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Sample records for favourability studies papua

  1. Improved oxygen systems for childhood pneumonia: a multihospital effectiveness study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Duke, Trevor; Wandi, Francis; Jonathan, Merilyn; Matai, Sens; Kaupa, Magdalene; Saavu, Martin; Subhi, Rami; Peel, David

    2008-10-11

    In rural hospitals of developing countries, oxygen supplies are poor and detection of hypoxaemia is difficult. Oxygen concentrators and pulse oximeters might help to manage the disease; however, use of such technology in developing countries needs comprehensive assessment. We studied the effect of an improved oxygen system on death rate in children with pneumonia in Papua New Guinea. We installed an improved oxygen system in five hospitals in Papua New Guinea, and assessed its use in more than 11 000 children with pneumonia (2001-07) and compared case-fatality rates. Admissions between January, 2001, and December, 2004, formed the pre-intervention group, and those between July, 2005, and October, 2007, formed the post-intervention group. Oxygen concentrators and pulse oximeters were introduced in the five hospitals, and a protocol for detection of hypoxaemia and clinical use of oxygen was supplied. All children admitted had their oxygen saturation measured; if it was less than 90%, oxygen was delivered via nasal prongs at a starting flow rate of 0.5-1 L/min. We recorded all costs associated with the establishment and maintenance of this system. The study was approved by the Medical Research Advisory Committee of Papua New Guinea, number MRAC 04.02. Before the use of this system, 356 of 7161 children admitted in the five hospitals for pneumonia died (case-fatality rate 4.97% [95% CI 4.5-5.5]), whereas 133 of 4130 children died in the 27 months after the introduction of the system (3.22% [2.7-3.8]). After the improved system was introduced, the risk of death for a child with pneumonia was 35% lower than was that before the project began (risk ratio 0.65 [0.52-0.78], p<0.0001). Mortality rates varied between hospitals. The estimated costs of this system were US$51 per patient treated, US$1673 per life saved, and US$50 per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. Pulse oximetry and oxygen concentrators can alleviate oxygen shortages, reduce mortality, and improve

  2. Does Studying Peace Make a Difference? An Experiment at the University of Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaman, Julienne; Harris, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    University of Papua New Guinea students (n=23) who took a 1-semester peace studies course were compared with 23 who were studying politics. Only peace studies students significantly changed their critical thinking and values. (SK)

  3. A Study of Overloading in University of Papua and New Guinea (UPNG). E.R.U. Report 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ann E.; Jones, John

    This report, one of a series of reports from the University of Papua New Guinea, presents information gathered on full-time students from Papua New Guinea and other areas of the South Pacific and relates to one particular factor which contributes to student success and failure, that of overloading. The study reported is confined to the period…

  4. Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators: A Papua New Guinea Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals'…

  5. Cognitive Studies with Students in Papua New Guinea. E.R.U. Report 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John

    Students in Papua New Guinea experience considerable difficulty in dealing with much of their work--especially in science and mathematics. The ability to achieve some acknowledged level of excellence is dependent upon cognitive factors. During 1972 a series of pilot studies were carried out in various secondary and tertiary institutions to…

  6. Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators: A Papua New Guinea Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals'…

  7. "We Like Being Taught": A Study on Teacher Absenteeism in Papua and West Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is a global phenomenon. It is recognised in numerous studies and policy documents as one of the most critical causes of children's impaired learning and moral growth, and as a barrier to national and international development goals, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and Education For All (EFA). This research is the…

  8. Predictors of favourable outcome in inflammatory Crohn's disease. A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Zabana, Yamile; Garcia-Planella, Esther; van Domselaar, Manuel; Mañosa, Míriam; Gordillo, Jordi; López-Sanromán, Antonio; Cabré, Eduard; Domènech, Eugeni

    2013-12-01

    No studies have specifically searched for predictors of a favourable outcome that would allow a conservative therapeutic approach in adult Crohn's disease (CD). To identify predictors of a favourable disease course over time at CD diagnosis. We identified and included all patients diagnosed with CD between January 1994 and December 2003, who had CD with an inflammatory pattern and no perianal disease at diagnosis, and who were followed up for at least 5 years. Clinical and therapeutic features until December 2008 and losses to follow-up were identified. We defined a favourable outcome as the absence of stricturing and penetrating complications of the disease (including perianal disease), together with the absence of need for anti-TNF therapy or resectional surgery during follow up. One hundred and forty-five patients were included and followed up for a median of 96 months (IQR, 79-140). At diagnosis, location was ileal in 39%, colonic in 28%, and ileocolonic in 32%; 50% of the patients were active smokers, and 41% used immunomodulators. Eighty-two patients (57%) met the criteria for a favourable outcome at the end of follow-up. The only factor associated with a favourable outcome was isolated colonic involvement (P=0.022), with 73% of these patients meeting the criteria for a favourable outcome. A favourable outcome of initially uncomplicated CD is not easily predicted at disease diagnosis by means of clinical or epidemiologic factors. Nevertheless, patients with isolated colonic disease are less likely to have an aggressive course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  9. Geography and social distribution of malaria in Indonesian Papua: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-04-12

    Despite being one of the world's most affected regions, only little is known about the social and spatial distributions of malaria in Indonesian Papua. Existing studies tend to be descriptive in nature; their inferences are prone to confounding and selection biases. At the same time, there remains limited malaria-cartographic activity in the region. Analysing a subset (N = 22,643) of the National Basic Health Research 2007 dataset (N = 987,205), this paper aims to quantify the district-specific risk of malaria in Papua and to understand how socio-demographic/economic factors measured at individual and district levels are associated with individual's probability of contracting the disease. We adopt a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression model that accommodates not only the nesting of individuals within the island's 27 administrative units but also the spatial autocorrelation among these locations. Both individual and contextual characteristics are included as predictors in the model; a normal conditional autoregressive prior and an exchangeable one are assigned to the random effects. Robustness is then assessed through sensitivity analyses using alternative hyperpriors. We find that rural Papuans as well as those who live in poor, densely forested, lowland districts are at a higher risk of infection than their counterparts. We also find age and gender differentials in malaria prevalence, if only to a small degree. Nine districts are estimated to have higher-than-expected malaria risks; the extent of spatial variation on the island remains notable even after accounting for socio-demographic/economic risk factors. Although we show that malaria is geography-dependent in Indonesian Papua, it is also a disease of poverty. This means that malaria eradication requires not only biological (proximal) interventions but also social (distal) ones.

  10. Geochemical study on hot-spring water in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahan, M. M.; Verave, R. T.; Irarue, P. Y.

    2015-10-01

    West New Britain Province, which occupies the western part of New Britain Island in Papua New Guinea, is ideally located within an active tectonic region that influences volcanism creating an environment favourable for geothermal activity. Geothermal mapping of surface manifestations reveals high temperature geothermal prospects along the northern coastline of West New Britain Province that are further confirmed by geochemical analysis. The occurrence of geothermal features is confined to the Quaternary Kimbe Volcanics and alluvium in the lowland areas. The features in Talasea appear to be controlled by deep-seated northerly trending faults while structures in Hoskins also appear to be deep seated but have not been identified. The geothermal systems in West New Britain Province have not been drilled, but preliminary reconnaissance geothermal mapping and geochemical analysis reveals four high temperature geothermal prospects suitable for further investigation and development of geothermal energy. These are the Pangalu (Rabili) and Talasea Station geothermal prospects in Talasea and Kasiloli (Magouru) and Silanga (Bakama and Sakalu) geothermal prospects in Hoskins. The calculated reservoir temperatures for these fields are in the range of 245-310 °C. Recommendations are made for further follow-up exploratory investigations.

  11. Childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Vallely, Andrew; Homer, Caroline S E; Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    to explore men's and women's experiences, beliefs and practices surrounding childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea. a qualitative study comprising focus group discussions, key informant and in depth interviews. the study was undertaken in a rural community in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. 51 women and 26 men participated in 11 focus group discussions. Key informant and in depth interviews were undertaken with 21 women and five men. both women and men recognised the importance of health facility births, linking village births with maternal and newborn deaths. Despite this, many women chose to give birth in the community in circumstances influenced by cultural and customary beliefs and practices. Women giving birth in the community frequently gave birth in an isolated location. Traditional beliefs surrounding reasons for difficult births, including spiritual beliefs were reported along with the use of traditional methods used to help prolonged and difficult births. while the importance of health facility births is recognised in this rural community many women continue to give birth in the village. Identifying and understanding local customs, beliefs and practices, particularly those that may be harmful to women and their newborn infants, is critical to the development of locally-appropriate community-based strategies for improving maternal and infant health in rural communities in PNG and other resource-limited, high burden settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  13. Integrated package approach in delivering interventions during immunisation campaigns in a complex environment in Papua New Guinea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Vince, John David; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Toikilik, Steven; Lagani, William

    2014-08-06

    Papua New Guinea's difficult and varied topography, poor transport infrastructure, changing dynamics of population and economy in recent times and understaffed and poorly financed health service present major challenges for successful delivery of vaccination and other preventative health interventions to both the rural majority and urban populations, thereby posing risks for vaccine preventable disease outbreaks in the country. The country has struggled to meet the vaccination coverage targets required for the eradication of poliomyelitis and elimination of measles. Escalation of inter and intra country migration resulting from major industrial developments, particularly in extraction industries, has substantially increased the risk of infectious disease importation. This case study documents the evolution of immunisation programmes since the introduction of supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs). Single antigen SIAs have advantages and disadvantages. In situations in which the delivery of preventative health interventions is difficult, it is likely that the cost benefit is greater for multiple than for single intervention. The lessons learned from the conduct of single antigen SIAs can be effectively used for programmes delivering multiple SIA antigens, routine immunisations, and other health interventions. This paper describes a successful and cost effective multiple intervention programme in Papua New Guinea. The review of the last SIA in Papua New Guinea showed relatively high coverage of all the interventions and demonstrated the operational feasibility of delivering multiple interventions in resource constrained settings. Studies in other developing countries such as Lesotho and Ethiopia have also successfully integrated health interventions with SIA. In settings such as Papua New Guinea there is a strong case for integrating supplementary immunisation activity with routine immunisation and other health interventions through a comprehensive outreach

  14. TB incidence and characteristics in the remote gulf province of Papua New Guinea: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in remote areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG) are largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of TB in the Gulf Province of PNG and describe disease characteristics, co-morbidities and drug resistance profiles that could impact on disease outcomes and transmission. Methods Between March 2012 and June 2012, we prospectively collected data on 274 patients presenting to Kikori Hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of TB, and on hospital inpatients receiving TB treatment during the study period. Sputum was collected for microscopy, GeneXpert analysis, culture and genotyping of isolates. Results We estimate the incidence of TB in Kikori to be 1290 per 100,000 people (95% CI 1140 to 1460) in 2012. The proportion of TB patients co-infected with HIV was 1.9%. Three of 32 TB cases tested were rifampicin resistant. Typing of nine isolates demonstrated allelic diversity and most were related to Beijing strains. Conclusions The incidence of TB in Kikori is one of the highest in the world and it is not driven by HIV co-infection. The high incidence and the presence of rifampicin resistant warrant urgent attention to mitigate substantial morbidity in the region. PMID:24555577

  15. Using health rights to improve programme design: a Papua New Guinea case study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Carmel; Brian, Garry

    2012-01-01

    The non-state sector is becoming increasingly influential in funding and implementing global health programmes. However, their disease-specific focus and vertical interventions have led to criticism that these programmes can be unsustainable and unable to achieve long-term goals. This paper demonstrates that health rights can inform programme design to guide the design of appropriate and sustainable aid-funded health programmes. It draws on UN General Comment 14, which clarified the right to health duties of states and their international partners, and which determined that 'core obligations' in health must become progressively available, accessible, acceptable and of good quality. A rights-based tool assessed the design of activities proposed for Papua New Guinea by a consortium of Australian non-government organisations. The tool revealed that none of the 36 indicators was addressed in full. Five of the 12 indicators pertaining to availability were addressed partially, as were three of 10 relating to accessibility and one of six concerning human rights concepts. As shown by the case study, failure to address the indicators in this tool will result in simplistic programme designs that can win political or financial support, but will fail to respect health rights or deliver a quality health service, available, accessible and acceptable to all. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Malaria Vaccine Epidemiology and Evaluation Project of Papua New Guinea: rationale and baseline studies.

    PubMed

    Alpers, M P; al-Yaman, F; Beck, H P; Bhatia, K K; Hii, J; Lewis, D J; Paru, R; Smith, T A

    1992-12-01

    The range of possible malaria vaccines, against different species of Plasmodium and various stages in the life cycle of the parasite in both human host and mosquito vector, is reviewed. The importance, in a malaria-endemic area, of protection by a malaria vaccine against disease rather than infection is emphasized, and the ways by which disease prevention may be achieved are discussed. Mechanisms of production and presentation of vaccines are considered, including the importance of appropriate and more effective adjuvants. The variety of immune responses to malaria is set out and linked to both human and plasmodial genetic factors. Host genetics may also modify susceptibility to malaria through mechanisms which are not immunological. There is a need for entomological studies of the Anopheles vectors, especially but not only in preparation for transmission-blocking vaccines. This overall complexity justifies a multidimensional approach to epidemiology and field-site preparation. An iterative procedure is proposed for initial field evaluation, through adult male volunteers to community studies in immune adults and then to semi-immune school children, before evaluation in the principal target population of nonimmune young children. The outcome variables for epidemiological evaluation are specified. After this brief review of malaria vaccines, the baseline studies being undertaken by the Malaria Vaccine Epidemiology and Evaluation Project of the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research in the Wosera area of East Sepik Province are discussed in some detail, and their rationale linked to the range and complexity of the malaria vaccines that have been reviewed. These studies are described under the headings of their principal components of epidemiology, parasitology, immunology, genetics and entomology.

  17. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  18. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  19. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  20. Tetrodotoxic poisoning from ingestion of a porcupine fish (Diodon hystrix) in Papua New Guinea: nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Trevett, A J; Mavo, B; Warrell, D A

    1997-01-01

    Near Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea, three of four adult family members who ate a porcupine fish (Diodon hystrix) were severely poisoned. Within one hour of the meal, both the mother and her older daughter had developed paraesthesiae, ataxia, hypersalivation, sweating, and had collapsed and died. The younger daughter developed similar symptoms with progressive paralysis requiring mechanical ventilation for 24 hr, but she made a complete recovery 10 days after the poisoning. In this patient, nerve conduction studies showed reduced sensory and motor conduction velocities and evoked amplitudes with gradual improvement in parallel with the patient's clinical condition, consistent with the known action of tetrodotoxin on voltage-gated sodium channels.

  1. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Dare, Anna J.; Lee, Katherine C.; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J. M.; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. Methods and Findings We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. Conclusions National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political

  2. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Dare, Anna J; Lee, Katherine C; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E; Kamara, Thaim B; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J M; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political, technical, and financial support from

  3. Coping with Drought in Rural Papua New Guinea: A Western Highlands Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gwatirisa, Pauline Rutendo; Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja

    2017-08-09

    The short- and long-term effects of climate change on Papua New Guinea's agricultural sector have generated significant debate in recent times. Current literature demonstrates that different population groups have differing levels of vulnerability and resilience to the flow-on effects of climate change, particularly drought. Yet different schools of thought on the country's food security and effects on livelihoods persist. This article draws on evidence from research conducted in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea as part of a bigger economic empowerment project to illustrate the vulnerabilities of one community of rural semisubsistence farmers to drought-induced food insecurity. It examines responses to drought, identifies modes of resilience, and discusses the implications for future actions.

  4. New technology and regional studies in human ecology: A Papua New Guinea example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, George E. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two key issues in using technologies such as digital image processing and geographic information systems are a conceptually and methodologically valid research design and the exploitation of varied sources of data. With this realized, the new technologies offer anthropologists the opportunity to test hypotheses about spatial and temporal variations in the features of interest within a regionally coherent mosaic of social groups and landscapes. Current research on the Mountain OK of Papua New Guinea is described with reference to these issues.

  5. High Levels of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in a Study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lavu, Evelyn; Kave, Ellan; Mosoro, Euodia; Markby, Jessica; Aleksic, Eman; Gare, Janet; Elsum, Imogen A; Nano, Gideon; Kaima, Petronia; Dala, Nick; Gurung, Anup; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Crowe, Suzanne M; Myatt, Mark; Hearps, Anna C; Jordan, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using dried blood spots. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was defined by the presence of one or more drug resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance drug resistance mutations list. The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 16.1% (95% CI 8.8%-27.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 3.2%-18.2%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 3.2% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI 0.2%-11.8%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. No protease inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was observed. The level of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance in antiretroviral drug naïve individuals recently infected with HIV in Port Moresby is amongst the highest reported globally. This alarming level of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a young sexually active population threatens to limit the on-going effective use of NNRTIs as a component of first-line ART in Papua New Guinea. To support the choice of nationally recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy, representative surveillance of HIV drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy initiators in Papua New Guinea should be urgently implemented.

  6. High Levels of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in a Study in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Lavu, Evelyn; Kave, Ellan; Mosoro, Euodia; Markby, Jessica; Aleksic, Eman; Gare, Janet; Elsum, Imogen A.; Nano, Gideon; Kaima, Petronia; Dala, Nick; Gurung, Anup; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Myatt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. Methods Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using dried blood spots. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was defined by the presence of one or more drug resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance drug resistance mutations list. Results The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 16.1% (95% CI 8.8%-27.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 3.2%-18.2%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 3.2% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI 0.2%-11.8%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. No protease inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was observed. Conclusions The level of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance in antiretroviral drug naïve individuals recently infected with HIV in Port Moresby is amongst the highest reported globally. This alarming level of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a young sexually active population threatens to limit the on-going effective use of NNRTIs as a component of first-line ART in Papua New Guinea. To support the choice of nationally recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy, representative surveillance of HIV drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy initiators in Papua New Guinea should be urgently implemented. PMID:28146591

  7. The effect of unfavourable and favourable social comparisons on paranoid ideation: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ascone, Leonie; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Low social rank is associated with paranoia, but there is a lack of evidence for causality. We tested the effects of social comparisons on negative affect and paranoia with an online social rank paradigm, and whether striving to avoid inferiority or fears of social rejection moderated paranoid reactions. Female students (N = 172) were randomly exposed to one of two validated online profiles depicting a same-aged, high (unfavourable comparison) vs. low rank (favourable comparison) female student. Moderators were assessed at baseline. Social rank, anxiety, sadness and paranoia were assessed pre and post profile-exposure. There was a large effect of the experimental manipulation on social rank (p < 0.001, η(2)partial = 0.191). The manipulations had no effects on anxiety and paranoia (p > 0.38). Sadness was significantly altered (p = 0.016, η(2)partial = 0.033). There were significant moderation effects between the experimental conditions and insecure striving (trend-level) as well as fears of rejection. Our findings may be biased (overestimation of effects) as students are likely to be more competitive compared to the general population. Our rank manipulations did not alter paranoia. This suggests that changes in the cognitive representation of social rank alone - without triggering a strong emotional response - do not suffice to evoke paranoia. Although our results do not support the notion that threats to social rank cause paranoid symptoms, they suggest that threats to social rank are more likely to trigger paranoid states in those who are insecure in regard to their social position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does fluvastatin favour HCV replication in vivo? A pilot study on HIV-HCV coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, L; Meroni, L; Galazzi, M; Cesari, M; Caramma, I; Marchetti, G; Galli, M; Antinori, S

    2009-07-01

    Fluvastatin showed anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity in vitro, through the inhibition of geranylgeranylation of cellular proteins, and a synergistic effect with interferon (IFN)-alpha. Nevertheless statins up-regulate low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, required for HCV cell entry, and the closely related scavenger receptors SRBI and CD36; moreover they reduce class II major histocompatibility complex expression on antigen presenting cell, modulating T-cell activation. In vivo LDL levels have been identified as prognostic indicator of sustained viral response to IFN in patients with HCV infection, suggesting that lipid-lowering agents might conversely favour HCV entry into the hepatocytes and translate into higher viral replication. We evaluated the effect of fluvastatin on HCV-RNA levels, CD36 expression and T-cell homeostasis in HCV-RNA positive patients. HCV-RNA was measured at baseline and after 4 weeks in 42 HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients, randomized to receive either fluvastatin 80 mg qd or no treatment. CD36 expression and markers of T-cell activation were evaluated by means of flow cytometry. Plasma interleukin (IL)-10, IFN-gamma and IL-7 were measured by ELISA. Serum cholesterol and LDL decreased significantly in the treatment group (P = 0.0001 and 0.01, respectively). Surprisingly a significant increase of HCV-RNA levels was seen after 4 weeks of fluvastatin (P = 0.03). The percentages of naive/activated/apoptotic cells and CD36 expression remained unchanged. Fluvastatin did not inhibit HCV-RNA replication in vivo; conversely we observed a significant increase of HCV-RNA levels. CD36 expression on monocytes were not up-regulated by statins as previously reported in vitro. The correlation between HCV infectivity, oxidized-LDL receptor and statins in HCV infection need further evaluation.

  9. Implications of male circumcision for women in Papua New Guinea: a transformational grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick; McBride, William J H

    2017-07-27

    Male circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is being explored for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG has a concentrated HIV epidemic which is largely heterosexually transmitted. There are a diverse range of male circumcision and penile modification practices across PNG. Exploring the implications of male circumcision for women in PNG is important to inform evidence-based health policy that will result in positive, intended consequences. The transformational grounded theory study incorporated participatory action research and decolonizing methodologies. In Phase One, an existing data set from a male circumcision study of 861 male and 519 female participants was theoretically sampled and analyzed for women's understanding and experience of male circumcision. In Phase Two of the study, primary data were co-generated with 64 women in seven interpretive focus group discussions and 11 semi-structured interviews to develop a theoretical model of the processes used by women to manage the outcomes of male circumcision. In Phase Three participants assisted to refine the developing transformational grounded theory and identify actions required to improve health. Many women know a lot about male circumcision and penile modification and the consequences for themselves, their families and communities. Their ability to act on this knowledge is determined by numerous social, cultural and economic factors. A transformational grounded theory was developed with connecting categories of: Women Know a Lot, Increasing Knowledge; Increasing Options; and Acting on Choices. Properties and dimensions of each category are represented in the model, along with the intervening condition of Safety. The condition of Safety contextualises the overarching lived realty for women in PNG, enables the inclusion of men in the transformational grounded theory model, and helps to explain relationships between men and women. The

  10. Biogeochemistry of Lakes in Western Papua, Indonesia - First Results of a Pilot Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Nomosatryo, S.; Henny, C.; Kopalit, H.

    2016-12-01

    Despite years of exploration for mineral and hydrocarbon resources, the lakes of Western Papua have received very little attention from a limnogeologic perspective. In some cases not even the maximum water depth of the lakes is published. The only research carried out so far focused on the fish and invertebrate fauna of the lakes, because the macrofauna of Papuan Lakes is significantly different from other islands of western Indonesia. Most lakes harbor numerous endemic species. We carried out a first limnogeologic pilot campaign in spring 2016 to measure water column profiles and take short (max 80 cm long) sediment cores.Lake Sentani is seated in Mesozoic mafic bedrock and consists of four separate basins with maximum water depths of 30 to 40 m. Three basins are connected by shallow sills and one by a natural canal. Although all four basins share almost identical surface water chemistry and exhibit sub- to anoxic bottom waters, each basin has its distinct water column stratification and sediment geochemistry. Despite its coastal location and minimal elevation we could not identify an influx of seawater into the lake. Lake Ayamaru is located further inland on a densely forested karstified carbonate platform. The lake level has dropped significantly in recent years due to water loss into the karst, further reduction of open water surface is caused by massive growth of Pistia. Currently the lake has a maximum depth of around 2 m. Its sediment is mainly composed of carbonate minerals and methane saturated. Due to the carbonate bedrock the lake is highly alkaline (up to 20 meq/L) despite its very low salinity. The initial analyses show that these lakes offer unique biogeochemical conditions that require further in-depth studies.Our research will expand to lakes Anggi Giji and Anggi Gida, which are at almost 2000 m elevation. They have maximum depths of around 200 m and much colder surface waters (12-20°C) compared to the other two lakes that have about 30

  11. Etiology of child mortality in Goroka, Papua New Guinea: a prospective two-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Trevor; Michael, Audrey; Mgone, Joyce; Frank, Dale; Wal, Tilda; Sehuko, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect accurate data on disease- and microbial-specific causes and avoidable factors in child deaths in a developing country. METHODS: A systematic prospective audit of deaths of children seen at Goroka Hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea was carried out. Over a 24-month period, we studied 353 consecutive deaths of children: 126 neonates, 186 children aged 1-59 months, and 41 children aged 5-12 years. FINDINGS: The most frequent age-specific clinical diagnoses were as follows: for neonates--very low birth weight, septicaemia, birth asphyxia and congenital syphilis; for children aged 1-59 months--pneumonia, septicaemia, marasmus and meningitis; and for children aged 5-12 years--malignancies and septicaemia. At least one microbial cause of death was identified for 179 (50.7%) children and two or more were identified for 37 (10.5%). Nine microbial pathogens accounted for 41% of all childhood deaths and 76% of all deaths that had any infective component. Potentially avoidable factors were identified for 177 (50%) of deaths. The most frequently occurring factors were as follows: no antenatal care in high-risk pregnancies (8.8% of all deaths), very delayed presentation (7.9%), vaccine-preventable diseases (7.9%), informal adoption or child abandonment leading to severe malnutrition (5.7%), and lack of screening for maternal syphilis (5.4%). Sepsis due to enteric Gram-negative bacilli occurred in 87 (24.6%). The strongest associations with death from Gram- negative sepsis were adoption/abandonment leading to severe malnutrition, village births, and prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in child mortality will depend on addressing the commonest causes of death, which include disease states, microbial pathogens, adverse social circumstances and health service failures. Systematic mortality audits in selected regions where child mortality is high may be useful for setting priorities, estimating the potential benefit of specific and non

  12. Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

  13. Association of early interferon-gamma production with immunity to clinical malaria: a longitudinal study among Papua New Guinean children.

    PubMed

    D'Ombrain, Marthe C; Robinson, Leanne J; Stanisic, Danielle I; Taraika, Jack; Bernard, Nicholas; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo; Schofield, Louis

    2008-12-01

    Elucidating the cellular and molecular basis of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection would assist in developing a rationally based malaria vaccine. Innate, intermediate, and adaptive immune mechanisms are all likely to contribute to immunity. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) has been implicated in both protection against and the pathogenesis of malaria in humans. In addition, considerable heterogeneity exists among rapid IFN-gamma responses to P. falciparum in malaria-naive donors. The question remains whether similar heterogeneity is observed in malaria-exposed individuals and whether high, medium, or low IFN-gamma responsiveness is differentially associated with protective immunity or morbidity. A 6-month longitudinal cohort study involving 206 school-aged Papua New Guinean children was performed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected at baseline were exposed to live P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Early IFN-gamma responses were measured, and IFN-gamma-expressing cells were characterized by flow cytometry. IFN-gamma responsiveness was then tested for associations with parasitological and clinical outcome variables. Malaria-specific heterogeneity in early IFN-gamma responsiveness was observed among children. High-level early IFN-gamma responses were associated with protection from high-density and clinical P. falciparum infections. Parasite-induced early IFN-gamma was predominantly derived from gammadelta T cells (68% of which expressed the natural killer marker CD56) and alphabeta T cells, whereas natural killer cells and other cells made only minor contributions. The expression of CD56 in malaria-responsive, IFN-gamma-expressing gammadelta T cells correlated with IFN-gamma responsiveness. High, early IFN-gamma production by live parasite-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a correlate of immunity to symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinean children, and natural killer-like gammadelta T cells may contribute to

  14. Lumpectomy with or without postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer with favourable prognostic features: results of a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Holli, K; Saaristo, R; Isola, J; Joensuu, H; Hakama, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the value of adding post-operative radiotherapy to lumpectomy in a subgroup of breast cancer patients with favourable patient-, tumour-, and treatment-related prognostic features. 152 women aged over 40 with unifocal breast cancer seen in preoperative mammography were randomly assigned to lumpectomy alone (no-XRT group) or to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy to the ipsilateral breast (50 Gy given within 5 weeks, XRT group). All cancers were required to be invasive node-negative, smaller than 2 cm in diameter and well or moderately differentiated, to contain no extensive intraductal component, to be progesterone receptor-positive, DNA diploid, have S-phase fraction ≤7 and be excised with at least 1 cm margin. During a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years, 13 (18.1%) cancers recurred locally in the no-XRT and 6 (7.5%) in the XRT group (P = 0.03). There was no difference between the groups in the ultimate breast preservation rate (95.0% vs. 94.4% in XRT and no-XRT, respectively, P = 0.88), distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.36), or 5-year cancer-specific survival (97.1% in XRT and 98.6 in no-XRT). Radiation therapy given after lumpectomy reduces the frequency of ipsilateral breast recurrences even in women with small breast cancer with several favourable clinical and biological features. However, the breast preservation rate may not increase due to more frequent use of salvage mastectomies in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161371

  15. Geophysical study of a magma chamber near Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dadisman, Shawn V.; Marlow, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of a 24-channel seismic-reflection data collected near Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea, shows a high-amplitude, negative-polarity reflection that we believe is from the top of a magma chamber.  The reflecting horizon lies at a depth of about 4.4 s subbottom and can be traced laterally for 2.6 km.  On shot gathers, the reflection demonstrates normal moveout appropriate for an in-place event.  The frequency spectrum of the reflection shows a decrease in high-frequency content when compared to the sea floor reflection, as would be expected for a deep subsurface event.  The polarity of the reflection event is negative, suggesting that the reflection horizon is the top of a low-velocity zone.  Magnetic data indicate that the ridge containing the reflecting horizon is magnetic, and the geology of Massau Island suggests that the ridge is volcanic in its origin.  We speculate that the high-amplitude reflection is from the top of a magma chamber some 7-11 km deep.

  16. Education and the "New" Inequality in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patricia Lyons

    1993-01-01

    Argues that studies of socioeconomic stratification in Papua New Guinea have ignored or dismissed gender as a source of inequality. Educational opportunity is the key to wealth and political power. Data from censuses, fieldwork, and the literature show that rural women are the most disadvantaged group in Papua New Guinea. (SLD)

  17. Can Postoperative Nutrition be Favourably Maintained by Oral Diet in Patients with Emergency Temporary Ileostomy? A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Debabrata; Dey, Ramprasad; Choudhury, Krishnangshu Bhanja; Das, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary ileostomy is an emergency procedure performed in cases having septic peritonitis in presence of perforation or obstruction or gangrene of small intestine. These patients usually suffer from gross malnutrition following surgery. Aim To measure nutritional status of patients with emergency temporary ileostomy and to determine whether their postoperative nutrition can be favourably maintained by oral diet alone. Materials and Methods Sixty patients were enrolled for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria during the study period from January 2012 to December 2013. Oral feeding was started as soon as ileostomy started functioning and patients expressed hunger, about 48-72 hours postoperatively. An individualized diet chart was formulated for each patient using Harris Benedict Equation. Nutritional assessment was done on 1) 1st day of oral feeding, 2) After 7 days of oral feeding, 3). After three months of oral feeding. Nutritional parameters (anthropometric, biochemical) employed were tabulated and statistically analysed with SPSS v 17, Chicago. Results Out of 60 patients, 36 males and 24 females were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age group of 20-60 years with a mean age of 45 years. After 7 days of oral nutrition the nutritional status deteriorated with a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001) and serum haemoglobin (p <0.001). However, at the end of the study, the patients had their nutritional status restored satisfactorily with normalization of basic parameters like bodyweight, haemoglobin and serum albumin (p<0.001). Conclusion Proper dietary advice and oral nutrition were found to be sufficient for gradual restoration and maintenance of satisfactory nutritional status in the postoperative period. PMID:26816941

  18. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity, allergic responsiveness, and asthma in rural and urban children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Turner, K J; Dowse, G K; Stewart, G A; Alpers, M P

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic responsiveness in rural and urban children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea was studied. Bronchial provocation studies with histamine demonstrated significant bronchial hyperreactivity in 0.5% (1 in 195) rural and 1.7% (1 in 59) urban children, rates which were significantly lower than those observed in corresponding adult populations (7%). Urban children demonstrated a higher incidence of skin test reactivity toward Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and dog dander than did the rural children. However, there were no significant differences between these populations with regard to total serum IgE levels, the degree of parasitism as judged by stool examination, or allergic responses to Ascaris suum, plantain, and coffee bean husk. A more detailed study demonstrated age- and sex-related differences in total IgE and mite-specific RAST scores in the rural but not the urban population. These data suggest an active suppression of the capacity of children to mount an IgE response to environmental allergens such as the mite manifesting itself as low asthma prevalence. The data also indicate that, although the underlying defect of bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma may be genetically inherited, it is not revealed until the lung has received an allergen-induced inflammatory insult.

  19. Iron and infection: narrative review of a major iron supplementation study in Papua New Guinea undertaken by the Department of Tropical Paediatrics, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 1979-1983, its aftermath and the continuing relevance of its results.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    In 1978, I returned from a 2-year government posting as provincial paediatrician to East and West Sepik provinces of Papua New Guinea (PNG), having already enrolled on the Diploma of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (DTM&H) course at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. I had been too late to enrol for the more relevant Diploma in Tropical Paediatrics course, but, whilst on the DTM&H course, made up for lost time by presenting myself to Professor Ralph Hendrickse in his office. I outlined my proposal for a double-blind, controlled, randomised trial of iron intervention with the aim of improving iron nutrition and decreasing susceptibility to and morbidity from infections in a cohort of infants in PNG. My reason for suggesting such a study was the high rate of anaemia in infants there and my perception from the literature of the time that the balance of studies favoured a beneficial effect of iron supplementation on infectious susceptibility, and that iron deficiency was associated with reversible abnormalities of immune function (although it had and has since been difficult to demonstrate the severity and relevance of these in observational in-vivo studies in humans).1,2 Ralph made an on-the-spot decision, immediately offering me the opportunity to join his department on 1 January 1979 on temporary funding while I applied for (and secured) a major grant from the Wellcome Trust for this work.

  20. Favourable outcome after peripartum cardiomyopathy: a ten-year study on peripartum cardiomyopathy in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Chee, Kok-Han

    2013-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an uncommon form of congestive heart failure, affecting obstetric patients around the time of delivery. The epidemiology of PPCM is infrequently reported. This study was undertaken to define the prevalence, presentation and outcome of PPCM among women giving birth in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. A retrospective case record analysis was conducted on all patients admitted and diagnosed with PPCM at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. All deliveries were undertaken in the same hospital. A total of 12 patients were diagnosed with PPCM during the ten-year study period. The prevalence of PPCM was 2.48 in 100,000 (1 in 40,322) live births. Nine women were diagnosed with PPCM within five months of delivery. Three women had twin pregnancies. There was one death in the group (mortality rate 8.3%). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of diagnosis was 28.9% ± 8.5% (range 15%-40%). Following the index event, left ventricular function normalised in six of the nine patients (66.7%) who underwent subsequent echocardiography one year later. All patients were treated with standard heart failure therapy. Two patients with normalised left ventricular function had subsequent pregnancies - one pregnancy was terminated at seven weeks and the other patient delivered uneventfully at full term. PPCM is uncommon. The outcome in our series was favourable, with 66.7% of patients with PPCM recovering their left ventricular function. The mortality rate was 8.3%.

  1. Comparative study of freshwater crayfish, Cherax spp. (crustaceae: decapoda: parastacidae) from Papua, Indonesia based on length-weight analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidah, H.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The freshwater crayfish is one of the most important fish species as the protein resources. Lake and rivers are the habitat of crayfish in Papua. Morphological characters of crayfish, such as color, total body lengths (L) and body weight (W) were influenced by the habitat. The purpose of the study, therefore, was to compare the total body length and body weight as well as the unique color of crayfish from Uter lake (Atinjo district), Seremuk river (Haha village), Baliem river (Pike village; Hubukiak district, Jayawijaya), and Baliem river (Wesaput village; Wesaput district). Length-weight (body length; LB versus wet weight; WWT) relationships were determined for male and female crayfish (Cherax spp.) The length-weight relationships of total individuals was W = 0,022215.L3,159. This regression differed significantly (R2 = 97.5 %) between locations. Both males and females exhibited positive allometric growth as statistical difference was observed in the mean of the wet weight and body length between males and females. Besides, Canonical function was subjected to determine population distribution based on length-weight data.

  2. The role of maternal and child health clinics in education and prevention: a case study from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Reid, J

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a behavioural study of the infant nutrition and family planning education components of selected maternal and child health clinics in Madang Province in Papua New Guinea. Staff of six (6) clinic teams were observed during 18 rural and urban clinics and the content and length of the nurses' interactions with the 254 mothers of 340 children recorded. Three-quarters (71%) of the interactions took less than 2 minutes. Family planning advice was rarely given. The amount of time the nurse spent with mother and child primarily depended on whether the child was sick or well, rather than on his/her nutritional status. Nutritional advice, when offered (to mothers of 27% of children below 80% WFA), was given in response to WFA alone, independently of health status, age and rate of growth. It is suggested that the low priority given to nutrition and family planning education is the result of inadequate supervision, complex reporting systems, the routine nature of the work, preference of nurses for structured clinical tasks and nurses' attitudes to clients and contraception. Clinics would be more effective if oriented around problems rather than tasks, and families rather than individuals. This would also give nurses the satisfaction of seeing the goals and results of their work. It is suggested that the MCH system would benefit from innovative pilot programmes which address the special problems of remote areas and derive from primary health care principles.

  3. Developing Assessment and Evaluation Strategies for Vernacular Elementary School Classrooms: A Collaborative Study in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Investigated assessment and evaluation strategies in a Papua New Guinea community, helping community members reclaim their cultural identity by understanding the significance of educational practices carried out in everyday living and helping them make school practices more culturally relevant. The community principles of assessment and evaluation…

  4. English Community School Teacher Education and English as a Second Language in Papua New Guinea: A Study of a Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This article explores community (primary) school teacher education in the subject, English, at a Papua New Guinea (PNG) teachers' college as manifested in end-of-year English lessons in practicum rounds of pre-service community school teachers. English is the official language overlaid on 700 indigenous languages in this country where…

  5. Retention among ART patients in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea: evaluating the PAPUA model.

    PubMed

    Das, Sarthak; Carmone, Andy; Franke, Molly F; Frank, Dale; Kiromat, Hannelly; Kaima, Petronia; Kiromat, Mobumo

    2014-02-01

    Despite more than 10,000 patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there remains a dearth of operational research in Papua New Guinea related to HIV service delivery. This study examined the effectiveness of a locally developed model of HIV service delivery called PAPUA (Patient and Provider Unified Approach) in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The model emphasizes coordinated patient and provider support along with decentralized services to rural districts in the Highlands. We conducted a chart review among HIV-infected adults on ART at clinics in Eastern Highlands Province, where the PAPUA model was implemented in addition to the standard of care, and in Western Highlands Province, where the standard of care was implemented. We calculated yearly retention rates and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to compare retention rates across the provinces. Data for 2457 patients from the 2 provinces were analyzed. Among patients receiving ART under the PAPUA model in Eastern Highlands, the 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month retention proportions were 0.79, 0.73, 0.68, and 0.63, respectively. When we compared retention probabilities across the 2 provinces, patients receiving care under the PAPUA model had a 15% lower rate of attrition from care during the first 4 years of ART (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 0.99; P = 0.03), after adjusting for age, gender, and year of enrollment. The PAPUA model seems to be a promising intervention although it is inextricably linked to the limitations posed by a resource-constrained health system.

  6. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  7. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46-63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Concerning Malaria in Pregnancy: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Infection during pregnancy with falciparum or vivax malaria, as occurs in PNG, has health implications for mother and child, causing complications such as maternal anemia, low birth weight and miscarriage. This article explores knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning malaria during pregnancy and it’s prevention in Madang, PNG, a high prevalence area. Methods As part of a qualitative study in Madang, exploring MiP, participatory techniques (free-listing and sorting) were conducted along with focus group discussions, in-depth interviews (with pregnant women, health staff and other community members) and observations in the local community and health facilities. Results The main themes explored were attitudes towards and knowledge of MiP, its risks, and prevention. Although there was a general awareness of the term “malaria”, it was often conflated with general sickness or with pregnancy-related symptoms. Moreover, many preventive methods for MiP were related to practices of general healthy living. Indeed, varied messages from health staff about the risks of MiP were observed. In addition to ideas about the seriousness and risk of MiP, other factors influenced the uptake of interventions: availability and perceived comfort of sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets were important determinants of usage, and women’s heavy workload influenced Chloroquine adherence. Conclusion The non-specific symptoms of MiP and its resultant conflation with symptoms of pregnancy that are perceived as normal have implications for MiP prevention and control. However, in Madang, PNG, this was compounded by the inadequacy of health staff’s message about MiP. PMID:25893405

  9. Preclinical efficacy of Australian antivenoms against the venom of the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, from Papua New Guinea: an antivenomics and neutralization study.

    PubMed

    Pla, Davinia; Paiva, Owen K; Sanz, Libia; Beutler, Markus; Wright, Christine E; Calvete, Juan J; Williams, David J; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-10-14

    There is no specific antivenom for the treatment of envenoming by the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, a dangerous fossorial species endemic to Papua New Guinea, Irian Jaya (West Papua) and neighbouring islands. This study evaluated one marine (sea snake) and four terrestrial (tiger snake, brown snake, black snake and polyvalent) antivenoms, manufactured in Australia by bioCSL Limited, for their ability to immunoreact ('antivenomic' analysis) and neutralize enzymatic and toxic activities of M. ikaheka venom. All antivenoms neutralized lethality of the venom and attenuated, dose-dependently, myotoxic activity. The polyvalent antivenom also neutralized cardiotoxic activity. In contrast, antivenoms were ineffective in the neutralization of phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) and anticoagulant activities. Antivenomics outcomes were in concordance with neutralization tests, for chromatographic peaks corresponding to α-neurotoxins of the three finger family, responsible for lethality, were quantitatively retained in the immunoaffinity columns, whereas peaks corresponding to PLA₂s were immunocaptured only to a partial extent. The ability of antivenoms to neutralize lethal, i.e. neurotoxic, and myotoxic activities of M. ikaheka venom, which represent the most relevant clinical manifestations of envenoming, suggests that these antivenoms may provide paraspecific protection in humans, although the poor neutralization of PLA₂ supports the need for well-designed clinical studies to not only determine which antivenoms are most appropriate for treatment of M. ikaheka envenoming, but to also fully describe the syndrome of envenoming caused by this beautiful, but lethal species. Snakebite by the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, in Papua New Guinea can be life-threatening. The predominant clinical features in this envenoming are neurotoxicity and systemic myotoxicity. Although it accounts for only a small proportion of snakebites on the mainland, 40% of snakebites on

  10. Major Burden of Severe Anemia from Non-Falciparum Malaria Species in Southern Papua: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Nicholas M.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Kenangalem, Enny; Simpson, Julie A.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R.; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of anemia attributable to non-falciparum malarias in regions with Plasmodium co-endemicity is poorly documented. We compared the hematological profile of patients with and without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Methods and Findings Clinical and laboratory data were linked for all patients presenting to a referral hospital between April 2004 and December 2012. Data were available on patient demographics, malaria diagnosis, hemoglobin concentration, and clinical outcome, but other potential causes of anemia could not be identified reliably. Of 922,120 patient episodes (837,989 as outpatients and 84,131 as inpatients), a total of 219,845 (23.8%) were associated with a hemoglobin measurement, of whom 67,696 (30.8%) had malaria. Patients with P. malariae infection had the lowest hemoglobin concentration (n = 1,608, mean = 8.93 [95% CI 8.81–9.06]), followed by those with mixed species infections (n = 8,645, mean = 9.22 [95% CI 9.16–9.28]), P. falciparum (n = 37,554, mean = 9.47 [95% CI 9.44–9.50]), and P. vivax (n = 19,858, mean = 9.53 [95% CI 9.49–9.57]); p-value for all comparisons <0.001. Severe anemia (hemoglobin <5 g/dl) was present in 8,151 (3.7%) patients. Compared to patients without malaria, those with mixed Plasmodium infection were at greatest risk of severe anemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.25 [95% CI 2.99–3.54]); AORs for severe anaemia associated with P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were 2.11 (95% CI 2.00–2.23), 1.87 (95% CI 1.74–2.01), and 2.18 (95% CI 1.76–2.67), respectively, p<0.001. Overall, 12.2% (95% CI 11.2%–13.3%) of severe anemia was attributable to non-falciparum infections compared with 15.1% (95% CI 13.9%–16.3%) for P. falciparum monoinfections. Patients with severe anemia had an increased risk of death (AOR = 5.80 [95% CI 5.17–6.50]; p<0.001). Not all patients had a hemoglobin measurement, thus limitations of the study include the potential for

  11. Major burden of severe anemia from non-falciparum malaria species in Southern Papua: a hospital-based surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Nicholas M; Lampah, Daniel A; Kenangalem, Enny; Simpson, Julie A; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M; Price, Ric N

    2013-12-01

    The burden of anemia attributable to non-falciparum malarias in regions with Plasmodium co-endemicity is poorly documented. We compared the hematological profile of patients with and without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Clinical and laboratory data were linked for all patients presenting to a referral hospital between April 2004 and December 2012. Data were available on patient demographics, malaria diagnosis, hemoglobin concentration, and clinical outcome, but other potential causes of anemia could not be identified reliably. Of 922,120 patient episodes (837,989 as outpatients and 84,131 as inpatients), a total of 219,845 (23.8%) were associated with a hemoglobin measurement, of whom 67,696 (30.8%) had malaria. Patients with P. malariae infection had the lowest hemoglobin concentration (n = 1,608, mean = 8.93 [95% CI 8.81-9.06]), followed by those with mixed species infections (n = 8,645, mean = 9.22 [95% CI 9.16-9.28]), P. falciparum (n = 37,554, mean = 9.47 [95% CI 9.44-9.50]), and P. vivax (n = 19,858, mean = 9.53 [95% CI 9.49-9.57]); p-value for all comparisons <0.001. Severe anemia (hemoglobin <5 g/dl) was present in 8,151 (3.7%) patients. Compared to patients without malaria, those with mixed Plasmodium infection were at greatest risk of severe anemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.25 [95% CI 2.99-3.54]); AORs for severe anaemia associated with P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were 2.11 (95% CI 2.00-2.23), 1.87 (95% CI 1.74-2.01), and 2.18 (95% CI 1.76-2.67), respectively, p<0.001. Overall, 12.2% (95% CI 11.2%-13.3%) of severe anemia was attributable to non-falciparum infections compared with 15.1% (95% CI 13.9%-16.3%) for P. falciparum monoinfections. Patients with severe anemia had an increased risk of death (AOR = 5.80 [95% CI 5.17-6.50]; p<0.001). Not all patients had a hemoglobin measurement, thus limitations of the study include the potential for selection bias, and possible residual confounding in

  12. Manam Volcano, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired June 16, 2010. Papua New Guinea’s Manam Volcano released a thin, faint plume on June 16, 2010, as clouds clustered at the volcano’s summit. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite took this picture the same day. Rivulets of brown rock interrupt the carpet of green vegetation on the volcano’s slopes. Opaque white clouds partially obscure the satellite’s view of Manam. The clouds may result from water vapor from the volcano, but may also have formed independent of volcanic activity. The volcanic plume appears as a thin, blue-gray veil extending toward the northwest over the Bismarck Sea. Located 13 kilometers (8 miles) off the coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, Manam forms an island 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide. It is a stratovolcano. The volcano has two summit craters, and although both are active, most historical eruptions have arisen from the southern crater. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI To view the full image go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=4430... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  13. Kinetics of potassium release in sweet potato cropped soils: a case study in the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekhar Rao, B. K.

    2015-02-01

    The present study attempts to employ potassium (K) release parameters to identify soil-quality degradation due to changed land use patterns in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) farms of the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Rapid population increase in the region increased pressure on the land to intensify subsistence production mainly by reducing fallow periods. Such continuous cropping practice coupled with lack of K fertilization practices could lead to a rapid loss of soil fertility and soil-resource degradation. The study aims to evaluate the effects of crop intensification on the K-release pattern and identify soil groups vulnerable to K depletion. Soils with widely differing exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents were sequentially extracted for periods between 1 and 569 h in 0.01 M CaCl2, and K-release data were fitted to four mathematical models: first order, power, parabolic diffusion and Elovich equations. Results showed two distinct parts in the K-release curves, and 58-80% of total K was released to solution phase within 76 h (first five extractions) with 20-42% K released in the later parts (after 76 h). Soils from older farms that were subjected to intensive and prolonged land use showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative K-release potential than the farms recently brought to cultivation (new farms). Among the four equations, first-order and power equations best described the K-release pattern; the constant b, an index of K-release rates, ranged from 0.005 to 0.008 mg kg-1 h-1 in the first-order model and was between 0.14 and 0.83 mg kg-1 h-1 in the power model for the soils. In the non-volcanic soils, model constant b values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the volcanic soils, thus indicating the vulnerability of volcanic soils to K deficiency. The volcanic soils cropped for several crop cycles need immediate management interventions either through improved fallow management or through mineral fertilizers plus animal manures

  14. Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Gannier, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the necessary elements to implement strategic mitigation in order to avoid Cuvier's beaked whale (CBW) strandings linked to intense sound sources, such as military active sonars, in the Mediterranean Sea. A careful review of stranding data and the analysis of existing survey results are required to highlight the main characters of the species regional distribution. Focused and repeated surveys are needed to confirm that possible favourable areas, such as the Balearic, Tyrrhenian or Aegean Seas, are really favourable CBW habitats. These surveys should be carried out with sea states 0 to 1 in order to minimize the risk of false absence data. Among the regions of interest, the central Tyrrhenian Sea was surveyed with a 12 m sailboat in 2007 and 2008. With 907 km of effective effort, a mean sighting rate of 1.9 CBW school/100 km was obtained, which is amongst the highest densities recorded in the Mediterranean.

  15. Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal malaria: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tjitra, Emiliana; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sugiarto, Paulus; Warikar, Noah; Kenangalem, Enny; Karyana, Muhammad; Lampah, Daniel A; Price, Ric N

    2008-06-17

    Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is widespread in eastern Indonesia, and emerging elsewhere in Asia-Pacific and South America, but is generally regarded as a benign disease. The aim of the study was to review the spectrum of disease associated with malaria due to Pv and P. falciparum (Pf) in patients presenting to a hospital in Timika, southern Papua, Indonesia. Data were prospectively collected from all patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments of the only hospital in the region using systematic data forms and hospital computerised records. Between January 2004 and December 2007, clinical malaria was present in 16% (60,226/373,450) of hospital outpatients and 32% (12,171/37,800) of inpatients. Among patients admitted with slide-confirmed malaria, 64% of patients had Pf, 24% Pv, and 10.5% mixed infections. The proportion of malarial admissions attributable to Pv rose to 47% (415/887) in children under 1 y of age. Severe disease was present in 2,634 (22%) inpatients with malaria, with the risk greater among Pv (23% [675/2,937]) infections compared to Pf (20% [1,570/7,817]; odds ratio [OR] = 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.32], p = 0.001), and greatest in patients with mixed infections (31% [389/1,273]); overall p < 0.0001. Severe anaemia (haemoglobin < 5 g/dl) was the major complication associated with Pv, accounting for 87% (589/675) of severe disease compared to 73% (1,144/1,570) of severe manifestations with Pf (p < 0.001). Pure Pv infection was also present in 78 patients with respiratory distress and 42 patients with coma. In total 242 (2.0%) patients with malaria died during admission: 2.2% (167/7,722) with Pf, 1.6% (46/2,916) with Pv, and 2.3% (29/1260) with mixed infections (p = 0.126). In this region with established high-grade chloroquine resistance to both Pv and Pf, Pv is associated with severe and fatal malaria particularly in young children. The epidemiology of P. vivax needs to be re-examined elsewhere where

  16. Cannabis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2004-03-01

    This review covers published information on psychoactive drugs, particularly cannabis, in Papua New Guinea. Legal drugs are mentioned to place the illegal drugs into a broader public health context. Although a number of psychoactive drugs were used traditionally (and are used now), cannabis is the only illicit drug for which prevalence of use is currently not negligible. Very little epidemiology research on cannabis use and its individual and public health sequelae has been conducted, although a fuller criminology literature on the topic exists. The published cannabis use prevalence studies are limited in scope, and the most-cited one is of questionable accuracy. The complex interactions between the health of individuals and their social environments are highlighted by the destructive impacts that cannabis cultivation, trafficking and use are having in contemporary PNG.

  17. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor.

  18. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  19. [Papua New Guinea].

    PubMed

    Jacquemart, Y; Josse, R

    2002-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is an independent country located in Oceania with a population of 4.9 million. Urban development is low and the estimated population density is 9 inhabitants per square kilometre. The terrain is mountainous and accessibility for health care services is difficult in some locations. Medical care facilities are organized in 18 provinces that are divided into 2 to 8 districts in which basic health care and hospital services are delivered through 1765 first aid units, 319 dispensaries, 189 specialized clinics and centers and 19 hospitals. There are no local schools for training medical and paramedical personnel who come from outside the country. Malaria, filariasis, leprosy, tuberculosis, infant diarrheal diseases, viral hepatitis, and envenomation are major public health problems. Buruli ulcer, dengue fever and arboviruses are emerging diseases.

  20. [Study of factors favouring the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women in the health district of Bogodogo].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, C M R; Nébié, G; Sawadogo, L; Rouamba, G; Ouédraogo, A; Lankoandé, J

    2011-10-01

    The behaviour of pregnant women live in towards prevention, attitude health workers, access measures prejudices and inadequate in urban design contribute to course the persistence of malaria. Objective analyse the factors leading to occurrence of malaria in women speakers in the health district Bogodogo. He acts sectional study was place in the rainy season period high malaria transmission. The test rapid diagnosis (TDR) using soluble antigens (HRPII) of Plasmodium falciparum was the diagnostic method used in this work and carried on 810 pregnant women in the health area District Bogodogo in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Results The overall prevalence of antigen HRPII P. falciparum was 18.6% with a CI [16.1-21.5] to 95%. It follows from this work that the risk of infection malaria was significantly higher among pregnant women: that were not educated, lived in outlying areas called "zones not off" of the town and villages nearby, who were not using net. For various reasons, the administration of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was not supervised and less than 50% of women regularly slept under a mosquito net. The fight against malaria in pregnant women should focus on communication for change of behaviour of pregnant women and also of health professionals. The fight antivector must be considered in rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Folktales to Strengthen Literacy in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yektiningtyas-Modouw, Wigati; Karna, Sri R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Rural and remote Papua and West Papua are among the most important regions for Indonesia to achieve the second MDG on primary education with equity. Both provinces have gross, net enrolment and literacy rates which barely touch the national averages. Given the distinct political, socio-cultural, and geographical aspects of Papua and West Papua…

  2. Using Folktales to Strengthen Literacy in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yektiningtyas-Modouw, Wigati; Karna, Sri R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Rural and remote Papua and West Papua are among the most important regions for Indonesia to achieve the second MDG on primary education with equity. Both provinces have gross, net enrolment and literacy rates which barely touch the national averages. Given the distinct political, socio-cultural, and geographical aspects of Papua and West Papua…

  3. Distance Education in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The theme of this special double serial issue is "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea." The following articles are featured: (1) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea" (John Lynch); (2) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea: Context, Issues and Prospects" (Michael Crossley and Richard Guy); (3) "Distance…

  4. The local electric field favours more than exposed nitrogen atoms on CO2 capture: a case study on the rht-type MOF platform.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Space, Brian; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-06-14

    Two rht-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based upon the tetrazolate moiety and pyrazolate moiety, respectively, have been investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption and selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4, which shows that the rht-MOF featuring the pyrazolate moiety demonstrates superior performances compared to the rht-MOF based on the tetrazolate moiety. In spite of more exposed nitrogen atoms in the tetrazolate-based rht-MOF, the counter-intuitive observations of CO2 capture in the two rht-MOFs were interpreted by computational studies, which reveal that the local electric field favours more than the richness of exposed nitrogen atoms for the interactions with CO2 molecules.

  5. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa).

    PubMed

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E T; Stoffels, Bart E M W; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2016-01-01

    Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and "Plakobranchus ocellatus". Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties.

  6. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa)

    PubMed Central

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; Stoffels, Bart E.M.W.; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and “Plakobranchus ocellatus”. Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties. PMID:27408559

  7. Education, employment and practice: Midwifery graduates in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Moores, Alison; Puawe, Paula; Buasi, Nancy; West, Florence; Samor, Mary K; Joseph, Nina; Rumsey, Michele; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-10-01

    Papua New Guinea has a very high maternal mortality rate (773/100,000), low rates of supervised births and a critical shortage of skilled midwives. A midwifery education initiative commenced in 2012, funded by the Australian Government and led by the National Department of Health. One specific objective of the initiative was to improve the standard of clinical teaching and practice in four schools of midwifery. There were 394 midwives educated over the 4 year period (2012-2015) representing half of all midwives in Papua New Guinea. A study was undertaken to describe the educational programme, employment, practices and experiences of graduates who studied midwifery in 2012 and 2013 as part of the initiative. the aim of this paper is to explore the education, employment and practice of newly graduated midwives in Papua New Guinea. a mixed methods descriptive study design was used. Surveys and focus groups were used to gather data. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant Human Research Ethics Committees. all midwifery graduates in 2012 and 2013 from the four midwifery schools in Papua New Guinea were included in the study and almost 80% were contacted. nearly 90% of graduates were working as midwives, with an additional 3% working as midwifery or nursing educators. This study discovered that graduates exhibited increased skills acquisition and confidence, leadership in maternal and newborn care services and a marked improvement in the provision of respectful care to women. The graduates faced challenges to implement evidence based care with barriers including the lack of appropriate resources and differences of opinion with senior staff. factors affecting the quality of midwifery education will need to be addressed if Papua New Guinea is to continue to improve the status of maternal and newborn health. Specifically, the length of the midwifery education, the quality of clinical practice and the exposure to rural and remote area practice need addressing in many

  8. A longitudinal study of natural antibody development to pneumococcal surface protein A families 1 and 2 in Papua New Guinean Highland children: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jacinta P; Richmond, Peter C; Michael, Audrey; Siba, Peter M; Jacoby, Peter; Hales, Belinda J; Thomas, Wayne R; Lehmann, Deborah; Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a conserved virulence factor essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to upper respiratory tract (URT) epithelia, is a potential vaccine candidate for preventing colonisation. This cohort study was conducted in the Asaro Valley in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea, of which Goroka town is the provincial capital. The children included in the analysis were participants in a neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00219401) that was conducted between 2005 and 2009. We investigated the development of anti-PspA antibodies in the first 18 months of life relative to URT pneumococcal carriage in Papua New Guinean infants who experience one of the earliest and highest colonisation rates in the world. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from a cohort of 88 children at ages 3, 9, and 18 months to quantify immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to PspA families 1 and 2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and to determine URT carriage. Seventy-three per cent (64/88) of infants carried S. pneumoniae at age 3 months; 85 % (75/88) at 9 months, and 83 % (73/88) at 18 months. PspA-IgG levels declined between ages 3 and 9 months (p < 0.001), then increased between 9 and 18 months (p < 0.001). At age 3 months, pneumococcal carriers showed lower PspA1-IgG levels (geometric mean concentration [GMC] 602 arbitrary units [AU]/ml, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 497-728) than non-carriers (GMC 1058 AU/ml [95 % CI 732-1530]; p = 0.008), while at 9 months, PspA1- and PspA2-IgG levels were significantly higher in carriers (PspA1: 186 AU/ml, 95 % CI 136-256; PspA2: 284 AU/ml, 95 % CI 192-421) than in non-carriers (PspA1 87 AU/ml, 95 % CI 45-169; PspA2 74 AU/ml, 95 % CI 34-159) (PspA1: p = 0.037, PspA2: p = 0.003). Our findings confirm that PspA is immunogenic and indicate that natural anti-PspA immune responses are acquired through exposure and

  9. Comparative studies on physical characteristics and resting metabolism between young male highlanders of Papua New Guinea and young male Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, S.; Tsujita, J.; Mayuzumi, M.; Tanaka, N.

    1980-09-01

    Anthropometric measurements and measurements of resting metabolism were made on 15 young male highlanders in Beha village at altitudes between 1,500 m and 1,800 m in the Eastern Highland of Papua New Guinea in August in 1978 and 10 young male Japanese in Nishinomiya in September. New Guineans showed significantly lower height, considerably lower body weight than Japanese but heavier body weight for height and significantly greater mean values of Rohrer's index and Brugsch's index than Japanese. Skinfold thicknesses for New Guineans were significantly smaller than those for Japanese. Thus, physically, New Guineans were more muscular and athletic when compared with Japanese. The mean value of resting metabolic rate for New Guineans, 46.35 W/m2, at 25°C was considerably lower than that for Japanese, 51.01 W/m2. New Guineans showed significantly lower mean value of resting metabolism 47.57 W/m2 at 30°C than Japanese 55.16 W/m2. The mean values of respiratory quotient for New Guineans (RQ = 0.950 at 25°C and 0.971 at 30°C) were significantly greater than those for Japanese (0.81 at 25°C and 0.81 at 30°C). New Guineans showed considerably lower mean value of heart rate at 30°C (71.1 beats/min) than Japanese (79.2 beats/min). The smaller physique of New Guineans might be the result of lower caloric intake and protein intake as well as of living in a tropical climate.

  10. Baseline characteristics of the omega-3 fatty acids (Fish oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study.

    PubMed

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Pascoe, Elaine M; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hawley, Carmel M; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Badve, Sunil V; Cass, Alan; Johnson, David W; Kerr, Peter G; Mori, Trevor A; Scaria, Anish; Hooi, Seong L; Ong, Meng L; Irish, Ashley B

    2016-03-01

    The Fish oils and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) trial investigated whether 3 months of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, either alone or in combination with aspirin, will effectively reduce primary access failure of de novo arteriovenous fistulae. This report presents the baseline characteristics of all study participants, examines whether study protocol amendments successfully increased recruitment of a broader and more representative haemodialysis cohort, including patients already receiving aspirin, and contrasts Malaysian participants with those from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom (UK). This international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients older than 19 years with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease currently receiving, or planned within 12 months to receive haemodialysis. Participants (n = 568) were overweight (28.6 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) ), relatively young (54.8 ± 14.3 years), and predominantly male (63%) with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (46%) but low rate of ischaemic heart disease (8%). Sixty one percent were planned for lower arm arteriovenous fistula creation. Malaysian participants (n = 156) were younger (51.8 ± 13.6 years vs 57.1 ± 14.2 years, P < 0.001) with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (65% vs 43%, P < 0.001), but less ischaemic heart disease (5% vs 14%, P < 0.01) compared with the combined Australian, New Zealand and UK cohort (n = 228). Protocol modifications allowing for inclusion of patients receiving aspirin increased the prevalence of co-morbidities compared with the original cohort. The FAVOURED study participants, while mostly similar to patients in contemporary national registry reports and comparable recent clinical trials, were on average younger and had less ischaemic heart disease. These differences were reduced as a consequence of including patients already receiving aspirin. © 2015 Asian

  11. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study.

    PubMed

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits Aj; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J; Jong, Miek C

    2014-10-11

    The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolithic-type diet and may provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome. In addition, more information on feasibility and designing an innovative dietary research program on the basis of a Palaeolithic-type diet was obtained. Thirty-four subjects, with at least two characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, were randomized to a two weeks Palaeolithic-type diet (n = 18) or an isoenergetic healthy reference diet, based on the guidelines of the Dutch Health Council (n = 14). Thirty-two subjects completed the study. Measures were taken to keep bodyweight stable. As primary outcomes oral glucose tolerance and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal circumference, blood pressure, glucose, lipids) were measured. Secondary outcomes were intestinal permeability, inflammation and salivary cortisol. Data were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Subjects were 53.5 (SD9.7) year old men (n = 9) and women (n = 25) with mean BMI of 31.8 (SD5.7) kg/m2. The Palaeolithic-type diet resulted in lower systolic blood pressure (-9.1 mmHg; P = 0.015), diastolic blood pressure (-5.2 mmHg; P = 0.038), total cholesterol (-0.52 mmol/l; P = 0.037), triglycerides (-0.89 mmol/l; P = 0.001) and higher HDL-cholesterol (+0.15 mmol/l; P = 0.013), compared to reference. The number of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome decreased with 1.07 (P = 0.010) upon the Palaeolithic-type diet, compared to reference. Despite efforts to keep bodyweight stable, it decreased in the Palaeolithic group compared to reference (-1.32 kg; P = 0.012). However, favourable effects remained after post-hoc adjustments for this

  12. Micro-Level Planning for a Papua New Guinean Elementary School Classroom: "Copycat" Planning and Language Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the government of Papua New Guinea (PNG) enacted educational reform. It officially abandoned its English-only policy at elementary school level, in favour of community languages. In response, the Kairak community of East New Britain Province developed a vernacular literacy programme. This paper, based on original fieldwork…

  13. Micro-Level Planning for a Papua New Guinean Elementary School Classroom: "Copycat" Planning and Language Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the government of Papua New Guinea (PNG) enacted educational reform. It officially abandoned its English-only policy at elementary school level, in favour of community languages. In response, the Kairak community of East New Britain Province developed a vernacular literacy programme. This paper, based on original fieldwork…

  14. Unsafe abortion requiring hospital admission in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study of women's and health care workers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-03-21

    In Papua New Guinea induced abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Law. Unsafe abortions are known to be widely practiced and sepsis due to unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. We undertook a six month, prospective, mixed methods study at the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital. Semi structured and in depth interviews were undertaken with women presenting following induced abortion. This paper describes the reasons why women resorted to unsafe abortion, the techniques used, decision to seek post abortion care and women's reflections post abortion. 28 women were admitted to hospital following an induced abortion. Reasons for inducing an abortion included: wanting to continue with studies, relationship problems and socio-cultural factors. Misoprostol was the most frequently used method to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means, traditional herbs and spiritual beliefs were also reported. Women sought care post abortion due to excessive vaginal bleeding, and severe abdominal pain with some afraid they would die if they did not seek help. In the absence of contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies, women in this setting are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk. Women need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  15. Contribution of dengue fever to the burden of acute febrile illnesses in Papua New Guinea: an age-specific prospective study.

    PubMed

    Senn, Nicolas; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Manong, Doris; Siba, Peter Max; McBride, William John Hannan

    2011-07-01

    Malaria is a major contributor to the burden of febrile illnesses in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Dengue fever (DF) is likely to contribute; however, its epidemiology in PNG is poorly understood. We performed a prospective age-stratified study in outpatient clinics investigating the prevalence of DF; 578 patients were enrolled, and 317 patients with a negative rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria were tested for dengue. Malaria was confirmed in 52% (301/578, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48-56%), DF was diagnosed in 8% (46/578, 95% CI = 6-10%), and 40% (95% CI = 36-44%) had neither diagnosis. Among the 317 malaria RDT-negative patients, 14% (45/317, 95% CI = 10-18%) had DF. The seroprevalence of dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 83% (204/247, 95% CI = 78-87%), and no dengue hemorrhagic fever was seen. This study provides good evidence for the first time that DF is common in PNG and is responsible for 8% of fever episodes. The common occurrence of DF in a population with presumed previous exposure to dengue is an important observation.

  16. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of indigenous traditional counting systems in children's development of numerical cognition: results from a study in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matang, Rex A. S.; Owens, Kay

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Papua New Guinea undertook a significant step in developing curriculum reform policy that promoted the use of Indigenous knowledge systems in teaching formal school subjects in any of the country's 800-plus Indigenous languages. The implementation of the Elementary Cultural Mathematics Syllabus is in line with the above curriculum emphasis. Given the aims of the reform, the research reported here investigated the influence of children's own mother tongue (Tok Ples) and traditional counting systems on their development of early number knowledge formally taught in schools. The study involved 272 school children from 22 elementary schools in four provinces. Each child participated in a task-based assessment interview focusing on eight task groups relating to early number knowledge. The results obtained indicate that, on average, children learning their traditional counting systems in their own language spent shorter time and made fewer mistakes in solving each task compared to those taught without Tok Ples (using English and/or the lingua franca, Tok Pisin). Possible reasons accounting for these differences are also discussed.

  18. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the 'Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG' study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (p<0.01). The regional prevalence of HIV infection in PNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  20. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  1. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  2. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  3. Mapping of earthquakes vulnerability area in Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad Fawzy Ismullah, M.; Massinai, Muh. Altin

    2016-05-01

    Geohazard is a geological occurrence which may lead to a huge loss for human. A mitigation of these natural disasters is one important thing to be done properly in order to reduce the risks. One of the natural disasters that frequently occurs in the Papua Province is the earthquake. This study applies the principle of Geospatial and its application for mapping the earthquake-prone area in the Papua region. It uses earthquake data, which is recorded for 36 years (1973-2009), fault location map, and ground acceleration map of the area. The earthquakes and fault map are rearranged into an earthquake density map, as well as an earthquake depth density map and fault density map. The overlaid data of these three maps onto ground acceleration map are then (compiled) to obtain an earthquake unit map. Some districts area, such as Sarmi, Nabire, and Dogiyai, are identified by a high vulnerability index. In the other hand, Waropen, Puncak, Merauke, Asmat, Mappi, and Bouven Digoel area shows lower index. Finally, the vulnerability index in other places is detected as moderate.

  4. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Amiya, Rachel M; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper–gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesia. Methods Metabolic indicators of NCD risk were assessed among employees (15 580 at baseline, 6496 prospectively) of a large copper–gold mining operation in Papua, Indonesia, using routinely collected 5-year medical surveillance data. The study cohort comprised individuals aged 18–68 years employed for ≥1 year during 2008–2013. Assessed risk factors were based on repeat measures of cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure and body weight, using WHO criteria. Results Metabolic risk indicator rates were markedly high and increased significantly from baseline through 5-year follow-up (p<0.001). Adjusting for gender and age, longer duration of employment (≥10 years) predicted raised cholesterol (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.13, p=0.003), raised blood pressure (AOR=1.16, p=0.009) and overweight/obesity (AOR=1.14, p=0.001) at baseline; and persistent raised cholesterol (AOR=1.26, p=0.003), and both incident (AOR=1.33, p=0.014) and persistent raised blood glucose (AOR=1.62, p=0.044) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions Individuals employed for longer periods in a mining operations setting in Papua, Indonesia, may face elevated NCD risk through various routes. Workplace health promotion interventions and policies targeting modifiable lifestyle patterns and environmental exposures present an important opportunity to reduce such susceptibilities and mitigate associated health risks. PMID:26231573

  5. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Papua New Guinean poultry, June 2011 to April 2012.

    PubMed

    Jonduo, Marinjho; Wong, Sook-San; Kapo, Nime; Ominipi, Paskalis; Abdad, Mohammad; Siba, Peter; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard; Horwood, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the circulation of avian influenza viruses in poultry populations throughout Papua New Guinea to assess the risk to the poultry industry and human health. Oropharyngeal swabs, cloacal swabs and serum were collected from 537 poultry from 14 provinces of Papua New Guinea over an 11-month period (June 2011 through April 2012). Virological and serological investigations were undertaken to determine the prevalence of avian influenza viruses. Neither influenza A viruses nor antibodies were detected in any of the samples. This study demonstrated that avian influenza viruses were not circulating at detectable levels in poultry populations in Papua New Guinea during the sampling period. However, avian influenza remains a significant risk to Papua New Guinea due to the close proximity of countries having previously reported highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the low biosecurity precautions associated with the rearing of most poultry populations in the country.

  6. A combined study of gas geochemistry, petrology, and lava effusion at Bagana, a unique persistently active lava cone in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, B. T.; Salem, L. C.; Edmonds, M.; D'Aleo, R. N. M.; Aiuppa, A.; Arellano, S. R.; Wallius, J.; Galle, B.; Barry, P. H.; Ballentine, C. J.; Mulina, K.; Sindang, M.; Itikarai, I.; Wadge, G.; Lopez, T. M.; Fischer, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bagana volcano (Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea) has exhibited nearly continuous extrusion of andesitic lava for over a century, but has largely been studied by satellite remote sensing. Satellite UV spectroscopy has revealed Bagana to be among the largest volcanic sources of sulfur dioxide worldwide. Satellite radar measurements of lava extrusion rate suggest that the entire edifice could have been built in only a few centuries. Bagana is dominantly constructed from lava flows, but also exhibits violent PDC-forming explosive eruptions, which threaten local populations.We present new multi-parameter data from fieldwork on Bagana in September 2016. UV spectrometers were deployed to ground-truth satellite observations of SO2 emissions, and track sub-daily variations in gas output. In situ measurements and sampling of emissions provide the first gas composition data for this volcano. Aerial imagery filmed by UAV was obtained to generate a high resolution DEM of the edifice for use in calibrating ongoing satellite radar studies of deformation and extrusion rate. Lava and tephra samples were gathered, with the aim of comparing melt composition and volatile content between eruptions of different style. The combination of gas geochemistry, geophysical monitoring from space, and petrology will be used to build a model framework to understand the pulsatory nature of Bagana's lava extrusion, and transitions to explosive activity.A campaign to a continuously active but poorly-studied volcano affords many opportunities for education and outreach. The campaign participants included early career scientists from five countries, who planned and carried out the fieldwork and exchanged expertise in a range of techniques. All work was undertaken in close collaboration with Rabaul Volcano Observatory, and was informed by their strategic monitoring goals, a valuable experience for the field team of synergising research activities with more operational concerns. Footage obtained

  7. Childhood pneumonia and meningitis in the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea in the era of conjugate vaccines: study methods and challenges.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Christopher C; Ford, Rebecca; Sapura, Joycelyn; Kumani, Tonny; Masiria, Geraldine; Kave, John; Yuasi, Lapule; Greenhill, Andrew; Hwaihwanje, Ilomo; Lang, Amanda; Lehmann, Deborah; Pomat, William

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia and meningitis are common causes of severe childhood illness in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The etiology of both clinical conditions in PNG has not been recently assessed. Changes in lifestyle, provision and access to healthcare, antimicrobial utilization and resistance, and the national childhood vaccination schedule necessitate reassessment. A prospective case-control study was undertaken, enrolling children <5 years of age to determine the contemporary etiology of clinically defined moderate or severe pneumonia or suspected meningitis. Cases were identified following presentation for inpatient or outpatient care in Goroka town, the major population centre in the Eastern Highlands Province. Following enrolment, routine diagnostic specimens including blood, nasopharyngeal swabs, urine and (if required) cerebrospinal fluid, were obtained. Cases residing within one hour's drive of Goroka were followed up, and recruitment of healthy contemporaneous controls was undertaken in the cases' communities. 998 cases and 978 controls were enrolled over 3 years. This included 784 cases (78.6%) with moderate pneumonia, 187 (18.7%) with severe pneumonia and 75 (7.5%) with suspected meningitis, of whom 48 (4.8%) had concurrent pneumonia. The median age of cases was 7.8 months (Interquartile range [IQR] 3.9-14.3), significantly lower than community controls, which was 20.8 months (IQR 8.2-36.4). Half the cases were admitted to hospital (500/998; 50.1%). Recruitment of cases and controls and successful collection of diagnostic specimens improved throughout the study, with blood volume increasing and rates of blood culture contamination decreasing. The overall case fatality rate was 18/998 (1.8%). Of cases eligible for follow-up, outcome data was available from 76.7%. Low but increasing coverage of Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccines on the national schedule was observed during the study period: three dose DTPw-HepB-Hib coverage in children >3

  8. Papua New Guinea: Tough course

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, M.

    1991-11-01

    This paper describes the problems that seismic crews face in Papua New Guinea. The complex geologic conditions which often entail karstified carbonate rocks which are overlying folded sedimentary and igneous rocks, cause severe problems with data collection and interpretation. Secondly, the rugged topography and dense rain forest vegetation along with the wild animals and diseases create inaccessible or undesirable work areas. However, these conditions can be overcome and this paper briefly describes how one exploration company uses local natives to assist in development of reliable seismic surveys.

  9. Dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut is associated with reduced risk of HIV, syphilis and genital herpes in men: a cross-sectional study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vallely, Andrew J; MacLaren, David; David, Matthew; Toliman, Pamela; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Toto, Ben; Tommbe, Rachael; Kombati, Zure; Kaima, Petronia; Browne, Kelwyn; Manineng, Clement; Simeon, Lalen; Ryan, Claire; Wand, Handan; Hill, Peter; Law, Greg; Siba, Peter M; McBride, W John H; Kaldor, John M

    2017-04-03

    Various forms of penile foreskin cutting are practised in Papua New Guinea. In the context of an ecological association observed between HIV infection and the dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut, we undertook an investigation of this relationship at the individual level. We conducted a cross-sectional study among men attending voluntary confidential HIV counselling and testing clinics. Following informed consent, participants had a face-to-face interview and an examination to categorize foreskin status. HIV testing was conducted on site and relevant specimens collected for laboratory-based Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) testing. Overall, 1073 men were enrolled: 646 (60.2%) were uncut; 339 (31.6%) had a full dorsal longitudinal cut; 72 (6.7%) a partial dorsal longitudinal cut; and 14 (1.3%) were circumcised. Overall, the prevalence of HIV was 12.3%; HSV-2, 33.6%; active syphilis, 12.1%; CT, 13.4%; NG, 14.1%; and TV 7.6%. Compared with uncut men, men with a full dorsal longitudinal cut were significantly less likely to have HIV (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 0.25, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.51); HSV-2 (adjOR 0.60, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.87); or active syphilis (adjOR 0.55, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.96). This apparent protective effect was restricted to men cut prior to sexual debut. There was no difference between cut and uncut men for CT, NG or TV.  In this large cross-sectional study, men with a dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut were significantly less likely to have HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis compared with uncut men, despite still having a complete (albeit morphologically altered) foreskin. The protective effect of the dorsal cut suggests that the mechanism by which male circumcision works is not simply due to the removal of the inner foreskin and its more easily accessible HIV target cells. Exposure of the penile glans and inner foreskin appear to be key mechanisms by which male circumcision confers

  10. Effects of hydrothermal alteration on Pb in the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field, ODP Leg 193, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: A LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick; Scott, Steven D.; Gorton, Michael P.; Zajacz, Zoltan; Halter, Werner

    2007-09-01

    The conventional model of leaching volcanic rocks as a source of metals in a seafloor hydrothermal systems has been tested by examining the behavior of Pb and other trace elements during hydrothermal alteration. ODP Leg 193 drill sites 1188 (Snowcap) and 1189 (Roman Ruins) on Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus Basin offshore eastern Papua New Guinea provide a unique three-dimensional window into an active back-arc hydrothermal system. We investigate by means of a LA-ICP-MS microbeam technique the capacity of Pb to be leached from a host volcanic rock exposed to various types and intensities of alteration. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that utilized bulk analytical techniques but provide a more detailed explanation of the processes. Fresh representative dacitic lavas from the Pual Ridge have an average whole rock Pb content of 5.2 ppm, an average interstitial glass Pb content of 5.6 ppm and an average plagioclase Pb content of 1.0 ppm. Altered matrix samples have highly variable Pb values ranging from 0 to 52.4 ppm. High Pb values in altered samples are associated with a low temperature chlorite and clay mineral assemblage, in some cases overprinted by a high temperature (up to 350 °C) silica-rich "bleaching" alteration. Only the most highly altered matrix samples have REE patterns that differ from the fresh Pual Ridge dacite. This may represent either different lava histories or alteration characteristics that have affected normally immobile REEs. Altered samples with the highest Pb values have similar REE patterns to those of the local unaltered lavas. They are compositionally similar to typical Pual Ridge dacites indicating a genetic relationship between the main regional volcanic suite and the subseafloor hydrothermally altered, Pb-enriched material. Relative loss/gain for Pb between the analyzed altered samples and a calculated precursor show a maximum relative gain of 901%. Samples with relative Pb gain from both drill sites are

  11. Artemether-lumefantrine versus artemisinin-naphthoquine in Papua New Guinean children with uncomplicated malaria: a six months post-treatment follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Laman, Moses; Benjamin, John M; Moore, Brioni R; Salib, Mary; Tawat, Somoyang; Davis, Wendy A; Siba, Peter M; Robinson, Leanne J; Davis, Timothy M E

    2015-03-21

    In a recent trial of artemisinin-naphthoquine (artemisinin-NQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LM) therapy in young children from Papua New Guinea (PNG), there were no treatment failures in artemisinin-NQ-treated children with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax compared with 2.2% and 30.0%, respectively, in AM-LM-treated children during 42 days of follow-up. To determine whether, consistent with the long elimination half-life of NQ, this difference in efficacy would be more durable, clinical episodes of malaria were assessed in a subset of trial patients followed for six months post-treatment. For children completing trial procedures and who were assessable at six months, all within-trial and subsequent clinical malaria episodes were ascertained, the latter by clinic attendances and/or review of hand-held health records. Presentations with non-malarial illness were also recorded. Differences between allocated treatments for pre-specified endpoints were determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 247 children who were followed to Day 42, 176 (71.3%) were included in the present sub-study, 87 allocated to AM-LM and 89 to artemisinin-NQ. Twenty children in the AM-LM group (32.8%) had a first episode of clinical malaria within six months compared with 10 (16.4%) in the artemisinin-NQ group (P = 0.033, log rank test). The median (interquartile range) time to first episode of clinical malaria was 64 (50-146) vs 116 (77-130) days, respectively (P = 0.20). There were no between-group differences in the incidence of first presentation with non-malarial illness (P = 0.31). The greater effectiveness of artemisinin-NQ over conventional AM-LM extends to at least six months post-treatment for clinical malaria but not non-malarial illness. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000913077 .

  12. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Amiya, Rachel M; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper-gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesia. Metabolic indicators of NCD risk were assessed among employees (15 580 at baseline, 6496 prospectively) of a large copper-gold mining operation in Papua, Indonesia, using routinely collected 5-year medical surveillance data. The study cohort comprised individuals aged 18-68 years employed for ≥1 year during 2008-2013. Assessed risk factors were based on repeat measures of cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure and body weight, using WHO criteria. Metabolic risk indicator rates were markedly high and increased significantly from baseline through 5-year follow-up (p<0.001). Adjusting for gender and age, longer duration of employment (≥10 years) predicted raised cholesterol (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.13, p=0.003), raised blood pressure (AOR=1.16, p=0.009) and overweight/obesity (AOR=1.14, p=0.001) at baseline; and persistent raised cholesterol (AOR=1.26, p=0.003), and both incident (AOR=1.33, p=0.014) and persistent raised blood glucose (AOR=1.62, p=0.044) at 3-year follow-up. Individuals employed for longer periods in a mining operations setting in Papua, Indonesia, may face elevated NCD risk through various routes. Workplace health promotion interventions and policies targeting modifiable lifestyle patterns and environmental exposures present an important opportunity to reduce such susceptibilities and mitigate associated health risks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Reduced Risk of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Papua New Guinean Children with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis in Two Cohorts and a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Laurens; Rarau, Patricia; Laman, Moses; Senn, Nicolas; Grimberg, Brian T.; Tavul, Livingstone; Stanisic, Danielle I.; Robinson, Leanne J.; Aponte, John J.; Dabod, Elijah; Reeder, John C.; Siba, Peter; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Davis, Timothy M. E.; King, Christopher L.; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte polymorphism, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) (which results from a 27-base pair deletion in the erythrocyte band 3 gene, SLC4A1Δ27) protects against cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum; however, it is unknown whether this polymorphism also protects against P. vivax infection and disease. Methods and Findings The association between SAO and P. vivax infection was examined through genotyping of 1,975 children enrolled in three independent epidemiological studies conducted in the Madang area of Papua New Guinea. SAO was associated with a statistically significant 46% reduction in the incidence of clinical P. vivax episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.54, 95% CI 0.40–0.72, p<0.0001) in a cohort of infants aged 3–21 months and a significant 52% reduction in P. vivax (blood-stage) reinfection diagnosed by PCR (95% CI 22–71, p = 0.003) and 55% by light microscopy (95% CI 13–77, p = 0.014), respectively, in a cohort of children aged 5–14 years. SAO was also associated with a reduction in risk of P. vivax parasitaemia in children 3–21 months (1,111/µl versus 636/µl, p = 0.011) and prevalence of P. vivax infections in children 15–21 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% CI 0.23–0.67, p = 0.001). In a case-control study of children aged 0.5–10 years, no child with SAO was found among 27 cases with severe P. vivax or mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax malaria (OR = 0, 95% CI 0–1.56, p = 0.11). SAO was associated with protection against severe P. falciparum malaria (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15–0.87, p = 0.014) but no effect was seen on either the risk of acquiring blood-stage infections or uncomplicated episodes with P. falciparum. Although Duffy antigen receptor expression and function were not affected on SAO erythrocytes compared to non-SAO children, high level (>90% binding inhibition) P. vivax Duffy binding protein–specific binding inhibitory antibodies were

  14. Country watch: Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kisau, J

    1995-01-01

    Senior lecturers, students, the Dean of the Arts Faculty, university administrators, and a nongovernmental organization called PNG Trust are working together on an AIDS Awareness Committee at the University of Papua New Guinea. They dispense educational materials to staff and students to increase awareness and provide advice on safer sex practices. The orientation book for new and continuing students contains selections from the committee's materials. A social scientist on the committee has conducted a pre-intervention survey to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of students. The intervention consists of four weeks of video showings and discussions. The post-intervention survey will take place later in 1995. Committee members, the university clinic, the student services office, female dormitories, and the university staff bar distribute free condoms on request, especially to students, who are on limited scholarships. The committee has developed an HIV/AIDS policy for the university that has been sent to the University Council for approval. The policy contends that protective and preventive approaches to HIV/AIDS are restatements of existing health, safety, and human rights codes. Recommendations in the policy include prevention of discrimination, confidentiality of all records, rejection of mandatory HIV testing of staff and students, and provision of appropriate medical care for students who tell the university health services of a positive HIV status. Assuming it is approved, the policy will apply to all university campuses in Papua New Guinea. The committee would like the university, after policy adoption, to provide them with a room as a resource center and to incorporate social work students in a counseling service. Students can volunteer to operate a telephone helpline and photocopy educational materials.

  15. Natural and human impacts in a 35 000-year vegetation history in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentfer, Carol; Pavlides, Christina; Specht, Jim

    2010-12-01

    Phytoliths and micro-charcoal from the Yombon Airstrip archaeological site in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea, provide the longest vegetation history record yet available for the New Guinea islands. The record begins about 35 kya with the first evidence for human presence at the site and, with the exception of the Last Glacial Maximum period, is continuous to the present. Three other sites provide supplementary evidence, including plant macro-remains, from the early Holocene onwards. The record is punctuated by a series of volcanic events, which are reflected in the vegetation record by alternating frequencies of closed forest and regrowth elements. Micro-charcoal is present from the oldest levels and fluctuates in frequency throughout the sequence, increasing substantially from the terminal Pleistocene-early Holocene onwards. This coincides with the first appearance of panicoid grasses and a range of potential cultivars including bananas and Saccharum. Increased levels of burning coinciding with the appearance of potential plant cultivars may indicate shifts in plant food production leading to cultivation from the early Holocene onwards. This compares favourably with previously reported evidence from Garua Island off the north coast of New Britain. The combination of trends in burning, vegetation clearance and appearance of potential cultivars on New Britain appears to parallel changes in the Papua New Guinea highlands at a similar time, and suggests regional similarities in subsistence and vegetation management practices from before the LGM onwards. Further studies are needed to clarify the timing and extent of these shifts across the region, and to provide a vegetation picture for the period before human colonisation of New Britain.

  16. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Andras, Peter; Lazarus, John; Roberts, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher) or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies. PMID:18053138

  17. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Haemodialysis (HD) is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20–54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s) for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. Methods/Design The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid). Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted) patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. Discussion This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty acids. Recently a

  18. "Whenever they cry, I cry with them": Reciprocal relationships and the role of ethics in a verbal autopsy study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gouda, H N; Kelly-Hanku, A; Wilson, L; Maraga, S; Riley, I D

    2016-08-01

    Verbal autopsy (VA) methods usually involve an interview with a recently bereaved individual to ascertain the most probable cause of death when a person dies outside of a hospital and/or did not receive a reliable death certificate. A number of concerns have arisen around the ethical and social implications of the use of these methods. In this paper we examine these concerns, looking specifically at the cultural factors surrounding death and mourning in Papua New Guinea, and the potential for VA interviews to cause emotional distress in both the bereaved respondent and the VA fieldworker. Thirty one semi-structured interviews with VA respondents, the VA team and community relations officers as well as observations in the field and team discussions were conducted between June 2013 and August 2014. While our findings reveal that VA participants were often moved to cry and feel sad, they also expressed a number of ways they benefited from the process, and indeed welcomed longer transactions with the VA interviewers. Significantly, this paper highlights the ways in which VA interviewers, who have hitherto been largely neglected in the literature, navigate transactions with the participants and make everyday decisions about their relationships with them in order to ensure that they and VA interviews are accepted by the community. The role of the VA fieldworker should be more carefully considered, as should the implications for training and institutional support that follow.

  19. Supporting Pacific Island Countries to Strengthen Their Resistance to Tobacco Industry Interference in Tobacco Control: A Case Study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  20. Smoking impairs and circulating stem cells favour the protective effect of the T allele of the connexin37 gene in ischemic heart disease--A multinational study.

    PubMed

    Pitha, Jan; Králová Lesná, Ivana; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Sekerková, Alena; Lánská, Věra; Adámková, Věra; Dorobantu, Maria; Nicolescu, Rodica; Steiner, Robert; Ivić, Vedrana; Borbely, Attila; Papp, Zoltan; Vari, Sandor G

    2016-01-01

    The connexin 37 (Cx37) gene is considered to be a candidate gene for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We analyzed the association between the C1019 > T (Pro319 > Ser) variant of the Cx37 gene and IHD in patients in the Czech Republic, Croatia, Hungary and Romania with regard to the presence/absence of selected cardiovascular risk factors (RF). In a complementary study, we analyzed the association between the Cx37 gene and circulating stem and endothelial progenitor cells in healthy women. The study population comprised 2396 patients (663 women) with IHD. The control population comprised 2476 subjects (1, 337 women). Additionally, in 662 healthy women, the association between the Cx37 gene and circulating stem and endothelial progenitor cells was analyzed. The strongest protective effect of the Cx37 T allele was detected in non-smoking patients without diabetes mellitus and hypertension (OR 0.610, 95% CI 0.377-0.990); a similar effect was found in non-smoking men (OR 0.781, 95% CI 0.628-0.971); weaker effect was found in non-smoking women (OR 0.768, 95% CI 0.560-1.050). In non-smoking healthy women, stem cells were significantly higher in TT than in CT and CC carriers (p for trend 0.011). Additionally, non-smoking TT carriers had significantly higher number of stem cells than past and current smoking TT carriers (p for trend = 0.006); no such trend was found in CT and CC carriers. The protective effect of the T allele of the Cx37 gene might be strongly modified by smoking; in women, this effect could be mediated through stem cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carglumic acid enhances rapid ammonia detoxification in classical organic acidurias with a favourable risk-benefit profile: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Baruteau, Julien; Delgado, Maria Bueno; Cano, Aline; Couce, Maria L; Del Toro, Mireia; Donati, Maria Alice; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Gil-Ortega, David; Gomez-de Quero, Pedro; Guffon, Nathalie; Hofstede, Floris C; Kalkan-Ucar, Sema; Coker, Mahmut; Lama-More, Rosa; Martinez-Pardo Casanova, Mercedes; Molina, Agustin; Pichard, Samia; Papadia, Francesco; Rosello, Patricia; Plisson, Celine; Le Mouhaer, Jeannie; Chakrapani, Anupam

    2016-03-31

    Isovaleric aciduria (IVA), propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) are inherited organic acidurias (OAs) in which impaired organic acid metabolism induces hyperammonaemia arising partly from secondary deficiency of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase. Rapid reduction in plasma ammonia is required to prevent neurological complications. This retrospective, multicentre, open-label, uncontrolled, phase IIIb study evaluated the efficacy and safety of carglumic acid, a synthetic structural analogue of NAG, for treating hyperammonaemia during OA decompensation. Eligible patients had confirmed OA and hyperammonaemia (plasma NH3 > 60 μmol/L) in ≥1 decompensation episode treated with carglumic acid (dose discretionary, mean (SD) first dose 96.3 (73.8) mg/kg). The primary outcome was change in plasma ammonia from baseline to endpoint (last available ammonia measurement at ≤18 hours after the last carglumic acid administration, or on Day 15) for each episode. Secondary outcomes included clinical response and safety. The efficacy population (received ≥1 dose of study drug and had post-baseline measurements) comprised 41 patients (MMA: 21, PA: 16, IVA: 4) with 48 decompensation episodes (MMA: 25, PA: 19, IVA: 4). Mean baseline plasma ammonia concentration was 468.3 (±365.3) μmol/L in neonates (29 episodes) and 171.3 (±75.7) μmol/L in non-neonates (19 episodes). At endpoint the mean plasma NH3 concentration was 60.7 (±36.5) μmol/L in neonates and 55.2 (±21.8) μmol/L in non-neonates. Median time to normalise ammonaemia was 38.4 hours in neonates vs 28.3 hours in non-neonates and was similar between OA subgroups (MMA: 37.5 hours, PA: 36.0 hours, IVA: 40.5 hours). Median time to ammonia normalisation was 1.5 and 1.6 days in patients receiving and not receiving concomitant scavenger therapy, respectively. Although patients receiving carglumic acid with scavengers had a greater reduction in plasma ammonia, the endpoint ammonia levels were

  2. Papua New Guinea to emphasize alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-09

    It is reported that Australia's Davy McKee Pacific is to build the first of nine proposed ethanol plants in Papua New Guinea in a bid to produce 50% of the country's transport fuels by 1990. The first $4 million facility, on the Baiyer River, will yield 2 million liters of ethanol a year from the cassava root.

  3. Robert Koch redux: malaria immunology in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stanisic, D I; Mueller, I; Betuela, I; Siba, P; Schofield, L

    2010-08-01

    Over a century ago, the malaria expedition of the brilliant microbiologist Robert Koch to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and German New Guinea (now Papua New Guinea, or PNG), resulted in profound observations that are still central to our current understanding of the epidemiology and acquisition of immunity to the malaria parasite Plasmodium. The tradition of malaria research in PNG pioneered by Koch continues to this day, with a number of recent studies still continuing to elucidate his original concepts and hypotheses. These include age and exposure-related acquisition of immunity, species-specific and cross-species immunity, correlates of protective immunity and determining the prospects for anti-malaria vaccines.

  4. Navigating Contested Terrain: Vernacular Education in a Papua New Guinean Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troolin, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of language development in rural Papua New Guinea, in which parents felt the local school was not meeting the educational needs of their children. In this case study, the local, national and global narratives concerning use of the vernacular in education were apparent in the negotiation leading to an apparent…

  5. Navigating Contested Terrain: Vernacular Education in a Papua New Guinean Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troolin, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of language development in rural Papua New Guinea, in which parents felt the local school was not meeting the educational needs of their children. In this case study, the local, national and global narratives concerning use of the vernacular in education were apparent in the negotiation leading to an apparent…

  6. A comparative study of intestinal helminths in pre-school-age urban and rural children in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shield, Jennifer M; Kow, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged between 1 month and 10 years from one rural coastal locality, two rural upland localities and two urban localities in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea were examined between September 1980 and September 1982. Hookworm (predominantly Necator americanus), Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura increased in prevalence with age. The prevalence of Strongyloides fuelleborni subspecies kellyi, where present, was either highest in the < 1 year age group or similar in all age groups. N. americanus prevalence was between 59% and 83% in the 3 year age group except at the coastal locality, where it was 15%. A. lumbricoides prevalence in the 3 year age group was very low in one upland locality and between 7% and 41% for the other localities. T. trichiura prevalence in the 3 year age group was between 33% and 55% at the coastal and two urban localities, and very low at the two upland localities. S. f. kellyi prevalence in the < 1 year age group was 48% and 20% respectively at the two upland localities, 2% at one of the urban localities and not detected at the other localities. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected at both urban localities, but not at the coastal locality or at the upland locality where testing was done. Many children had infections of more than one species, and there was a significant association of A. lumbricoides with T. trichiura at the coastal and two urban localities. The presence of S. f. kellyi at one of the urban localities raises the possibility that this once isolated species may now be spreading as infected people visit and settle in the towns. Between 68% and 93% of children in the 3 year age group and between 65% and 100% in the 5 year age group were infected with at least one helminth species.

  7. Community based study of sexually transmitted diseases in rural women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Passey, M; Mgone, C S; Lupiwa, S; Suve, N; Tiwara, S; Lupiwa, T; Clegg, A; Alpers, M P

    1998-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and determine their risk factors/markers among a rural population of women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Community based random cluster sample of women of reproductive age were interviewed and examined and had specimens collected for laboratory confirmation of chlamydial and trichomonal infection, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 26%, Trichomonas vaginalis in 46%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 1%, syphilis in 4%, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (diagnosed clinically) in 14%, and bacterial vaginosis in 9% of 201 women. 59% of the women had at least one STD. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis taking the clustered sampling into account, independent risk factors for chlamydial infection were age < or = 25 years, < four living children, visualization of yellow mucopurulent endocervical secretions on a white swab, and bacterial vaginosis. Being married to a man who did not have other wives was protective. For trichomonal infection, independent risk factors were having no formal education, infertility, more than one sexual partner in the previous 12 months, treatment for genital complaints in the previous 3 months, abnormal vaginal discharge detected on examination, and chlamydial infection. Similar levels of trichomonal infection were found in all age groups. Among married women, rates of infection correlated with their perception of their husband having had other sexual partners in the previous 3 months, and this relationship was significant for chlamydial infection among women over 25. STDs are a major problem in this population, with the risk factors varying by outcome. Current treatment regimens are inappropriate given the high prevalence of trichomonal infection, and the available services are inadequate. Effective interventions are required urgently to reduce this burden and to prevent the rapid transmission of HIV.

  8. Favourable and Unfavourable Conditions for Children's Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; von der Linden, Nicole; Howie, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    Two studies are presented in which favourable and unfavourable conditions for children's meta-cognitive monitoring processes are examined. Previously reported findings have shown that especially children's uncertainty monitoring (in contrast to certainty monitoring) poses specific problems for children in their elementary school years. When…

  9. Implementing a New Model for Teachers' Professional Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen; Evans, Terry; Muspratt, Sandy; Paraide, Patricia; Reta, Medi; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigates the possibilities of developing a professional learning model based on action research that could lead to sustained improvements in teaching and learning in schools in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. The issues related to the implementation of this model are discussed using a critical lens that…

  10. Emerging Pedagogies of Linguistic and Cultural Continuity in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores issues of linguistic and cultural continuity in vernacular education in the south pacific state of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It draws from an ongoing ethnographic study of the introduction of vernacular teaching in elementary and lower primary schooling where English has recently been replaced as the medium of instruction making…

  11. Education in Papua New Guinea 1973-1993: The Late-Development Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Sheldon G.

    1993-01-01

    Explores connections between comparative and international studies and educational development in Papua New Guinea during the past 20 years. Argues that fears of "qualification escalation" and overproduction of educated school leavers, influence of foreign advisors, and ignoring of contextual factors have resulted in restricted secondary…

  12. National Profiles in Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific: Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    One of a series of studies on the development of technical and vocational education in the member states of UNESCO, this report profiles the educational system in Papua New Guinea. The four parts of the document provide information about the following: the geography, the history, and the economy of the country; the educational system; technical…

  13. Susan Setae and the Papua Hahine Social Action Forum.

    PubMed

    Laumaea, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the childhood, educational experiences and professional life of Susan Setae. As the founder and current president of Papua Hahine Social Action Forum--an organization involved in caring and providing support for victims of violence--Susan makes an important contribution to the lives of her fellow citizens in Papua New Guinea. The article documents Susan's early influences and her passion to see women in Papua New Guinea live lives free of violence.

  14. Magmatic Contribution of Ore Metals to the Conical Seamount Hydrothermal System, Papua New Guinea: a High-Precision Pb Isotope Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfit, M.; Kamenov, G.; Mueller, P.; Jonasson, I.

    2004-12-01

    During RV SONNE cruise SO-133 in 1998 polymetallic gold mineralization was discovered at Conical Seamount, located on the flank of Lihir island, Papua New Guinea. The seamount and the island are composed mainly of trachybasalts and basaltic trachyandesites, although some monzonites are found on Lihir. Sr isotopic analyses suggest that most of the Sr in the mineralized samples is derived from the local alkaline lavas. Elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios in some of the samples suggest that during the waning stages of the hydrothermal system, some of the Sr was contributed either from seawater or the thick sequence of marine sediments underlying the island. High-precision Pb isotopic analyses conducted with MC-ICP-MS show that the ores and volcanic rocks share similar Pb isotopic compositions, suggesting that the Pb in the mineralized zones was ultimately derived from local magmatic sources. The Pb isotopic data, however, reveal small, but significant, differences between the mineralized zones and the associated host lavas. Mineralized samples from Lihir have slightly less radiogenic lead isotopic ratios than their host lavas. These lead isotopic compositions are similar, however, to some of the fresh lavas recovered from Conical seamount and to a monzonite intrusion underlying the Ladolam deposit. Lead isotopic ratios in mineralized samples from Conical seamount, however, are slightly more radiogenic than their host lavas and similar to those of fresh lavas recovered from nearby Tubaf and Edison seamounts. Petrographic data reveal a complex magmatic history for the magma chamber inferred beneath Conical seamount. Based on zoning patterns in the Conical clinopyroxenes, it appears that a sub-seamount magma chamber was recharged with a mafic magma similar to the most primitive, volatile-rich, and xenolith-bearing lavas recovered from Tubaf and Edison seamounts. Rapid cooling of this mafic magma accompanied by exsolution of metal-bearing fluids in the relatively shallow magma

  15. The Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study: the updated final trial protocol and rationale of post-initiation trial modifications.

    PubMed

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Pascoe, Elaine; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hawley, Carmel; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Badve, Sunil V; Cass, Alan; Heritier, Stephane; Kerr, Peter G; Mori, Trevor A; Robertson, Amanda; Seong, Hooi L; Irish, Ashley B

    2015-06-27

    The FAVOURED study is an international multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial which commenced recruitment in 2008 and examines whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) either alone or in combination with aspirin will effectively reduce primary access failure of de novo arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) in patients with stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease. Publication of new evidence derived from additional studies of clopidogrel and a high screen failure rate due to prevalent aspirin usage prompted an updated trial design. The original trial protocol published in 2009 has undergone two major amendments, which were implemented in 2011. Firstly, the primary outcome 'early thrombosis' at 3 months following AVF creation was broadened to a more clinically relevant outcome of 'AVF access failure'; a composite of thrombosis, AVF abandonment and cannulation failure at 12 months. Secondly, participants unable to cease using aspirin were allowed to be enrolled and randomised to omega-3 PUFAs or placebo. The revised primary aim of the FAVOURED study is to test the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs will reduce rates of AVF access failure within 12 months following AVF surgery. The secondary aims are to examine the effect of omega-3 PUFAs and aspirin on the individual components of the primary end-point, to examine the safety of study interventions and assess central venous catheter requirement as a result of access failure. This multicentre international clinical trial was amended to address the clinically relevant question of whether the usability of de novo AVF at 12 months can be improved by the early use of omega-3 PUFAs and to a lesser extent aspirin. This study protocol amendment was made in response to a large trial demonstrating that clopidogrel is effective in safely preventing primary AVF thrombosis, but ineffective at increasing functional patency. Secondly, including patients taking aspirin will enroll a more representative cohort of

  16. An investigation into febrile illnesses of unknown aetiology in Wipim, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bande, Grace; Hetzel, Manuel W; Iga, Jonah; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the aetiology of febrile illnesses remains poorly characterized, mostly due to poor diagnostic facilities and the inaccessibility of much of the rural areas of the country. We investigated the aetiological agents of febrile illnesses for 136 people presenting to Wipim Health Centre in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Arboviral and rickettsial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, malaria blood smears and a malaria PCR test were used to identify pathogens associated with a history of fever. In 13% (n = 18) of cases an aetiological agent was identified. Dengue virus type 1 was detected in 11% (n = 15) of the samples tested and malaria in 2% (n = 3). None of the other arboviral or rickettsial pathogens tested for were detected in any of the samples. Although dengue viruses have been identified in Papua New Guinea using serological methods, this study represents the first direct detection of dengue in the country. The detection of malaria, on the other hand, was surprisingly low considering the previous notion that this was a hyperendemic region of Papua New Guinea.

  17. Seroepidemiologic survey of cysticercosis-taeniasis in four central highland districts of Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Salim, Lidwina; Ang, Agnes; Handali, Sukwan; Tsang, Victor C W

    2009-03-01

    Cysticercosis and taeniasis are known to be present in Papua, Indonesia. Several small studies have found a high prevalence of cysticercosis (23.5-56.9%) in the central highlands of Papua. A seroepidemiologic survey was carried out in four districts (Jayawijaya, Paniai, Pegunungan Bintang, and Puncak Jaya) of Papua. Anti-cysticercosis and anti-taeniasis antibodies were measured in 2,931 people using recombinant T24 and recombinant ES33 as a measure of cysticercosis and taeniasis exposures, respectively. Prevalence of cysticercosis-taeniasis is high in the Jayawijaya and Paniai districts (20.8% and 29.2% for cysticercosis and 7% and 9.6% for taeniasis, respectively) and lowest in the other two districts (Pegunungan Bintang and Puncak Jaya) (2% and 2% for cysticercosis and 1.7% and 10.7% for taeniasis, respectively). Our data show that the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis are unchanged from that reported nearly 35 years ago at the beginning of cysticercosis-taeniasis epidemics in Papua, Indonesia.

  18. New and little known Brachodidae from tropical Asia and Papua New Guinea (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea).

    PubMed

    Kallies, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In this study nine new species and a new genus of Brachodidae are described from tropical Asia and Papua New Guinea. Synechodes polias sp. nov. and Synechodes tamila sp. nov. are described from Sulawesi and southern India, respectively. A new genus, Saccocera gen. nov. (type species Miscera orpheus Kallies, 2004), is described to accommodate five species occurring from Taiwan and Sumatra across Melanesia to Papua New Guinea. It differs significantly from the related genera Miscera Walker, 1863 and Synechodes Turner, 1913 in morphological details of the head and the male and female genitalia. Two species of Saccocera are described here, Saccocera panaras sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and Saccocera miangkabau sp. nov. from Sumatra. Furthermore, Miscera minahasa sp. nov. and Paranigilgia mariannae sp. nov. are described from Sulawesi, Paranigilgia brandti sp. nov. and Nigilgia atribractea sp. nov. from Papua, and Nigilgia browni sp. nov. is described from Christmas Island. Finally, Synechodes heppneri Kallies, 1998 syn. nov. is reverted to a junior synonym of Synechodes coniophora Turner, 1913. Nigilgia anactis Diakonoff, 1982 is figured for the first time and its distribution in Asia is discussed.

  19. Historical ecology of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Maria Lourdes D; Heymans, Johanna J; Pauly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a review of the status of marine resources of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia, based on narratives of early European expeditions in various museums and libraries in Europe, Canada, and local archives in Papua. More than 500 pertinent documents on the study area were identified and located in various European museums and at the University of British Columbia library. About half of these were scanned (25,000 pages), which yielded the equivalent of 900 pages of text (or 4% of the total number of pages scanned) with observations on abundance and impact of the human population on the marine ecosystem within 2 degrees North and 2 degrees South between 127 degrees and 132 degrees East. In general, these observations, which spanned the period from 1810 to the present, suggest a decrease in the perceived occurrences of turtles, fish, and invertebrates; perceived abundance of turtles, fish, and algae; percieved subsistence exploitation of marine resources; and an increase in perceived commercial exploitation of marine resources. We conclude with a discussion of the problems and potential of contents analysis, and its use in the historical reconstruction of broad biodiversity trends.

  20. Electrification ratio and renewable energy in Papua Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innah, Herbert; Kariongan, Jackobus; Liga, Marthen

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in the beginning of year 2016, introduced a program named "Indonesia Terang" or Bright Indonesia. The aimed of this program is to speed up Electrification Rate (ER) with priority to the six provinces at Eastern area of Indonesia including Papua Province. The target of Indonesian's ER by 2019 is 97%. While the Indonesian's national ER already high (88.30%) in 2015, Papua still the lowest ER (45.93%) among the provinces. The scenario to boost up ER in the Eastern area by connected the consumers at villages which not electrified yet to the new Renewable Energy sources. This paper presents an overview of current situation of Electricity Infrastructure and Operation particularly on the mountain area which has high populated compare to coastal area but the average RE below 10%. Case studies of electricity infrastructure profile from mountain area were conducted to identify and reveal the challenge to achieve the Bright Indonesia objectives. Also, the assessment of the visibility according to the high target from this program will be presented.

  1. Tobacco smoking in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brott, K

    1981-12-01

    The consumption of cigarettes in Papua New Guinea appears to have increased tenfold over the past twenty years, largely as a result of massive advertising campaigns. It is recommended that legislation be introduced to enforce restrictions on the levels of tar and nicotine in cigarettes sold here, and to make it compulsory to print health warnings on cigarette packets. It is also recommended that the advertising of tobacco products be restricted or banned.

  2. Behaviour and molecular identification of Anopheles malaria vectors in Jayapura district, Papua province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandy; Supratman, Sukowati; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Bretz, David; Mueller, John; Miller, Helen Catherine; Baharuddin, Amirullah; Shinta; Surya, Asik; Ngai, Michelle; Laihad, Ferdinand; Syafruddin, Din; Hawley, William A; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F

    2016-04-08

    Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group dominate Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG), with a geographic range that extends south through Vanuatu. An. farauti and An. punctulatus are the presumed major vectors in this region. Although this group of species has been extensively studied in PNG and the southern archipelagoes within their range, their distribution, ecology and vector behaviours have not been well characterized in eastern Indonesia. Mosquitoes were collected in five villages in Jayapura province, Papua, Indonesia using human-landing collections, animal-baited tents and backpack aspirators. Mosquitoes were morphologically typed and then molecularly distinguished based on ribosomal ITS2 sequences and tested for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection using circumsporozoite ELISA and PCR. The presence and vector status of An. farauti 4 in Papua, Indonesia is confirmed here for the first time. The data indicate that this species is entering houses at a rate that increases its potential to come into contact with humans and act as a major malaria vector. An. farauti 4 was also abundant outdoors and biting humans during early evening hours. Other species collected in this area include An. farauti 1, An. hinesorum, An. koliensis, An. punctulatus, and An. tessellatus. Proboscis morphology was highly variable within each species, lending support to the notion that this characteristic is not a reliable indicator to distinguish species within the An. punctulatus group. The vector composition in Papua, Indonesia is consistent with certain northern areas of PNG, but the behaviours of anophelines sampled in this region, such as early and indoor human biting of An. farauti 4, may enable them to act as major vectors of malaria. Presumed major vectors An. farauti and An. punctulatus were not abundant among these samples. Morphological identification of anophelines in this sample was often inaccurate, highlighting the importance of using molecular analysis

  3. Can natural selection favour altruism between species?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A

    2013-09-01

    Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sex Workers in Papua New Guinea: First Results from the Papua New Guinea and Australia Sexual Health Improvement Project (PASHIP).

    PubMed

    Wand, Handan; Siba, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the individual and combined impacts of socio-demographic and sexual behaviours on HIV diagnosis among 523 female sex workers who participated in the Papua New Guinea and Australia Sexual Health Improvement Project. Logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with HIV positivity. We estimated their population level impacts in order to quantify the proportion of HIV seropositivity is attributed to these factors. Less than 40 % of women consented to get tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 7 % (95 % CI 4-11 %); lack of education and knowledge/awareness of HIV accounted for ~70 % of the HIV diagnoses. A major obstacle is lack of interest for testing. Our study underscored the major challenges in this culturally, linguistically heterogeneous country. The epidemic in Papua New Guinea requires targeted prevention interventions among those at highest risk of acquiring or transmitting infection.

  5. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  6. Disrupting Assumptions about Vernacular Education in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience at the Papua New Guinea Education Institute delivering in-service professional development programs to teachers who were implementing the country's new curriculum. Explains the notion of the "bridging years," when children in Papua New Guinea develop skills and knowledge in two cultures and two languages.…

  7. Literacy Policy and Provision in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Micael

    There is now consensus among educators in Papua New Guinea that literacy efforts must be strengthened through closer bonding of literacy with information-that-matters. Papua New Guinea's Cabinet has recently endorsed a National Literacy and Awareness Program linking literacy projects with public awareness campaigns, hoping to increase support for…

  8. Diarrhoea in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vince, J D

    1995-12-01

    National data for diarrhoeal disease in children can only be used as a very rough guide to morbidity and mortality, since they are based on incomplete reporting. Furthermore, when only one diagnosis per attendance, admission or cause of death is recorded, the true importance of diarrhoea as a cause of morbidity and mortality may be obscured. This may in part explain discrepancies between figures recorded in national and hospital statistics and those recorded in detailed studies of diarrhoeal admissions. While there appear to be quite marked differences in the relative importance of diarrhoea in different parts of the country, and while diarrhoeal disease is less of a scourge than in some other parts of the world, it is nevertheless a major cause of attendance at health facilities, the second or third most common cause of admission to many of the hospitals in the country, and a significant and often preventable cause of death. Limited studies of diarrhoeal aetiology indicate the major importance of rotavirus, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The control of diarrhoeal diseases in children is based not only on early and appropriate treatment, but also on preventive strategies. These include breastfeeding (which has saved the lives of many thousands of Papua New Guinean children and which is once again under threat), ensuring good host defence by good nutrition, immunization and early treatment of childhood illness, and ensuring satisfactory sanitation and hygiene. Increasing fluid intake to prevent dehydration remains the most important part of the early management of acute diarrhoeal disease. In the management of children with dehydration, UNICEF glucose-based oral rehydration therapy is widely available but not used as well as it should be. There are significant advantages in cereal-based oral rehydration solutions, and the use of such solutions, locally prepared, should be encouraged. Breastfeeding should be continued during

  9. More than just a cut: a qualitative study of penile practices and their relationship to masculinity, sexuality and contagion and their implications for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce vaginal transmission of HIV to men. While community acceptability is important in a countries preparedness to introduce MC, it is equally important to map contemporary MC and other penile cutting practices, and the socio-cultural dimensions underpinning these practices. Methods A total of 482 men and women (n = 276 and n = 210, respectively) participated in 82 semi-structured and 45 focus group discussions from four different provinces of Papua New Guinea (PNG), each representing one of the four socially and geographically diverse regions of the country. Results Of the men interviewed 131 self-reported that they had undergone a penile alteration with some reporting multiple types. Practices were diverse and could be grouped into five broad categories: traditional (customary) penile cutting; contemporary penile cutting; medical circumcision; penile inserts; and penile bloodletting practices in which sharp objects are used to incise the glans and or inserted and withdrawn from the male urethra or in order to induce bleeding. Socio-cultural traditions, enhanced sexual pleasure and improved genital hygiene were key motivators for all forms of penile practices. Conclusions The findings from this study highlight the complex and diverse nature of penile practices in PNG and their association with notions of masculinity, sexuality and contagion. Contemporary penile practices are critical to a community’s acceptance of MC and of a country’s ability to successfully implement MC in the context of a rich and dynamic culture of penile practices. If a MC program were to be successfully rolled out in PNG to prevent HIV it would need to work within and build upon these diverse cultural meanings and motivators for penile practices already commonly performed in PNG by men. PMID:22818494

  10. Associations of Socioeconomic Status with Diet and Physical Activity in Migrant Bougainvilleans in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status.

  11. Hydrological changes over Papua New Guinea during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Ménot, Guillemette; Rostek, Frauke; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Today the Fly River in Papua New Guinea is a major sediment contributor to the global ocean (the first in PNG and the 13st globally according to Milliman & Fansworth 2011 CUP). In order to reconstruct hydrological changes during the glacial period, we studied a deep-sea core located in the Gulf of Papua, just in front of the Fly River mouth. The history of detrital input in core MD97-2134 was reconstructed at high resolution by measuring various inorganic and organic proxies. In particular, we present Fe, Ti, Ca profiles measured with an ITRAX XRF scanner. We also measured molecular proxies such as n-alkanes by GC and tetraethers by LC-MS to derive BIT index values. These independent proxies provide a coherent picture for the period covering the last 30 thousands of years. The riverine input was much stronger during the glacial period with n-alkanes, BIT and Ti/Ca values several times higher than during the Holocene (factor 2 for n-alkanes, 2-3 for the BIT and 6-7 for Ti/Ca). This systematic increase is the likely signature of stronger precipitations superimposed on physiographical changes. The latter are linked to lower sea levels during the glacial period, which led to a shorter distance from the coast and probably to a widening of the drainage basin. In addition to these expected changes, we also observe prominent maxima of the riverine input during specific millennium-scale periods corresponding chronologically to Heinrich events # 1, 2, 3 and the Younger Dryas event. These precipitation maxima are in phase with those observed in Indonesia (Muller et al. 2012 Geology, Ayliffe et al. Nat. Geo. 2013), but in antiphase with the drought periods reconstructed farther north, notably in China (Wang et al. 2001 Science). The spatial distribution of precipitation changes constitutes the clear signature of wide latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ during H events. The resolution of our Papua record allows studying further important details, providing evidence for two phases

  12. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with favourable long-term prognosis in paediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a retrospective study of patients treated on BCH-2003 and CCLG-2008 protocol in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-Guang; Zhang, Rui-Dong; Li, Wei-Jing; Zhao, Xiao-Xi; Cui, Lei; Wu, Min-Yuan; Zheng, Hu-Yong; Li, Zhi-Gang

    2014-07-01

    Activating mutations of NOTCH1 are a common occurrence in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), but its impact on T-ALL treatment is still controversial. In this study, the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of 92 Chinese children with T-ALL treated using the Beijing Children's Hospital-2003 and Chinese Childhood Leukaemia Group-2008 protocols were analysed. NOTCH1 mutations were found in 42% of T-ALL patients and were not associated with clinical features, prednisone response, and minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 33 and 78. However, proline, glutamate, serine, threonine (PEST)/transactivation domain (TAD) mutations were associated with younger age (15/16 mutant vs. 48/76 wild-type, P = 0·018) and more central nervous system involvement (4/16 mutant vs. 3/76 wild-type, P = 0·016); while heterodimerization domain (HD) mutations were associated with KMT2A-MLLT1 (MLL-ENL; 4/30 mutant vs. 1/62 wild-type, P = 0·037). Furthermore, prognosis was better in patients with NOTCH1 mutations than in those with wild-type NOTCH1 (5-year event-free survival [EFS] 92·0 ± 4·5% vs. 64·0 ± 7·1%; P = 0·003). Long-term outcome was better in patients carrying HD mutations than in patients with wild-type HD (5-year EFS 89·7 ± 5·6% vs. 69·3 ± 6·2%; P = 0·034). NOTCH1 mutations and MRD at day 78 were independent prognostic factors. These findings indicate that NOTCH1 mutation predicts a favourable outcome in Chinese paediatric patients with T-ALL on the BCH-2003 and CCLG-2008 protocols, and may be considered a prognostic stratification factor.

  13. Protection of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, H.; Vince, J.; Boas, P.; Danaya, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the bottle-feeding of babies has been increasing, predominantly among unemployed women of low educational status. Many women are unaware of their legal right to have breaks at work for the purpose of breastfeeding, and a high proportion of workplaces have no facilities for mothers who wish to breastfeed their children. The laws on the feeding of infants should be updated and implemented, and an effort is needed to explain the benefits of breastfeeding and the rights of working mothers. PMID:10212520

  14. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Thedja, Meta Dewi; Muljono, David Handojo; Ie, Susan Irawati; Sidarta, Erick; Turyadi; Verhoef, Jan; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C) is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates—East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific—were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-. PMID:26162099

  15. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Thedja, Meta Dewi; Muljono, David Handojo; Ie, Susan Irawati; Sidarta, Erick; Turyadi; Verhoef, Jan; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C) is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates--East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific--were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-.

  16. Rebel girls? Unplanned pregnancy and colonialism in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Munro, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    In highlands Papua, Indonesia, rapid social change under a colonial system of governance has created novel sexual opportunities for young indigenous women. Recent scholarship has viewed similar youthful sexual practices that challenge the status quo as expressions of personal agency. By looking at how young women and their families cope with unplanned pregnancies, we suggest that a more viable analytic approach would be to view sexuality, pregnancy and childbirth as a single unit of analysis. From this perspective, young women's experiences are primarily ones of constraint. Case studies offer insights into the ways a political context of colonial domination limits options and choices for young women who have children born out of wedlock. In particular, this paper describes how the 'settler gaze' - omnipresent colonial norms and judgments - creates regulatory effects in the realm of reproduction.

  17. Serum protein polymorphism in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands.

    PubMed

    Seger, J; Godelier, M; Halle, L; Lemonnier, P; Lory, J L; Rouger, P; Ruffie, J; Salmon, D; Salomon, D

    1988-01-01

    Four protein polymorphisms: haptoglobin (HP), group specific component (GC), third component of complement (C3) and transferrin (TF), were investigated in Baruya tribes and several other Anga tribes living high in the Wonenara and Marawaka valleys in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands. A non-Anga tribe, the Aziana or Kenaze was also sampled. TF*D variant was identified in every group except Usarumpia. A number of anhaptoglobinaemic individuals was noticed. Environmental factors causing hemolysis and haptoglobin consumption are suggested. HP*1 and GC*1 frequencies were high, as usually observed in New Guinea. The Anga tribes are protected from malaria and represent a model of human isolates. The present study confirms this situation.

  18. Blood groups in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands.

    PubMed

    Salmon, D; Godelier, M; Halle, L; Lemonnier, P; Lory, J L; Rouger, P; Ruffie, J; Salmon, C

    1988-01-01

    Blood group polymorphisms were analysed in inhabitants of Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands. The aim of the study was to assess the situation of the Baruya tribe among other Anga peoples: Youwarounatche, Andje, Usarumpia, Langimar. A non-Anga tribe, the Aziana, was also sampled. ABO, RH, MNS, P, KEL, FY and JK systems were tested in each group. ABO*O gene was predominant, ABO*Aint was relatively high, ABO*B was rare in all tribes and absent in the Usarumpia tested. The Ns haplotype was the most frequent in MNS system. All tested subjects were RH*D, KEL (-) and FY (a+b-), with very few exceptions. The presence of one CcdEe and 5 FY (a+b+) subjects may be due to foreign admixture. A noteworthy genetic microdifferentiation was observed between tribes. Geographical isolation and genetic drift has played an important role in the differentiation of the various groups.

  19. Malaria in a cohort of Javanese migrants to Indonesian Papua.

    PubMed

    Krisin; Basri, H; Fryauff, D J; Barcus, M J; Bangs, M J; Ayomi, E; Marwoto, H; Elyazar, I R F; Richie, T L; Baird, J K

    2003-09-01

    The epidemiology of infection by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax was investigated among Javanese migrants to an endemic region of Papua, Indonesia. A cohort of 243 migrants from Java was followed for malaria in a new settlement village in the endemic Armopa area of north-eastern Papua, beginning on the day each migrant arrived in the village. The subjects were monitored during home visits (three/week) and by the twice-monthly production of bloodsmears that were checked for malarial parasites. At the end of 33 months, 159 (65%) of the subjects remained under follow-up. The prevalence of parasitaemia in the village declined from 16% among those already living there when the study began in August 1996, to 5% when the study finished in June 1999. Over this period, 596 infections by P. falciparum and 723 by P. vivax occurred in the cohort, 22 and 27 of the subjects each experiencing at least six infections by P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively. The incidence of malarial infection was higher during the first and second years post-migration (3.2 and 2.7 infections/person-year) than during the third (1.2 infections/person-year). Although the geometric mean parasite counts for P. falciparum increased over time (1209, 1478, and 1830 parasites/microl in the first, second and third years, respectively), the corresponding values for P. vivax (497, 535 and 490 parasites/microl) showed no such trend. Only one of the nine subjects who developed severe malaria (requiring intravenous quinine therapy) was a child, giving an odds ratio for a case of severe malaria being in an adult of 6.1 (P=0.08).

  20. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others.

  1. Indications for Caesarean sections in a rural hospital in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mark, Terence B; Radcliffe, Jim; Laman, Moses

    2014-07-01

    We retrospectively documented indications for Caesarean sections in a rural district level hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Over a 53-month study period, 745 Caesarean sections were performed. Prolonged labour, previous history of Caesarean section, cephalopelvic disproportion, malpresentation and fetal distress accounted for over 88% of Caesarean sections performed. In older mothers (aged >30 years), antepartum haemorrhage (Fisher exact test, P = 0.05) and multiple indications (P = 0.001) were leading reasons for Caesarean sections while cephalopelvic disproportion (P = 0.005) was the leading indication in younger mothers. Further prospective studies incorporating perinatal and maternal mortality rates are required to optimise the value of Caesarean sections at district level hospitals in Papua New Guinea.

  2. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  3. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  4. Exploration and development of the Kutubu project in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.K. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes the exploration and development of the Kutubu project, the first major oil development in Papua New Guinea. It presents a case study of how a broad range of interrelated development issues were addressed and resolved during planning to obtain an optimized development plan. The first oil from the Kutubu project was produced in mid-1992. So far, field performance is as anticipated.

  5. Employment Strategy in Papua New Guinea: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Keith

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to other East Asian countries, in Papua New Guinea the economy is stagnating due to high labor costs, overvalued currency, stagnant productivity, high government consumption, and barriers to external and internal investment and exports. (SK)

  6. Continuing Education at the University of Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, James

    1971-01-01

    Author describes adult education in Papua New Guinea as a failure of imperialist nerve. It has been little promoted; it has made little progress." He discusses a program initiated to correct this failure. (Author/DR)

  7. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans.

  8. Papua New Guinea's next generation of medical researchers: Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman.

    PubMed

    Vilakiva, Geraldine; Gibbs, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman are amongst the next generation of health researchers at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with all three women for the purpose of profiling women who are leaders in health and medicine in Papua New Guinea (PNG). They were asked questions about their early life and childhood, education, work life and training, and mentors who have supported their career path and leadership role. All three see opportunities before them to tackle the health challenges facing PNG, find solutions and contribute to human development in their country. At PNGIMR, Pamela is a senior scientific officer in the HIV and STI laboratory; Celestine is a senior scientific officer in the bacteriology laboratory working on pneumococcal vaccines; and Patricia is the study clinician for the Partnership in Health Project, monitoring the impact of the PNG liquefied natural gas (LNG) project.

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, J J; Kariwiga, G; Ossewaarde, J M; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Stolz, E; van der Meijden, W I

    1995-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea, in the period between April and June 1991. The outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the departments of Dermato-Venereology and Clinical Microbiology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. A total of 254 consecutive women who attended the family planning clinic at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea were enrolled into this study. Cervical infections with C trachomatis were diagnosed using the direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IgM and IgG antibodies directed against C trachomatis were detected using the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The prevalence of C trachomatis was 14.6% using the PCR, 9.1% using the DFA and 17.3% when the results of the PCR and the DFA were combined. An elevated IgM titre was observed in 14.2% of the women, whereas 44.1% had an elevated IgG titre. The titres of IgM or IgG were significantly higher in women who were positive using the PCR or the DFA than in those who were negative in both the PCR and the DFA (p = 0.032 and p = 0.0046, respectively). Cervical infection by C trachomatis can be considered a major health problem in at least the studied population in Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection is at least comparable with that in groups with a high prevalence in industrialized countries. Effective screening and treatment programmes are imperative to combat this problem.

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, J J; Kariwiga, G; Ossewaarde, J M; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Stolz, E; van der Meijden, W I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea, in the period between April and June 1991. SETTING--The outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the departments of Dermato-Venereology and Clinical Microbiology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. PATIENTS--A total of 254 consecutive women who attended the family planning clinic at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea were enrolled into this study. METHODS--Cervical infections with C trachomatis were diagnosed using the direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IgM and IgG antibodies directed against C trachomatis were detected using the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). RESULTS--The prevalence of C trachomatis was 14.6% using the PCR, 9.1% using the DFA and 17.3% when the results of the PCR and the DFA were combined. An elevated IgM titre was observed in 14.2% of the women, whereas 44.1% had an elevated IgG titre. The titres of IgM or IgG were significantly higher in women who were positive using the PCR or the DFA than in those who were negative in both the PCR and the DFA (p = 0.032 and p = 0.0046, respectively). CONCLUSION--Cervical infection by C trachomatis can be considered a major health problem in at least the studied population in Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection is at least comparable with that in groups with a high prevalence in industrialized countries. Effective screening and treatment programmes are imperative to combat this problem. PMID:7490045

  11. Beyond Dependency Theory: A Postcolonial Analysis of Educating Papua New Guinean High School Students in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Juliana Mohok; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social and educational implications of the "Secondary Schools Scholarship Project" (SSSP) in which Australia gave over 1,000 adolescents from Papua New Guinea three-year scholarships to study in Australian high schools. Drawing from postcolonial theory, the paper uses concepts of ambivalence, hybridity, hegemony,…

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism in Papua, Indonesia: 2001–2012 survey results

    PubMed Central

    Okumiya, Kiyohito; Wada, Taizo; Fujisawa, Michiko; Ishine, Masayuki; Garcia del Saz, Eva; Hirata, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Shigeki; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Seguchi, Harumichi; Sakamoto, Ryota; Manuaba, Indrajaya; Watofa, Paulina; Rantetampang, Andreas L; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Only one previous follow-up study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism in Papua, Indonesia has been carried out since a survey undertaken in 1962–1981 by Gajdusek and colleagues. Therefore, to clarify the clinical epidemiology of ALS and parkinsonism in the southern coastal region of Papua, the clinical characteristics and prevalence of the diseases in this region were examined and assessed. Methods Cases of ALS and parkinsonism were clinically examined during a 2001–2012 survey in Bade and other villages along the Ia, Edera, Dumut and Obaa rivers in Papua, Indonesia. Possible, probable and definite ALS was diagnosed clinically by certified neurologists based on El Escorial criteria. The criteria for a diagnosis of parkinsonism were the presence of at least two of the four following signs: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural impairment with a progressive course. Results During the survey, 46 cases of ALS and/or parkinsonism were diagnosed within a population range of 7000 (2001–2002) to 13 900 (2007–2012). The 46 cases consisted of 17 probable-definite cases of ALS, including three with cognitive impairment (CI), 13 cases of overlapping possible, probable or definite ALS and parkinsonism, including five with CI, and 16 cases of parkinsonism, including one with CI. The crude point prevalence rate of pure ALS was estimated to be at least 73 (95% CI 0 to 156) to 133 (27 to 240)/100 000 people and that of overlapping ALS and parkinsonism at least 53 (0 to 126) to 98 (2 to 193)/100 000 in 2007, or 2010 in some regions. Conclusions While the prevalence of ALS in Papua has decreased over the past ∼30–35 years, it remains higher than the global average. There was a high prevalence of overlapping ALS, parkinsonism and CI, which has also been previously reported in Guam and Kii. PMID:24740977

  13. Viruses associated with influenza-like-illnesses in Papua New Guinea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Kono, Jacinta; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Omena, Matthew; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-05-01

    Influenza-like-illness can be caused by a wide range of respiratory viruses. The etiology of influenza-like-illness in developing countries such as Papua New Guinea is poorly understood. The etiological agents associated with influenza-like-illness were investigated retrospectively for 300 nasopharyngeal swabs received by the Papua New Guinea National Influenza Centre in 2010. Real-time PCR/RT-PCR methods were used for the detection of 13 respiratory viruses. Patients with influenza-like-illness were identified according to the World Health Organization case definition: sudden onset of fever (>38°C), with cough and/or sore throat, in the absence of other diagnoses. At least one viral respiratory pathogen was detected in 66.3% of the samples tested. Rhinoviruses (17.0%), influenza A (16.7%), and influenza B (12.7%) were the pathogens detected most frequently. Children <5 years of age presented with a significantly higher rate of at least one viral pathogen and a significantly higher rate of co-infections with multiple viruses, when compared to all other patients >5 years of age. Influenza B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were all detected at significantly higher rates in children <5 years of age. This study confirmed that multiple respiratory viruses are circulating and contributing to the presentation of influenza-like-illness in Papua New Guinea.

  14. Review of the species of Visiana Swinhoe from the Papua New Guinea region (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The genus isiana Swinhoe which belongs to the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is widely distributed within the Indo-Australian region. The present study is the first extensive review of historic Visiana specimens from the Papua New Guinea region deposited in the Natural History Museum (London, UK) and Australian National Insect Collection (Canberra, Australia). The species examined are as follows: V. hyperctenista (Prout) from the Bismarck Archipelago, V. vinosa (Warren) from the eastern part of Papua New Guinea, V. ranensis (Prout), stat. nov. from the Moluccas (Indonesia), and four newly described species V. horista, sp. nov. from Bougainville Island, V. grandivinosa sp. nov. from New Britain, V. variovinosa, sp. nov. from the eastern part of Papua New Guinea, and V. morobensis, sp. nov. from the Morobe province. The lectotype is designated for V. hyperctienista. Redescriptions of V. hyperctenista, V. vinosa and V. ranensis are provided, the four new species are described, figures of all seven species are shown. The species V. hyperctenista and V. horista are treated as a sister-group, the diagnostic characters are defined. A checklist of the known Papuan species of the genus Visiana is provided.

  15. Family planning in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Osborn, M

    1986-11-01

    The general situation of family planning in Papua New Guinea, several of the relevant traditional beliefs, and a pilot project of community based distribution and family planning education in a rural market town. There is no government policy on population, although community based distribution programs have been active in some areas for 10 years. Papua New Guinea has a crude birth rate of 44/1000, an average of 6 children per family, but has only begun to introduce primary health care. Consequently, the population is expected to double by 2015. The pilot program, in a market town called Maprik in East Sepik Province, targets 44,378 women from surrounding villages, of whom about 800 may be using contraception. A family planning nurse is training 20 members of a Women's Council. In a 4-day course, held in the Council House, community distribution workers discussed family planning, responsible parenthood, sex education, nutrition, environmental and population issues. Ancient taboos and social controls that used to space births are breaking down under the pressure of missionization and westernization. Intercourse is still prohibited during menstruation and breastfeeding. There are specific magic spells and rituals used to insure fertility or abortion: these examples were used to help women understand the concepts of modern family planning methods. The nurse encouraged feedback from the women, and only held one formal teaching session, on record-keeping. For the success of the program, field workers should work from within, and supervise adequately. This will be done with quarterly refresher courses and monthly follow-up in each village.

  16. Characterization of population structure from the mitochondrial DNA vis-à-vis language and geography in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Koki, George; Merriwether, D Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Situated along a corridor linking the Asian continent with the outer islands of the Pacific, Papua New Guinea has long played a key role in understanding the initial peopling of Oceania. The vast diversity in languages and unique geographical environments in the region have been central to the debates on human migration and the degree of interaction between the Pleistocene settlers and newer migrants. To better understand the role of Papua New Guinea in shaping the region's prehistory, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of three populations, a total of 94 individuals, located in the East Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea. We analyzed these samples with a large data set of Oceania populations to examine the role of geography and language in shaping population structure within New Guinea and between the region and Island Melanesia. Our results from median-joining networks, star-cluster age estimates, and population genetic analyses show that while highland New Guinea populations seem to be the oldest settlers, there has been significant gene flow within New Guinea with little influence from geography or language. The highest genetic division is between Papuan speakers of New Guinea versus East Papuan speakers located outside of mainland New Guinea. Our study supports the weak language barriers to genetic structuring among populations in close contact and highlights the complexity of understanding the genetic histories of Papua New Guinea in association with language and geography.

  17. Genotypic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derived from Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Individuals Residing in Sorong, West Papua.

    PubMed

    Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Yunifiar M, Muhammad Qushai; Indriati, Dwi Wahyu; Bramanthi, Rendra; Nasronudin; Kameoka, Masanori

    2016-08-01

    Papua and West Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 are limited. We conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals residing in Sorong, West Papua. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 43 peripheral blood samples, and sequencing analysis of the genes was carried out. Of the 43 samples, 41 protease (PR), 31 reverse transcriptase (RT), 26 gag, and 25 env genes were sequenced. HIV-1 subtyping revealed that CRF01_AE (48.8%, 21/43) and subtype B (41.9%, 18/43) were the major subtypes prevalent in the region, whereas other recombinant forms were also detected. Major drug resistance-associated mutations for PR inhibitors were not detected; however, mutations for the RT inhibitors, A62V and E138A, appeared in a few samples, indicating the possible emergence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Sorong, West Papua.

  18. The Implementation of Special Autonomy in West Papua, Indonesia: Problems and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    SPECIAL AUTONOMY IN WEST PAPUA, INDONESIA : PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS by Muhammad Yusran Halmin December 2006 Thesis Advisor...of Special Autonomy in West Papua, Indonesia : Problems and Recommendations 6. AUTHOR(S) Muhammad Yusran Halmin 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...words) West Papua in the easternmost area of Indonesia has long been recognized as one of its most controversial provinces. Since its

  19. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  20. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Jonathan J.; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species’ life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were  L¯∞ = 159 cm TL and  L¯0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more

  1. Greater Endothelial Activation, Weibel-Palade Body Release and Host Inflammatory Response to Plasmodium vivax, compared with Plasmodium falciparum: A Prospective Study in Papua, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Tjitra, Emiliana; Piera, Kim; Gitawati, Retno; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms underlying vivax malaria are poorly understood, with few studies comparing endothelial and inflammatory responses with falciparum malaria. In adults with uncomplicated vivax or falciparum malaria, we compared plasma measurements of endothelial Weibel-Palade body release (angiopoietin-2) and activation (ICAM-1, E-selectin), as well as selected cytokines. Despite a lower median parasite count, angiopoietin-2 concentrations were higher in patients with vivax malaria, compared with falciparum malaria. Per peripheral parasite, median plasma angiopoietin-2, ICAM-1, E-selectin, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 concentrations were higher in patients with malaria due to Plasmodium vivax. P. vivax induces greater endothelial Weibel-Palade body release and activation and greater host inflammatory responses, compared with Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20497057

  2. Pelagic production and respiration in the Gulf of Papua during May 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, A. D.; Carleton, J. H.; Duggan, S.

    2007-07-01

    The metabolic balance between production and respiration in plankton communities of the Gulf of Papua was investigated in May 2004. Water samples taken at 19 stations were allocated to groups on the basis of physico-chemical characteristics. Oxygen consumption and production in flasks incubated in the dark and in the light was determined by micro-Winkler titration. Dark bottle respiration in samples influenced by the estuarine plume averaged 3.09±1.92 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 and production within surface light bottles averaged 7.63±3.36 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1. Corresponding values in stations more typical of the central Gulf of Papua were 1.68±1.30 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 and 1.08±2.25 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1. Despite a shallow (<10 m) euphotic zone within the plume stations, phytoplankton production in the surface layers was sufficiently high to subsidise total water column respiration. Integrating production and respiration over the water column resulted in a calculation of net community production (NCP) of 626±504 (SD) mg C m -2 d -1, and community respiration (CR) of 712±492 mg C m -2 d -1 at the plume stations, with an average P: R ratio of 1.97. In the offshore group NCP was 157±450 (SD) mg C m -2 d -1 and CR was 1620±1576 mg C m -2 d -1. The average P: R ratio was 1.27. Three of the 7 stations allocated to the offshore group were net heterotrophic. In contrast to earlier studies in the area indicating that the Gulf of Papua waters is heterotrophic [Robertson, A.I., Dixon, P., Alongi, D.M., 1998. The influence of fluvial discharge on pelagic production in the Gulf of Papua, Northern Coral Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 46, 319-331], our data indicate that in May 2004 the Gulf was in positive metabolic balance, but by only ˜120 mg C m -2 d -1. We conclude that waters of the Gulf of Papua under riverine influence are net autotrophic, but that within the central Gulf there is a fine metabolic balance alternating between autotrophy and

  3. Anorectoplasty in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P A; Hrabovszky, Z; Mathew, M

    2000-01-01

    The posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) procedure for the definitive repair of children with imperforate anus was described in 1982. Unfortunately, surgeons in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have until recently not had the opportunity of being trained in the technique. Through the Medical Officer, Nursing and Allied Health Sciences Training Project (MONAHP) and Pacific Islands Project (PIP) of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, 65 Papua New Guinean children with an anorectal anomaly have undergone a repair, in conjunction with training of the surgical staff and medical students. A new technique for the management of a prolapsed colostomy has been developed and a protocol for management of PSARP patients postoperatively has been formulated. Patients referred to the paediatric surgical visiting teams were diagnosed and treated according to the stage their management had reached. Patients with a low anomaly were treated by a cutback procedure, those with a colostomy and a high lesion were managed by a PSARP and those with failed previous surgery were managed with a redo anorectoplasty, often without a covering colostomy. Data were collected on the patients treated and, where possible, the patients were followed during subsequent visits. 65 patients with an anorectal anomaly were treated, of whom 6 were treated with a cutback and 43 had a primary repair of a major anomaly. 5 of these 43 involved an abdominoperineal procedure. 19 children had redo surgery, 3 of whom had a second operation by the senior author, due to failure of initial postoperative management; 1 of these was for a failure to carry out the postoperative dilatations and 2 were due to poorly controlled constipation in the early postoperative period. A protocol for the postoperative dilatations was developed using shaped candles. Major complications were uncommon, in particular infections were rare despite the relative lack of facilities. However, difficulties with outpatient follow-up resulted in

  4. Carbon nanotubes might improve neuronal performance by favouring electrical shortcuts.

    PubMed

    Cellot, Giada; Cilia, Emanuele; Cipollone, Sara; Rancic, Vladimir; Sucapane, Antonella; Giordani, Silvia; Gambazzi, Luca; Markram, Henry; Grandolfo, Micaela; Scaini, Denis; Gelain, Fabrizio; Casalis, Loredana; Prato, Maurizio; Giugliano, Michele; Ballerini, Laura

    2009-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been applied in several areas of nerve tissue engineering to probe and augment cell behaviour, to label and track subcellular components, and to study the growth and organization of neural networks. Recent reports show that nanotubes can sustain and promote neuronal electrical activity in networks of cultured cells, but the ways in which they affect cellular function are still poorly understood. Here, we show, using single-cell electrophysiology techniques, electron microscopy analysis and theoretical modelling, that nanotubes improve the responsiveness of neurons by forming tight contacts with the cell membranes that might favour electrical shortcuts between the proximal and distal compartments of the neuron. We propose the 'electrotonic hypothesis' to explain the physical interactions between the cell and nanotube, and the mechanisms of how carbon nanotubes might affect the collective electrical activity of cultured neuronal networks. These considerations offer a perspective that would allow us to predict or engineer interactions between neurons and carbon nanotubes.

  5. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups. PMID:24866819

  6. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-05-27

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups.

  7. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  8. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  9. Female sexuality in Nairobi: flawed or favoured?

    PubMed

    Spronk, Rachel

    2005-05-01

    Studies of female sexuality in Africa tend to adopt an instrumental approach, many times problematizing sexual conduct in relation to HIV infection and/or reproduction. This study aimed to explore sexuality as a relational concept. Using interviews and participant observation, the paper shows how sexuality becomes a point of self-identification for young professional women in Nairobi between 20 and 30 years-old. These women form a group who implicitly and explicitly criticize conventional gender roles through the overt pursuit of sexual pleasure as recognition of their womanhood. This aspect of the feminine sense of self is at odds with normative notions of femininity. To avoid criticism for being 'un-proper', women adopt a deferential attitude towards men. The focus on upwardly mobile professional women and their experiments with new types of heterosexual relations in dating provides insight into both sexuality and gender.

  10. Natural selection can favour 'irrational' behaviour.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J M; Trimmer, P C; Houston, A I

    2014-01-01

    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory. However, we show that an individual that is maximizing its rate of food gain can exhibit failure of transitivity and IIA. We show that such violations can be caused because a current option may disappear in the near future or a better option may reappear soon. Current food options can be indicative of food availability in the near future, and this key feature can result in apparently irrational behaviour.

  11. Papua New Guinea pipeline overcomes adverse climate, terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.B. ); Leipert, G.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Construction of the Kutubu oil-export facilities in Papua New Guinea illustrates the importance of proper planning and flexible execution in completing on schedule and within budget a project through difficult and remote terrain. As part of the Kutubu petroleum development project, the pipeline transports crude oil from a central production facility (CPF) in the southern highlands to a marine terminal located in the Gulf of Papua. The paper describes the land line construction, construction challenges, the plan for catch-up when establishing right-of-way proved slow, pipes and valves used, marine activities, river construction, coating, and commissioning.

  12. Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Barss, P; Ennis, S

    Pigs are intelligent animals that can be formidable adversaries to humans because of their sharp tusks and their ability to attack swiftly. Domestic and feral pigs have an important role in the ecology of village life in Melanesia. A six-year review of all injuries that were caused by pigs that were referred from the villages in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, to the Provincial Hospital was completed. Some of the injuries that were seen among the 20 patients who were studied included: three penetrating abdominal injuries with prolapse and strangulation of the intestine; a "sucking" chest wound; bilateral pneumothoraces; two infected open fractures of the radius and the ulna; a perforating injury of the knee with septic arthritis; a hand injury with laceration of multiple tendons; an arterial injury of the wrist; injury of a tibial nerve with foot drop; and a severe scrotal injury with exposure of the testicles. Most injuries resulted from the hunting of feral pigs. Adult male hunters who used dogs and carried only one spear were injured most frequently. Wounds from injuries by pigs are deep, often involve multiple critical structures, and are grossly contaminated. Resuscitation requires the administration of fluid and often blood. Treatment includes irrigation, debridement and closure of the wound. The principles of managing such injuries, the prevention of injuries, the ecology of pigs and humans, human infections originating from pigs, and safer methods of hunting pigs are discussed.

  13. Neogene evolution of the mixed carbonate-siliciclastic system in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherepanov, Evgueni N.; Droxler, André W.; Lapointe, Philippe; Dickens, Gerald R.; Bentley, Sam J.; Beaufort, Luc; Peterson, Larry C.; Daniell, James; Opdyke, Bradley N.

    2008-03-01

    This paper outlines the evolution of the late Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic depositional system in the Gulf of Papua (GoP), using seismic, gravity, multibeam bathymetry, well data sets, and Landsat imagery. The deposition of the mixed sedimentary sequences was influenced by dynamic interplay of tectonics, eustasy, in situ carbonate production, and siliciclastic sediment supply. The roles of these major factors are estimated during different periods of the GoP margin evolution. The Cenozoic mixed system in the GoP formed in distinct phases. The first phase (Late Cretaceous-Paleocene) was mostly driven by tectonics. Rifting created grabens and uplifted structural blocks which served later as pedestals for carbonate edifices. Active neritic carbonate accumulation characterized the second phase (Eocene-middle Miocene). During this phase, mostly eustatic fluctuations controlled the large-scale sedimentary geometries of the carbonate system. The third phase (late Miocene-early Pliocene) was characterized by extensive demise of the carbonate platforms in the central part of the study area, which can be triggered by one or combination of several factors, such as eustatic sea level fluctuations, increased tectonic subsidence, uplift, sudden influx of siliciclastics, or dramatic changes in environmental conditions and climate. The fourth phase (late Pliocene-Holocene) was dominated by siliciclastics, which resulted in the burial of drowned and/or active carbonate platforms, although some platforms still remain alive until present-day.

  14. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group) are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence) have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt) genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp) were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here. PMID:23405960

  15. Quality Assurance and Assessment in Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mel, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has experienced major shifts and changes over the last decade or so under the National Education Reform. In that context there is recognition for schools to appreciate their local contexts and conditions regarding assessment. The National Educational Department is also aware of the fact that there is need for…

  16. Petroleum scene heating in fledgling crude exporter Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-18

    Operators, paced by a feisty independent based in Port Moresby, have drilled a string of discoveries near the infrastructure of the Kutubu development project that supports Papua New Guinea crude exports. All signs point to the increasing likelihood of good sized -- maybe world class -- oil discoveries that promise to sustain exploration and development interest beyond 2000. Also in the offing are world class gas strikes that eventually could support a liquefied natural gas export project. And integration is the newest concept in Papua New Guinea petroleum. Efforts are under way to build the country's first refineries. Most operators in Papua New Guinea believe thy have merely scratched the surface of the country's oil and gas potential. Thy agree there still will be frustrations and setbacks -- political as well as technical -- but the prevailing opinion is that these problems are no greater than they are in a number of other countries with similar exploration/development potential. The paper discusses the development of Papua New Guinea's oil and gas industry, and exploratory drilling in areas other than Kutubu.

  17. Technology-Enhancement for Papua New Guinean Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bino, Vagi; Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    Technology facilitated the implementation of teacher professional learning based on a design of principles to improve the teaching of "Cultural Mathematics" in elementary schools in Papua New Guinea. An offline "website", a set of interlinked resource materials was used in workshops to enhance the professional learning.…

  18. Subsidence of the Gulf of Papua in the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiyu, Wang; Stein, Carol A.

    1992-05-01

    The Gulf of Papua, between Papua New Guinea and the northeastern Australian margin, contains thick Cenozoic strata. We have examined the subsidence history using data from eight wells in the Gulf of Papua. Four are in the western Gulf region overlying Paleozoic basement and four are in the eastern Gulf near the Aure trough. Backstripping results show two subsidence episodes for the western wells. The first episode, from early Cenozoic to Oligocene, may be due to a small amount of lithospheric stretching associated with the opening of the Coral Sea. The second, from Early Miocene to the present, has a substantially higher subsidence rate which cannot be explained by a Paleocene rifting event. The Late Oligocene-Late Miocene episode of rapid subsidence in the Aure trough, to the east, appears to be a significant factor affecting the subsidence of the western Gulf of Papua during this period. To test this, we computed the expected deflection from flexure due to the load of the Aure trough strata and find a profile similar to that observed. The model used had an effective elastic thickness similar to those for rifted continental margins, thus implying a relatively weak lithosphere. In addition, the predicted position of the forebulge in the western Gulf occurs where Oligocene strata are absent, suggesting post-depositional uplift and hence facilitating the growth of Early Miocene reefs.

  19. Quality Assurance and Assessment in Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mel, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has experienced major shifts and changes over the last decade or so under the National Education Reform. In that context there is recognition for schools to appreciate their local contexts and conditions regarding assessment. The National Educational Department is also aware of the fact that there is need for…

  20. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  1. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  2. The status of Sandalwood (S. macgregorii) in Papua New Guinea

    Treesearch

    John H. Paul

    1990-01-01

    S. macgregorii) grows between 100 and 1500 m and is not evenly distributed throughout the country. It grows only around the central province where savannahs are found. Most of this original S. macgregorii stand was harvested during 1890-1910 and again in 1933. The government of Papua New Guinea does not have a stand of sandalwood....

  3. Towards a Language Policy for Education in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, James

    Language role and language policy in education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are discussed. First, the history of language policy since the turn of the century is chronicled briefly. The present policy of requiring initial literacy education in English is described and its critics cited, and current proposals to provide literacy education in each…

  4. Melioidosis acquired by a traveler from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kong, Z; Fang, Y; Zhang, M; Hong, J; Tan, Z; Yuan, Z; Zhu, F; Mao, X; Jin, Z; Zhu, Y; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is of public health importance in endemic areas, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. We describe a case of melioidosis contracted by a man with diabetes from Papua New Guinea that was evaluated using multi-locus sequence typing and whole genome sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Literacy in an Emergent Society: Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahai, Naihuwo

    Papua New Guinea has made tremendous progress by officially recognizing the value of vernacular languages as a resource in the sociocultural, economic, and political development of the country. Many of the strategies of implementation reflect the peculiarities identified with the current momentum in literacy. The strong lower level involvement in…

  6. Identity and Ethnomathematics Projects in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous students may find mathematics in schools difficult because there is discontinuity between cultural mathematics and school mathematics. One of the reasons for this is that their teacher's identity as a mathematical thinker may not link to their cultural ways of thinking. In Papua New Guinea, there is a subject to assist student teachers…

  7. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  8. Identification of MJO Signal on Various Elevation Station Rainfall in Southern Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakya, A. E.; Permana, D.; Makmur, E. E. S.; Handayani, A. S.; Hanggoro, W.; Setyadi, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in tropical rainfall on the large scale, but its signal is often obscured in individual station data, where effects are most directly felt at the local level. The characteristic of the MJO during its propagation through the Maritime Continent has always been a challenge to comprehend despite decades of research attempts in that region. Unique topography over the Maritime Continent is believed to act as one of the vanguard of precipitation triggered by the MJO. Such condition leads to a maximize amplitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over land on phase 2 and 5, even before the arrival of the MJO. Papua in Indonesia is one of the wettest regions on Earth and is at the heart of the MJO envelope. Aiming to investigate the effect of topography and coastline distance on MJO in southern Papua, 14 years of rainfall data from 12 stations in PTFI AWS network at various elevations (9 meters to 4400 meters above sea level) have been utilized. The results show a strong MJO modulation in rainfall variability with variance of 30 - 100 days in the region. These results suggest a strong impact of MJO on rainfall at various elevations in southern Papua which confirm the previous studies. The peak rainfall rates were observed at phase 3 at lower elevation and coastline stations and phase 4 at middle and high elevation stations. The study also investigated the relationship between MJO phases and diurnal precipitation cycle at all stations. At low elevation and coastline stations, diurnal rainfall variation is more variable with high rainfall observed at afternoon to midnight and after midnight. This is due to the local effect of land-sea breeze system. While in middle and high elevation stations, rainfall peak was observed at afternoon to midnight. The results show the impact of MJO in diurnal rainfall variation at all stations.

  9. Four new orchid species from the Lengguru fold belt, West Papua, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Juswara, Lina; Schuiteman, André; Droissart, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bulbophyllum leucoglossum, Dendrobium centrosepalum, Dendrobium taeniocaule, and Taeniophyllum pyriforme are here described as new species, based on herbarium specimens collected from the Lengguru fold-and-thrust belt in the West Papua Bird’s neck, Indonesian New Guinea. All four novelties were found growing in submontane forest (elevation > 1000 m a.s.l.) on limestone karst. Information concerning the distribution and habitat for these taxa is provided along with diagnostic features, line drawings, high resolution photographs, and a map of collecting localities. More field studies are required to find additional populations of these new species, in order to better characterize their habitat, ecology and conservation status. PMID:27081349

  10. Cultural aspects of early childhood growth and nutrition among the Amele of lowland Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C L; Orr-ewing, A K; Heywood, P F

    1984-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition in Papua New Grinea has often been attributed to inadequate practices. Combining the methods of ethnography and nutrition, this study assesses the impact of beliefs and practices concerning breast feeding and supplementation on infant and toddler growth among the Amele of Lowland Madang Province. Results indicate a clear role for notions about lactation and the proper timing of appropriate foods in growth retardation of young children. Conceptualizing developmental stages emically instead of etically is a useful approach to gathering data for nutrition education programs.

  11. Seeking treatment for symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria places a significant burden on the limited resources of many low income countries. Knowing more about why and where people seek treatment will enable policy makers to better allocate the limited resources. This study aims to better understand what influences treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in one such low-income country context, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods Two culturally, linguistically and demographically different regions in PNG were selected as study sites. A cross sectional household survey was undertaken in both sites resulting in the collection of data on 928 individuals who reported suffering from malaria in the previous four weeks. A probit model was then used to identify the factors determining whether or not people sought treatment for presumptive malaria. Multinomial logit models also assisted in identifying the factors that determined where people sought treatments. Results Results in this study build upon findings from other studies. For example, while distance in PNG has previously been seen as the primary factor in influencing whether any sort of treatment will be sought, in this study cultural influences and whether it was the first, second or even third treatment for a particular episode of malaria were also important. In addition, although formal health care facilities were the most popular treatment sources, it was also found that traditional healers were a common choice. In turn, the reasons why participants chose a particular type of treatment differed according to the whether they were seeking an initial or subsequent treatments. Conclusions Simply bringing health services closer to where people live may not always result in a greater use of formal health care facilities. Policy makers in PNG need to consider within-country variation in treatment-seeking behaviour, the important role of traditional healers and also ensure that the community fully understands the potential implications of not seeking treatment for

  12. The Changing Face of Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: Libraries for Life in the Papua New Guinea Information Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Margaret J.

    "Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information…

  13. Lake warming favours small-sized planktonic diatom species

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Monika; Reuter, John E.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study shows that diatoms were able to maintain their biovolume with increasing stratification in Lake Tahoe over the last decades; however, the diatom community structure changed. Increased stratification and reduced nitrogen to phosphorus ratios selected for small-celled diatoms, particularly within the Cyclotella genus. An empirical model showed that a shift in phytoplankton species composition and cell size was consistent within different depth strata, indicating that altered nutrient concentrations were not responsible for the change. The increase in small-celled species was sufficient to decrease the average diatom size and thus sinking velocity, which strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling. Our results show that within the diverse group of diatoms, small-sized species with a high surface area to volume ratio were able to adapt to a decrease in mixing intensity, supporting the hypotheses that abiotic drivers affect the size structure of planktonic communities and that warmer climate favours small-sized diatom cells. PMID:18812287

  14. Lake warming favours small-sized planktonic diatom species.

    PubMed

    Winder, Monika; Reuter, John E; Schladow, S Geoffrey

    2009-02-07

    Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study shows that diatoms were able to maintain their biovolume with increasing stratification in Lake Tahoe over the last decades; however, the diatom community structure changed. Increased stratification and reduced nitrogen to phosphorus ratios selected for small-celled diatoms, particularly within the Cyclotella genus. An empirical model showed that a shift in phytoplankton species composition and cell size was consistent within different depth strata, indicating that altered nutrient concentrations were not responsible for the change. The increase in small-celled species was sufficient to decrease the average diatom size and thus sinking velocity, which strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling. Our results show that within the diverse group of diatoms, small-sized species with a high surface area to volume ratio were able to adapt to a decrease in mixing intensity, supporting the hypotheses that abiotic drivers affect the size structure of planktonic communities and that warmer climate favours small-sized diatom cells.

  15. A prospective survey of cases of complications of induced abortion presenting to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Asa, Isaac; de Costa, Caroline; Mola, Glen

    2012-10-01

    Induced abortion on demand or for socio-economic indications is illegal in Papua New Guinea under the 1974 Criminal Code. Nevertheless, the procedure is known to be widely practised. This prospective study examines the demographic and medical features of women presenting with complications of induced abortion to Goroka Hospital in a 6-month period. It was noted that abortion was most commonly induced using the synthetic prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. Although illegal induced abortion cannot be condoned, it appears that misoprostol, much safer in this context than mechanical or traditional herbal methods, is now being widely used for the purpose of induced abortion in Papua New Guinea, as it is in other developing countries.

  16. Inappropriate feeding practice favors the transmission of Trichinella papuae from wild pigs to saltwater crocodiles in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo; Owen, Ifor L; Marucci, Gianluca; La Rosa, Giuseppe

    2005-02-28

    The recent discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in farmed crocodiles (Crocodilus niloticus) of Zimbabwe and its ability to infect mammals, and the development of both T. zimbabwensis and Trichinella papuae in experimentally infected reptiles led to an investigation of Trichinella infection in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) of Papua New Guinea, to see if T. papuae also, is present in both cold- and warm-blooded animals. Of 222 crocodiles examined, 47 animals (21.2%), all from Kikori, Gulf Province, were positive for non-encapsulated larvae in the muscles. The greatest number of larvae was found usually in the biceps, with an average of 7 larvae/g. One isolate from a crocodile infected successfully both laboratory rats and mice. Of 81 wild pigs examined, 9 from Bensbach river area (Western Province) and 1 from Kikori area (Gulf Province) were positive for non-encapsulated larvae in the muscles. Trichinella larvae from both saltwater crocodiles and wild pigs have been identified by multiplex-PCR analysis as T. papuae. The sequence analysis of the region within the large subunit ribosomal DNA, known as the expansion segment V, has shown the presence of a molecular marker distinguishing T. papuae isolates of Bensbach river area from those of Kikori area. This marker could be useful to trace back the geographical origin of the infected animal. The epidemiological investigation carried out in the Kikori area has shown that local people catch young crocodiles in the wild and keep them in holding pens for several months, before sending them to the crocodile farm in Lae (Morobe Province). They feed the crocodiles primarily with wild pig meat bought at the local market and also with fish. These results stress the importance of using artificial digestion for routinely screening of swine and crocodiles, and of adopting measures for preventing the spread of infection, such as the proper disposal of carcasses and the adequate freezing of

  17. Health-Related Research Projects in Fiji and Papua New Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Fiji and Papua New Guinea Health Research Portals.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Kannan; Gowri, S

    2016-06-10

    Evidence-based medicine and evidence-based public health rely on the best available evidence generated in a specific area for it to be implemented in healthcare practice. This study assesses the range of research studies conducted in Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) islands by reviewing the types of studies now registered with the respective health research registry portals. We assessed all studies registered on the Fiji Health Research Portal (FHRP) and Papua New Guinea Health Research Portal (PNGHRP) since 2014 for the following details: year of registration; study type and participants; field of research; basic statistical analyses; and multicentric or single center study. A total of 99 studies were registered in the FHRP and 6 in PNGHRP during the period under review. Nearly, one fourth of the studies from Fiji and one third from PNG islands are studies evaluating various health policies without involving or collecting data from human subjects. All the registered studies in both the islands were observational (rather than experimental). A total of 58.2% of the registered studies in FHRP and 66.7% in PNGHRP were performed as student projects. A geographic scope of 21.2% of the proposed studies in FHRP and 33.3% in PNGHRP was limited to the respective islands. We conclude from the present analysis that there is a clear need for conducting more high-quality research in both Fiji and PNG in order to meet the health needs of the respective nations. More research focusing on health needs and contributing factors to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases are the need of the hour in both of these south Pacific islands.

  18. Maternal Health Phone Line: Saving Women in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amanda H.A.; Sabumei, Gaius; Mola, Glen; Iedema, Rick

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project which has involved the establishment of a maternal health phone line in Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Mobile phones and landline phones are key information and communication technologies (ICTs). This research study uses the “ICTs for healthcare development” model to ascertain benefits and barriers to the successful implementation of the Childbirth Emergency Phone. PNG has a very high maternal mortality rate. The “three stages of delay” typology was developed by Thaddeus and Maine to determine factors that might delay provision of appropriate medical treatment and hence increase risk of maternal death. The “three stages of delay” typology has been utilised in various developing countries and also in the present study. Research undertaken has involved semi-structured interviews with health workers, both in rural settings and in the labour ward in Alotau. Additional data has been gathered through focus groups with health workers, analysis of notes made during phone calls, interviews with women and community leaders, observations and field visits. One hundred percent of interviewees (n = 42) said the project helped to solve communication barriers between rural health workers and Alotau Provincial Hospital. Specific examples in which the phone line has helped to create positive health outcomes will be outlined in the paper, drawn from research interviews. The Childbirth Emergency Phone project has shown itself to play a critical role in enabling healthcare workers to address life-threatening childbirth complications. The project shows potential for rollout across PNG; potentially reducing maternal morbidity and maternal mortality rates by overcoming communication challenges. PMID:25923199

  19. Arthritis in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pile, K D; Richens, J E; Laurent, R M; Bhatia, K; Prasad, M L; Lupiwa, T; Hudson, B J; Tapsall, J; McPetrie, R

    1993-01-01

    Acute polyarthritis is an important cause of morbidity in many tropical countries. Classification has often been difficult, with the term tropical polyarthritis used for those in whom a diagnosis could not be made. The implication that this is a distinct entity is probably incorrect, with likely causes being septic arthritis or post-infective reactive arthritis. This study aimed to determine the types of arthritis found in 43 patients (30 men) presenting consecutively to the Goroka Base Hospital in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Gonococcal arthritis was diagnosed in eight patients (six men) on the basis of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the joint aspirate. In all cases the N gonorrhoeae was identified by the closed culture system on chocolate agar, but not always by routine plating. There were no specific clinical features that identified patients with a gonococcal septic arthritis. The remaining 34 patients had an undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The pattern of arthritis in men and women was of a lower limb pauciarticular arthritis with a predilection for the knee and ankle joints. A total of 30% of male patients had a history of urethral discharge and 44% of all patients had preceding diarrhoea. Arthritis was the only feature in 59% of patients and in 32% there was an associated enthesitis. In this study most patients had an oligoarthritis consistent with a reactive arthritis or a septic arthritis due to N gonorrhoeae. Broth inoculation of synovial fluid was the best method to isolate N gonorrhoeae, with standard methods for gonococcal isolation failing in some patients. It is recommended that the term 'tropical polyarthritis' is no longer used as it does not refer to a specific entity but consists of several known arthritides.

  20. Immunofluorescence assay method to detect dengue virus in Paniai-Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Ahwanah, Nur Laila Fitriati; Churrotin, Siti; Matake, Norifumi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Soegijanto, Soegeng

    2016-03-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV), which include in the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, was endemic in tropical areas and had been transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti. An increasing number of immigrants from endemic areas to the non-endemic areas have emphasized the need for a simple and reliable test for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. The purpose of this study was to detect the dengue virus by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in the general population at Paniai-Papua. The results obtained from this study had showed a significantly better discrimination for DENV specific IgG antibodies. A total of 158 samples, 116 samples were IgG antibodies positive and 42 samples were negative. The conclusion of this study, Papua is not only a malaria endemic area, but also dengue virus infections were detected by IFA method. Therefore, the IFA can be used as an important diagnostic tool, which is a quick and an easy way to test samples from immigrants who come to the non-endemic areas.

  1. Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2014-06-01

    Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optic neuropathy among a prison population in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Benoit; Brian, Garry; Venn, Bernard J; Gould, Camilla; McKay, Robert; Williams, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of optic neuropathy (ON) among prisoners in a provincial prison in Papua New Guinea, and to explore risk factors for this condition among this population. Cross-sectional observation study of 148 male prisoners aged ≥18 years using an interview-based questionnaire, assessment of visual and nervous system function, ocular examination, and blood analysis (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, folate, homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II, riboflavin, selenium, thiamin, and vitamins A, B(12) and C). Likelihood of the presence of ON was based on ordered groups determined by weighted combination of optic nerve head appearance and visual dysfunction (acuity, field, color perception). Main outcome measures were prevalence and associations of ON. Sample prevalence of clinical ON was 10.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2-16.8). No cases were found of unexplained non-visual nervous system dysfunction, including peripheral neuropathy. Increasing age (p = 0.001), length of current (p = 0.002) and lifetime (p = 0.03) incarceration, and duration of smoking by current smokers (p = 0.001) were associated with increased ON likelihood. However, when age-controlled, the smoking duration association was not maintained (p = 0.6). Prisoners were folate deficient. Adjusting for age and duration of current incarceration, whole blood (p = 0.02) and red blood cell (p = 0.04) folate concentrations were inversely associated with ON likelihood. No association was found for any other assessed demographic, lifestyle or biochemical measure. A cluster of ON associated with folate deficiency has been identified. Recommendations for dietary change and micronutrient supplementation have been made.

  3. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism. PMID:24132090

  4. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Won; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Honda, Yasushi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ho; Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions.

  5. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement.

  6. Recognizing spontaneous facial expressions of emotion in a small-scale society of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Crivelli, Carlos; Russell, James A; Jarillo, Sergio; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel

    2017-03-01

    We report 2 studies on how residents of Papua New Guinea interpret facial expressions produced spontaneously by other residents of Papua New Guinea. Members of a small-scale indigenous society, Trobrianders (Milne Bay Province; N = 32, 14 to 17 years) were shown 5 facial expressions spontaneously produced by members of another small-scale indigenous society, Fore (Eastern Highlands Province) that Ekman had photographed, labeled, and published in The Face of Man (1980), each as an expression of a basic emotion: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust. Trobrianders were asked to use any word they wanted to describe how each person shown felt and to provide valence and arousal ratings. Other Trobrianders (N = 24, 12 to 14 years) were shown the same photographs but asked to choose their response from a short list. In both studies, agreement with Ekman's predicted labels was low: 0% to 16% and 13% to 38% of observers, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Methods Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Results Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Conclusions Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions. PMID:26987606

  8. Experimental Fault Reactivation on Favourably and Unfavourably Oriented Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Sibson, R. H.; Renner, J.; Toy, V. G.; di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we introduce work which aims assess the loading of faults to failure under different stress regimes in a triaxial deformation apparatus. We explore experimentally the reshear of an existing fault in various orientations for particular values of (σ1 - σ3) and σ3' for contrasting loading systems - load-strengthening (equivalent to a thrust fault) with σ1' increasing at constant σ3', versus load-weakening (equivalent to a normal fault) with reducing σ3' under constant σ1'. Experiments are conducted on sawcut granite samples with fault angles at a variety of orientations relative to σ1 , ranging from an optimal orientation for reactivation to lockup angles where new faults are formed in preference to reactivating the existing sawcut orientation. Prefailure and postfailure behaviour is compared in terms of damage zone development via monitoring variations in ultrasonic velocity and acoustic emission behaviour. For example, damage surrounding unfavourably oriented faults is significantly higher than that seen around favourably orientated faults due to greater maximum stresses attained prior to unstable slip, which is reflected by the increased acoustic emission activity leading up to failure. In addition, we also experimentally explore the reshear of natural pseudotachylytes (PSTs) from two different fault zones; the Gole Larghe Fault, Adamello, Italy in which the PSTs are in relatively isotropic Tonalite (at lab sample scale) and the Alpine Fault, New Zealand in which the PSTs are in highly anisotropic foliated shist. We test whether PSTs will reshear in both rock types under the right conditions, or whether new fractures in the wall rock will form in preference to reactivating the PST (PST shear strength is higher than that of the host rock). Are PSTs representative of one slip event?

  9. Management and utilization of forest resources in Papua New Guinea

    Treesearch

    P.B.L. Srivastava

    1992-01-01

    Papua New Guinea, with an area of about 46.7 million ha and population of 3.7 million, is blessed with a large natural forest resource. Over 80 percent of the land is covered with forests of various types, ranging from swamp and lowland rain forests in coastal plains to alpine vegetation and moss forests in the highlands, most of which are owned by the people. About 15...

  10. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-12-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  11. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  12. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  13. Papua New Guinea: an innovative strategy to raise self-esteem of sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and to promote safer sex practices with clients.

    PubMed

    Elly, J; Aisa, M; Ananag, J; Janet, P; Rabia, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative strategy implemented by the TRANSEX Plus Project (TPP) in Papua New Guinea. TPP was created as a response by the government to the rapid increase of HIV-infected individuals throughout the country as reported by the ethnographic study that was conducted in 1994. Since TPP is an intervention research project, it utilized the peer education approach to educate transport workers and sex workers to become peer educators in HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Also, the peer education approach helps sustain any positive behavior change by providing the information to maintain the change. The activities carried out by the program, proved to be successful as indicated by the behavioral change that took place among the target groups by the increased condom use and increased visits to the project center.

  14. The Work of Glendon Lean on the Counting Systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2001-01-01

    Introduces data collated by Glendon Lean on nearly 900 counting systems in Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua) which came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. Lean's thesis on the spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of…

  15. Linguistic and Cultural Variations as Barriers to the TEFL Settings in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yembise, Yohana Susana

    2011-01-01

    The article aims at presenting a description of languages and cultures and the effect on the teaching of English as a Foreign Language in schools in Papua. It starts with a general picture of the uniqueness of languages and cultures in Papua: its geography, the originality of the people, and the languages and cultures of both NAN and AN. The word…

  16. Linguistic and Cultural Variations as Barriers to the TEFL Settings in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yembise, Yohana Susana

    2011-01-01

    The article aims at presenting a description of languages and cultures and the effect on the teaching of English as a Foreign Language in schools in Papua. It starts with a general picture of the uniqueness of languages and cultures in Papua: its geography, the originality of the people, and the languages and cultures of both NAN and AN. The word…

  17. Introducing the Chemical Industry into the Science Curriculum in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnamperuma, A. C. W.; Palmer, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a young, developing nation, achieving independence in 1975. Industries which can be classified as chemical industries by western standards, are almost non-existent in Papua New Guinea. As yet, most of the raw materials it produces are exported to other countries to be processed or manufactured into useful products. However,…

  18. Experimental Fault Reactivation on Favourably and Unfavourably Oriented Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Renner, J.; Sibson, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we assess the loading of faults to failure under different stress regimes in a triaxial deformation apparatus, both in dry and saturated conditions. We explore experimentally the reshear of an existing fault in various orientations for particular values of (σ_1 - σ_3) and σ_3' for contrasting loading systems - load-strengthening (equivalent to a thrust fault) with σ1' increasing at constant σ_3', versus load-weakening (equivalent to a normal fault) with reducing σ_3' under constant σ_1'. Experiments are conducted on sawcut granite samples with fault angles at a variety of orientations relative to σ_1, ranging from an optimal orientation for reactivation to lockup angles where new faults are formed in preference to reactivating the existing sawcut orientation. Prefailure and postfailure behaviour is compared in terms of damage zone development via monitoring variations in ultrasonic velocity and acoustic emission behaviour. For example, damage surrounding unfavourably oriented faults is significantly higher than that seen around favourably orientated faults due to greater maximum stresses attained prior to unstable slip, which is reflected by the increased acoustic emission activity leading up to failure. In addition, we explore reshear conditions under an initial condition of (σ_1' = σ_3'), then inducing reshear on the existing fault first by increasing σ_1'(load-strengthening), then by decreasing σ_3' (load-weakening), again comparing relative damage zone development and acoustic emission levels. In saturated experiments, we explore the values of pore fluid pressure (P_f) needed for re-shear to occur in preference to the formation of a new fault. Typically a limiting factor in conventional triaxial experiments performed in compression is that P_f cannot exceed the confining pressure (σ_2 and σ_3). By employing a sample assembly that allows deformation while the loading piston is in extension, it enables us to achieve pore pressures in

  19. Investigations of selected pathogens among village pigs in Central Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Slipranata, Mitra; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Village pig husbandry is an important part of livestock production in Papua Province, Eastern Indonesia. However, high level of disease and mortality constrains production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the selected pathogens in village pigs in the Jayawijaya Region of Papua Province, Indonesia. Two studies were conducted: Study 1 determined the prevalence of selected pathogens in dead or moribund pigs sent to the main local market for sale. Study 2 recorded the prevalence of the selected pathogens, on pig farms in the Subdistrict of Wamena that had not recorded a case of pig mortality during the duration of Study 1. Blood samples of individuals from both groups were tested for CSF antigen and antibody, as well as antibody against PCV2. Organs with evident pathological changes from Study 1 and tonsilar swabs from Study 2 were subjected to bacteriological culture and identification of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Faecal samples from both studies were examined for eggs of strongyle parasites, Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi and coccidia. The main infections in both studies were CSF, PCV2 and strongyle parasites, but prevalence was higher in Study 1 (P < 0.05). T. suis and S. zooepidemicus were prevalent in pigs in Study 1, but rare in healthy pigs (P < 0.05). Infections with coccidia, A. suum and S. ransomi were common but did not differ between groups (P < 0.05), with S. suis infections uncommon in both studies. This suggests that infections with CSF, PCV2, strongyle and T. suis are important pathogens in village pig farms in Jayawijaya. Local pig husbandry practices, such as confining pigs and heat-treating pig feeds, may be practical solutions to help minimize infection in village pigs in Jayawijaya.

  20. Progress in mosquito net coverage in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Choudhury, Adnan A K; Pulford, Justin; Ura, Yangta; Whittaker, Maxine; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2014-06-24

    Since 2004, the Global Fund-supported National Malaria Control Programme of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been implementing country-wide free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution campaigns. In 2009, after the first distribution, only 32.5% of the population used a LLIN, mainly due to an insufficient number of nets available. This study investigated changes in mosquito net ownership and use following the continued free distribution of LLINs across PNG. Five villages from each province and 30 households from each village were randomly sampled in a country-wide household survey in 2010/11. A structured questionnaire administered to household heads recorded information on mosquito net ownership and use alongside household characteristics. Revised ownership and access indicators were applied in the analysis to reveal coverage gaps. The survey covered 1,996 households in 77 villages. Ownership of at least one LLIN was reported by 81.8% of households, compared to 64.6% in 2009 (P = 0.002). Sufficient LLINs to cover all household members (one net per two people) were found in 41.3% of the households (21.4% in 2009, P < 0.001). Of all household members, 61.4% had access to a LLIN within their household (44.3% in 2009 P = 0.002), and 48.3% slept under a LLIN (32.5% in 2009, P = 0.001). LLIN use in children under five years amounted to 58.2%, compared to 39.5% in 2009 (P < 0.001). Significant regional differences in coverage and changes over time were observed. A recent LLIN distribution was a key determinant of LLIN ownership (adj. OR = 3.46) while families in high quality houses would frequently not own a LLIN (adj. OR = 0.09). Residents were more likely to use LLINs than household guests (OR = 2.04). Repeated LLIN distribution has led to significant increases in mosquito net ownership and use with few regional exceptions. Additional nets are required in areas where access is low, while major efforts are required to encourage the

  1. Mass treatment to eliminate filariasis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bockarie, Moses J; Tisch, Daniel J; Kastens, Will; Alexander, Neal D E; Dimber, Zachary; Bockarie, Florence; Ibam, Ervin; Alpers, Michael P; Kazura, James W

    2002-12-05

    The global initiative to eradicate bancroftian filariasis currently relies on mass treatment with four to six annual doses of antifilarial drugs. The goal is to reduce the reservoir of microfilariae in the blood to a level that is insufficient to maintain transmission by the mosquito vector. In nearly 2500 residents of Papua New Guinea, we prospectively assessed the effects of four annual treatments with a single dose of diethylcarbamazine plus ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine alone on the incidence of microfilariae-positive infections, the severity of lymphatic disease, and the rate of transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti by mosquitoes. Random assignment to treatment regimens was carried out according to the village of residence, and villages were categorized as having moderate or high rates of transmission. The four annual treatments with either drug regimen were taken by 77 to 86 percent of the members of the population who were at least five years old; treatments were well tolerated. The proportion with microfilariae-positive infections decreased by 86 to 98 percent, with a greater reduction in areas with a moderate rate of transmission than in those with a high rate. The respective aggregate frequencies of hydrocele and leg lymphedema were 15 percent and 5 percent before the trial began, and 5 percent (P<0.001) and 4 percent (P=0.04) after five years. Hydrocele and leg lymphedema were eliminated in 87 percent and 69 percent, respectively, of those who had these conditions at the outset. The rate of transmission by mosquitoes decreased substantially, and new microfilariae-positive infections in children were almost completely prevented over the five-year study period. Annual mass treatment with drugs such as diethylcarbamazine can virtually eliminate the reservoir of microfilariae and greatly reduce the frequency of clinical lymphatic abnormalities due to bancroftian filariasis. Eradication may be possible in areas with moderate rates of transmission, but

  2. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-04-27

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/ AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-01-01

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as ‘nation-building’. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. PMID:26029892

  4. Nursing accounting competencies related to HIV in a Papua New Guinea context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alistair M

    2013-01-01

    Nursing administration is an important part of the campaign to eliminate HIV across Papua New Guinea (PNG). This paper considers the critical importance of developing nursing leadership in effective accounting competencies in relation to HIV projects in PNG. The results of the study's textual analysis of audit reports of the Auditor General of PNG revealed a failure on the part of PNG's main health agencies involved with its national HIV program to provide competent financial reporting. In light of these results, this study shows how improving accounting and other financial competencies among nursing leaders would benefit the implementation of the PNG HIV national strategy. The findings of this study have implications not only for the internal control of HIV nursing competencies but also for nursing leadership related to HIV issues in a developing-country context. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of Papua New Guinea's health sector financing and expenditure.

    PubMed

    Thomason, J A; Newbrander, W C

    1991-06-01

    As a result of increasing economic constraints in the health sector of Papua New Guinea, the Department of Health embarked upon a major financial policy review program in 1986, which incorporated several studies in key areas. This paper presents the results of one component of the review, a health sector financing and expenditure study, which was undertaken for the 1986 financial year. The study found that: 1) 88% of health sector expenditure was provided by the public sector; 2) over 95% of expenditure was used for recurrent costs and there was poor utilization of overseas aid for capital projects; 3) the balance of expenditure between primary and secondary health was appropriate; 4) there were regional inequities in expenditure; and 5) a disproportionate amount of recurrent expenditure was consumed by personnel costs. The need to increase nongovernment expenditure on health was identified and further investigation of alternative sources of financing the health sector is required.

  6. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zunyou

    2013-02-01

    Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual's liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned.

  7. Less favourable climates constrain demographic strategies in plants.

    PubMed

    Csergő, Anna M; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Broennimann, Olivier; Coutts, Shaun R; Guisan, Antoine; Angert, Amy L; Welk, Erik; Stott, Iain; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Violle, Cyrille; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2017-08-01

    Correlative species distribution models are based on the observed relationship between species' occurrence and macroclimate or other environmental variables. In climates predicted less favourable populations are expected to decline, and in favourable climates they are expected to persist. However, little comparative empirical support exists for a relationship between predicted climate suitability and population performance. We found that the performance of 93 populations of 34 plant species worldwide - as measured by in situ population growth rate, its temporal variation and extinction risk - was not correlated with climate suitability. However, correlations of demographic processes underpinning population performance with climate suitability indicated both resistance and vulnerability pathways of population responses to climate: in less suitable climates, plants experienced greater retrogression (resistance pathway) and greater variability in some demographic rates (vulnerability pathway). While a range of demographic strategies occur within species' climatic niches, demographic strategies are more constrained in climates predicted to be less suitable. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Swasono, Meutia F; Murni, Sri; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Reports showed that an important parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica is found endemic in several areas of Indonesia including Papua, Bali and North Sumatra. At present it is known that the highest prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia, caused by T. solium is among the indigenous communities in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). In the early 1970s, 8-9% of stool samples from the Enarotali hospital, Paniai District (Irian Jaya) were found positive with Taenia eggs. The samples were from members of the Ekari (Kapauku) ethnic group. Stool samples from the Moni ethnic group, living east of surrounding lakes, were egg negative. Cysticerci of T. solium were discovered in pigs. During the years 1973-1976 cases of burns increased and were ultimately found to be primarily associated with epileptic seizures induced by neurocysticercosis cases. Among 257 cases of burns, 88 cases (62.8%) were suffering from epileptic seizures before or during hospitalization. In the year 1981 T. solium seropositive persons were mostly (16%) found in the endemic Obano village. In 1997 the parasite was discovered in Jayawijaya District, which is located approximately 250 km east of Paniai District. During 1991-1995, a local health center in Assologaima, Jayawijaya District reported 1120 new cases with burns and a further 293 new cases of epileptic seizures among 15,939 inhabitants. The histopathologic appearance and mitochondrial DNA analysis found the cysts to be similar to those of T. solium from other regions of the world. Sensitive and specific serological diagnostic methods were used and improved. Cysticerci were detected in dogs, as well as in pigs. A coproantigen test for detection of adult tapeworms in patients was carried out. Medical treatment with praziquantel for taeniasis and albendazole for cysticercosis (with prednisone and sodium phenytoin treatment in cases with neurocysticercosis) was undertaken. Lifestyle, religion, and

  9. Masculinity, mental health and Violence in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Fiji and Kiribati.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Graham

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the findings of a four country study conducted by the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific-International through its affiliates in Fiji Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea and Kiribati to demonstrate the linkage between young men, mental health and violence in the Pacific. The findings common among the four studies arise from the sociocultural and economic transitions occurring across the Pacific Region, where recent years have shown that the Pacific lifestyle has become increasingly stressful and violent. Limited opportunity to participate in the modern lifestyle and its economy has led to personal mental stress, social exclusion, unemployment and the growth of a subgroup of disaffected young people, who resort to a range of means to acquire their daily needs and, among whom, the norms that govern the use of violence differ from those of the general community.

  10. Persistence as the path from motivation to performance in the Papua New Guinea health sector.

    PubMed

    Elich, Luke

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how the individual capacity states of motivation, confidence, skill and ability relate to performance, and identifies a crucial role for the discretionary behaviour of individuals: specifically, employee persistence and innovation. The study Understanding the people and performance link: unlocking the black box undertaken by Purcell and colleagues is relied upon in constructing a theoretical framework for the conceptual interrelationships between performance and the human-resource-mediating variables, which is then applied within the Papua New Guinea (PNG) health sector context. The study by Purcell and colleagues, which was informed by organizations with well-developed and functioning human resource policies and practices, is distinguished from the PNG health sector, where human resource frameworks are largely ineffective--yet it is determined that the importance of 'discretionary behaviour' relative to performance, whilst varied, is undiminished.

  11. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Bockarie, Moses J; Kazura, James W

    2003-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a significant public health problem in several Pacific island countries. Papua New Guinea is one of the most populous countries in this region, and 39% of its residents are estimated to be infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. The Ministries of Health of the 22 islands and territories in the Pacific region are committed to taking action against lymphatic filariasis. Accordingly, a regional collaborative effort aimed at the control of filariasis has been organized under the auspices of a program referred to as PacELF. The main objective of PacELF is to eliminate filariasis as public health problem in the Pacific region by the year 2010, 10 years before global elimination of this infectious disease has been targeted. This contribution describes the epidemiology and ecological features of filariasis and prospects for its elimination in Papua New Guinea. The frequencies of microfilaremia, chronic lymphatic disease, and acute filarial morbidity in Papua New Guinea are higher than in many other endemic countries of the Pacific, Africa, and South America. All possible combinations of these three manifestations of filariasis exist. They occur independently of each other, and there is no association between chronic lymphatic disease and microfilarial status. Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes are the main vectors throughout the country. Transmission intensity is heterogeneous and a major determinant of local patent infection and morbidity rates. Annual transmission potential and annual infective biting rates are positively associated with the village-specific microfilarial rate, mean intensity of microfilaremia, and prevalence of leg edema. Children and adults have similar worm burdens, assessed by circulating filarial antigen levels, in areas of high transmission, whereas worm burdens increase with age in areas of lower transmission. Intensity of exposure to infective third-stage larvae (L3) is significantly correlated with filarial antigen

  12. Bottle-feeding legislation in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1980-02-01

    Research in Papua New Guinea and elsewhere in the developing world has indicted the dangers of bottle feeding infants. Following a failure to obtain the voluntary agreement of shopkeepers to restrict sales of infant-feeding bottles and teats, legislation was passed which placed these items on prescription. In order to obtain a prescription certain conditions have to be satisfied. A follow-up survey which was carried out in Port Moresby two years after the introduction of legislation indicated a significant decline in the extent of bottle feeding.

  13. Cryptic female choice via sperm dumping favours male copulatory courtship in a spider.

    PubMed

    Peretti, A V; Eberhard, W G

    2010-02-01

    Males of many animals perform 'copulatory courtship' during copulation, but the possible reproductive significance of this behaviour has seldom been investigated. In some animals, including the spider Physocyclus globosus (Pholcidae), the female discards sperm during or immediately following some copulations. In this study, we determined which of several variables associated with copulation correlated with paternity success in P. globosus when two males mate with a single female. Then, by determining which of these variables also correlated with sperm dumping, we inferred which variables may affect paternity via the mechanism of sperm dumping. Male abdomen vibration (a copulatory courtship behaviour) and male genitalic squeezing both correlated with both paternity and sperm dumping; so, these traits may be favoured by biased sperm dumping. Biased sperm dumping may also be the mechanism by which possible cryptic female choice favours another male trait that was the subject of a previous study, responsiveness to female stridulation.

  14. Historical Analysis of Population Reactions to Stimuli - Case Studies of Papua and Papua New Guinea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Irian and the associated tensions with Indonesia over the issue of refugees and border incursions. From 1990 to 1993 there was a breakdown in law and...independent Indonesia , at the 1949 United Nations (UN) Round table agreements all NEI territory in the region except for WNG was handed to the new... Indonesia . WNG was to remain a Dutch colony. In the same year the Constitution of the Government of Netherlands New Guinea was established. In the

  15. Surveillance and molecular characterization of group A rotaviruses in Goroka, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul Francis; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Bebes, Sauli; Boniface, Karen; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Siba, Peter Max; Kirkwood, Carl Dunn

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of group A rotaviruses in cases of acute gastroenteritis in Goroka, Papua New Guinea. From April 2008 through November 2010, 813 diarrheal stool samples were collected from children < 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 31.2% of samples using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genotyping revealed the presence of the globally circulating strains G1P[8] (50.0%), G3P[8] (23.0%), and G2P[4] (8.2%). The globally emerging strains G9 and G12 were detected in 1.2% and 6.1% of samples, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in a high proportion of samples (11.9%), with 9.0% and 3.7% of samples displaying multiple G and P genotypes, respectively.

  16. Determinants of favourable opinions about euthanasia in a sample of French physicians.

    PubMed

    Dany, Lionel; Baumstarck, Karine; Dudoit, Eric; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal; Salas, Sébastien

    2015-11-05

    The question whether euthanasia should be legalised has led to substantial public debate in France. The objective of this study in a sample of French physicians was to establish the potential determinants of a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and when faced with a specific situation as embodied in the Humbert affair. The study was a cross-sectional survey investigating two different samples of medical doctors: (1) those specialised in palliative care and affiliated to the French Society for Patient Accompaniment and Palliative Care; (2) medical interns (medical doctors in training course) in a French medical university (Marseille). A questionnaire was sent (email) to each voluntary participant including sociodemographics, professional status, mention of believing in God, and opinion about euthanasia (the question was designed to assess the general opinion about euthanasia and the opinion about a specific case, the Vincent Humbert' case (a man who was rendered quadriplegic, blind, and mute after an accident and has requested euthanasia). A total of 413 physicians participated in the research (participation rate: 48.5%). Less than half of the population were favourable to euthanasia in general and almost two-thirds of the population were favourable to Vincent Humbert's request for euthanasia. Based on the multivariate analysis, individuals believing in God and being a medical intern were significant independent factors linked to having a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and about the Vincent Humbert's request. There is still no study in France on the development of opinion about euthanasia and its impact. The issue goes beyond the strictly professional sphere and involves broader socio-political stakes. These stakes do not necessarily take into account medical practices and experiences or the desires of end-of-life patients. The professional upheaval that the future French legal framework will doubtlessly trigger will require further

  17. EVAR using the Nellix Sac-anchoring endoprosthesis: treatment of favourable and adverse anatomy.

    PubMed

    Krievins, D K; Holden, A; Savlovskis, J; Calderas, C; Donayre, C E; Moll, F L; Katzen, B; Zarins, C K

    2011-07-01

    The study aimed to review the results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a novel sac-anchoring endoprosthesis in patients with favourable and adverse anatomy. This is a prospective, multicentre, clinical trial. The Nellix endoprosthesis consists of dual, balloon-expandable endoframes, surrounded by polymer-filled endobags, which obliterate the aneurysm sac and maintain endograft position. The study reviewed worldwide clinical experience and Core Lab evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans. From 2008 to 2010, 34 patients (age 71 ± 8 years, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter 5.8 ± 0.8 cm) were treated at four clinical sites. Seventeen patients (50%) met the inclusion criteria for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved endografts (favourable anatomy); 17 (50%) had one or more adverse anatomic feature: neck length <10 mm (24%), neck angle >60° (9%) and iliac diameter >23 mm (38%). Device deployment was successful in all patients; iliac aneurysm treatment preserved hypogastric patency. Perioperative mortality was 1/34 (2.9%); one patient died at 10 months of congestive heart failure (CHF); one patient had a secondary procedure at 15 months. During 15 ± 6 months follow-up, there were no differences in outcome between favourable and adverse anatomy patients. Follow-up CT extending up to 2 years revealed no change in aneurysm size or endograft position and no new endoleaks. Favourable and adverse anatomy patients can be successfully treated using the Nellix sac-anchoring endoprosthesis. Early results are promising but longer-term studies are needed. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eviota brahmi n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Eviota nigriventris (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Tornabene, Luke

    2014-04-28

    Greenfield & Randall (2011) described the gobiid fishes Eviota dorsogilva from Fiji and E. dorsopurpurea from Papua New Guinea as new species in what they termed the Eviota nigriventris complex. They also extended the range of E. nigriventris, type locality Banda Sea, to Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe their misidentified E. nigriventris from Papua New Guinea as a new species, E. brahmi, and redescribe E. nigriventris based on new material from near the type locality. The four species of this complex differ mainly in coloration, but are also shown to be distinct using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  19. CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 variation and HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mehlotra, Rajeev K; Hall, Noemi B; Bruse, Shannon E; John, Bangan; Blood Zikursh, Melinda J; Stein, Catherine M; Siba, Peter M; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphisms in chemokine receptors, serving as HIV co-receptors, and their ligands are among the well-known host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to HIV infection and/or disease progression. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has one of the highest adult HIV prevalences in the Asia-Pacific region. However, information regarding the distribution of polymorphisms in chemokine receptor (CCR5, CCR2) and chemokine (CXCL12) genes in PNG is very limited. In this study, we genotyped a total of nine CCR2-CCR5 polymorphisms, including CCR2 190G >A, CCR5 -2459G >A and Δ32, and CXCL12 801G >A in PNG (n=258), North America (n=184), and five countries in West Africa (n=178). Using this data, we determined previously characterized CCR5 haplotypes. In addition, based on the previously reported associations of CCR2 190, CCR5 -2459, CCR5 open reading frame, and CXCL12 801 genotypes with HIV acquisition and/or disease progression, we calculated composite full risk scores, considering both protective as well as susceptibility effects of the CXCL12 801 AA genotype. We observed a very high frequency of the CCR5 -2459A allele (0.98) in the PNG population, which together with the absence of Δ32 resulted in a very high frequency of the HHE haplotype (0.92). These frequencies were significantly higher than in any other population (all P-values<0.001). Regardless of whether we considered the CXCL12 801 AA genotype protective or susceptible, the risk scores were significantly higher in the PNG population compared with any other population (all P-values<0.001). The results of this study provide new insights regarding CCR5 variation in the PNG population, and suggest that the collective variation in CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 may increase the risk of HIV/AIDS in a large majority of Papua New Guineans.

  20. Nutritional status and dietary diversity of Kamea in Gulf Province, Papua New Guineas.

    PubMed

    Goris, Janny M; Zomerdijk, Nienke; Temple, Victor J

    To assess the nutritional status of infants, children and non-pregnant women and underlying factors, dietary diversity and community food security, in the Kamea community in Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Prospective cross sectional study. Study population 69 infants (0-59 months), 151 children (6-12 years) and 79 non-pregnant women from 10 villages in Kotidanga Local Level Government, Kerema District, Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Among infants prevalence of moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 38.9%, 8.3% and 44.4%, respectively; after adjusting Hb concentration for altitude, the anaemia prevalence was 53.8%. Among children prevalence of severe stunting was 21.2%; moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 57.6%, 12.2% and 48.5%, respectively; anaemia was 30.3%; median urinary iodine concentration was 32.0 μg/L and iodine deficiency was prevalent among 88.1%. Among women, mean height, weight and BMI were 1.46±0.04 m, 43.9±5.91 kg and 20.4±2.32 kg/m2, respectively; low BMI (<18.5 kg/m2) and anaemia were prevalent among 22.8% and 35.4%, respectively; median urinary iodine concentration was 36.0 μg/L and iodine deficiency was prevalent among 80.3%. Exclusive breastfeeding was universal for young infants; complementary foods were limited in variety and frequency. Dietary diversity was limited, implementation of the universal salt iodisation strategy restricted and community food security was inadequate. The high prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia among the three age groups, including moderate status of iodine deficiency among women and children, are significant public health concerns. Improvements in dietary diversity, adequate use of iodised salt and community food security are needed.

  1. Chromatin organization at the nuclear pore favours HIV replication

    PubMed Central

    Lelek, Mickaël; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Pellin, Danilo; Rizzi, Ermanno; Souque, Philippe; Severgnini, Marco; Di Serio, Clelia; Fricke, Thomas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Zimmer, Christophe; Charneau, Pierre; Di Nunzio, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow HIV to integrate into particular sites of the host genome are poorly understood. Here we tested if the nuclear pore complex (NPC) facilitates the targeting of HIV integration by acting on chromatin topology. We show that the integrity of the nuclear side of the NPC, which is mainly composed of Tpr, is not required for HIV nuclear import, but that Nup153 is essential. Depletion of Tpr markedly reduces HIV infectivity, but not the level of integration. HIV integration sites in Tpr-depleted cells are less associated with marks of active genes, consistent with the state of chromatin proximal to the NPC, as analysed by super-resolution microscopy. LEDGF/p75, which promotes viral integration into active genes, stabilizes Tpr at the nuclear periphery and vice versa. Our data support a model in which HIV nuclear import and integration are concerted steps, and where Tpr maintains a chromatin environment favourable for HIV replication. PMID:25744187

  2. Climate change and habitat conversion favour the same species.

    PubMed

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Karp, Daniel S; Flanders, Jon R; Zook, Jim; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K

    2016-09-01

    Land-use change and climate change are driving a global biodiversity crisis. Yet, how species' responses to climate change are correlated with their responses to land-use change is poorly understood. Here, we assess the linkages between climate and land-use change on birds in Neotropical forest and agriculture. Across > 300 species, we show that affiliation with drier climates is associated with an ability to persist in and colonise agriculture. Further, species shift their habitat use along a precipitation gradient: species prefer forest in drier regions, but use agriculture more in wetter zones. Finally, forest-dependent species that avoid agriculture are most likely to experience decreases in habitable range size if current drying trends in the Neotropics continue as predicted. This linkage suggests a synergy between the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. Because they favour the same species, climate and land-use change will likely homogenise biodiversity more severely than otherwise anticipated.

  3. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  4. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  5. Bacterial contamination of sago starch in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Omoloso, A D; Amoa, B; Warner, J M

    2007-12-01

    Sago starch is an important food in lowland Papua New Guinea. Extraction of the starch from the palm and storage were performed by way of traditional methods that have been used for thousands of years. Currently, very little is known about the microbiology of sago starch. Sago samples were collected from areas of high starch utilization and analyzed for the presence of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms. Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection, and pH and water activity on arrival at the laboratory. Sago starch was found to harbor high levels of fecal contamination, as well as various food pathogens including Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and coagulase-positive staphylococci. Clostridium perfringens was only present infrequently in samples and in very low numbers, while Listeria monocytogenes was not isolated from sago starch. The presence of high levels of fecal contamination in sago starch is of particular concern, and may contribute to diarrheal disease in rural Papua New Guinea.

  6. Mother tongue-based bilingual education in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community languages are taught as a subject and used for instruction in the first three years of formal education. English is introduced as a subject in the third year of school and becomes one of the languages of instruction, with the community language, in early primary. In grades seven and eight, teachers use only English for instruction, although community languages can still be used informally. By the early 2000s, over 400 languages were being used in PNG's formal education system. This paper describes the background to PNG's bilingual education programme, then provides an overview of its main features and the positive outcomes as well as the problems encountered since it was initiated 15 years ago.

  7. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.

  8. Compaction of forest soil by logging machinery favours occurrence of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schnurr-Pütz, Silvia; Bååth, Erland; Guggenberger, Georg; Drake, Harold L; Küsel, Kirsten

    2006-12-01

    Soil compaction caused by passage of logging machinery reduces the soil air capacity. Changed abiotic factors might induce a change in the soil microbial community and favour organisms capable of tolerating anoxic conditions. The goals of this study were to resolve differences between soil microbial communities obtained from wheel-tracks (i.e. compacted) and their adjacent undisturbed sites, and to evaluate differences in potential anaerobic microbial activities of these contrasting soils. Soil samples obtained from compacted soil had a greater bulk density and a higher pH than uncompacted soil. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acids demonstrated that the eukaryotic/prokaryotic ratio in compacted soils was lower than that of uncompacted soils, suggesting that fungi were not favoured by the in situ conditions produced by compaction. Indeed, most-probable-number (MPN) estimates of nitrous oxide-producing denitrifiers, acetate- and lactate-utilizing iron and sulfate reducers, and methanogens were higher in compacted than in uncompacted soils obtained from one site that had large differences in bulk density. Compacted soils from this site yielded higher iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic potentials than did uncompacted soils. MPN estimates of H2-utilizing acetogens in compacted and uncompacted soils were similar. These results indicate that compaction of forest soil alters the structure and function of the soil microbial community and favours occurrence of prokaryotes.

  9. The double burden of disease among mining workers in Papua, Indonesia: at the crossroads between Old and New health paradigms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Ng, Nawi; Susilo, Dwidjo; Prawira, John; Bangs, Michael J; Amiya, Rachel M

    2016-09-08

    As the global shift toward non-communicable diseases overlaps with the unfinished agenda of confronting infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, epidemiological links across both burdens must be recognized. This study examined the non-communicable disease-infectious disease overlap in the specific comorbidity rates for key diseases in an occupational cohort in Papua, Indonesia. Diagnosed cases of ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (types 1 and 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria were extracted from 22,550 patient records (21,513 men, 1037 women) stored in identical electronic health information systems from two clinic sites in Papua, Indonesia. Data were collected as International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, entries from records spanning January-December 2013. A novel application of Circos software was used to visualize the interconnectedness between the disease burdens as overlapping prevalence estimates representing comorbidities. Overall, NCDs represented 38 % of all disease cases, primarily in the form of type 2 diabetes (n = 1440) and hypertension (n = 1398). Malaria cases represented the largest single portion of the disease burden with 5310 recorded cases, followed by type 2 diabetes with 1400 cases. Tuberculosis occurred most frequently alongside malaria (29 %), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (19 %), asthma (17 %), and stroke (12 %). Hypertension-tuberculosis (4 %), tuberculosis-cancer (4 %), and asthma-tuberculosis (2 %) comorbidities were also observed. The high prevalence of multimorbidity, preponderance of non-communicable diseases, and extensive interweaving of non-communicable and infectious disease comorbidities highlighted in this cohort of mining workers in Papua, Indonesia reflect the markedly double disease burden increasingly plaguing Indonesia and other similar low- and middle-income countries - a

  10. The probable role of cannibalism in spreading Trichinella papuae infection in a crocodile farm in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L; Awui, Columba; Langelet, Eric; Soctine, Wenda; Reid, Simon

    2014-07-14

    Between 2003 and 2007, 83 (50%) of 167 crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) purchased as juveniles by a crocodile farm 3 or 4 years earlier from Kikori, Gulf Province, were found to be infected with Trichinella papuae. Between 2005 and 2007 infection was detected in a number of crocodiles at the farm obtained from six localities other than Kikori, as well as in a few animals born on the farm. Up to 2004, all juveniles at the farm, whether wild- or farm-born, were penned together; the practice was then stopped to prevent possible infection through cannibalism. The last infected animal from Kikori was seen in 2007, 4 years after the purchase of crocodiles from there ceased. The last non-Kikori infected crocodile was seen, also, in 2007. None of the 1972 crocodiles (comprising wild- and farm-born animals) tested from 2008 to 2013, using the digestion method, was infected with T. papuae. This indicates that infection of non-Kikori crocodiles was the result of cannibalism within the farm during the years up to 2004 when juvenile crocodiles were kept together, and that the farm is now free of the infection.

  11. Prevalence of patients with acute febrile illnesses and positive dengue NS1 tests in a tertiary hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Asigau, Viola; Lavu, Evelyn K; McBride, William J H; Biloh, Eric; Naroi, Francis; Koana, Egi; Ferguson, John K; Laman, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea.

  12. Macrocnemis gracilis, a new genus and species of Idiocnemidinae (Zygoptera: Platycnemididae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Theischinger, G; Gassmann, D; Richards, S J

    2015-07-27

    A new genus and species belonging to the damselfly subfamily Idiocnemidinae from Papua New Guinea, Macrocnemis gracilis gen. nov. sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the largest known member of the Papuan idiocnemidine radiation, and its affinities to existing genera remain unclear. The new taxon is currently known with certainty only from small streams flowing through mid-montane rainforest in the Hindenburg Range of Papua New Guinea's rugged central cordillera.

  13. Partner switching can favour cooperation in a biological market.

    PubMed

    Schwagmeyer, P L

    2014-09-01

    Intraspecific cooperation and interspecific mutualisms can be promoted by mechanisms that reduce the frequency with which cooperative organisms are exploited by unhelpful partners. One such mechanism consists of changing partners after interacting with an uncooperative individual. I used McNamara et al.'s (Nature, 451, 2008, 189) partner switching model as a framework to examine whether this mechanism can select for increased cooperative investment by house sparrows (Passer domesticus) collaborating to rear offspring; previous research on this species has shown that substantial cooperative investments by both pair members are required to achieve high pay-offs from collaborating. I found that the poorer the outcome of a breeding attempt relative to the number of eggs the female invested, the greater the likelihood of partner switching. The incidence of partner switching changed seasonally, with peak switching coinciding with an increase in the number of alternative partners available to females. After females switched partners, their breeding outcomes rose to match those of females that remained with the same partner; this was not the case for males that switched partners. Consistent with the model's prediction, males in stable partnerships achieved over 25% higher than average reproductive success, which was attributable to both persistently good breeding outcomes and their older partners' high fecundity. These results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that partner switching favours increased cooperative investment levels, and they demonstrate that variation in the relative value of by-product benefits can enhance that process.

  14. Predators favour mimicry in a tropical reef fish.

    PubMed Central

    Caley, M Julian; Schluter, Dolph

    2003-01-01

    Batesian mimicry evolves when the 'umbrella' of protection provided by resemblance to a conspicuous unpalatable model species is sufficient to overcome increased predation risk associated with greater conspicuousness. However, the shape and extent of this umbrella, that is, how the level of protection provided by mimicry changes with degree of resemblance between model and mimic, is poorly known. We investigated the response of wild predatory fishes to plastic replicas of a model-mimic species pair of tropical reef fishes, Canthigaster valentini (a toxic pufferfish, the model) and Paraluteres prionurus (the putative mimic), and additional replicas with progressively lower degrees of resemblance to the mimic species. Our results reveal a relatively broad region of protection, indicated by a reduced approach rate by piscivorous fishes, surrounding the colour pattern of the model species. Protection increased with increasing resemblance. By contrast, the response of non-piscivorous fishes was unrelated to degree of resemblance of replicas to the model. Our results suggest that piscivorous fishes on the reef are educated regarding the toxicity of C. valentini, and that avoidance of fish having the pufferfish colour pattern has generated selection favouring mimetic resemblance by the palatable P. prionurus. The relatively broad protective umbrella has probably facilitated the initial evolution of resemblance in the palatable prey species despite the potential hazards of greater conspicuousness. PMID:12713739

  15. Evolution of trust and trustworthiness: social awareness favours personality differences.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stephens, Philip A; Dall, Sasha R X; Houston, Alasdair I

    2009-02-22

    Interest in the evolution and maintenance of personality is burgeoning. Individuals of diverse animal species differ in their aggressiveness, fearfulness, sociability and activity. Strong trade-offs, mutation-selection balance, spatio-temporal fluctuations in selection, frequency dependence and good-genes mate choice are invoked to explain heritable personality variation, yet for continuous behavioural traits, it remains unclear which selective force is likely to maintain distinct polymorphisms. Using a model of trust and cooperation, we show how allowing individuals to monitor each other's cooperative tendencies, at a cost, can select for heritable polymorphisms in trustworthiness. This variation, in turn, favours costly 'social awareness' in some individuals. Feedback of this sort can explain the individual differences in trust and trustworthiness so often documented by economists in experimental public goods games across a range of cultures. Our work adds to growing evidence that evolutionary game theorists can no longer afford to ignore the importance of real world inter-individual variation in their models.

  16. Do Refuge Plants Favour Natural Pest Control in Maize Crops?

    PubMed

    Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander

    2017-07-18

    The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests' natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies.

  17. Do Refuge Plants Favour Natural Pest Control in Maize Crops?

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests’ natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies. PMID:28718835

  18. Predators favour mimicry in a tropical reef fish.

    PubMed

    Caley, M Julian; Schluter, Dolph

    2003-04-07

    Batesian mimicry evolves when the 'umbrella' of protection provided by resemblance to a conspicuous unpalatable model species is sufficient to overcome increased predation risk associated with greater conspicuousness. However, the shape and extent of this umbrella, that is, how the level of protection provided by mimicry changes with degree of resemblance between model and mimic, is poorly known. We investigated the response of wild predatory fishes to plastic replicas of a model-mimic species pair of tropical reef fishes, Canthigaster valentini (a toxic pufferfish, the model) and Paraluteres prionurus (the putative mimic), and additional replicas with progressively lower degrees of resemblance to the mimic species. Our results reveal a relatively broad region of protection, indicated by a reduced approach rate by piscivorous fishes, surrounding the colour pattern of the model species. Protection increased with increasing resemblance. By contrast, the response of non-piscivorous fishes was unrelated to degree of resemblance of replicas to the model. Our results suggest that piscivorous fishes on the reef are educated regarding the toxicity of C. valentini, and that avoidance of fish having the pufferfish colour pattern has generated selection favouring mimetic resemblance by the palatable P. prionurus. The relatively broad protective umbrella has probably facilitated the initial evolution of resemblance in the palatable prey species despite the potential hazards of greater conspicuousness.

  19. Evolution of trust and trustworthiness: social awareness favours personality differences

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M.; Stephens, Philip A.; Dall, Sasha R.X.; Houston, Alasdair I.

    2008-01-01

    Interest in the evolution and maintenance of personality is burgeoning. Individuals of diverse animal species differ in their aggressiveness, fearfulness, sociability and activity. Strong trade-offs, mutation–selection balance, spatio-temporal fluctuations in selection, frequency dependence and good-genes mate choice are invoked to explain heritable personality variation, yet for continuous behavioural traits, it remains unclear which selective force is likely to maintain distinct polymorphisms. Using a model of trust and cooperation, we show how allowing individuals to monitor each other's cooperative tendencies, at a cost, can select for heritable polymorphisms in trustworthiness. This variation, in turn, favours costly ‘social awareness’ in some individuals. Feedback of this sort can explain the individual differences in trust and trustworthiness so often documented by economists in experimental public goods games across a range of cultures. Our work adds to growing evidence that evolutionary game theorists can no longer afford to ignore the importance of real world inter-individual variation in their models. PMID:18957369

  20. Does natural selection favour the Rescorla-Wagner rule?

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Pete C; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marshall, James A R

    2012-06-07

    A fundamental question relating to animal behaviour is how animals learn; in particular, how they come to associate stimuli with rewards. Numerous empirical findings can be explained by assuming that animals use some mechanism similar to the Rescorla-Wagner learning rule, which is a relatively simple and highly general method of updating the associative strength between different stimuli. However, the Rescorla-Wagner rule is often not optimal, which raises the question of why a rule with such properties should have evolved. We consider the evolution of learning rules in a simple environment where there exists an optimal rule of similar complexity to the Rescorla-Wagner rule. We show that because the Rescorla-Wagner rule is less sensitive to changes in its parameters than the optimal rule, there is a wider range of parameter values over which the rule structure is initially viable. Consequently, the Rescorla-Wagner rule can be favoured by natural selection, ahead of other rules which are more accurate.

  1. Geological remote sensing for hydrocarbon exploration in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, G.L.; Phelps, J.C.; Eisenberg, L.L.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most active hydrocarbon exploration provinces of the last decade has been the fold and thrust belt of Papua New Guinea. Geologic remote sensing is an indispensable part of the exploration process in that remote and rugged area where usable seismic data are obtainable only locally, if at all. Photointerpretation of stereo synthetic aperture radar imagery has been especially useful in conventional lithostratigraphic mapping, both local and regional. Results of remote sensing imagery interpretation, integrated with surface geologic data, limited seismic, and balanced structural cross sections, facilitated the documentation of structural styles and provided the basis for a new, regional structural model. The role of remote sensing during various stages of the exploration process is summarized; imagery and map examples are presented.

  2. Improving immunisation: coverage in a province in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    van Zwanenberg, T D; Hull, Cathy

    1988-01-01

    The effect on immunisation coverage of applying guiding principles to the management of primary health care services in a province in Papua New Guinea is described. These principles were: (a) Each health centre should have a defined geographical area of responsibility. (b) Each health centre should be responsible for a defined population. (c) Each health centre should have defined target groups for immunisation and child health clinic enrolment. (d) An accurate and meaningful reporting system is essential. (e) Each health centre should receive regular feedback on its achievements. Immunisation coverage in the province, as judged by the proportion of children under 1 year of age receiving their second dose of triple antigen, improved from 57-67% in 1980-2 to 89-94% in 1983-4. Immunisation is the most cost effective preventive activity undertaken in child health care. The application of these guiding principles would be relevant in the United Kingdom. PMID:3135060

  3. Men’s Extramarital Sexuality in Rural Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wardlow, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Married women in rural Papua New Guinea are at risk for HIV primarily because of their husbands’ extramarital relationships. Labor migration puts these men in social contexts that encourage infidelity. Moreover, many men do not view sexual fidelity as necessary for achieving a happy marriage, but they view drinking and “looking for women” as important for male friendships. Although fear of HIV infection is increasing, the concern that men most often articulated about the consequences of extramarital infidelity was possible violent retaliation for “stealing” another man’s wife. Therefore, divorced or separated women who exchange sex for money are considered to be “safe” partners. Interventions that promote fidelity will fail in the absence of a social and economic infrastructure that supports fidelity. PMID:17463367

  4. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  5. Red cell enzyme polymorphisms in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands.

    PubMed

    Seger, J; Godelier, M; Halle, L; Lemonnier, P; Lory, J L; Rouger, P; Ruffie, J; Salmon, D

    1988-01-01

    Ten red cell enzyme polymorphisms, malic dehydrogenase (MDH1), adenylate kinase (AK), phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), adenosine deaminase (ADA), esterase D (ESD), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (ACP1), phosphoglucomutase 1 and 2 (PGM1, PGM2), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) were investigated in the Baruya tribe and several Anga tribes living high in the Wonenara and Marawaka valleys in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands (6.5S, 145.5E). Also a non-Anga tribe, the Aziana or Kenaze, was sampled. Variants were observed in ADA, PGM1 and PGM2. AK and PHI were monomorphic, all subjects being AK 1 and PHI 1; MDH1 was also monomorphic in Anga while variants were observed in Aziana. This latter tribe differed markedly in each system from the Anga peoples.

  6. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis.

  7. Genetic diversity in populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    Dranitsina, A S; Telegeev, G D; Maliuta, S S; Bezrukov, V F

    2006-01-01

    RAPD analysis was used to examine the extent of genetic polymorphism in two populations of Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from Antarctic Islands (Petermann and Livingston). The chosen two of three 10 mer oligonucleotide primers accordingly to preliminary results showed different levels of polymorphism in Gentoo penguins at Petermann Island (from 23.53 to 42.86%) and Livingston Island (from 52.94 to 57.14%). Nei's similarity coefficients were in range from 0.5606 (when Gentoo genome profiles were compared with RAPD profiles of two related penguin species: Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie) and Pygoscelis antarctica (Chinstrep)) to 0.9281 among observed Gentoo penguin populations. Nei's distances values ranged from 0.0746 to 0.5787 among the populations and species. The obtained results will be used for further estimation of genetic diversity of Gentoo penguins and determination of their taxonomic status.

  8. Sulphur dioxide fluxes from Papua New Guinea's volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, A. J. S.; Oppenheimer, C.; Tsanev, V. I.; Saunders, S.; Mulina, K.; Tohui, S.; Bosco, J.; Nahou, J.; Kuduon, J.; Taranu, F.

    2004-04-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) hosts some of the most prolific degassing volcanoes in the world. Collectively, they are thought to be responsible for a significant contribution of sulfur dioxide to the regional and global atmosphere. Despite their importance, very few measurements of SO2 fluxes from PNG volcanoes have been made in the past, leading to uncertainty in estimates of total global volcanic sulfur budgets. We report here sulphur dioxide flux measurements obtained by ultraviolet spectroscopy during July and August 2003 for the following PNG volcanoes: Tavurvur, Ulawun, Pago, Langila, Bagana and Manam. We found fluxes of 1.3, 7.4, 1.4, 2.9, 23 and 2.1 kg s-1, respectively, for these sources. This amounts to a total of 38 kg s-1 of SO2, constituting some 6-9% and 7-12% of the estimated global time-integrated volcanic emissions to the atmosphere, and troposphere, respectively.

  9. Infant feeding practices in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Friesen, H; Vince, J; Boas, P; Danaya, R; Mokela, D; Ogle, G; Asuo, P; Kemiki, A; Lagani, W; Rongap, T; Varughese, M; Saweri, W

    1998-09-01

    Concern about a possibly increasing prevalence of bottle-feeding led in 1995 to an Infant Feeding Survey of 1822 mothers attending urban health facilities. Infant feeding practices including feeding of colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding, weaning practices and bottle-feeding were assessed. This revealed that 28.8% of mothers had not given colostrum to their babies, that 43.5% of 3-month-old babies were exclusively breastfed, and that solids were introduced before 4 months of age in over half of the study population. Bottle-feeding was used by 20% of the study population. Feeding practices differed in women of Highlands and of Coastal origin. The findings emphasize the need to strengthen health education programmes which take into account the mothers' different cultural backgrounds. The issue of breast-feeding by mothers in paid employment needs to be addressed.

  10. Modelling favourability for invasive species encroachment to identify areas of native species vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Romero, David; Báez, José C; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider.

  11. Modelling Favourability for Invasive Species Encroachment to Identify Areas of Native Species Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Báez, José C.; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  12. Can eccentric arterial plaques alone cause flow stagnation points and favour thrombus incorporation?

    PubMed Central

    Beneli, Cristina T; Barbosa, Priscila F; Floriano, Elaine M; Abreu, Mônica A; Ramalho, Fernando S; Júnior, Jorge Elias; Rossi, Marcos A; Ramos, Simone G

    2009-01-01

    We have used an experimental model of aorta stenosis, with a Plexiglas plug, simulating a stable atheromatous plaque that promotes local turbulence and thrombosis. With animal survival of more than 24 h, we followed the partial fibrinolysis of the thrombus as well as its posterior organization and incorporation to the arterial wall as a neointima for up to 30 days. The mushroom plug form permitted the development of recirculation and stasis areas around it, favouring this evolution. Despite noted limitations, this study demonstrates that thrombus incorporation can contribute to plaque extension, as it can promote recirculation and stasis areas. PMID:19563612

  13. Hospital characteristics and favourable neurological outcome among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Takashi; Ohta, Bon; Iwami, Taku

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between favourable neurological outcome and hospital characteristics such as hospital volume and number of critical care centres (CCMCs) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This retrospective, population-based observational study conducted in Osaka Prefecture, Japan included adult patients with OHCA, aged ≥18 years who were transported to acute care hospitals between January 2005 and December 2012. We divided acute care hospitals into CCMCs or non-CCMCs, the latter of which were divided into the following three groups according to the annual average number of transported OHCA cases: low-volume (≤10 cases), middle-volume (11-39 cases), and high-volume (≥40 cases) groups. Random effects logistic regression models, with hospital treated as a random effect, were used to assess factors potentially associated with a favourable neurological outcome. A total of 44,474 patients were eligible. The proportions of favourable neurological outcome from OHCA were 0.9% (31/3559) in the low-volume group, 1.2% (106/9171) in the middle-volume group, 1.6% (222/14,007) in the high-volume group, and 4.3% (766/17,737) in the CCMC group (P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, transport to CCMCs was significantly associated with favourable neurological outcome, compared with transport to non-CCMCs (adjusted odds ratio 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.60-1.66). Among the non-CCMC group, there was no significant relationship between hospital volume and favourable neurological outcome. In this population, transport of OHCA patients to CCMCs led to significantly higher one-month survival rates with favourable neurological outcome from OHCA, whereas no significant association was noted among the hospitals with different volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  15. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  16. Early Childhood Care and Education in a Changing World: Building on Village Life in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikupu, Andrew; Glover, Anne

    2004-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea, the early childhood care and education of young children is largely a parental and community responsibility. Like many other village-based societies, including those found throughout Africa, Asia and the South Pacific, more than 80% of Papua New Guinean children grow up in subsistence farming and fishing tribal villages. In…

  17. Early Childhood Care and Education in a Changing World: Building on Village Life in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikupu, Andrew; Glover, Anne

    2004-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea, the early childhood care and education of young children is largely a parental and community responsibility. Like many other village-based societies, including those found throughout Africa, Asia and the South Pacific, more than 80% of Papua New Guinean children grow up in subsistence farming and fishing tribal villages. In…

  18. A new, widely distributed species of the Exocelina ekari-group from West Papua (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae).

    PubMed

    Shaverdo, Helena; Panjaitan, Rawati; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Exocelina manokwariensis sp. n. from West Papua is placed into the Exocelina ekari-group based on the structure of its male genitalia. The new species is described, including its three subspecies, from the mainland of West Papua, Waigeo Island, Batanta and Salawati Islands, and Bomberai peninsula. An identification key to the subspecies as well as data on species distribution are provided.

  19. Health promotion and empowerment in Henganofi District, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Barcham, Richard; Silas, Esther; Irie, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that the government of Papua New Guinea is failing to provide basic services in health to the majority of its people. Local non-government organisations (NGOs), partnered with international NGOs, are attempting to fill this gap. With limited resources, these small Indigenous organisations must focus much of their effort on training that supports self-reliance as the main strategy for communities to improve their quality of life. This project explored the training content and methodology of Touching The Untouchables (TTU), a small Indigenous NGO based in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, that has trained a network of village volunteers in health promotion and safe motherhood.
    Village life imposes multiple demands, from self-sufficiency in food to maintaining law and order. There are established attitudes about power and dependence, referred to as 'cargo thinking'. Cargo thinking stands as a barrier to the necessity of self-reliance, and requires training strategies that seek to empower participants to create change from their own initiative. Empowerment is understood as oriented towards individual people taking collective action to improve their circumstances by rectifying disparities in social power and control. To achieve self-reliance, empowerment is necessarily operational on the levels of person, community and society.
    In addition to being operational on all three levels of empowerment, the training content and methodology adopted and developed by TTU demonstrate that empowering practice in training employs approaches to knowledge that are evidence-based, reflexive, contextual and skill-based. Creating knowledge that is reflexive and exploring knowledge about the broader context uses special kinds of communicative tools that facilitate discussion on history, society and political economy. Furthermore, training methodologies that are oriented to empowerment create settings that require the use of all three types of communication

  20. Predictors of favourable outcome in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: implications for early discharge?

    PubMed

    Rotondano, Gianluca; Cipolletta, Livio; Koch, Maurizio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Grossi, Enzo; Marmo, Riccardo

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of validated predictors on which to decide the timing of discharge in patients already hospitalized for upper nonvariceal bleeding. Identify factors that appear to protect nonvariceal bleeders from the development of negative outcome (rebleeding, surgery, death). Secondary analysis of two prospective multicenter studies. Multivariate analyses for each investigated outcome were performed; a single model was developed including all factors that were statistically significant in each sub-model. A final score was developed to predict favourable outcomes. Prognostic accuracy was tested with ROC curve analysis. Out of 2398 patients, 211 (8.8%) developed one or more adverse outcomes: 87 (3.63%) had rebleeding, 46 (1.92%) needed surgery and 107 (4.46%) died. Predictors of favourable prognosis were: ASA score 1 or 2, absence of neoplasia, outpatient bleeding, use of low-dose aspirin, no need for transfusions, clean-based ulcer, age <70 years, no haemodynamic instability successful endoscopic diagnosis/therapy, no Dieulafoy's lesion at endoscopy, no hematemesis on presentation and no need for endoscopic treatment. Overall prognostic accuracy of the model was 83%. The final score accurately identified 20-30% of patients that eventually do not develop any negative outcome. The "good luck score" may be a useful tool in deciding when to discharge a patient already hospitalized for acute non-variceal bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed.

  2. The effect of Piper aduncum invasion on soil in tropical ecosystems of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, Jaroslav; Frouz, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Piper aduncum is successful Neotropical invasive species in Papua New Guinea. Despite its interaction with aboveground part of ecosystem has been extensively studied little is known about its effect on soil. Here we report two studies, in first we compare soil chemistry and soil biota in sites invaded and non-invaded by P. aduncum near Wanang village. In other study we use benefit of previous experiment when P. aduncum was experimentally removed near Ohu village. Here we compare soil chemistry and chemistry of plant leaves growing in garden originating by slashing and burning two adjacent patches with and without P. aduncum. Soil under P. aduncum had significantly less phosphorus in 0-5 cm soil layer and less nitrates, nitrogen and carbon in 5-10 cm soil layer than soil in old gardens uninvaded by P. aduncum. P. aduncum soil also harbors fewer microfloras than uninvaded soil as shown by PLFA analysis. No difference was found in fauna communities. Gardens created on patches where old P. aduncum was removed did not differ in soil chemistry from plots which were overgrown by P. aduncum, but leaves of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) in gardens where P. aduncum was previously removed contained more nitrogen. Results suggest that P. aduncum invasion may affect some chemical and microbial properties in invaded soil. P. aduncum has negative effect on traditional shifting agriculture.

  3. Associations between malaria and local and global climate variability in five regions in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chisato; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Eum, Jin-Hee; Kim, Clara T; Kim, Jin Seob; Kim, Yoonhee; Behera, Swadhin K; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Nealon, Joshua; Chung, Hyenmi; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a significant public health issue in Papua New Guinea (PNG) as the burden is among the highest in Asia and the Pacific region. Though PNG's vulnerability to climate change and sensitivity of malaria mosquitoes to weather are well-documented, there are few in-depth epidemiological studies conducted on the potential impacts of climate on malaria incidence in the country. This study explored what and how local weather and global climate variability impact on malaria incidence in five regions of PNG. Time series methods were applied to evaluate the associations of malaria incidence with weather and climate factors, respectively. Local weather factors including precipitation and temperature and global climate phenomena such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the ENSO Modoki, the Southern Annular Mode, and the Indian Ocean Dipole were considered in analyses. The results showed that malaria incidence was associated with local weather factors in most regions but at the different lag times and in directions. Meanwhile, there were trends in associations with global climate factors by geographical locations of study sites. Overall heterogeneous associations suggest the importance of location-specific approaches in PNG not only for further investigations but also public health interventions in repose to the potential impacts arising from climate change.

  4. Diet of land birds along an elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Sam, Katerina; Koane, Bonny; Jeppy, Samuel; Sykorova, Jana; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-03-09

    Food preferences and exploitation are crucial to many aspects of avian ecology and are of increasing importance as we progress in our understanding of community ecology. We studied birds and their feeding specialization in the Central Range of Papua New Guinea, at eight study sites along a complete (200 to 3700 m a.s.l.) rainforest elevational gradient. The relative species richness and abundance increased with increasing elevation for insect and nectar eating birds, and decreased with elevation for fruit feeding birds. Using emetic tartar, we coerced 999 individuals from 99 bird species to regurgitate their stomach contents and studied these food samples. The proportion of arthropods in food samples increased with increasing elevation at the expense of plant material. Body size of arthropods eaten by birds decreased with increasing elevation. This reflected the parallel elevational trend in the body size of arthropods available in the forest understory. Body size of insectivorous birds was significantly positively correlated with the body size of arthropods they ate. Coleoptera were the most exploited arthropods, followed by Araneae, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. Selectivity indexes showed that most of the arthropod taxa were taken opportunistically, reflecting the spatial patterns in arthropod abundances to which the birds were exposed.

  5. Diet of land birds along an elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Katerina; Koane, Bonny; Jeppy, Samuel; Sykorova, Jana; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    Food preferences and exploitation are crucial to many aspects of avian ecology and are of increasing importance as we progress in our understanding of community ecology. We studied birds and their feeding specialization in the Central Range of Papua New Guinea, at eight study sites along a complete (200 to 3700 m a.s.l.) rainforest elevational gradient. The relative species richness and abundance increased with increasing elevation for insect and nectar eating birds, and decreased with elevation for fruit feeding birds. Using emetic tartar, we coerced 999 individuals from 99 bird species to regurgitate their stomach contents and studied these food samples. The proportion of arthropods in food samples increased with increasing elevation at the expense of plant material. Body size of arthropods eaten by birds decreased with increasing elevation. This reflected the parallel elevational trend in the body size of arthropods available in the forest understory. Body size of insectivorous birds was significantly positively correlated with the body size of arthropods they ate. Coleoptera were the most exploited arthropods, followed by Araneae, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. Selectivity indexes showed that most of the arthropod taxa were taken opportunistically, reflecting the spatial patterns in arthropod abundances to which the birds were exposed. PMID:28276508

  6. Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L

    2006-01-01

    There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), where refugees from across the border have been settled. Only a few surveys have been conducted; the first was in 1986, when one refugee who originated from an infected locality in West Papua was found to be serologically positive, but asymptomatic. Subsequently, there have been unpublished reports of more positive but asymptomatic cases amongst refugees and, it is claimed, amongst local inhabitants that live near the border. A serological survey conducted in PNG in 1999 at the southern end of the border revealed no positive cases of cysticercosis. There are no reports of pigs or dogs affected with cysticercosis in PNG.

  7. Geographic variation of human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Stoneking, M.; Wilson, A.C. ); Jorde, L.B. ); Bhatia, K. )

    1990-03-01

    High resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction maps, consisting of an average of 370 sites per mtDNA map, were constructed for 119 people from 25 localities in Papua, New Guinea (PNG). Comparison of these PNG restriction maps to published maps from Australian, Caucasian, Asian and African mtDNAs reveals that PNG has the lowest amount of mtDNA variation, and that PNG mtDNA lineages originated from Southeast Asia. The statistical significance of geographic structuring of populations with respect to mtDNA was assessed by comparing observed G{sub ST} values to a distribution of G{sub ST} values generated by random resampling of the data. These analyses show that there is significant structuring of mtDNA variation among worldwide populations, between highland and coastal PNG populations, and even between two highland PNG populations located approximately 200 km apart. However, coastal PNG populations are essentially panmictic, despite being spread over several hundred kilometers. The high resolution technique for examining mtDNA variation, coupled with extensive geographic sampling within a single defined area, leads to an enhanced understanding of the influence of geography on mtDNA variation in human populations.

  8. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Information systems for health sector monitoring in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Cibulskis, R. E.; Hiawalyer, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes (i). how a national health information System was designed, tested and implemented in Papua New Guinea, (ii). how the system was integrated with other management information systems, and (iii). how information has been used to support decision-making. It concludes that central coordination of systems design is essential to make sure that information systems are aligned with government priorities and can deliver the information required by managers. While there is often scope for improving the performance of existing information systems, too much emphasis can be placed on revising data collection procedures and creating the perfect information system. Data analysis, even from imperfect systems, can stimulate greater interest in information, which can improve the quality and completeness of reporting and encourage a more methodical approach to planning and monitoring services. Our experience suggests that senior decision-makers and political leaders can play an important role in creating a culture of information use. By demanding health information, using it to formulate policy, and disseminating it through the channels open to them, they can exert greater influence in negotiations with donors and other government departments, encourage a more rational approach to decision-making that will improve the operation of health services, and stimulate greater use of information at lower levels of the health system. The ability of information systems to deliver these benefits is critical to their sustainability. PMID:12378295

  10. Local biologies and HIV/AIDS in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    The province of Papua, Indonesia has one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in Asia. Within volatile political conditions, HIV has reached generalized epidemic status for indigenous Papuans. This article explores the merits of using the concept of local biologies as an analytic tool to assess the range of factors which affect a local pattern of untreated HIV and rapid onset of AIDS. A research team conducted 32 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive indigenous persons and 15 interviews with health care workers in urban and peri-urban sites in the central highlands region. The results show fear of gossip and stigmatization, regional political conditions and gaps in care interweave to create local biological conditions of evasion of care and rapid onset of AIDS. The normative emphasis in contemporary scholarship on stigma as shaping subjective responses to HIV needs to be complemented by a full assessment of the physiological impact of health services, and the ways political conditions trickle down and mediate local biological patterns. The concept of local biologies is highly effective for explaining the full scope of possible factors affecting the intersection of social and physical realms for HIV-positive persons.

  11. Antiparasitic activity of alkaloids from plant species of Papua New Guinea and Australia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Liza S; Sykes, Melissa L; Andrews, Katherine T; Avery, Vicky M

    2010-09-01

    New drugs are needed to help overcome the increasing problem of drug resistance in parasites that cause diseases such as malaria and trypanosomiasis. In this study, alkaloid compounds isolated from extracts of the plants Flindersia amboinensis, Stephania zippeliana and Voacanga papuana from Papua New Guinea and Flindersia acuminata from Australia were examined for their antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum strains and Trypanosoma brucei brucei as well as their cytotoxicity against the mammalian cell lines HEK 293 and HeLa. The most active compound, dimethylisoborreverine (DMIB), showed submicromolar activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values between 20 nM and 810 nM both against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant P. falciparum strains, along with moderate selectivity against T. b. brucei and mammalian cells. Stage specificity studies revealed that P. falciparum trophozoite-stage parasites were more susceptible to DMIB than ring- or schizont-stage parasites. DMIB-treated trophozoites showed changes in food vacuole morphology, with an apparent reduction in haemozoin formation that does not appear to be inhibited via the direct binding of haem. These findings suggest a potential for indole alkaloids from Flindersia spp. as new antiparasitic agents. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants participated in the randomised placebo controlled trial of IPTi. Mothers whose infants participated and who refused to participate in the trial, health workers, community reporters and opinion leaders were interviewed. Men and women from the local community also participated in focus group discussions. Results Respondents viewed IPTi as acceptable in light of wider concern for infant health and the advantages of trial participation. Mothers reported complying with at-home administration of IPTi due to perceived benefits of IPTi and pressure from health workers. In spite of patchy knowledge, respondents also demonstrated a demand for infant vaccinations and considered non-vaccination to be neglect. There is little evidence that IPTi has negative impacts on attitudes to EPI, EPI adherence or existing malaria prevention practices. Conclusion The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa: IPTi fits well with local health cultures, appears to be accepted easily and has little impact on attitudes towards EPI or malaria prevention. The study adds to the evidence indicating that IPTi could be rolled out in a range of social and cultural contexts. PMID:21176197

  14. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pell, Christopher; Straus, Lianne; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Lupiwa, Sebeya; Mueller, Ivo; Senn, Nicolas; Siba, Peter; Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert

    2010-12-22

    Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants participated in the randomised placebo controlled trial of IPTi. Mothers whose infants participated and who refused to participate in the trial, health workers, community reporters and opinion leaders were interviewed. Men and women from the local community also participated in focus group discussions. Respondents viewed IPTi as acceptable in light of wider concern for infant health and the advantages of trial participation. Mothers reported complying with at-home administration of IPTi due to perceived benefits of IPTi and pressure from health workers. In spite of patchy knowledge, respondents also demonstrated a demand for infant vaccinations and considered non-vaccination to be neglect. There is little evidence that IPTi has negative impacts on attitudes to EPI, EPI adherence or existing malaria prevention practices. The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa: IPTi fits well with local health cultures, appears to be accepted easily and has little impact on attitudes towards EPI or malaria prevention. The study adds to the evidence indicating that IPTi could be rolled out in a range of social and cultural contexts.

  15. Assessing women's understandings of health in rural Papua New Guinea: implications for health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Rachael; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG), women's health is addressed by applying biomedical solutions which often ignore the complexity of women's histories, cultural contexts and lived experiences. The objective of this study was to examine adult and older women's perceptions of health and well-being to identify priority areas for public service interventions. Rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in the Wosera district, a rural area of PNG from mid-2005 to early 2006, to examine the health concerns of women. Twenty-seven adult women and 10 older women participated in the study. Health was not limited to one aspect of a woman's life, such as their biology or maternal roles; it was also connected with the social, cultural and spiritual dimensions of women's daily existence. Participants also identified access to money and supportive interpersonal relationships as significant for good health. A disconnect was found to exist between women's understandings of good health and socio-political health policies in PNG, something likely to be repeated in health service delivery to different cultural groups across the Asia Pacific region. Health and development practitioners in PNG must become responsive to the complexity of women's social relationships and to issues relating to the context of women's empowerment in their programmes.

  16. Clinothem Lobe Growth and Possible Ties to Downslope Processes in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.; Slingerland, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Gulf of Papua is fed by the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the north, thus creating an ideal environment where end-member cases of river systems and their deltas (e.g. the large-floodplain Brazos River and the narrow-shelved Eel River) can be studied. Input from five rivers into the gulf has constructed a three-dimensional mid-shelf clinothem composed of three depositional lobes, with a central lobe downlapped by two younger lobes to the north and south. This geometry suggests that the three lobes are not syndepositional but rather that clinoform depocenters have shifted 60 km, thus bypassing adjacent accommodation. Newly examined CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic lines and XRF analysis of piston cores from the 2004 NSF MARGINS program reveal distinct lobes offshore that exhibit increased complexity moving shoreward. Evidence of shoreward complexity and lobe interfingering cause us to question the originally proposed mechanism for depocenter shift involving circulation changes. An alternative hypothesis that stems from distinct lobe architecture farther offshore suggests that channelized downslope processes and nearshore storage may play important roles in lobe growth.

  17. The Burden of Child Maltreatment Leading to Hospitalization in a Provincial Setting in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rero, Allanie; Aipit, Jimmy; Yarong-Kote, Tina; Watch, Villa; Bolnga, John W; Vei, Robert; Morris, Marilyn; Lufele, Elvin; Laman, Moses

    2016-08-01

    Child maltreatment is prevalent globally. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), child maltreatment remains an under-reported problem. As part of a 10 month prospective observational study conducted at Modilon Hospital in PNG, we investigated the burden of child maltreatment in the form of sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, leading to hospitalization in children ≤14 years. Of 1061 screened admissions, 107 (10%) fulfilled the definition of child maltreatment. The in-hospital admission prevalence of sexual abuse was 5.7% [60 of 1061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.4-7.3]. Neglect accounted for 3.4% (36 of 1061; 95% CI: 2.4-4.7) of admissions, while physical abuse accounted for 1.0% (11 of 1061; 95% CI: 0.6-1.9). Mortality was highest in the neglected group, with severe acute malnutrition accounting for 89% of deaths. Improved awareness, establishment of appropriate channels for addressing child maltreatment and enforcement of child protection laws in PNG and other epidemiologically similar settings are urgently needed. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The future of surgery in Papua New Guinea and the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Watters, D A

    1996-09-01

    Surgery in the South Pacific is different in many respects from surgery in Australia and New Zealand. It is primarily the surgery of trauma, infection, advanced malignancy, hollow-tube obstruction and congenital abnormalities. Specific tropical infections such as tuberculosis, typhoid, pigbel and amoebiasis occur regularly but constitute only a small proportion of all cases. The patients tend to be young, rural and poor, and often present late because access to surgical services is limited. The treatment patients receive is also compromised by a lack of resources--the result of underfunding and inefficient administration. Standards for appropriate surgical practice should be determined in-country and based at least on surgical audit and clinical studies. Even though Western diseases are emerging in the tropics, the best management may sometimes be different. Training of national surgeons is a priority if a sustainable surgical service is to be established. Such training is more effectively carried out in the home country, or at least in one with similar pathology and problems, rather than overseas. Project aid should support these schemes and encourage regional co-operation through the Fiji and Papua New Guinea medical schools. There remains an important role for visiting surgical specialists, but they need to ensure that they transfer skills and encourage the professional development of promising local doctors rather than simply focusing on treating patients.

  19. Short report: therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine combined with primaquine against Plasmodium falciparum in northeastern Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baird, J Kevin; Wiady, Iwa; Sutanihardja, Awalludin; Suradi; Purnomo; Basri, Hasan; Sekartuti; Ayomi, Ester; Fryauff, David J; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2002-06-01

    Chloroquine combined with primaquine was evaluated for therapy of uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in nonimmune Javanese migrants to northeastern Papua, Indonesia. Subjects were randomized to treatment with standard chloroquine therapy (25 mg/kg in 3 doses over the course of 48 hours) with 30 mg primaquine administered daily for 28 days (n = 25) or a placebo of primaquine (n = 28). The 14-day cumulative incidence of therapeutic failure was 56% with primaquine and 79% with placebo (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-1.3; P = 0.08). Primaquine administered daily created a marginally significant improvement in therapeutic efficacy at day 14, but not at day 7 (20% versus 36%; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-1.8; P = 0.2) or day 28 (82% versus 93%; OR, 0.31; 95% Cl, 0.04-2.1; P = 0.23). This report corroborates studies suggesting that therapeutic doses of primaquine exert no discernible effect on parasitemia by P. falciparum.

  20. Rapid onset of transmission-reducing antibodies in javanese migrants exposed to malaria in papua, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bousema, J Teun; Roeffen, Will; van der Kolk, Mike; de Vlas, Sake J; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Bangs, Michael J; Teelen, Karina; Kurniawan, Liliana; Maguire, Jason D; Baird, J Kevin; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2006-03-01

    Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is initiated by sexual stages in the mosquito. Anti-Pfs48/45 and anti-Pfs230 sexual stage antibodies that are ingested together with parasites can reduce parasite development and subsequently malaria transmission. Acquisition of sexual stage immunity was studied in a cohort of 102 non-immune Javanese individuals migrating to hyperendemic Papua Indonesia. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 and functional transmission-reducing activity (TRA) were measured upon arrival and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia were assessed every two weeks. The TRA and seroreactivity increased with the number of P. falciparum infections. The longitudinally sustained association between TRA and antibodies against Pfs48/45 (odds ratio [OR] = 3.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-9.29) and Pfs230 (OR = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.36-10.17) suggests that functional transmission reducing immunity is acquired after limited exposure to infection.

  1. Breastfeeding structure as a test of parental investment theory in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Tracer, David P

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary parental investment theory predicts that parents invest preferentially in offspring best able to translate investments into fitness payoffs. It has also been proposed that where the reproductive prospects of offspring are directly correlated with parental investment and variance in fertility is higher for males than females, parents in better condition should bias investment toward males while those in poorer condition should bias investment toward females. Lactation is arguably among the costliest forms of investment expended by mothers and is thus expected to be allocated in ways consistent with fitness payoffs. Quantitative data collected among 110 Papua New Guinean mother-infant pairs during 470 h of focal follows on nursing frequency and duration and responses to infant demands by maternal and offspring characteristics are presented to provide empirically-based descriptions of infant care and tests of evolutionary parental investment theory. Results indicate that mothers show very high levels of investment in offspring. However, although breastfeeding in developing countries is often characterized as on-demand, fussing and crying by infants were only attended to with breastfeeding about 30% of the time. Contrary to expectations of parental investment theory that parents should invest less in poorer quality offspring, mothers increased investment in offspring in poorer condition. The expectation that mothers in better condition would bias investment toward male offspring was also not supported; better nourished mothers biased investment toward female offspring. This study illustrates how infant feeding data may be used for testing larger evolutionary questions such as those derived from parental investment theory.

  2. Source properties of the 1998 July 17 Papua New Guinea tsunami based on tide gauge records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    We analysed four newly retrieved tide gauge records of the 1998 July 17 Papua New Guinea (PNG) tsunami to study statistical and spectral properties of this tsunami. The four tide gauge records were from Lombrum (PNG), Rabaul (PNG), Malakal Island (Palau) and Yap Island (State of Yap) stations located 600-1450 km from the source. The tsunami registered a maximum trough-to-crest wave height of 3-9 cm at these gauges. Spectral analysis showed two dominant peaks at period bands of 2-4 and 6-20 min with a clear separation at the period of ˜5 min. We interpreted these peak periods as belonging to the landslide and earthquake sources of the PNG tsunami, respectively. Analysis of the tsunami waveforms revealed 12-17 min delay in landslide generation compared to the origin time of the main shock. Numerical simulations including this delay fairly reproduced the observed tide gauge records. This is the first direct evidence of the delayed landslide source of the 1998 PNG tsunami which was previously indirectly estimated from acoustic T-phase records.

  3. Discrepancies between national maternal mortality data and international estimates: the experience of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mola, Glen; Kirby, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Over the past 30 years maternal mortality estimates for Papua New Guinea have varied widely. There is no mandatory vital registration in PNG, and 85% of the population live in rural areas with limited or no access to health services. Demographic Health Survey data for PNG estimates the maternal mortality ratio to be 370 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1996 and 733 in 2006, whereas estimates based upon mathematical models (as calculated by international bodies) gave figures of 930 for 1980 and 230 for 2010. This disparity has been a source of considerable confusion for health workers, policy makers and development partners. In this study, we compared 2009 facility-based survey data with figures from the national Health Information System records. The comparison revealed similar maternal mortality ratios: for provincial hospitals (245 and 295), government health centres (574 and 386), church agency health centres (624 and 624), and nationally (394 and 438). Synthesizing these estimates for supervised births in facilities and data on unsupervised births from a community-based survey in one province indicates a national MMR of about 500. Knowing the maternal mortality ratio is a necessary starting point for working out how to reduce it.

  4. Etiology of acute, non-malaria, febrile illnesses in Jayapura, northeastern Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Narain H; Taylor, Walter R J; Murphy, Gerald S; Purwaningsih, Sri; Picarima, Helena; Sisson, John; Olson, James G; Baso, Samuel; Wangsasaputra, Ferry; Lesmana, Murad; Oyofo, Buhari A; Simanjuntak, Cyrus H; Subekti, Decy; Corwin, Andrew L; Richie, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, inpatient fever study in malaria-endemic Papua, Indonesia to determine non-malaria fever etiologies. Investigations included malaria blood films, blood culture, paired serologic samples analysis for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, murine typhus, and spotted fever group rickettsia. During 1997-2000, 226 patients (127 males and 99 females) 1-80 years of age (median age = 25 years) were enrolled. Positive blood cultures (n = 34, 15%) were obtained for Salmonella Typhi (n = 13), Escherichia coli (n = 8), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 6), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 5), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 1), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). Twenty (8.8%) patients were positive for leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction. Eighty (35.4%) of 226 patients had ≥ 1 positive serology, diagnostic for 15 rickettsial and 9 dengue cases. Acid-fast bacilli-positive sputum was obtained from three patients. Most common confirmed (81 of 226, 35.8%)/suspected diagnoses were typhoid fever (n = 41), pneumonia (n = 29), leptospirosis (n = 28), urinary tract infections (n = 20), rickettsioses (n = 19), dengue (n = 17), and meningitis/encephalitis (n = 15). There were 17 deaths, 7 (46.7%) were caused by meningitis/encephalitis. Multiple positive serologic results and few confirmed diagnoses indicate the need for improved diagnostics.

  5. Tidal hydrodynamics and erosional power in the Fly River delta, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrelli, A.; Fagherazzi, S.; Defina, A.; Lanzoni, S.

    2010-12-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model is used to study tidal hydrodynamics and distribution of bed shear stresses in the Fly River delta, Papua New Guinea. The model describes the propagation of the tidal wave within the delta and along the river. Model results indicate that tidal discharge at the mouths of the distributary channels is between 10 and 30 times larger than the river discharge, and that the upstream part of the delta is flood-dominated, whereas near the mouth, the delta is ebb-dominated. Numerical simulations allow us to investigate the sensitivity of fluxes and bottom stresses with respect to the variations of sea level and the area of delta islands. The results suggest that a decrease in the total area of the delta occupied by islands increases the tidal prism and, therefore, the bed shear stresses. Similarly, an increase in sea level reduces the dissipation of the tidal signal and speeds up the propagation of the tidal wave within the delta, thus yielding higher discharges and increased bed shear stresses.

  6. MALARIA INFECTIONS ARE RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED IN DIVERSE HOLOENDEMIC AREAS OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA

    PubMed Central

    MEHLOTRA, RAJEEV K.; KASEHAGEN, LAURIN J.; BAISOR, MOSES; LORRY, KERRY; KAZURA, JAMES W.; BOCKARIE, MOSES J.; ZIMMERMAN, PETER A.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is holoendemic in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG), and interactions among Plasmodium species may influence prevalence of mixed infections. Previously, field samples from a cross-sectional survey in Dreikikir, East Sepik Province, analyzed by blood smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), showed that mixed infections were common and randomly distributed in this malaria endemic region. To evaluate further whether Plasmodium species distribution is random, blood smear– and PCR/sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe hybridization–based analyses of cross-sectional survey samples were conducted in 2 additional malaria holoendemic regions of northern PNG. Despite ecologic, species prevalence, and transmission season differences in these new surveys, all 4 Plasmodium species were found to be randomly distributed in each area; random distribution patterns also were observed when study populations were divided into age groups. These findings provide consistent evidence that Plasmodium species infections occur independently of one another in PNG malaria holoendemic sites. This independent occurrence suggests that age-dependent, acquired malaria immunity has limited influence on the distribution pattern of Plasmodium species infections in endemic human populations; infection by 1 human malaria parasite species does not reduce susceptibility to infection by others; and malaria vaccines would exhibit limited protection against blood-stage infection by heterologous Plasmodium species. PMID:12518843

  7. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    White, William T.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Sabub, Benthly; Kyne, Peter M.; Harris, Mark; Lis, Rickson; Baje, Leontine; Usu, Thomas; Smart, Jonathan J.; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100–105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL). The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia. PMID:26445387

  8. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    White, William T; Appleyard, Sharon A; Sabub, Benthly; Kyne, Peter M; Harris, Mark; Lis, Rickson; Baje, Leontine; Usu, Thomas; Smart, Jonathan J; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100-105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL). The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  10. Why increasing longevity may favour a PAYG pension system over a funded system.

    PubMed

    Ediev, Dalkhat M

    2014-03-01

    When pension systems are contrasted it is common to use simplified demographic models, such as overlapping generation models with time-invariant mortality. Breaking with this tradition, we show that for a population with increasing longevity, the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system may be more advantageous than a funded system (FS). Increasing longevity favours the PAYG system because for the workers living longer at retirement than current retirees, it is less costly to fund others' current pensions than their own. At present, the effect amounts to around 15 per cent in terms of the dependency ratio, or six more years at work in the FS, or 1 per cent per annum in terms of the real interest rate. In most developed countries the effect substantially exceeds that of the usually studied biological interest rate.

  11. The voice of Holland: Dutch public and patient's opinion favours single-port laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Sofie AF; Broeders, EPM; Stassen, LPS; Bouvy, ND

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Single-port laparoscopy is prospected as the future of minimal invasive surgery. It is hypothesised to cause less post operative pain, with a shorter hospitalisation period and improved cosmetic results. Population- and patient-based opinion is important for the adaptation of new techniques. This study aimed to assess the opinion and perception of a healthy population and a patient population on single-port laparoscopy compared with conventional laparoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous 33-item questionnaire, describing conventional and single-port laparoscopy, was given to 101 patients and 104 healthy volunteers. The survey participants (median age 44 years; range 17-82 years) were asked questions about their personal situation and their expectations and perceptions of the two different surgical techniques; conventional multi-port laparoscopy and single-port laparoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 72% of the participants had never heard of single-port laparoscopy before. The most important concern in both groups was the risk of surgical complications. When complication risks remain similar, 80% prefers single-port laparoscopy to conventional laparoscopy. When the risk of complications increases from 1% to 10%, 43% of all participants prefer single-port laparoscopy. A total of 70% of the participants are prepared to receive treatment in another hospital if single-port surgery is not performed in their hometown hospital. The preference for single-port approach was higher in the female population. CONCLUSION: Although cure and safety remain the main concerns, the population and patients group have a favourable perception of single-port surgery. The impact of public opinion and patient perception towards innovative techniques is undeniable. If the safety of the two different procedures is similar, this study shows a positive attitude of both participant groups in favour of single-port laparoscopy. However, solid scientific proof for the safety and

  12. Predictors of favourable outcome in young people with a first episode psychosis without antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Conus, Philippe; Cotton, Sue M; Francey, Shona M; O'Donoghue, Brian; Schimmelmann, Benno G; McGorry, Patrick D; Lambert, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Data from the literature suggests that some first episode psychosis (FEP) patients may recover without antipsychotic medication. There is however no reliable way to identify them. In a previous paper we found, in a cohort of 584 FEP patients, that those consistently refusing medication had poorer pre-morbid functioning, less insight, higher rate of substance use and poorer outcome. However, some medication refusers, had a favourable outcome. The study aim was to identify predictors of good short term outcome despite non-exposure to medication. The Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC) admitted 786 FEP patients between 1998 and 2000. Data were collected from patients' files using a standardized questionnaire. Data on medication adherence was available in 584 patients. Among the 17.9% of patients who consistently refused medication over the entire treatment phase we compared patients who had a favourable symptomatic and functional outcome with those who did not. Among patients who consistently refused medication, 41% achieved symptomatic remission and 33% reached functional recovery. Predictors of symptomatic remission were a better premorbid functioning level, higher education and employment status at baseline. Predictors of functional recovery were a shorter duration of the prodrome phase, less severe psychopathology at baseline and lower cannabis use. Despite limitations mainly linked to the fact that non-exposure to antipsychotic medication was based on patient's treatment refusal, this study identified some characteristics which may contribute to the identification of a sub-group of FEP patients who may have good short term outcome without antipsychotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of untreated bed nets on the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and Wuchereria bancrofti in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Burkot, T R; Garner, P; Paru, R; Dagoro, H; Barnes, A; McDougall, S; Wirtz, R A; Campbell, G; Spark, R

    1990-01-01

    The impact of untreated bed nets on the transmission of human malaria and filariasis in a village in a hyperendemic area of Papua New Guinea was studied. In anopheline mosquitoes, the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite antigen positivity rate, filarial infection rates and human blood indices dropped significantly after bed nets were introduced. This reduction in human-vector contact did not affect mosquito density as no significant difference in either landing rates or indoor resting catches was found. The number of bed nets in a house and ownership of dogs were factors significantly associated with a reduction in the number of indoor resting mosquitoes. However, the reduction in the P. falciparum sporozoite antigen rate in mosquitoes was not accompanied by a reduction in either malaria parasite or antibody prevalences or titres against the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein.

  14. Population structure of Bathymodiolus manusensis, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent-dependent mussel from Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Saleu, William; Carlsson, Jens; Schultz, Thomas F.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific are increasingly being assessed for their potential mineral wealth. To anticipate the potential impacts on biodiversity and connectivity among populations at these vents, environmental baselines need to be established. Bathymodiolus manusensis is a deep-sea mussel found in close association with hydrothermal vents in Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. Using multiple genetic markers (cytochrome C-oxidase subunit-1 sequencing and eight microsatellite markers), we examined population structure at two sites in Manus Basin separated by 40 km and near a potential mining prospect, where the species has not been observed. No population structure was detected in mussels sampled from these two sites. We also compared a subset of samples with B. manusensis from previous studies to infer broader population trends. The genetic diversity observed can be used as a baseline against which changes in genetic diversity within the population may be assessed following the proposed mining event. PMID:28852590

  15. Population structure of Bathymodiolus manusensis, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent-dependent mussel from Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Andrew D; Saleu, William; Carlsson, Jens; Schultz, Thomas F; Van Dover, Cindy L

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific are increasingly being assessed for their potential mineral wealth. To anticipate the potential impacts on biodiversity and connectivity among populations at these vents, environmental baselines need to be established. Bathymodiolus manusensis is a deep-sea mussel found in close association with hydrothermal vents in Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. Using multiple genetic markers (cytochrome C-oxidase subunit-1 sequencing and eight microsatellite markers), we examined population structure at two sites in Manus Basin separated by 40 km and near a potential mining prospect, where the species has not been observed. No population structure was detected in mussels sampled from these two sites. We also compared a subset of samples with B. manusensis from previous studies to infer broader population trends. The genetic diversity observed can be used as a baseline against which changes in genetic diversity within the population may be assessed following the proposed mining event.

  16. Infant mortality in a deprived area of Papua New Guinea: priorities for antenatal services and health education.

    PubMed

    Garner, P; Heywood, P; Baea, M; Lai, D; Smith, T

    1996-03-01

    This cross-sectional study of women was conducted in a deprived area of Papua New Guinea with an estimated infant mortality rate of 133/1000 live births. Mortality patterns derived from birth histories showed that neonatal deaths contribute proportionally more to infant mortality than postneonatal deaths, emphasizing the need for better care at delivery. To examine possible mechanisms for intervention, pregnant women were interviewed to determine patterns of antenatal clinic use, antimalarial drugs and micronutrient supplements given, and how much the women smoked. The results showed that the health system was failing to implement current routine supplementation and prophylaxis regimens, and that there was a need to revise national guidelines. A large proportion of pregnant women smoked during pregnancy, and this behaviour could be a target for future public health campaigns and health worker promotion advice to women.

  17. In Favour of Ethics Education, against Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillson, John

    2011-01-01

    The questions that I address are: "What ought to become of Religious Education (RE)?" and "To what extent do non-religious beliefs belong in RE?" I will argue that there are compelling reasons for studying religious and non-religious views alongside each other, but that there are serious objections to doing this in the context of any subject…

  18. Mummy Restoration Project Among the Anga of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G; Nelson, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We report on a unique Mummy restoration project among the anga of papua new guinea. Moimango was a village leader who had gone through the smoked body mummification process about 50 years ago. His smoked body has been displayed, alongside other ancestors, on a cliff niche gallery 308 m (1011 feet) above Koke Village. Although somewhat protected by an overhang, Moimango suffered a great deal of deterioration as he has been unprotected and exposed to the elements. The goals of our 2010 expedition to Koke Village was to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts applied to Moimango initiated by the authors and villagers of Koke in 2008. The restoration process used materials native to the local jungles. We examined Moimango for additional restoration challenges that may have arisen since the 2008 expedition. We discovered that many of the restoration techniques developed and applied in 2008 held up well. We found that the anatomical supports developed from native tapa and kumaka sap were still in place and effective, as well as our lichen eradication method of a suca slurry applied in 2008. Of particular importance was the stability of Moimago's head, which prior to restoration, was held in place by only the mummified muscle and integument of the lateral and posterior neck region. Endoscopic evaluation demonstrated disarticulated C1 and C2 vertebrae. New restoration challenges included construction of a new display chair, realignment and securing of the mandible, replacing and securing a loose tooth, repatching, and recoating with ritualistic red ochre clay. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  20. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.

  1. Meteorological Conditions Favouring Development of Urban Air Pollution Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Finardi, Sandro; Beekmann, Matthias; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Mahura, Alexander; Ginsburg, Alexander; Mažeikis, Adomas

    2013-04-01

    The causes of urban air pollution episodes are complex and depend on various factors including emissions, meteorological parameters, topography, atmospheric chemical processes and solar radiation. The relative importance of such factors is dependent on the geographical region, its surrounding emission source areas and the related climatic characteristics, as well as the season of the year. The key pollutants are PM10, PM2.5, O3 and NO2, as these cause the worst air quality problems in European cities. The main aim of this study realised within the MEGAPOLI project was to describe and quantify the influence of meteorological patterns on urban air pollution especially high-level concentrations air pollution episodes in megacities. Several European urban agglomerations and megacities, including the Po Valley, Helsinki, London, Paris, Moscow, Vilnius, were considered in the study. The study also carried out analysis of meteorological patterns leading to urban air pollution episodes considered by the development of suitable indicators linking particular meteorological conditions/ parameters to increased air pollution levels in the urban areas. These indicators constitute a useful tool for regulators in suggesting effective policies and mitigation measures. Finally, a combination of modelling and analysis of observations data can allow both the quality assurance of the new parameterisations as well as the verification of input emissions.

  2. Industry sponsored research may report more favourable outcomes.

    PubMed

    Balevi, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Medline and the Cochrane Database of systematic reviews between January 1993 and December 2008. Hand search of 12 different dental journals (Journal of Periodontology, International Dental Journal, British Dental Journal, Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology, Journal Canadian Dental Association, Swedish Dental Journal, Quintessence International, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Periodontology 2000, Clinical Oral Implant Research, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Prosthodontic, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry). Language restricted to English. Primary articles from systematic reviews that specifically studied the length of survival of dental implants. Primary studies were extracted from reviews for which the following information was available: the failure rate of dental implants, publication year, journal Impact Factor, prosthetic design periodontal status, number of dental implants included in the study, methodological quality of studies, presence of a statistical advisor and financial sponsorship. Univariant quasi-Poisson regression and multivariate analysis were used to identity variables that were significantly associated with failure rates. Two independent reviewers identified five systematic reviews from which 41 analysable trials were extracted (Kappa 0.90; 95%CI 0.77 - 1.00). The mean annual failure rate estimate for all trials was 1.09% (95%CI 0.84 - 1.42). The mean annual failure rate estimate of non-industry funded trials was 2.74% (95%CI 1.14 - 6.55). Four trials (10%) reported non-industry funding sources. The funding source was not reported in 26 trials (63%). 27 trials (66%) were considered to have a risk of bias. Given study age, both industry associated (OR= 0.21; 95%CI 0.12 - 0.38) and unknown funding sources trials (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.21 - 0.51) had a lower annual failure rate compared with non-industry associated trials. A conflict of interest statement was provided in 2

  3. Breast shape (ptosis) as a marker of a woman's breast attractiveness and age: Evidence from Poland and Papua.

    PubMed

    Groyecka, Agata; Żelaźniewicz, Agnieszka; Misiak, Michał; Karwowski, Maciej; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-07-08

    A women's breast is a sex-specific and aesthetic bodily attribute. It is suggested that breast morphology signals maturity, health, and fecundity. The perception of a woman's attractiveness and age depends on various cues, such as breast size or areola pigmentation. Conducted in Poland and Papua, the current study investigated how breast attractiveness, and the further estimate of a woman's age based on her breast's appearance, is affected by the occurrence of breast ptosis (ie, sagginess, droopiness). In the Polish sample, 57 women and 50 men (N = 107) were presented with sketches of breasts manipulated to represent different stages of ptosis based on two different breast ptosis classifications. The participants were asked to rate the breast attractiveness and age of the woman whose breasts were depicted in each sketch. In Papua, 45 men aged 20 to 75 years took part in the study, which was conducted using only one of the classifications of breast ptosis. Regardless of the classification used, the results showed that the assessed attractiveness of the breasts decreased as the estimated age increased with respect to the more ptotic breasts depicted in the sketches. The results for Papuan raters were the same as for the Polish sample. Breast ptosis may be yet another physical trait that affects the perception and preferences of a potential sexual partner. The consistency in ratings between Polish and Papuan raters suggests that the tendency to assess ptotic breasts with aging and a loss of attractiveness is cross-culturally universal. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of the Global Fund-supported National Malaria Control Program in Papua New Guinea, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Pulford, Justin; Maraga, Seri; Barnadas, Celine; Reimer, Lisa J; Tavul, Livingstone; Jamea-Maiasa, Sharon; Tandrapah, Tony; Maalsen, Anna; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is the major funaer Of the National Malaria Control Program in Papua New Guinea (PNG). One of the requirements of a Global Fund grant is the regular and accurate reporting of program outcomes and impact. Under-performance as well as failure to report can result in reduction or discontinuation of program funding. While national information systems should be in a position to provide accurate and comprehensive information for program evaluation, systems in developing countries are often insufficient. This paper describes the five-year plan for the evaluation of the Global Fund Round 8 malaria grant to PNG (2009-2014) developed by the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). It builds on a complementary set of studies including national surveys and sentinel site surveillance for the assessment of program outcomes and impact. The PNGIMR evaluation plan is an integral part of the Global Fund grant. The evaluation program assesses intervention coverage (at individual, household and health facility levels), antimalarial drug efficacy, indicators of malaria transmission and morbidity (prevalence, incidence), and all-cause mortality. Operational research studies generate complementary information for improving the control program. Through the evaluation, PNGIMR provides scientific expertise to the PNG National Malaria Control Program and contributes to building local capacity in monitoring and evaluation. While a better integration of evaluation activities into routine systems would be desirable, it is unlikely that sufficient capacity for data analysis and reporting could be established at the National Department of Health (NDoH) within a short period of time. Long-term approaches should aim at strengthening the national health information system and building sufficient capacity at NDoH for routine analysis and reporting, while more complex scientific tasks can be supported by the PNGIMR as the de facto

  5. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4) perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to disadvantage

  6. Plastic Traits of an Exotic Grass Contribute to Its Abundance but Are Not Always Favourable

    PubMed Central

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C4 perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C∶N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C∶N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to

  7. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis: can we expect a favourable outcome?

    PubMed

    Panda, Naresh K; Simhadri, Sridhar; Sridhara, Suryanarayana Rao

    2004-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is an uncommon, progressive, destructive soft tissue infection of mixed aerobic and anaerobic organisms, having high mortality if left untreated (22 to 100 per cent). This study makes an attempt to analyse various factors and management methods determining the overall prognosis. A retrospective analysis of all cases of necrotizing fasciitis involving the head and neck, with exclusion of those involving the eyelid and the scalp, was undertaken. Various parameters such as demography, aetiology, complications, management and outcome were studied. Males outnumbered the females with the latter having a greater risk of involvement after 60 years. Odontogenic infection was the primary source of infection. Anaerobes were cultured in seven out of 17 cases, with six others showing mixed Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Anaemia was the most commonly associated illness, with diabetes affecting four out of 17 cases. Aggressive surgical debridement with triple antibiotic therapy was used in the management of necrotizing fasciitis with an overall mortality of 11.8 per cent. Patients having late referral, anaemia and one or other complication had increased duration of total hospital stay. Better results can be obtained with proper control of infection by early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement and triple antibiotic therapy, along with timely control of complications and associated illnesses.

  8. Revitalisation of Indigenous Languages in Education: Contextualising the Papua New Guinea Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    2003-01-01

    Situates two papers on Papua New Guinea in the context of discussion about maintenance and revitalization of endangered languages and about education through the medium of indigenous and minority languages. The articles are "What Is Our Culture? What Is Our Language? Dialogue Towards the Maintenance of Indigenous Culture and Language in Papua…

  9. Evaluating the Professional Learning for "Cultural Mathematics" in Papua New Guinea's Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bino, Vagi; Sakopa, Priscilla; Tau, Kila; Kull, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative data are both being used to evaluate a large project in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. Results from teacher and student questionnaires are yet to be evaluated. The responses from teachers participating in the project workshops are reported here to be extremely positive towards the content and delivery of the…

  10. Modernity, Prestige, and Self-Promotion: Literacy in a Papua New Guinean Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Eamonn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine patterns of literacy use in the daily life a rural community in the Papua New Guinea highlands. It is demonstrated that many of these practices do not correspond to the ways in which agencies responsible for imparting literacy, particularly the local school, intend. Instead, village concepts of prestige, chance, and…

  11. Colonial Legacies and Neo-Colonial Practices in Papua New Guinean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Rooney, Dick

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the Westernization of academic quality within the Papua New Guinea higher education system and the hybridity of the university sector where different actors force knowledge to be created for the needs of a small, formal economy, rather than for the development needs of the country. The country has yet to find a system that best…

  12. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Fanu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various…

  13. The Challenges in Developing a Mathematics Curriculum for Training Elementary Teachers in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagi, Oneau; Green, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    As Papua New Guinea undergoes a period of major education reform that includes the establishment of an elementary education programme, the development of an elementary teacher education curriculum is proving to be a challenging task. As a background this paper provides contextual information about the elementary education programme and highlights…

  14. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  15. Negotiating Individualistic and Collectivist Futures: Emerging Subjectivities and Social Forms in Papua New Guinean High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that Papua New Guinea high school students' academic disengagement results from emerging personal subjectivities and new social networks. Ethnographic research highlights the authority students attribute to their perceptions of limited opportunity structures facing them and the idealized village-based egalitarian student identity being…

  16. Learning to Lead: A Social Justice Perspective on Understanding Elementary Teacher Leadership in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne; Scholes, Laura; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie; Cook, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Leadership in elementary education is currently recognized as a political imperative in Papua New Guinea (PNG), as the nation develops strategies towards equitable access to schooling. One recent initiative aimed at building educational leadership was an intensive Australian Leadership Award Fellowship (ALAF) program funded by AusAID, involving a…

  17. Knowledge Flow and Capacity Development: A Case of Psychology in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marai, Leo; Haihuie, Samuel; Kavanamur, David

    2005-01-01

    Despite political rhetoric to the contrary, higher education (HE) in Papua New Guinea remains heavily Westernized, resulting in an alienation of HE, and its students, from the development needs of the country. Taking the discipline of psychology as an example, indigenization is not a complete solution to this alienation, since many of the issues…

  18. Learning Science in a High School Learning Environment in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najike, Samuel; McRobbie, Campbell; Lucas, Keith

    This paper reports on the classroom learning environment and teaching practices in a Papua New Guinea ninth-grade science class and the conflict between the informal, traditional learning paradigm and new school approaches to science teaching. Observations and interviews with teachers and four students were supplemented with questionnaires and…

  19. The Conundrum of Educational Provision and the Application of Performativity and Technology in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Heidegger's philosophy of technology demonstrates how technology acts as an agent of performativity within the school system serving the interests of the state and global economy. Papua New Guinea provides an example of how performativity and technology have become entrenched in a non-Western developing nation, usurped traditional education, and…

  20. Vernacular Education and Development: Dilemmas, Struggles and Innovations in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process by which the Maiwala community in Papua New Guinea designed an elementary school curriculum that recognizes the need for Western-style education in order to communicate with the outside world, but focuses on vernacular education that makes the curriculum culturally relevant and meaningful to the community. (Contains 36…

  1. Subsidies, Selectivity and the Returns to Education in Urban Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, John; Fatai, Osaiasi Koliniusi

    2006-01-01

    There is debate about whether the rate of return to education in developing countries declines with the level of schooling. This paper reports evidence from urban Papua New Guinea which shows that the average private rate of return to an additional year of education rises with the level of education considered. This pattern is robust to the…

  2. Professional Learning for Cultural Mathematics in Papua New Guinea's Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay; Edmonds-Wathen, Cris; Kravia, Geori; Sakopa, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    A design of principles for teacher professional learning was developed to improve the teaching of "Cultural Mathematics" in elementary schools in Papua New Guinea. The design's appropriateness for PNG elementary schools is the focus of the research implemented through week-long workshops using technology enhancement. Implementation has…

  3. Clonal origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains, Papua New Guinea, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Collins, Deirdre; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Rosewell, Alexander; Dutta, Samir R; Dagina, Rosheila; Ropa, Berry; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R

    2011-11-01

    We used multilocus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeat analysis to determine the clonal origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains from an outbreak of cholera that began in 2009 in Papua New Guinea. The epidemic is ongoing, and transmission risk is elevated within the Pacific region.

  4. Prevalence of henipavirus and rubulavirus antibodies in pteropid bats, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Breed, Andrew C; Yu, Meng; Barr, Jennifer A; Crameri, Gary; Thalmann, Claudia M; Wang, Lin Fa

    2010-12-01

    To determine seroprevalence of viruses in bats in Papua New Guinea, we sampled 66 bats at 3 locations. We found a seroprevalence of 55% for henipavirus (Hendra or Nipah virus) and 56% for rubulavirus (Tioman or Menangle virus). Notably, 36% of bats surveyed contained antibodies to both types of viruses, indicating concurrent or consecutive infection.

  5. Failure of a massive earthquake-induced landslide dam in Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J. P.; Loveday, I. C.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the recent occurrence of a large earthquake-induced landslide that dammed the Bairaman River in the interior of hte island of New Britian, Papua New Guinea, and the subsequent overtopping and failure of this landslide dam. 

  6. Teaching the Pragmatics of Accounts-Payable Letters in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, James

    The development of a course in English letter-writing for workers in the accounts-payable departments of Papua New Guinea businesses is described. The needs assessment involved extensive discussion with company staff and their supervisors, collection and analysis of letters recently produced by that staff, and development of a diagnostic test. It…

  7. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  8. Country Education Profiles: Australia, and Australia-Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Australia and Australian Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island). Statistics…

  9. Quantitative Concepts, Vernacular, and Education in Papua New Guinea. E.R.U. Report 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John

    This report represents an attempt made by the field staff of a Summer Institute of Linguistics at the University of Papua New Guinea to improve the existing educational programs, which, by and large, are centrally produced in an expatriate-dominated context, and administered country-wide. Based on the assumption that language and social structure…

  10. The Costs of Children: Perceptions of Australian and Papua New Guinean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Jeffrey; Callan, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the perceptions of 281 Papua New Guinean students and 329 Australian students of the economic and psychological costs of having children. Australians gave high ratings to the importance of financial and emotional costs, while New Guinea students were more aware of overpopulation and restrictions on parents. (JAC)

  11. Predominance of modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and active transmission of Beijing sublineage in Jayapura, Indonesia Papua.

    PubMed

    Chaidir, Lidya; Sengstake, Sarah; de Beer, Jessica; Oktavian, Antonius; Krismawati, Hana; Muhapril, Erfin; Kusumadewi, Inri; Annisa, Jessi; Anthony, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Marzuki, Sangkot; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype distribution is different between West and Central Indonesia, but there are no data on the most Eastern part, Papua. We aimed to identify the predominant genotypes of M. tuberculosis responsible for tuberculosis in coastal Papua, their transmission, and the association with patient characteristics. A total of 199 M. tuberculosis isolates were collected. Spoligotyping was applied to describe the population structure of M. tuberculosis, lineage identification was performed using a combination of lineage-specific markers, and genotypic clusters were identified using a combination of 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among isolates based on their spoligopatterns. Strains from modern lineage 4 made up almost half of strains (46.9%), being more abundant than the ancient lineage 1 (33.7%), and modern lineage 2 (19.4%). Thirty-five percent of strains belonged to genotypic clusters, especially strains in the Beijing genotype. Previous TB treatment and mutations associated with drug resistance were more common in patients infected with strains of the Beijing genotype. Papua shows a different distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes compared to other parts of Indonesia. Clustering and drug resistance of modern strains recently introduced to Papua may contribute to the high tuberculosis burden in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  13. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  14. The Costs of Children: Perceptions of Australian and Papua New Guinean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Jeffrey; Callan, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the perceptions of 281 Papua New Guinean students and 329 Australian students of the economic and psychological costs of having children. Australians gave high ratings to the importance of financial and emotional costs, while New Guinea students were more aware of overpopulation and restrictions on parents. (JAC)

  15. Report of the Advisory Committee on Education in Papua and New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of External Territories, Canberra.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the Committee's recommendations for upgrading education in the Australian territories of New Guinea and Papua. These recommendations were made with the intention of achieving higher standards of education, a professional body of teachers, a more effective use of limited…

  16. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  17. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  18. Subsidies, Selectivity and the Returns to Education in Urban Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, John; Fatai, Osaiasi Koliniusi

    2006-01-01

    There is debate about whether the rate of return to education in developing countries declines with the level of schooling. This paper reports evidence from urban Papua New Guinea which shows that the average private rate of return to an additional year of education rises with the level of education considered. This pattern is robust to the…

  19. Gold--Its Extraction and the Environment: Experiences in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mike; Owens, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the mining of gold has impacted the development of both Australia and Papua, New Guinea. Outlines the essential chemistry of small scale mining, the impact of gold on the economy, and the environmental effect of mercury on both the miners and the environment. (Author/CCM)

  20. Explaining Mathematics Achievement of Mature Internal and External Students at the University of Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeley, Gurcham S.

    1993-01-01

    Develops a causal model that explains over 40% of the variance in matriculation mathematics achievement of mature internal and external students at the University of Papua New Guinea. Background variables seem more important in the learning of mathematics compared to mediating variables for external students than for internal students. (MDH)

  1. Language Choice in an Acutely Multilingual Society: Communication and Development in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoff P.

    Acute intercultural communication problems posed by multilingualism in Papua New Guinea are discussed, and ways in which they are being addressed are examined. An introductory section outlines the language situation in Melanesia. It is noted that the area's language diversity and colonization and missionary activity have resulted in the emergence…

  2. Structural Framework for Higher Education Open and Distance Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrioux, Dominique A. M. X.

    Realizing the critical need to dramatically improve access to higher education in Papua New Guinea, and the impossibility for traditional modes of education to adequately address this situation given major economic and geographic variables in that country, the National Higher Education Plan 11 (2000-2004) assigned a primordial role to the …

  3. Elementary Teacher Education in Papua New Guinea: Towards a Culturally Connected Perspective of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahambu, Casper; Brownlee, Joanne M.; Petriwskyj, E. Anne

    2012-01-01

    Global and national agendas for quality education have led to reforms in Papua New Guinea's (PNG) elementary education, but criticism of the learner-centred Western pedagogies has emerged. One key influence on quality teacher education relates to perspectives of teaching. Existing research shows teachers' beliefs and perceptions of teaching…

  4. Natural selection can favour ‘irrational’ behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, J. M.; Trimmer, P. C.; Houston, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory. However, we show that an individual that is maximizing its rate of food gain can exhibit failure of transitivity and IIA. We show that such violations can be caused because a current option may disappear in the near future or a better option may reappear soon. Current food options can be indicative of food availability in the near future, and this key feature can result in apparently irrational behaviour. PMID:24429682

  5. Rapid Kinematic and Tectonic Variations Along the 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark Plate Boundary Zone, Papua New Guinea and Woodlark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Gahagan, L.; Watson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown the wide variability in present-day plate motions across the highly arcuate, 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark plate boundary extending from Papua New Guinea to the Solomon Islands. GPS-determined motions range from orthogonal oceanic spreading in the Woodlark basin, to continental transtension in the 2.5-km-high core complex area of easternmost Papua New Guinea, to continental strike-slip and transpression in 4-km-high mountains of the Papuan Peninsula. We use imagery, earthquake focal mechanisms, coral reef uplift data, and structural mapping studies to establish the along-strike continuity of the active plate boundary fault. Systematic angular changes in the direction of the plate vector along this continuous fault explain its varied tectonic geomorphology, Holocene uplift history, and geologic structure. We use a series of plate reconstructions to illustrate the longer term, Cenozoic evolution of this boundary including: its formation as an arcuate, N- and NE-dipping ophiolitic suture zone during Paleogene time, the progressive "unzippering" of this thrust over the past 6 Ma along a N- and NE-dipping, low-angle normal fault in easternmost Papua New Guinea, and its "zippering" or continued shortening on the suture thrust in the Owen Stanley Ranges of the Papuan Peninsula. Over the 1400-km-length of the fault, the length of segments of oceanic spreading, transtension, and transpression is 250-500 km; the time period separating one tectonic style from the succeeding style encroaching from the east is several million years. This systematic spatial and temporal superposition of tectonic styles, leads to complex - but predictable - along-strike variations in geologic history.

  6. Differential detection of Trichinella papuae, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis by real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Boonmars, Thidarut; Wu, Zhiliang; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-04-30

    Trichinellosis caused by nematodes of Trichinella spp. is a zoonotic foodborne disease. Three Trichinella species of the parasite including Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella papuae and Trichinella pseudospiralis, have been etiologic agents of human trichinellosis in Thailand. Definite diagnosis of this helminthiasis is based on a finding of the Trichinella larva (e) in a muscle biopsy. The parasite species or genotype can be determined using molecular methods, e.g., polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study has utilized real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR (real-time FRET PCR) and a melting curve analysis for the differential diagnosis of trichinellosis. Three common Trichinella species in Thailand were studied using one set of primers and fluorophore-labeled hybridization probes specific for the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene. Using fewer than 35 cycles as the cut-off for positivity and using different melting temperatures (T(m)), this assay detected T. spiralis, T. papuae and T. pseudospiralis in muscle tissue and found the mean T(m) ± SD values to be 51.79 ± 0.06, 66.09 ± 0.46 and 51.46 ± 0.09, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the technique enabled the detection of a single Trichinella larva of each species, and the detection limit for the target DNA sequence was 16 copies of positive control plasmid. A test of the technique's analytical specificity showed no fluorescence signal for a panel of 19 non-Trichinella parasites or for human and mouse genomic DNA. Due to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of these Trichinella species, as well as the fast and high-throughput nature of these tools, this method has application potential in differentiating non-encapsulated larvae of T. papuae from T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis in tissues of infected humans and animals.

  7. [Emerging Acinetobacter baumannii infections and factors favouring their occurrence].

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Joly-Guillou, M-L

    2012-10-01

    During the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) has been increasingly responsible for infections occurring in three particular contexts (in terms of patients and environment). Community AB pneumonia is severe infections, mainly described around the Indian Ocean, and which mainly concern patients with major co-morbidities. AB is also responsible for infections occurring among soldiers wounded in action during operations conducted in Iraq or Afghanistan. Lastly, this bacterium is responsible for infections occurring among casualties from natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis. Those infections are often due to multidrug-resistant strains, which can be implicated in nosocomial outbreaks when patients are hospitalized in a local casualty department or during their repatriation thereafter. The source of the contaminations which lead to AB infections following injuries (warfare or natural disasters) is still poorly known. Three hypotheses are usually considered: a contamination of wounds with environmental bacteria, a wound contamination from a previous cutaneous or oropharyngeal endogenous reservoir, or hospital acquisition. The implication of telluric or agricultural primary reservoirs in human AB infections is a common hypothesis which remains to be demonstrated by further specifically designed studies.

  8. HPV status and favourable outcome in vulvar squamous cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Katie; Kavanagh, Kim; Cuschieri, Kate; Millan, David; Pollock, Kevin G; Bell, Sarah; Burton, Kevin; Reed, Nicholas S; Graham, Sheila V

    2017-03-01

    It is universally accepted that high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer. More recently, it has been shown that HPV is also a marker of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer. However, contemporary information is lacking on both the prevalence of HPV infection in vulvar cancer (VSCC), its precursor lesion, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and the influence of HPV-status on the prognosis of this malignancy. We have conducted a detailed population-based study to examine rates of progression of VIN to VSCC, type-specific HPV prevalence in vulvar disease and the influence of HPV status on clinical outcome in VSCC. We observed that the age at which women are diagnosed with VSCC is falling and there is a significant time gap between first diagnosis of VIN and progression to invasive disease. HR-HPV infection was detected in 87% (97/112) cases of VIN and 52% cases (32/62) of VSCC. The presence of HR-HPV in squamous intraepithelial lesion was associated with lower rates of progression to invasive cancer (hazard ratio, 0.22, p = 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, HR-HPV was associated with improved progression-free survival of VSCC compared to those with HPV negative tumours (hazard ratio, 0.32, p = 0.02).

  9. Atmospheric and oceanologic conditions favouring large bioproduction of northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Supić, Nastjenjka

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study based on long term data collected in the northern Adriatic relieved winter period to be crucial for the total annual zooplankton production in the region. Namely, yearly averages of some investigated zooplankton species in the 2000-2007 interval were highly related to their February and/or March abundances. The large winter zooplankton abundances appeared in winters of the "A type", in which freshened waters from the Po River spread over the region. Also, the production of phytoplankton was in winters of the "A type" higher than in winters of the "B type", in which these waters are restricted to the coastal areas and do not impact the open sea. That was presumably due to increase in nutrients. In fact, the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate concentration in eastern part reached maximal February values in the 1990-2007 interval in winters of the "A type". Spreading of the Po River water across the northern Adriatic and appearance of the two winter types depends on the existing geostrophic circulation patterns and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions in the preceding months, thus enabling forecast. Obtained results are basis for the future theoretical ecological model which can explain long term changes in bioproduction in the region and be used in planning future environment actions aimed to sustained development, especially as winter phytoplankton and zooplankton production seems to reflect on annual catch of small pelagic fish important for Adriatic fishery, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

  10. [In favour of a systemic vision of liaison psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Cottencin, O; Versaevel, C; Goudemand, M

    2006-01-01

    One of the problems of consultation-liaison psychiatry is the absence of request of the patient. Indeed, the patients do not recognize their disorder and prefer to go to the emergency unit in a general hospital. Thus, we meet in the emergency unit or in medical unit (liaison psychiatry activity). This is the reason why this first meeting has to be prepared. Consultation-liaison Psychiatry proposes to provide medical staff with the competences developed by psychiatry, and the denomination: Consultation and Liaison Psychiatry, indicates the bipolarity of its practice according to whether the intervention is addressed to the patient (consultation) or to the staff (liaison). However collaboration is sometimes difficult and the psychiatrist often meets with resistance. This is the reason why psychiatrists must work on their integration in the general hospital. Indeed, the psychiatrist works in an institution which is unfamiliar and he/she must adapt and create new practices if it is going to work. It is now clearly established that consultation-liaison psychiatry is not limited to consultations with patients, but is based on collaboration with medical staff. There are various ways of studying human problems: psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, behavioural therapy. It is also possible to focus interest on the communication between individuals. The systemic therapies are interested in the interactions more than with any other aspect of reality, and this always from a pragmatic point of view. This concept is based on a series of designs. First of all, an intervention by problem solving aims at a change: the question is to know how a problem is maintained, hic et nunc. Secondly, humans are a sum of training by tests and errors. Finally, what we call reality is only our perception of reality: the human conflicts emerge when two persons assign a different direction to a reality which is perceived jointly. The human relationship can be defined as interaction circles, which we

  11. A possible role for rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs in spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Reid, S; Husein, A; Hutchinson, G; Copeman, D

    1999-01-01

    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  12. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  13. Pulse compression favourable aperiodic infrared imaging approach for non-destructive testing and evaluation of bio-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Dua, Geetika; Arora, Vanita; Siddiqui, Juned A.; Muniyappa, Amarnath

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, aperiodic, transient pulse compression favourable infrared imaging methodologies demonstrated as reliable, quantitative, remote characterization and evaluation techniques for testing and evaluation of various biomaterials. This present work demonstrates a pulse compression favourable aperiodic thermal wave imaging technique, frequency modulated thermal wave imaging technique for bone diagnostics, especially by considering the bone with tissue, skin and muscle over layers. In order to find the capabilities of the proposed frequency modulated thermal wave imaging technique to detect the density variations in a multi layered skin-fat-muscle-bone structure, finite element modeling and simulation studies have been carried out. Further, frequency and time domain post processing approaches have been adopted on the temporal temperature data in order to improve the detection capabilities of frequency modulated thermal wave imaging.

  14. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  15. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  16. Magmas and reservoirs beneath the Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Huber, C.

    2013-12-01

    The area of Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) consists of at least seven - possibly nine - nested-calderas that have formed over the past 200 ky. The last caldera-forming eruption occurred 1400 y BP, and produced about 10 km3 of crystal-poor, two-pyroxene dacite. Since then, five effusive and explosive eruptive episodes have occurred from volcanic centres along the caldera rim. The most recent of these was preceded by decade-long unrest (starting in 1971) until the simultaneous eruption of Vulcan and Tavurvur, two vents on opposite sides of the caldera in 1994. Most eruptive products are andesitic in composition and show clear signs of mixing/mingling between a basalt and a high-K2O dacite. The hybridization is in the form of banded pumices, quenched mafic enclaves, and hybrid bulk rock compositions. In addition, the 1400 y BP caldera-related products show the presence of a third mixing component; a low-K2O rhyodacitic melt or magma. Geochemical modeling considering major and trace elements and volatile contents shows that the high-K2O dacitic magma can be generated by fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma at shallow depths (~7 km, 200 MPa) and under relatively dry conditions (≤3 wt% H2O). The low-K2O rhyodacitic melt can either be explained by extended crystallization at low temperatures (e.g. in the presence of Sanidine) or the presence of an additional, unrelated magma. Our working model is therefore that basalts ascend to shallow crustal levels before intruding a main silicic reservoir beneath the Rabaul caldera. Storage depths and temperatures estimated from volatile contents, mineral-melt equilibria and rock densities suggest that basalts ascend from ~20 km (~600 MPa) to ~7 km (200 MPa) and cool from ~1150-1100°C before intruding a dacitic magma reservoir at ~950°C. Depending on the state of the reservoir and the volumes of basalt injected, the replenishing magma may either trigger an eruption or cool and crystallize. We use evidence from major and

  17. Health insurance and medical schemes in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ambihaipahar, U; Sivakumaran, S

    1996-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is an independent nation in the Pacific region. It is located due north of Australia. It is made up of a main island and about 100 smaller islands in the Bismark and Solomon Seas, to the north and east of the main island. The population of PNG is about 4.0 million, the total land area approximately 463,840 sq km and population density 8/square km. Only about 15% of the population is urban, average household size is 5.4 and 45.1% literate. Politically and administratively, it is divided into nineteen provinces and a National Capital District. Since 85% of the population lives in rural areas, the provision of services to the rural areas is constrained by difficult terrain, poor infrastructure and geographic dispersion of the rural population. PNG is a developing Pacific nation with an economy largely based on primary and mining industries. According to the 1993 World Bank estimates, more than 30% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is derived from agriculture. The expenditure on health, as a percentage of the GDP, was 2.8% in 1989, (Table 1). This is low compared to developed nations (ranging from 8% to 14%), but very reasonable compared to the rest of the developing world. Indonesia for example expends 2.7% of GDP on health care. All government expenditures declined sharply in the post 1989 period, including health care expenditures. However, by 1989, the expenditure per capita on health was almost back to 1986 levels. PNG has a small population base relative to the other countries in its World Bank peer group. However, its per capita GDP is reasonable at US$850, the third highest amongst its group and higher than Indonesia, for example, which is US$700/head. Like almost all countries in its gorup, it experienced a negative growth rate over the decade 1980-1991 but kept inflation at a reasonable 5.2% for the same period. On most other indicators PNG fares reasonably well, in comparison with other developing nations (Tables 2 & 3).

  18. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties of coadministered azithromycin and piperaquine in pregnant Papua New Guinean women.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brioni R; Benjamin, John M; Auyeung, Siu On; Salman, Sam; Yadi, Gumul; Griffin, Suzanne; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Batty, Kevin T; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Rogerson, Stephen J; Davis, Timothy Me

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of coadministered azithromycin (AZI) and piperaquine (PQ) for treating malaria in pregnant Papua New Guinean women. Thirty pregnant women (median age 22 years; 16-32 weeks' gestation) were given three daily doses of 1 g AZI plus 960 mg PQ tetraphosphate with detailed monitoring/blood sampling over 42 days. Plasma AZI and PQ were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis was by population-based compartmental models. The treatment was well tolerated. The median (interquartile range) increase in the rate-corrected electrocardiographic QT interval 4 h postdose [12 (6-26) ms(0) (.5) ] was similar to that found in previous studies of AZI given in pregnancy with other partner drugs. Six women with asymptomatic malaria cleared their parasitaemias within 72 h. Two apararasitaemic women developed late uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections on Days 42 and 83. Compared with previous pregnancy studies, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ) for PQ [38818 (24354-52299) μg h l(-1) ] was similar to published values but there was a 52% increase in relative bioavailability with each dose. The AUC0-∞ for AZI [46799 (43526-49462) μg h l(-1) ] was at least as high as reported for higher-dose regimens, suggesting saturable absorption and/or concentration-dependent tissue uptake and clearance from the central compartment. AZI-PQ appears to be well tolerated and safe in pregnancy. Based on the present/other data, total AZI doses higher than 3 g for the treatment and prevention of malaria may be unnecessary in pregnant women, while clearance of parasitaemia could improve the relative bioavailability of PQ. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. A new, widely distributed species of the Exocelina ekari-group from West Papua (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdo, Helena; Panjaitan, Rawati; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exocelina manokwariensis sp. n. from West Papua is placed into the Exocelina ekari-group based on the structure of its male genitalia. The new species is described, including its three subspecies, from the mainland of West Papua, Waigeo Island, Batanta and Salawati Islands, and Bomberai peninsula. An identification key to the subspecies as well as data on species distribution are provided. PMID:26877680

  20. Ethical challenges in integrating patient-care with clinical research in a resource-limited setting: perspectives from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings where healthcare services are limited and poverty is common, it is difficult to ethically conduct clinical research without providing patient-care. Therefore, integration of patient-care with clinical research appears as an attractive way of conducting research while providing patient-care. In this article, we discuss the ethical implications of such approach with perspectives from Papua New Guinea. Discussion Considering the difficulties of providing basic healthcare services in developing countries, it may be argued that integration of clinical research with patient-care is an effective, rational and ethical way of conducting research. However, blending patient-care with clinical research may increase the risk of subordinating patient-care in favour of scientific gains; therapeutic misconception and inappropriate inducement; and the risk of causing health system failures due to limited capacity in developing countries to sustain the level of healthcare services sponsored by the research. Nevertheless, these ethical and administrative implications can be minimised if patient-care takes precedence over research; the input of local ethics committees and institutions are considered; and funding agencies acknowledge their ethical obligation when sponsoring research in resource-limited settings. Summary Although integration of patient-care with clinical research in developing countries appears as an attractive way of conducting research when resources are limited, careful planning and consideration on the ethical implications of such approach must be considered. PMID:23885908

  1. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned.

  2. Factors predictive of clinical pregnancy in the first intrauterine insemination cycle of 306 couples with favourable female patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Yunus; Hassa, Hikmet; Oge, Tufan; Tokgoz, Vehbi Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors predictive of clinical pregnancy in the first superovulation/intrauterine insemination (SO/IUI) cycle of couples with favourable female characteristics. We analyzed retrospectively the first SO/IUI cycle of 306 infertile couples with mild male factor infertility and unexplained infertility. The women had a favourable prognosis in terms of ovarian reserve. Univariate logistic regression analyses identified body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, P = 0.014], sperm concentration [OR = 1.007, P = 0.007] and inseminating motile sperm count (IMC) [OR = 1.007, P = 0.032] as significant predictive factors of clinical pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified BMI [OR = 0.87, P = 0.008] and sperm concentration [OR = 1.008, P = 0.011] as significant factors. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups did not differ significantly in terms of the age and smoking status of the woman, duration and type of infertility, length of the stimulation, total gonadotropin dosage or antral follicle count. Of the female characteristics investigated, BMI was the most significant predictive factor of clinical pregnancy in the first SO/IUI cycle of couples with unexplained or mild male factor infertility and favourable female characteristics. In overweight women, weight loss should be advised before starting SO/IUI. Sperm concentration and IMC were significant male predictive factors for clinical pregnancy in the first SO/IUI.

  3. Typhoid in the highlands of Papua New Guinea 1984-1990: a hospital-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Richens, J

    1995-12-01

    A first-hand account is given of the epidemic of typhoid in the Goroka area as it evolved from 1984 to 1990. The monthly admissions for typhoid to Goroka Base Hospital showed a peak in 1988. The sex and age distribution showed a predominance of young adults. The overall case fatality rate of hospitalized patients was of the order of 10-15%; in a carefully documented group of 374 patients 27% were assessed as having severe typhoid and this subgroup had a case fatality rate of 44%. The clinical features were studied in 516 patients. The high mortality appeared to result from septic shock; ileal perforation was found in only 1.3% of patients. A skin lesion equivalent to but significantly different from the classic rose spot was found in 30% of patients. The typhoid facies was commonly encountered in patients with well-established typhoid. Cerebellar tremor and hearing loss were frequent diagnostic findings. Blood and bone marrow cultures were used to confirm the diagnosis; bone marrow culture proved practicable but gave little increased yield over blood culture. A clinical algorithm to help distinguish typhoid and malaria was developed, principally for use in health centres in the highlands. The mainstay of treatment was chloramphenicol and very few problems were encountered with its use in inpatients. Bacteriological resistance to chloramphenicol did not develop over the study period. Other drugs, such as fluorinated quinolones, may be more effective when all aspects are considered, despite higher cost, but this remains to be investigated. Hydrocortisone in patients with severe disease was evaluated and shown to be ineffective but whether high-dose dexamethasone would reduce the mortality from typhoid in patients in Papua New Guinea still remains an unanswered question.

  4. The Impact of a Filariasis Control Program on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Russell; Griffin, Lysaght; Laban, Nedley; Samson, Mellie; Bassat, Quique

    2011-01-01

    Background Annual mass drug administration (MDA) over five years is the WHO's recommended strategy to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF). Some experts, however, consider that longer periods of treatment might be necessary in certain high prevalence and transmission environments based upon past unsuccessful field experience and modelling. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate predictors of success in a LF control program we conducted an ecological study during a pre-existing MDA program. We studied 27 villages in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, from two areas with different infection rates before MDA. We undertook surveys to collect information on variables potentially having an influence on the outcome of the program, including epidemiological (baseline prevalence of infection, immigration rate), entomological (vector density) and operational (treatment coverage, vector control strategies) variables. The success in a village was defined using variables related to the infection (circulating filarial antigenemia prevalence <1%) and transmission (antigenemia prevalence <1 in 1000 children born since start of MDA). 8709 people were involved in the MDA program and average coverage rates were around 70%. The overall prevalence of filariasis fell from an initial 17.91% to 3.76% at round 5 (p<0.001). Viewed on a village by village basis, 12/27 (44%) villages achieved success. In multivariate analysis, low baseline prevalence was the only factor predicting both success in reducing infection rates (OR 19,26; CI 95% 1,12 to 331,82) and success in preventing new infections (OR 27,44; CI 95% 1,05 to 719,6). Low vector density and the use of an optimal vector control strategy were also associated with success in reducing infection rates, but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide the data that supports the recommendation that high endemic areas may require longer duration MDA programs, or alternative control strategies

  5. The impact of a filariasis control program on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mitjà, Oriol; Paru, Raymond; Hays, Russell; Griffin, Lysaght; Laban, Nedley; Samson, Mellie; Bassat, Quique

    2011-08-01

    Annual mass drug administration (MDA) over five years is the WHO's recommended strategy to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF). Some experts, however, consider that longer periods of treatment might be necessary in certain high prevalence and transmission environments based upon past unsuccessful field experience and modelling. To evaluate predictors of success in a LF control program we conducted an ecological study during a pre-existing MDA program. We studied 27 villages in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, from two areas with different infection rates before MDA. We undertook surveys to collect information on variables potentially having an influence on the outcome of the program, including epidemiological (baseline prevalence of infection, immigration rate), entomological (vector density) and operational (treatment coverage, vector control strategies) variables. The success in a village was defined using variables related to the infection (circulating filarial antigenemia prevalence < 1%) and transmission (antigenemia prevalence < 1 in 1000 children born since start of MDA). 8709 people were involved in the MDA program and average coverage rates were around 70%. The overall prevalence of filariasis fell from an initial 17.91% to 3.76% at round 5 (p < 0.001). Viewed on a village by village basis, 12/27 (44%) villages achieved success. In multivariate analysis, low baseline prevalence was the only factor predicting both success in reducing infection rates (OR 19,26; CI 95% 1,12 to 331,82) and success in preventing new infections (OR 27,44; CI 95% 1,05 to 719,6). Low vector density and the use of an optimal vector control strategy were also associated with success in reducing infection rates, but this did not reach statistical significance. Our results provide the data that supports the recommendation that high endemic areas may require longer duration MDA programs, or alternative control strategies.

  6. Elevated blood plasma antioxidant status is favourable for achieving IVF/ICSI pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Velthut, Agne; Zilmer, Mihkel; Zilmer, Kersti; Kaart, Tanel; Karro, Helle; Salumets, Andres

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the roles of intrafollicular and systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant response in ovarian stimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. For this purpose, 102 ICSI patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation were enrolled and samples were collected on the day of follicle puncture. Total peroxide (TPX) concentrations and total antioxidant response (TAR) were measured in follicular fluid and blood plasma, and an oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated based on these two parameters. Urinary concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (F2IsoP) were measured. Elevated intrafollicular oxidative stress was positively correlated with ovarian stimulation outcome: less FSH per retrieved oocyte was used, more oocytes were collected and higher serum oestradiol concentrations were measured in patients with higher follicular OSI. However, high urinary F2IsoP related to lower embryo quality and F2IsoP was also elevated in smoking patients. Patients with endometriosis had lower follicular antioxidant status. Most importantly, higher systemic blood TAR was significantly favourable for achieving clinical pregnancy (P=0.03). In conclusion, the findings suggest clear associations between oxidative stress, antioxidant status and several aspects of ovarian stimulation and IVF/ICSI outcome, including pregnancy rate. Several oxygen-dependent biochemical reactions produce reactive oxygen species as by-products that may eventually lead to oxidative stress, which is detrimental to cells and tissues. Total antioxidant status, on the other hand, comprises several agents that balance the excess of these reactive oxygen species and reduce potential damage to the body. The aim of the current work was to study this balance in 102 patients participating in an ICSI programme and to examine the degree to which total peroxide content and antioxidant status influence infertility and pregnancy outcome. During the study, several tests

  7. Ba/Ca in Planktonic Foraminifera as a Recorder of Freshwater Input to the Ocean: Proxy Refinement in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the study of paleoclimate, the past several decades have seen large strides in the advancement of proxies designed to reconstruct changes in sea surface temperature (SST); however, techniques for reconstructing ocean salinity are less well developed. The ratio of Ba/Ca in planktic foraminiferal tests has shown initial promise as a tool for reconstructing salinity in continental margin sites near river mouths. In these environments, Ba/Ca shows an inverse correlation with salinity, and often a less clear correlation to nutrients or indicators of productivity, as is more typical in open-ocean settings. An ideal area in which to apply and test foraminiferal Ba/Ca as a proxy for freshwater input is the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), where temperatures are relatively stable, but large variations in precipitation are today driven by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and strength of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon. Foraminiferal Ba/Ca in sediments proximal to a river mouth should therefore reflect changes in riverine input, which in turn reflect variations in precipitation on different timescales. We present here planktic foraminiferal δ18O, Ba/Ca, and Mg/Ca records spanning the last glacial-interglacial transition from marine sediment cores in the Gulf of Papua, located in the WPWP. The δ18O records show an increase in the magnitude of glacial-interglacial (G-IG) δ18O change (∆18O) moving away from the coastline and the mouth of the primary local freshwater source, the Fly River. The reduced amplitude in G-IG ∆18O in the cores closer to shore, manifested by more negative δ18O values before ~20 kyr ago, is likely due to freshwater input from the Fly River, with the effects diminishing with distance from the Fly River source. Temperature and sea level are also changing over the deglaciation, however, contributing to the signal recorded in the calcite δ18O. We use planktic Mg/Ca analyses and independent records of sea level change to isolate the

  8. Characterization of Particulate Organic Matter in the Water Column and Sediments of the Fly River Delta and Clinoform, Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni, M. A.; Monacci, N.; Gisewhite, R.; Clinton, R.; Crockett, J.; Ogston, A.

    2004-12-01

    Suspended particles and surface sediments were collected from the delta and inner topset region of the Fly River clinoform in order to investigate the sources, transport and fate of particular organic matter (POM) in this region. Total suspended sediment concentrations ranged from 1 to 500 mg/L, with the highest values observed near the sea bed and in the shallow region adjacent to the north channel of the Fly Delta. Suspended particles in surface waters displayed organic carbon contents (OC) of 6.1 +/- 1.3 wt. percent, atomic carbon:nitrogen ratios (C/N) of 23 +/- 6.2 and stable carbon compositions (d13C) of -28.0 +/- 0.4 per mil. The suspended particles collected from bottom waters had similar compositions, although the average POC and PN concentrations were almost two orders of magnitude higher within the benthic boundary layer than in the surface plume. Surface seabed sediments from the northeast region of the delta and inner shelf displayed OC contents of 1.0 to 1.4 wt. percent, C/N ratios of 14 to 24 and d13C signatures of -26 to -27 per mil. In contrast, sediments from the southwest region of the delta and inner shelf displayed OC values of 0.4 to 0.8 wt. percent, C/N ratios of 12 to 24 and d13C values of -24 to -25 per mil. Significant contrasts in average lignin phenol yields were also observed between the sediments from the northeast region of the Fly River delta/inner topset (4.8 +/- 0.3 mg/100 mg OC) and those from the southwest region (3.0 +/- 0.4 mg/100 mg OC). Overall these data indicate that the majority of POM in the water column and sediments of this region of the Gulf of Papua originates from terrigenous C3 plant sources, including vascular plant fragments from the delta and soil organic matter from the Fly River drainage basin. The observed spatial contrasts suggest an efficient export of terrigenous POM to the northeast region of the study area and much inputs to the southwest. These results will be discussed in the context of physical forcings

  9. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Imaging continental breakup using teleseismic body waves: The Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilon, Zachary; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Gaherty, James B.; Jin, Ge

    2015-09-01

    This study images the upper mantle beneath the D'Entrecasteax Islands, Papua New Guinea, providing insight into mantle deformation beneath a highly rifted continent adjacent to propagating spreading centers. Differential travel times from P and S-wave teleseisms recorded during the 2010-2011 CDPapua passive seismic experiment are used to invert for separate VP and VS velocity models of the continental rift. A low-velocity structure marks the E-W axis of the rift, correlating with the thinnest crust, high heat flow, and a linear trend of volcanoes. This slow region extends 250 km along strike from the oceanic spreading centers, demonstrating significant mantle extension ahead of seafloor breakup. The rift remains narrow to depth indicating localization of extension, perhaps as a result of mantle hydration. A high-VP structure at depths of 90-120 km beneath the north of the array is more than 6.5% faster than the rift axis and contains well-located intermediate depth earthquakes. These independent observations place firm constraints on the lateral thermal contrast at depth between the rift axis and cold lithosphere to the north that may be related to recent subduction, although the polarity of subduction cannot be resolved. This geometry is gravitationally unstable; downwelling or small-scale convection could have facilitated rifting and rapid lithospheric removal, although this may require a wet mantle to be realistic on the required time scales. The high-V structure agrees with the maximum P,T conditions recorded by young ultra-high pressure rocks exposed on the rift axis and may be implicated in their genesis.

  11. Men's preferences for women's breast morphology in New Zealand, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Vasey, Paul L; Sagata, Katayo; Sibanda, Nokuthaba; Linklater, Wayne L; Dixson, Alan F

    2011-12-01

    Sexual selection via mate choice may have influenced the evolution of women's breast morphology. We conducted an image-based questionnaire quantifying and comparing the preferences of men from Papua New Guinea (PNG), Samoa, and New Zealand (NZ) for images of women's breast size, breast symmetry, areola size, and areolar pigmentation. Results showed that men from PNG preferred larger breasts to a greater extent than men from Samoa and NZ, providing some support for the hypothesis that men from subsistence living cultures have a greater preference for morphological cues indicative of caloric reserves. Symmetrical breasts were most attractive to men in each culture. However, preferences were highest among NZ men, followed by men from Samoa, and were lowest among men from PNG. These results did not support the hypothesis that people living in higher pathogen environments have a greater preference for traits indicative of pathogen resistance and developmental stability. Large areolae were preferred among men from PNG, and to a lesser extent in Samoa, while in NZ men preferred medium-sized areolae. Thus, men's preferences for women's areolar size appear to be highly culturally specific. Darkly pigmented areolae were most attractive to men from Samoa and PNG, whereas men from NZ preferred areolae with medium pigmentation. These findings suggest that areolar pigmentation indicative of sexual maturity is preferred by men rather than lighter pigmentation, which may signal that a woman is in the early years of reproductive maturity. This study highlights the importance of cross-cultural research when testing the role of morphological cues in mate choice.

  12. Fluvial and oceanographic controls on clinoform architecture in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Receiving sediment input from the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers, the Gulf of Papua (GOP) is an ideal environment to study how clinoforms record the response of dispersal systems to sea level rise. Contributions from the Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the clinoform have varied due to differing responses to rising sea levels since the last glacial maximum. Near-bed currents that advect sediment to the northeast further complicate this signal. Pairing geophysical and geochemical data from the 2004 NSF MARGINS Source-to-Sink program, we imaged clinoform architecture with CHIRP seismic profiles, identified clinoform sediment provenance, and constrained depositional timing with radiocarbon dates. Sediment provenance can be identified from higher illite:smectite and quartz:feldspar ratios in Fly River sediment than that from small mountainous rivers draining volcanoclastics. Increasing illite:smectite ratios in surficial sediment imply that the Fly River is presently building out clinoforms; however, for most of the late Holocene, the northeastern rivers contributed the bulk of the sediment. The time-lag for Fly River sediment flux to the clinoform suggests sediment storage within its wide floodplain during the rapid transgressions, compared to shorter time-lags in the small mountainous rivers during transgressions. CHIRP profiles reveal consistent patterns of oblique stacking on top of preexisting topography, creating topographic highs and intervening lows. Aggradation on topographic highs occurs during the lower-energy Monsoon season; however, this sediment is winnowed away by energetic currents during the Trade Wind season and advected to the northeast. Northeast progradation is supported by greater sediment thicknesses and accumulation rates along the northeast sides of GOP promontories. Teasing out influences of oceanographic currents can illuminate contributions of large and small-floodplain rivers in the same basin.

  13. Cyclic patterns of cerebral malaria admissions in Papua New Guinea for the years 1987-1996.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, B D; Valev, D; Werner, R; Atanassova, P A

    2013-11-01

    Data on the dynamics of malaria incidence, admissions and mortality and their best possible description are very important to better forecast and assess the implementation of programmes to register, monitor (e.g. by remote sensing) and control the disease, especially in endemic zones. Semi-annual and seasonal cycles in malaria rates have been observed in various countries and close similarity with cycles in the natural environment (temperature, heliogeophysical activity, etc.), host immunity and/or virulence of the parasite suggested. This study aimed at confirming previous results on malaria cyclicity by exploring whether trans-year and/or multiannual cycles might exist. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done with raw data (without smoothing) by linear and nonlinear parametric regression models, autocorrelation, spectral (Fourier) and periodogram regression analysis. The strongest cyclical patterns of detrended malaria admissions were (i) annual period of 1·0 year (12 months or seasonality); (ii) quasi-biennial cycle of about 2·25 years; and (iii) infrannual, circadecennial cycle of about 10·3 years. The seasonal maximum occurred in May with the minimum in September. Notably, these cycles corresponded to similar cyclic components of heliogeophysical activity such as sunspot seasonality and solar activity cyclicities and well-known climate/weather oscillations. Further analyses are thus warranted to investigate such similarities. In conclusion, multicomponent cyclical dynamics of cerebral malaria admissions in Papua New Guinea were observed thus allowing more specific analyses and modelling as well as correlations with environmental factors of similar cyclicity to be explored. Such further results might also contribute to and provide more precise estimates for the forecasting and prevention, as well as the better understanding, of the dynamics and aetiology of this vector-borne disease.

  14. Emergence of FY*Anull in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic region of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Woolley, Ian; Masinde, Godfred L.; Miller, Stephanie M.; McNamara, David T.; Hazlett, Fred; Mgone, Charles S.; Alpers, Michael P.; Genton, Blaise; Boatin, B. A.; Kazura, James W.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG), numerous blood group polymorphisms and hemoglobinopathies characterize the human population. Human genetic polymorphisms of this nature are common in malarious regions, and all four human malaria parasites are holoendemic below 1500 meters in PNG. At this elevation, a prominent condition characterizing Melanesians is α+-thalassemia. Interestingly, recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that α+-thalassemia is associated with increased susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria among young children. It is further proposed that α+-thalassemia may facilitate so-called “benign” Plasmodium vivax infection to act later in life as a “natural vaccine” against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, in a P. vivax-endemic region of PNG where the resident Abelam-speaking population is characterized by a frequency of α+-thalassemia ≥0.98, we have discovered the mutation responsible for erythrocyte Duffy antigen-negativity (Fy[a−b−]) on the FY*A allele. In this study population there were 23 heterozygous and no homozygous individuals bearing this new allele (allele frequency, 23/1062 = 0.022). Flow cytometric analysis illustrated a 2-fold difference in erythroid-specific Fy-antigen expression between heterozygous (FY*A/FY*Anull) and homozygous (FY*A/FY*A) individuals, suggesting a gene-dosage effect. In further comparisons, we observed a higher prevalence of P. vivax infection in FY*A/FY*A (83/508 = 0.163) compared with FY*A/FY*Anull (2/23 = 0.087) individuals (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 0.47–8.91). Emergence of FY*Anull in this population suggests that P. vivax is involved in selection of this erythroid polymorphism. This mutation would ultimately compromise α+-thalassemia/P. vivax-mediated protection against severe P. falciparum malaria. PMID:10570183

  15. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  16. Midwifery capacity building in Papua New Guinea: Key achievements and ways forward.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angela; Kililo, Mary; Geita, Lahui; Mola, Glen; Brodie, Pat M; Rumsey, Michele; Copeland, Felicity; Neill, Amanda; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-04-01

    Papua New Guinea has some of the poorest health outcomes in the Asia-Pacific region. Maternal mortality is unacceptably high and there is a severe midwifery shortage requiring a quadrupling of the workforce. This paper outlines the findings of an evaluation of the Maternal Child Health Initiative (MCHI) (2012-2013) to determine key factors contributing to maternal health workforce strengthening. A descriptive mixed methods study was undertaken. Data were gathered through interviews, focus group discussions and surveys with clinicians, midwifery students and staff from nursing and midwifery schools and National Department of Health staff. Documentation from stakeholder meetings and regular site reports were reviewed. Each data set was analysed separately and meta-inferences were drawn across all data. Learning opportunities were found to have increased for midwifery educators and improvements were described in midwifery educators teaching capacity and student clinical education experience. There was an increase in the number of midwifery graduates and improvements were noted in the working environment and skills of clinical staff. Education challenges were described including the lack of clinical preceptoring and limited continuing education for clinical educators. Participants recommended increasing clinical education hours and extending the length of the midwifery program. Ongoing efforts to accredit the midwifery curricula and regulate midwifery graduates were noted. The MCHI has contributed to strengthening the midwifery workforce nationally. However, scaling-up and sustaining these achievements requires leadership and funding commitments from the midwifery schools and government alongside the accreditation of midwifery curricula and regulation of new graduates. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyphased rifting to post-breakup evolution of the Coral Sea region, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulois, Cédric; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Coral Sea Basin, offshore Papua New Guinea, is generally described as a rift propagator that opened through the Australian craton during the Late Cretaceous. Rifting was later followed by spreading activity during Palaeocene to lowermost Eocene times and basin inversion during the Cenozoic. Herein, we specifically describe the extensional structures and show that the area has actually a much longer history that dates back from the Late Palaeozoic. A special focus is made on the northern margin of the Coral Sea Basin along which subsurface and HD topographic data were recently acquired. Extension took place discontinuously from the Late Palaeozoic to the Lower Cenozoic through several rift megacycles that include extensional pulses and relaxation episodes. The first rift megacycle (R1), poorly documented, occurred during the Triassic along an old Permo-Triassic, NS-trending structural fabric. Evidence of Permo-Triassic features is principally observed in the western part of the Coral Sea near the Tasman Line, a major lithospheric discontinuity that marks the eastern limit of the underlying Australian craton in Papua New Guinea. This early Triassic framework was reactivated during a Jurassic rifting stage (R2), resulting in small (~10/20km) tilted basins bounded by major NS, NE-SW and EW normal faults. Extension formed a large basin, floored by oceanic crust that might have connected with the Tethys Ocean. The Owen Stanley Oceanic Basin containing deep-marine sediments now obducted in the Ocean Stanley Thrust Belt are likely to represent this oceanic terrane. Both R1 and R2 megacycles shaped the geometry of the Jurassic Australian margin. A third Cretaceous extensional megacycle (R3) only reactivated the largest faults, cutting through the midst of this early stretched continental margin. It formed wider, poorly tilted basins and terminated with the onset of the Coral Sea seafloor spreading from Danian to Ypresian times (61.8 to 53.4 Myr). Then, the overall

  18. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  19. Early emergence and resource availability can competitively favour natives over a functionally similar invader.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; MacDougall, Andrew S; Schmidt, Susanne; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2010-07-01

    Invasive plant species can form dense populations across large tracts of land. Based on these observations of dominance, invaders are often described as competitively superior, despite little direct evidence of competitive interactions with natives. The few studies that have measured competitive interactions have tended to compare an invader to natives that are unlikely to be strong competitors because they are functionally different. In this study, we measured competitive interactions among an invasive grass and two Australian native grasses that are functionally similar and widely distributed. We conducted a pair-wise glasshouse experiment, where we manipulated both biotic factors (timing of establishment, neighbour identity and density) and abiotic factors (nutrients and timing of water supply). We found that the invader significantly suppressed the performance of the natives; but its suppression ability was contingent on resource levels, with pulsed water/low nutrients or continuous watering reducing its competitive effects. The native grasses were able to suppress the performance of the invader when given a 3-week head-start, suggesting the invader may be incapable of establishing unless it emerges first, including in its own understorey. These findings provide insight for restoration, as the competitive effect of a functionally similar invader may be reduced by altering abiotic and biotic conditions in favour of natives.

  20. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H; Clayton, Edward H

    2007-06-01

    Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease.

  1. The CXCL12-3'A allele plays a favourable role in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Grzegorz; Gębura, Katarzyna; Gieryng, Anna; Butrym, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2013-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by bone marrow infiltration and the presence of a monoclonal protein in serum and/or urine. CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 are essential for neoplastic cell homing to bone marrow in haematological malignancies. The JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which is activated after CXCL12 binding to CXCR4, takes part in many signalling cascades which are linked to cell proliferation and cell survival. Constitutive activation of this pathway plays an important role in tumourigenesis and malignant transformation. The present study aimed to determine the association between the polymorphic features located within the CXCR4 (rs2228014) and CXCL12 (rs1801157) encoding genes and disease susceptibility and progression. For this purpose 172 individuals including 54 patients with MM and 118 healthy controls were typed for the CXCL12 (A/G) and CXCR4 (C/T) alleles using the PCR-RFLP technique. The CXCL12 alleles and genotypes segregated similarly among patients and controls while the CXCR4 T variant was less frequently represented among patients (OR=0.074, p<0.001). All patients with the CXCR4 T allele and 16 out of 48 with wild type genotype presented with grade III of MM according to the International Staging System (ISS) (p=0.047). The CXCL12-3'A variant was more frequently detected in patients with less advanced MM (9/17 vs. 7/38, p=0.012 for patients in stage IA or IIA vs. IIB, IIIA and IIIB, respectively). Moreover, patients lacking the CXCL12-3'A variant more frequently presented with ISS II-III (32/38 vs. 5/13, p=0.003 for patients lacking CXCL12-3'A with ISS>I vs. ISS=I). This favourable effect of the CXCL12-3'A allele was also seen in the analysis of patient survival (p<0.05). The impact of the CXCL12-3'A allele was confirmed by multivariate analyses. In conclusion, these results imply that the CXCL12-3'A allele plays a favourable role in patients with multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is earthquake activity along the French Atlantic margin favoured by local rheological contrasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazabraud, Yves; Béthoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand

    2013-09-01

    The seismological study of recent seismic crises near Oleron Island confirms the coexistence of an extensional deformation and a transtensive regime in the Atlantic margin of France, which is different from the general western European stress field corresponding to a strike-slip regime. We argue that the switch of the principal stress axes σ1/σ2 in a NW-SE vertical plane is linked with the existence of crustal heterogeneities. Events of magnitude larger than 5 sometimes occur along the Atlantic margin of France, such as the 7 September 1972 (ML = 5.2) earthquake near Oleron island and the 30 September 2002 (ML = 5.7) Hennebont event in Brittany. To test the mechanism of local strain localization, we model the deformation of the hypocentral area of the Hennebont earthquake using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element code. We conclude that the occurrence of moderate earthquakes located in limited parts of the Hercynian shear zones (as the often reactivated swarms near Oleron) could be due to local reactivation of pre-existing faults. These sporadic seismic ruptures are favoured by stress concentration due to rheological heterogeneities.

  3. Living with strangers: direct benefits favour non-kin cooperation in a communally nesting bird

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The greater ani (Crotophaga major), a Neotropical cuckoo, exhibits an unusual breeding system in which several socially monogamous pairs lay eggs in a single nest and contribute care to the communal clutch. Cooperative nesting is costly—females compete for reproduction by ejecting each other's eggs—but the potential direct or indirect fitness benefits that might accrue to group members have not been identified. In this study, I used molecular genotyping to quantify patterns of genetic relatedness and individual reproductive success within social groups in a single colour-banded population. Microsatellite analysis of 122 individuals in 49 groups revealed that group members are not genetic relatives. Group size was strongly correlated with individual reproductive success: solitary pairs were extremely rare and never successful, and nests attended by two pairs were significantly more likely to be depredated than were nests attended by three pairs. Egg loss, a consequence of reproductive competition, was greater in large groups and disproportionately affected females that initiated laying. However, early-laying females compensated for egg losses by laying larger clutches, and female group members switched positions in the laying order across nesting attempts. The greater ani, therefore, appears to be one of the few species in which cooperative breeding among unrelated individuals is favoured by direct, shared benefits that outweigh the substantial costs of reproductive competition. PMID:21068046

  4. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth?

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise; Tropf, Felix C; Mills, Melinda

    2015-05-07

    The Dutch are the tallest people on earth. Over the last 200 years, they have grown 20 cm in height: a rapid rate of increase that points to environmental causes. This secular trend in height is echoed across all Western populations, but came to an end, or at least levelled off, much earlier than in The Netherlands. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. Using data from the LifeLines study, which follows a large sample of the population of the north of The Netherlands (n = 94 516), we examined how height was related to measures of reproductive success (as a proxy for fitness). Across three decades (1935-1967), height was consistently related to reproductive output (number of children born and number of surviving children), favouring taller men and average height women. This was despite a later age at first birth for taller individuals. Furthermore, even in this low-mortality population, taller women experienced higher child survival, which contributed positively to their increased reproductive success. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.

  6. Host-parasite coevolution favours parasite genetic diversity and horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Schulte, R D; Makus, C; Schulenburg, H

    2013-08-01

    Host-parasite coevolution is predicted to favour genetic diversity and the underlying mechanisms (e.g. sexual reproduction and, more generally, genetic exchange), because diversity enhances the antagonists' potential for rapid adaptation. To date, this prediction has mainly been tested and confirmed for the host. It should similarly apply to the parasite. Indeed, our previous work demonstrated that experimental coevolution between the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its microparasite Bacillus thuringiensis selects for genetic diversity in both antagonists. For the parasite, the previous analysis was based on plasmid-encoded toxin gene markers. Thus, it was restricted to a very small part of the bacterial genome and did not cover the main chromosome, which harbours a large variety of virulence factors. Here, we present new data for chromosomal gene markers of B. thuringiensis and combine this information with the previous results on plasmid-encoded toxins. Our new results demonstrate that, in comparison with the control treatment, coevolution with a host similarly leads to higher levels of genetic diversity in the bacterial chromosome, thus indicating the relevance of chromosomal genes for coevolution. Furthermore, the frequency of toxin gene gain is significantly elevated during coevolution, highlighting the importance of horizontal gene transfer as a diversity-generating mechanism. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the strong influence of antagonistic coevolution on parasite genetic diversity and gene exchange. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Living with strangers: direct benefits favour non-kin cooperation in a communally nesting bird.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina

    2011-06-07

    The greater ani (Crotophaga major), a Neotropical cuckoo, exhibits an unusual breeding system in which several socially monogamous pairs lay eggs in a single nest and contribute care to the communal clutch. Cooperative nesting is costly-females compete for reproduction by ejecting each other's eggs-but the potential direct or indirect fitness benefits that might accrue to group members have not been identified. In this study, I used molecular genotyping to quantify patterns of genetic relatedness and individual reproductive success within social groups in a single colour-banded population. Microsatellite analysis of 122 individuals in 49 groups revealed that group members are not genetic relatives. Group size was strongly correlated with individual reproductive success: solitary pairs were extremely rare and never successful, and nests attended by two pairs were significantly more likely to be depredated than were nests attended by three pairs. Egg loss, a consequence of reproductive competition, was greater in large groups and disproportionately affected females that initiated laying. However, early-laying females compensated for egg losses by laying larger clutches, and female group members switched positions in the laying order across nesting attempts. The greater ani, therefore, appears to be one of the few species in which cooperative breeding among unrelated individuals is favoured by direct, shared benefits that outweigh the substantial costs of reproductive competition.

  8. Comparison of the most favoured methods for the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy in liver transplantation candidates.

    PubMed

    Goldbecker, Annemarie; Weissenborn, Karin; Hamidi Shahrezaei, Golschan; Afshar, Kambiz; Rümke, Stefan; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Strassburg, Christian P; Hecker, Hartmut; Tryc, Anita Blanka

    2013-10-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver insufficiency. While there is widespread acceptance of its importance, there is no consensus on how best to diagnose and monitor HE. To compare the four most favoured methods for the diagnosis of HE. 170 patients who were on the waiting list for liver transplantation as well as 86 healthy controls were included in the study. All patients and controls underwent the portosystemic encephalopathy syndrome test yielding the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS), the inhibitory control test (ICT) and critical flicker frequency (CFF) measurement. PHES and ICT targets had the best sensitivity (85.7% vs 85.7%) and specificity (96.5% vs 97.6%) for the diagnosis of overt HE. CFF showed inferior sensitivity (40.9%) for the diagnosis of HE and dependency from previous alcohol abuse (p=0.015). Multiple regression analysis showed that all test results apart from PHES were influenced by secondary diagnoses such as diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. In the German population of patients awaiting liver transplantation, PHES is the most robust method for the diagnosis and follow-up of HE.

  9. Acute embryonic anoxia exposure favours the development of a dominant and aggressive phenotype in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Catherine M; Robertson, Cayleih E; Bernier, Nicholas J

    2017-01-11

    Eutrophication and climate change are increasing the incidence of severe hypoxia in fish nursery habitats, yet the programming effects of hypoxia on stress responsiveness in later life are poorly understood. In this study, to investigate whether early hypoxia alters the developmental trajectory of the stress response, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 4 h of anoxia at 36 h post-fertilization and reared to adults when the responses to secondary stressors were assessed. While embryonic anoxia did not affect basal cortisol levels or the cortisol response to hypoxia in later life, it had a marked effect on the responses to a social stressor. In dyadic social interactions, adults derived from embryonic anoxia initiated more chases, bit more often, entered fewer freezes and had lower cortisol levels. Adults derived from embryonic anoxia also performed more bites towards their mirror image, had lower gonadal aromatase gene expression and had higher testosterone levels. We conclude that acute embryonic anoxia has long-lasting consequences for the hormonal and behavioural responses to social interactions in zebrafish. Specifically, we demonstrate that acute embryonic anoxia favours the development of a dominant and aggressive phenotype, and that a disruption in sex steroid production may contribute to the programming effects of environmental hypoxia. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Anthralin: how does it act and are there more favourable derivatives?

    PubMed

    Mahrle, G; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Hegemann, L

    1994-01-01

    Anthralin is still the most effective and safest therapeutic agent for treatment of psoriasis. Our data may assist toward an understanding of its mode of action and introduce new derivatives, more antiproliferative and less toxic than anthralin in vitro. Anthralin exerts a direct effect on keratinocytes and leukocytes. In time-lapse studies it significantly prolonged the prophase of mitotic keratinocytes in subtoxic doses and suppressed the expression of keratin 6 mRNA in the immediately suprabasal layer of psoriatic epidermis in vivo. Anthralin inhibits the transformation of lymphocytes and the release of reactive oxygen species from activated leukocytes, in vitro. We provide evidence that these effects of anthralin are mediated by protein kinase C. Twelve new hydrophilic derivatives of anthralin, including a 1,8-dimethoxy compound, as well as C-2 and C-10 substituted anthrones were tested on human keratinocytes. The antiproliferative effect of those derivatives bearing lacton rings at a C-10, consisting of 4, 5, or 6 C atoms, exceeded that of anthralin and were equally or less cytotoxic than the parent drug. These compounds had no pro-drug character in vitro, since they did not metabolize via anthralin, as shown by HPLC. These data indicate that there may be anthralin derivatives with more favourable properties for topical therapy than anthralin itself.

  11. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Intragenomic conflict over queen determination favours genomic imprinting in eusocial Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera, such as ants, bees and wasps, have long been recognized as candidates for the study of genomic imprinting on the grounds of evolutionary conflicts that arise from close interactions among colony members and relatedness asymmetry owing to haplodiploidy. Although a general kinship theory of genomic imprinting predicts its occurrence under various circumstances of the colony life cycle, new theoretical approaches are required to account for the specifics of real colonies based on recent advances in molecular-level understanding of ants and honeybees. Using a multivariate quantitative genetic model, we examined the potential impact of genomic imprinting on genes that determine the carrier female's propensity to develop into the queen caste. When queen overproduction owing to the increased propensity comes at a colony-level cost, the conflict between maternally and paternally inherited genes in polyandrous (queen multiple mating) colonies favours genomic imprinting. Moreover, we show that the genomic imprinting can occur even under monandry (queen single mating), once incorporating the costs differentially experienced by new males and new queens. Our model predicts the existence of imprinted ‘genetic royal cheats’ with patriline-specific expression in polyandrous colonies, and seems consistent with the paternal effect on queen determination in monandrous Argentine ants. PMID:22378809

  13. Intragenomic conflict over queen determination favours genomic imprinting in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2012-07-07

    Colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera, such as ants, bees and wasps, have long been recognized as candidates for the study of genomic imprinting on the grounds of evolutionary conflicts that arise from close interactions among colony members and relatedness asymmetry owing to haplodiploidy. Although a general kinship theory of genomic imprinting predicts its occurrence under various circumstances of the colony life cycle, new theoretical approaches are required to account for the specifics of real colonies based on recent advances in molecular-level understanding of ants and honeybees. Using a multivariate quantitative genetic model, we examined the potential impact of genomic imprinting on genes that determine the carrier female's propensity to develop into the queen caste. When queen overproduction owing to the increased propensity comes at a colony-level cost, the conflict between maternally and paternally inherited genes in polyandrous (queen multiple mating) colonies favours genomic imprinting. Moreover, we show that the genomic imprinting can occur even under monandry (queen single mating), once incorporating the costs differentially experienced by new males and new queens. Our model predicts the existence of imprinted 'genetic royal cheats' with patriline-specific expression in polyandrous colonies, and seems consistent with the paternal effect on queen determination in monandrous Argentine ants.

  14. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  15. Modeling the response of the geothermal system at Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea to mine dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, A.J.; Forth, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Lihir Gold, Ltd., with RTZ Corporation, Niugini Mining Ltd. and the Government of Papua New Guinea as major shareholders, plans to mine two contiguous gold orebodies located in the Luise Caldera, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Niugini Mining Ltd. first discovered the deposit, which is believed to be the largest undeveloped gold deposit in the world, in 1982 and detailed exploration was later conducted by Kennecott Corporation (an RTZ subsidiary) who also prepared the plan for mining the deposit. The gold was deposited in the caldera breccias by rising hot fluids from a still active geothermal system to form the orebody which is to be mined in a 2 km x 1.5 km open pit that will ultimately reach a depth of about 220 m below sea level.

  16. The work of Glendon Lean on the counting systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay

    2001-04-01

    Glendon Lean collated data on nearly 900 counting systems of Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua). Lean's data came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. He read old documents written in English, German, and Dutch. He made comparisons between older and new accounts of the counting systems and compared neighbouring counting systems from both Austronesian and non-Austronesian languages. His work drew attention to the rich diversity of the systems and suggested that systems based on body parts and cyclic systems developed spontaneously. Digit tally systems were also relatively common. Lean's thesis on spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of number systems from Middle East cultures.

  17. The organisation and management of curriculum development in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article develops a critical analysis of the international transfer of strategies for curriculum change with reference to an historical review of the Papua New Guinean experience. The research documents how international trends have — for better or worse —played a part in shaping the school curriculum and its organisational and administrative structures in this developing country. While much of lasting benefit has been achieved, it is argued that differing contextual factors are often given insufficient attention when educational ideas cross national boundaries. Relationships between the nature and control of the school curriculum and the nature and distribution of power and influence within, and across, societies are also identified as central to an understanding of the debate. In the light of this analysis, the implications of the economic pre-occupations of the 1990s and renewed international interest in modes of centralized curriculum control, are examined for Papua New Guinea and for developing countries in general.

  18. Trends in tobacco consumption and incidences of associated neoplasms in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, E M; Jolley, D

    1983-04-30

    From 1960 to 1979 total annual consumption of tobacco in Papua New Guinea increased from 573 to 1800 metric tonnes. The annual consumption of tobacco per head increased from 2.78 to 6.14 kg, and the proportion of commercial cigarettes smoked is estimated to have increased from 20% to 71% of the total tobacco consumption. Between 1965 and 1979 the average annual age standardised incidence of reported cases of carcinoma of the oral cavity increased significantly in women (p less than 0.01) but not in men (p greater than 0.05). This rise might have been related to increasing consumption of tobacco or alcohol, or both, in individuals who habitually chewed betel nut. There was no significant change in the reported incidences of carcinoma of the larynx, lung, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, or bladder. At present there are no constraints on the marketing of tobacco in Papua New Guinea.

  19. Complications of bush thoracotomy in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J; Tharion, J

    1995-03-01

    Bush thoracotomy is still practised in the South Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea, by traditional bush doctors. These bush thoracotomies are performed with the aim of letting out the 'bad blood' that is believed to have collected in the body cavities following injuries. During a 3 year period between 1989 and 1992, 183 patients with complications of bush thoracotomy were treated at the Sopas Hospital in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Of these patients, 55 had chest wall infections only, without any pleural involvement. Of the patients with empyemas, 14 were treated by decortication of the empyema with one death and all remaining patients were treated by drainage procedures with one death. We recommend early treatment by adequate drainage of the empyema and, where feasible, early decortication. Continuing education to eradicate the procedure, and provision of adequate surgical facilities for management of complications, should be the long-term aim for this continuing problem.

  20. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-10-06

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species.

  1. Maintenance of a reliable laboratory service for tuberculosis intervention in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Makaen, Johnson; Omena, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant strains, in Papua New Guinea highlights the never ending nature of the antituberculosis (anti-TB) campaign in that country and warrants the need for constant vigilance against the condition. Through surveillance, early detection, and management, the spread and incidence of TB can be kept in check. To maintain successful TB control programs, the government and partners committed to this campaign need to overhaul essential aspects of laboratory services. Clinical laboratories play a critical role in diagnostics; their functions cannot be substituted nor relegated. It is time to end neglect of these services in Papua New Guinea and to arm the laboratories in that country with full financial and logistical support so that they can lead the campaign against TB. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  2. The volcanic environment for 40,000 years of human occupation on the Willaumez Isthmus, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neall, V. E.; Wallace, R. C.; Torrence, R.

    2008-10-01

    The stratigraphic sequence of 22 tephra beds and their associated paleosols at two sites selected from our studies in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea provide the essential environmental background for understanding human responses to c. 40 ka years of volcanic activity. Lithology, grain size, and mineralogy of the tephras, interpreted for the first time, elucidate the varying volcanic provenance, especially of the Pleistocene beds, and the environmental conditions which former inhabitants experienced. This sequence provides an important long-term record of how humans coped with volcanic adversity in Papua New Guinea. The stratigraphic record contains abundant evidence for human settlement during the intervals between volcanic eruptions. Following plinian and subplinian eruptions, people abandoned the region for significant periods of time. In some cases, these cataclysmic events caused major cultural disasters characterised by local population extinction and loss of some significant types of cultural behaviour. Despite the punctuated record of settlement and changes in material culture, over the long-term, human populations found effective ways to maintain themselves within an active volcanic environment. Key responses included persistence of mobile and flexible settlement patterns, planned and staged uses of raw materials, social exchange, and increasing levels of landscape management.

  3. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-02-04

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae.

  4. Myristicyclins A and B: Antimalarial procyanidins from Horsfieldia spicata from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenyu; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Pond, Cristopher D.; Pole, Ann R.; Jensen, James B.; Blankenship, D’Arbra; Grimberg, Brian T.; Kiapranis, Robert; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    An antimalarial screen for plants collected from Papua New Guinea identified an extract of Horsfieldia spicata as having activity. Isolation of the active constituents led to the identification of two new compounds: myristicyclins A (1) and B (2). Both compounds are procyanidin-like congeners of myristinins lacking a pendant aromatic ring. Myristicyclin A was found to inhibit the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of Plasmodium falciparum at similar concentrations in the mid-μM range. PMID:24350818

  5. Myristicyclins A and B: antimalarial procyanidins from Horsfieldia spicata from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Pond, Cristopher D; Pole, Ann R; Jensen, James B; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian T; Kiapranis, Robert; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Ireland, Chris M

    2014-01-17

    An antimalarial screen for plants collected from Papua New Guinea identified an extract of Horsfieldia spicata as having activity. Isolation of the active constituents led to the identification of two new compounds: myristicyclins A (1) and B (2). Both compounds are procyanidin-like congeners of myristinins lacking a pendant aromatic ring. Myristicyclin A was found to inhibit the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of Plasmodium falciparum at similar concentrations in the mid-μM range.

  6. A mathematical analysis of the influence of adverse and favourable winds on sprinting.

    PubMed

    Ward-Smith, A J

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of running performance, based on the first law of thermodynamics and originally derived for still air conditions, is extended to account for the effects of favourable and adverse winds. Solutions to the full theory have been obtained by numerical integration of the governing equations. Simplifications to the full calculation procedure have also been investigated. Calculations for races over a distance of 100 m show that the advantage to an athlete of a following wind increases progressively with increasing wind speed. A favourable wind of 2 ms-1 provides a benefit of about 0.18 s on running time.

  7. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Fred

    2013-01-01

    I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region.

  8. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of the cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Karl, Stephan; Mueller, Ivo; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Pavlin, Boris I; Dagina, Rosheila; Ropa, Berry; Bieb, Sibauk; Rosewell, Alexander; Umezaki, Masahiro; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R

    2014-08-20

    Cholera continues to be a devastating disease in many developing countries where inadequate safe water supply and poor sanitation facilitate spread. From July 2009 until late 2011 Papua New Guinea experienced the first outbreak of cholera recorded in the country, resulting in >15,500 cases and >500 deaths. Using the national cholera database, we analysed the spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of the Papua New Guinea cholera outbreak. The Kulldorff space-time permutation scan statistic, contained in the software package SatScan v9.2 was used to describe the first 8 weeks of the outbreak in Morobe Province before cholera cases spread throughout other regions of the country. Data were aggregated at the provincial level to describe the spread of the disease to other affected provinces. Spatio-temporal and cluster analyses revealed that the outbreak was characterized by three distinct phases punctuated by explosive propagation of cases when the outbreak spread to a new region. The lack of road networks across most of Papua New Guinea is likely to have had a major influence on the slow spread of the disease during this outbreak. Identification of high risk areas and the likely mode of spread can guide government health authorities to formulate public health strategies to mitigate the spread of the disease through education campaigns, vaccination, increased surveillance in targeted areas and interventions to improve water, sanitation and hygiene.

  9. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Abstract I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region. PMID:24146562

  10. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Xu, Fei; Chu, Zhong; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-05-21

    A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind's basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  11. Implementation of a novel PCR based method for detecting malaria parasites from naturally infected mosquitoes in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Arif U; Suguri, Setsuo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Fujimoto, Chigusa; Amakawa, Masao; Harada, Masakazu; Ohmae, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Detection of Plasmodium species in mosquitoes is important for designing vector control studies. However, most of the PCR-based detection methods show some potential limitations. The objective of this study was to introduce an effective PCR-based method for detecting Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from the field-caught mosquitoes of Papua New Guinea. Methods A method has been developed to concurrently detect mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) of four human Plasmodium species using PCR (Cytb-PCR). To particularly discriminate P. falciparum from P. vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae, a polymerase chain reaction-repeated fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) has further been developed to use with this method. However, due to limited samples number of P. ovale and P. malariae; this study was mainly confined to P. vivax and P. falciparum. The efficiency of Cytb-PCR was evaluated by comparing it with two 'gold standards' enzyme linked immunosorbent assay specific for circumsporozoite protein (CS-ELISA) using artificially infected mosquitoes; and nested PCR specific for small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) using field caught mosquitoes collected from three areas (Kaboibus, Wingei, and Jawia) of the East Sepic Province of Papua New Guinea. Results A total of 90 mosquitoes were artificially infected with three strains of Plasmodium: P. vivax-210 (n = 30), P. vivax-247 (n = 30) and P. falciparum (n = 30). These infected mosquitoes along with another 32 unfed mosquitoes were first checked for the presence of Plasmodium infection by CS-ELISA, and later the same samples were compared with the Cytb-PCR. CS-ELISA for P. vivax-210, P. vivax-247 and P. falciparum detected positive infection in 30, 19 and 18 mosquitoes respectively; whereas Cytb-PCR detected 27, 16 and 16 infections, respectively. The comparison revealed a close agreement between the two assays (κ = 0.862, 0.842 and 0.894, respectively for Pv-210, Pv-247 and P. falciparum

  12. Beyond sexual desire and curiosity: sexuality among senior high school students in Papua and West Papua Provinces (Indonesia) and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Diarsvitri, Wienta; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Neeman, Teresa; Oktavian, Antonius

    2011-10-01

    When it comes to sexuality and norms, young Indonesians are becoming more open. Concern about this is related to the rapid increase in HIV prevalence in Indonesia, especially in Papua and West Papua Provinces. While much research has been conducted among youth who have left school, little is known about senior high school students' sexuality and sexual practices in these provinces. Using qualitative and quantitative data, we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexuality, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion among 1082 Year 11 students from 16 senior high schools in both provinces. Findings suggest that around 38.3% of students reported having had sexual intercourse and 36.5% of these having had their first sexual encounter before they were 15 years old. Furthermore, contraceptive use among sexually active students was very low. Around 32% of female students who reported having had sexual intercourse also reported having an unintended pregnancy and the majority of them had had unsafe abortions. The paper points to the implications of students' high-risk sexual behaviours for HIV prevention.

  13. Risk assessment of the entry of canine-rabies into Papua New Guinea via sea and land routes.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Keponge-Yombo, Andy; Thomson, David; Ward, Michael P

    2017-09-15

    Canine-rabies is endemic in parts of Indonesia and continues to spread eastwards through the Indonesian archipelago. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a land border with Papua Province, Indonesia, as well as logging and fishing industry connections throughout Asia. PNG has a Human Development Index of 0.505; therefore, an incursion of canine-rabies could have devastating impacts on human (7.5 million) and animal populations. Given the known difficulties of rabies elimination in resource-scarce environments, an incursion of rabies into PNG would also likely compromise the campaign for global elimination of rabies. A previous qualitative study to determine routes for detailed risk assessment identified logging, fishing and three land-routes (unregulated crossers ["shopper-crossers"], traditional border crossers and illegal hunters) as potential high risk routes for entry of rabies-infected dogs into PNG. The objective of the current study was to quantify and compare the probability of entry of a rabies-infected dog via these routes into PNG and to identify the highest risk provinces and border districts to target rabies prevention and control activities. Online questionnaires were used to elicit expert-opinion about quantitative model parameter values. A quantitative, stochastic model was then used to assess risk, and parameters with the greatest influence on the estimated mean number of rabies-infected dogs introduced/year were identified via global sensitivity analysis (Sobol method). Eight questionnaires - including 7 online - were implemented and >220 empirical distributions were parameterised using >2900 expert-opinions. The highest risk provinces for combined sea routes were West Sepik, Madang and Western Province, driven by the number of vessels and the probability of bringing dogs. The highest risk border districts for combined land routes were Vanimo-Green River and South Fly, driven by the number of people crossing the border and the number of dogs (with hunters

  14. The Impact of Repeated Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Diethylcarbamazine Plus Albendazole on Bancroftian Filariasis in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Gary J.; Kastens, Will; Susapu, Melinda; Laney, Sandra J.; Williams, Steven A.; King, Christopher L.; Kazura, James W.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2008-01-01

    Background This study employed various monitoring methods to assess the impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea, which has the largest filariasis problem in the Pacific region. Methodology/Principal Findings Residents of rural villages near Madang were studied prior to and one year after each of three rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole administered per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The mean MDA compliance rate was 72.9%. Three rounds of MDA decreased microfilaremia rates (Mf, 1 ml night blood by filter) from 18.6% pre-MDA to 1.3% after the third MDA (a 94% decrease). Mf clearance rates in infected persons were 71%, 90.7%, and 98.1% after 1, 2, and 3 rounds of MDA. Rates of filarial antigenemia assessed by card test (a marker for adult worm infection) decreased from 47.5% to 17.1% (a 64% decrease) after 3 rounds of MDA. The filarial antibody rate (IgG4 antibodies to Bm14, an indicator of filarial infection status and/or exposure to mosquito-borne infective larvae) decreased from 59.3% to 25.1% (a 54.6% decrease). Mf, antigen, and antibody rates decreased more rapidly in children <11 years of age (by 100%, 84.2%, and 76.8%, respectively) relative to older individuals, perhaps reflecting their lighter infections and shorter durations of exposure/infection prior to MDA. Incidence rates for microfilaremia, filarial antigenemia, and antifilarial antibodies also decreased significantly after MDA. Filarial DNA rates in Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes that had recently taken a blood meal decreased from 15.1% to 1.0% (a 92.3% decrease). Conclusions/Significance MDA had dramatic effects on all filariasis parameters in the study area and also reduced incidence rates. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine whether residual infection rates in residents of these villages are sufficient to support sustained transmission by the An. punctulatus vector. Lymphatic filariasis

  15. The impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Weil, Gary J; Kastens, Will; Susapu, Melinda; Laney, Sandra J; Williams, Steven A; King, Christopher L; Kazura, James W; Bockarie, Moses J

    2008-01-01

    This study employed various monitoring methods to assess the impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea, which has the largest filariasis problem in the Pacific region. Residents of rural villages near Madang were studied prior to and one year after each of three rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole administered per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The mean MDA compliance rate was 72.9%. Three rounds of MDA decreased microfilaremia rates (Mf, 1 ml night blood by filter) from 18.6% pre-MDA to 1.3% after the third MDA (a 94% decrease). Mf clearance rates in infected persons were 71%, 90.7%, and 98.1% after 1, 2, and 3 rounds of MDA. Rates of filarial antigenemia assessed by card test (a marker for adult worm infection) decreased from 47.5% to 17.1% (a 64% decrease) after 3 rounds of MDA. The filarial antibody rate (IgG(4) antibodies to Bm14, an indicator of filarial infection status and/or exposure to mosquito-borne infective larvae) decreased from 59.3% to 25.1% (a 54.6% decrease). Mf, antigen, and antibody rates decreased more rapidly in children <11 years of age (by 100%, 84.2%, and 76.8%, respectively) relative to older individuals, perhaps reflecting their lighter infections and shorter durations of exposure/infection prior to MDA. Incidence rates for microfilaremia, filarial antigenemia, and antifilarial antibodies also decreased significantly after MDA. Filarial DNA rates in Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes that had recently taken a blood meal decreased from 15.1% to 1.0% (a 92.3% decrease). MDA had dramatic effects on all filariasis parameters in the study area and also reduced incidence rates. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine whether residual infection rates in residents of these villages are sufficient to support sustained transmission by the An. punctulatus vector. Lymphatic filariasis elimination should be feasible in Papua New Guinea if MDA can be

  16. The influence of freshwater and material export on sedimentary facies and benthic processes within the Fly Delta and adjacent Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Christoffersen, P.; Tirendi, F.; Robertson, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    Large volumes of freshwater and suspended material debouch from the Fly River in southwestern Papua New Guinea into the Gulf of Papua, greatly influencing the hydrography and sedimentary processes within the river delta and adjacent shelf region. Sedimentary facies within the subtidal regions of the Fly Delta are composed mainly of compacted and eroded very fine black sand, and highly laminated, muddy sand and sandy mud, progressing to prodelta mud with intermixed primary and biogenic structures in the inner Gulf of Papua. These prodelta muds grade further to mixed terrigenous-carbonate deposits southwards into the northern Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, and to well-bioturbated, fluid mud northwards into the Gulf of Papua. The transition from physically-dominated, estuarine conditions within the delta to more quiescent, marine conditions on the shelf leads to concomitant changes in sediment chemistry, microbial activity and infaunal and epifaunal communities. Particulate (C, N, P) and dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations were a function of sediment type (higher in finer deposits) rather than location (delta vs gulf). C: N: P ratios of solid-phase nutrients varied greatly, but were usually less than those predicted by the Redfield ratio. Mean interstitial concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients were low (μM range), but dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus levels were equivalent to those found in higher latitude systems. Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients were generally low (μmol m -2 day -1). Flux rates were mostly negative (into the sediment) in the delta suggesting that these deposits are a sink for nutrients. In the offshore deposits, dissolved inorganic fluxes were higher and mostly positive indicating that they are a source for dissolved nutrients. Standing crops of bacteria (range: below detection limits— 2.5 × 10 10 cells g -1 dry wt), meiofauna (range: 5-750 individuals 10 cm -2; 9-1006 μg dry wt 10

  17. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  18. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  19. Hill-Robertson Interference Maintained by Red Queen Dynamics Favours the Evolution of Sex.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jack; Galbraith, James D

    2017-03-15

    Although it is well established theoretically that selective interference among mutations (Hill-Robertson interference) favours meiotic recombination, genome-wide mean rates of mutation and strengths of selection appear too low to support this as the mechanism favouring recombination in nature. A possible solution to this discrepancy between theory and observation is that selection is at least intermittently very strong due to the antagonistic coevolution between a host and its parasites. The Red Queen theory posits that such coevolution generates fitness epistasis among loci, which generates negative linkage disequilibrium among beneficial mutations, which in turn favours recombination. This theory has received only limited support. However, Red Queen dynamics without epistasis may provide the ecological conditions that maintain strong and frequent selective interference in finite populations that indirectly selects for recombination. This hypothesis is developed here through the simulation of Red Queen dynamics. This approach required the development of a method to calculate the exact frequencies of multi-locus haplotypes after recombination. Simulations show that recombination is favoured by the moderately weak selection of many loci involved in the interaction between a host and its parasites, which results in substitution rates that are compatible with empirical estimates. The model also reproduces the previously reported rapid increase in the rate of outcrossing in Caenorhabditis elegans coevolving with a bacterial pathogen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethnochemistry and Ethnomedicine of Ancient Papua New Guineans and Their Use in Motivating Students in Secondary Schools and Universities in PNG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasinghe, Basil

    2016-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years of Papua New Guinea's human history, Papua New Guineans have been making significant contributions to Science, particularly in the fields of Chemistry and Medicine. However, because of the absence of any written language for over 800 dialects, the information has not been recorded and the contributions of ancient Papua…

  1. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Haemophilus ducreyi Strain AUSPNG1, Isolated from a Cutaneous Ulcer of a Child from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Marinov, Georgi K.; Roberts, Sally A.; Robson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi has recently emerged as a leading cause of cutaneous ulcers in the yaws-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea and other South Pacific islands. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the H. ducreyi strain AUSPNG1, isolated from a cutaneous ulcer of a child from Papua New Guinea. PMID:26847887

  2. An Assessment of Language Needs for Technical Communication in a Multilingual Speech Community: Implications for Teaching LSP in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, James

    A survey of 98 Papua New Guinea technical university graduates in the applied sciences, engineering fields, and forestry investigated their language skill use and language needs in the workplace. Results indicate that, as in Papua New Guinea society in general, English and Tok Pisin are the two most important languages for technical communication…

  3. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Haemophilus ducreyi Strain AUSPNG1, Isolated from a Cutaneous Ulcer of a Child from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Marinov, Georgi K; Roberts, Sally A; Robson, Jenny; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-02-04

    Haemophilus ducreyi has recently emerged as a leading cause of cutaneous ulcers in the yaws-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea and other South Pacific islands. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the H. ducreyi strain AUSPNG1, isolated from a cutaneous ulcer of a child from Papua New Guinea.

  4. An association mapping approach to identify favourable alleles for tomato fruit quality breeding.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Valentino; Francese, Gianluca; Sacco, Adriana; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Parisi, Mario; Milone, Marco; Cardi, Teodoro; Mennella, Giuseppe; Barone, Amalia

    2014-12-03

    Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been recently used to dissect complex quantitative traits and identify candidate genes affecting phenotype variation of polygenic traits. In order to map loci controlling variation in tomato marketable and nutritional fruit traits, we used a collection of 96 cultivated genotypes, including Italian, Latin American, and other worldwide-spread landraces and varieties. Phenotyping was carried out by measuring ten quality traits and metabolites in red ripe fruits. In parallel, genotyping was carried out by using the Illumina Infinium SolCAP array, which allows data to be collected from 7,720 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The Mixed Linear Model used to detect associations between markers and traits allowed population structure and relatedness to be evidenced within our collection, which have been taken into consideration for association analysis. GWAS identified 20 SNPs that were significantly associated with seven out of ten traits considered. In particular, our analysis revealed two markers associated with phenolic compounds, three with ascorbic acid, β-carotene and trans-lycopene, six with titratable acidity, and only one with pH and fresh weight. Co-localization of a group of associated loci with candidate genes/QTLs previously reported in other studies validated the approach. Moreover, 19 putative genes in linkage disequilibrium with markers were found. These genes might be involved in the biosynthetic pathways of the traits analyzed or might be implied in their transcriptional regulation. Finally, favourable allelic combinations between associated loci were identified that could be pyramided to obtain new improved genotypes. Our results led to the identification of promising candidate loci controlling fruit quality that, in the future, might be transferred into tomato genotypes by Marker Assisted Selection or genetic engineering, and highlighted that intraspecific variability might be still exploited for

  5. Does the energy expenditure status in obstructive sleep apnea favour a positive energy balance?

    PubMed

    Major, Geneviève C; Sériès, Frédéric; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on energy expenditure is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between 24-hr energy expenditure or sleeping metabolic rate and features of the obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four apneic men took part in this cross-sectional study and were classified in quartiles of nocturnal desaturation severity, i.e. of percentage total sleep time with SaO2 < 90% determined with polysomnography. 24-hr energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate were measured with a whole body indirect calorimetry (respiratory chamber), and body composition by hydrodensitometry. During the stay in the respiratory chamber, urine was collected to assess catecholamine concentration and percentage recording time with SaO2 < 90% (%TRT SaO2 < 90%) was measured with nocturnal oximetry. Mean fat free mass and fat mass were greater in quartile 4 than in quartile 1 (P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was higher in quartile 4 than in other quartiles (P < 0.0001). 24-hr energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate were similar among quartiles. However, when expressed on a per kg body weight basis (kcal/kg), these variables were negatively correlated with the %TRT SaO2 < 90% in the whole group (r = -0.46 and -0.48, respectively, P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was found to be a predictor of sleeping metabolic rate which explained, together with fat mass and fat free mass, 86% of this variance (P < 0.05). In apneic men energy expenditure relative to body weight decreases with increasing severity of oxygen desaturation which could favour a positive energy balance.

  6. Predictors of a favourable socio-economic situation in middle age for Swedish conscripts with self-reported drug use.

    PubMed

    Davstad, I; Leifman, A; Allebeck, P; Romelsjö, A

    2013-02-01

    Risk and protective factors for adverse outcomes among drug users in the general population have been identified. This study considers whether some of these factors predict favourable socio-economic situations in middle age. A 37-year follow-up of 49,411 Swedish male conscripts 1969/70, born 1949-1951. Based on self-reports at conscription, 36,191 living subjects in 2006 were divided into users of certain dominant drugs (n=3946) and non-users (n=32,245). Individual data from conscription and national registers were linked. Using logistic bivariate and multivariate regression, odds ratios (ORs) for the categories of dominant-drug users, compared with non-users, were computed for outcomes in 1990 and in 2006: education ≥12 years, being in work, and having a disposable income above the median. The ORs were calculated after considering familial, social and individual risk and protective factors, with separate analyses being performed for drug-use categories. Small changes were observed in the ORs for the outcomes in 1990 and 2006. After adjustment for protective and risk factors, users of the various dominant drugs had increased ORs with an education ≥12 years but lower or non-significantly different from non-users for the other outcomes. The ORs decreased with severity of drug use. Among drug users, high intellectual ability, having a father from highest SES group, and communication with parents were among the factors that increased the probability of favourable socio-economic outcomes, especially when several protective factors were involved. Protective factors increase the probability of favourable outcomes, but least among individuals with severe drug use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  8. Temporal fluctuations in oribatid mites indicate that density-independent factors favour parthenogenetic reproduction.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Christian; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the oribatid mite density, community structure and the percentage of parthenogenetic individuals in four different forest types across three regions in Germany in 2008 and once again in 2011. We compared temporal (inter-annual) fluctuations in population densities between sexually and parthenogenetically reproducing species of oribatid mites. We hypothesized that population densities in parthenogenetic oribatid mite species fluctuate more than in sexual ones. Further, we expected species composition and dominance of parthenogenetic species to differ between forest types and regions. Oribatid mite community structure did not differ between years but varied with forest type and region, indicating low species turnover in time. As hypothesized, temporal fluctuations were more pronounced in parthenogenetic as compared to sexual species. The percentage of parthenogenetic individuals was significantly higher in coniferous than in beech forests and significantly higher in Schorfheide-Chorin than in Hainich-Dün and Schwäbische Alb. The results indicate that parthenogenetic species flourish if populations are controlled by density-independent factors and dominate at sites were resources are plentiful and easily available, such as coniferous forests, and in regions with more acidic soils and thick organic layers, such as Schorfheide-Chorin. However, historical factors also may have contributed to the increased dominance of parthenogenetic species in the Schorfheide-Chorin, as this region was more heavily glaciated and this may have favoured parthenogenetic species. Overall, our study supports the hypothesis that parthenogenetic species benefit from the lack of density-dependent population control whereas the opposite is true for sexual species.

  9. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  10. Learners favour high resolution oesophageal manometry with better diagnostic accuracy over conventional line tracings.

    PubMed

    Soudagar, A Samad; Sayuk, Gregory S; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2012-06-01

    High resolution manometry (HRM) provides a colourful representation of oesophageal motility. Novice and intermediate learners were tested to compare HRM Clouse plots and conventional manometry for accuracy, ease of interpretation and knowledge retention. 36 learners evaluated 60 randomised motility sequences (30 HRM Clouse plots with corresponding line tracings) 4 months apart, following a tutorial. Learners rated prior knowledge of oesophageal pathophysiology and manometry and scored ease and speed of interpretation on 10 cm visual analogue scales (VAS). Understanding of oesophageal pathophysiology was low in all cohorts (2.9±0.4 on VAS) and knowledge of HRM and conventional motility studies was even lower (1.9±0.4 and 1.8±0.3, respectively, p=NS). After the tutorial, diagnostic accuracy was significantly higher with HRM Clouse plots than with line tracings (p<0.001). HRM gains in diagnostic accuracy were evident over line tracings (43.1%), particularly with aperistalsis (36.1%), oesophageal body hypomotility (25.8%) and relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter (21.0%) (p<0.001 for each comparison); these were maintained at the second evaluation. Gains were independent of academic level (F=0.56, p=0.5) and did not correlate with prior experience of learners (r=-0.18, p=0.29). Learners favoured HRM Clouse plots (80.6%) over line tracings and reported faster interpretation (94.4%). HRM Clouse plots provide ease of interpretation that translates into higher diagnostic accuracy and better knowledge retention in novice and intermediate learners of oesophageal manometry. These results implicate the value of pattern recognition in HRM interpretation, irrespective of academic level and prior understanding of oesophageal motor function.

  11. Circadian rhythm of a Silene species favours nocturnal pollination and constrains diurnal visitation.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Benítez, Samuel; Dötterl, Stefan; Giménez-Benavides, Luis

    2016-07-24

    Traits related to flower advertisement and reward sometimes vary in a circadian way, reflecting phenotypic specialization. However, specialized flowers are not necessarily restricted to specialized pollinators. This is the case of most Silene species, typically associated with diurnal or nocturnal syndromes of pollination but usually showing complex suites of pollinators. A Silene species with mixed floral features between diurnal and nocturnal syndromes was used to test how petal opening, nectar production, scent emission and pollination success correlate in a circadian rhythm, and whether this is influenced by environmental conditions. The effect of diurnal and nocturnal visitation rates on plant reproductive success is also explored in three populations, including the effect of the pollinating seed predator Hadena sancta KEY RESULTS: The result showed that repeated petal opening at dusk was correlated with nectar secretion and higher scent production during the night. However, depending on environmental conditions, petals remain opened for a while in the morning, when nectar and pollen still were available. Pollen deposition was similarly effective at night and in the morning, but less effective in the afternoon. These results were consistent with field studies. The circadian rhythm regulating floral attractiveness and reward in S. colorata is predominantly adapted to nocturnal flower visitors. However, favourable environmental conditions lengthen the optimal daily period of flower attraction and pollination towards morning. This allows the complementarity of day and night pollination. Diurnal pollination may help to compensate the plant reproductive success when nocturnal pollinators are scarce and when the net outcome of H. sancta shifts from mutualism to parasitism. These results suggest a functional mechanism explaining why the supposed nocturnal syndrome of many Silene species does not successfully predict their pollinator guilds. © The Author 2016

  12. Seal mothers expend more on offspring under favourable conditions and less when resources are limited.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Clive R; Harcourt, Robert G; Burton, Harry R; Daniel, Owen; Hindell, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    In mammals, maternal expenditure on offspring is a complex mix of several factors including the species' mating system, offspring sex and the condition and age of the mother. While theory suggests that in polygynous species mothers should wean larger male offspring than females when resources and maternal conditions allow, the evidence for this remains equivocal. Southern elephant seals are highly dimorphic, polygynous capital breeders existing in an environment with highly variable resources and should therefore provide clear evidence to support the theoretical expectations of differential maternal expenditure in male and female pups. We quantified maternal size (mass and length) and pup size at birth and weaning for 342 elephant seal mothers at Macquarie Island. The study was conducted over 11 years of contrasting sea-ice and Southern Annular Mode values, both indices of maternal prey resources. Overall, large females weaned male pups that weighed 17 kg (15·5%) more than female pups. Maternal condition varied by as much as 59 kg among years, and was positively related to Southern Annular Mode, and negatively to maximum sea-ice extent. Smaller mothers weaned relatively larger male pups under favourable conditions, this effect was less apparent for larger mothers. We developed a simple model linking environmental variation to maternal masses post-partum, followed by maternal masses post-partum to weaning masses and then weaning masses to pup survival and demonstrated that environmental conditions affected predicted survival so that the pups of small mothers had an estimated 7% increase in first year survival in 'good' vs. 'bad' years compared to 1% for female pups of large mothers. Co-occurrence of environmental quality and conservative reproductive tactics suggests that mothers retain substantial plasticity in maternal care, enhancing their lifetime reproductive success by adjusting reproductive expenditure relative to both prevailing environmental conditions

  13. Vaccenic acid favourably alters immune function in obese JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Heather J; Gerdung, Christopher A; Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-08-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA) is a ruminant-derived trans-fat and precursor of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of VA on immune function in a model of the metabolic syndrome, JCR:LA-cp rats. Lean (2:1 mix of +/cp and +/+) and obese (cp/cp) rats, aged 8 weeks, were fed a control (0% VA) or a VA diet (1.5% (w/w) VA) for 3 weeks (twenty rats per group). Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) immune cell phenotypes (flow cytometry), ex vivo cytokine production (ELISA) and phospholipid fatty acid concentrations were measured. Obese rats had higher proportions of splenic macrophages, total T-cells, helper T-cells (total and percentage CD25+), cytotoxic T-cells (total and percentage CD25+) and produced higher concentrations of IL-6 to concanavalin A (ConA) compared with lean rats. Obese rats had lower proportions of MLN T-cells, new T-cells (CD3+CD90+) and cytotoxic T-cells, but higher proportions of helper cells that were CD45RC+, CD25+ and CD4lo, and produced higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-10, interferon gamma and TNFalpha in response to ConA compared with lean rats. VA was higher in plasma phospholipids and both VA and CLA (cis-9, trans-11) were higher in MLN phospholipids compared with control-fed rats. Lean VA-fed rats had lower proportions of MLN and splenocyte CD45RC+ helper cells, and helper T-cells. Splenocytes from VA-fed rats produced 16-23% less IL-2, IL-10 and TNFalpha compared with controls. VA normalised production of MLN IL-2 and TNFalpha in obese rats to levels similar to those seen in lean rats. These results indicate that dietary VA favourably alters the pro-inflammatory tendency of mesenteric lymphocytes from JCR:LA-cp rats.

  14. The relationship between undernutrition and humoral immune status in children with pneumonia in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Allan W; Otczyk, Diana C; Barker, Jane; Lehmann, Deborah; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant risk factor for childhood infectious diseases in developing countries, including Papua New Guinea (PNG). Whilst the mechanisms are not fully understood there is little doubt that impairment of immune function is a major contributing factor in enhancing disease susceptibility in malnourished children. This susceptibility has been clearly shown for pneumonia in PNG. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of undernutrition on the humoral immune profile in children less than 60 months of age with pneumonia. The study was cross-sectional with measurements of nutritional status and parameters of the immune response being assessed simultaneously. The children were grouped according to age for the purpose of comparative analysis. The children were from the Goroka region of the Eastern Highlands Province of PNG and had been admitted to hospital with moderate-severe pneumonia. They were classified as undernourished (less than 80% weight for age) or nourished (greater than or equal to 80% weight for age). Serum albumin, IgG, IgA and IgM and salivary albumin and IgA were measured. Antibodies to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein and Escherichia coli O antigen were also determined in serum and saliva. Undernourished children aged less than 49 months had lower levels of serum albumin than nourished children throughout this age range. Lower values of salivary IgA were observed in infants (less than 13 months of age) than in older children, with a larger proportion of younger children having no detectable IgA. The age-related immunological profile was similar in undernourished and nourished children. At different age intervals the concentration of immunoglobulins in serum and saliva from undernourished children was generally found to be less than or the same as that from nourished children. In most cases undernourished children had lower levels of specific antibodies than nourished children but for some antibodies in

  15. Physiological constraints and the influence of diet on fatty acids in the yolk of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Koopman, Heather N; Able, Stephanie; Walsh, Jennifer; Goebel, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Avian yolk fatty acids (FA) composition is influenced by two main factors: maternal diet and genetic factors that regulate FA metabolism. However, due to embryonic developmental requirements, yolk FA are thought to be physiologically constrained and less useful for dietary and trophic studies. We assessed the relative contributions of diet and physiological constraints in determining the yolk FA composition of a marine bird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) by comparing FA signatures of yolks and prey between a captive, controlled- feeding experiment and a wild population. Captive and wild yolk FA signatures differed even though both groups' yolk lipids were composed primarily of three FA (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1n-9). Differences were due to FA occurring in relatively low abundance, but which mirrored differences in the FA composition of diets. However, yolk FA signatures were correlated across three penguin species suggesting that common developmental constraints can be relatively more important than species-specific differences in diet or egg-laying physiology. While yolk FA are constrained, several minor components of yolk FA are reflective of diets and the calibration coefficients resulting from this study have the potential to be incorporated into predictive models and allow for quantitative dietary and trophic studies using FA analysis of penguin egg yolks.

  16. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  17. Diagenesis and geochemistry of porites corals from Papua New Guinea - Implications for paleoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Helen V.; Gagan, Michael K.

    2003-06-01

    Coral proxy records of sea surface temperature (SST) and hydrological balance have become important tools in the field of tropical paleoclimatology. However, coral aragonite is subject to post-depositional diagenetic alteration in both the marine and vadose environments. To understand the impact of diagenesis on coral climate proxies, two mid-Holocene Porites corals from raised reefs on Muschu Island, Papua New Guinea, were analysed for Sr/Ca, δ 18O, and δ 13C along transects from 100% aragonite to 100% calcite. Thin-section analysis showed a characteristic vadose zone diagenetic sequence, beginning with leaching of primary aragonite and fine calcite overgrowths, transitional to calcite void filling and neomorphic, fabric selective replacement of the coral skeleton. Average calcite Sr/Ca and δ 18O values were lower than those for coral aragonite, decreasing from 0.0088 to 0.0021 and -5.2 to -8.1‰, respectively. The relatively low Sr/Ca of the secondary calcite reflects the Sr/Ca of dissolving phases and the large difference between aragonite and calcite Sr/Ca partition coefficients. The decrease in δ 18O of calcite relative to coral aragonite is a function of the δ 18O of precipitation. Carbon-isotope ratios in secondary calcite are variable, though generally lower relative to aragonite, ranging from -2.5 to -10.4%. The variability of δ 13C in secondary calcite reflects the amount of soil CO 2 contributing 13C-depleted carbon to the precipitating fluids. Diagenesis has a greater impact on Sr/Ca than on δ 18O; the calcite compositions reported here convert to SST anomalies of 115°C and 14°C, respectively. Based on calcite Sr/Ca compositions in this study and in the literature, the sensitivity of coral Sr/Ca-SST to vadose-zone calcite diagenesis is 1.1 to 1.5°C per percent calcite. In contrast, the rate of change in coral δ 18O-SST is relatively small (-0.2 to 0.2°C per percent calcite). We show that large shifts in δ 18O, reported for mid-Holocene and

  18. Mass treatment with ivermectin for filariasis control in Papua New Guinea: impact on mosquito survival.

    PubMed

    Bockarie, M J; Hii, J L; Alexander, N D; Bockarie, F; Dagoro, H; Kazura, J W; Alpers, M P

    1999-05-01

    Field studies were carried out to determine the impact of mass human treatment with ivermectin on the survival of anthropophagic mosquitoes of the Anopheles punctulatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae), the vectors of lymphatic filariasis and malaria in Papua New Guinea. In a village where mass treatment had been given, using 400 microg/kg ivermectin plus 6 mg/kg diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), we performed pre- and post-treatment collections of freshly blood-engorged mosquitoes from the same nine bedrooms. All blood-fed mosquitoes collected less than 4 days after mass treatment died within 9 days, whereas 67% of those collected before treatment survived for >9 days. Comparison (using the log-rank test) of the survival curves for mosquitoes collected (i) before treatment, (ii)<4 days after treatment, and (iii) 28 days after treatment, showed the survival rate of group (ii) to be significantly lower than the other two (chi2=176, df=2, P<0.0001). Pre- and post-treatment all-night landing catches showed no reduction in human biting rates in the experimental village. In another village, where people were mass treated with ivermectin (400 microg/kg) only, the survival rates of freshly blood-engorged An. punctulatus collected from bedroom resting-sites less than 1 day after treatment, were compared to similar collections carried out at the same time in a nearby village where people were not treated with ivermectin. The 48-h survival rate for the ivermectin-treated village was 31% compared to 94% for the other; this difference was highly significant (chi2=32.42, df=1, P<0.0001). Mosquitoes fed 2 months post-treatment with DEC or collected 38 days post-treatment with ivermectin had normal survival rates. We conclude that the duration of the systemic lethal effect of ivermectin on mosquitoes is insufficient to be of epidemiological significance in filariasis control programmes that are based on biannual and annual single-dose treatments, but might reduce vectorial capacity

  19. The impact of tubal ectopic pregnancy in Papua New Guinea – a retrospective case review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality amongst women of reproductive age. Tubal EP is well described in industrialised countries, but less is known about its impact in low-resource countries, in particular in the South Pacific Region. Methods We undertook a retrospective review of women with tubal EP treated at a provincial referral hospital in coastal Papua New Guinea over a period of 56 months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained from patients’ medical records and analysed. The institutional rate of tubal EP was calculated, and diagnosis and management reviewed. Potential risk factors for tubal EP were identified, and delays contributing to increased morbidity described. Results A total of 73 women had tubal EP. The institutional rate of tubal EP over the study period was 6.3 per 1,000 deliveries. There were no maternal deaths due to EP. The mean age of women was 31.5+/−5.7 years, 85% were parous, 67% were rural dwellers and 62% had a history of sub-fertility. The most commonly used diagnostic aid was culdocentesis. One third of women had clinical evidence of shock on arrival. All women with tubal EP were managed by open salpingectomy. Tubal rupture was confirmed for 48% of patients and was more common amongst rural dwellers. Forty-three percent of women had macroscopic evidence of pelvic infection. Two-thirds of patients received blood transfusions, and post-operative recovery lasted six days on average. Late presentation, lack of clinical suspicion, and delays with receiving appropriate treatments were observed. Conclusions Tubal EP is a common gynaecological emergency in a referral hospital in coastal PNG, and causes significant morbidity, in particular amongst women residing in rural areas. Sexually transmitted infections are likely to represent the most important risk factor for tubal EP in PNG. Interventions to reduce the morbidity due to tubal EP include the prevention, detection and treatment

  20. Treatment-seeking behaviour and associated costs for malaria in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Karyana, Muhammad; Devine, Angela; Kenangalem, Enny; Burdarm, Lenny; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Vemuri, Ram; Anstey, Nicholas M; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Ric N; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-11-08

    Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Eastern Indonesia, where multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to describe treatment-seeking behaviour and household costs prior to a change to a unified treatment policy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Mimika district, Papua province in 2006. In 2005 a randomized cross-sectional household survey was conducted to collect data on demographics, socio-economic status (SES), treatment-seeking, case management, and household costs. Information on the cost of illness was also collected from patients exiting health facilities, in order to compare the cost of episodes diagnosed as P. vivax compared with those diagnosed as P. falciparum. 825 households were included in the survey. Of the 764 individuals who sought treatment for fever outside the home in the last month, 46% (349/764) went to a public health facility. Of the 894 reported visits to healthcare providers, 48% (433) resulted in a blood test, of which 78% (337) were reportedly positive. Only 10% (17/177) of individuals who reported testing positive for P. falciparum or mixed infection received the first-line treatment of chloroquine with SP, and 38% (61/159) of those with a diagnosis of P. vivax reportedly received the first-line treatment of chloroquine and primaquine. Overall, public facilities were more likely to prescribe the correct prevailing first-line drug combinations than private providers (OR = 3.77 [95% CI 2.31-6.14], p < 0.001). The mean cost to the household of an episode of P. vivax was similar to the cost of P. falciparum [US$44.50 (SD: 46.23) vs US$48.58 (SD: 64.65)]. Private providers were a popular source of treatment for malaria, but adherence to the national guidelines was low and the economic burden of malaria for both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections was substantial. Engagement with the private sector is needed to ensure that patients have access

  1. Cross-sectional dietary deficiencies among a prison population in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the dietary adequacy of prisoners of Beon Prison, Madang, Papua New Guinea in response to a report of possible nutritional deficiency. Methods We undertook an observational, cross-sectional study. All 254 male inmates (May 2010) were eligible to answer a validated interview-based questionnaire; to have a comprehensive dietary assessment; and to provide blood for biochemical analysis (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, homocysteine, zinc, ferritin, and vitamins A, B12 and C). Prison guards were invited to participate as a comparison group. Results 148 male prisoners (58.3%) and 13 male prison guards participated. Prison rations consisted of white rice fortified with thiamin, niacin, and iron, tinned tuna, tinned corned beef, water crackers, and black tea, with occasional intakes of fruit and vegetables. Some prisoners received supplementary food from weekend visitors. From assessment of the prisoners dietary data, median intakes of calcium (137 mg), potassium (677 mg), magnesium (182 mg), riboflavin (0.308 mg), vitamin A (54.1 μg), vitamin E (1.68 mg), vitamin C (5.7 mg) and folate (76.4 μg) were found to be below estimated average requirements (EAR). Following are the prisoners median (P25, P75) concentration of circulating nutrients and the percentage of prisoners with levels below normal reference ranges or recognized cut-off values: serum retinol 0.73 (0.40, 1.21) μmol/L, 46% below 0.7 μmol/L; plasma folate 2.0 (1.4, 2.6) nmol/L, 98% below 6.8 nmol/L; plasma vitamin C 6.3 (1.0, 19.3) μmol/L, 64% below 11.4 μmol/L; serum zinc 9.9 (8.8, 11.1) μmol/L, 66% below 10.7 μmol/L. Guards had diets with a higher dietary diversity that were associated with greater intakes of nutrients and biomarker concentrations. Conclusions The prisoners diets are likely lacking in several micronutrients and recommendations for dietary change have been made to the prison authorities. Ongoing vigilance is

  2. Serum retinol and xerophthalmia among a prison population in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brian, Garry; Tousignant, Benoit; Venn, Bernard J; McKay, Robert; Gould, Camilla

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and one of its clinical manifestations, xerophthalmia, and examine the predictive value of nyctalopia and ocular signs for serum retinol concentrations among a prison population in Papua New Guinea. A cross-sectional study of 148 prisoners and 9 guards; all males aged ≥18 years. Interview-based questionnaire; ocular examination; serum retinol concentration determination. Two guards had marginal (retinol <1.05-≥0.70 µmol/L) VAD. For prisoners: mean retinol was 0.84 ± 0.49 µmol/L; 43.9% (95% CI 35.9, 52.2) had VAD (retinol <0.70 µmol/L); 9.6% (95% CI 5.1, 17.0) self-reported nyctalopia prior to, and 36.1% (95% CI 27.7, 45.5) after incarceration; 10.9% (95% CI 6.7, 17.0) exhibited at least one sign of xerophthalmia (2 had fundus changes; all 4 with more than conjunctival xerosis alone had severe [<0.35 µmol/L] retinol deficiency). Prisoners with ocular signs were more likely than those without to have VAD (OR 10.4; 95% CI 2.5, 70.3; P < 0.001) and severe retinol deficiency (OR 19.1; 95% CI 5.5, 77.2; P < 0.001). Positive (PPV) and Negative (NPV) Predictive Values: of nyctalopia for any (PPV 62.9%; NPV 32.8%) and severe (PPV 25.7%; NPV 85.9%) retinol deficiency; of ocular signs for any (PPV 93.3%; NPV 38.2%) and severe (PPV 73.1%; NPV 87.8%) retinol deficiency, and VAD (PPV 86.5%, NPV 38.2%). VAD and xerophthalmia were present in this prison population. There may be VAD in the wider community. The former needs remedy and the latter deserves investigation. Self-reported nyctalopia was not a useful indicator of retinol deficiency. Absence of ocular signs was unhelpful for ruling out VAD.

  3. Superiority of traditional village diet and lifestyle in minimizing cardiovascular disease risk in Papua New Guineans.

    PubMed

    Kende, M

    2001-01-01

    In the traditional society of Papua New Guinea (PNG) atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rare. However, among the urban population reports of cases of atheroma-related CVD are increasing. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the CVD risk factors in a homogeneous population of the Southern Highlands Province living in both rural and urban areas differing only in their diet and lifestyle. A total of 221 Samberigi people over the age of 25 years were selected for the survey. These included 123 individuals from remote villages of Samberigi and 98 of their relatives who had lived in Port Moresby city continuously for a minimum of 5 years. The anthropometric measurements, blood lipid, blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured and compared. The rural diets were mainly of vegetarian type, limited in variety and low in fat and protein content. In the urban subjects, the typical meal comprised refined foods with high fat and protein content. The urban men and women had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist and hip circumferences than their rural counterparts. In Port Moresby, 57% of the men and 67% of the women were overweight or obese compared to 28% of their rural counterparts. Similarly, the mean plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were significantly higher in the urban group. However, no significant differences were demonstrated for waist to hip ratio, LDLC/HDLC ratio and lipoprotein (a) levels between the two groups. The total cholesterol, LDLC and HbA1c were positively associated with age and BMI in both rural and urban locations. In conclusion, there were significant increases in CVD risk factors in the urban population compared to the rural residents. This was predominantly due to the adoption of a western lifestyle and diet as people moved from rural villages

  4. Late Miocene to Recent formation of the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt and foreland basin as a consequence of Woodlark microplate rotation, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Bryan; Mann, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt and Aure-Moresby foreland basin are located in the eastern Gulf of Papua (GOP), Papua New Guinea (PNG), and formed during late Miocene-Recent as the result of large-scale, counterclockwise rotation of the 355,000 km2 Woodlark microplate. To document the structure, stratigraphy, and age of convergent deformation along the poorly studied, western edge of the rotating Woodlark microplate, we integrate results of 2,538 km of previously unpublished 2-D seismic reflection data with onshore geologic and GPS studies from previous workers. The late Miocene Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt is a 400 km long, northwest-trending fold-belt exposed onshore in Papua New Guinea that plunges to the southeast, where continuous folds and northeast-dipping thrusts can be imaged in the subsurface for more than 250 km. The arcuate trend of the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt along the southwestern coast and offshore areas of the Papuan peninsula parallels the shape of the adjacent, offshore Aure-Moresby foreland basin and the strike of the transpressional segment of the left-lateral Owen-Stanley fault zone (OSFZ) passing along the center of the Papuan peninsula. As the OSFZ becomes more transtensional east of 148°E, folds of the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt along southern coast of the peninsula become less prominent, and the adjacent Aure-Moresby foreland basin transitions into an undeformed Cenozoic passive margin setting. These observations of convergent an left-lateral deformation along the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt are consistent with: (1) counterclockwise rotation of the Woodlark microplate known from regional GPS studies; (2) coeval opening of the Woodlark basin along its southern edge in the late Miocene; and (3) rapid subduction at the New Britain trench along its northern edge. The kinematics of the rotating Woodlark microplate are driven by slab pull forces acting on the actively subducting northern edge of the microplate.

  5. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  6. Are counterfeit or substandard anti-infective products the cause of treatment failure in Papua New Guinea?

    PubMed

    Nair, Anita; Strauch, Stefanie; Lauwo, Jackson; Jähnke, Richard W O; Dressman, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    Counterfeit and substandard products present a big challenge to any national plan or policy devised to improve public health. Poor quality drug products are especially a problem in lower income countries where product information and drug regulation enforcement are scant or absent. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of amodiaquine and amoxicillin formulations sold in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to detect the presence of counterfeit or substandard drugs in circulation, if any. Fourteen samples, collected from five registered pharmacies in Port Moresby, PNG, were subjected to visual inspection, quality control tests, and verification of product authenticity. The quality control tests included weight variation, content uniformity, thin layer chromatography, and dissolution. None of the products complied with all of the evaluation criteria. Two products, one of which was purportedly distributed by a company which proved to be nonexistent, contained no detectable amodiaquine. The present study confirms that counterfeit and substandard amodiaquine and amoxicillin products are finding their way into the distribution chain in Port Moresby, PNG. This quality problem with anti-infective products is of great concern, as it not only exposes patients to poor quality products but also fosters the development of resistant bacterial strains.

  7. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Victoria J.; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. PMID:28275611

  8. How the need for money and the need for security influence migration and economic diversification in the Papua New Guinea highlands.

    PubMed

    Rambo, K F

    1995-01-01

    The author began studying migration between rural areas of the Papua New Guinea highlands under the premise that commitment to the cash economy and to capitalist investment could be investigated by concentrating largely upon people's coffee-growing activities. Coffee, as a small-holder cash crop, is the most evident and, in some areas, the only significant means by which money is earned. His cases concerned migration from a high-altitude homeland, where land for growing coffee was scarce, to lower resettlement areas in locations ideal for coffee growing. During an earlier period of fieldwork, both migrants and non-migrants insisted that the motivation to move was based upon a desire to grow more coffee and earn more cash. Changes in the local division of labor in the Simbu and Western Highlands Provinces are discussed, with the work strategies undertaken by the migrants in the study illustrated by brief case studies presented after a general description of the research.

  9. Family characteristics predicting favourable changes in 10 and 11-year-old children's lifestyle-related health behaviours during an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Lifestyle-related health behaviours such as screen time, physical activity, sleep duration, and food intake tend to change into non-favourable directions when children become young adolescents. Cross-sectional studies show that family characteristics are important determinants for children's health behaviours. This study examined whether family characteristics such as parenting practices at meals and family involvement predict a more favourable change in children's lifestyle-related health behaviours during an 18-month follow-up. 745 children in school grades 4 and 5 (response rate 65%) filled in a baseline questionnaire in the autumn of 2006. A follow-up was conducted in the spring of 2008 (91%). Several health behaviours had changed in a non-favourable direction. Baseline parenting practices at meals and family involvement predicted some of the changes in the lifestyle-related health behaviours in 2008. Parenting practices at meals predicted a smaller increase in TV, DVD viewing time, and a smaller decrease in fruit intake. Amongst family involvement determinants, less time alone at home after school predicted a smaller increase in screen time, a smaller decrease in sleep duration, and a smaller increase in soft drink intake. For conclusion several family characteristics predicted favourable changes in children's lifestyle-related health behaviours.

  10. Multilocus haplotypes reveal variable levels of diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in Papua New Guinea, a region of intense perennial transmission

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The South West Pacific nation of Papua New Guinea has intense year round transmission of Plasmodium falciparum on the coast and in the low-lying inland areas. Local heterogeneity in the epidemiology of malaria suggests that parasites from multiple locations will need to be surveyed to define the population biology of P. falciparum in the region. This study describes the population genetics of P. falciparum in thirteen villages spread over four distinct catchment areas of Papua New Guinea. Methods Ten microsatellite loci were genotyped in 318 P. falciparum isolates from the parasite populations of two inland catchment areas, namely Wosera (number of villages (n) = 7) and Utu (n = 1) and; and two coastal catchments, Malala (n = 3) and Mugil (n = 3). Analysis of the resultant multilocus haplotypes was done at different spatial scales (2-336 km) to define the genetic diversity (allelic richness and expected heterozygosity), linkage disequilibrium and population structure throughout the study area. Results Although genetic diversity was high in all parasite populations, it was also variable with a lower allelic richness and expected heterozygosity for inland populations compared to those from the more accessible coast. This variability was not correlated with two proxy measures of transmission intensity, the infection prevalence and the proportion multiple infections. Random associations among the microsatellite loci were observed in all four catchments showing that a substantial degree of out-crossing occurs in the region. Moderate to very high levels of population structure were found but the amount of genetic differentiation (FST) did not correlate with geographic distance suggesting that parasite populations are fragmented. Population structure was also identified between villages within the Malala area, with the haplotypes of one parasite population clustering with the neighbouring catchment of Mugil. Conclusion The observed population genetics of P

  11. Multilocus haplotypes reveal variable levels of diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in Papua New Guinea, a region of intense perennial transmission.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lee; Wapling, Johanna; Mueller, Ivo; Ntsuke, Pilate O; Senn, Nicolas; Nale, Joe; Kiniboro, Benson; Buckee, Caroline O; Tavul, Livingstone; Siba, Peter M; Reeder, John C; Barry, Alyssa E

    2010-11-23

    The South West Pacific nation of Papua New Guinea has intense year round transmission of Plasmodium falciparum on the coast and in the low-lying inland areas. Local heterogeneity in the epidemiology of malaria suggests that parasites from multiple locations will need to be surveyed to define the population biology of P. falciparum in the region. This study describes the population genetics of P. falciparum in thirteen villages spread over four distinct catchment areas of Papua New Guinea. Ten microsatellite loci were genotyped in 318 P. falciparum isolates from the parasite populations of two inland catchment areas, namely Wosera (number of villages (n) = 7) and Utu (n = 1) and; and two coastal catchments, Malala (n = 3) and Mugil (n = 3). Analysis of the resultant multilocus haplotypes was done at different spatial scales (2-336 km) to define the genetic diversity (allelic richness and expected heterozygosity), linkage disequilibrium and population structure throughout the study area. Although genetic diversity was high in all parasite populations, it was also variable with a lower allelic richness and expected heterozygosity for inland populations compared to those from the more accessible coast. This variability was not correlated with two proxy measures of transmission intensity, the infection prevalence and the proportion multiple infections. Random associations among the microsatellite loci were observed in all four catchments showing that a substantial degree of out-crossing occurs in the region. Moderate to very high levels of population structure were found but the amount of genetic differentiation (FST) did not correlate with geographic distance suggesting that parasite populations are fragmented. Population structure was also identified between villages within the Malala area, with the haplotypes of one parasite population clustering with the neighbouring catchment of Mugil. The observed population genetics of P. falciparum in this region is likely to be

  12. New species of Pseudabbreviata (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) and other helminths in two species of Hypsilurus (Sauria: Agamidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2009-08-01

    Pseudabbreviata novaeguineaensis n. sp. from the stomach of Hypsilurus modestus (Agamidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. The new species was also found in the stomach of Hypsilurus papuensis from Papua New Guinea. Pseudabbreviata novaeguineaensis n. sp. represents the sixth species assigned to the genus and the first from the Australo-Papuan Region. The new species differs from other species assigned to Pseudabbreviata by the vulva position in the female and pedunculate papillae arrangement in the male tail morphology. In addition to the new species, H. modestus harbored Meteterakis crombiei, Strongyluris gonyocephali, and larvae of Abbreviata sp. (in cysts).

  13. Unrestricted migration favours virulent pathogens in experimental metapopulations: evolutionary genetics of a rapacious life history.

    PubMed

    Eshelman, Christal M; Vouk, Roxanne; Stewart, Jodi L; Halsne, Elizabeth; Lindsey, Haley A; Schneider, Stacy; Gualu, Miliyard; Dean, Antony M; Kerr, Benjamin

    2010-08-27

    Understanding pathogen infectivity and virulence requires combining insights from epidemiology, ecology, evolution and genetics. Although theoretical work in these fields has identified population structure as important for pathogen life-history evolution, experimental tests are scarce. Here, we explore the impact of population structure on life-history evolution in phage T4, a viral pathogen of Escherichia coli. The host-pathogen system is propagated as a metapopulation in which migration between subpopulations is either spatially restricted or unrestricted. Restricted migration favours pathogens with low infectivity and low virulence. Unrestricted migration favours pathogens that enter and exit their hosts quickly, although they are less productive owing to rapid extirpation of the host population. The rise of such 'rapacious' phage produces a 'tragedy of the commons', in which better competitors lower productivity. We have now identified a genetic basis for a rapacious life history. Mutations at a single locus (rI) cause increased virulence and are sufficient to account for a negative relationship between phage competitive ability and productivity. A higher frequency of rI mutants under unrestricted migration signifies the evolution of rapaciousness in this treatment. Conversely, spatially restricted migration favours a more 'prudent' pathogen strategy, in which the tragedy of the commons is averted. As our results illustrate, profound epidemiological and ecological consequences of life-history evolution in a pathogen can have a simple genetic cause.

  14. Pneumonia associated with infection with pneumocystis, respiratory syncytial virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and cytomegalovirus in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Shann, F; Walters, S; Pifer, L L; Graham, D M; Jack, I; Uren, E; Birch, D; Stallman, N D

    1986-01-01

    Paired serum samples were collected from 94 children with pneumonia admitted to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea. All but three of the children were aged 1-24 months. Only nine children were malnourished, with weight for age less than 70% of the Harvard median (three had weight for age less than 60% of the Harvard median). Pneumocystis carinii antigen was detected in the serum of 23 children. Twenty two children had serological evidence of recent infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Five children were probably infected with Chlamydia trachomatis at the time of the study, and there was less convincing serological evidence of current infection in a further 11 children. Five children showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although only one child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to cytomegalovirus, 86 children had this antibody. No child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Ureaplasma urealyticum or Legionella pneumophila. P carinii, respiratory syncytial virus, C trachomatis, M pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus may be important causes of pneumonia in children in developing countries. PMID:3002538

  15. Effect of Climate Factors on the Childhood Pneumonia in Papua New Guinea: A Time-Series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseob; Kim, Jong-Hun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Ha, Mina; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-02-15

    This study aimed to assess the association between climate factors and the incidence of childhood pneumonia in Papua New Guinea quantitatively and to evaluate the variability of the effect size according to their geographic properties. The pneumonia incidence in children under five-year and meteorological factors were obtained from six areas, including monthly rainfall and the monthly average daily maximum temperatures during the period from 1997 to 2006 from national health surveillance data. A generalized linear model was applied to measure the effect size of local and regional climate factor. The pooled risk of pneumonia in children per every 10 mm increase of rainfall was 0.24% (95% confidence interval: -0.01%-0.50%), and risk per every 1 °C increase of the monthly mean of the maximum daily temperatures was 4.88% (95% CI: 1.57-8.30). Southern oscillation index and dipole mode index showed an overall negative effect on childhood pneumonia incidence, -0.57% and -4.30%, respectively, and the risk of pneumonia was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (pooled effect: 12.08%). There was a variability in the relationship between climate factors and pneumonia which is assumed to reflect distribution of the determinants of and vulnerability to pneumonia in the community.

  16. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats.

  17. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

    PubMed

    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings.

  18. High Levels of Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Papua New Guinea despite Variable Infection Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Alyssa E.; Schultz, Lee; Senn, Nicholas; Nale, Joe; Kiniboro, Benson; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum populations are an obstacle to malaria control. Here, we investigate the relationship between local variation in malaria epidemiology and parasite genetic diversity in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Cross-sectional malaria surveys were performed in 14 villages spanning four distinct malaria-endemic areas on the north coast, including one area that was sampled during the dry season. High-resolution msp2 genotyping of 2,147 blood samples identified 761 P. falciparum infections containing a total of 1,392 clones whose genotypes were used to measure genetic diversity. Considerable variability in infection prevalence and mean multiplicity of infection was observed at all of the study sites, with the area sampled during the dry season showing particularly striking local variability. Genetic diversity was strongly associated with multiplicity of infection but not with infection prevalence. In highly endemic areas, differences in infection prevalence may not translate into a decrease in parasite population diversity. PMID:23400571

  19. Lessons learnt from a measles outbreak in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, June 2014 – March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Beverley; Flint, James

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study examined measles vaccine wastage during an outbreak response in Madang Province of Papua New Guinea from June 2014 to March 2015. Methods Vaccine wastage was defined as the number of doses received by a health centre minus the total number of doses administered during and returned following the outbreak vaccination campaign. Vaccine data were collected from the Provincial Health Information Office, the Provincial Vaccine Store register and clinic and health centre immunization registers for calculating the vaccine wastage. Interviews were conducted with all 48 health centres involved in the outbreak response using a structured questionnaire to explore the reasons for vaccine wastage. Results Of the 154 110 doses issued by Madang Province during the outbreak, a total of 85 236 (55%) doses were wasted. The wastage varied by district from 31% to 90%. The total cost of the vaccine wastage was estimated to be 589 810 Kina (US$ 196 604). None of the health centres maintained vaccine stock registers. Most health centres indicated multiple failures in cold chain logistics. Almost 40% of health centres reported incorrectly diluting vaccines. The same percentage of health centres reported using incorrect injection techniques. Discussion Regular audits of cold chain logistics, staff training and improved processes for recording vaccine administration and wastage will decrease vaccine wastage during vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and also benefit routine immunization activities. PMID:28409053

  20. Using short-message-service notification as a method to improve acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Ropa, Berry; Sui, Gerard Pai; Khattar, Ramzi; Krishnan, Ravi Shankar Santhana Gopala; Okayasu, Hiromasa

    2016-05-17

    High quality acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is required to maintain polio-free status of a country. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is considered as one of the highest risk countries for polio re-importation and circulation in the Western Pacific Region (WPRO) of the World Health Organization due to poor healthcare infrastructure and inadequate performance in AFP surveillance. The Government of PNG, in collaboration with WHO, piloted the introduction of short-message-service (SMS) to sensitize pediatricians and provincial disease control officers on AFP and to receive notification of possible AFP cases to improve surveillance quality in PNG. Ninety six health care professionals were registered to receive SMS reminders to report any case of acute flaccid paralysis. Fourteen SMS messages were sent to each participant from September 2012 to November 2013. The number of reported AFP cases were compared before and after the introduction of SMS. Two hundred fifty three unique responses were received with an overall response rate of 21 %. More than 80 % of responses were reported within 3 days of sending the SMS. The number of reported AFP cases increased from 10 cases per year in 2009-2012 to 25 cases per year during the study period and correlated with provincial participation of the health care professionals. Combined with improved sensitization of health care professionals on AFP reporting criteria and sample collection, SMS messaging provides an effective means to increase timely reporting and improve the availability of epidemiologic information on polio surveillance in PNG.

  1. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ctvrtecka, Richard; Miller, Scott E.; Rosati, Margaret E.; Molem, Kenneth; Damas, Kipiro; Gewa, Bradley; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus) and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts). Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. PMID:28231249

  2. The paradoxes of gender mainstreaming in developing countries: The case of health care in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lamprell, Gina; Greenfield, David; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming developed as the global strategy for gender equality nearly two decades ago. Since then it has faced criticism for its technocratic application, and its role in the de-politicisation and neutralisation of the women's movement in gender policy-making. In the health sector, this incongruity is exacerbated by a traditional bio-medical approach to women's issues. In this paper, we ask whether gender mainstreaming can be made to work in the health sectors of developing countries where these challenges, as well as women's poor health status, are further complicated by a raft of local traditional, cultural, political and socioeconomic barriers. To answer these questions, we present a case study of Papua New Guinea (PNG), one of the world's most disadvantaged and politically challenging countries. We review data on women's health in PNG and analyse PNG's aspirational and actual performance on gender mainstreaming, looking at: international commitments; political will and capacity; national policies and programmes; and the women's movement along with civil society's participation. We find numerous paradoxes between the aims of gender mainstreaming and the necessary conditions for its success.

  3. Effect of Climate Factors on the Childhood Pneumonia in Papua New Guinea: A Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseob; Kim, Jong-Hun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Ha, Mina; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between climate factors and the incidence of childhood pneumonia in Papua New Guinea quantitatively and to evaluate the variability of the effect size according to their geographic properties. The pneumonia incidence in children under five-year and meteorological factors were obtained from six areas, including monthly rainfall and the monthly average daily maximum temperatures during the period from 1997 to 2006 from national health surveillance data. A generalized linear model was applied to measure the effect size of local and regional climate factor. The pooled risk of pneumonia in children per every 10 mm increase of rainfall was 0.24% (95% confidence interval: −0.01%–0.50%), and risk per every 1 °C increase of the monthly mean of the maximum daily temperatures was 4.88% (95% CI: 1.57–8.30). Southern oscillation index and dipole mode index showed an overall negative effect on childhood pneumonia incidence, −0.57% and −4.30%, respectively, and the risk of pneumonia was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (pooled effect: 12.08%). There was a variability in the relationship between climate factors and pneumonia which is assumed to reflect distribution of the determinants of and vulnerability to pneumonia in the community. PMID:26891307

  4. The rocky road from roots to rice: a review of the changing food and nutrition situation in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Saweri, W

    2001-01-01

    Although it is not happening uniformly within the country, the adoption of a modern lifestyle by Papua New Guineans is affecting their food habits and choices. More and more people consume rice, tinned fish and tinned meat. In towns and in villages with easy access to urban centres, these food items comprise an ever increasing part of the diet. These dietary changes are leading to increases in the prevalence of chronic lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Although average calorie availability is similar in urban and rural sectors, at around 2600 kilocalories per person per day, the nutritional outcomes are different. This is mainly due to the higher energy density of the modern urban diet with a greater intake of fat and protein. The traditional diet is low in protein with rather high energy content from starchy root crops. Studies have shown that urban children tend to be taller and heavier than their rural counterparts and that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among adults in urban than in rural areas. Finally, across all income groups and geographical regions, more women than men are chronically undernourished.

  5. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  6. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Xu, Fei; Chu, Zhong; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-01-01

    A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content. PMID:28239108

  7. Relationship between markers of inflammation and anaemia in children of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Naomi; Sullivan, Kevin M; Tripp, Katie; Erhardt, Jürgen G; Haynes, Bridgette M H; Temple, Victor J; Woodruff, Bradley

    2013-02-01

    To assess the association of the acute-phase protein biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), with anaemia in children aged 6-59·9 months in Papua New Guinea. A nationally representative household-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-59·9 months was used to assess the relationships between various combinations of elevated CRP (>5 mg/l) and AGP (>1·2 g/l) with anaemia. Logistic regression was used to determine if other factors, such as age, sex, measures of anthropometry, region, urban/rural residence and household size, modified or confounded the acute-phase protein-anaemia association. Papua New Guinea. A total of 870 children aged 6-59·9 months from the 2005 Papua New Guinea National Micronutrient Survey were assessed. The following prevalence estimates were found: anaemia 48 %; elevated CRP 32 %; and elevated AGP 33 %. Children with elevated CRP had a prevalence of anaemia of 66 % compared with children with normal CRP who had a prevalence of 40 %. Corresponding estimates for AGP were 61 % and 42 %, respectively. Similar results were found with combinations of elevated CRP and AGP. The higher prevalence of anaemia in children with elevated CRP and/or AGP was still present after controlling for confounders. Elevated levels of CRP and AGP were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia in the children surveyed. There are no expert group recommendations on whether to or how to account for markers of inflammation in presenting results on anaemia prevalence. Additional research would be helpful to clarify this issue.

  8. Idiocnemis schorri sp. nov., a new damselfly species from southern Papua New Guinea (Odonata: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Dirk; Richards, Stephen J; Polhemus, Dan A

    2016-09-29

    Idiocnemis schorri sp. nov. is described from the Hindenburg and Muller Ranges and the Kikori River Basin of southern Papua New Guinea. The new species differs from all congeners by, among other characters, a unique colour pattern on the thorax. Characters of males and females are illustrated and compared to those of similar species from the Idiocnemis bidentata group. The new species is found along small, shallow rainforest streams and is currently known only from the Trans-Fly Foreland and Papuan Gulf Foreland areas of endemism.

  9. Respiratory impairment in coffee factory workers in the Asaro Valley of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D; Brott, K; Koki, G

    1985-01-01

    In a coffee growing area of Papua New Guinea, a developing country in the western Pacific region, coffee factory workers were found to have more chronic symptomatic respiratory impairment than a carefully matched group of neighbouring villagers. This impairment was not related to their duration of employment. Coffee factory workers were found also to have a greater prevalence of reversible but asymptomatic airways obstruction on entering their factories after two days off duty than a group of soft drink factory workers. These findings are thought to be related to exposure to the dust produced in large quantities during coffee processing. Images PMID:4015998

  10. Paramoguai kavieng, a new genus and species of camptandriid crab from Papua New Guinea (Crustacea: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Ahyong, Shane T

    2014-08-26

    Paramoguai kavieng is recognised as a new genus and species of camptandriid crab, recently discovered in Papua New Guinea. The new genus closely resembles Moguai Tan & Ng, 1999, from the western Pacific, sharing similar carapace and pereopod structure, but is distinguished chiefly by the fusion of the maxilliped 3 ischiomerus, features of the epistome and front, and position of the anterolateral margins of the carapace. The new genus is unique in the Camptandriidae Stimpson, 1858, in having an epistome with a bilobed buccal margin. Moguai pyriforme Naruse, 2005, from Japan, which differs from P. kavieng primarily in carapace ornamentation and gonopod morphology, is transferred to Paramoguai. 

  11. On the move: migration, urbanization and development in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A C

    1987-03-01

    "Migration and urbanization data from Papua New Guinea's first truly national census in 1980 are considered against a backdrop of spatial and social inequalities. Source and destination factors affecting migration flows and destinations are found to relate to population density, availability of rural wages, ease of access, destination wage-earning opportunities, historical linkages and present day developments. Short-distance migration differs from longer-distance migration; many migrants are short-term, and possibly circular, migrants. Migration and urbanization are considered part of the same process of developmental change." A section is included on earlier censuses and surveys, data reliability, and related problems.

  12. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation

    PubMed Central

    Bugni, Tim S.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Pole, Ann R.; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of Parmotrema saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. PMID:19289158

  13. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation.

    PubMed

    Bugni, Tim S; Andjelic, Cynthia D; Pole, Ann R; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

    2009-07-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of P. saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively.

  14. A review of diarrhoea aetiology in Papua New Guinea, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Toliman, Pamela J; Guwada, Carlton; Sou, Kevin W

    2013-01-01

    The large contribution of diarrhoea to morbidity and mortality rates in Papua New Guinea (PNG) warrants a significant response to diagnosing aetiology, determining appropriate management and reducing risk factors that facilitate transmission of enteric pathogens. We conducted a review of literature to assess the extent of research published on the aetiology of diarrhoea in PNG between 1995 and 2012. Of 54 peer-reviewed articles that were selected for review, 25 pertained to aetiology. While the majority of articles described typhoid fever and non-typhoid salmonellosis, shigellosis, rotavirus, pigbel and cholera were also represented in the literature reviewed.

  15. Subsistence ecology and carrying capacity in two Papua New Guinea populations.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, R

    1994-07-01

    This article examines the mechanisms of subsistence adaptation of two Papua New Guinea populations, the Metroxylon sago-depending lowland Gidra and the taro-monoculture Mountain Ok, surviving in low population densities of 0.5 and 1.4 persons per km2. Observation of the groups' land use systems strongly suggests that their population densities have not been far below the carrying capacity, although the territory of each population is markedly heterogeneous. Both groups have maintained their sustainable food production not only for resource management but also for survival at a population level, either expanding their territory or changing the sustainable level in tandem with changes of subsistence system.

  16. Cherax (Astaconephrops) gherardii, a new crayfish (Decapoda: Parastacidae) from West Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kouba, Antonín

    2015-06-05

    Cherax (Astaconephrops) gherardii n. sp. is a moderate burrowing crayfish endemic to the Ajamaru Lakes of West Papua, Indonesia. This species is one of the crayfish species from this region that are exploited for ornamental purposes. Its commonly used commercial name in the pet trade is "Rainbow Crayfish" or "Blue Moon Crayfish", and its native name is "udang kuku biru". The new species is genetically and morphologically similar to Cherax boesemani, however, both species may be easily distinguished morphologically or by using sequence divergence, which is substantial for considering C. gherardii n. sp. to be a valid species.

  17. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of dust transport from Africa toward Sardinia Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Pintus, Gabriella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Dust events that reach Italy have usually origin in the Sahara and Sahel regions (north-western part of Africa), which represent the dust sources nearest to Italy. In those regions the dust-lifting activity occurs in a remarkable way. Every dust event is different from the others; in fact dust transport and dust concentration in the air can vary remarkably depending on the synoptic situation. In Sardinia, dust events are more frequent in the May-November period, but they can also take place in the December-April period. The main aim of this work was to describe dust outbreaks in Sardinia and to identify the main meteorological scenarios that originate the transport of dust towards the central and western Mediterranean Basin. The evaluation of the geographical dispersion of Saharan dust was performed by using MODIS satellite data and Meteosat imagery combined with SKIRON forecasting model. The origin and the trajectory of the dust carried by winds towards Italy were inferred by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). In addition, PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm) and meteorological data registered by the ARPAS (Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia) monitoring stations were used to highlight the arrival of African air masses in Sardinia. The study was carried out during the 2014. A total of five events occurred during the year (two in spring and three in autumn) were analyzed. The origin of air masses loaded with dust from North Africa was confirmed by satellite imagery and 3-days air mass backward trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The analysis of the PM10 daily pattern registered at northern and southern Sardinia sites showed a rising of values during the dust event. The arrival of air masses from Africa caused the daily mean air temperature to rise whereas relative humidity values decreased. Finally, the results showed that all the event analyzed were

  18. Favourable rotational alignment outcomes in PSI knee arthroplasty: A Level 1 systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mannan, A; Smith, T O

    2016-03-01

    Implant malposition in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often results in unsatisfactory outcomes. Rotational malalignment leads to impaired patellar tracking, stability and joint biomechanics. Patient-specific instrumentation aims to improve three-dimensional implant positioning while reducing overall costs of instrumentation. A PRISMA compliant search of all relevant literature between 2000 and 2014 was performed. The primary outcome of interest was deviation from a neutral femoral and tibial axial alignment of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) vs conventional instrumentation. Femoral rotation was measured with reference to the transepicondylar axis. Tibial rotation was reported with reference to the anterior tibial tuberosity and a "best fit" with the anterior tibial cortex. Six randomised studies met the inclusion criteria reporting on a total of 444 knees. Computed tomography (CT) based PSI systems were used exclusively in three studies, and two further studies in association with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was used exclusively in one study. Mean femoral rotation in the conventional group was: -1.7 to 1.6° (vs -1.7 to 1° in the PSI group). Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant treatment effect favouring PSI with increased accuracy in "three-degree outliers" with femoral rotation: Z=2.07, P=0.04. A single study reported tibial rotational outcomes with no significant difference demonstrated in conventional instrumentation vs PSI. This Level 1 meta-analysis demonstrates favourable femoral rotational alignment outcomes in PSI knee arthroplasty. Only limited data is available for tibial rotational outcomes. Further studies with standardised "gold-standard" measurement criteria are required to clarify tibial rotational outcomes in PSI TKA. 1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the origin and evolution of rocks in the active Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, Nasser Alexander

    Tectonically active regions provide important natural laboratories to glean information that is applicable to developing a better understanding of the geologic record. One such area of the World is Papua New Guinea, much of which is situated in an active and transient plate boundary zone. The focus of this PhD research is to develop a better understanding of rocks in the active Woodlark Rift, situated in Papua New Guinea's southernmost reaches. In this region, rifting and lithospheric rupture is occurring within a former subduction complex where there is a history of continental subduction and (U)HP metamorphism. The lithostratigraphic units exposed in the Woodlark Rift provide an opportunity to better understand the records of plate boundary processes at many scales from micron-sized domains within individual minerals to regional geological relationships. This thesis is composed of three chapters that are independent of one another but are all related to the overall goal of developing a better understanding of the record of plate boundary processes in the rocks currently exposed in the Woodlark Rift. The first chapter, published in its entirety in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2011 v. 309, p. 56 - 66), is entitled 'Lu-Hf garnet geochronology applied to plate boundary zones: Insights from the (U)HP terrane exhumed within the Woodlark Rift'. This chapter focuses on the use of the Lu-Hf isotopic system to date garnets in the Woodlark Rift. Major findings of this study are that some of the rocks in the Woodlark Rift preserve a Lu-Hf garnet isotopic record of initial metamorphism and continental subduction occurring in the Late Mesozoic, whereas others only preserve a record of tectonic processes related to lithospheric rupture during the initiation of rifting in the Late Cenozoic. The second chapter is entitled 'Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the origin of rocks in the active Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea: Recognizing the dispersed

  20. The 'longlong' population of Ialibu District, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea: contact with health services and care in the village.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, A

    1992-09-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the general behaviour, living arrangements and level of health services contact of the mentally ill population of a health district in Papua New Guinea. The immediate relatives of 31 'longlong' people living in Ialibu District were interviewed. About half of the mentally ill subjects were able to cook and look after a garden. Just over half had engaged in physical violence or stolen and one-fifth had been physically restrained. Almost all were living in their own village although not all were living with their own families. Just over half had had contact with health services and this contact had usually been brief and, in the relatives' eyes, unsatisfactory.