM had already decreased in women in their 40s. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  10. Three in One—Multiple Faunal Elements within an Endangered European Butterfly Species

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Marius; Zimmermann, Marie; Ramos, Ana A.; Gros, Patrick; Konvička, Martin; Nève, Gabriel; Rákosy, László; Tammaru, Toomas

    2015-01-01

    Ice ages within Europe forced many species to retreat to refugia, of which three major biogeographic basic types can be distinguished: "Mediterranean", "Continental" and "Alpine / Arctic" species. However, this classification often fails to explain the complex phylogeography of European species with a wide range of latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Hence, we tested for the possibility that all three mentioned faunal elements are represented within one species. Our data was obtained by scoring 1,307 Euphydryas aurinia individuals (46 European locations) for 17 allozyme loci, and sequencing a subset of 492 individuals (21 sites) for a 626 base pairs COI fragment. Genetic diversity indices, F statistics, hierarchical analyses of molecular variance, individual-based clustering, and networks were used to explore the phylogeographic patterns. The COI fragment represented 18 haplotypes showing a strong geographic structure. All but one allozyme loci analysed were polymorphic with a mean FST of 0.20, supporting a pronounced among population structure. Interpretation of both genetic marker systems, using several analytical tools, calls for the recognition of twelve genetic groups. These analyses consistently distinguished different groups in Iberia (2), Italy, Provence, Alps (3), Slovenia, Carpathian Basin, the lowlands of West and Central Europe as well as Estonia, often with considerable additional substructures. The genetic data strongly support the hypothesis that E. aurinia survived the last glaciation in Mediterranean, extra-Mediterranean and perialpine refugia. It is thus a rare example of a model organism that combines attributes of faunal elements from all three of these sources. The observed differences between allozymes and mtDNA most likely result from recent introgression of mtDNA into nuclear allozyme groups. Our results indicate discrepancies with the morphologically-based subspecies models, underlining the need to revise the current taxonomy. PMID

  11. Three in One--Multiple Faunal Elements within an Endangered European Butterfly Species.

    PubMed

    Junker, Marius; Zimmermann, Marie; Ramos, Ana A; Gros, Patrick; Konvička, Martin; Nève, Gabriel; Rákosy, László; Tammaru, Toomas; Castilho, Rita; Schmitt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ice ages within Europe forced many species to retreat to refugia, of which three major biogeographic basic types can be distinguished: "Mediterranean", "Continental" and "Alpine / Arctic" species. However, this classification often fails to explain the complex phylogeography of European species with a wide range of latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Hence, we tested for the possibility that all three mentioned faunal elements are represented within one species. Our data was obtained by scoring 1,307 Euphydryas aurinia individuals (46 European locations) for 17 allozyme loci, and sequencing a subset of 492 individuals (21 sites) for a 626 base pairs COI fragment. Genetic diversity indices, F statistics, hierarchical analyses of molecular variance, individual-based clustering, and networks were used to explore the phylogeographic patterns. The COI fragment represented 18 haplotypes showing a strong geographic structure. All but one allozyme loci analysed were polymorphic with a mean FST of 0.20, supporting a pronounced among population structure. Interpretation of both genetic marker systems, using several analytical tools, calls for the recognition of twelve genetic groups. These analyses consistently distinguished different groups in Iberia (2), Italy, Provence, Alps (3), Slovenia, Carpathian Basin, the lowlands of West and Central Europe as well as Estonia, often with considerable additional substructures. The genetic data strongly support the hypothesis that E. aurinia survived the last glaciation in Mediterranean, extra-Mediterranean and perialpine refugia. It is thus a rare example of a model organism that combines attributes of faunal elements from all three of these sources. The observed differences between allozymes and mtDNA most likely result from recent introgression of mtDNA into nuclear allozyme groups. Our results indicate discrepancies with the morphologically-based subspecies models, underlining the need to revise the current taxonomy.

  12. Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.; Khlystov, A.

    2010-06-01

    Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 pre-monsoon season (May-June). This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevation in the Middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14~340 nm), and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC) and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening), during the transitional period of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak period was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope) mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to rise. The mountain

  13. Biodiversity and paleobiogeography of the European freshwater Neogene: trends, hotspots and faunal turnovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Andreas, Kroh; Mandic, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    We present an outline of a paleobiogeographic framework for the European fresh- and brackish-water systems during the Neogene. Data basis is a presence-absence matrix of lacustrine gastropods from over 2,700 localities. Cluster analyses were separately carried out on the datasets of the four time slices Early Miocene, Middle Miocene, Late Miocene, and Pliocene. Based on the results of the cluster analyses, the degree of endemicity, and geographical coherence, we classified the lake systems of the four time intervals into biogeographic units. The increasing degree of provincialism throughout the Neogene supported more detailed breakdowns in younger intervals. This pattern reflects the ongoing continentalization of Europe linked to the Alpidic Orogenesis. Additionally, the retreat of the Paratethys Sea and its isolation from the Mediterranean promoted the evolution of endemic faunas in surrounding lacustrine systems. Direct descendants such as long-lived Lake Pannon, Lake Dacia or Lake Slavonia persisted over several millions of years and promoted the evolution of highly diverse and endemic faunas. Because of their extensive duration they crucially influenced family-level composition, differences of the relative species richnesses per biogeographic unit, and rising rate of endemicity. We show that the biogeographic classification as well as the existence of biodiversity hotspots are tightly linked to the formation and evolution of long-lived lacustrine environments and thus to Europe's geodynamic history. Heat maps are provided to visualize the shifting distributions of hotspots through time. The only physiographic factor that can be shown to be correlated with species richness is the size of a lake. Other factors such as latitude, longitude or temporal duration show weak relationships. Correlation of biodiversity trends to climatic parameters such as temperature and precipitation are feasible only for selected periods. Climate is considered to have only minor

  14. Size-segregated sugar composition of transported dust aerosols from Middle-East over Delhi during March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Fu, P. Q.; Kang, M.; Sarangi, B.; Sinha, D.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    During March 20-22, 2012 Delhi experienced a massive dust-storm which originated in Middle-East. Size segregated sampling of these dust aerosols was performed using a nine staged Andersen sampler (5 sets of samples were collected including before dust-storm (BDS)), dust-storm day 1 to 3 (DS1 to DS3) and after dust storm (ADS). Sugars (mono and disaccharides, sugar-alcohols and anhydro-sugars) were determined using GC-MS technique. It was observed that on the onset of dust-storm, total suspended particulate matter (TSPM, sum of all stages) concentration in DS1 sample increased by > 2.5 folds compared to that of BDS samples. Interestingly, fine particulate matter (sum of stages with cutoff size < 2.1 μm) loading in DS1 also increased by > 2.5 folds as compared to that of BDS samples. Sugars analyzed in DS1 coarse mode (sum of stages with cutoff size > 2.1 μm) samples showed a considerable increase ( 1.7-2.8 folds) compared to that of other samples. It was further observed that mono-saccharides, disaccharides and sugar-alcohols concentrations were enhanced in giant (> 9.0 μm) particles in DS1 samples as compared to other samples. On the other hand, anhydro-sugars comprised 13-27% of sugars in coarse mode particles and were mostly found in fine mode constituting 66-85% of sugars in all the sample types. Trehalose showed an enhanced ( 2-4 folds) concentration in DS1 aerosol samples in both coarse (62.80 ng/m3) and fine (8.57 ng/m3) mode. This increase in Trehalose content in both coarse and fine mode suggests their origin to the transported desert dust and supports their candidature as an organic tracer for desert dust entrainments. Further, levoglucosan to mannosan (L/M) ratios which have been used to predict the type of biomass burning influences on aerosols are found to be size dependent in these samples. These ratios are higher for fine mode particles, hence should be used with caution while interpreting the sources using this tool.

  15. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p < 0.05). After training, both female exercise groups showed equivalent or greater relative improvements in strength and aerobic fitness than did the male exercise groups (p < 0.05); however, the male exercise groups increased TB-FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p < 0.05). Male AET altered absolute FM more than male RET altered absolute FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  16. Faunal turnover in Neogene to Recent Caribbean reef corals and region environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, A.F. . Geology Dept.); Johnson, K.G. . Palaeontology Dept.); Stemann, T.A. . Geologisches Inst.)

    1993-03-01

    Quantitative analyses of species richness and species extinction and origination rates in the Neogene to Recent Caribbean reef coral fauna show that a major episode of turnover occurred during middle to late Pliocene time (4--1 Ma). The data for the authors analyses consist of a new compilation of occurrences of 175 species and 49 genera in reef sequences in the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica and in 21 scattered sites ranging in age from 22 Ma to present. The results show that: (1) during turnover, more than 75% of all species living between 6--4 Ma (n = 82) became extinct; (2) during turnover, extinction and origination rates were equally and simultaneously high, and a relatively constant number of species was maintained in the fauna; (3) the taxonomic composition of Caribbean reefs remained relatively constant before (10--4 Ma) and after (1--0 Ma) turnover. Turnover therefore preceded the high frequency sea level oscillations of late Pleistocene time, and appears related to long-term, unidirectional changes in climate and/or ocean circulation across the Caribbean region in association with closure of the Isthmus of Panama. The observed correspondence between high origination and extinction rates indicates that the same environmental factors may have been associated with increases in both rates, and that local habitat differentiation and fragmentation may have been involved. Stability persisted in the region despite the severe environmental stresses associated with Pleistocene climate change.

  17. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka) in the Southern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Petro; Gledhill, Andrew; Reynard, Jerome; Badenhorst, Shaw

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES) fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98–73 ka and 72–59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons. PMID:27383620

  18. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka) in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Henshilwood, Christopher S; van Niekerk, Karen L; Keene, Petro; Gledhill, Andrew; Reynard, Jerome; Badenhorst, Shaw; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES) fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  19. Whey protein supplementation does not affect exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Weinheimer, Eileen M; Conley, Travis B; Kobza, Vanessa M; Sands, Laura P; Lim, Eunjung; Janle, Elsa M; Campbell, Wayne W

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of different quantities of whey protein on exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Therefore, we examined the effects of consuming 0.8-MJ supplements with 0 (n = 126), 10 (n = 112), 20 (n = 44), or 30 (n = 45) g whey protein twice daily in conjunction with resistance (2 d/wk) and aerobic (1 d/wk) exercise training in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based 9-mo study in men (n = 117) and women (n = 210); (age: 48 ± 7.9 y; BMI: 30.0 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). Whey protein supplementation did not influence any of the following outcomes, some of which were affected by training. Among all participants, strength increased by 15 ± 12% (P < 0.001) and maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO(2)max) increased by 9 ± 15% (P < 0.001). Body weight was unchanged (0.1 ± 3.7 kg, P = 0.80), lean body mass increased by 1.9 ± 2.8% (0.95 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.001), and fat mass decreased by 2.6 ± 9.4% (-0.86 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.001). Oral-glucose-tolerance testing showed that plasma glucose AUC was unchanged (-18.0 ± 170 mmol/L·  3 h, P = 0.16), insulin AUC decreased by 2.6 ± 32% (-7.5 ± 29 nmol/L·  3 h, P = 0.01), and HOMA-IR (0.2 ± 2.0, P = 0.81) and the insulin sensitivity index (0.3 ± 3.0, P = 0.63) were unchanged. Plasma concentrations of TG; total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; C-reactive protein; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; blood pressure; and waist circumference were unchanged. Whey protein supplementation did not affect exercise training-induced responses in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults who maintained body weight.

  20. Air displacement plethysmography for estimating body composition changes with weight loss in middle-aged Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Yoshio; Nemoto, Miyuki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ohkubo, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Kim, Maeng-Kyu; Katayama, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2010-12-01

    To examine the degree to which air displacement plethysmography (ADP) can track body composition changes in response to weight loss in obese Japanese men. 50 men, aged 30-65 years with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m(2), were included in a 3-month weight loss program. Percentage of fat mass (%FM) was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ADP at baseline and month 3. With 6.2 ± 4.3 kg of weight loss, %FM, as determined by DXA and ADP, significantly decreased by 3.9 ± 2.9% and 3.9 ± 3.3% respectively. There was no mean difference for change (Δ) in %FM between the two methods. DXA-derived Δ%FM significantly correlated with Δ%FM determined by ADP (R(2) = 0.48, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the Bland-Altman plots demonstrated no systematic bias for Δ%FM (r = -0.20, p = 0.17). However, %FM by ADP (r = 0.42) at baseline and Δ%FM by ADP (r = -0.54) were significantly correlated to the differences between Δ%FM by DXA and ADP. These results suggest that ADP is comparably accurate for evaluating Δ%FM when compared with DXA, although there were proportional biases. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The middle Toarcian cold snap: Trigger of mass extinction and carbonate factory demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krencker, F. N.; Bodin, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Suan, G.; Mattioli, E.; Kabiri, L.; Föllmi, K. B.; Immenhauser, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Pliensbachian and Toarcian (Early Jurassic) ages are characterised by several, relatively short-lived carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and faunal turnover. The cause(s) of biotic and abiotic disturbances remain unclear but most probably involved increased magmatic activity in the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province. The Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE) might represent the most extreme of these events, and as such, is becoming increasingly well documented worldwide. So far, other critical time intervals of the Pliensbachian-Toarcian have received considerably less attention. Here, the effects of the Middle Toarcian Variabilis event on the neritic-epeiric realm are explored making use of three well-exposed and extended stratigraphic sections in the Central High Atlas, Morocco. The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of 112 bulk micrite samples were analysed and placed against 39 data points from carefully screened brachiopod valves in order to differentiate between palaeo-environmental and diagenetic patterns. Additionally, the phosphorus concentrations of 109 micrite samples were determined to evaluate the P-cycling. In all studied sections, an upper middle Toarcian major change from carbonate- to clastics-dominated sedimentation is recorded, pointing to a first-order carbonate production crisis. Our results reveal that these major sedimentological patterns coincide with an increase of oxygen-isotope ratios as well as a decrease of phosphorous accumulation rates. This suggests that the late middle Toarcian carbonate ramp crisis was related to a transient cooling event, potentially triggered by pulsed massive SO4 exhalation events in the context of the Karoo large igneous province. Short-term cooling was likely amplified by the drawdown of atmospheric CO2 levels related to the coeval decline of neritic carbonate precipitation and the warm water mass circulation disruption between the Tethys and the continental shelf. The data shown here provide

  2. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 < 200 μg m(-3)) were collected from December 2012 until June 2013 in Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan Province in Iran. The chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T Test showed no significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P value > 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstruction of Late Glacial and Holocene landscape-climatic changes in the central Selenga Middle Mountains based on the isotopic composition of organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubtsov, V. A.; Ryzhov, Yu. V.

    2017-02-01

    The results of investigation into the composition of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of organic matter in the soils developed within soil-sedimentary sequences in the central part of the Selenga Middle Mountains in the Late Glacial and Holocene are presented. In the past 15000 years, the organic matter of the investigated soils has only been formed from the biomass of C3 plants (without the participation of C4 plants). This is confirmed by the of δ13C values from-27.00 to-23.35‰. A combined analysis of the parameters of the organic matter (Corg, Ntotal, C/N, δ13C, and δ15N) of soils formed in different periods makes it possible to assume that the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen reflects changes in the climate humidity during the Late Glacial and Holocene periods. The specified intervals of soil formation correspond to the climate humidification and stabilization of the surface owing to the development of dense vegetation. Aridization periods were characterized by the accumulation of sediments that buried soil horizons. The most pronounced stages of climate aridization occurred at the transition from the Late Glacial to the Holocene, from the Boreal to the Atlantic, and from the Atlantic to the Subboreal periods. The optimum soil-forming conditions existed in the periods of 11700-11000, 8800-6900, and 4700-1000 years ago, which is confirmed by the published data on the landscape-climatic changes in the adjacent areas in the past 15000 years.

  4. Application of micro-FTIR mapping and SEM to study compositional heterogeneity of siltstones: Example from the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Middle Bakken Member.

    PubMed

    Gasaway, C; Mastalerz, M; Krause, F; Clarkson, C; Debuhr, C

    2017-08-10

    This paper explores the applicability of micro-FTIR mapping to study heterogeneity of organic matter-lean siltstones. Closely spaced samples of Late Devonian dolomitic siltstones of the Middle Bakken Member were analysed with micro-FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the distribution and chemical properties of organic matter (OM), muscovite/feldspar/clay group, carbonates, and quartz, and their influence on porosity and permeability of these rocks. Our results show that quartz is the dominant component of the samples, and the main mineralogical differences between the samples are reflected in the abundance of carbonate minerals. Organic matter content is usually far below 1 wt. % and dominantly represented by terrestrially derived vitrinite and inertinite. Micro-FTIR mapping demonstrates that the more spatially connected quartz and muscovite/feldspar/clays become, the larger permeability in the rock develops, and these correlations are especially strong for planes parallel to bedding. In contrast, carbonate connectivity shows a strong negative correlation with permeability. No correlations between connectivity of components and porosity have been detected. These observations suggest that micro-FTIR not only can document compositional heterogeneity of siltstones, but also has potential to help understanding their permeability systems. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Evolution and Biogeography of Haemonchus contortus: Linking Faunal Dynamics in Space and Time.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    2016-01-01

    History is the foundation that informs about the nuances of faunal assembly that are essential in understanding the dynamic nature of the host-parasite interface. All of our knowledge begins and ends with evolution, ecology and biogeography, as these interacting facets determine the history of biodiverse systems. These components, relating to Haemonchus, can inform about the complex history of geographical distribution, host association and the intricacies of host-parasite associations that are played out in physiological and behavioural processes that influence the potential for disease and our capacity for effective control in a rapidly changing world. Origins and evolutionary diversification among species of the genus Haemonchus and Haemonchus contortus occurred in a complex crucible defined by shifts in environmental structure emerging from cycles of climate change and ecological perturbation during the late Tertiary and through the Quaternary. A history of sequential host colonization associated with waves of dispersal bringing assemblages of ungulates from Eurasia into Africa and processes emerging from ecosystems in collision and faunal turnover defined the arena for radiation among 12 recognized species of Haemonchus. Among congeners, the host range for H. contortus is exceptionally broad, including species among artiodactyls of 40 genera representing 5 families (and within 12 tribes of Bovidae). Broad host range is dramatically reflected in the degree to which translocation, introduction and invasion with host switching, has characterized an expanding distribution over time in North America, South America, southern Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand, coincidental with agriculture, husbandry and global colonization by human populations driven particularly by European exploration after the 1500s. African origins in xeric to mesic habitats of the African savannah suggest that historical constraints linked to ecological adaptations (tolerances and

  6. Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.; Khlystov, A.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 pre-monsoon season (May-June). This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevations in the middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14-340 nm), and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC) and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening), during the transitional periods of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak periods was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope) mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to rise. The

  7. Patterns of carbon processing at the seafloor: the role of faunal and microbial communities in moderating carbon flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Bouillon, Steven; Cowie, Gregory L.; Drake, Emily; Middelburg, Jack J.; Witte, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Marine sediments, particularly those located in estuarine and coastal zones, are key locations for the burial of organic carbon (C). However, organic C delivered to the sediment is subjected to a range of biological C-cycling processes, the rates and relative importance of which vary markedly between sites, and which are thus difficult to predict. In this study, stable isotope tracer experiments were used to quantify the processing of C by microbial and faunal communities in two contrasting Scottish estuarine sites: a subtidal, organic C rich site in Loch Etive with cohesive fine-grained sediment, and an intertidal, organic C poor site on an Ythan estuary sand flat with coarse-grained permeable sediments. In both experiments, sediment cores were recovered and amended with 13C labelled phytodetritus to quantify whole community respiration of the added C and to trace the isotope label into faunal and bacterial biomass. Similar respiration rates were found in Loch Etive and on the Ythan sand flat (0.64 ± 0.04 and 0.63 ± 0.12 mg C m-2h-1, respectively), which we attribute to the experiments being conducted at the same temperature. Faunal uptake of added C over the whole experiment was markedly greater in Loch Etive (204 ± 72 mg C m-2) than on the Ythan sand flat (0.96 ± 0.3 mg C m-2), and this difference was driven by a difference in both faunal biomass and activity. Conversely, bacterial C uptake over the whole experiment in Loch Etive was much lower than that on the Ythan sand flat (1.80 ± 1.66 and 127 ± 89 mg C m-2, respectively). This was not driven by differences in biomass, indicating that the bacterial community in the permeable Ythan sediments was particularly active, being responsible for 48 ± 18 % of total biologically processed C. This type of biological C processing appears to be favoured in permeable sediments. The total amount of biologically processed C was greatest in Loch Etive, largely due to greater faunal C uptake, which was in turn a result

  8. [Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Dian-Rong; Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Hong-Da; Dong, Yan-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Based on the data of bottom trawl surveys in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary in August (summer), October (autumn), December (winter) 2006, and April (spring) 2007, the faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans were analyzed. A total of 54 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families, and 2 orders were collected, including 22 species of shrimps, 22 species of crabs, and 10 species of squills. Most of the crustaceans were tropical-subtropical warm-water species, a few of them were eurythermal species, and no warm-water and cold-water species occurred. Euryhaline species were most abundant, followed by halophile species, and the low-salinity species were the least. Most of the crustacean species belonged to the fauna of Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean. The faunal assemblages were closer to those of the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Indonesia Sea, and the Japan Sea, and estranger with those of the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and Korea Sea. The dominant species were Metapenaeus joyner, Oratosquilla oratoria, Charybdis miles, Portunus sanguinolentus, Harpiosquilla harpax, Charybdis feriatus, Charybdis japonica, Oratosquilla nepa, Solenocera crassicornis, Portunus trituberculatus, and Calappa philargius. The crustaceans had the largest species number (33) in autumn and the least one (26) in spring, and the highest stock density at the water depth of < 40 m, especially at 10-20 m. The average stock density of the crustaceans was estimated to be 99.60 kg x km(-2), with the highest (198.93 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest (42.35 kg x km(-2)) in spring. Of the 3 species groups, crabs had the highest stock density (41.81 kg x km(-2)), followed by shrimps (38.91 kg x km(-2)), and squills (18.88 kg x km(-2)). The stock densities of the 3 species groups showed an obvious seasonal variation. Shrimps had the highest stock density (120.32 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest density (0.67 kg x km(-2)) in spring, while crabs and squills had the highest

  9. Temporal patterns in the intertidal faunal community at the mouth of a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, C H F; Barletta, M; Dantas, D V

    2014-11-01

    The use of intertidal sandy beaches by fish and macrocrustaceans was studied at different temporal scales at the mouth of a tropical estuary. Samples were taken along the lunar and diel cycles in the late dry and rainy seasons. Fish assemblage (number of species, density and biomass), crustaceans and wrack biomass, showed significant interactions among all studied factors, and the combination of moon phase and diel cycle, resulting in different patterns of environmental variables (depth, water temperature and dissolved oxygen), affected habitat use by the different species. Variances in faunal community were detected between seasons, stimulated by salinity fluctuations from freshwater input during the rainy season. These differences suggest an important cycling of habitats and an increase in connectivity between adjacent habitats (estuary and coastal waters). Moreover, the results showed that this intertidal sandy beach also provides an alternative nursery and protected shallow-water area for the initial development phase of many marine and estuarine species. In addition, this intertidal habitat plays an important role in the maintenance of the ecological functioning of the estuarine-coastal ecosystem continuum.

  10. Spatio-temporal variability in faunal assemblages surrounding the discharge of secondary treated sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wear, R. J.; Tanner, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    Macrofaunal assemblages inhabiting the intertidal zone surrounding an input of secondary treated effluent were sampled in order to determine how the pollution impact varied temporally and spatially. Assemblages varied along the pollution gradient formed by the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant outfall in Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. While the abundance of some species did not vary, the abundance of juvenile western king prawns ( Melicertus latisulcatus) and blue crabs ( Portunus pelagicus) progressively decreased with proximity to the outfall. Species richness and diversity also decreased towards the outfall. An increase in nutrient content in the water adjacent to the outfall is likely to explain these changes. At distances of 4 and 5 km away, species diversity increased and the abundance of M. latisulcatus decreased, possibly due to a change in habitat from sand to seagrass. The occurrence of a storm prior to sampling on one occasion masked the effects of pollution and habitat changes. The results of this study suggest that the disposal of treated effluent into Gulf St Vincent is having a localised effect on the faunal assemblages surrounding the discharge point.

  11. The calculation of climatic indices for Late Quaternary faunal assemblages from South African sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, Francis

    2013-04-01

    The relative abundance of rodents and insectivores from several Late Quaternary sites in South Africa have been studied using multivariate analysis (notably factor analysis). The highest loadings on the first factor (F1) are obtained for taxa that are today found in warm subtropical environments, contrasting with taxa which have low F1 loadings and which are today distributed in more southerly latitudes and at high altitudes. The latter taxa with low loadings on F1 are able to tolerate cold conditions (and are relatively common in Terminal Pleistocene assemblages associated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 2). A summary statistic based on F1 (SSF1) is calculated and interpreted as a temperature index. The dated temperature indices for Boomplaas cave correlate well (r=0.95) with dated deuterium isotope ratios for a Vostok core in Antarctica. Similarly, a moisture index (SSF3) is calculated from factor analysis of the relative abundances of the same faunal assemblages. The results are assessed in terms of a non-linear pattern of variability in temperature and moisture indices calculated from pollen as well as mammalian microfauna. The changes in climate are likely to have influenced the distribution and abundance of human populations in the Late Pleistocene in southern Africa.

  12. Spatio-temporal variation in the preservation of ancient faunal remains

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Spencer R.

    2016-01-01

    Palaeodemographic studies of animals using frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates are increasingly used in studies of Quaternary extinction but are complicated by taphonomic bias, or the loss of material through time. Current taphonomic models are based on the temporal frequency distributions of sediments, but bone is potentially lost at greater rates because not all sedimentary contexts preserve bone. We test the hypotheses that (i) the loss of bone over time is greater than that of sediment and (ii) this rate of loss varies geographically at large scales. We compiled radiocarbon dates on Pleistocene-aged bone from eastern Beringia (EB), the contiguous United States (CUSA) and South America (SA), from which we developed models of taphonomic loss. We find that bone is lost at greater rates than terrestrial sediment in general, but only for CUSA and SA. Bone in EB is lost at approximately the same rate as terrestrial sediments, which demonstrates the excellent preservation environments of arctic regions, presumably due to preservative effects of permafrost. These differences between bone and sediment preservation as well as between arctic and non-arctic regions should be taken into account by any research addressing past faunal population dynamics based on temporal frequency distributions. PMID:26864782

  13. [Diversity and faunal analysis of crustaceans in Potatso National Park, Shangri-La, China].

    PubMed

    Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Fei-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Xing; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Potatso National Park was the first national park in mainland China, preceded by the earlier Bitahai Nature Reserve. Located in the northwest of Yunnan and on the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Potatso is a typical low latitude and high elevation wetland nature reserve, with large areas of coniferous forest around alpine lakes and both wetland and water area ecosystems. In August, 2011, we undertook a survey of crustaceans in the park, sampling lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers throughout Potatso. We found a total of 29 species (including varieties) belonging to 24 genera and 11 families. Notable discoveries include Parartemiopsis sp, Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Simocephalus congener, which are the first examples of these species to be recorded in China. Likewise, Gammarus bitaensis is a unique crustacean found only in Potatso National Park and Thermocyclops dumonti and Gammarus paucispinus are both endemic species to northwestern Yunnan. The overall faunal characteristics of crustaceans in the park also revealed several things about Potatso: (1) Cosmopolitan and Palaearctic elements reach 48.27% and 37.93%, clearly showing the Palaearctic element as the dominant fauna; (2) most of the crustacean, such as Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Gammarus, are typical alpine types, confirming that Potatso has feature typical of alpine and plateau fauna; and (3) the proportion of endemic and rare crustacean species in Potatso National Park is approximately 10%, suggesting that the Potatso National Park in particular and the northwest of Yunnan in general have a unique geological and evolutionary history.

  14. Spatio-temporal variation in the preservation of ancient faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd A; Pelton, Spencer R

    2016-02-01

    Palaeodemographic studies of animals using frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates are increasingly used in studies of Quaternary extinction but are complicated by taphonomic bias, or the loss of material through time. Current taphonomic models are based on the temporal frequency distributions of sediments, but bone is potentially lost at greater rates because not all sedimentary contexts preserve bone. We test the hypotheses that (i) the loss of bone over time is greater than that of sediment and (ii) this rate of loss varies geographically at large scales. We compiled radiocarbon dates on Pleistocene-aged bone from eastern Beringia (EB), the contiguous United States (CUSA) and South America (SA), from which we developed models of taphonomic loss. We find that bone is lost at greater rates than terrestrial sediment in general, but only for CUSA and SA. Bone in EB is lost at approximately the same rate as terrestrial sediments, which demonstrates the excellent preservation environments of arctic regions, presumably due to preservative effects of permafrost. These differences between bone and sediment preservation as well as between arctic and non-arctic regions should be taken into account by any research addressing past faunal population dynamics based on temporal frequency distributions.

  15. Use of different intertidal habitats by faunal communities in a temperate coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Cheila; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Marco; Bentes, Luís; Monteiro, Pedro; Ribeiro, Joaquim; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2008-11-01

    The faunal communities of four intertidal habitats namely sand, mud, seagrass ( Zostera noltii) and seagrass patches (mixSM) of a temperate coastal lagoon, Ria Formosa (southern Portugal), were sampled. A total of 47 species were taken in 428 bottomless drop sampler samples, with the highest number of species and the more commonly occurring species belonging to the Mollusca phylum. The dominance of these gastropod species underlines the importance of the grazing food chain in these habitats. Bittium reticulatum was the most abundant species, being especially abundant in the seagrass habitat. The most frequent and highest biomass species in the community was Carcinus maenas, a predator that makes use of the available resources and that is adapted to the highly variable intertidal environment. Pomatoschistus microps was the most abundant fish species, with highest densities in the mud habitat, which demonstrates an ability to occupy a low depth area. The seagrass habitat had the highest diversity, abundance and biomass, followed by the mixSM habitat and was different from all the others. Assemblages were highly influenced by the presence of vegetation, providing forage and refuge from predation. A well defined summer group was identified in all habitats. These results highlight the importance of seagrass beds and the idea that their decrease implies the decrease of lagoon production through the impoverishment of the trophic structure of the lagoon.

  16. Reconstructing Asian faunal introductions to eastern Africa from multi-proxy biomolecular and archaeological datasets

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Michael; Crowther, Alison; Frantz, Laurent; Eager, Heidi; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Hutterer, Rainer; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Van Neer, Wim; Douka, Katerina; Veall, Margaret-Ashley; Quintana Morales, Eriéndira M.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Reiter, Ella; Allen, Richard; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A.; Helm, Richard M.; Shipton, Ceri; Mwebi, Ogeto; Denys, Christiane; Horton, Mark; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie; Fleisher, Jeffrey; Radimilahy, Chantal; Wright, Henry; Searle, Jeremy B.; Krause, Johannes; Larson, Greger; Boivin, Nicole L.

    2017-01-01

    Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological and economic impacts of introduced species. Resolution of this longstanding debate requires new efforts, given the lack of well-dated fauna from high-precision excavations, and ambiguous osteomorphological identifications. We analysed faunal remains from 22 eastern African sites spanning a wide geographic and chronological range, and applied biomolecular techniques to confirm identifications of two Asian taxa: domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and black rat (Rattus rattus). Our approach included ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis aided by BLAST-based bioinformatics, Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS) collagen fingerprinting, and direct AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. Our results support a late, mid-first millennium CE introduction of these species. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of biological exchange, and emphasize the applicability of our approach to tropical areas with poor bone preservation. PMID:28817590

  17. The last 30,000 years of faunal history within the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.

    1981-05-01

    The vertebrate fauna of the last 30,000 radiocarbon years in the Grand Canyon is reviewed. Faunas accompanied with 92 14C dates have been analyzed from nine cave sites (four systematically excavated) and 50 packrat middens. Reasonably precise chronological and environmental data of late Pleistocene and Holocene age were obtained through dung studies in Rampart, Muav, and Stanton's Caves; from the numerous packrat middens; and from a ringtail refuse deposit in Vulture Cave. The desert tortoise, 8 species of lizards, 12 species of snakes, 68 species of birds, and 33 species of mammals are identified. Extinct animals include the avian carrion feeder, Teratornis merriami, and the mammalian herbivores, Oreamnos harringtoni, Camelops cf. hesternus, Equus sp., and Nothrotheriops shastense. There is no apparent abrupt end to the late Pleistocene as observed in the Grand Canyon fossil faunal or floral record. Animal and plant taxa of the Grand Canyon responded individually to the changes in climate of the last 30,000 yr. Both animal and plant fossil assemblages indicate that a pre-full glacial, a full glacial, and a late glacial woodland community with many less dominant desert taxa were slowly replaced by a Holocene desert community. All woodland taxa were absent from the lower elevations of the Grand Canyon by 8500 yr B.P.

  18. A comparison of stable isotope data with pollen and ostracod faunal data in paleoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Karel L.

    Sediments from 2300 m elevation in south-central Colorado and dating from 2.6-0.6 Ma have been recovered from surface outcrops and by core drilling. Three types of data (biogenic and inorganic stable isotope, pollen, and ostracod faunal) contributing to the two million year climatic record from this locality are compared against one another. Vadose zone carbonate δ13C values are used to infer July minimum temperatures from percent of grasses using the C4 photosynthetic pathway. The inferred temperatures are consistent with the occurrence of Limnocythere bradburyi, an ostracod that lives today only south of the frostline in North America. Biogenic carbonate δ13C data are interpreted as a measure of surface runoff, and δ18O data as a measure of evaporation/precipitation. Stable isotope data are significantly different between temperature sensitive species of ostracods, and less significant between salinity-sensitive species of ostracods. Biogenic isotope data are most negative when the abundance of Picea, Pinus, and Artemisia pollen indicates glaciation. The climate reconstruction derived from the combined interpretations of the Hansen Bluff data is in agreement with details of marine and terrestrial climatic records. Two major shifts in climate are apparent, one to more evaporative conditions at about 1.6 Ma and another toward cold, wet, glacial conditions starting at about 0.90 Ma.

  19. Reconstructing Asian faunal introductions to eastern Africa from multi-proxy biomolecular and archaeological datasets.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Mary E; Buckley, Michael; Crowther, Alison; Frantz, Laurent; Eager, Heidi; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Hutterer, Rainer; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Van Neer, Wim; Douka, Katerina; Veall, Margaret-Ashley; Quintana Morales, Eriéndira M; Schuenemann, Verena J; Reiter, Ella; Allen, Richard; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Helm, Richard M; Shipton, Ceri; Mwebi, Ogeto; Denys, Christiane; Horton, Mark; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie; Fleisher, Jeffrey; Radimilahy, Chantal; Wright, Henry; Searle, Jeremy B; Krause, Johannes; Larson, Greger; Boivin, Nicole L

    2017-01-01

    Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological and economic impacts of introduced species. Resolution of this longstanding debate requires new efforts, given the lack of well-dated fauna from high-precision excavations, and ambiguous osteomorphological identifications. We analysed faunal remains from 22 eastern African sites spanning a wide geographic and chronological range, and applied biomolecular techniques to confirm identifications of two Asian taxa: domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and black rat (Rattus rattus). Our approach included ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis aided by BLAST-based bioinformatics, Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS) collagen fingerprinting, and direct AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. Our results support a late, mid-first millennium CE introduction of these species. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of biological exchange, and emphasize the applicability of our approach to tropical areas with poor bone preservation.

  20. Benthic faunal patchiness on soft substrates in modern and paleozoic communities

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The assumption that fossils are homogeneously distributed, at least on a small scale is common to many paleoecological studies. However, the fauna of most modern benthic marine communities from intertidal to abyssal depths is patchily distributed. Inherently heterogeneous substrates, such as rocky substrates, have patchy communities because of the diversity of microenvironments, but faunal patchiness in homogeneous environments, such as low energy, muddy bottoms, is due to biotic interactions. A wide variety of shelled invertebrates are known to be gregarious. The shelly fauna of Paleozoic BSB communities is dominantly epifaunal, as opposed to the dominantly infaunal modern BSB communities. Patchiness in Paleozoic BSB communities was commonly initiated by the fortuitous occurrence of shells on the muddy bottoms, and sustained by positive taphonomic feedback (taphonomic facilitation). Paleozoic examples of gregarious species are also known. Commonly used sampling schemes require the assumption that the fauna is homogeneously distributed at scales smaller than the distance between samples. The best method to sample patchy faunas is with nested or hierarchical sampling schemes in which samples are taken at a variety of spacings. The failure to account for patchiness can lead to incorrect paleoecological interpretations primarily due to the effect of time averaging of ephemeral patches. It is probably a good assumption that most BSB paleocommunities were originally patchy, and homogeneous faunas are the result of taphonomic mixing.

  1. Pliocene (3.2-2.4 Ma) ostracode faunal cycles and deep ocean circulation, North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Raymo, M.E.; Kyle, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    Ostracode assemblages from Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 607 (western Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and 610 (southeast Rockall Plateau) show rapid, systematic shifts during late Pliocene glacial-interglacial cycles that reflect deep-sea environmental change. Progressive decreases in North Atlantic deep-water taxa and increases in Southern Ocean taxa occur from 3.4 to 2.4 Ma, and high-amplitude faunal cycles begin near 2.8 Ma. Four ostracode assemblages, each with a characteristic phase relative to 41 k.y. obliquity glacial-interglacial ??18O cycles, characterize the benthic faunal record at Site 607. Cross-spectral analysis shows that the Site 607 glacial assemblage has a 41 k.y. periodicity significant at the 95% level; other assemblages show a less significant, but still obvious, concentration of variance at 41 k.y. Faunal patterns suggest climatically controlled reorganization of deep-sea benthic communities during glacial-interglacial cycles due to oscillating deep-sea environments.

  2. Meteoric diagenesis below a submerged platform: implications for δ13C compositions prior to pre-vascular plant evolution, Middle Ordovician, Alabama, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth J.; Walker, Kenneth R.

    1994-04-01

    The Middle Ordovician "Chickamauga" Formation at Red Mountain Expressway (RME) and Tidwell Hollow (TWH) sections in Alabama (U.S.A) has a complex early diagenetic history. Early diagenetic history of the buildup facies consisted of two phases of marine cementation separated by two generations of meteoric, equant calcite with moldic dissolution separating equant calcite generations. A third generation of meteoric, equant (drusy) calcite is present after secondary marine diagenesis. Equant (drusy) calcite is interpreted as meteoric because its stable isotopic composition ( δ 13C = -0.1 to -1.6‰ , δ 18O = -4.8 to -7.3‰ ) is too variable to be accounted for by marine or mixing zone precipitation. Equant (drusy) calcite from buildup facies is mostly non-luminescent and non-ferroan. This is unlike early, ferroan equant calcite (dull to bright luminescent) from below the unconformity that overlies the "Chickamauga" Formation at RME. Meteoric diagenesis below the unconformity is unrelated to early diagenesis in the underlying buildup facies. Equant (drusy) calcite from the buildup facies at RME has a covariation of δ13C and δ18O values that forms a truncated inverted "J" and has elevated Mg values. These geochemical signatures indicate precipitation at a site that was distal from the recharge zone. Meteoric diagenesis at RME occurred during rising relative sea level and flow of meteoric fluids under a submerged platform is the only mechanism able to reconcile available stratigraphic, petrologic, and geochemical data. Ordovician meteoric δ13C values (from TWH and other formations) are slightly depleted (2-4‰) relative to coeval marine carbonate, especially when compared with post-Silurian meteoric carbonate. Minor depletion of Ordovician carbonate is the result of limited generation of light soil-gas CO 2 before the development of vascular plants.

  3. Tracing the composition and origin of fluids at an ancient hydrocarbon seep (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian, Morocco): A Nd, REE and stable isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowicz, M.; Dopieralska, J.; Belka, Z.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, Nd isotope signatures combined with rare earth element (REE) concentrations were used in investigations of ancient seep carbonates. The study was performed on the fossil hydrocarbon seep deposit of the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco), where Nd isotopes, REE concentrations, and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were measured to investigate the origin, former migration pathways and composition of fluids. Relatively high εNd values compared to local Eifelian seawater, as well as consistently appearing positive Eu anomalies in MREE-enriched shale-normalized REE patterns of the seep carbonates provided evidence for interaction between the seeping fluids and the Lower Devonian basaltic volcaniclastics underlying the studied seep deposit. Strongly reducing conditions and increased temperature of methane formation could have constituted an additional factor in the Eu-enrichment of the investigated carbonate phases. The presence of exclusively negative Ce anomalies in these carbonates is in line with observations of other workers that seep limestones may not necessarily display positive Ce anomalies indicative of precipitation under anoxic conditions. The negative Ce anomalies are attributed here to mixing between anoxic pore waters and oxic, Ce-depleted seawater, necessary to enable carbonate precipitation at seeps. The methane-rich fluids ascended most likely from below the volcaniclastic unit and inherited the enriched εNd signatures and positive Eu anomalies due to fluid-rock interactions during their seepage to the seafloor. The carbon isotope data are most consistent with thermogenic origin of methane, although contribution of abiotic and biogenic methane sources cannot be excluded. Our results indicate that neodymium isotope and rare earth element analyses constitute one of the most valuable tools for reconstructing former fluid migration patterns. The study shows also that Nd isotopes and Eu anomalies can serve as

  4. Dietary fat composition, total body fat and regional body fat distribution in two Caucasian populations of middle-aged and older adult women.

    PubMed

    Muka, Taulant; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richar L; Erler, Nicole S; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891). At baseline, diet (i.e. PUFAs and SFAs) was measured by validated food frequency questionnaires. TF was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in both studies and android abdominal fat (AF), gynoid fat (GF) and the android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in the RS but not the CAIFOS. Chronic disease was defined as the presence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. No association was found between dietary n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio or SFA/PUFAs ratio with TF in both cohorts. In the RS, a high n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio was associated with a higher AF (3rd vs. 2nd tertile (reference): β: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.24) but not with the A/G ratio. A low SFA/PUFA ratio was associated with a lower AF (1st vs. 2nd tertile (reference): β: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.06) but not with the A/G ratio. Presence of chronic disease was found to be a significant effect modifier in both cohorts with regard to n-3/n-6 PUFAs and TF (P < 0.05). In participants without chronic disease, a higher n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio was associated with a higher TF in the RS cohort (3rd vs. 2nd tertile (reference): β: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.12, 1.76), but this was not replicated in CAIFOS. These findings do not support the hypothesis that dietary fat composition is consistently associated with TF and body fat distribution in women. Future studies should clarify

  5. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  6. Faunal, geochemical and paleomagnetic change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Braggs, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.S.; Mueller, P.A.; Channell, J.E.T.; Dobson, J.P.; Bryan, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Near Braggs, Alabama the Upper Cretaceous Prairie Bluff Chalk underlies the Paleocene Pine barren Member of the Clayton Formation in a well-exposed, continuous K/T boundary section composed of interbedded sands, shales, and limestones of shallow marine origin. As determined from foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphies, and the Maastrichtian/Danian contact at Braggs lies below a marine hardground in a zone associated with slow sedimentation and a deepening paleoenvironment. The K/T boundary occurs within a well-defined reversed magnetozone which we correlate to the reversed interval between marine magnetic anomalies 29 and 30. This magnetozone is approx.3.2 m thick, suggesting a sedimentation rate of only 6.8 m/m.y. across the boundary. The boundary occurs in the lower part of the magnetozone, about 1 m above its base, unlike the Italian sections where the boundary occurs toward the top of the reversed magnetozone. Marine macrofossils occur abundantly throughout the sequence had have been analyzed on a bed by bed basis to document the pattern of extinction and paleoenvironmental change. To help calibrate the rate of faunal change and refine the bio- and magnetostratigraphies, the Rb-Sr systematics of glauconites from the section are being investigated and the change of /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr in seawater is being investigated by analysis of CaCO/sub 3/ from molluscan shells and foraminiferal tests. Initial Rb-Sr measurements of glauconites from a bed above the contact suggest an age of 60 Ma with an initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr compatible with /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr measured in shell carbonate at this site. Values for shell carbonate range from .707713 to .707826 and appear to show a maximum near the boundary.

  7. Faunal and erosional events in the Eastern Tethyan Sea across the K/T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G.; Benjamini, C.

    1988-01-01

    A regional pattern of three closely spaced erosional events at and above the K/T boundary was determined from six Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sections in the Negev of Israel. The sections were collected from locations throughout the central and northern Negev. All sections are lithologically similar. The Maastrichtian consists of a sequence of limestone beds intercalated with thin marly beds. In some sections, the last limestone bed is followed by 1 to 2 m of calcareous marls grading upwards into several meters of grey shale. In other sections the limestone bed is followed directly by grey shale with the contact containing particles of limestone and marl. A 5 to 20 cm thick dark grey organic-rich clay layer is present about 1.5 to 2.5 m above the base of the grey shale. The grey shale grades upwards into increasingly carbonate rich marls. No unconformities are apparent in field outcrops. During field collection the dark grey clay layer was believed to represent the K/T boundary clay. Microfossil analysis however identified the boundary at the base of the grey shale. The black shale represents a low productivity anoxic event similar to, but younger than, the K/T boundary clay in other K/T boundary sections. High resolution planktic foraminiferal and carbonate analysis of these sections (at 5 to 10 cm intervals) yield surprising results. The K/T boundary is marked by an erosional event which removed part or all of the uppermost Maastrichtian marls above the last limestone bed. Percent carbonate data for four Negev sections are illustrated and show the regional similarities in carbonate sedimentation. Faunal and carbonate data from the Negev sections thus show three closely spaced short erosional events at the K/T boundary and within the first 50,000 to 100,000 years of the Danian. These K/T boundary erosional events may represent global climatic or paleoceanographic events.

  8. Initial radiation of jaws demonstrated stability despite faunal and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip S L; Friedman, Matt; Brazeau, Martin D; Rayfield, Emily J

    2011-07-06

    More than 99 per cent of the roughly 58,000 living vertebrate species have jaws. This major clade, whose members are collectively known as gnathostomes ('jawed mouths'), made its earliest definitive appearance in the Silurian period, 444-416 million years (Myr) ago, with both the origin of the modern (crown-group) radiation and the presumptive invasion of land occurring by the end of the Devonian period (359 Myr ago). These events coincided with a major faunal shift that remains apparent today: the transition from Silurian ecosystems dominated by jawless fishes (agnathans) to younger assemblages composed almost exclusively of gnathostomes. This pattern has inspired several qualitative descriptions of the trophic radiation and ecological ascendance of the earliest jawed vertebrates. Here we present a quantitative analysis of functional variation in early gnathostome mandibular elements, placing constraints on our understanding of evolutionary patterns during this critical interval. We document an initial increase in functional disparity in the Silurian that stabilized by the first stage of the Devonian, before the occurrence of an Emsian (∼400 Myr ago) oxygenation event implicated in the trophic radiation of vertebrates. Subsequent taxonomic diversification during the Devonian did not result in increased functional variation; instead, new taxa revisited and elaborated on established mandibular designs. Devonian functional space is dominated by lobe-finned fishes and 'placoderms'; high disparity within the latter implies considerable trophic innovation among jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes. By contrast, the major groups of living vertebrates--ray-finned fishes and tetrapods--show surprisingly conservative mandibular morphologies with little indication of functional diversification or innovation. Devonian gnathostomes reached a point where they ceased to accrue further mandibular functional disparity before becoming taxonomic dominants relative to 'ostracoderm

  9. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population - Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Ličina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O. leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of

  10. The effects of changing climate on faunal depth distributions determine winners and losers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Changing climate is predicted to impact all depths of the global oceans, yet projections of range shifts in marine faunal distributions in response to changing climate seldom evaluate potential shifts in depth distribution. Marine ectotherms' thermal tolerance is limited by their ability to maintain aerobic metabolism (oxygen- and capacity-limited tolerance), and is functionally associated with their hypoxia tolerance. Shallow-water (<200 m depth) marine invertebrates and fishes demonstrate limited tolerance of increasing hydrostatic pressure (pressure exerted by the overlying mass of water), and hyperbaric (increased pressure) tolerance is proposed to depend on the ability to maintain aerobic metabolism, too. Here, we report significant correlation between the hypoxia thresholds and the hyperbaric thresholds of taxonomic groups of shallow-water fauna, suggesting that pressure tolerance is indeed oxygen limited. Consequently, it appears that the combined effects of temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration constrain the fundamental ecological niches (FENs) of marine invertebrates and fishes. Including depth in a conceptual model of oxygen- and capacity-limited FENs' responses to ocean warming and deoxygenation confirms previous predictions made based solely on consideration of the latitudinal effects of ocean warming (e.g. Cheung et al., 2009), that polar taxa are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, with Arctic fauna experiencing the greatest FEN contraction. In contrast, the inclusion of depth in the conceptual model reveals for the first time that temperate fauna as well as tropical fauna may experience substantial FEN expansion with ocean warming and deoxygenation, rather than FEN maintenance or contraction suggested by solely considering latitudinal range shifts. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Late quaternary paleoceanography of the Atlantic Ocean: foraminiferal faunal and stable-isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The timing, frequencies, and rates of change of tropical Atlantic climates are studied on a glacial/interglacial scale, using foraminferal faunal abundance and stable isotopic data to estimate temperatures, ice volumes, and water mass properties of the surface and deep ocean. Oxygen-isotope and radiocarbon data constrain the timing of the last deglacial transition (Termination 1) to between 14,000 and 6000 yr BP. Deglaciation was not a continuous process, but may have occurred in steps from 14,000 to 12,000 yr BP, 10,000 to 8000 yr BP, and 7000 to 6000 yr BP. Changes in the ..delta../sup 18/O of glacier ice may induce a lag of the marine ..delta../sup 18/O record behind ice volume of 1000 to 3000 years. Temperature changes estimated by foraminferal transfer functions were not detected in down-core planktonic foraminferal ..delta../sup 18/O data. Hemispheric symmetry of glacial cooling may reflect linkage to high latitude climate changes via trade wind intensities and/or directions. During deglaciation, the North Atlantic was relatively cold, the South Atlantic was relatively warm, and equatorial seasonal contrast was low. This may reflect reduction of northward cross-equatorial heat transport in the ocean, and possible monsoonal effects. Climate changes also extend to the deep ocean. At mid-depths of the tropical Atlantic, minimum Atlantic-Pacific ..delta../sup 13/C difference occurring on average during deglaciation (with a strong 23,000-yr precession cycle) suggests reduced formation of a warm component of NADW during deglaciation. A deeper sites in the North Atlantic, reduced ventilation of deep basins during glacial maxima is linked to surface-water variability of the subpolar North Atlantic.

  12. The effects of changing climate on faunal depth distributions determine winners and losers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Changing climate is predicted to impact all depths of the global oceans, yet projections of range shifts in marine faunal distributions in response to changing climate seldom evaluate potential shifts in depth distribution. Marine ectotherms' thermal tolerance is limited by their ability to maintain aerobic metabolism (oxygen- and capacity-limited tolerance), and is functionally associated with their hypoxia tolerance. Shallow-water (<200 m depth) marine invertebrates and fishes demonstrate limited tolerance of increasing hydrostatic pressure (pressure exerted by the overlying mass of water), and hyperbaric (increased pressure) tolerance is proposed to depend on the ability to maintain aerobic metabolism, too. Here, we report significant correlation between the hypoxia thresholds and the hyperbaric thresholds of taxonomic groups of shallow-water fauna, suggesting that pressure tolerance is indeed oxygen limited. Consequently, it appears that the combined effects of temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration constrain the fundamental ecological niches (FENs) of marine invertebrates and fishes. Including depth in a conceptual model of oxygen- and capacity-limited FENs' responses to ocean warming and deoxygenation confirms previous predictions made based solely on consideration of the latitudinal effects of ocean warming (e.g. Cheung et al., 2009), that polar taxa are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, with Arctic fauna experiencing the greatest FEN contraction. In contrast, the inclusion of depth in the conceptual model reveals for the first time that temperate fauna as well as tropical fauna may experience substantial FEN expansion with ocean warming and deoxygenation, rather than FEN maintenance or contraction suggested by solely considering latitudinal range shifts. PMID:25044552

  13. Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facility Planner, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the building designs of 10 middle schools, including their educational contexts and design goals. Includes information on size, construction costs, architects, and contractors. Also includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  14. Sex- and age-related differences in mid-thigh composition and muscle quality determined by computed tomography in middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Takehiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Matsui, Yasumoto; Harada, Atsushi; Takemura, Marie; Yuki, Atsumu; Kato, Yuki; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Sex- and age-related differences in mid-thigh composition and muscle quality remain unclear. The present study aimed to clarify these differences using computed tomography in middle-aged and elderly Japanese. A total of 2310 participants (age 40-89 years), who were randomly selected from the local residents, underwent computed tomography examination of the right mid-thigh. Thigh circumference and cross-sectional areas of the thigh, muscle, quadriceps, non-quadriceps, fat, and bone were measured. Knee extension strength and muscle quality index (knee extension strength/quadriceps cross-sectional area) were also assessed. Sex- and age-related differences in these indices were analyzed. The thigh cross-sectional area in men and women decreased by 0.6% and 0.5%/year, respectively, because of a decrease in muscle cross-sectional area (men 75.2%, women 40.6%), fat cross-sectional area (men 24.4%, women 59.6%) and bone cross-sectional area (men 0.5%, women -0.2%). Muscle cross-sectional area in men and women decreased by 0.6% and 0.4%/year, respectively, because of a decrease in quadriceps cross-sectional area (men 65.6%, women 81.6%) and non-quadriceps cross-sectional area (men 34.4%, women 18.4%). Muscle quality in men and women decreased by 0.4% and 0.3%/year, respectively. Thigh cross-sectional area decreased with age mainly because of a decrease in muscle cross-sectional area in men and fat cross-sectional area in women. The rate of decrease in muscle cross-sectional area was 1.5-fold higher in men than in women. Muscle cross-sectional area decreased with age mainly because of a decrease in quadriceps cross-sectional area, especially in women. Decrease in muscle quality with age was similar in both sexes. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Ionic composition and nitrate in drainage water from fields fertilized with different nitrogen sources, middle swamp watershed, North Carolina, August 2000-August 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted from August 2000 to August 2001 to characterize the influence of fertilizer use from different nitrogen sources on the quality of drainage water from 11 subsurface tile drains and 7 surface field ditches in a North Carolina Coastal Plain watershed. Agricultural fields receiving commercial fertilizer (conventional sites), swine lagoon effluent (spray sites), and wastewater-treatment plant sludge (sludge site) in the Middle Swamp watershed were investigated. The ionic composition of drainage water in tile drains and ditches varied depending on fertilizer source type. The dominant ions identified in water samples from tile drains and ditches include calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, with tile drains generally having lower pH, low or no bicarbonates, and higher nitrate and chloride concentrations. Based on fertilizer source type, median nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were significantly higher at spray sites (32.0 milligrams per liter for tiles and 8.2 milligrams per liter for ditches) relative to conventional sites (6.8 milligrams per liter for tiles and 2.7 milligrams per liter for ditches). The median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yields also were significantly higher at spray sites (420 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 15.6 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches) relative to conventional sites (25 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 8.1 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches). The tile drain site where sludge is applied had a median nitrate-nitrogen concentration of 10.5 milligrams per liter and a median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yield of 93 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day, which were intermediate to those of the conventional and spray tile drain sites. Results from this study indicate that nitrogen loadings and subsequent edge-of-field nitrate-nitrogen yields through tile drains and ditches were significantly higher at sites receiving

  16. Benthic foraminifera from Capbreton Canyon revisited; faunal evolution after repetitive sediment disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolliet, T.; Jorissen, F. J.; Schmidt, S.; Howa, H.

    2014-06-01

    -term sedimentary processes leading to the advection of older material, such as bottom nepheloid layers, or repetitive fine-grained turbidite deposits due to small-scale slumping. The comparison of live and dead fauna shows that at both sites, the foraminiferal turnover rates are fairly low. At the lower canyon flank site sampled in 2011, the foraminiferal faunas are renewed every 1.5-2 years. Such a fairly long foraminiferal lifespan corresponds to earlier estimates, but is surprisingly high for the opportunistic taxa that dominate the faunal assemblages in these unstable and food-enriched submarine canyon settings.

  17. Faunal responses to fire in chaparral and sage scrub in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Elizabeth; Keeley, Jon E.; Witter, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Impact of fire on California shrublands has been well studied but nearly all of this work has focused on plant communities. Impact on and recovery of the chaparral fauna has received only scattered attention; this paper synthesizes what is known in this regard for the diversity of animal taxa associated with California shrublands and outlines the primary differences between plant and animal responses to fire. We evaluated the primary faunal modes of resisting fire effects in three categories: 1) endogenous survival in a diapause or diapause-like stage, 2) sheltering in place within unburned refugia, or 3) fleeing and recolonizing. Utilizing these patterns in chaparral and sagescrub, as well as some studies on animals in other mediterranean-climate ecosystems, we derived generalizations about how plants and animals differ in their responses to fire impacts and their post fire recovery. One consequence of these differences is that variation in fire behavior has a much greater potential to affect animals than plants. For example, plants recover from fire endogenously from soil-stored seeds and resprouts, so fire size plays a limited role in determining recovery patterns. However, animals that depend on recolonization of burned sites from metapopulations may be greatly affected by fire size. Animal recolonization may also be greatly affected by regional land use patterns that affect colonization corridors, whereas such regional factors play a minimal role in plant community recovery. Fire characteristics such as rate of spread and fire intensity do not appear to play an important role in determining patterns of chaparral and sage scrub plant recovery after fire. However, these fire behavior characteristics may have a profound role in determining survivorship of some animal populations as slow-moving, smoldering combustion may limit survivorship of animals in burrows, whereas fast-moving, high intensity fires may affect survivorship of animals in above ground refugia or

  18. Do geochemical and faunal estimates of upper-ocean temperature agree in the tropics? Yes and no.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A.; Benway, H.; Haley, B.; Klinkhammer, G.; Morey-Ross, A.; Pisias, N. G.; Prahl, F.

    2002-12-01

    To test geochemical and faunal proxies for upper-ocean paleotemperatures, we developed a uniform data set of multiple proxies in a core from the equatorial cold tongue in the eastern tropical Pacific over the past ~25,000 years. The proxies are Mg/Ca on surface-dwelling G. ruber (using the time-resolved sequential leach procedure of Haley and Klinkhammer, 2002, and Benway et al., 2002, and the temperature calibration of Dekens et al., 2002), the alkenone index Uk'37 (using the temperature calibration of Prahl et al., 1988), traditional faunal transfer functions based on radiolarians (Pisias et al., 1997), and a revised faunal transfer function method for foraminifera (Mix et al., 1999). To first approximation, all the methods agree within their calibration uncertainties that temperatures in the eastern Pacific cold tongue varied by 3-5 degrees C from glacial-to-interglacial time. In detail, however, the methods disagree. For example, the two geochemical methods bracket the range of total change, with largest changes in Mg/Ca (~6 degrees) and smallest changes in Uk'37 (~3 degrees). The radiolarian and Uk'37 indices stay relatively cold through the deglaciation and warm in the early Holocene, whereas the foraminiferal and Mg/Ca indices document warming relatively early following the Last Glacial Maximum. The differences in timing of changes occurs over a 1 meter interval of the core, and thus are not an artifact of differential bioturbation. We explore the potential causes of offsets between the indices, based on the ecological preferences of the carrier particles and other possible effects.

  19. Late and middle Pleistocene ungulates dietary diversity in Western Europe indicate variations of Neanderthal paleoenvironments through time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivals, Florent; Schulz, Ellen; Kaiser, Thomas M.

    2009-12-01

    Mesowear and microwear on enamel from 763 teeth of middle and late Pleistocene ungulates were analysed to infer the potential of dental wear analysis of faunal remains as a paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic proxy in relation to climatic changes and diversity of vegetation available in the environment. Fossil localities including levels belonging to two glacial and two interglacial stages were selected in Germany, France, and Spain. At a temporal scale, results indicate that the dietary diversity in ungulates is higher during interglacial phases (MIS 5 and 3) than during pleniglacial phases (MIS 8 and 4). Dietary diversity is concluded to be related to climate-driven vegetation changes which during interglacials lead to increased variety of potential food items available to ungulates. At the geographical scale, during interglacials, changes in diet composition are evident along geographical gradients. The corresponding dietary gradients are proposed to be related to climate and vegetation gradients reflecting more arid climates in the Mediterranean area compared to North-Western Europe. Species consistently represented at all localities investigated are Cervus elaphus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) and Equus ferus (Equidae, Perissodactyla). C. elaphus populations are found to consistently have less abrasive diets than E. ferus populations but dietary traits of both species varied largely, revealing a significant plasticity in the feeding adaptation of both species. Those traits are concluded to be related to differences in vegetation structure at each locality and complement the evidence that ungulates have broader dietary habits than what is usually assumed.

  20. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  1. Linked canopy, climate, and faunal change in the Cenozoic of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Regan E; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Madden, Richard H; Kohn, Matthew J; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2015-01-16

    Vegetation structure is a key determinant of ecosystems and ecosystem function, but paleoecological techniques to quantify it are lacking. We present a method for reconstructing leaf area index (LAI) based on light-dependent morphology of leaf epidermal cells and phytoliths derived from them. Using this proxy, we reconstruct LAI for the Cenozoic (49 million to 11 million years ago) of middle-latitude Patagonia. Our record shows that dense forests opened up by the late Eocene; open forests and shrubland habitats then fluctuated, with a brief middle-Miocene regreening period. Furthermore, endemic herbivorous mammals show accelerated tooth crown height evolution during open, yet relatively grass-free, shrubland habitat intervals. Our Patagonian LAI record provides a high-resolution, sensitive tool with which to dissect terrestrial ecosystem response to changing Southern Ocean conditions during the Cenozoic. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Molecular Identification of Soil Eukaryotes and Focused Approaches Targeting Protist and Faunal Groups Using High-Throughput Metabarcoding.

    PubMed

    Arjen de Groot, G; Laros, Ivo; Geisen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    While until recently the application of high-throughput sequencing approaches has mostly been restricted to bacteria and fungi, these methods have now also become available to less often studied (eukaryotic) groups, such as fauna and protists. Such approaches allow routine diversity screening for large numbers of samples via DNA metabarcoding. Given the enormous taxonomic diversity within the eukaryote tree of life, metabarcoding approaches targeting a single specific DNA region do not allow to discriminate members of all eukaryote clades at high taxonomic resolution. Here, we report on protocols that enable studying the diversity of soil eukaryotes and, at high taxonomic resolution, of individual faunal and protist groups therein using a tiered approach: first, the use of a general eukaryotic primer set targeting a wide range of eukaryotes provides a rough impression on the entire diversity of protists and faunal groups. Second, more focused approaches enable deciphering subsets of soil eukaryotes in higher taxonomic detail. We provide primers and protocols for two examples: soil microarthropods and cercozoan protists.

  3. Millennial-scale faunal record reveals differential resilience of European large mammals to human impacts across the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Crees, Jennifer J.; Carbone, Chris; Sommer, Robert S.; Benecke, Norbert; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18 700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11 700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These findings demonstrate the relatively early onset of prehistoric human impacts on postglacial biodiversity, and mirror species-specific patterns of mammalian extinction during the Late Pleistocene. Herbivores experienced significantly greater declines than carnivores, revealing an important historical extinction filter that informs our understanding of relative resilience and vulnerability to human pressures for different taxa. We highlight the importance of large-scale, long-term datasets for understanding complex protracted extinction processes, although the dynamic pattern of progressive faunal depletion of European mammal assemblages across the Holocene challenges easy identification of ‘static’ past baselines to inform current-day environmental management and restoration. PMID:27009229

  4. Millennial-scale faunal record reveals differential resilience of European large mammals to human impacts across the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Crees, Jennifer J; Carbone, Chris; Sommer, Robert S; Benecke, Norbert; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-03-30

    The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18,700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11,700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These findings demonstrate the relatively early onset of prehistoric human impacts on postglacial biodiversity, and mirror species-specific patterns of mammalian extinction during the Late Pleistocene. Herbivores experienced significantly greater declines than carnivores, revealing an important historical extinction filter that informs our understanding of relative resilience and vulnerability to human pressures for different taxa. We highlight the importance of large-scale, long-term datasets for understanding complex protracted extinction processes, although the dynamic pattern of progressive faunal depletion of European mammal assemblages across the Holocene challenges easy identification of 'static' past baselines to inform current-day environmental management and restoration.

  5. Progress in faunal correlation of Late Cenozoic fluvial sequences 2000 4: the report of the IGCP 449 biostratigraphy subgroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreve, D. C.; Keen, D. H.; Limondin-Lozouet, N.; Auguste, P.; Santisteban, Juan I.; Ubilla, M.; Matoshko, A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Westaway, R.

    2007-11-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate faunal biostratigraphy is a well-tested method for establishing relative chronologies for fluviatile sequences that has proved useful in many parts of the world. The robust bones and teeth of large mammals are commonly found in fluviatile deposits, whereas small vertebrates can be readily recovered through systematic sieving of calcareous sediments, as can molluscs, the other major faunal group that has been used for biostratigraphical analysis of fluvial sequences. Because of their rapid and quantifiable rates of evolution, extinction, body mass change and dispersal during the Late Cenozoic, mammals are especially useful for ordering the fragmentary terrestrial sequence of interglacials and glacials, and proposing correlation with the global marine climatostratigraphic record. Other groups (e.g. reptiles and amphibians, ostracods) are as yet only in the initial stages of development as a dating tool, whereas some (e.g. fish, birds) still require substantial development in order to fully explore their utility. As part of IGCP 449, vertebrate and molluscan assemblages have made important contributions to datasets from a number of areas, notably northern France, central Germany, the Czech Republic and the Ukraine. Further south, mammalian assemblages have proved useful in separating discrete periods of climatic change in Iberia and Syria. At greater distances from the core area of fluvial biostratigraphical archives, significant contributions have come from South America (Uruguay River), South Africa (Vaal) and Australia (Riverine Plain and Lake Eyre drainage basin).

  6. Mio-Pliocene Faunal Exchanges and African Biogeography: The Record of Fossil Bovids

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Faysal

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Ethiopian biogeographic realm since the late Miocene is here explored with the presentation and review of fossil evidence from eastern Africa. Prostrepsiceros cf. vinayaki and an unknown species of possible caprin affinity are described from the hominid-bearing Asa Koma and Kuseralee Members (∼5.7 and ∼5.2 Ma) of the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. The Middle Awash Prostrepsiceros cf. vinayaki constitutes the first record of this taxon from Africa, previously known from the Siwaliks and Arabia. The possible caprin joins a number of isolated records of caprin or caprin-like taxa recorded, but poorly understood, from the late Neogene of Africa. The identification of these two taxa from the Middle Awash prompts an overdue review of fossil bovids from the sub-Saharan African record that demonstrate Eurasian affinities, including the reduncin Kobus porrecticornis, and species of Tragoportax. The fossil bovid record provides evidence for greater biological continuity between Africa and Eurasia in the late Miocene and earliest Pliocene than is found later in time. In contrast, the early Pliocene (after 5 Ma) saw the loss of any significant proportions of Eurasian-related taxa, and the continental dominance of African-endemic taxa and lineages, a pattern that continues today. PMID:21358825

  7. Mio-pliocene faunal exchanges and african biogeography: the record of fossil bovids.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal

    2011-02-16

    The development of the Ethiopian biogeographic realm since the late Miocene is here explored with the presentation and review of fossil evidence from eastern Africa. Prostrepsiceros cf. vinayaki and an unknown species of possible caprin affinity are described from the hominid-bearing Asa Koma and Kuseralee Members (∼5.7 and ∼5.2 Ma) of the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. The Middle Awash Prostrepsiceros cf. vinayaki constitutes the first record of this taxon from Africa, previously known from the Siwaliks and Arabia. The possible caprin joins a number of isolated records of caprin or caprin-like taxa recorded, but poorly understood, from the late Neogene of Africa. The identification of these two taxa from the Middle Awash prompts an overdue review of fossil bovids from the sub-Saharan African record that demonstrate Eurasian affinities, including the reduncin Kobus porrecticornis, and species of Tragoportax. The fossil bovid record provides evidence for greater biological continuity between Africa and Eurasia in the late Miocene and earliest Pliocene than is found later in time. In contrast, the early Pliocene (after 5 Ma) saw the loss of any significant proportions of Eurasian-related taxa, and the continental dominance of African-endemic taxa and lineages, a pattern that continues today.

  8. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  9. Paleoclimatic analyses of middle Eocene through Oligocene planktic foraminiferal faunas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative faunal analyses and oxygen isotope ranking of individual planktic foraminiferal species from deep sea sequences of three oceans are used to make paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic inferences. Species grouped into surface, intermediate and deep water categories based on ??18O values provide evidence of major changes in water-mass stratification, and individual species abundances indicate low frequency cool-warm oscillations. These data suggest that relatively stable climatic phases with minor cool-warm oscillations of ???0.5 m.y. frequency are separated by rapid cooling events during middle Eocene to early Oligocene time. Five major climatic phases are evident in the water-mass stratification between middle Eocene through Oligocene time. Phase changes occur at P14/P15, P15/P16, P20/P21 and P21/P22 Zone boundaries and are marked by major faunal turnovers, rapid cooling in the isotope record, hiatuses and changes in the eustatic sea level. A general cooling trend between middle Eocene to early late Oligocene is indicated by the successive replacement of warm middle Eocene surface water species by cooler late Eocene intermediate water species and still cooler Oligocene intermediate and deep water species. Increased water-mass stratification in the latest Eocene (P17), indicated by the coexistence of surface, intermediate and deep dwelling species groups, suggest that increased thermal gradients developed between the equator and poles nearly coincident with the development of the psychrosphere. This pattern may be related to significant ice accumulation between late Eocene and early late Oligocene time. ?? 1983.

  10. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  11. Short-term fluctuations in vegetation and phytoplankton during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate: a 640-kyr record from the Messel oil shale (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Olaf K.; Wilde, Volker; Riegel, Walter

    2011-11-01

    The Palaeogene was the most recent greenhouse period on Earth. Especially for the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene, several superimposed short-term hyperthermal events have been described, including extremes such as the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Major faunal and floral turnovers in the marine and terrestrial realms were recorded in association with these events. High-resolution palynological analysis of the early Middle Eocene maar lake sediments at Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany, provides an insight into the dynamics of a climax vegetation during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate in a time span without significant climatic excursions. Numerical techniques like detrended correspondence analysis and wavelet analysis have been applied to recognize cyclic fluctuations and long-term trends in the vegetation through a time interval of approximately 640 kyr. Based on the numerical zoning of the pollen diagram, three phases in the development of the vegetation may be distinguished. Throughout these phases, the climax vegetation did not change substantially in qualitative composition, but a trend towards noticeably less humid conditions probably in combination with a drop of the water level in the lake may be recognized. A shift in algal population from the freshwater dinoflagellate cyst Messelodinium thielepfeifferae to a dominance of Botryococcus in the uppermost part of the core is interpreted as a response to changes in acidity and nutrient availability within the lake. Time series analyses of pollen assemblages show that variations in the Milankovitch range of eccentricity, obliquity and precession can be distinguished. In addition, fluctuations in the sub-Milankovitch range are indicated. This demonstrates that floral changes during steady depositional conditions in the Middle Eocene of Messel were controlled by orbital forcing.

  12. Deep-sea ecosystem response to the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO) in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunzel, Dorothea; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Friedrich, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the benthic foraminiferal diversity and species composition from North Atlantic IODP Site U1408 in order to document changes in deep-water circulation and organic matter fluxes across the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO). Site U1408 was drilled at a present water depth of 3022 m southeast of the coast of Newfoundland. The benthic foraminiferal faunas are characterized by generally high species diversity suggesting favorable environmental conditions throughout the studied interval. Among a total of 193 benthic foraminiferal taxa the most dominant genera include Nuttallides, Oridorsalis, Cibicidoides, Pullenia, Anomalinoides, Globocassidulina and Gyroidinoides. Increased abundances of elongate-cylindrical infaunal species suggest approximately 460 ka duration of the MECO (from around 40.19 to 39.73 Ma) and the presence of slightly less ventilated bottom waters and elevated food availability during this time interval. The duration of the MECO also coincides with the presence of the planktonic foraminifer Orbulinoides beckmanni, which therefore is used as an Eocene biostratigraphy marker defining the end of the warm interval with its Last Appearance Datum. Changes in the benthic foraminiferal fauna probably reflect the onset of deep-water formation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean as response to the long-term climatic cooling trend of the middle Eocene. The intensification of deep-water currents and increased influence of cold and well-ventilated deep-water masses is reflected by increased importance of the Nuttallides truempyi-fauna. Superimposed on this long-term faunal trend are changes in the distribution of Globocassidulina subglobosa at a period of approximately 200 ka suggesting an eccentricity forcing of deep-water formation and associated food quality at the sea floor.

  13. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J. N.; Harrison, Colin J. O.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  14. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK.

    PubMed

    Roe, Helen M; Coope, G Russell; Devoy, Robert J N; Harrison, Colin J O; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Schreve, Danielle C

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 degrees C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus

  15. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J.N.; Harrison, Colin J.O.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  16. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on menopausal symptoms, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters in middle-aged women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Masakazu; Horiguchi, Noe; Kajiyama, Asuka; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Owa, Yoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Kubota, Toshiro

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of proanthocyanidin-a class of polyphenol antioxidants extracted from grape seeds-on menopausal symptoms, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters in middle-aged women. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 96 women aged 40 to 60 years who had at least one menopausal symptom. The study participants were randomized to receive grape seed extract tablets containing either low-dose (100 mg/d) or high-dose (200 mg/d) proanthocyanidin, or placebo, for 8 weeks. Their menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Menopausal Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Athens Insomnia Scale before and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Body composition and cardiovascular parameters were also measured. A total of 91 women (95%) completed the study. Background characteristics, including age, menopause status, subjective symptom scores, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters, were similar among the groups. The following significant changes were observed during the course of the study: (1) physical symptom score, hot flash score, and (2) Athens Insomnia Scale score decreased in the high-dose group after 8 weeks of treatment; (3) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety score and (4) systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in the low-dose and high-dose groups after 4 weeks; and, (5) lastly, muscle mass increased in the low-dose and high-dose groups after 8 weeks of treatment. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract is effective in improving the physical and psychological symptoms of menopause while increasing muscle mass and reducing blood pressure in middle-aged women.

  17. Acid processing of pre-Tertiary radiolarian cherts and its impact on faunal content and biozonal correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Reed, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Destruction of radiolarians during both diagenesis and HF processing severely reduces faunal abundance and diversity and affects the taxonomic and biostratigraphic utility of chert residues. The robust forms that survive the processing represent only a small fraction of the death assemblage, and delicate skeletal structures used for species differentiation, are either poorly preserved or dissolved in many coeval chert residues. First and last occurrences of taxa in chert sequences are likely to be coarse approximations of their true stratigraphic ranges. Precise correlation is difficult between biozonations based solely on index species from cherts and those constructed from limestone faunas. Careful selection of samples in sequence, use of weaker HF solutions, and study of both chert and limestone faunas should yield better biostratigraphic information. -from Authors

  18. Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity is Associated with Composite Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Asymptomatic Population

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Cho, Sang-A; Cho, Jae-Young; Lee, Seunghun; Park, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Sung Ho; Hong, Soon Jun; Yu, Cheol Woong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Although arterial stiffness has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis, the role of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) for diagnosing composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis has not been completely elucidated. Method: We enrolled 773 asymptomatic individuals who were referred from 25 public health centers in Seoul and who underwent carotid ultrasonography and coronary computed tomography. Noninvasive hemodynamic parameters, including baPWV, were also measured. Composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis was defined as follows: 1) coronary artery calcium (CAC) score ≥ 100, 2) coronary artery stenosis (CAS) ≥ 50% of diameter stenosis, 3) carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) ≥ 0.9 mm, or 4) presence of carotid artery plaque (CAP). Results: The incidence of composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis was 28.2%. Coronary atherosclerosis (CAC and CAS) was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT and CAP). Subjects with higher baPWV (highest quartile) had a higher prevalence of composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis (p < .001). Although multivariate analysis failed to show baPWV as an independent predictor for composite atherosclerosis, baPWV had moderate diagnostic power to detect a subject with more than two positive subclinical atherosclerosis exams [area under the curve (AUC), 0.692]. Conclusion: baPWV was associated with the composite coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden in a community-based asymptomatic population. PMID:27251176

  19. Middle Years. For Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This supplement offers 10 articles focusing on middle school education. Topics include remembering adolescence, resources and teaching tips, active middle school students, adolescent development, challenges in middle school education, integrated studies, planning middle school special events, a writing-science-consumerism miniunit on popcorn,…

  20. Faunal evidence for reduced productivity and uncoordinated recovery in Southern Hemisphere Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberhan, Martin; Weidemeyer, Sven; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Scasso, Roberto A.; Medina, Francisco A.

    2007-03-01

    The mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is generally explained by a severe crisis in primary productivity, following a catastrophic bolide impact. Consistent with this scenario, Danian mollusk-dominated benthic shelf ecosystems of southern middle paleolatitudes (Neuquén Basin, Argentina) are characterized by (1) a stratigraphically limited low in macrofossil abundances; (2) an increase in starvation-resistant, nonplanktotrophic deposit feeders and chemosymbionts; (3) a reduction in the average body size of individuals; and (4) individuals with inactive lifestyles being more common than in the late Maastrichtian. Return to pre-extinction conditions of the various synecological attributes occurred over unequal time spans, indicating that recovery was uncoordinated with respect to ecological traits. Global comparison of ecological patterns suggests that reduced food supply (1) was a controlling factor in both hemispheres; (2) affected macrobenthic marine faunas at various distances from the Chicxulub impact site; and (3) was more effective in siliciclastic environments as compared to oligotrophic carbonate settings.

  1. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A

    2015-05-01

    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mammals and rainfall: paleoecology of the middle Miocene at La Venta (Colombia, South America).

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Madden, R H

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the species richness and macroniche composition of diet, locomotor and body-size classes among 16 nonvolant mammalian faunas in tropical South America reveals numerous significant positive correlations with rainfall. In particular, significant and strong positive correlations with rainfall are found in 18 attributes, including the number of nonvolant mammal species, number of primate species, number of frugivores, primary consumers, arborealists, and the number of species between 100 g to 10 kg in body weight. Estimates of annual rainfall derived from least-squares and polynomial regressions and principal components analysis yield a modal estimate of between 1500 and 2000 mm annual rainfall for the Monkey Beds assemblage at La Venta. This level of rainfall is associated today with the transition between savanna and forest environments in lowland equatorial South America. Paleontological evidence strongly suggests the presence of forest biotopes at La Venta. Paleontologic and sedimentologic evidence together indicate a dynamic and heterogeneous riparian mosaic associated with the shifting course of meandering rivers. Faunal evidence also suggests that habitat heterogeneity and canopy discontinuity extended into the interfluvial area. Seasonal rainfall was probably only of secondary importance in shaping the structural and spatial configuration of the dominantly forested mosaic habitat at La Venta. The fossil record is not consistent with the presence of extensive primary or undisturbed, continuous-canopy, evergreen tropical rainforest. The reconstructed middle Miocene environment at La Venta differs significantly from modern environments of similar geography on the piedmont east of the Andes at the same latitude. This in turn suggests that the extensive evergreen rainforests of the upper Amazonian piedmont that today receive more than 4000 mm of rainfall may post-date the initiation of Andean uplift.

  3. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  4. Faunal structures associated with patches of mussels on East Asian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-04-01

    Aggregations of mussels harbor a variety of associated animals and make it possible for diverse species to coexist at the shore. Species composition and diversity of the associated fauna are controlled by the position of mussel beds or patches, e.g. tidal level, age structure of mussels, quality of ambient water and by mussel species. When patches of mussels were surrounded by algal growth, a difference in the species composition of the associated fauna was recognized between the patches and algal mats. Mechanisms promoting coexistence are discussed. Biodeposit production by mussels may affect the environment both within the bed and the ambient waters. Reducing sediments showing low Eh values caused by the accumulation of biodeposits was observed in calm waters where the polychaete Capitella capitata, an indicator for organic enrichment, occurred both in the intertidal mussel bed and the subtidal sandy bottom communities. In a shallow subtidal sandy bottom of the Gulf of Thailand, where heavy bioturbation by the spatangoid urchin Brissus latecarinatus was occurring, small patches of the mussel Modiolus metcalfi increased species diversity and equitability in this habitat. Species composition was different between mussel patches and pure sandy bottoms.

  5. Re-Os Geochronology Pins Age and Os Isotope Composition of Middle Triassic Black Shales and Seawater, Barents Sea and Spitsbergen (Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Hannah, J. L.; Bingen, B.; Stein, H. J.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.; Weitschat, W.; Weiss, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Absolute age control throughout the Triassic is extraordinarily sparse. Two "golden spikes" have been added recently (http://www.stratigraphy.org/cheu.pdf) within the otherwise unconstrained Triassic, but ages of stage boundaries remain controversial. Here we report two Re-Os isochrons for Anisian (Middle Triassic) black shales from outcrop in western Svalbard and drill core from the Svalis Dome about 600 km to the SE in the Barents Sea. Black shales of the Blanknuten Member, Botneheia Formation, from the type section at Botneheia, western Spitsbergen (Svalbard), have total organic carbon (TOC) contents of 2.6 to 6.0 wt%. Rock-Eval data suggest moderately mature (Tmax = 440-450° C) Type II-III kerogens (Hydrogen Index (HI) = 232-311 mg HC/g TOC). Re-Os data yield a well-constrained Model 3 age of 241 Ma and initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) of 0.83 (MSWD = 16, n = 6). Samples of the possibly correlative Steinkobbe Formation from IKU core hole 7323/07-U-04 into the Svalis Dome in the Barents Sea (at about 73°30'N, 23°15'E) have TOC contents of 1.4 to 2.4%. Rock-Eval data suggest immature (Tmax = 410-430°) Type II-III kerogens (HI = 246-294 mg HC/g TOC). Re-Os data yield a precise Model 1 age of 239 Ma and Osi of 0.776 (MSWD = 0.2, n = 5). The sampled section of Blanknuten shale underlies a distinctive Frechitas (formerly Ptychites) layer, and is therefore assumed to be middle Anisian. The Steinkobbe core was sampled at 99-100 m, just above the Olenekian-Anisian transition. It is therefore assumed to be lower Anisian. The two isochron ages overlap within uncertainty, and fall within constraints provided by biozones and the current ICS-approved stage boundary ages. The Re-Os ages support the correlation of the Botneheia and Steinkobbe formations. The nearly identical Osi ratios suggest regional homogeneity of seawater and provide new information for the Os seawater curve, marking a relatively high 187Os/188Os ratio during profound ocean anoxia in the Middle Triassic.

  6. MIS 3 mammoth remains from Sweden—implications for faunal history, palaeoclimate and glaciation chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukkonen, P.; Arppe, L.; Houmark-Nielsen, M.; Kjær, K. H.; Karhu, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The distribution of low-arctic megafaunal remains in time and space from the area previously covered by the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) suggests the presence of breeding mammoth populations in the circum-Baltic region during the time interval from 44 to 26 ka ago. The transport history of 30 mammoth teeth and bones from southern and north-central Sweden was estimated and the remains were subjected to osteological analyses and 14C dating. Oxygen isotope analyses of tooth enamel indicate a palaeoclimate considerably more homogenous than that experienced in Sweden today, showing moderate north-south gradients in the δ18O value of precipitation and temperature. In general, the results support the model of restricted ice sheet distribution during the second half of the Middle Weichselian. The clear discrepancy in the inferred absence of glaciation in the central Swedish uplands and the Baltic basin as evidenced by the Swedish mammoth data versus the Danish OSL-based glaciation chronology in the period from 40 to 30 ka ago is discussed in the light of radiocarbon calibration and glacial dynamics.

  7. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  8. Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Desmond; Beyene, Yonas; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; Gilbert, Henry; Defleur, Alban; Suwa, Gen; Katoh, Shigehiro; Ludwig, Kenneth R; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D

    2003-06-12

    Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin sandstones of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Afar Rift, Ethiopia. The fossils and artefacts are dated between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago by precise age determinations using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The archaeological assemblages contain elements of both Acheulean and Middle Stone Age technocomplexes. Associated faunal remains indicate repeated, systematic butchery of hippopotamus carcasses. Contemporary adult and juvenile Homo sapiens fossil crania manifest bone modifications indicative of deliberate mortuary practices.

  9. Habitat restoration: Early signs and extent of faunal recovery relative to seagrass recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSkimming, Chloe; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.; Tanner, Jason E.

    2016-03-01

    The overall intent of restoration is often not only to restore the habitat per se, but to restore the ecosystem services it supplies, and particularly to encourage the return of fauna. Seagrass meadows act as habitat for some of the most diverse and abundant animal life, and as the global loss of seagrass continues, managers have sought to restore lost meadows. We tested how quickly the epifaunal richness, abundances and community composition of experimental restoration plots recovered to that in an adjacent natural seagrass meadow relative to the recovery of seagrass per se. Seagrass structure in the restoration plots took three years to become similar to a nearby natural meadow. The recovery of epifaunal richness and total abundance, however, occurred within one year. These results suggest that although recovering habitats may not be structurally similar to undisturbed habitats, they can support similar richness and abundances of epifauna, and thus have greater economic and social value than otherwise might have been expected. Nevertheless, whilst epifaunal richness and total abundance recovered prior to the recovery of seagrass structure, full recovery of seagrass was required before the composition and relative abundances of the epifaunal community matched that of the natural seagrass meadow.

  10. Implications of Changes in Family Structure and Composition for the Psychological Well-Being of Filipino Women in Middle and Later Years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feinian; Bao, Luoman; Shattuck, Rachel M; Borja, Judith B; Gultiano, Socorro

    2015-10-16

    The health implications of multigenerational coresidence for older adults is a well-researched topic in the aging literature. Much less is known of its impact for women in midlife. We used data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Study (2002, 2005, 2007, and 2012) to study the influence of transitions in multigenerational household composition on depressive symptoms for women in midlife transitioning into old age. Our initial analysis showed little effect when we use the conventional classification of nuclear versus extended family and transition in and out of extended family. When we described shifts in the family environment by compositional changes, that is, change in the presence and absence of particular family members, we found significant association between depressive symptoms and two types of role transitions: the loss of a spouse in the household and the entry and exit of grandchildren in the household. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Implications of Changes in Family Structure and Composition for the Psychological Well-being of Filipina Women in Middle and Later Years

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feinian; Bao, Luoman; Shattuck, Rachel M.; Borja, Judith B.; Gultiano, Socorro

    2015-01-01

    The health implications of multigenerational coresidence for older adults is a well-researched topic in the aging literature. Much less is known of its impact for women in mid-life. We used data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Study (2002, 2005, 2007 and 2012), to study the influence of transitions in multigenerational household composition on depressive symptoms for women in mid-life transitioning into old age. Our initial analysis showed little effect when we use the conventional classification of nuclear vs. extended family and transition in and out of extended family. When we described shifts in the family environment by compositional changes, that is, change in the presence and absence of particular family members, we found significant association between depressive symptoms and two types of role transitions: the loss of a spouse in the household, and the entry and exit of grandchildren in the household. PMID:26475652

  12. New Discoveries Resulted from Lidar Investigation of Middle and Upper Atmosphere Temperature, Composition, Chemistry and Dynamics at McMurdo, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Yu, Z.; Fong, W.; Chen, C.; Huang, W.; Lu, X.; Gardner, C. S.; McDonald, A.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Vadas, S.

    2013-12-01

    The scientific motivation to explore the neutral properties of the polar middle and upper atmosphere is compelling. Human-induced changes in the Earth's climate system are one of the most challenging social and scientific issues in this century. Besides monitoring climate change, to fully explore neutral-ion coupling in the critical region between 100 and 200 km is an objective of highest priority for the upper atmosphere science community. Meteorological sources of wave energy from the lower atmosphere are responsible for producing significant variability in the upper atmosphere. Energetic particles and fields originating from the magnetosphere regularly alter the state of the ionosphere. These influences converge through the tight coupling between the ionosphere plasma and neutral thermosphere gas in the space-atmosphere interaction region (SAIR). Unfortunately measurements of the neutral thermosphere are woefully incomplete and in critical need to advance our understanding of and ability to predict the SAIR. Lidar measurements of neutral thermospheric winds, temperatures and species can enable these explorations. To help address these issues, in December 2010 we deployed an Fe Boltzmann temperature lidar to McMurdo (77.8S, 166.7E), Antarctica via collaboration between the United States Antarctic Program and Antarctica New Zealand. Since then an extensive dataset (~3000 h) has been collected by this lidar during its first 32 months of operation, leading to several important new discoveries. The McMurdo lidar campaign will continue for another five years to acquiring long-term datasets for polar geospace research. In this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the lidar campaign and scientific results, emphasizing several new discoveries in the polar middle and upper atmosphere research. In particular, the lidar has detected neutral Fe layers reaching 170 km in altitude, and derived neutral temperature from 30 to 170 km for the first time in the world. Such

  13. Views to the past: Faunal and geophysical analysis of the open-air Upper Paleolithic site of Verberie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jason Randall

    AN ABSTRACT This dissertation builds upon previous Magdalenian research to reframe a logistical subsistence posture as an active risk-mitigation structure premised upon ensuring predictable surplus economic production at the French Upper Paleolithic site of Verberie le Buisson Campin (hereinafter VBC). Using a detailed faunal and statistical analysis of two faunal datasets to assess taphonomically the role of bone density-mediated vs. anthropogenic taphonomic agencies, this research also correlates bone survivorship with both limb element marrow cavity volume and the meat drying index. A limited program of bone refits attempted to provide evidence for the distribution of meat at the site. Age profiles generated from dental crown height measurements provide strong evidence that younger, perhaps more nutritious and valuable, carcasses were treated quite differently than were geriatric carcasses. There also appears to be a spatial component to the differential age-mediated treatment of reindeer carcasses at VBC. In essence, it appears that seasonal reindeer hunts at VBC were concerned with two eventualities: 1) the attainment of predictable and adequate nutrition for provisioning over winter, and 2) seeking to balance adequate nutrition with future reindeer herd viability. It appears that Magdalenian hunters essentially held young/prime prey targets as an independent variable, and treated the presence of geriatric, elder reindeer herd members as a dependent variable in meeting subsistence needs. Perhaps lower numbers of more nutritious (i.e., containing more and better quality fat reserves in meat and marrow) young/prime animals resulted in taking greater numbers of elderly reindeer to offset potential shortfall; in more abundant times, so long as herd viability could be maintained, greater numbers of more valuable young/prime would be taken along with lower numbers of geriatric reindeer. The fulcrum point of this subsistence balance appears to have been a very active

  14. Temporal variability of live (stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf - faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goineau, A.; Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F.; Buscail, R.; Kerhervé, P.; Cathalot, C.; Pruski, A. M.; Bourgeois, S.; Metzger, E.; Legrand, E.; Rabouille, C.

    2011-09-01

    In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River-seA connection), living (rose Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth) in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions). The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material). Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63-150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. Obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition were observed during the four investigated periods at the shallowest Station A located in the close vicinity of the Rhône River mouth. Different colonisation stages were observed after major Rhône River flood events, foraminiferal faunas responding with an opportunistic strategy few days to weeks after the creation of a peculiar sedimentary environment (Leptohalysis scottii, May 2008) or high amounts of organic matter supplied by a river flood (Ammonia tepida, December 2008). Under more stable conditions, relatively diverse and equilibrated faunas grew in the sediments. Species benefited from noticeable input of riverine phytodetritus to the sediment during spring bloom conditions (April 2007; e.g. Bolivina dilatata, Nonionella stella, Stainforthia fusiformis), or high amounts of still bio-available organic matter under more oligotrophic conditions (September 2007; e.g. Ammonia tepida, Psammosphaera fusca). The reduced influence of the Rhône River input at the farther Station N led to less contrasted environmental conditions during the four sampling periods, and so to less obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition. During reduced riverine influence (i.e. low Rhône discharge), species able to feed on fresh phytodetritus

  15. Temporal variability of live (stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf - Faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goineau, A.; Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F.; Buscail, R.; Kerhervé, P.; Cathalot, C.; Pruski, A. M.; Lantoine, F.; Bourgeois, S.; Metzger, E.; Legrand, E.; Rabouille, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River-seA connection), living (rose Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth) in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions). The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material). Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63-150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. Obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition were observed during the four investigated periods at the shallowest Station A located in the close vicinity of the Rhône River mouth. After major Rhône River flood events, different colonisation stages were observed with foraminiferal faunas responding with an opportunistic strategy few days to weeks after the creation of a peculiar sedimentary environment (Leptohalysis scottii, May 2008) or high organic matter supplies (Ammonia tepida, December 2008). Under more stable conditions, relatively diverse and equilibrated faunas grew in the sediments. Species benefited from noticeable input of riverine phytodetritus to the sediment during spring bloom conditions (April 2007; e.g. Bolivina dilatata, Nonionella stella, Stainforthia fusiformis), or high amounts of still bio-available organic matter under more oligotrophic conditions (September 2007; e.g. Ammonia tepida, Psammosphaera fusca). The reduced influence of the Rhône River input at the farther Station N led to less contrasted environmental conditions during the four sampling periods, and so to less obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition. During reduced riverine influence (i.e. low Rhône discharge), species able to feed on fresh phytodetritus (e.g. Clavulina

  16. Predicting wading bird and aquatic faunal responses to ecosystem restoration scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beerens, James M.; Trexler, Joel C.; Catano, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    In large-scale conservation decisions, scenario planning identifies key uncertainties of ecosystem function linked to ecological drivers affected by management, incorporates ecological feedbacks, and scales up to answer questions robust to alternative futures. Wetland restoration planning requires an understanding of how proposed changes in surface hydrology, water storage, and landscape connectivity affect aquatic animal composition, productivity, and food-web function. In the Florida Everglades, reintroduction of historical hydrologic patterns is expected to increase productivity of all trophic levels. Highly mobile indicator species such as wading birds integrate secondary productivity from aquatic prey (small fishes and crayfish) over the landscape. To evaluate how fish, crayfish, and wading birds may respond to alternative hydrologic restoration plans, we compared predicted small fish density, crayfish density and biomass, and wading bird occurrence for existing conditions to four restoration scenarios that varied water storage and removal of levees and canals (i.e. decompartmentalization). Densities of small fish and occurrence of wading birds are predicted to increase throughout most of the Everglades under all restoration options because of increased flows and connectivity. Full decompartmentalization goes furthest toward recreating hypothesized historical patterns of fish density by draining excess water ponded by levees and hydrating areas that are currently drier than in the past. In contrast, crayfish density declined and species composition shifted under all restoration options because of lengthened hydroperiods (i.e. time of inundation). Under full decompartmentalization, the distribution of increased prey available for wading birds shifted south, closer to historical locations of nesting activity in Everglades National Park.

  17. Increases in plasma 25(OH)D levels are related to improvements in body composition and blood pressure in middle-aged subjects after a weight loss intervention: Longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Abete, Itziar; Martinez, J A; Zulet, M A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to further clarify the role of plasma 25(OH)D concentration after a weight-lowering nutritional intervention on body composition, blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese middle-aged subjects. This longitudinal research encompassed a total of 50 subjects [57.26 (5.24) year], who were under a 15% energy restricted diet for 4 weeks. Anthropometric and body composition variables, blood routine, inflammatory markers as well as 25(OH)D were analysed. Circulating 25(OH)D levels [12.13(±17.61%)] increased while anthropometric, body composition, routine blood markers as well as the concentration of TNF-α, C-reactive protein and Lp-PLA2 were significantly reduced after the intervention. Multiple linear regression analyses evidenced that Δ25(OH)D increase was linked to the decrease in weight, adiposity, SBP and IL-6 levels. Moreover, a relationship was found between Δ25(OH)D, Δfat mass (r = -0.405; p = 0.007), ΔSBP (r = -0.355; p = 0.021) and ΔIL-6 (r = -0.386; p = 0.014). On the other hand, a higher increase in 25(OH)D was accompanied by reductions in weight, BMI, SBP, IL-6 and an increase in bone mineral concentration (p < 0.05). Interestingly, higher levels of 25(OH)D at the endpoint, showed a significantly higher decrease in weight, BMI and total fat mass. The increase in plasma 25(OH)D level is linked with the decrease in SBP and adiposity in middle-aged subjects after a weight-loss intervention. Therefore, 25(OH)D assessment is a potential marker to be accounted in metabolic measures related to blood pressure, adiposity and inflammation in obesity management. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01596309). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationships between Anabolic Hormones and Body Composition in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men with Prediabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The influence of anabolic hormones and body composition in men with prediabetes (PD) is unknown. In a cross-sectional study we investigated the relationships between total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and body composition assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method in 84 patients with PD (40–80 years) and 56 men in control group. Patients with PD had lower TT, cFT, and DHEAS levels but similar IGF-1 levels in both groups. Patients with PD presented the higher total and abdominal fat as well as the lower total and abdominal lean than control (p < 0.02, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.02, resp.). We observed negative relationship between TT and total fat (p = 0.014) and positive with abdominal lean mass (p = 0.034), while cFT was negatively associated with abdominal (p = 0.02), trunk (p = 0.024), and leg fat (p = 0.037) and positively associated with total (p = 0.022) and trunk lean (p = 0.024). DHEAS were negatively associated with total fat (p = 0.045), and IGF-1 were positively associated with abdominal (p = 0.003) and leg lean (p = 0.015). In conclusion, the lowered anabolic hormones are involved in body composition rearrangement in men with PD. Further studies are needed to establish whether the androgen replacement therapy would be beneficial in men with PD. PMID:27274996

  19. Comparison of body composition measurement with whole body multifrequency bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Benton, Melissa J; Swan, Pamela D; Schlairet, Maura C; Sanderson, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate accuracy of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the criterion measure. Body composition of 27 women was assessed by ADP followed immediately by MFBIA. There was a strong relationship (p = .01) between ADP and MFBIA in absolute lean mass (r = 0.80), absolute fat mass (r = 0.99), percent lean mass (r = 0.91), and percent fat mass (r = 0.91). Although MFBIA consistently overestimated lean mass and underestimated fat mass compared with ADP, agreement between measurements was within 2%-3% body fat. An accurate assessment tool, MFBIA can be useful in clinical settings.

  20. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  1. Soil resource supply influences faunal size-specific distributions in natural food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Christian; den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-07-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use can be made of ecological theory to build and explain food webs. The aggregate contribution of small invertebrates such as nematodes to the entire community is high under low soil phosphorus content and causes shifts in the mass-abundance relationships and in the trophic structures. We show for the first time that the average of the trophic link lengths is a reliable predictor for assessing soil fertility responses. Ordered trophic link pairs suggest a self-organizing structure of food webs according to resource availability and can predict environmental shifts in ecologically meaningful ways.

  2. Deep-sea faunal communities associated with a lost intermodal shipping container in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, CA.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Josi R; DeVogelaere, Andrew P; Burton, Erica J; Frey, Oren; Lundsten, Lonny; Kuhnz, Linda A; Whaling, P J; Lovera, Christopher; Buck, Kurt R; Barry, James P

    2014-06-15

    Carrying assorted cargo and covered with paints of varying toxicity, lost intermodal containers may take centuries to degrade on the deep seafloor. In June 2004, scientists from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) discovered a recently lost container during a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dive on a sediment-covered seabed at 1281 m depth in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The site was revisited by ROV in March 2011. Analyses of sediment samples and high-definition video indicate that faunal assemblages on the container's exterior and the seabed within 10 m of the container differed significantly from those up to 500 m. The container surface provides hard substratum for colonization by taxa typically found in rocky habitats. However, some key taxa that dominate rocky areas were absent or rare on the container, perhaps related to its potential toxicity or limited time for colonization and growth. Ecological effects appear to be restricted to the container surface and the benthos within ∼10 m. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns of faunal extinction and paleoclimatic change from mid-Holocene mammoth and polar bear remains, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltre, Douglas W.; Yesner, David R.; Crossen, Kristine J.; Graham, Russell W.; Coltrain, Joan B.

    2008-07-01

    Qagnaxˆ Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, has recently produced a mid-Holocene vertebrate faunal assemblage including woolly mammoth, polar bear, caribou, and Arctic fox. Several dates on the mammoth remains converge on 5700 14C yr BP. These dates, ~ 2300 yr younger than mammoth dates previously published from the Pribilof Islands, make these the youngest remains of proboscideans, and of non-extinct Quaternary megafauna, recovered from North America. Persistence of mammoths on the Pribilofs is most parsimoniously explained by the isolation of the Pribilofs and the lack of human presence in pre-Russian contact times, but an additional factor may have been the local existence of high-quality forage in the form of grasses enriched by nutrients derived from local Holocene tephras. This interpretation is reinforced by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values obtained from the mammoth remains. The endpoint of mammoth survival in the Pribilofs is unknown, but maybe coterminous with the arrival of polar bears whose remains in the cave date to the Neoglacial cold period of ~ 4500 to 3500 14C yr BP. The polar bear record corroborates a widespread cooling of the Bering Sea region at that time.

  4. U-Pb dating and composition of inclusions in zircon from ophiolitic gabbro of the Klyuchevsk massif (Middle Urals): Results and geological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ivanov, K. S.; Koroteev, V. A.; Erokhin, Yu. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The U-Pb (SHRIMP) dating of zircon from the layered complex of ophiolitic gabbro in the Klyuchevsk massif yielded an age of 456 ± 6 Ma corresponding within the limits of error to zircon dates obtained for other petrographic varieties from this massif. The investigation of the composition of silicate inclusions in dated zircon grains revealed that they are represented by typical metamorphic minerals: albite, zoisite, and secondary amphiboles. The data indicate that zircon was crystallized during metamorphic transformations of gabbroids and its U-Pb age (Late Ordovician-Silurian) is characteristic of all rocks in the ophiolite association of the Klyuchevsk massif indicating the age of metamorphism, not their formation time.

  5. Taphonomic Analysis of the Faunal Assemblage Associated with the Hominins (Australopithecus sediba) from the Early Pleistocene Cave Deposits of Malapa, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Val, Aurore; Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Backwell, Lucinda R.; d’Errico, Francesco; Berger, Lee R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the results of a taphonomic study of the faunal assemblage associated with the hominin fossils (Australopithecus sediba) from the Malapa site. Results include estimation of body part representation, mortality profiles, type of fragmentation, identification of breakage patterns, and microscopic analysis of bone surfaces. The diversity of the faunal spectrum, presence of animals with climbing proclivities, abundance of complete and/or articulated specimens, occurrence of antimeric sets of elements, and lack of carnivore-modified bones, indicate that animals accumulated via a natural death trap leading to an area of the cave system with no access to mammalian scavengers. The co-occurrence of well preserved fossils, carnivore coprolites, deciduous teeth of brown hyaena, and some highly fragmented and poorly preserved remains supports the hypothesis of a mixing of sediments coming from distinct chambers, which collected at the bottom of the cave system through the action of periodic water flow. This combination of taphonomic features explains the remarkable state of preservation of the hominin fossils as well as some of the associated faunal material. PMID:26061082

  6. Taphonomic Analysis of the Faunal Assemblage Associated with the Hominins (Australopithecus sediba) from the Early Pleistocene Cave Deposits of Malapa, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Val, Aurore; Dirks, Paul H G M; Backwell, Lucinda R; d'Errico, Francesco; Berger, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the results of a taphonomic study of the faunal assemblage associated with the hominin fossils (Australopithecus sediba) from the Malapa site. Results include estimation of body part representation, mortality profiles, type of fragmentation, identification of breakage patterns, and microscopic analysis of bone surfaces. The diversity of the faunal spectrum, presence of animals with climbing proclivities, abundance of complete and/or articulated specimens, occurrence of antimeric sets of elements, and lack of carnivore-modified bones, indicate that animals accumulated via a natural death trap leading to an area of the cave system with no access to mammalian scavengers. The co-occurrence of well preserved fossils, carnivore coprolites, deciduous teeth of brown hyaena, and some highly fragmented and poorly preserved remains supports the hypothesis of a mixing of sediments coming from distinct chambers, which collected at the bottom of the cave system through the action of periodic water flow. This combination of taphonomic features explains the remarkable state of preservation of the hominin fossils as well as some of the associated faunal material.

  7. Monazite stability, composition and geochronology as tracers of Paleoproterozoic events at the eastern margin of the East European Craton (Taratash complex, Middle Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Gerdes, Axel; Ronkin, Yuri L.; Dziggel, Annika; Hetzel, Ralf; Schulte, Bernd Aloys

    2012-02-01

    The Precambrian Taratash complex (Middle Urals) is one of the rare windows into the Palaeoproterozoic and earlier history of the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Monazite from intensively deformed rocks within a major amphibolite-facies shear zone in the Taratash complex has been investigated by means of electron-probe microanalysis and laser-ablation SF-ICP-MS. Metamorphic and magmatic cores of monazite from metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks yield U-Pb ages of 2244 ± 19 and 2230 ± 22 Ma (± 2 σ) and record a previously unknown pre-deformational HT-metamorphic event in the Taratash complex. Subsequent dissolution-reprecipitation of monazite, during shear zone formation under amphibolite-facies conditions, caused patchy zonation and chemical alteration of the recrystallised monazite domains, leading to higher cheralite and huttonite components. This process, which was mediated by a probable (alkali + OH)-bearing metamorphic fluid also caused a total resetting of the U-Pb-system. The patchy domains yield concordant U-Pb-ages between 2052 ± 16 and 2066 ± 22 Ma, interpreted as the age of the shear zone. In line with previously published ages of high grade metamorphism and migmatisation, the data may point to a Palaeoproterozoic orogenic event at the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Post-deformational fluid-induced greenschist-facies retrogression caused partial to complete breakdown of monazite to fluorapatite, REE + Y-rich epidote, allanite and Th-orthosilicate.The retrograde assemblages either form coronas around monazite, or occur as dispersed reaction zones, indicating that the REE, Y, and Th were mobile at least on the thin section scale. The greenschist-facies metamorphic fluid was aqueous and rich in Ca. Monazite affected by advanced breakdown responded to the retrogression by incorporating the cheralite or huttonite components during a fluid-induced dissolution-reprecipitation process. This event did not reset the U

  8. Mechanics and Composition of Middle Cerebral Arteries from Simulated Microgravity Rats with and without 1-h/d –Gx Gravitation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiu-Hua; Zhang, Li-Fan; Gao, Fang; Bai, Yun-Gang; Boscolo, Marco; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate further from the biomechanical aspect whether microgravity-induced cerebral vascular mal-adaptation might be a contributing factor to postflight orthostatic intolerance and the underlying mechanism accounting for the potential effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG) in preventing this adverse effect. Methodology/Principal Findings Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were isolated from 28-day SUS (tail-suspended, head-down tilt rats to simulate microgravity effect), S+D (SUS plus 1-h/d −Gx gravitation by normal standing to simulate IAG), and CON (control) rats. Vascular myogenic reactivity and circumferential stress-strain and axial force-pressure relationships and overall stiffness were examined using pressure arteriography and calculated. Acellular matrix components were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that myogenic reactivity is susceptible to previous pressure-induced, serial constrictions. During the first-run of pressure increments, active MCAs from SUS rats can strongly stiffen their wall and maintain the vessels at very low strains, which can be prevented by the simulated IAG countermeasure. The strains are 0.03 and 0.14 respectively for SUS and S+D, while circumferential stress being kept at 0.5 (106 dyn/cm2). During the second-run pressure steps, both the myogenic reactivity and active stiffness of the three groups declined. The distensibility of passive MCAs from S+D is significantly higher than CON and SUS, which may help to attenuate the vasodilatation impairment at low levels of pressure. Collagen and elastin percentages were increased and decreased, respectively, in MCAs from SUS and S+D as compared with CON; however, elastin was higher in S+D than SUS rats. Conclusions Susceptibility to previous myogenic constrictions seems to be a self-limiting protective mechanism in cerebral small resistance arteries to prevent undue cerebral vasoconstriction during orthostasis at 1-G environment

  9. Is these a link between eustatic variations, platform drowning, oceanic anoxic events, and ammonite faunal turnovers ? Case study of the Aptian sediments along the northern Tethyan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pictet, Antoine; Föllmi, Karl; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    The early Aptian witnessed an important episode of paleoenvironmental change, which has been linked to major marine volcanic activity related to the formation of the Ontong-Java large igneous province (e.g., Larson and Erba, 1999). This phase culminated in the formation of hemipelagic and pelagic organic-rich sediments, whereas profound changes are also observed in shallow-water settings, with the step-by-step disappearance of the northern Tethyan platform. Results show that the northern Tethyan platform has passed through three major crises in its evolution during the early Aptian. A first one started with an emersion phase, marked by a subaerial karstified discontinuity reported from the middle early Aptian (Deshayesites forbesi or early D. deshayesi zone). This is directly followed by the drowning of the Urgonian platform along the northern Tethyan margin, preceding the Selli Episode. The period following this drowning phase coincides with the negative and the following positive excursions in the δ13C records and went along with the deposition of the so-called Lower Grünten Member, which is the result of heterozoan carbonate production and characterized by increased detrital input. Ammonite fauna witnessed an important diversification of hemipelagic forms, especially inside the heteromorph Ancyloceratacea. This radiation is probably linked to the expansion of hemipelagic facies, one of the main habitats of ammonites. A second phase, reported from the late early Aptian (late D. deshayesi zone), started with a small drowning event, marked by a firmground and by a phosphatic enrichment. This stratigraphical layer also corresponds to the establishment of the anoxic Apparein level. Above, the Upper Grünten Member continues with heterozoan carbonate production or with glauconitic condensed sediments. The corresponding δ13C record is a the onset of a long-term decrease. The ammonite fauna is marked by a first turnover with the disappearance of Deshayesites, and the

  10. Effect of aerobic exercise and low carbohydrate diet on pre-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women and middle aged men--the role of gut microbiota composition: study protocol for the AELC randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu Yi; Lu, Da Jiang; Du, Xia Ming; Sun, Jian Qin; Ge, Jun; Wang, Ren Wei; Wang, Ru; Zou, Jun; Xu, Chang; Ren, Jie; Wen, Xin Fei; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Shu Mei; Tan, Xiao; Pekkala, Satu; Munukka, Eveliina; Wiklund, Petri; Chen, Yan Qiu; Gu, Qing; Xia, Zheng Chang; Liu, Jun Jun; Liu, Wen Bin; Chen, Xue Bo; Zhang, Yi Min; Li, Rui; Borra, Ronald J H; Yao, Jia Xin; Chen, Pei Jie; Cheng, Sulin

    2014-01-17

    Pre-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle and pose extremely high costs to the healthcare system. In this study, we aim to explore whether individualized aerobic exercise (AEx) and low carbohydrate diet (LCh) intervention affect hepatic fat content (HFC) in pre-diabetes via modification of gut microbiota composition and other post-interventional effects. A 6-month randomized intervention with 6-month follow-up is conducted from January 2013 to December 2015. The target sample size for intervention is 200 postmenopausal women and middle-aged men aged 50-65 year-old with pre-diabetes and NAFLD. The qualified subjects are randomized into 4 groups with 50 subjects in each group: 1 = AEx, 2 = LCh, 3 = AEx + LCh, and 4 = control. In addition, two age-matched reference groups (5 = pre-diabetes without NAFLD (n = 50) and 6 = Healthy without pre-diabetes or NAFLD (n = 50)) are included. The exercise program consists of progressive and variable aerobic exercise (intensity of 60 to 75% of initial fitness level, 3-5 times/week and 30-60 min/time). The diet program includes dietary consultation plus supplementation with a special lunch meal (40% of total energy intake/day) which aims to reduce the amount of carbohydrate consumption (30%). The control and reference groups are advised to maintain their habitual habits during the intervention. The primary outcome measures are HFC, serum metabolomics and gut microbiota composition. The secondary outcome measures include body composition and cytokines. In addition, socio-psychological aspects, social support, physical activity and diet will be performed by means of questionnaire and interview. Specific individualized exercise and diet intervention in this study offers a more efficient approach for liver fat reduction and diabetes prevention via modification of gut microbiota composition. Besides, the study explores the importance of

  11. Biotic and environmental dynamics through the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous transition: evidence for protracted faunal and ecological turnover.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Sutton, Mark D; Price, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous interval represents a time of environmental upheaval and cataclysmic events, combined with disruptions to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Historically, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary was classified as one of eight mass extinctions. However, more recent research has largely overturned this view, revealing a much more complex pattern of biotic and abiotic dynamics than has previously been appreciated. Here, we present a synthesis of our current knowledge of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous events, focusing particularly on events closest to the J/K boundary. We find evidence for a combination of short-term catastrophic events, large-scale tectonic processes and environmental perturbations, and major clade interactions that led to a seemingly dramatic faunal and ecological turnover in both the marine and terrestrial realms. This is coupled with a great reduction in global biodiversity which might in part be explained by poor sampling. Very few groups appear to have been entirely resilient to this J/K boundary 'event', which hints at a 'cascade model' of ecosystem changes driving faunal dynamics. Within terrestrial ecosystems, larger, more-specialised organisms, such as saurischian dinosaurs, appear to have suffered the most. Medium-sized tetanuran theropods declined, and were replaced by larger-bodied groups, and basal eusauropods were replaced by neosauropod faunas. The ascent of paravian theropods is emphasised by escalated competition with contemporary pterosaur groups, culminating in the explosive radiation of birds, although the timing of this is obfuscated by biases in sampling. Smaller, more ecologically diverse terrestrial non-archosaurs, such as lissamphibians and mammaliaforms, were comparatively resilient to extinctions, instead documenting the origination of many extant groups around the J/K boundary. In the marine realm, extinctions were focused on low-latitude, shallow marine shelf-dwelling faunas

  12. The age and composition of the deep crust exposed in the Mariana forearc south of Guam, implications for the scale of Middle Eocene volcanism and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. K.; McClelland, W.; Ohara, Y.; Girard, G.; Goff, K.; Peate, D. W.; Stern, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The sequence of lithologies exposed in the Mariana forearc southeast of Guam is similar to that of many ophiolites and includes widespread basaltic pillow lavas (termed forearc basalts or FAB; Reagan et al., 2010, G-cubed) that are thought to result from decompression melting associated with subduction initiation (SI). Ishizuka et al. (2011, EPSL) showed that the forearc lithologies east of the Bonin Islands were essentially identical to those of the Mariana forearc, and that the basaltic to gabbroic sections had ages of 51-52 Ma. Here, we report geochemistry and geochronology for deep crust lithologies collected during one Shinkai 6500 dive (6K-1229) in the Mariana forearc south of Guam. Gabbros at this location have compositions relating them to FAB and Zircon U-Pb ages of 51.5+/-0.7 Ma, exactly synchronous with similar rocks from the Bonin forearc 1,600 km to the north. Further south in the western Pacific, the Tonga-Kermadec forearc has an ophiolite-like assemblage with compositions and ages similar to those of the equivalent rocks in the IBM system (Bloomer and Fisher, 1987, J. Geol.; Acland, 1996, PhD Thesis, Durham; Todd et al., 2012, EPSL; Michibayashi et al. this meeting). To the north, the record of arc magmatism stretches back to at least 46 Ma in the western Aleutians (Jicha et al., 2006, Geology). Thus, SI could have occurred nearly simultaneously along much of the western margin of the Pacific plate. If so, then the resulting volume of basalt erupted near western Pacific trenches between 52 and 49 Ma would have been globally significant, perhaps exceeding the volumes of the largest igneous provinces. Another global event at about 51 Ma was the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). This age marked the time when atmospheric CO2 values and thus global atmospheric temperatures were likely at or near their Cenozoic maxima (Zachos et al., 2008, Nature). The rise in δ18O for seawater toward the EECO began at about 58 Ma and the decline after ~51 Ma

  13. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okupny, Daniel; Rzepecki, Seweryn; Borówka, Ryszard Krzysztof; Forysiak, Jacek; Twardy, Juliusz; Fortuniak, Anna; Tomkowiak, Julita

    2016-06-01

    The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  14. Dynamic relationships between body size, species richness, abundance, and energy use in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community.

    PubMed

    Labra, Fabio A; Hernández-Miranda, Eduardo; Quiñones, Renato A

    2015-01-01

    We study the temporal variation in the empirical relationships among body size (S), species richness (R), and abundance (A) in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community in Coliumo Bay, Chile. We also extend previous analyses by calculating individual energy use (E) and test whether its bivariate and trivariate relationships with S and R are in agreement with expectations derived from the energetic equivalence rule. Carnivorous and scavenger species representing over 95% of sample abundance and biomass were studied. For each individual, body size (g) was measured and E was estimated following published allometric relationships. Data for each sample were tabulated into exponential body size bins, comparing species-averaged values with individual-based estimates which allow species to potentially occupy multiple size classes. For individual-based data, both the number of individuals and species across body size classes are fit by a Weibull function rather than by a power law scaling. Species richness is also a power law of the number of individuals. Energy use shows a piecewise scaling relationship with body size, with energetic equivalence holding true only for size classes above the modal abundance class. Species-based data showed either weak linear or no significant patterns, likely due to the decrease in the number of data points across body size classes. Hence, for individual-based size spectra, the SRA relationship seems to be general despite seasonal forcing and strong disturbances in Coliumo Bay. The unimodal abundance distribution results in a piecewise energy scaling relationship, with small individuals showing a positive scaling and large individuals showing energetic equivalence. Hence, strict energetic equivalence should not be expected for unimodal abundance distributions. On the other hand, while species-based data do not show unimodal SRA relationships, energy use across body size classes did not show significant trends, supporting energetic

  15. Dynamic relationships between body size, species richness, abundance, and energy use in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A; Hernández-Miranda, Eduardo; Quiñones, Renato A

    2015-01-01

    We study the temporal variation in the empirical relationships among body size (S), species richness (R), and abundance (A) in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community in Coliumo Bay, Chile. We also extend previous analyses by calculating individual energy use (E) and test whether its bivariate and trivariate relationships with S and R are in agreement with expectations derived from the energetic equivalence rule. Carnivorous and scavenger species representing over 95% of sample abundance and biomass were studied. For each individual, body size (g) was measured and E was estimated following published allometric relationships. Data for each sample were tabulated into exponential body size bins, comparing species-averaged values with individual-based estimates which allow species to potentially occupy multiple size classes. For individual-based data, both the number of individuals and species across body size classes are fit by a Weibull function rather than by a power law scaling. Species richness is also a power law of the number of individuals. Energy use shows a piecewise scaling relationship with body size, with energetic equivalence holding true only for size classes above the modal abundance class. Species-based data showed either weak linear or no significant patterns, likely due to the decrease in the number of data points across body size classes. Hence, for individual-based size spectra, the SRA relationship seems to be general despite seasonal forcing and strong disturbances in Coliumo Bay. The unimodal abundance distribution results in a piecewise energy scaling relationship, with small individuals showing a positive scaling and large individuals showing energetic equivalence. Hence, strict energetic equivalence should not be expected for unimodal abundance distributions. On the other hand, while species-based data do not show unimodal SRA relationships, energy use across body size classes did not show significant trends, supporting energetic

  16. Changes in carbonate sedimentation and faunal assemblages in the Tunisian carbonate platform around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touir, Jamel; Mechi, Chefia; Haj Ali, Hajer

    2017-05-01

    In Tunisia the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary coincides with the transition between two carbonate deposits: the Late Cenomanian Bahloul Formation at the bottom and the Early Turonian Gattar Member at the top. According to field study and microscope examination of the studied Formations throughout Tunisia, the Bahloul Formation consists of a deep-water condensed carbonate platform largely extended throughout Tunisia. Detailed analysis shows a particular richness in planktonic microfauna and ammonites. Thin bedded limestones within the Upper part exhibits a high TOC ratio and commonly called the black shales, whereas the Gattar Member displayed a rudist-bearing carbonate ramp which pinches northward while being progressively relayed by hemipelagic marls forming the so-called Annaba Member. The Cenomanian-Turonian transition was marked by relevant changes the main features of which are well recorded in the Tunisian carbonate platform. The changes consist of consecutive (i) shutdown and recovery of the carbonate factory and (ii) extinction, development and diversification of many faunal species. As matter of fact, during Late Cenomanian many planktonic foraminifers (Rotaliporidae) and rudists (Caprinidae) were extinct, and simultaneously the carbonate production rate fallen into 0.003-0.017 m k y -1. During Early Turonian the carbonate platform recovered contemporaneously with the development and diversification of many planktonic foraminifera and rudists (Hippuritidae); the carbonate productivity rose to 0.125 m k y -1 in average. The whole previous changes are to be linked with the significant sea-level fluctuation and the contemporaneous oceanic anoxic event (OAE2) having occurred at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary.

  17. Geologic Drivers of Late Ordovician Faunal Change in Laurentia: Investigating Links between Tectonics, Speciation, and Biotic Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David F.; Stigall, Alycia L.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode—from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime—across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior. PMID:23869215

  18. Diversity, Distribution and Nature of Faunal Associations with Deep-Sea Pennatulacean Corals in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Anthoptilum grandiflorum and Halipteris finmarchica are two deep-sea corals (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) common on soft bottoms in the North Atlantic where they are believed to act as biogenic habitat. The former also has a worldwide distribution. To assist conservation efforts, this study examines spatial and temporal patterns in the abundance, diversity, and nature of their faunal associates. A total of 14 species were found on A. grandiflorum and 6 species on H. finmarchica during a multi-year and multi-site sampling campaign in eastern Canada. Among those, 7 and 5 species, respectively, were attached to the sea pens and categorized as close associates or symbionts. Rarefaction analyses suggest that the most common associates of both sea pens have been sampled. Biodiversity associated with each sea pen is analyzed according to season, depth and region using either close associates or the broader collection of species. Associated biodiversity generally increases from northern to southern locations and does not vary with depth (∼100–1400 m). Seasonal patterns in A. grandiflorum show higher biodiversity during spring/summer due to the transient presence of early life stages of fishes and shrimps whereas it peaks in fall for H. finmarchica. Two distinct endoparasitic species of highly modified copepods (families Lamippidae and Corallovexiidae) commonly occur in the polyps of A. grandiflorum and H. finmarchica, and a commensal sea anemone frequently associates with H. finmarchica. Stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) reveal potential trophic interactions between the parasites and their hosts. Overall, the diversity of obligate/permanent associates of sea pens is moderate; however the presence of mobile/transient associates highlights an ecological role that has yet to be fully elucidated and supports their key contribution to the enhancement of biodiversity in the Northwest Atlantic. PMID:25369515

  19. Geologic drivers of late ordovician faunal change in laurentia: investigating links between tectonics, speciation, and biotic invasions.

    PubMed

    Wright, David F; Stigall, Alycia L

    2013-01-01

    Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode-from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime-across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior.

  20. Palaeobiogeographic implications of Late Bajocian-Late Callovian (Middle Jurassic) dinoflagellate cysts from the Central Alborz Mountains, northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejad, Ebrahim; Sabbaghiyan, Hossein; Mosaddegh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The Dalichai Formation with an age of Late Bajocian-Late Callovian was sampled in Central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran and studied for palynological, palaeobiogeographical and palynocorrelation purposes. Palynological studies revealed diverse and well-preserved dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and lead to identification of three zones i.e., Cribroperidiniumcrispum (Late Bajocian), Dichadogonyaulaxsellwoodii (Bathonian to Early Callovian) and Ctenidodiniumcontinuum (Early to Middle Callovian) Zones. Subzone a of the D. sellwoodii Zone (Early to Middle Bathonian) was also differentiated. This biozonation corresponds to those recognised in Northwest Europe. Furthermore, the ammonoid families recorded including Phylloceratidae, Oppeliidae, Reineckeiidae, Perisphinctidae, Haploceratidae, Parkinsoniidae and Sphaeroceratidae, which confirm the Late Bajocian to Late Callovian age, are quite similar to those of Northwest Europe and the northwestern Tethys. The close similarities of the dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and ammonite fauna of northern Iran with those of Northwest Europe and the northwestern Tethys during the Middle Jurassic indicate direct but episodic marine connection and faunal exchange between the two areas.

  1. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks123

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants’ usual diets. Objective: This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Methods: Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Results: Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. Conclusions: In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. PMID:26246322

  2. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g ·: kg(-1) ·: d(-1) reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g ·: kg(-1) ·: d(-1) presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  4. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  5. Progress report on sediment analyses at selected faunal monitoring sites in north-central and northeastern Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, T.M.; Means, G.H.; Brewster-Wingard, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    Florida Bay is a shallow, subtropical lagoon at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. The 2200 square kilometer, triangular-shaped area is the site of modern carbonate sediment formation and deposition. The intricate ecosystem of the bay has undergone significant changes as the result of natural influences and human intervention. The purpose of this study is to investigate carbonate sediment characteristics and distribution in conjunction with faunal and floral to determine the substrate preferences of associated fauna and flora. The modern data provide the proxy data for down-core analyses of sediments, fauna and flora in order to document ecosystem changes in the bay. Selected sediment samples collected during 1996 from 18 sites in the northeastern and central bay were analyzed for insoluble residues, organic content, total carbonate, and percent of silt and clay sized particles. Insoluble residues range from 0.8% of the sediment in a shell lag to 11.5% with an average of 5.1%. Organic content ranged from a minimum of 1.43% of the sediment to 18.05% with an average of 7.6%. The total carbonate content ranged from 72.56% to 97.81%, averaging 87.98%. The percent silt and clay sized particles ranged from 13.75% to 63.62% for the samples analyzed. The insoluble residue content shows a general trend of decreasing insoluble residues from the northeastern bay toward the southwest. Organic content is variable throughout the bay and does not show a regional trend. Several sites show a trend of higher organic content in the samples collected in February as compared to those collected in July. Lithologic examination indicated that, in addition to the carbonate mud (less than 63mm), sample components included whole and fragmented mollusks, foraminifers, bryozoans, ostracods, and organic matter. The insoluble residues consisted of quartz sand and silt, clays and siliceous fossils. A component of the insoluble residues may be dust derived from Africa and transported to

  6. Disparity, decimation and the Cambrian "explosion": comparison of early Cambrian and present faunal communities with emphasis on velvet worms (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, J; Hou, X

    2000-01-01

    The controversy about a Cambrian "explosion" of morphological disparity (followed by decimation), cladogenesis and fossilization is of central importance for the history of life. This paper revisits the controversy (with emphasis in onychophorans, which include emblematic organisms such as Hallucigenia), presents new data about the Chengjiang (Cambrian of China) faunal community and compares it and the Burgess Shale (Cambrian of Canada) with an ecologically similar but modern tropical marine site where onychophorans are absent, and with a modern neotropical terrestrial onychophoran community. Biovolume was estimated from material collected in Costa Rica and morphometric measurements were made on enlarged images of fossils. Cambrian tropical mudflats were characterized by the adaptive radiation of two contrasting groups: the vagile arthropods and the sessile poriferans. Arthropods were later replaced as the dominant benthic taxon by polychaetes. Vagility and the exoskeleton may explain the success of arthropods from the Cambrian to the modern marine and terrestrial communities, both in population and biovolume. Food ecological displacement was apparent in the B. Shale, but not in Chengjiang or the terrestrial community. When only hard parts were preserved, marine and terrestrial fossil deposits of tropical origin are even less representative than deposits produced by temperate taxa, Chengjiang being an exception. Nutrient limitations might explain why deposit feeding is less important in terrestrial onychophoran communities, where carnivory, scavenging and omnivory (associated with high motility and life over the substrate) became more important. Fossil morphometry supports the interpretation of "lobopod animals" as onychophorans, whose abundance in Chengjiang was equal to their abundance in modern communities. The extinction of marine onychophorans may reflect domination of the infaunal habitat by polychaetes. We conclude that (1) a mature ecological community

  7. The European ruminants during the "Microbunodon Event" (MP28, Latest Oligocene): impact of climate changes and faunal event on the ruminant evolution.

    PubMed

    Mennecart, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The Earth already experienced numerous episodes of global warming and cooling. One of the latest impressive events of temperature rising was the Late Oligocene Warming that occurred around 25 Mya. An increase of the marine temperature of 2 to 4°C has been observed in a short time interval. In Europe, this major climatic event can be correlated to the continental faunal turnover "Microbunodon Event". This event is marked by a huge faunal turnover (40% of the ungulate fauna during the first 500k years) and environmental changes. Drier conditions associated to the appearance of the seasonality lead to new environmental conditions dominated by wooded savannahs. This is correlated to a major arrival of Asiatic immigrants. Moreover, from a homogenous fauna during the main part of the Oligocene, local climatic variations between the European Western coast and the more central Europe could have provided faunal regionalism during the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene. Considering the ruminants, this event is the major ever known for this group in Europe. A total renewal at the family level occurred. Thanks to a precise stratigraphic succession, major evolutionary elements are highlighted. Typical Oligocene species, mainly Tragulina, were adapted to wooded environments and were leaves/fruits eaters. They disappeared at the end of MP27 or the early MP28. This corresponds to the appearance of the Asiatic immigrants. The Tragulina (Lophiomerycidae, Bachitheriidae) and stem Pecora gave way to more derived stem and maybe crown Pecora (e.g. "Amphitragulus", Babameryx, Dremotherium). These newcomers were adapted to more open environments and mixed feeding. The disappearance of the Tragulina is probably linked to environmental and vegetation changes, and competition. They give way to more derived ruminants having a more efficient metabolism in drier conditions and a better assimilation of less energetic food.

  8. The European Ruminants during the “Microbunodon Event” (MP28, Latest Oligocene): Impact of Climate Changes and Faunal Event on the Ruminant Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mennecart, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The Earth already experienced numerous episodes of global warming and cooling. One of the latest impressive events of temperature rising was the Late Oligocene Warming that occurred around 25 Mya. An increase of the marine temperature of 2 to 4°C has been observed in a short time interval. In Europe, this major climatic event can be correlated to the continental faunal turnover “Microbunodon Event”. This event is marked by a huge faunal turnover (40% of the ungulate fauna during the first 500k years) and environmental changes. Drier conditions associated to the appearance of the seasonality lead to new environmental conditions dominated by wooded savannahs. This is correlated to a major arrival of Asiatic immigrants. Moreover, from a homogenous fauna during the main part of the Oligocene, local climatic variations between the European Western coast and the more central Europe could have provided faunal regionalism during the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene. Considering the ruminants, this event is the major ever known for this group in Europe. A total renewal at the family level occurred. Thanks to a precise stratigraphic succession, major evolutionary elements are highlighted. Typical Oligocene species, mainly Tragulina, were adapted to wooded environments and were leaves/fruits eaters. They disappeared at the end of MP27 or the early MP28. This corresponds to the appearance of the Asiatic immigrants. The Tragulina (Lophiomerycidae, Bachitheriidae) and stem Pecora gave way to more derived stem and maybe crown Pecora (e.g. “Amphitragulus”, Babameryx, Dremotherium). These newcomers were adapted to more open environments and mixed feeding. The disappearance of the Tragulina is probably linked to environmental and vegetation changes, and competition. They give way to more derived ruminants having a more efficient metabolism in drier conditions and a better assimilation of less energetic food. PMID:25692298

  9. Middle School Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue discusses the special needs of gifted students at the middle school level. It presents several articles, editorials, a California funding update, a program spotlight, an educator profile, a column on educational technology, and a book review. An article by Terry A. Thomas, titled "Middle School Madness," discusses middle schools'…

  10. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  11. Faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in and around Alsancak Harbour (Izmir Bay, eastern Mediterranean) with special emphasis on alien species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çinar, Melih Ertan; Katağan, Tuncer; Koçak, Ferah; Öztürk, Bilal; Ergen, Zeki; Kocatas, Ahmet; Önen, Mesut; Kirkim, Fevzi; Bakir, Kerem; Kurt, Güley; Dağli, Ertan; Açik, Sermin; Doğan, Alper; Özcan, Tahir

    The faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were examined seasonally at four stations located in and around Alsancak Harbour between January and September 2004. A total of 155 species belonging to 14 systematic groups were found in the assemblages, of which Polychaeta had the highest number of species and individuals. The assemblages were mainly composed of species tolerant to pollution. The number of individuals (maximum 209,000 ind m - 2 ) and biomass (maximum 24,563 g m - 2 ) of the assemblage were generally higher at the stations located in the harbours, whereas the station not located in the harbours had the highest number of species and diversity index values (maximum 4.19). The mussel faunal assemblages differed mainly according to seasons and locations (ANOSIM test), but seasonal samples collected at each station constituted separate groups in the MDS plot, which are moderately correlated with a combination of environmental variables such as temperature, the concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphate phosphorus ( ρr = 0.46, BIOENV test). The environmental conditions at each station, the structure of substratum to which the mussel was attached and the biotic interactions among the associated faunal components seemed to be main factors influencing the faunal assemblages of the mussel in the area. The combined effect of season and location significantly changed the community parameters such as the number of species and individuals, and the values of diversity, evenness and biomass (two-way ANOVA test). The factors significantly influencing these community parameters were the algae biomass on mussels, total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The density of the mussel was negatively correlated with the diversity and evenness values of samples. The mussel community included ten alien species: Pseudonereis anomala, Polydora cornuta, Streblospio gynobranchiata, Hydroides dianthus, Hydroides elegans, Maera hamigera, Stenothoe

  12. The Late Triassic (norian) Adamanian-Revueltian Faunal Turnover in Petrified Forest National Park: Relationship to Paleoclimatic Change and the Manicouagan Bolide Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, J. W.; Parker, W. G.

    2010-12-01

    Detailed revisions to the lithostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO), combined with the precise geographic and stratigraphic placement of vertebrate and pollen localities, has allowed biostratigraphic ranges of vertebrate taxa in the Chinle Formation to be plotted with greater detail and accuracy than previously possible, and also allows biotic and sedimentological changes to be compared. Vertebrate biostratigraphy in PEFO records a Norian faunal turnover (the Adamanian-Revueltian faunal turnover) in the terrestrial tetrapod fauna, which impacted a variety of archosauromorphs, therapsids, and temnospondyls. The data suggest that the overturn may have been abrupt, with characteristic taxa of the Adamanian and Revueltian faunas showing virtually no overlap. Phytosaurs and aetosaurs (the most common archosaur groups) underwent a transition in alpha taxa, and few groups (dicynodonts, Poposaurus, Trilophosaurus, and large metoposaurs) were either eliminated or underwent a major decline in abundance either at or sometime prior to the Adamanian-Revueltian boundary. Dinosauromorphs apparently maintained the same overall diversity (with lagerpetids, silesaurids, herrerasaurians, and “coelophysoids” being known from both the Adamanian and Revueltian faunas), although it is currently difficult to say how alpha taxonomy was impacted. Sedimentological evidence (i.e. the replacement of predominantly reduced mudstones with gleyed paleosols by predominantly oxidized mudstones with vertic and calcareous paleosols) indicates that the climate in western North America during the Late Triassic became increasingly arid during the Norian and Rhaetian, probably driven by the movement in western North America into the mid-latitudes. Pedogenic carbonate nodules first become extremely abundant at almost the exact the stratigraphic level of the Adamanian-Revueltian turnover. Moreover, new radioisotopic dates for the faunal turnover

  13. A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Nancy J.; Hill, Robert V.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne; As-Saruri, Mustafa; Al-Nimey, Fuad; Jolley, Lea Ann; Schulp-Stuip, Yvonne; O'Connor, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region's post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils

  14. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechrist, C. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various investigations relative to middle atmosphere research are discussed. Atmospheric warming periods in 1982-83, atmospheric composition, the comparison of irradiance measurement calibration, and molecular absorption processes related to the penetration of ultraviolet solar radiation into the middle atmosphere, are among the topics discussed.

  15. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  16. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  17. Equatorial seawater temperatures and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Middle to Late Jurassic: the stable isotope record of brachiopods and oysters from Gebel Maghara, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Abdelhady, Ahmed A.; Andersen, Nils

    2017-04-01

    The Jurassic climate has traditionally been described as equable, warmer than today, with weak latitudinal temperature gradients, and no polar glaciations. This view changed over the last decades with studies pointing to distinct climate fluctuations and the occasional presence of polar ice caps. Most of these temperature reconstructions are based on stable isotope analyses of fossil shells from Europe. Additional data from other parts of the world is slowly completing the picture. Gebel Maghara in the northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt exposes a thick Jurassic succession. After a phase of terrestrial sedimentation in the Early Jurassic, marine conditions dominated since the end of the Aalenian. The stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) composition of brachiopod and oyster shells was used to reconstruct seawater temperatures from the Bajocian to the Kimmeridgian at a palaeolatitude of ca. 3°N. Throughout this time interval, temperatures were comparatively constant aorund an average of 25.7°C. Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian ( 27.0°C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures ( 24.3°C). The seasonality has been reconstructed with the help of high-resolution sampling of two oyster shells and was found to be very low (<2°C) as can be expected for a tropical palaeolatitude. A comparison of the results from Egypt with literature data enabled the reconstruction of latitudinal temperature gradients. During the Middle Jurassic, this gradient was much steeper than previously expected and comparable to today. During the Kimmeridgian, temperatures in Europe were generally warmer leading to weaker latitudinal gradients. Based on currently used estimates for the δ18O value of seawater during the Jurassic, reconstructed water temperatures for localities above the thermocline in Egypt and Europe were mostly lower than Recent sea-surface temperatures. These results improve our understanding of the Jurassic climate and its influence on marine

  18. A Milankovitch climate control on the Middle Miocene Mediterranean Intermediate Water: evidence from benthic microfauna and isotope geochemistry of the Ras Il-Pellegrin composite section (Malta island, central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, D.; Bellanca, A.; Neri, R.; Russo, B.; Sgarrella, F.; Sprovieri, M.

    2003-04-01

    The marly sediments of the Blue Clay Formation in the upper part of the Middle Miocene Ras il-Pellegrin composite section (Malta island, central Mediterranean) have been investigated by integrated analysis of benthic microfauna and planktonic and benthic oxygen isotopes. The astronomical calibration of the whole section, obtained by using the astronomical solution of Laskar et al. (1993), indicates for deposition of the analysed sediments a time interval ranging between 13.75 and 12.32 Ma (Sprovieri et al., 2002). This time interval is useful to investigate the oceanographic evolution of the (paleo)Mediterranean after the interruption of communications between the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific areas. This important paleogeographic event, estimated at about 16 Ma by Johnson (1985) and at about 14.5 Ma by Woodruff and Savin (1991), represented the first step of a progressive oceanographic evolution of the Tethys region water masses towards present Mediterranean conditions. A comparison of long-term planktonic and benthic d18O trends suggests that the intermediate outflowing Mediterranean water (proto-MIW), originated in the surface eastern zone of upper Langhian lower Serravallian (paleo)Mediterranean, had hydrographic and hydrodynamic features similar to those of the present Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). Focusing our attention on benthic species which can be considered the best recorders of variation of proto-MIW production, we elaborated benthic data by Q-mode varimax principal factor analysis. Spectral analysis was carried out only on two factors which have a clear paleoecological significance: Factor 1 (loaded by Cibicidoides ungerianus and Siphonina reticulata) indicative of oxic bottom waters and Factor 2 (loaded by Bulimina elongata group) indicative of oxygen stressed conditions. Results of these analyses show that Factor 1 and Factor 2 curves are respectively in and out of phase with maxima of the eccentricity (100 and 400 kyr). Factor 1 is

  19. The Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain): palaeoenvironment and habitats of Homo heidelbergensis during the Middle Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Nuria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2011-06-01

    Interpreting how environmental dynamics respond to global climate change and how this has affected human evolution and dispersal is an on-going topic of debate. During the early Middle Pleistocene (˜0.6-0.4 Ma), as compared to earlier, environmental conditions were relatively more stable, with longer climatic cycles alternating between open and forested landscapes. During this interval, humans spread successfully providing an important number of fossil sites where fossils or tools are reported. The Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain) site (Atapuerca-SH) is one of the earliest localities with hominin evidence in the European Middle Pleistocene, with the most important accumulation of Homo heidelbergensis so far. We have analyzed the abundant faunal record from Sima de los Huesos, which is mainly comprised of carnivores, in order to approach an interpretation of the palaeoenvironmental circumstances where these hominids inhabited within the Sierra. Other sites from Sierra de Atapuerca referred to the same Faunal Unit (FU 6), are roughly contemporaneous, and include important ungulates, which are here analyzed with Atapuerca-SH. Additional information provided by isotopic analysis helps elucidate the ancient ecology of taxa present in Sima de los Huesos allowing for an accurate portrayal of the setting in which humans lived. The timing of the spread of Homo heidelbergensis is dominated by a relative climatic and environmental stability and points to a landscape dominated by savannah-like open woodland.

  20. Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition following marine aggregate dredging.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Keith M

    2012-08-01

    In the UK, Government policy requires marine aggregate extraction companies to leave the seabed in a similar physical condition after the cessation of dredging. This measure is intended to promote recovery, and the return of a similar faunal community to that which existed before dredging. Whilst the policy is sensible, and in line with the principles of sustainable development, the use of the word 'similar' is open to interpretation. There is, therefore, a need to set quantifiable limits for acceptable change in sediment composition. Using a case study site, it is shown how such limits could be defined by the range of sediment particle size composition naturally found in association with the faunal assemblages in the wider region. Whilst the approach offers a number of advantages over the present system, further testing would be required before it could be recommended for use in the regulatory context. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct U-series analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus reveals a Middle Pleistocene age for human remains in the Basque Country (northern Iberia).

    PubMed

    de-la-Rúa, Concepción; Altuna, Jesús; Hervella, Monserrat; Kinsley, Leslie; Grün, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    In 1964, a human humerus was found in a sedimentary deposit in Lezetxiki Cave (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The first studies on the stratigraphy, associated mammal faunal remains and lithic implements placed the deposits containing the humerus into the Riss glacial stage. Direct chronometric evidence has so far been missing, and the previous chronostratigraphic framework and faunal dating gave inconsistent results. Here we report laser ablation U-series analyses on the humerus yielding a minimum age of 164 ± 9 ka, corresponding to MIS 6. This is the only direct dating analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus and confirms a Middle Pleistocene age for this hominin fossil. Morphometric analyses suggest that the Lezetxiki humerus has close affinities to other Middle Pleistocene archaic hominins, such as those from La Sima de los Huesos at Atapuerca. This emphasizes the significance of the Lezetxiki fossil within the populations that predate the Neanderthals in south-western Europe. It is thus an important key fossil for the understanding of human evolution in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, a time period when a great morphological diversity is observed but whose phylogenetic meaning is not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generativity in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Paula

    The study described in this paper was conducted to delineate the phenomenon of generativity in middle-aged adults in an attempt to identify its major characteristics, attributes, determinants, and situational or circumstantial variables. Three themes emerged from a literature survey of materials on middle adulthood: the theme of the entry…

  3. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  4. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  5. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  6. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  7. The palaeoenvironment of the middle Miocene pliopithecid locality in Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Sukselainen, Leena; Kaakinen, Anu; Eronen, Jussi T; Passey, Benjamin H; Harrison, Terry; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Fortelius, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    Damiao, Inner Mongolia, has three main fossil horizons representing the early, middle, and late Miocene. The middle Miocene locality DM01 is the only primate locality from the region and also represents the latest occurrence of pliopithecoids in northern China. The presence of pliopithecoid primates in central Asia after the middle Miocene climatic optimum seems to contradict the general trend of strengthening climatic zonality and increasing aridity. To investigate this enigma, we employ faunal similarity, ecometrics, and stable isotope analysis. Our results support previous inferences concerning the presence of locally humid environments within the increasingly arid surroundings that characterized central Asia. Hypsodonty, estimated mean annual precipitation (MAP), local sedimentology, and large mammal fossils suggest more humid and possibly more forested and wooded environments for the DM01 locality. We compared our results with the adjacent fossil-rich middle Miocene Tunggur localities. However, the small mammal fauna and isotope data are consistent with a mosaic of forest and grassland environment for all Damiao localities. Based on our results, Tunggur may have been too seasonal or not sufficiently humid for pliopithecids. This is supported by the higher mean hypsodonty and lower estimated MAP estimates, as well as slightly higher δ(13)C values. We suggest that DM01, the driest known Asian pliopithecid locality, may have been a more humid refugium within a generally drier regional context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct demonstration of gas diffusion into the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Levy, D; Herman, M; Luntz, M; Sadé, J

    1995-03-01

    The gas composition of the middle ear differs from that of air, and resembles the gas composition of mixed venous blood. This observation suggests the existence of a bi-directional route for gas diffusion between the middle ear and blood. In an attempt to demonstrate this route in a direct way, we tracheotomized guinea pigs in such a way that they breathed freon-22 directly into the distal part of their tracheostomy. The proximal part of the trachea was sealed so that air by-passed the oropharynx and nasopharynx, thus preventing freon-22 from making contact with the eustachian tube orifice. At the same time middle ear gases were monitored with a mass spectrometer, through a measuring probe which was inserted into a hole in the bulla. The appearance of freon-22 in all middle ears--after 8 min on the average--demonstrated direct gas diffusion from the blood into the middle ear, since freon-22 could reach the middle ear only from the blood stream, i.e., by diffusion. Differences in gas diffusion rates into and from the middle ear may therefore play a role in regulating middle ear gas economy, and therefore in middle ear pressure.

  9. Wolverine in northern England at about 83,000 yr B. P. : faunal evidence for climatic change during isotope stage 5

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, A.J.; Lord, T.C.; Harmon, R.S.; Ivanovich, M.; Rae, A.; Hess, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Cave sediments from Stump Cross Cave in northern England contain Pleistocene mammal remains. Uranium-series dating of calcium carbonate deposits closely associated with the fossiliferous horizons has established an absolute age of 83,000 +- 6000 yr B.P. for a faunal assemblage largely comprised of wolverines (Gulo gulo). This date lies firmly within the younger portion of oxygen-isotope stage 5. The occurrence of wolverines in the vicinity of Stump Cross Cave at ca. 83,000 yr B.P. indicates a significant climatic deterioration from ca. 120,000 yr B.P., when an Ipswichian interglacial fauna with hippopotamus was present in this part of northern England.

  10. Wolverine in northern England at about 83,000 yr B.P.: Faunal evidence for climatic change during isotope stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, Antony J.; Lord, Thomas C.; Harmon, Russell S.; Ivanovich, Miro; Rae, Angela; Hess, John W.

    1985-07-01

    Cave sediments from Stump Cross Cave in northern England contain Pleistocene mammal remains. Uranium-series dating of calcium carbonate deposits closely associated with the fossiliferous horizons has established an absolute age of 83,000 ± 6000 yr B.P. for a faunal assemblage largely comprised of wolverines ( Gulo gulo). This date lies firmly within the younger portion of oxygen-isotope stage 5. The occurrence of wolverines in the vicinity of Stump Cross Cave at ca. 83,000 yr B.P. indicates a significant climatic deterioration from ca. 120,000 yr B.P., when an Ipswichian interglacial fauna with hippopotamus was present in this part of northern England.

  11. A Megaraptor-like theropod (Dinosauria: Tetanurae) in Australia: support for faunal exchange across eastern and western Gondwana in the Mid-Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan D; Makovicky, Peter J; Agnolin, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Pais, Diego F; Salisbury, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    The fossil record of Australian dinosaurs in general, and theropods in particular, is extremely sparse. Here we describe an ulna from the Early Cretaceous Eumeralla Formation of Australia that shares unique autapomorphies with the South American theropod Megaraptor. We also present evidence for the spinosauroid affinities of Megaraptor. This ulna represents the first Australian non-avian theropod with unquestionable affinities to taxa from other Gondwanan landmasses, suggesting faunal interchange between eastern and western Gondwana during the Mid-Cretaceous. This evidence counters claims of Laurasian affinities for Early Cretaceous Australian dinosaur faunas, and for the existence of a geographical or climatic barrier isolating Australia from the other Gondwanan continents during this time. The temporal and geographical distribution of Megaraptor and the Eumeralla ulna is also inconsistent with traditional palaeogeographic models for the fragmentation of Gondwana, but compatible with several alternative models positing connections between South America and Antarctica in the Mid-Cretaceous. PMID:18544511

  12. [Litter decomposition and soil faunal diversity of two understory plant debris in the alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan in a snow cover season].

    PubMed

    He, Run-lian; Chen, Ya-mei; Deng, Chang-chun; Yan, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to understand the relationship between litter decomposition and soil fauna diversity during snow cover season, litterbags with plant debris of Actinothuidium hookeri, Cystopteris montana, two representative understory plants in the alpine timberline ecotone, and their mixed litter were incubated in the dark coniferous forest, timberline and alpine meadow, respectively. After a snow cover season, the mass loss and soil fauna in litterbags were investigated. After decomposition with a snow cover season, alpine meadow showed the highest mass loss of plant debris in comparison with coniferous forest and timberline, and the mass loss of A. hookeri was more significant. The mixture of two plants debris accelerated the mass loss, especially in the timberline. A total of 968 soil invertebrates, which belonged to 5 classes, 10 orders and 35 families, were captured in litterbags. Acarina and Collembola were the dominant groups in plant debris. The numbers of individuals and groups of soil faunal communities in litter of timberline were higher than those of alpine meadow and dark coniferous forest. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that the groups of soil animals were related closely with the average temperature, and endemic species such as Isoptera and Geophilomorpha were observed only in coniferous forest, while Hemiptera and Psocoptera only in.the alpine meadow. The diversity of soil faunal community was more affected by plant debris varieties in the timberline than in the coniferous forest and alpine meadow. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the average temperature and snow depth explained 30.8% of the variation of litter mass loss rate, soil animals explained 8.3%, and altogether explained 34.1%. Snow was one of the most critical factors impacting the decomposition of A. hookeri and C. montana debris in the alpine timberline ecotone.

  13. Michigan Middle Start Studies of Middle Start School Improvement, Lake Middle School: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Pritha

    This case study documented the collaboration of Lake Middle School (pseudonym for a school in Michigan) with Middle Start, a middle-grades reform model and its progress and struggles implementing the model. Middle Start was coordinated by the Michigan Middle Start Partnership, and alliance that provided technical assistance, professional…

  14. Re-Os geochronology of Arctic black shales to evaluate the Anisian-Ladinian boundary and global faunal correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangping; Hannah, Judith L.; Stein, Holly J.; Bingen, Bernard; Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron; Weitschat, Wolfgang; Mørk, Atle; Weiss, Hermann M.

    2009-11-01

    Boreal and Tethyan faunas differ throughout the Triassic, limiting the use of biostratigraphy for global correlation. Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) dating of organic-rich black shales, calibrated with existing biostratigraphy, provides a new means to establish correlations of global fauna using absolute time. Here we present Re-Os radiometric ages for Middle Triassic organic-rich shales from two biostratigraphically defined sections at Svalbard and the Svalis Dome in the Barents Sea. Mature black shales from Svalbard, inferred to be Middle to Late Anisian, define a 241.2 ± 2.2 Ma isochron with an initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.831 ± 0.025, the highest seawater Os isotope ratio yet recorded between the Cambrian and Lower Jurassic. Svalis Dome shales in the uppermost Anisian yield a 239.3 ± 2.7 Ma age and initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.679 ± 0.020. The higher initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio for Svalbard shales most likely reflects global seawater at the time of deposition, whereas the lower initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio for the Svalis Dome may represent seawater with limited communication to the open ocean, as suggested by the ratio of trace metal abundances and total organic carbon contents. These age data indicate a maximum age of 239.3 ± 2.7 Ma for the Anisian-Ladinian boundary in the Arctic Boreal realm. This age agrees with the proposed boundary in the Tethyan realm, 240 to 243 Ma, and thus confirms the correlations between Boreal and Tethys based on biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. Our study affirms that Re-Os geochronology of black shale is a reliable method for obtaining depositional ages and establishing biostratigraphic correlations between paleogeographically separated regions.

  15. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  16. Lower Paleolithic hominin ecology at the fringe of the desert: Faunal remains from Bizat Ruhama and Nahal Hesi, Northern Negev, Israel.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Reuven; Zaidner, Yossi; Eisenmann, Véra; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2011-04-01

    The Southern Levant is a pivotal area for the study of hominin paleoecology during the Lower Paleolithic, because of its location on the out-of-Africa dispersal route and its significant ecological diversity. Important information has been gained by archaeofaunal studies, which usually reveal that exploitation of diverse Mediterranean environments with woodlands, marshes and lake margins, represents a dominant subsistence strategy for Lower Paleolithic hominins. Here, we present new taxonomic and taphonomic data from two sites in the southern coastal plain of the Southern Levant, at the fringe of the Negev Desert: Bizat Ruhama (Early Pleistocene) and Nahal Hesi (Middle Pleistocene). The sites preserve anthropogenic faunas, with the former signaling a marrow-exploitation strategy, perhaps related to scavenging from carnivore kills, and the latter showing evidence for primary access to fleshed ungulate carcasses. The species composition of these Northern Negev sites is unique for the Levantine Lower Paleolithic in that these sites lack typical woodland and riparian species, probably indicating an open, relatively uniform environment with patchy water sources and trees, much like this semiarid region today. Bizat Ruhama and Nahal Hesi are among the only Levantine Lower Paleolithic faunas associated with such a setting, thereby widening the known spectrum of environments exploited by hominins in the region. It is suggested that the two sites, coupled with the nearby Late Pleistocene evidence, reflect a largely stable semiarid environment on the northwestern fringe of the Negev Desert throughout much of the Pleistocene. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Spatial segmentation and the black middle class.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic studies of the black middle class focus attention on the ways in which residential environments condition the experiences of different segments of the black class structure. This study places these arguments in a larger demographic context by providing a national analysis of neighborhood inequality and spatial inequality of different racial and ethnic groups in urban America. The findings show that there has been no change over time in the degree to which majority-black neighborhoods are surrounded by spatial disadvantage. Predominantly black neighborhoods, regardless of socioeconomic composition, continue to be spatially linked with areas of severe disadvantage. However, there has been substantial change in the degree to which middle- and upper-income African-American households have separated themselves from highly disadvantaged neighborhoods. These changes are driven primarily by the growing segment of middle- and upper-income African-Americans living in neighborhoods in which they are not the majority group, both in central cities and in suburbs.

  18. Trial by fire: Restoration of Middle Rio Grande upland ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Samuel R. Loftin

    1999-01-01

    The majority of upland ecosystems (desert scrub, grassland, pinyon-juniper, ponderosa pine and higher elevation conifer forests) in the Middle Rio Grande Basin were historically dependent on periodic fire to maintain their composition, productivity, and distribution. The cultural practices of European man have altered the function, structure, and composition of...

  19. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, demonstrations, activities, and teaching suggestions on topics appropriate for middle school science including a simple electrolysis cell, conversion factors, energy, solubilities of salts, condensers, and a worksheet for studying coppice woodlands. (DC)

  20. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.

  1. Middle School Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  2. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities, demonstrations, and materials suitable for middle school science, including investigations on solar energy, surface tension, exploding cottages, worms and light, airplanes, depolarizing simple cells, and the thermal expansion of metals. (JN)

  3. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities, demonstrations, and materials suitable for middle school science, including investigations on solar energy, surface tension, exploding cottages, worms and light, airplanes, depolarizing simple cells, and the thermal expansion of metals. (JN)

  4. Wirth Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Wirth Middle School, Cahokia, Illinois. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  5. Middle School Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  6. Ann Richards Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents photos and basic information about a Texas middle school whose architecture reflects the hybrid culture of the borderlands and "regionalism" in which it is located. A line drawing of the site plan is included. (GR)

  7. Middle-State Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Stages & Behaviors » Middle-Stage Caregiving Text size: A A A ...

  8. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Provides science activities and teaching hints appropriate for the middle school sciences including making a domino "gunpowder fuse" that detonates a mousetrap "bomb," using fishing rods and bicycles as teaching aids, constructing lead holders, and teaching chromatography. (DC)

  9. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Provides science activities and teaching hints appropriate for the middle school sciences including making a domino "gunpowder fuse" that detonates a mousetrap "bomb," using fishing rods and bicycles as teaching aids, constructing lead holders, and teaching chromatography. (DC)

  10. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, demonstrations, activities, and teaching suggestions on topics appropriate for middle school science including a simple electrolysis cell, conversion factors, energy, solubilities of salts, condensers, and a worksheet for studying coppice woodlands. (DC)

  11. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-30

    survey of mosquitoes in Costa Rica, 197 1. Walsh , Robert D., Aedes aegypti Eradication Program, Public Health Service.—Collections in St. Croix...At least a start has been made in nearly every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes , Anopheles, Culex. Deinocerites, Haemago~us...fauna in the area covered by the project. At least a start has been made in nearl y every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes

  12. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  13. Predator-prey interactions amongst Permo-Triassic terrestrial vertebrates as a deterministic factor influencing faunal collapse and turnover.

    PubMed

    Codron, J; Botha-Brink, J; Codron, D; Huttenlocker, A K; Angielczyk, K D

    2017-01-01

    Unlike modern mammalian communities, terrestrial Paleozoic and Mesozoic vertebrate systems were characterized by carnivore faunas that were as diverse as their herbivore faunas. The comparatively narrow food base available to carnivores in these paleosystems raises the possibility that predator-prey interactions contributed to unstable ecosystems by driving populations to extinction. Here, we develop a model of predator-prey interactions based on diversity, abundance and body size patterns observed in the Permo-Triassic vertebrate fossil record of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Our simulations reflect empirical evidence that despite relatively high carnivore: herbivore species ratios, herbivore abundances were sufficient for carnivores to maintain required intake levels through most of the Karoo sequence. However, high mortality rates amongst herbivore populations, even accounting for birth rates of different-sized species, are predicted for assemblages immediately preceding the end-Guadalupian and end-Permian mass extinctions, as well as in the Middle Triassic when archosaurs replaced therapsids as the dominant terrestrial fauna. These results suggest that high rates of herbivore mortality could have played an important role in biodiversity declines leading up to each of these turnover events. Such declines would have made the systems especially vulnerable to subsequent stochastic events and environmental perturbations, culminating in large-scale extinctions.

  14. The middle mantle of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The middle mantle as a separate geosphere within a depth interval of 840 to 1700 km was recognized in 1995 by Yu.M. Pushcharovsky. The structure, energetics, and tectonics of the middle mantle, as well as phase transformations inherent to this geosphere, are characterized in this paper. The distribution of seismic heterogeneities established by seismic tomography is a definitive attribute of the given geosphere. The middle mantle differs from other geospheres by greater dimensions of seismic heterogeneities, especially as concerns the low- and medium-velocity domains. The high-velocity heterogeneities are round and oval in shape and in some cases reach a few thousand kilometers in size. The distribution of such heterogeneities is nonuniform and varies from one depth level to another. A high lateral contrast of anomalous domains distinguished by elastic wave velocities is expressed in gradient zones hundredths of kilometers wide. Specific general patterns of middle-mantle anomalies in the Pacific and Indian-Atlantic sectors of the Earth reflect their difference in geological history. The consideration of heterogeneities in terms of tectonics leads to the conclusion that role of the tectonic flow of mantle masses in the form of shearing and thrusting is important. The middle mantle is characterized by a special mineral composition with the prevalence of MgSiO3 crystallized as an orthorhombically distorted perovskite-type structure. The transformations of stishovite into a poststishovite modification at a depth of ˜1500 km and of aragonite into the postaragonite phase with an unusual structure at a depth of ˜1050 km are inherent to this geosphere. A change of the electronic structure of alkali cations is assumed in the middle mantle. Thus, the recognition of the middle mantle as a special geopshere is emphasized by its crystal chemistry.

  15. Palaeocommunity dynamics across the Lower to Middle Miocene 3rd order sequence boundary of the Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuschin, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd order sequence boundary from the Lower to the Middle Miocene of the Paratethys is characterized by a well-known major change of the molluscan fauna. This change was mainly studied based on regional species lists, which suggest a transition from low-diversity Karpatian (Upper Burdigalian) to highly diverse Badenian (Langhian and Lower Serravallian) assemblages. Here, we present quantitative data from 4 Karpatian and 6 Badenian localities to capture the anatomy of this faunal transition by comparing species-abundance patterns of local assemblages. 223 bulk samples, comprising more than 65,000 shells, were taken from shell beds; all molluscs > 1mm were studied quantitatively and sorted into 496 species. Independent sources (e.g., palaeogeographic position of localities and environmental data from foraminifera) suggest a water depth ranging from the intertidal to several tens of meters for the studied assemblages. Ordination methods indicate that benthic assemblages in the study area developed along the same depth-related environmental gradient across the 3rd order sequence boundary. Due to strong facies shifts at the boundary, the Karpatian faunas are mostly preserved in nearshore settings, but the Badenian faunas range from intertidal to shelf depth. Statistical analyses indicate that differences between the total of Karpatian and the total of Badenian assemblages are smaller than any differences among individual localities. The striking differences among the studied localities are most likely due to heterogeneous environments present on the Lower and Middle Miocene shelf of the Central Paratethys. Clearly, the immigration of several thermophilic molluscan families and superfamilies (e.g., Strombidae, Tonnoidea, Isognomonidae, and Carditidae) reflects climatic changes at the onset of the Langhian transgression. Our quantitative approach, however, favours the strong facies shift at the Lower / Middle Miocene boundary as the main reason for the pretended faunal

  16. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270–260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian “mammal-like reptile” member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction. PMID:22307615

  17. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S; Şengörc, A M Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L

    2012-01-31

    The medial Permian (~270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  18. Eland, buffalo, and wild pigs: were Middle Stone Age humans ineffective hunters?

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler

    2008-07-01

    Patterns of faunal exploitation play a central role in debates concerning the behavioral modernity of Middle Stone Age (MSA) peoples. MSA foragers have been portrayed as less effective hunters than their Later Stone Age (LSA) successors on the basis of relative species abundances from ungulate assemblages in southern Africa. Specifically, MSA hunters are said to focus on docile eland while avoiding more aggressive prey, particularly buffalo and wild pigs. To evaluate these arguments and compare subsistence behavior, I present a quantitative examination of 51 MSA and 98 LSA ungulate assemblages from southern Africa to show that: (1) with respect to ungulate exploitation, MSA diet breadth may have exceeded LSA diet breadth, (2) ungulate assemblage evenness is equivalent in the MSA and LSA, (3) eland, buffalo, and wild pig are equally abundant in the MSA and LSA, and (4) large ungulate prey are more common in the MSA than in the LSA. With few exceptions, the broad patterns, which sample a range of geographic and environmental contexts, are supported by an environmentally controlled comparison of Middle and Later Stone Age faunas that accumulated under interglacial conditions along the southern African coastline. When interpreted within a foraging theory framework, these differences suggest that MSA hunters enjoyed increased meat yields due to elevated encounter rates with large prey. These results need not imply cognitive differences, but are consistent with an increase in human populations from the Middle to Later Stone Age, which resulted in diminished abundances of large ungulates.

  19. Unappreciated diversification of stem archosaurs during the Middle Triassic predated the dominance of dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Foth, Christian; Ezcurra, Martín D; Sookias, Roland B; Brusatte, Stephen L; Butler, Richard J

    2016-09-15

    Archosauromorpha originated in the middle-late Permian, radiated during the Triassic, and gave rise to the crown group Archosauria, a highly successful clade of reptiles in terrestrial ecosystems over the last 250 million years. However, scientific attention has mainly focused on the diversification of archosaurs, while their stem lineage (i.e. non-archosaurian archosauromorphs) has often been overlooked in discussions of the evolutionary success of Archosauria. Here, we analyse the cranial disparity of late Permian to Early Jurassic archosauromorphs and make comparisons between non-archosaurian archosauromorphs and archosaurs (including Pseudosuchia and Ornithodira) on the basis of two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Our analysis recovers previously unappreciated high morphological disparity for non-archosaurian archosauromorphs, especially during the Middle Triassic, which abruptly declined during the early Late Triassic (Carnian). By contrast, cranial disparity of archosaurs increased from the Middle Triassic into the Late Triassic, declined during the end-Triassic extinction, but re-expanded towards the end of the Early Jurassic. Our study indicates that non-archosaurian archosauromorphs were highly diverse components of terrestrial ecosystems prior to the major radiation of archosaurs, including dinosaurs, while disparity patterns of the Ladinian and Carnian indicate a gradual faunal replacement of stem archosaurs by the crown group, including a short interval of partial overlap in morphospace during the Ladinian.

  20. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  1. Palaeoloxodon and Human Interaction: Depositional Setting, Chronology and Archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella Site (Tarquinia, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Aureli, Daniele; Contardi, Antonio; Giaccio, Biagio; Jicha, Brian; Lemorini, Cristina; Madonna, Sergio; Magri, Donatella; Marano, Federica; Milli, Salvatore; Modesti, Valerio; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rocca, Roxane

    2015-01-01

    The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy) represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. PMID:25898322

  2. Palaeoloxodon and human interaction: depositional setting, chronology and archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella site (Tarquinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Aureli, Daniele; Contardi, Antonio; Giaccio, Biagio; Jicha, Brian; Lemorini, Cristina; Madonna, Sergio; Magri, Donatella; Marano, Federica; Milli, Salvatore; Modesti, Valerio; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rocca, Roxane

    2015-01-01

    The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy) represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  3. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.

  4. Middle atmosphere tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The recent direction of theoretical and observational research in middle atmosphere tides is reviewed. The diurnal tide has received considerable emphasis, including observations of evanescent components at high latitudes, numerical simulations of nonmigrating propagating components due to longitudinally varying water vapor insolation absorption in the troposphere, and implications and origins of unsteadiness in tidal oscillations over periods of days. Recent analyses of Nimbus 7 LIMS temperatures and partial reflection drift measurements of neutral winds in the tropical mesosphere have also emphasized the diurnal propagating tide. A description of the Atmospheric Tides Middle Atmosphere Program (ATMAP) and an overview of ATMAP campaign results are also presented.

  5. The chronostratigraphic framework of the South-Pyrenean Maastrichtian succession reappraised: Implications for basin development and end-Cretaceous dinosaur faunal turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fondevilla, Víctor; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Oms, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of the end-Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems and faunas outside of North America is largely restricted to the European Archipelago. The information scattered in this last area can only be integrated in a chronostratigraphic framework on the basis of robust age constraints and stratigraphy. Therefore, we have revisited the puzzling age calibration of the sedimentary infilling from the Isona sector in the Tremp syncline (South-Central Pyrenees), an area renowned for its rich Maastrichtian dinosaur fossil record. Aiming to shed light to existing controversial age determinations, we carried out a new magnetostratigraphic study along the ~ 420 m long Orcau and Nerets sections of that area. Our results reveal that most of the succession correlates to the early Maastrichtian (mostly chron C31r) in accordance to ages proposed by recent planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy. The resulting chronostratigraphic framework of the entire Maastrichtian basin recorded in the Tremp syncline shows that a significant sedimentary hiatus of about 3 My characterizes most of the late Maastrichtian in the study area. This hiatus, related to an abrupt migration of the basin depocenter, is temporally close to similar hiatuses, decreases in sedimentary rates and facies shifts recorded in other southwestern European areas. The present chronologic framework sets the basis for a thorough assessment of end-Cretaceous terrestrial faunal turnover and extinction patterns, and the establishment of a more rigorous Pyrenean basin evolution analysis.

  6. Faunal turnover in the Azraq Basin, eastern Jordan 28,000 to 9000 cal yr BP, signalling climate change and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Louise; Edwards, Yvonne H.; Roe, Joe; Garrard, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Recent zooarchaeological analyses of game exploitation in the Epipalaeolithic of the Southern Levant identify a decline in large game in the Natufian, with corresponding increase in small prey, interpreted as hunting pressure driven by population expansion. To date, studies focus on the Mediterranean zone. This paper adopts similar approaches to examine Epipalaeolithic to Neolithic faunal data from 16 sites in the steppic Jordanian Azraq Basin. Results here reveal very different trends. Large game, mainly equids, fluctuate throughout the Epipalaeolithic, due to climatic conditions and available water/vegetation. Cattle thrive in the Azraq oasis, showing no decline in the Late Epipalaeolithic. Gazelle exploitation is predominant and sustainable throughout the Epipalaeolithic, even at Kharaneh IV and Wadi Jilat 6 'megasites'. However, PPNB assemblages from the limestone steppe show intensive game exploitation resulting from longer-stay settlement. The focused gazelle-hunting camp at Dhuweila in the basalt desert also shows pressure from indiscriminate culling impacting herd demography, interpreted as providing meat for onwards exchange. Human impacts on steppe fauna appear both local and in many cases short-term, unlike the large-game suppression reported from west of the Rift Valley. Resource pressures and game over-kill, whether population-driven or otherwise, are not currently apparent east of the Jordan River.

  7. Episodic yo-yo movements (epeirogeny) on continental platform intracratonic basins: Need for reinterpretation of paleogeography, faunal extinctions, and source rock maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    In the Appalachian basin and Mississippi Valley, dates for epeirogeny cluster between 250 and 300 Ma, with the completion of the uplifts at about the Permian-Triassic boundary. In the Fennoscandian shield and elsewhere, uplifts appear to be of comparable age. This was the time when the continents had collided to become supercontinent Pangea which, as a result of uplift, stood high above sea level; environments became stressful, weather patterns changed, and faunal extinctions occurred. Large-scale epeirogeny began again at about 100 Ma, with some dates at about 60 Ma marking Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary extinctions. Precambrian basements, such as the Adirondacks, the Canadian shield, and the Arabo-Nubian shield suffered domal uplift during the Oligocene-Miocene, especially in the Miocene to Holocene interval. Oceanic sedimentation rates were elevated in the Miocene to accommodate this increased continental erosion. Active Holocene uplift in the Arabo-Nubian shield involving several meters or even tens of meters occurred as recently as between 3,405 {plus minus} 90 years and 2,465 {plus minus} 155 years ago.

  8. Integrated provenance analysis of a convergent retroarc foreland system: U-Pb ages, heavy minerals, Nd isotopes, and sandstone compositions of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, northern Andes, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Horton, Brian K.; Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Mange, Maria; Garzione, Carmala N.; Basu, Asish; Moreno, Christopher J.; Caballero, Victor; Parra, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Sediment provenance analysis remains a powerful method for testing hypotheses on the temporal and spatial evolution of uplifted source regions, but issues such as recycling, nonunique sources, and pre- and post-depositional modifications may complicate interpretation of results from individual provenance techniques. Convergent retroarc systems commonly contain sediment sources that are sufficiently diverse (continental magmatic arc, fold-thrust belt, and stable craton) to enable explicit provenance assessments. In this paper, we combine detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral identification, Nd isotopic analyses, conventional sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements to reconstruct the clastic provenance history of a long-lived sedimentary basin now exposed in an intermontane zone of the northern Andean hinterland of Colombia. The Middle Magdalena Valley basin, situated between the Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera, contains a 5-10 km-thick succession of Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary fill. The integrated techniques show a pronounced change in provenance during the Paleocene transition from the lower to upper Lisama Formation. We interpret this as a shift from an eastern cratonic source to a western Andean source composed of magmatic-arc rocks uplifted during initial shortening of the Central Cordillera. The appearance of detrital chloritoid and a shift to more negative ɛ Nd(t=0) values in middle Eocene strata of the middle La Paz Formation are attributed to shortening-related exhumation of a continental basement block (La Cira-Infantas paleohigh), now buried, along the axis of the Magdalena Valley. The diverse provenance proxies also show distinct changes during middle to late Eocene deposition of the Esmeraldas Formation that likely reflect initial rock uplift and exhumation of the fold-thrust belt defining the Eastern Cordillera. Upsection, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblages for Oligocene and younger clastic

  9. Adults only. Reindeer hunting at the middle palaeolithic site salzgitter lebenstedt, northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Gaudzinski, S; Roebroeks, W

    2000-04-01

    The Middle Palaeolithic site Salzgitter Lebenstedt (northern Germany), excavated in 1952, is well known because of its well-preserved faunal remains, dominated by adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The archaeological assemblage accumulated in an arctic setting in an earlier part of the last (Weichsel) glacial (OIS5-3). The site is remarkable because of the presence of unique Middle Palaeolithic bone tools and the occurrence of the northernmost Neanderthal remains, but this paper focuses on an analysis of its reindeer assemblage. The results indicate autumn hunting of reindeer by Middle Palaeolithic hominids. After the hunt, carcasses were butchered and in subsequent marrow processing of the bones a selection against young and sub-adult animals occurred. Adults were clearly preferred, and from their bones, again, poorer marrow bones were neglected. This focus on primeness of resources has been documented in other domains of Neanderthal behaviour, but Salzgitter Lebenstedt is the best example yet known in terms of systematic and routinized processing of game. The Salzgitter Lebenstedt assemblage displays some remarkable similarities to the Late Glacial reindeer assemblages from the Ahrensburg tunnel valley sites. The subsequent review of the evidence on subsistence strategies from earlier periods of the European Palaeolithic shows that hunting of large mammals may have been a part of the behavioural repertoire of the Middle Pleistocene occupants of Europe from the earliest occupation onwards. At the same time, it is suggested that these early hunting strategies were incorporated in ways of moving through landscapes ("settlement systems") which were different from what we know from the middle parts of the Upper Palaeolithic onwards.

  10. The taphonomy of a Middle Devensian (MIS 3) vertebrate assemblage from Lynford, Norfolk, UK, and its implications for Middle Palaeolithic subsistence strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreve, Danielle C.

    2006-07-01

    The association of a rich lithic assemblage with a Middle Devensian mammalian assemblage at Lynford was initially thought indicative of a mammoth butchery locality, a rare occurrence for a European Middle Palaeolithic open site. However, taphonomic analyses suggest that the specimens have very different depositional histories and were incorporated into a palaeochannel in several stages. Most specimens are extremely fragmentary, probably the result of extensive trampling, and signs of weathering and root-damage provide further indications of exposure before burial. Carnivore damage is minimal but establishing the degree of interaction between the mammal fauna and alternative predators, such as Neanderthals, is problematic. Direct evidence of butchery is not present and the best indication of any form of mammoth exploitation lies in more circumstantial evidence such as the virtual absence of long bones from the main channel deposit and the mammoth age profiles. Instances of pathologies are also unusually common in the mammoths, implying that their greater vulnerability may have led to an accelerated demise either naturally or at the hands of a predator. The best evidence for direct faunal exploitation at the site is from green bone fractures and broken teeth that suggest marrow extraction in horse, reindeer and woolly rhinoceros. Copyright

  11. Middle School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of 22 middle schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  12. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, experiments, and activities useful in middle school science instruction, including demonstrating how strong paper can be, the inclined plane illusion, a simplified diet calculation, a magnetic levitator, science with soap bubbles, a model motor and dynamo, and a pocketed sorter for safety glasses. (SK)

  13. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are six activities suitable for middle grades. They include programs for voting, creating Logo patterns, and for selecting a writing topic. Other activities focus on use of the colon and FOR/NEXT loop in BASIC and evaluating programs. (JN)

  14. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  15. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the middle grades. They focus on Logo activities to sharpen visualization skills, use of spreadsheets, various uses of Apple microcomputer paddles, and writing a program from program output. All activities may be adapted for lower or higher grade levels. (JN)

  16. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  17. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Discusses indoor rocketry and use of a vivid model of human birth. Also discusses information (momentum/force) indicating how a motorcycle can be driven up around the increasing slope of an elliptical path, a food testing worksheet, and a worksheet on light for upper elementary/lower middle school students. Includes sample worksheets. (Author/JN)

  18. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Activities for middle/junior high school students are presented, including use of string variables, science lesson ideas, computer scavenger hunt, and guidelines for interviewing people who own/use computers. Includes "I'll Write...Just Lead Me to My Computer" by Robert Engberg, discussing word processing instruction. (JN)

  19. The Middle Income Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  20. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the middle grades. They focus on Logo activities to sharpen visualization skills, use of spreadsheets, various uses of Apple microcomputer paddles, and writing a program from program output. All activities may be adapted for lower or higher grade levels. (JN)

  1. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Activities for middle/junior high school students are presented, including use of string variables, science lesson ideas, computer scavenger hunt, and guidelines for interviewing people who own/use computers. Includes "I'll Write...Just Lead Me to My Computer" by Robert Engberg, discussing word processing instruction. (JN)

  2. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrations, experiments, and classroom activities/materials for middle school science are presented. These include: additive color mixing demonstration; electricity activity and worksheet; atmospheric pressure "magic" demonstration; homemade microbalance; energy from soap bubbles; and a model used to demonstrate muscle pairs and how…

  3. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, experiments, and activities useful in middle school science instruction, including demonstrating how strong paper can be, the inclined plane illusion, a simplified diet calculation, a magnetic levitator, science with soap bubbles, a model motor and dynamo, and a pocketed sorter for safety glasses. (SK)

  4. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  5. The Forgotten Middle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been heightened awareness of the importance of early childhood education and high school as intervention points in the educational lives of America's children. Less attention has been paid to the importance of the upper elementary grades and middle school and the role they must play in the preparation of students for…

  6. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Explains some middle school science demonstrations and experiments: included are a simplified circuit board, a scheme for the identification of plastics, a soot-free bunsen burner, science in a packet of cornflakes, and perceptual ambiguities with a "Chinese Compass." (GA)

  7. Utopia Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  8. Middle Start Technology Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Holly

    Equity is an important part of technology education. Without adequate equipment and training, schools shortchange students and limit their ability to compete with their more fortunate peers. This is especially important at the middle school level because computer assisted instruction not only taps into adolescents' natural curiosity, but also can…

  9. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrations, experiments, and classroom activities/materials for middle school science are presented. These include: additive color mixing demonstration; electricity activity and worksheet; atmospheric pressure "magic" demonstration; homemade microbalance; energy from soap bubbles; and a model used to demonstrate muscle pairs and how…

  10. Middle School Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Kallio, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of primary resources in the teaching of middle school social studies. Describes a lesson in which students were given a copy of the Declaration of Independence, written in everyday language, and were asked to discuss and evaluate it. Suggests another activity based on Thomas Jefferson's writings. (SG)

  11. The Middle School Plunge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers nationwide continue to wrestle with a basic question: At what grade level should students move to a new school? In the most common grade configuration in American school districts, public school students make two school transitions, entering a middle school in grade 6 or 7 and a high school in grade 9. This pattern reflects the…

  12. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583-561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42.

  13. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583–561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42. PMID:26457581

  14. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  15. Ohio's Middle Childhood Licensure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paula M.; Ross, Diane; Miller, Jennifer; Dever, Robin; Jones, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe middle level prepared teachers' perceptions of their practices after completing an Ohio Middle Childhood: Grades 4-9 teacher education program. Using the National Middle School Association/National Council of Accreditation of Teacher Education Initial Level Teacher Preparation Standards (2001)…

  16. Middle management of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the middle manager in a research organization is discussed. The middle manager serves as a liaison between upper management and researchers to assure that individual research projects manifest the goals of the organization. The author draws on his long experience in this role to describe management practices that have proven successful. A general discussion is presented of the makeup of a research environment, derived from a study of a division involved in aerospace research and development (R and D). The study emphasized the importance of planning and management style in producing an attractive environment. Management practices are described, which include goal setting, planning, staffing, reviewing and evaluating, and rewarding. The importance of selecting and defining an appropriate research area is discussed. It is emphasized that in relating to the staff the middle manager must cultivate the human side of supervision, develop the art of delegating responsibility, judiciously select facilities, and provide recognition and meaningful rewards to develop a productive research staff. The development of the staff is probably the most important and challenging role of the manager.

  17. Chaungtha, a new Middle Miocene mammal locality from the Irrawaddy Formation, Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavasseau, Olivier; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Tun, Soe Thura; Soe, Aung Naing; Barry, John C.; Marandat, Bernard; Sudre, Jean; Marivaux, Laurent; Ducrocq, Stéphane; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2006-12-01

    We describe here a mammalian assemblage originating from the locality of Chaungtha (Irrawaddy Formation, Myanmar). It represents one of the rare descriptions of a precisely located, in space, vertical section and time, fossil mammal fauna from the Irrawaddy Formation. Classically the fossil record of Irrawaddy Formation is essentially known from isolated fossils of imprecise or unknown provenance, especially concerning the stratigraphic position of the fossils along several hundred meter thick sections. The Chaungtha faunal association consists of the rhino Brachypotherium fatehjangense, the pig Conohyus thailandicus, the ruminants cf. Siamotragulus sanyathanai, cf. Siamotragulus sp. and a gomphotheriid proboscidean. This assemblage indicates that the locality is Miocene in age, and not Late Eocene as previously claimed, and roughly contemporaneous with the Chinji Formation of India-Pakistan (ca. 14-11 Ma) and with the Mae Moh Group of northern Thailand. The Chaungtha fauna, even if it displays regional characteristics, shows a strong resemblance to those of the Middle Miocene of India-Pakistan and of Thailand and reinforces the idea that South-East Asia and Pakistan were part of the same biogeographical province during the Middle Miocene.

  18. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  19. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  20. Fluvial trace fossils in the Middle Siwalik (Sarmatian-Pontian) of Darjeeling Himalayas, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Hasiotis, Stephen T.; Ghosh, Bhaskar; Bhattacharya, Harendra Nath

    2013-08-01

    Trace fossils that record animal and plant activity are described for the first time from the Middle Siwalik, Neogene deposits of Darjeeling Himalaya. Sedimentary facies association attests to a channel-interchannel floodplain fluviatile setting. The intimate association of the burrows with phytoliths, rhizoliths, leaf compressions and coal lenses suggest that the tracemakers dominated a floodplain habitat. Point bar deposits host a low diversity Planolites-Naktodemasis-Macanopsis-Cylindricum equilibrium ichnocoenosis in the heterolithic fine sandstone-siltstone-shale facies that alternates with dense, monospecific colonization of Planolites as opportunistic pioneers relocating under stressed condition. Interlayered floodplain deposits in the fluvial successions preserve enigmatic large diameter, vertical tubes within thin to thick-bedded, dark silty shale facies. These tubes bear mixed characters assignable to both crayfish burrows and large-diameter rhizoliths. Further work on these tubes is necessary to make more accurate interpretations of those structures. Shallow to moderate burrow depths; intermittent, short-lived colonization events and preservation of rhizoliths and rhizohalos under fluctuating moisture content indicate short-term fluctuations of a relatively high water table (close to the paleosurface) in an imperfectly drained proximal floodplain setting. Ichnotaxa distribution and their inferred ethology provide significant faunal data that may put constraints on the reconstruction of Middle Siwalik depositional environment.

  1. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  2. Hystricognath rodents from the Pinturas Formation, Early Middle Miocene of Patagonia, biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarz, Alejandro G.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.

    2005-01-01

    The Pinturas Formation is a continental succession, characterized by eolian sediments (mainly tuffaceous) and paleosols, originated in an upland setting of west central Patagonia. The main intraformational erosive surfaces and lithological changes define three sequences. The Formation bears a rich mammalian association (Florentino Ameghino's Astrapothericulan fauna), whose age in relation to the Santacrucian SALMA (middle Miocene) is still controversial. Recent collections from the Pinturas Formation, performed with stratigraphic control, allow differentiation of two distinct hystricognath rodent associations. The lower and middle sequences bear a particular combination of Colhuehuapian (early Miocene) and Santacrucian genera, mostly represented by species exclusively known to the Pinturas Formation ('Pinturan' association). The upper sequence bears typical Santacrucian species, more derived than its Pinturan counterparts. According to the rodent record, the lower and middle sequences of the Pinturas Formation are older than the base of the Santa Cruz Formation exposed at Monte Observación and Monte León, and the upper sequence may be correlated with the lowermost levels of the Santa Cruz Formation and deposits exposed at Karaiken that bear Ameghino's 'Notohippidian' fauna. These correlations agree with more recent radiometric dates and other biostratigraphic evidence, supporting Ameghino's original hypothesis. The Pinturan rodent assemblage of the lower and middle sequences suggests the presence of humid forests, in accordance with other faunal components and palynological data. Sedimentologic, paleopedologic, and ichnologic evidence, however, suggest environments dominated by herbaceous vegetation. This seeming contradiction is interpreted as the result of a marked environmental gradient due to the paleotopography and/or climatic fluctuations. The mammal record corresponds to the more humid intervals, which have less representation in the sedimentary record

  3. Recovery vs. Restructuring: Establishing Ecologic Patterns in Early and Middle Triassic Paleocommunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiser, M.; Dineen, A.; Sheehan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Published data has been interpreted as indicating that marine ecological devastation following the end-Permian mass extinction was protracted and may have lasted 5 million years into the Middle Triassic (Anisian). However, a review of previous literature shows that understanding of biotic recovery is typically based on only a few components of the ecosystem, such as on taxonomic diversity, a single genus/phylum, or facies. Typically, paleocommunities are considered fully recovered when dominance and diversity are regained and normal ecosystem functioning has resumed. However, in addition to the biodiversity crash at the end of the Permian, taxonomic and ecologic structure also changed,with the extinction marking the faunal shift from brachiopod-rich Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna (EF) to the mollusc-rich Modern EF. This suggests that the extreme reorganizational nature of the Triassic does not adhere to the standard definition of recovery, which is a return to previous conditions. Thus, we propose the term 'restructuring' to describe this interval, as Early and Middle Triassic communities might not exhibit the typical characteristics of a 'normal' Permian one. To more fully characterize Triassic ecologic restructuring, paleoecologists should take into account functional diversity and redundancy. We quantified functional richness and regularity in four different paleocommunities from classic Permian and Triassic sections. Functional richness was low in paleocommunities after the end-Permian mass extinction, but increased to high levels by the Middle Triassic. In contrast, functional regularity was low in the Middle Permian, but high in all the Triassic paleocommunities. The change from low to high functional regularity/redundancy at the P/T boundary may be a factor of the highly stressful Triassic environmental conditions (i.e. anoxia, hypercapnia), as high regularity in a community can boost survival in harsh environments. Parameters such as these will more

  4. The formation placement and palaeoenvironment of the Middle Miocene Los Atajos Member, Trinidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brent; Farfan, Philip; Hughes, Chantelle

    2017-07-01

    The age, palaeoenvironment and formation placement of the conglomeratic Los Atajos Member of central Trinidad have long been unclear. Seven samples (four from calcareous silts near the member's base exposed by building work at the Los Atajos Community Centre, and three from the underlying calcareous claystones of the Brasso Formation) were examined for calcareous microfossils. These indicate a conformable succession encompassing an overall regression. The oldest of the claystone samples, of uppermost early Middle Miocene Globorotalia fohsi fohsi Zone age (N11), contained an upper bathyal benthic foraminiferal assemblage, while the younger claystone samples yielded abundant, shallow neritic Hanzawaia carstensi. The recovery of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia mayeri but absence of Globigerinoides subquadratus suggest a Middle Miocene age (Globorotalia mayeri planktonic foraminiferal Zone; N14) for both the uppermost Brasso claystone sample and the Los Atajos Member. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the Los Atajos is dominated by Rosalina subaraucana, with subdominant Cibicides ex gr. aknerianus and C. floridanus sensu Galloway and Heminway, and common Elphidium spp. This faunal succession has a close affinity with that of parts of the Lower to Middle Miocene Brasso Formation, especially the N10 Guaracara Limestone Member and the clays on which it sits. However, the Los Atajos Member assemblage differs markedly from that of the overlying Late Miocene San José Calcareous Silt Member of the Manzanilla Formation, from which the Los Atajos is separated by an unconformity of Globorotalia menardii (N15) Zone age. On these grounds, the Los Atajos Member is here placed within the Brasso Formation. The low diversity, high dominance benthic foraminiferal fauna and the associated ostracod assemblage in the Los Atajos are indicative of inner to shallower middle neritic palaeodepths in a carbonate-prone palaeoenvironment with marine vegetation and strong current action

  5. Palaeoenvironmental drivers of vertebrate community composition in the Belly River Group (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada, with implications for dinosaur biogeography.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Thomas M; Evans, David C

    2016-11-15

    The Belly River Group of southern Alberta is one of the best-sampled Late Cretaceous terrestrial faunal assemblages in the world. This system provides a high-resolution biostratigraphic record of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and faunal turnover, and it has considerable potential to be a model system for testing hypotheses of dinosaur palaeoecological dynamics, including important aspects of palaeoecommunity structure, trophic interactions, and responses to environmental change. Vertebrate fossil microsites (assemblages of small bones and teeth concentrated together over a relatively short time and thought to be representative of community composition) offer an unparalleled dataset to better test these hypotheses by ameliorating problems of sample size, geography, and chronostratigraphic control that hamper other palaeoecological analyses. Here, we assembled a comprehensive relative abundance dataset of microsites sampled from the entire Belly River Group and performed a series of analyses to test the influence of environmental factors on site and taxon clustering, and assess the stability of faunal assemblages both temporally and spatially. We also test the long-held idea that populations of large dinosaur taxa were particularly sensitive to small-scale environmental gradients, such as the paralic (coastal) to alluvial (inland) regimes present within the time-equivalent depositional basin of the upper Oldman and lower Dinosaur Park Formations. Palaeoenvironment (i.e. reconstructed environmental conditions, related to relative amount of alluvial, fluvial, and coastal influence in associated sedimentary strata) was found to be strongly associated with clustering of sites by relative-abundance faunal assemblages, particularly in relation to changes in faunal assemblage composition and marine-terrestrial environmental transitions. Palaeogeography/palaeolandscape were moderately associated to site relative abundance assemblage clustering, with depositional setting

  6. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M.; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P.; Brown, Steve D. M.; Bingle, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air–liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. PMID:27660200

  8. River bar vegetation mowing response in the Middle Rio Grande

    Treesearch

    Esteban Muldavin; Elizabeth Milford; Yvonne Chauvin

    1999-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation routinely mows vegetation on side bars along the Rio Grande to assist with river flow management. To address the question of how such mowing affects vegetation composition and structure, three bars in the middle Rio Grande near Albuquerque, New Mexico were selected in 1994 for an experimental mowing program. Three 50-foot-wide strips on each...

  9. Migration of the Willow Flycatcher along the Middle Rio Grande

    Treesearch

    Wang Yong; Deborah M. Finch

    1997-01-01

    We studied timing, abundance, subspecies composition, fat stores, stopover length, and habitat use of Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) during spring and fall stopover along the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. Spring migration started in mid-May and lasted about a month. Fall migration started in early-August and also lasted about a month. The most abundant...

  10. Computer Literacy Activities for Elementary and Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douziech, Richard; And Others

    All elementary and middle school students can gain five different types of knowledge about computers: (1) how to operate a computer; (2) roles computers play in different subject areas and outside of education; (3) how to direct a computer to aid them in writing, information retrieval, music composition, and creative art; (4) algorithmic thinking;…

  11. Middle School Student Factors as Predictors of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnick, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    In this study, several middle school factors of students from two consecutive graduating classes were analyzed to determine what relation they had to college readiness, as measured by ACT subtest scores. The academic factors included: 8th grade EXPLORE composite score, 7th grade spring reading and math MAP scores, highest math course completed in…

  12. Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Middle and Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Alicia L.; Brown, Neil L.

    The relationship of middle school climate to academic achievement was examined. Participants were members of eight 6th grade classes. Four of the classes were in elementary settings, and four in middle school settings. Classes were matched as closely as possible on economic status and ethnic composition. Entered into correlational analyses were…

  13. Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Middle and Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Alicia L.; Brown, Neil L.

    The relationship of middle school climate to academic achievement was examined. Participants were members of eight 6th grade classes. Four of the classes were in elementary settings, and four in middle school settings. Classes were matched as closely as possible on economic status and ethnic composition. Entered into correlational analyses were…

  14. The middle way

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, R. B.; Pines, David; Schmalian, Joerg; Stojković, Branko P.; Wolynes, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Mesoscopic organization in soft, hard, and biological matter is examined in the context of our present understanding of the principles responsible for emergent organized behavior (crystallinity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, etc.) at long wavelengths in very large aggregations of particles. Particular attention is paid to the possibility that as-yet-undiscovered organizing principles might be at work at the mesoscopic scale, intermediate between atomic and macroscopic dimensions, and the implications of their discovery for biology and the physical sciences. The search for the existence and universality of such rules, the proof or disproof of organizing principles appropriate to the mesoscopic domain, is called the middle way. PMID:10618366

  15. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 13: Ground-based Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Topics of activities in the middle Atmosphere program covered include: lidar systems of aerosol studies; mesosphere temperature; upper atmosphere temperatures and winds; D region electron densities; nitrogen oxides; atmospheric composition and structure; and optical sounding of ozone.

  16. ROE Fish Faunal Percent Loss

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Percent reduction is based on the number of native species determined to be present as of 2015, compared with historical numbers documented prior to 1970. Data are displayed by 6-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC-6) watershed. A species is considered present if there is at least one record of its presence in any 8-digit HUC within the 6-digit HUC. This indicator presents a summary of data available from the NatureServe Explorer database (http://www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools/natureserve-explorer). The identity and status (current vs. historical) of all native fish species recorded in each 8-digit HUC are available from this database, along with species-by-species distribution maps at the 8-digit HUC level. Analyses based on these data have previously been reported in Master et al. (1998, 2003) and Stein et al. (2000). Data were provided by NatureServe.

  17. ROE Fish Faunal Absolute Loss

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reduction is based on the number of native species determined to be present as of 2015, compared with historical numbers documented prior to 1970. Data are displayed by 6-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC-6) watershed. A species is considered present if there is at least one record of its presence in any 8-digit HUC within the 6-digit HUC. This indicator presents a summary of data available from the NatureServe Explorer database (http://www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools/natureserve-explorer). The identity and status (current vs. historical) of all native fish species recorded in each 8-digit HUC are available from this database, along with species-by-species distribution maps at the 8-digit HUC level. Analyses based on these data have previously been reported in Master et al. (1998, 2003) and Stein et al. (2000). Data were provided by NatureServe.

  18. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-05

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochronological and taxonomic revisions of the middle Eocene Whistler Squat Quarry (Devil's Graveyard Formation, Texas) and implications for the early Uintan in Trans-Pecos Texas.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Christopher J; Kirk, E Christopher; Townsend, K E Beth; Deino, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    The Whistler Squat Quarry (TMM 41372) of the lower Devil's Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas is a middle Eocene fossil locality attributed to Uintan biochronological zone Ui1b. Specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry were collected immediately above a volcanic tuff with prior K/Ar ages ranging from ∼47-50 Ma and below a tuff previously dated to ∼44 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar analyses of both of the original tuff samples provide statistically indistinguishable ages of 44.88±0.04 Ma for the lower tuff and 45.04±0.10 Ma for the upper tuff. These dates are compatible with magnetically reversed sediments at the site attributable to C20r (43.505-45.942 Ma) and a stratigraphic position above a basalt dated to 46.80 Ma. Our reanalysis of mammalian specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry and a stratigraphically equivalent locality significantly revises their faunal lists, confirms the early Uintan designation for the sites, and highlights several biogeographic and biochronological differences when compared to stratotypes in the Bridger and Uinta Formations. Previous suggestions of regional endemism in the early Uintan are supported by the recognition of six endemic taxa (26% of mammalian taxa) from the Whistler Squat Quarry alone, including three new taxa. The revised faunal list for the Whistler Squat Quarry also extends the biostratigraphic ranges of nine non-endemic mammalian taxa to Ui1b.

  20. Geochronological and Taxonomic Revisions of the Middle Eocene Whistler Squat Quarry (Devil’s Graveyard Formation, Texas) and Implications for the Early Uintan in Trans-Pecos Texas

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Christopher J.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Townsend, K. E. Beth; Deino, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    The Whistler Squat Quarry (TMM 41372) of the lower Devil’s Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas is a middle Eocene fossil locality attributed to Uintan biochronological zone Ui1b. Specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry were collected immediately above a volcanic tuff with prior K/Ar ages ranging from ∼47–50 Ma and below a tuff previously dated to ∼44 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar analyses of both of the original tuff samples provide statistically indistinguishable ages of 44.88±0.04 Ma for the lower tuff and 45.04±0.10 Ma for the upper tuff. These dates are compatible with magnetically reversed sediments at the site attributable to C20r (43.505–45.942 Ma) and a stratigraphic position above a basalt dated to 46.80 Ma. Our reanalysis of mammalian specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry and a stratigraphically equivalent locality significantly revises their faunal lists, confirms the early Uintan designation for the sites, and highlights several biogeographic and biochronological differences when compared to stratotypes in the Bridger and Uinta Formations. Previous suggestions of regional endemism in the early Uintan are supported by the recognition of six endemic taxa (26% of mammalian taxa) from the Whistler Squat Quarry alone, including three new taxa. The revised faunal list for the Whistler Squat Quarry also extends the biostratigraphic ranges of nine non-endemic mammalian taxa to Ui1b. PMID:24988115

  1. The use of photo-mosaics, bathymetry and sensor data into geographic information system for site description and faunal distribution analysis at the Menez Gwen Hydrothermal vent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, Y.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    . The mosaics, together with high-resolution ship-borne bathymetry, allowed unravelling the layout and morphology of the system at different scales. Through GIS analyses, the distribution of the faunal communities in relation to the fluid emission points was mapped and sensor data were integrated to allow describing the spatial variation of water temperature based on CTD measurements. Results include calculation of mussel beds surfaces and inferred estimates of biomass of Bathymodiolus azoricus. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the European Commission under the EU Framework 7 funded Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) SENSEnet (contract n°237868), and funded through DFG Research Center / Excellence Cluster "The Ocean in the Earth System".

  2. Foraminiferal faunal responses to monsoon-driven changes in organic matter and oxygen availability at 140 and 300 m water depth in the NE Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Kate E.; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2009-03-01

    The faunal responses of benthic Foraminifera were investigated during 2003 at two contrasting sites in the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Bottom-water-dissolved oxygen concentrations at the seasonally hypoxic 140 m site varied from 2.06 ml l -1 (92±4 μM) during the intermonsoon period (April) to 0.11 ml l -1 (5.0±0.4 μM) during the post-monsoon period (October); corresponding values at the 300 m site in the OMZ core, were 0.053 and 0.057 ml l -1 (2.36±0.09 and 2.56±0.29 μM). Live macrofaunal (>300 μm) Foraminifera (including soft-walled species) and Metazoa were examined in replicate multicore samples taken at each site during the 2003 intermonsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A low-diversity foraminiferal assemblage was dominated (>60%) by calcareous species at both sites. A total of 36 species was recognised and diversity was not greatly affected by water depth or season. At both sites, >86% of Foraminifera were restricted to the 0-1 cm layer of sediment and the ALD 5 decreased from the intermonsoon to the post-monsoon periods. Densities increased from 124 (intermonsoon) to 153 (post-monsoon) indiv. 10 cm -2 at 140 m and from 86 to 122 indiv. 10 cm -2 at 300 m. Much of this increase was accounted for by the dominant species, Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata. At 140 m, Foraminifera were 3.6 times more abundant than metazoans during the intermonsoon period, rising to 13.9 times during the post-monsoon period. The corresponding proportions at 300 m, where metazoans were rare, were 12.4 and 14.5. We conclude that calcareous Foraminifera, in particular U. ex. gr. semiornata, play a central role in OM cycling on the sea floor in the upper part of the Pakistan margin OMZ.

  3. Comparison of organic (UK'37, TEXH86, LDI) and faunal proxies (foraminiferal assemblages) for reconstruction of late Quaternary sea surface temperature variability from offshore southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A.; Spooner, Michelle I.; Barrows, Timothy T.; De Deckker, Patrick; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Several proxies have been developed to reconstruct past sea surface temperature (SST), but different proxies may reflect temperatures of different seasons and each proxy is characterized by certain uncertainties. Therefore, a multiproxy approach is preferred to precisely reconstruct SST. Here, we reconstruct SST of the ocean offshore southeastern Australia (Murray Canyons area) for the last ~135 ka using three independent organic proxies (TEXH86 based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), UK'37 based on alkenones, and LDI based on long-chain diols) in addition to foraminiferal faunal assemblages. The organic proxy records show similar trends, with the highest temperature (21°C for UK'37 and TEXH86, and 25°C for LDI) during the last interglacial and lowest temperature (8°C for TEXH86, 10°C for UK'37, and 12°C for LDI) during the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the differences in absolute SST estimates obtained by the organic proxies varied over time with differences of up to 9°C between LDI and TEXH86. The seasonal SST reconstructions based on the modern analogue of foraminiferal assemblages also show similar trends as the organic proxies with highest temperatures during the last interglacial (23°C for the warmest month SST, 20°C for mean annual, and 18°C for the coolest month) and lowest temperature during the Last Glacial Maximum (14°C for the warmest month, 11°C for mean annual, and 9°C for the coolest month). Down core comparison between the reconstructed SSTs of the organic and inorganic proxies shows that LDI-inferred temperatures compare well with the temperature of the warmest month, TEXH86 with the temperature of the coolest month, and UK'37 with mean annual temperature. An increase in TEXH86 SST estimates relative to those of other proxies during deglaciations and interglacials suggests that either winter temperatures rapidly warmed, possibly due to an invigoration of the Leeuwin Current over the core site, or there was a change in

  4. Time Series Studies of Faunal Colonization and Temperature Variations at Diffuse-Flow Hydrothermal Vent Sites Near 9° 50'N, EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Scheirer, D.; Fornari, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    The April 1991 discovery of newly-formed hydrothermal vents in areas of intense volcanic activity along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 9\\deg 45' and 9\\deg 52'N provided a unique opportunity to follow temporal changes in biological community structure and vent fluid temperature and chemistry since the birth of numerous deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Discrete high resolution biological imaging and fluid chemistry samples have been collected in conjunction with autonomous temperature probe arrays that have monitored the fluid temperature at 10-15 minute intervals since 1993, within four diffuse-flow regions of the BioTransect at 9\\deg 50'N on the EPR. During ~1 year deployments between 1993 and 2000, active vent invertebrate colonization by greater than 500 individuals (representing 8 species) occurred on more than 60 recovered temperature probes comprising 12 arrays. On each temperature probe, the position and length of individual organisms were mapped to correlate the position of settlement and growth rates with the environmental temperatures experienced by these colonists. Regressions of colonization parameters with temperature measures (such as average, minimum, and maximum T) from multiple communities, along with size-frequency histograms and growth rates, indicate that the abundance of the vestimentiferan Tevnia jerichonana was greater than Riftia pachyptila tube worms and bathymodiolid mussels on temperature probes bathed in significantly higher average and maximum temperatures. Results strongly suggest that Tevnia has a greater physiological tolerance to higher temperatures and elevated geochemical concentrations (e.g., sulfide species) than Riftia and mussels. Significant differential colonization onto probes within an array demonstrates thermal and chemical habitat preferences by vestimentiferan tubeworms and mussels. Thus, patterns of active faunal colonization in hydrothermal areas vary with differing temperature regimes and associated environmental

  5. ISS Update: Guillen Middle School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries and Operations Support Officer Cassandra Rodriquez answer questions from Guillen Middle School students in El Paso, TX. Rodriquez also discusses her role...

  6. Nothing in the Middle: What Middle Schoolers Are Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traw, Rick

    A study examined what kinds of books middle schoolers will read when given the freedom to choose. Subjects were 55 children of middle-class parents enrolled in 2 sections of eighth-grade English at a university laboratory school. Of the original population of 55 students, 7 elected not to have data from their reading included, and records were not…

  7. Developmental Characteristics of Middle Schoolers and Middle School Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Hershel D.

    The extent to which the middle school becomes a true educational alternative is directly related to the ability of middle school educators and researchers to identify and investigate the developmental needs and learning capacities of students. Three important developmental characteristics of early adolescents are a high need for peer friendships,…

  8. Duplicated middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion.

  9. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  10. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  11. The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Richter, Daniel; Grün, Rainer; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Steele, Teresa E; Amani, Fethi; Rué, Mathieu; Fernandes, Paul; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Geraads, Denis; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P

    2017-06-07

    The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old, therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens. A weighted average age places these Middle Stone Age artefacts and fossils at 315 ± 34 thousand years ago. Support is obtained through the recalculated uranium series with electron spin resonance date of 286 ± 32 thousand years ago for a tooth from the Irhoud 3 hominin mandible. These ages are also consistent with the faunal and microfaunal assemblages and almost double the previous age estimates for the lower part of the deposits. The north African site of Jebel Irhoud contains one of the earliest directly dated Middle Stone Age assemblages, and its associated human remains are the oldest reported for H. sapiens. The emergence of our species and of the Middle Stone Age appear to be close in time, and these data suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.

  12. The Middle Ages: Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a four-volume reference set for elementary and middle school students called "The Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia for Students" edited by William Chester Jordan. Provides a sample lesson which includes library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for…

  13. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    PubMed

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed.

  14. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also can cause painful pressure changes in the middle ear, so a child may eat less than normal or have trouble ... There's no single best approach for treating all middle ear infections. In deciding how to manage your child's ear infection, your doctor will consider many things, ...

  15. Calculus in the Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  16. Middle School Organization and Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Nancy J.

    The major purpose of this report is to present information about the organization of middle schools in the school district of Philadelphia. The report includes: (1) summary information on rostering/scheduling practices; and (2) comparisons of promotion/retention rates, average daily attendance, and suspension rates in middle schools with different…

  17. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  18. Calculus in the Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  19. A Voice from the Middle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2007-01-01

    "Whatever were they thinking?" Anyone who has worked with middle level students for any length of time has certainly had that thought pass through his or her mind too many times to count. Although middle level educators may puzzle at the complex, confusing, and often contradictory thought process of young adolescents, they can learn a great deal…

  20. Mining the Middle School Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawter, David

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students are walking dichotomies. They can talk about world peace and then hit the kid next to them. They can recycle to ease global warming only to leave the cafeteria a mess. Why? Well, scientifically, it is because their brains do not work. When people look at middle school students, they can plainly see evidence of physical…

  1. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  2. Mining the Middle School Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawter, David

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students are walking dichotomies. They can talk about world peace and then hit the kid next to them. They can recycle to ease global warming only to leave the cafeteria a mess. Why? Well, scientifically, it is because their brains do not work. When people look at middle school students, they can plainly see evidence of physical…

  3. Embedding organisational quality improvement through middle manager ownership.

    PubMed

    Balding, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    To strengthen the middle manager role in a hospital quality improvement (QI) program, with a view to increasing and sustaining organisational QI implementation. Case study based action research project, combining pre- and post-action quantitative and qualitative data collection, relating to a QI program intervention in an Australian metropolitan specialist teaching hospital. A model for enhancing the middle manager role in QI was developed and then implemented as the action over a 12-month period. Middle manager understanding and ownership of the QI program and organisational QI implementation significantly increased, although their perceived enjoyment of being involved in QI decreased. This case-study based action research project was limited to one organisation of a specific type - a large specialist metropolitan teaching hospital. The composition of the middle manager group, therefore, is necessarily limited to particular specialties. It is acknowledged that findings from case study and action research methodologies are limited in their generalisability, but assist in the development of knowledge and principles that can be adapted to different settings. This QI implementation model can increase levels of organisational QI implementation by effecting a positive change in middle manager attitude to and involvement in QI. There are many theories regarding the importance of the middle manager role in QI, but little empirical research into exactly what this role may be and how it may be strengthened. This research adds to the knowledge base, and provides clear steps for achieving increased staff involvement and QI implementation.

  4. Shelf to basin transition in Middle Ordovician carbonates in Alabama Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    In the Alabama valley and ridge, Middle Ordovician carbonates are exposed in two northeast-southwest-trending outcrop belts separated by the Helena fault. Northwest to southeast transits across these outcrop belts illustrate a well-defined shallow to deep water transition. West of the Helena fault, the Middle Ordovician is represented by a transgressive-regressive sequence of peritidal and shallow subtidal carbonates of the Chickamauga Limestone, deposited in tidal-flat, low-energy open-shelf, and high-energy shoal environments. Tidal-flat deposits consist of peloidal and intraclastic wackestones and packstones containing abundant exposure indicators. These grade into light-colored, skeletal wackestones and packstones containing a diverse faunal assemblage rich in algae, indicating deposition in a shallow, low-energy, open-shelf setting. High energy shoal deposition is represented by a 20-80 ft thick sequence of cross-bedded skeletal grainstone. Included within the grainstone are pods of bryozoan-sponge-algal bafflestone and bindstone that represent small mud-rich bioherms. East of the Helena fault, the Middle Ordovician series consists of deeper water carbonates of the Lenoir and Little Oak Limestones and graptolitic shales of the Athens Formation. The Lenoir and Little Oak are composed of dark-colored, even-bedded, skeletal wackestones which, with the exception of scattered Nuia, lack algae, indicating deposition in the deeper part of the photic zone. These wackestones grade southeastward into very finely laminated, argillaceous mudstones and calcareous shales of the Athens Formation. The Athens is dark colored, organic-rich, lacking in bottom-dwelling fauna, and contains common synsedimentary slump structures suggesting deposition in an anoxic, lower slop environment.

  5. Key Characteristics of Middle School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Nyman, Terri R.

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined student performance in middle schools with a grade configuration of six through eight. Schools were categorized into two groups: high-performing middle schools--middle schools making adequate yearly progress for two consecutive school years, and low-performing middle schools--middle schools not making adequate yearly…

  6. Neanderthals from El Salt (Alcoy, Spain) in the context of the latest Middle Palaeolithic populations from the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Gómez, José A; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    We present a bioanthropological study of dental remains recovered from El Salt Middle Palaeolithic site (Alcoy, Alicante, Spain). The dental remains were found in a sedimentary layer representing a calm depositional environment within a freshwater spring system. The corresponding archaeological context comprises a Middle Palaeolithic faunal and lithic assemblage that represents the last documented evidence of human occupation at the site, dating to between 47.2 ± 4.4 and 45.2 ± 3.4 ka (thousands of years ago). This evidence is overlain by an archaeologically sterile deposit dated to 44.7 ± 3.2 ka. Results show that the teeth belong to a single juvenile or young adult individual with morphological and metric features falling within the Neanderthal range of variability, although the considered traits are not taxonomically highly discriminant. The reported fossils are representative of the latest Middle Palaeolithic groups in the region and may be considered in the ongoing debate on the disappearance of Neanderthals and the end of the Middle Palaeolithic.

  7. A new Middle Miocene selachian assemblage (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Central Paratethys (Nyirád, Hungary): implications for temporal turnover and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Márton; Kocsis, László

    2016-12-01

    A new Middle Miocene (Langhian - early Serravallian) assemblage with shark and ray teeth from Nyirád (Hungary, Transdanubia, Veszprém County) consists of nine families, with 15 different species. The assemblage shares many common genera with other Middle Miocene assemblages in the Paratethys (Notorynchus, Carcharias, Otodus, Cosmopolitodus, Hemipristis, Galeocerdo, Carcharhinus, and Aetobatus), and reflects a subtropical climate and a close connection with the Mediterranean Sea. However, a detailed faunal compilation of Miocene selachians reveals that several taxa that were still present in the Mediterranean or lived in the Paratethys during the Lower Miocene disappeared or became very rare by the Middle Miocene in the Central Paratethys (e.g., Isistius, Centrophorus, Mitsukurina, Carcharoides, Parotodus, Alopias). The taxa that went locally extinct in the Paratethys are mainly represented by deep-water or pelagic forms. Their disappearance is most probably related to the gradual separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean. The common presence of some large, rather pelagic sharks (e.g., Otodus, Cosmopolitodus) in the Central Paratethys during the Middle Miocene is explained here by the widespread occurrence of their potential prey represented by marine mammals (e.g., whales and dolphins).

  8. Sedimentology and depositional environments of middle Eocene terrigenous-carbonate strata, southeastern atlantic coastal plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Mary K.; Thayer, Paul A.; Amidon, Mark B.

    1997-02-01

    Basin-margin sediments of middle Eocene age in the Savannah River Site area consist of five terrigenous-carbonate lithofacies: quartz sand; calcareous quartz sand; sandy carbonate; muddy carbonate; and a transitional lithofacies that ranges from sandy, muddy carbonate to calcareous mud. The middle Eocene sediment package, which includes calcareous parts of the upper Congaree, Warley Hill, and Santee Formations, dips southeast at 4.7 m/km and thickens from 2 m at its updip edge to 95 m downdip. The presence of glauconite and a diverse faunal assemblage in all lithofacies suggests deposition in clear, well-oxygenated, open-marine waters of normal salinity on the inner to middle shelf with periods of marginal marine, nearshore, and deltaic influence. Coarse-grained terrigenous sand and calcareous sand, deposited in higher-energy, nearshore environments, occur near the updip limit. Fine-grained terrigenous mud, calcareous mud, and sandy and muddy carbonate are located downdip and accumulated in quieter water conditions on the inner and middle shelf. The transition from terrigenous to carbonate sediment occurs near the updip limit in a narrow zone less than 5 km wide. Three depositional sequences, which contain transgressive and highstand system tracts, are recognized within the middle Eocene calcareous interval. One is assigned to the upper Congaree Formation ( TA{3.5}/{3.6}cycles). The main control on areal distribution Hill Formation (TA3.4 cycle), and one to the Santee Formation ( TA{3.5}/{3.6}cycles). The main control on areal distribution of facies was depositional environment, which was controlled primarily by sea-level eustasy and the amount, rate and locus of terrigenous influx. In updip areas, however, sediment distribution and thickness were also influenced by middle Eocene growth faulting. Diagenetic pathways vary with facies type, but generally include: (1) marine phreatic — boring of skeletal fragments by algae and fungi, grain micritization, and

  9. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the early Mesozoic Xitian granitic pluton in the middle Qin-Hang Belt, South China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and bulk-rock trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianhong; Cao, Jingya; Kong, Hua; Shao, Yongjun; Li, Huan; Xi, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Xuantong

    2016-10-01

    The Xitian pluton in southeast Hunan province is one of the early Mesozoic (Indosinian) granitic plutons in the South China Block. It is composed of biotite adamellite with K-feldspar megacrysts, biotite adamellite, and biotite granite that have U-Pb zircon ages of 229.9 ± 1.4 Ma, 223.6 ± 1.3 Ma, and 224.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The Indosinian granitoids in the Xitian pluton belong to S-type granites, with highly radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71397-0.71910), negative εNd(t) values ranging from -10.1 to -9.4, and old Nd model ages (1858-1764 Ma). They are enriched in radiogenic Pb isotopes, with (206Pb/204Pb)t ranging from 18.130 to 18.903, (207Pb/204Pb)t from 15.652 to 15.722, and (208Pb/204Pb)t from 38.436 to 39.037, respectively. These features indicate that the granitoidswithin the Xitian pluton were formed from magmas generated by remelting of metapelite and metapsammite of the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement at temperatures of ca. 800 °C, with low oxygen fugacity. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the rocks from Xitian pluton indicate that the granitic magmas were mixed with less than 10% mantle-derived magmas. We suggest that the Xitian pluton was emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting related to release of compressional stresses within the thickened crust during the early Mesozoic.

  10. Short human occupations in the Middle Palaeolithic level I of the Abric Romani rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallverdú, J; Allué, E; Bischoff, J L; Cáceres, I; Carbonell, E; Cebrià, A; García-Antón, D; Huguet, R; Ibáñez, N; Martínez, K; Pastó, I; Rosell, J; Saladié, P; Vaquero, M

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary study on the size of the occupied surfaces, provisioning strategies and behaviour planning at the Romani rock-shelter, using the Middle Palaeolithic record of the level i. This level is dated around 46.000 BP through U/Th ages. A behavioural interpretation is proposed, which emphasises the activities and the systemic value of the archaeological artefacts and structures. Occupation patterns are identified on the basis of the accumulations formed by human activities. These archaeological accumulations, consisting of artefacts and hearths, are easily defined visually as spatial units. The relationships between these accumulations, established by means of refitted remains, indicate that differences can be established between: 1) small and medium-sized occupation surfaces; 2) restricted and diversified provisioning strategies. This variability suggests that different modes of occupation are represented in the same archaeological level. The human activities reveal the generalization of fire technology. In almost all sizes of the occupation surfaces, the exploitation of vegetal resources near the Abric Romani marks the threshold of the restricted provisioning strategy. Limited use and fragmented knapping activities are recorded in the lithic assemblage. Faunal remains show differential transport. The exploitation of lithic, faunal and vegetal resources characterizes the diversified provisioning strategy. The small occupation surfaces and restricted provisioning strategies suggest short settlements in the Abric Romani. This shorter occupation model complements the longer diversified provisioning strategy recorded in both small and medium-sized occupied surfaces. The selection of precise elements for transport and the possible deferred consumption in the diversified provision strategy suggest an individual supply. In this respect, Neanderthal occupations in the Romani rock-shelter show a direct relation to: 1) hunting strategic

  11. Middle Cerebral Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969

  12. Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester / Montmorillonite Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Montmorillonite Composites DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Nanophase and...Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester / Montmorillonite Composites A. Baran Inceoglu and Ulku Yilmazer Middle East Technical University, Chemical...analysed the nature of the curing agent on structure. Kornmann, Berglund and Giannelis [8] studied nanocomposites based on montmorillonite modified

  13. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also been found in camels and in one bat. While it is believed to come from animals, ... Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated December 2, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  14. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  15. Crafts in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, D. I. R.

    1972-01-01

    In the middle years of schooling, size, measurement, shape and form build up a child's mathematical and visual concepts. A restless drive to create, to see what happens in making something, can provide the driving force in crafts. (Editor)

  16. Middle atmosphere general circulation statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    With the increased availability of remote sensing data for the middle atmosphere from satellites, more analyses of the middle atmosphere circulation are being published. Some of these are process studies for limited periods, and some are statistical analyses of middle atmosphere general circulation statistics. Results from the latter class of studies will be reviewed. These include analysis of the zonally averaged middle atmosphere structure, temperature, and zonal winds; analysis of planetary wave structures, analysis of heat and momentum fluxes; and analysis of Eliassen-and-Palm flux vectors and flux divergences. Emphasis is on the annual march of these quantities; Northern and Southern Hemisphere asymmetries; and interannual variability in these statistics. Statistics involving the global ozone distribution and transports of ozone are also discussed.

  17. In praise of middle managers.

    PubMed

    Huy, Q N

    2001-09-01

    Middle managers have often been cast as dinosaurs. Has-beens. Mediocre managers and intermediaries who defend the status quo instead of supporting others' attempts to change organizations for the better. An INSEAD professor has examined this interesting breed of manager--in particular, middle managers' roles during periods of radical organizational change. His findings will surprise many. Middle managers, it turns out, make valuable contributions to the realization of radical change at companies--contributions that go largely unrecognized by most senior executives. Quy Nguyen Huy says these contributions occur in four major areas. First, middle managers often have good entrepreneurial ideas that they are able and willing to realize--if only they can get a hearing. Second, they're far better than most senior executives at leveraging the informal networks at companies that make substantive, lasting change. Because they've worked their way up the corporate ladder, middle managers' networks run deep. Third, they stay attuned to employees' emotional needs during organizational change, thereby maintaining the transformation's momentum. And finally, they manage the tension between continuity and change--they keep the organization from falling into extreme inertia or extreme chaos. The author examines each of these strengths, citing real-world examples culled from his research. Of course, not every middle manager in an organization is a paragon of entrepreneurial vigor and energy, Huy acknowledges. But cavalierly dismissing the roles that middle managers play--and carelessly reducing their ranks--will drastically diminish senior managers' chances of realizing radical change at their companies. Indeed, middle managers may be the most effective allies of corner office executives when it's time to make major changes in businesses.

  18. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  19. Human Hunting and Nascent Animal Management at Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic Yiftah'el, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Dayan, Tamar; Khalaily, Hamoudi; Munro, Natalie D.

    2016-01-01

    The current view for the southern Levant is that wild game hunting was replaced by herd management over the course of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, but there is significant debate over the timing, scale and origin of this transition. To date, most relevant studies focus either on wild game exploitation in the periods prior to domestication or on classic markers of domestication of domestic progenitor species over the course of the PPNB. We studied the faunal remains from the 2007–2008 excavations of the Middle PPNB (MPPNB) site of Yiftah’el, Northern Israel. Our analysis included a close examination of the timing and impact of the trade-off between wild game and domestic progenitor taxa that reflects the very beginning of this critical transition in the Mediterranean zone of the southern Levant. Our results reveal a direct trade-off between the intensive hunting of wild ungulates that had been staples for millennia, and domestic progenitor taxa. We suggest that the changes in wild animal use are linked to a region-wide shift in the relationship between humans and domestic progenitor species including goat, pig and cattle. PMID:27383247

  20. An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Gavin J; Long, John A; Ayliffe, Linda K; Hellstrom, John C; Pillans, Brad; Boles, Walter E; Hutchinson, Mark N; Roberts, Richard G; Cupper, Matthew L; Arnold, Lee J; Devine, Paul D; Warburton, Natalie M

    2007-01-25

    How well the ecology, zoogeography and evolution of modern biotas is understood depends substantially on knowledge of the Pleistocene. Australia has one of the most distinctive, but least understood, Pleistocene faunas. Records from the western half of the continent are especially rare. Here we report on a diverse and exceptionally well preserved middle Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage from caves beneath the arid, treeless Nullarbor plain of south-central Australia. Many taxa are represented by whole skeletons, which together serve as a template for identifying fragmentary, hitherto indeterminate, remains collected previously from Pleistocene sites across southern Australia. A remarkable eight of the 23 Nullarbor kangaroos are new, including two tree-kangaroos. The diverse herbivore assemblage implies substantially greater floristic diversity than that of the modern shrub steppe, but all other faunal and stable-isotope data indicate that the climate was very similar to today. Because the 21 Nullarbor species that did not survive the Pleistocene were well adapted to dry conditions, climate change (specifically, increased aridity) is unlikely to have been significant in their extinction.

  1. Human Hunting and Nascent Animal Management at Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic Yiftah'el, Israel.

    PubMed

    Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Dayan, Tamar; Khalaily, Hamoudi; Munro, Natalie D

    2016-01-01

    The current view for the southern Levant is that wild game hunting was replaced by herd management over the course of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, but there is significant debate over the timing, scale and origin of this transition. To date, most relevant studies focus either on wild game exploitation in the periods prior to domestication or on classic markers of domestication of domestic progenitor species over the course of the PPNB. We studied the faunal remains from the 2007-2008 excavations of the Middle PPNB (MPPNB) site of Yiftah'el, Northern Israel. Our analysis included a close examination of the timing and impact of the trade-off between wild game and domestic progenitor taxa that reflects the very beginning of this critical transition in the Mediterranean zone of the southern Levant. Our results reveal a direct trade-off between the intensive hunting of wild ungulates that had been staples for millennia, and domestic progenitor taxa. We suggest that the changes in wild animal use are linked to a region-wide shift in the relationship between humans and domestic progenitor species including goat, pig and cattle.

  2. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene.

  3. A large mimotonid from the Middle Eocene of China sheds light on the evolution of lagomorphs and their kin

    PubMed Central

    Fostowicz-Frelik, Łucja; Li, Chuankui; Mao, Fangyuan; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Mimotonids share their closest affinity with lagomorphs and were a rare and endemic faunal element of Paleogene mammal assemblages of central Asia. Here we describe a new species, Mimolagus aurorae from the Middle Eocene of Nei Mongol (China). This species belongs to one of the most enigmatic genera of fossil Glires, previously known only from the type and only specimen from the early Oligocene of Gansu (China). Our finding extends the earliest occurrence of the genus by at least 10 million years in the Paleogene of Asia, which closes the gap between Mimolagus and other mimotonids that are known thus far from middle Eocene or older deposits. The new species is one of the largest known pre-Oligocene Glires. As regards duplicidentates, Mimolagus is comparable with the largest Neogene continental leporids, namely hares of the genus Lepus. Our results suggest that ecomorphology of this species was convergent on that of small perissodactyls that dominated faunas of the Mongolian Plateau in the Eocene, and probably a result of competitive pressure from other Glires, including a co-occurring mimotonid, Gomphos. PMID:25818513

  4. Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel E; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecilio; Caparrós, Miguel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F; Galván Santos, Bertila; Higham, Thomas F G

    2013-02-19

    It is commonly accepted that some of the latest dates for Neanderthal fossils and Mousterian industries are found south of the Ebro valley in Iberia at ca. 36 ka calBP (calibrated radiocarbon date ranges). In contrast, to the north of the valley the Mousterian disappears shortly before the Proto-Aurignacian appears at ca. 42 ka calBP. The latter is most likely produced by anatomically modern humans. However, two-thirds of dates from the south are radiocarbon dates, a technique that is particularly sensitive to carbon contaminants of a younger age that can be difficult to remove using routine pretreatment protocols. We have attempted to test the reliability of chronologies of 11 southern Iberian Middle and early Upper Paleolithic sites. Only two, Jarama VI and Zafarraya, were found to contain material that could be reliably dated. In both sites, Middle Paleolithic contexts were previously dated by radiocarbon to less than 42 ka calBP. Using ultrafiltration to purify faunal bone collagen before radiocarbon dating, we obtain ages at least 10 ka (14)C years older, close to or beyond the limit of the radiocarbon method for the Mousterian at Jarama VI and Neanderthal fossils at Zafarraya. Unless rigorous pretreatment protocols have been used, radiocarbon dates should be assumed to be inaccurate until proven otherwise in this region. Evidence for the late survival of Neanderthals in southern Iberia is limited to one possible site, Cueva Antón, and alternative models of human occupation of the region should be considered.

  5. The Telescope Array's Middle Drum Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S.A.; Cady, R.; Jui, C.C.H.; Matthews, J.N.; Rodribuez, D.; Smith, J.D.; Thomas, S.B.

    The Telescope Array Project (TA) is an Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Observatory in central Utah. It performs a hybrid measurement of the extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. The two detector systems are 1) an array of 576 scintillation detectors and 2) three fluorescence telescope observatories which overlook the ground array. The Telescope Array will measure the study spectral shape, chemical composition of primary cosmic rays, and search for sources. Additionally, it seeks to understand the difference between the HiRes (High Resolution Fly's Eye) and AGASA (Akeno Giant Air Shower Array) spectra. The Middle Drum Observatory has been instrumented using refurbished telescopes from the HiRes-I Observatory at Dugway. We will discuss the detectors, modifications to aid calibration and analysis, and the first data from this observatory.

  6. Direct energy inputs to the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    As a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.

  7. Direct energy inputs to the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    As a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.

  8. Fish as a proxy for African paleogeography: results from both extant and fossil taxa and prospects to constrain faunal exchange pathway through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Joordens, Josephine; Dettai, Agnès; Christ, Leemans; Pinton, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    reveal ancient distributions. The further we are going back in time the more they will constitute most of or the whole relevant sample. Our results also suggest that information on the (paleo)ecology of the fish provides useful data notably to qualify the aquatic systems that have prevailed at the time of connection between basins. So, changes in basin geomorphology constrain fish evolution, and thus we are able to reconstruct and date these changes thanks to fish evolution studies. Since it is widely agreed that the identification of corridors and barriers is critical to understand faunal exchange, we are convinced that for each case study, we can identify the fish (either fossil or extant) that will provide a relevant "geomorphological model". To validate this approach, our current project aims to identify the exchange corridor that may have intermittently existed between the Chad and Turkana basins during the last 3 million years [6]. These corridors may have constituted possible pathways for interbasinal exchange of large mammals at a key time period of Australopithecine evolution. We will end our presentation with preliminary results concerning phylogeography of the extant catfish Synodontis schall, one of our three model species. [1] Pinton A., Otero O. in progress - How much do fish distribution depend on drainage system history? the case study of continental Africa. [2] Pinton A., Agnèse J.F., Paugy D., Otero O. 2013 - A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (2013): 1027-1040. [3] Otero O. 2011 - Current knowledge and new assumptions on the evolutionary history of the African lungfish, Protopterus, based on a review of its fossil record. Fish & Fisheries, 2011(12): 235-255. [4] Otero O., Pinton A., Mackaye H.T., Likius A., Vignaud P., Brunet M. 2009 - Fishes and palaeogeography of the African drainage basins

  9. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 15: Balloon techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, D. G. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Some techniques employed by investigators using balloons to obtain data on the properties of the middle atmosphere are discussed. Much effort has gone into developing instruments which could be used on small balloons to measure temperature and variable species. These efforts are discussed. Remote sensing techniques used to obtain data on atmospheric composition are described. Measurement of stratospheric ions and stratospheric aerosols are also discussed.

  10. Middle Level Education: Programs, Policies, and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capelluti, Jody, Ed.; Stokes, Donald, Ed.

    Middle-level education has become a fixture in our educational system. This collection of essays provides the opportunity for readers to examine current policies, programs, and practices in light of recent developments at the middle level. Nine essays include: (1) "Why Middle Schools?" (Donald Eichhorn); (2) "Organizing Middle Level Schools To…

  11. What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of matter…

  12. What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of matter…

  13. Middle infrared multispectral aircraft scanner data: analysis for geological applications.

    PubMed

    Kahle, A B; Madura, D P; Soha, J M

    1980-07-15

    Multispectral middle IR (8-13-microm) data were acquired with an aircraft scanner over Utah. Because these digital image data were dominated by temperature, all six channels were highly correlated. Extensive processing was required to allow geologic photointerpretation based on subtle variations in spectral emittance between rock types. After preliminary processing, ratio images were produced and color ratio composites created from these. Sensor calibration and an atmospheric model allowed determination of surface brightness, temperature, emittance, and color composite emittance images. The best separation of major rock types was achieved with a principal component transformation, followed by a Gaussian stretch, followed by an inverse transformation to the original axes.

  14. Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the oldfield mouse Peromyscus polionotus (Wagner) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Neotominae) from the southeastern Nearctic with comments on tapeworm faunal diversity among deer mice.

    PubMed

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Nims, Todd N; Galbreath, Kurt E; Hoberg, Eric P

    2015-06-01

    A previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Hymenolepis is described based on specimens in Peromyscus polionotus, oldfield mouse, from Georgia near the southeastern coast of continental North America. Specimens of Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. differ from those attributed to most other species in the genus by having testes arranged in a triangle and a scolex with a prominent rostrum-like protrusion. The newly recognized species is further distinguished by the relative position and length of the cirrus sac, shape of seminal receptacle, and relative size of external seminal vesicle and seminal receptacle. Hymenolepidid cestodes have sporadically been reported among the highly diverse assemblage of Peromyscus which includes 56 distinct species in the Nearctic. Although the host genus has a great temporal duration and is endemic to the Nearctic, current evidence suggests that tapeworm faunal diversity reflects relatively recent assembly through bouts of host switching among other cricetid, murid, and geomyid rodents in sympatry.

  15. The lithic industry of Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) in the context of Early and Middle Pleistocene technology in Europe.

    PubMed

    de Lombera-Hermida, Arturo; Bargalló, Amèlia; Terradillos-Bernal, Marcos; Huguet, Rosa; Vallverdú, Josep; García-Antón, Maria-Dolores; Mosquera, Marina; Ollé, Andreu; Sala, Robert; Carbonell, Eudald; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Xosé-Pedro

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the lithic assemblages documented at Sima del Elefante (TE) and their importance in the context of the Early and Middle Pleistocene human occupation of Europe. We also study changes in human behaviour within the context of the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Sierra de Atapuerca. This site has characteristics that are of great value for the study of human evolution. The lower levels of TE (Units TE7-TE14) are an essential reference for understanding the early stages of the colonization of Europe. The TE9c level has provided stone tools (Mode 1), faunal remains, and human fossils dated to 1.22 Ma (millions of years ago). Moreover, this is one of the few European sites with a stratigraphic sequence that includes remains of human occupations predating the Jaramillo subchron (Early Pleistocene) and from the Late Middle Pleistocene (Units TE18-TE19). Despite this, the presence of archaeologically sterile units (TE15-17) prevents us from establishing a continuous relationship between the Early and Middle Pleistocene human settlements and, consequently, between their technological and behavioural differences. We can, however compare the technological and palaeoeconomic strategies adopted by different species of hominins during two key phases of the occupation of Europe.

  16. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene ‘Miacis’ from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis. Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon, respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus, and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation. PMID:27853569

  17. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene `Miacis' from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2016-10-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis. Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon, respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus, and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation.

  18. Technological variability during the Early Middle Palaeolithic in Western Europe. Reduction systems and predetermined products at the Bau de l'Aubesier and Payre (South-East France).

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Leonardo; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Fernandes, Paul; Wilson, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    The study of the lithic assemblages of two French sites, the Bau de l'Aubesier and Payre, contributes new knowledge of the earliest Neanderthal techno-cultural variability. In this paper we present the results of a detailed technological analysis of Early Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblages of MIS 8 and 7 age from the two sites, which are located on opposite sides of the Rhône Valley in the south-east of France. The MIS 9-7 period is considered in Europe to be a time of new behaviours, especially concerning lithic strategies. The shift from the Lower Palaeolithic to the Early Middle Palaeolithic is "classically" defined by an increase in the number of core technologies, including standardized ones, which are stabilized in the full Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5-3), associated with the decline of the "Acheulean" biface. Applying a common technological approach to the analysis of the two assemblages highlights their technological variability with respect to reduction systems and end products. Differences between Payre and the Bau de l'Aubesier concerning raw material procurement and faunal exploitation only partially explain this multifaceted technological variability, which in our opinion also reflects the existence of distinct technological strategies within the same restricted geographic area, which are related to distinct traditions, site uses, and/or as yet unknown parameters.

  19. Technological variability during the Early Middle Palaeolithic in Western Europe. Reduction systems and predetermined products at the Bau de l'Aubesier and Payre (South-East France)

    PubMed Central

    Carmignani, Leonardo; Fernandes, Paul; Wilson, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    The study of the lithic assemblages of two French sites, the Bau de l’Aubesier and Payre, contributes new knowledge of the earliest Neanderthal techno-cultural variability. In this paper we present the results of a detailed technological analysis of Early Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblages of MIS 8 and 7 age from the two sites, which are located on opposite sides of the Rhône Valley in the south-east of France. The MIS 9–7 period is considered in Europe to be a time of new behaviours, especially concerning lithic strategies. The shift from the Lower Palaeolithic to the Early Middle Palaeolithic is “classically” defined by an increase in the number of core technologies, including standardized ones, which are stabilized in the full Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5–3), associated with the decline of the “Acheulean” biface. Applying a common technological approach to the analysis of the two assemblages highlights their technological variability with respect to reduction systems and end products. Differences between Payre and the Bau de l’Aubesier concerning raw material procurement and faunal exploitation only partially explain this multifaceted technological variability, which in our opinion also reflects the existence of distinct technological strategies within the same restricted geographic area, which are related to distinct traditions, site uses, and/or as yet unknown parameters. PMID:28591159

  20. Bondi Cave and the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition in western Georgia (south Caucasus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleurdeau, David; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Pinhasi, Ron; Yeshurun, Reuven; Higham, Tom; Agapishvili, Tamar; Bokeria, Maka; Muskhelishvili, Alexander; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Nomade, Sébastien; Poupeau, Gérard; Bocherens, Hervé; Frouin, Marine; Genty, Dominique; Pierre, Monique; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Lordkipanidze, David; Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz

    2016-08-01

    The late Pleistocene expansion of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) into Eurasia and the concurrent demise of the Neanderthals appears to be a complex and regionally variable process. The southern Caucasus region, with its rich cave-sites, has recently provided important results regarding this process. In this paper we report on the results of fieldwork in Bondi Cave, Western Georgia, providing a new radiocarbon chronology, stratigraphic observations, analyses of lithic technology and provenance, faunal and floral remains as well as paleoenvironmental data. The cave includes Middle Palaeolithic (ca, 45,000 ka cal. BP) cultural horizons and a long Upper Palaeolithic sequence (ca. 40,000-27,000 cal. BP from layer V to IV). A modern human tooth was found in layer Vb. We estimate its age at 39,000-35,800 Cal BP (95.4%), based on the Bayesian age model we built. If the context of the tooth is reliable, as we think it is, this would make it the oldest morphologically modern human in the Caucasus. Upper Palaeolithic hunting of tur and bison, as well as the collection of various plants including flax is attested. Mobile Upper Palaeolithic foragers inhabited the cave in generally cold and dry periods, but a mosaic of environments, including forests and meadows, was nonetheless available to them. The archaeological sequence of Bondi and adjacent sites indicates a substantial time gap between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations, thus disproving Neanderthal-AMH interaction in this area and lending support to a replacement scenario in the southern Caucasus, assuming of course that the Early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) is related to the arrival of AMHs.

  1. Synoptic patterns of meiofaunal and macrofaunal abundances and specific composition in littoral sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, Werner; Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1987-03-01

    During recent years, many investigations on small zoobenthos have been performed at the island of Sylt. As these studies were carried out sporadically over many years and as different extraction methods were used, comparisons of the results have been hampered. Therefore, in August/September 1986, 24 sites were sampled and evaluated using one quantitative method throughout. Sites range from mud to exposed sand and from the sublittoral to the supralittoral. Macrofauna and the taxa Plathelminthes, Polychaeta, and Oligochaeta are determined to species level. Macrofaunal (>0.5 mm) abundance is highest in mud and continuously decreases with increasing exposure to wave action. Meiofaunal (<0.5 mm) abundance is less variable. Nematoda dominate in mud and muddy sand, Copepoda in sheltered and exposed sand, other taxa only intermittently. Related to surface area, no correlation between macro-and meiofaunal abundance is apparent. Plathelminthes and Copepoda reach highest abundance per surface area in sand but their per volume density is higher in mud and muddy sand. Related to sediment volume instead of surface area, the meiofaunal abundance pattern is very similar to the macrofaunal pattern. The faunal composition changes gradually along the tidal gradient without general faunal boundaries. On an averange, the faunal similarity of neighbouring sites is highest in Oligochaeta and lowest in Plathelminthes. Presumably, Oligochaeta tolerate wider ranges of environmental factors. This may explain the low number of oligochaete species. On the other hand, Plathelminthes seem to adapt to relatively narrow ranges of factors and their species richness is highest. Because of macrofaunameiofauna interaction it is suggested that the meiofaunal assemblage will be least stable in mud and muddy sand, and most stable in exposed sand.

  2. Security in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F. Jr.; Bruzonsky, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The full range of U.S. security interests in the Middle East is covered in this volume of original contributions from prominent international scholars. Case studies of key countries emphasize the prospects for peaceful political, economic, and cultural change in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict is examined with particular attention to the ''Palestine problem,'' U.S. policy and diplomacy, and the peace process. Finally, the involvement of the U.S. and the USSR and the policy options open to them are considered. Includes chapters on oil and its role in Middle-East security issues.

  3. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  4. Middle Years. The Magazine for Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, Nancy-Jo; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special supplement for middle level educators focuses on news from around the country, student environmental action, adolescent development, saying no to drugs, the case against tracking, technology solutions, astronomy, ancient Egypt, the American West, learning with literature, camaraderie, and puzzles for problem solvers. (SM)

  5. Middle Years. The Magazine for Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, Nancy-Jo; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special supplement for middle level educators focuses on news from around the country, student environmental action, adolescent development, saying no to drugs, the case against tracking, technology solutions, astronomy, ancient Egypt, the American West, learning with literature, camaraderie, and puzzles for problem solvers. (SM)

  6. Seasonal variations of the middle-upper paleolithic transition at El castillo, Cueva Morín and El pendo (Cantabria, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pike-Tay, A; Cabrera Valdés, V; Bernaldo de Quirós, F

    1999-03-01

    With debate escalating in regard to the prolonged contemporaneity of neandertal and modern human groups in the Franco-Cantabrian region on the one hand, and the late persistence of neandertals (until ca. 28-30,000 B.P.) and Mousterian industries in southern Iberia on the other; sites with Mousterian-Upper Paleolithic sequences from northern Spain play a pivotal role in the ongoing investigation of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition in western Europe. An important line of inquiry into the nature of social and economic change from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic is the monitoring of shifts in land use and resource procurement patterns. The recognition of short-term, seasonal patterning in settlement and resource provisioning may provide insights into changes in mobility, territoriality, and social organization that might otherwise be missed. This paper presents results of a seasonality study of fauna from archaeological levels spanning the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition from the sites of El Castillo, El Pendo, and Cueva Morín in Cantabrian Spain. Data concerning season of death and age at death of prey animals presented here are derived from dental growth mark (increment, annuli) analysis. These data, along with other artifactual and faunal evidence suggest to us that: (1) economic strategies and technologies pervasive in the Upper Paleolithic are rooted in the Cantabrian Middle Paleolithic; and, (2) the apparent increase in deposits from the Middle through Upper Paleolithic may be the signature of a gradual increase in logistical economic strategies including the heightened level of social organization required for their implementation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Middle/High School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of two combined middle/high schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  8. Applied Learning for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paula; And Others

    1995-01-01

    From leading garden tours to planning a visit for Japanese teachers and participating in community theater, middle schoolers at Fort Worth's Applied Learning Academy learn academic content by working on community projects. Students' writing skills soared as they developed, edited, and field-tested brochures and trail-guide maps for their botanical…

  9. The Middle School. A Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J., Ed.

    The purpose of this monograph is to give Georgia elementary school principals and other interested educators the background and understanding about "Middle School Programs" to assist them in acting as constructive forces in the evolvement of such programs. The lead article by Mary F. Compton gives some of the major philosophical and…

  10. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  11. Piaget and Middle School Mathematics.