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Sample records for favourability studies papua

  1. The University of Papua New Guinea. A Case Study in the Sociology of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, V. Lynn

    A case study of the first 10 years of the University of Papua New Guinea is presented, with attention focused on the function, structure, and character of a new university in a newly independent nation. The analysis is based on the three issues of adaptation, conflict, and change, and the case study is designed to test how well past social…

  2. "We Like Being Taught": A Study on Teacher Absenteeism in Papua and West Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is a global phenomenon. It is recognised in numerous studies and policy documents as one of the most critical causes of children's impaired learning and moral growth, and as a barrier to national and international development goals, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and Education For All (EFA). This research is the…

  3. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  4. Integrated package approach in delivering interventions during immunisation campaigns in a complex environment in Papua New Guinea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Vince, John David; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Toikilik, Steven; Lagani, William

    2014-08-01

    Papua New Guinea's difficult and varied topography, poor transport infrastructure, changing dynamics of population and economy in recent times and understaffed and poorly financed health service present major challenges for successful delivery of vaccination and other preventative health interventions to both the rural majority and urban populations, thereby posing risks for vaccine preventable disease outbreaks in the country. The country has struggled to meet the vaccination coverage targets required for the eradication of poliomyelitis and elimination of measles. Escalation of inter and intra country migration resulting from major industrial developments, particularly in extraction industries, has substantially increased the risk of infectious disease importation. This case study documents the evolution of immunisation programmes since the introduction of supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs). Single antigen SIAs have advantages and disadvantages. In situations in which the delivery of preventative health interventions is difficult, it is likely that the cost benefit is greater for multiple than for single intervention. The lessons learned from the conduct of single antigen SIAs can be effectively used for programmes delivering multiple SIA antigens, routine immunisations, and other health interventions. This paper describes a successful and cost effective multiple intervention programme in Papua New Guinea. The review of the last SIA in Papua New Guinea showed relatively high coverage of all the interventions and demonstrated the operational feasibility of delivering multiple interventions in resource constrained settings. Studies in other developing countries such as Lesotho and Ethiopia have also successfully integrated health interventions with SIA. In settings such as Papua New Guinea there is a strong case for integrating supplementary immunisation activity with routine immunisation and other health interventions through a comprehensive outreach

  5. Policy Evaluation of Investment in Education: A Papua New Guinea Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGavin, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Uses 1986 market sector earnings data to estimate rates of return to investment in primary, secondary, and university education in Papua New Guinea. Gains in economic and social development are available by shifting government funding in favor of lower educational levels and selecting and retaining pupils completing schooling cycles by level. (66…

  6. A neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in Papua New guinea: study population, methods and operational challenges.

    PubMed

    Phuanukoonnon, S; Reeder, J C; Pomat, W S; Van den Biggelaar, A H J; Holt, P G; Saleu, G; Opa, C; Michael, A; Aho, C; Yoannes, M; Francis, J; Orami, T; Namuigi, P; Siba, P M; Richmond, P C; Lehmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are at a high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, and a substantial burden of this falls on children less than six months old. PNG is planning to introduce a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants in the near future, but to make the maximum impact neonatal immunization will have to be considered. To provide evidence on safety and immunogenicity for neonatal and early infant immunization, we undertook an open randomized controlled trial of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV). 318 children received 7vPCV at ages 0, 1 and 2 months or at 1, 2 and 3 months or not at all. All children received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 9 months. This was a large and complex trial: village reporters visited participants weekly during the first year and fortnightly for a further 6 months and nurses monitored self-reported morbidity and collected many thousands of biological samples. The study team was remarkably successful in achieving the study aims, with 18-month follow-up completed on 77% of enrolled children and over 80% of scheduled samples collected. While the results of the trial will be reported elsewhere, this paper discusses the design of the study and dissects out some of the main reasons for its successful completion. Strong community engagement was an essential factor in success and the principles of equitable partnership and service provision led to a strong research partnership. A two-stage consent process, comprising primary assent followed by later informed consent, led to a high drop-out before initial enrolment, but an outstanding retention of those enrolled in the study. We conclude that factors such as strong community participation, reciprocity and a good relationship between the study team and participants are just as important as the technical elements of laboratory testing and data handling in ensuring the success of a vaccine trial in PNG. PMID:23163191

  7. Studies of nitrogen balance in male highlanders in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Y; Okuda, T; Rikimaru, T; Ichikawa, M; Miyatani, S; Kajiwara, N M; Date, C; Minamide, T; Koishi, H; Alpers, M P

    1986-04-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in Papua New Guinea highlanders was studied by examining their nitrogen balance when they ate their usual diet (experiment 1) or an experimental diet (experiment 2). Studies were made on 39 male highlanders between October and December in 1980 and 1982. In experiment 1, the average protein and energy intakes (mean +/- SD) for three consecutive days of usual diets were 116.2 +/- 31.2 mg N/kg body weight and 46.9 +/- 8.9 kcal/kg body weight in 1980 and 143.5 +/- 54.8 mg N/kg body weight and 47.3 +/- 10.5 kcal/kg body weight in 1982, and thus the nitrogen balances were 27.7 +/- 28.3 and 18.4 +/- 24.2 mg N/kg body weight, respectively. Most dietary protein and energy was derived from sweet potatoes and other vegetable foods, but between 1980 and 1982 the diet changed slightly with increased consumption of imported foods such as rice and canned fish. In the second experiment, when 10 highlanders were given adequate protein diet (about 200 mg N/kg body weight and about 44 kcal total energy/kg body weight for 13 d, much of the dietary nitrogen was retained in their bodies (45.1 +/- 19.3 mg N/kg body weight). When another group of men were fed a sweet-potato diet (81.1 mg N/kg body weight for 8 d followed by a low protein sweet-potato diet containing only 42 mg N/kg body weight with 50 kcal/kg body weight for 14 d, nitrogen true digestibility and net protein utilization increased and their nitrogen balance showed no significant change (-11.0 +/- 5.6 mg N/kg body weight).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  9. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  10. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  11. New technology and regional studies in human ecology: A Papua New Guinea example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, George E. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two key issues in using technologies such as digital image processing and geographic information systems are a conceptually and methodologically valid research design and the exploitation of varied sources of data. With this realized, the new technologies offer anthropologists the opportunity to test hypotheses about spatial and temporal variations in the features of interest within a regionally coherent mosaic of social groups and landscapes. Current research on the Mountain OK of Papua New Guinea is described with reference to these issues.

  12. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Dare, Anna J.; Lee, Katherine C.; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J. M.; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. Methods and Findings We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. Conclusions National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political

  13. Etiology of child mortality in Goroka, Papua New Guinea: a prospective two-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Trevor; Michael, Audrey; Mgone, Joyce; Frank, Dale; Wal, Tilda; Sehuko, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect accurate data on disease- and microbial-specific causes and avoidable factors in child deaths in a developing country. METHODS: A systematic prospective audit of deaths of children seen at Goroka Hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea was carried out. Over a 24-month period, we studied 353 consecutive deaths of children: 126 neonates, 186 children aged 1-59 months, and 41 children aged 5-12 years. FINDINGS: The most frequent age-specific clinical diagnoses were as follows: for neonates--very low birth weight, septicaemia, birth asphyxia and congenital syphilis; for children aged 1-59 months--pneumonia, septicaemia, marasmus and meningitis; and for children aged 5-12 years--malignancies and septicaemia. At least one microbial cause of death was identified for 179 (50.7%) children and two or more were identified for 37 (10.5%). Nine microbial pathogens accounted for 41% of all childhood deaths and 76% of all deaths that had any infective component. Potentially avoidable factors were identified for 177 (50%) of deaths. The most frequently occurring factors were as follows: no antenatal care in high-risk pregnancies (8.8% of all deaths), very delayed presentation (7.9%), vaccine-preventable diseases (7.9%), informal adoption or child abandonment leading to severe malnutrition (5.7%), and lack of screening for maternal syphilis (5.4%). Sepsis due to enteric Gram-negative bacilli occurred in 87 (24.6%). The strongest associations with death from Gram- negative sepsis were adoption/abandonment leading to severe malnutrition, village births, and prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in child mortality will depend on addressing the commonest causes of death, which include disease states, microbial pathogens, adverse social circumstances and health service failures. Systematic mortality audits in selected regions where child mortality is high may be useful for setting priorities, estimating the potential benefit of specific and non

  14. Studies of bacterial populations in the kitchens of the University of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Price, T V

    1979-12-01

    Washed cups, plates, forks, knives, spoons, utensils and table surfaces in the kitchens of the University of Papua New Guinea were assayed for total and coliform bacteria in 1976 and 1977. The total bacterial count per item for crockery and cutlery exceeded the desired limit by five to 6400 times, whilst the count for utensils was also exceeded by over 100 times in both years. Coliform and E. coli. were detected in all samples. Improper hygiene by kitchen staff and a lack of sufficient hot water were mainly responsible for the high counts. Recommendations are given for catering establishments.

  15. Lumpectomy with or without postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer with favourable prognostic features: results of a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Holli, K; Saaristo, R; Isola, J; Joensuu, H; Hakama, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the value of adding post-operative radiotherapy to lumpectomy in a subgroup of breast cancer patients with favourable patient-, tumour-, and treatment-related prognostic features. 152 women aged over 40 with unifocal breast cancer seen in preoperative mammography were randomly assigned to lumpectomy alone (no-XRT group) or to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy to the ipsilateral breast (50 Gy given within 5 weeks, XRT group). All cancers were required to be invasive node-negative, smaller than 2 cm in diameter and well or moderately differentiated, to contain no extensive intraductal component, to be progesterone receptor-positive, DNA diploid, have S-phase fraction ≤7 and be excised with at least 1 cm margin. During a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years, 13 (18.1%) cancers recurred locally in the no-XRT and 6 (7.5%) in the XRT group (P = 0.03). There was no difference between the groups in the ultimate breast preservation rate (95.0% vs. 94.4% in XRT and no-XRT, respectively, P = 0.88), distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.36), or 5-year cancer-specific survival (97.1% in XRT and 98.6 in no-XRT). Radiation therapy given after lumpectomy reduces the frequency of ipsilateral breast recurrences even in women with small breast cancer with several favourable clinical and biological features. However, the breast preservation rate may not increase due to more frequent use of salvage mastectomies in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161371

  16. Geophysical study of a magma chamber near Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dadisman, Shawn V.; Marlow, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of a 24-channel seismic-reflection data collected near Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea, shows a high-amplitude, negative-polarity reflection that we believe is from the top of a magma chamber.  The reflecting horizon lies at a depth of about 4.4 s subbottom and can be traced laterally for 2.6 km.  On shot gathers, the reflection demonstrates normal moveout appropriate for an in-place event.  The frequency spectrum of the reflection shows a decrease in high-frequency content when compared to the sea floor reflection, as would be expected for a deep subsurface event.  The polarity of the reflection event is negative, suggesting that the reflection horizon is the top of a low-velocity zone.  Magnetic data indicate that the ridge containing the reflecting horizon is magnetic, and the geology of Massau Island suggests that the ridge is volcanic in its origin.  We speculate that the high-amplitude reflection is from the top of a magma chamber some 7-11 km deep.

  17. A study of the CD4: CD8 ratio in peripheral T lymphocytes of rural Papua New Guineans: a reduced ratio assessed with regard to infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Turner, P F

    1993-09-01

    The CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral T lymphocytes was determined in 123 Papua New Guineans aged over 5 years from Rumginae, a rural area of the Western Province. 18 people had a ratio less than 1.0. No antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1) was found within the group. Hepatitis B surface antigen was more commonly associated with a CD4:CD8 ratio less than 1.0 than were microfilaraemia or a positive Mantoux test. Hepatitis B infection may be one of the causes of the CD4:CD8 ratio reduction within the community. Irrespective of the cause, other studies in Papua New Guinea have shown that a CD4:CD8 ratio less than 1.0 may result more from an increase in the CD8 cell count than a reduction in the CD4 cell count. PMID:8059546

  18. Quaternary Turbidite Sedimentation in the Moresby Trough, Preliminary Observations from the Papua New Guinea S2S Study Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, S. J.; Muhammad, Z.; Dickens, J.; Droxler, A.; Peterson, L.; Opdyke, B.

    2004-12-01

    Multicores and jumbo piston cores were collected from the Moresby Trough from the R/V Melville in March-April 204 to study patterns of off-shelf sediment flux from the Gulf of Papua to the deep sea over Pleistocene-Holocene timescales. The Moresby Trough represents the primary deep-sea sediment conduit linking the Source to Sink Gulf of Papua study area to the north with the Coral Sea Basin to the south. Core locations were navigated from the surface using dynamic positioning and multibeam bathymetric mosaics collected during the cruise. Selected cores have been analyzed using a multi-sensor core logger, X-radiography, granulometry, and Pb-210 geochronology. Most piston cores collected from the Moresby Trough contain abundant mafic sandy turbidites overlain by fine-grained hemipelagic deposits 1-2 m thick. X-radiographs of multicores reveal mostly bioturbated hemipelagics. However, one core, MV25-0403-24MC, was collected from the axis of a primary channel, and contains at least two fine-grained turbidites within the upper 0.5 m of sediment. The uppermost turbidite contains low but uniform activities of excess Pb-210, and may have been 15-20 cm thick at the time of deposition (i.e., before subsequent disruption by bioturbation), based on fabric and radiochemical evidence. Application of a simple box-model for physical mixing (i.e., during the flow) and subsequent decay suggests that the uppermost turbidite was deposited 70-120 years before present. Bioturbation has since reworked about 60% of the bed, suggesting that such beds will only escape destruction by bioturbation if they are > 10 cm thick, and are deposited more frequently than once per century. Based on these observations, we suggest that gravity flows are presently active in the Moresby trough, and may account for a significant fraction of the hemipelagic drape present in channel systems. However, fabric evidence for these thin, fine-grained beds may be obscured by subsequent bioturbation. Also, at some

  19. Can Postoperative Nutrition be Favourably Maintained by Oral Diet in Patients with Emergency Temporary Ileostomy? A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Debabrata; Dey, Ramprasad; Choudhury, Krishnangshu Bhanja; Das, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary ileostomy is an emergency procedure performed in cases having septic peritonitis in presence of perforation or obstruction or gangrene of small intestine. These patients usually suffer from gross malnutrition following surgery. Aim To measure nutritional status of patients with emergency temporary ileostomy and to determine whether their postoperative nutrition can be favourably maintained by oral diet alone. Materials and Methods Sixty patients were enrolled for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria during the study period from January 2012 to December 2013. Oral feeding was started as soon as ileostomy started functioning and patients expressed hunger, about 48-72 hours postoperatively. An individualized diet chart was formulated for each patient using Harris Benedict Equation. Nutritional assessment was done on 1) 1st day of oral feeding, 2) After 7 days of oral feeding, 3). After three months of oral feeding. Nutritional parameters (anthropometric, biochemical) employed were tabulated and statistically analysed with SPSS v 17, Chicago. Results Out of 60 patients, 36 males and 24 females were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age group of 20-60 years with a mean age of 45 years. After 7 days of oral nutrition the nutritional status deteriorated with a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001) and serum haemoglobin (p <0.001). However, at the end of the study, the patients had their nutritional status restored satisfactorily with normalization of basic parameters like bodyweight, haemoglobin and serum albumin (p<0.001). Conclusion Proper dietary advice and oral nutrition were found to be sufficient for gradual restoration and maintenance of satisfactory nutritional status in the postoperative period. PMID:26816941

  20. Adult bacterial meningitis-a quality registry study: earlier treatment and favourable outcome if initial management by infectious diseases physicians.

    PubMed

    Grindborg, Ö; Naucler, P; Sjölin, J; Glimåker, M

    2015-06-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is challenging for the admitting physician because it is a rare but fulminant disease, usually presenting without typical symptoms, and rapid treatment is pivotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of initial management by infectious diseases (ID) physicians vs. non-ID physicians. A total of 520 consecutive adults (>17 years old), 110 with initial ID management and 410 with non-ID management, registered in the Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM January 2008 to December 2013, were analysed retrospectively. Primary outcome was appropriate treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids <1 hour from admission. Secondary analyses were mortality during hospital stay and persisting neurological and hearing deficits at follow-up after 2 to 6 months. Differences in diagnostic treatment sequences also were analysed. Appropriate treatment <1 hour from admission was achieved significantly more often (41%) by ID physicians vs. non-ID physicians (24%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 to 4.14; p < 0.01) adjusted for confounders. The door-to-antibiotic time was significantly shorter, and significantly more patients were administered corticosteroids together with the first doses of antibiotics in the ID group. A trend of decreased mortality (4.5% vs. 8.0%) and sequelae at follow-up (24% vs. 44%; adjusted OR 0.55: 95% CI 0.31 to 1.00; p 0.05) were observed in the ID group vs. the non-ID group. Antibiotics were started without prior neuroimaging more often in the ID group (86% vs. 57%; p < 0.001). Initial management at the emergency department by ID physicians is associated with earlier appropriate treatment, more appropriate diagnostic treatment sequences and favourable outcome.

  1. Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: a modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country

    PubMed Central

    Milne, George J; Baskaran, Pravin; Halder, Nilimesh; Karl, Stephan; Kelso, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The possible occurrence of a highly pathogenic influenza strain is of concern to health authorities worldwide. It is known that during past influenza pandemics developing countries have experienced considerably higher death rates compared with developed countries. Furthermore, many developing countries lack appropriate pandemic preparedness plans. Mathematical modelling studies to guide the development of such plans are largely focused on predicting pandemic influenza spread in developed nations. However, intervention strategies shown by modelling studies to be highly effective for developed countries give limited guidance as to the impact which an influenza pandemic may have on low-income countries given different demographics and resource constraints. To address this, an individual-based model of a Papua New Guinean (PNG) community was created and used to simulate the spread of a novel influenza strain. The results were compared with those obtained from a comparable Australian model. Design A modelling study. Setting The towns of Madang in PNG (population ∼35 000) and Albany (population ∼30 000) in Australia. Outcome measures Daily and cumulative illness attack rates in both models following introduction of a novel influenza strain into a naive population, for an unmitigated scenario and two social distancing intervention scenarios. Results The unmitigated scenario indicated an approximately 50% higher attack rate in PNG compared with the Australian model. The two social distancing-based interventions strategies were 60–70% less effective in a PNG setting compared with an Australian setting. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that an influenza pandemic occurring in a low-income country such as PNG may have a greater impact than one occurring in a developed country, and that PNG-feasible interventions may be substantially less effective. The larger average household size in PNG, the larger proportion of the population under 18

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Concerning Malaria in Pregnancy: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Infection during pregnancy with falciparum or vivax malaria, as occurs in PNG, has health implications for mother and child, causing complications such as maternal anemia, low birth weight and miscarriage. This article explores knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning malaria during pregnancy and it’s prevention in Madang, PNG, a high prevalence area. Methods As part of a qualitative study in Madang, exploring MiP, participatory techniques (free-listing and sorting) were conducted along with focus group discussions, in-depth interviews (with pregnant women, health staff and other community members) and observations in the local community and health facilities. Results The main themes explored were attitudes towards and knowledge of MiP, its risks, and prevention. Although there was a general awareness of the term “malaria”, it was often conflated with general sickness or with pregnancy-related symptoms. Moreover, many preventive methods for MiP were related to practices of general healthy living. Indeed, varied messages from health staff about the risks of MiP were observed. In addition to ideas about the seriousness and risk of MiP, other factors influenced the uptake of interventions: availability and perceived comfort of sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets were important determinants of usage, and women’s heavy workload influenced Chloroquine adherence. Conclusion The non-specific symptoms of MiP and its resultant conflation with symptoms of pregnancy that are perceived as normal have implications for MiP prevention and control. However, in Madang, PNG, this was compounded by the inadequacy of health staff’s message about MiP. PMID:25893405

  3. Favourability: concept, distinctive characteristics and potential usefulness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Real, Raimundo

    2012-07-01

    The idea of analysing the general favourability for the occurrence of an event was presented in 2006 through a mathematical function. However, even when favourability has been used in species distribution modelling, the conceptual framework of this function is not yet well perceived among many researchers. The present paper is conceived for providing a wider and more in-depth presentation of the idea of favourability; concretely, we aimed to clarify both the concept and the main distinctive characteristics of the favourability function, especially in relation to probability and suitability, the most common outputs in species distribution modelling. As the capabilities of the favourability function go beyond species distribution modelling, we also illustrate its usefulness for different research disciplines for which this function remains unknown. In particular, we stressed that the favourability function has potential to be applied in all the cases where the probability of occurrence of an event is analysed, such as, for example, habitat selection or epidemiological studies.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to infant feeding among women in rural Papua New Guinea: a descriptive, mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the well-recognized effectiveness of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant life for reducing infant mortality, adherence to this practice is not widespread in the developing world. Although several studies on infant nutrition practices have been conducted in urban settings of Papua New Guinea (PNG), there is only scant information on infant feeding practices in rural settings. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice associated with exclusive breastfeeding in various locations in rural PNG. Methods A mixed method study using interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire (n = 140) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) was conducted among mothers in rural PNG between August and September 2012. Participants were selected using convenience sampling. Included in the study were both primiparous and multiparous mothers with a child below the age of two years. Content analysis was used for qualitative data and descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data. Results Whereas most women indicated breastfeeding as a better way to feed babies, knowledge of the reasons for its superiority over infant formula was generally poor. Only 17% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum. Our study showed that the size of the gap between exclusive breastfeeding practice and global recommendations was striking. Taking into account the low educational profile of the participants, the disparity may be explained by the fact that most of the mothers in this study had no formal education on infant feeding. Conclusions This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of and poor adherence to exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum among rural mothers. As exclusive breastfeeding promotion has been proved to be one of most effective ways to improve infant survival, more attention should be given to it, especially targeting the large

  5. Kinetics of potassium release in sweet potato cropped soils: a case study in the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekhar Rao, B. K.

    2015-02-01

    The present study attempts to employ potassium (K) release parameters to identify soil-quality degradation due to changed land use patterns in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) farms of the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Rapid population increase in the region increased pressure on the land to intensify subsistence production mainly by reducing fallow periods. Such continuous cropping practice coupled with lack of K fertilization practices could lead to a rapid loss of soil fertility and soil-resource degradation. The study aims to evaluate the effects of crop intensification on the K-release pattern and identify soil groups vulnerable to K depletion. Soils with widely differing exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents were sequentially extracted for periods between 1 and 569 h in 0.01 M CaCl2, and K-release data were fitted to four mathematical models: first order, power, parabolic diffusion and Elovich equations. Results showed two distinct parts in the K-release curves, and 58-80% of total K was released to solution phase within 76 h (first five extractions) with 20-42% K released in the later parts (after 76 h). Soils from older farms that were subjected to intensive and prolonged land use showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative K-release potential than the farms recently brought to cultivation (new farms). Among the four equations, first-order and power equations best described the K-release pattern; the constant b, an index of K-release rates, ranged from 0.005 to 0.008 mg kg-1 h-1 in the first-order model and was between 0.14 and 0.83 mg kg-1 h-1 in the power model for the soils. In the non-volcanic soils, model constant b values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the volcanic soils, thus indicating the vulnerability of volcanic soils to K deficiency. The volcanic soils cropped for several crop cycles need immediate management interventions either through improved fallow management or through mineral fertilizers plus animal manures

  6. Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Gannier, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the necessary elements to implement strategic mitigation in order to avoid Cuvier's beaked whale (CBW) strandings linked to intense sound sources, such as military active sonars, in the Mediterranean Sea. A careful review of stranding data and the analysis of existing survey results are required to highlight the main characters of the species regional distribution. Focused and repeated surveys are needed to confirm that possible favourable areas, such as the Balearic, Tyrrhenian or Aegean Seas, are really favourable CBW habitats. These surveys should be carried out with sea states 0 to 1 in order to minimize the risk of false absence data. Among the regions of interest, the central Tyrrhenian Sea was surveyed with a 12 m sailboat in 2007 and 2008. With 907 km of effective effort, a mean sighting rate of 1.9 CBW school/100 km was obtained, which is amongst the highest densities recorded in the Mediterranean. PMID:20546808

  7. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship.

  8. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship. PMID:12178071

  9. Earthquake Hazard Map, A Small Step to Adapt with the Teeterboard Named Indonesia Case study: Papua Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipta, A.

    2012-12-01

    The availability of earthquake hazard maps throughout Indonesia is a must, since earthquake mitigation effort is more emphasized on pre-disaster phase. The hazard map is created using PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) method and developed on OpenQuake. Earthquake source, site class and return period are required. Furthermore GMPE for each earthquake zone should be ascertained. Site class is determined by considering to geology and morphologic aspects. Geomorphic aspect is used to estimate vs30, i.e. site class for each site. As consequent, geomorphic map of Papua can be divided into 13 geomorphic classes. Meanwhile earthquake source zone is classified as: active fault, subduction zone and background. Parameters using for probabilistic analyses are fault trace, slip-rate, dip and dimension of fault. Four segments of subduction zones, intraslab and 14 active faults both inland and sea-fault are used for this purpose. Parameters needed for subduction source model are area, dip, slip-rate, a- and b-value. Background source model is used to accommodate earthquake may occur randomly out of fault and to predict larger scale earthquake near location of historical small and medium earthquakes. Since specific attenuation function for Indonesian has not been provided yet, the attenuation function that introduced by some researchers is used. Hazard levels were calculated to represent 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (475 years earthquake recurrence) and furthermore earthquake hazard map of Papua has been created.; Hazard Level Class Based on MMI scalet;

  10. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor.

  11. Studies on the diastereoselective oxidation of 1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosides: synthesis of the usually less favoured R(S) sulfoxide as a single diastereoisomer.

    PubMed

    Moya-López, Juan Francisco; Elhalem, Eleonora; Recio, Rocío; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar, Noureddine

    2015-02-14

    A detailed study on the diastereoselective oxidation of 1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosides is reported. It has been shown that the sense and the degree of stereochemical outcome of the oxidation are highly dependent on the substituent of the sulfur and on the protective group of the C2-OH. In the case of thioglycosides with a bulky aglycone, the mesylation of C2-OH has a significant effect on the stereochemical outcome of the oxidation, affording the usually less favoured RS sulfoxide as a single diastereoisomer. The absolute configuration of the final sulfinyl glycosides was ascertained by NMR analysis and corroborated by X-ray crystallography.

  12. Education/Higher Education as a Commodity in Papua New Guinea - Some Conflicting Cross Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    The study attempts to enquire into whether Papua New Guineans see education as a cargo cult, an investment or as an item for consumption. The definitions of cargo cult are examined as are the basic principles of the economics of education. The main discussion within the study is whether Papua New Guineans see education as a cargo cult, an…

  13. Using Folktales to Strengthen Literacy in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yektiningtyas-Modouw, Wigati; Karna, Sri R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Rural and remote Papua and West Papua are among the most important regions for Indonesia to achieve the second MDG on primary education with equity. Both provinces have gross, net enrolment and literacy rates which barely touch the national averages. Given the distinct political, socio-cultural, and geographical aspects of Papua and West Papua…

  14. Distance Education in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The theme of this special double serial issue is "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea." The following articles are featured: (1) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea" (John Lynch); (2) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea: Context, Issues and Prospects" (Michael Crossley and Richard Guy); (3) "Distance Education at the University of Papua…

  15. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. PMID:25424654

  16. Comparative studies on physical characteristics and resting metabolism between young male highlanders of Papua New Guinea and young male Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, S.; Tsujita, J.; Mayuzumi, M.; Tanaka, N.

    1980-09-01

    Anthropometric measurements and measurements of resting metabolism were made on 15 young male highlanders in Beha village at altitudes between 1,500 m and 1,800 m in the Eastern Highland of Papua New Guinea in August in 1978 and 10 young male Japanese in Nishinomiya in September. New Guineans showed significantly lower height, considerably lower body weight than Japanese but heavier body weight for height and significantly greater mean values of Rohrer's index and Brugsch's index than Japanese. Skinfold thicknesses for New Guineans were significantly smaller than those for Japanese. Thus, physically, New Guineans were more muscular and athletic when compared with Japanese. The mean value of resting metabolic rate for New Guineans, 46.35 W/m2, at 25°C was considerably lower than that for Japanese, 51.01 W/m2. New Guineans showed significantly lower mean value of resting metabolism 47.57 W/m2 at 30°C than Japanese 55.16 W/m2. The mean values of respiratory quotient for New Guineans (RQ = 0.950 at 25°C and 0.971 at 30°C) were significantly greater than those for Japanese (0.81 at 25°C and 0.81 at 30°C). New Guineans showed considerably lower mean value of heart rate at 30°C (71.1 beats/min) than Japanese (79.2 beats/min). The smaller physique of New Guineans might be the result of lower caloric intake and protein intake as well as of living in a tropical climate.

  17. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa).

    PubMed

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E T; Stoffels, Bart E M W; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2016-01-01

    Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and "Plakobranchus ocellatus". Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties. PMID:27408559

  18. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa)

    PubMed Central

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; Stoffels, Bart E.M.W.; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and “Plakobranchus ocellatus”. Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties. PMID:27408559

  19. Contribution of dengue fever to the burden of acute febrile illnesses in Papua New Guinea: an age-specific prospective study.

    PubMed

    Senn, Nicolas; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Manong, Doris; Siba, Peter Max; McBride, William John Hannan

    2011-07-01

    Malaria is a major contributor to the burden of febrile illnesses in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Dengue fever (DF) is likely to contribute; however, its epidemiology in PNG is poorly understood. We performed a prospective age-stratified study in outpatient clinics investigating the prevalence of DF; 578 patients were enrolled, and 317 patients with a negative rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria were tested for dengue. Malaria was confirmed in 52% (301/578, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48-56%), DF was diagnosed in 8% (46/578, 95% CI = 6-10%), and 40% (95% CI = 36-44%) had neither diagnosis. Among the 317 malaria RDT-negative patients, 14% (45/317, 95% CI = 10-18%) had DF. The seroprevalence of dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 83% (204/247, 95% CI = 78-87%), and no dengue hemorrhagic fever was seen. This study provides good evidence for the first time that DF is common in PNG and is responsible for 8% of fever episodes. The common occurrence of DF in a population with presumed previous exposure to dengue is an important observation.

  20. The role of indigenous traditional counting systems in children's development of numerical cognition: results from a study in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matang, Rex A. S.; Owens, Kay

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Papua New Guinea undertook a significant step in developing curriculum reform policy that promoted the use of Indigenous knowledge systems in teaching formal school subjects in any of the country's 800-plus Indigenous languages. The implementation of the Elementary Cultural Mathematics Syllabus is in line with the above curriculum emphasis. Given the aims of the reform, the research reported here investigated the influence of children's own mother tongue (Tok Ples) and traditional counting systems on their development of early number knowledge formally taught in schools. The study involved 272 school children from 22 elementary schools in four provinces. Each child participated in a task-based assessment interview focusing on eight task groups relating to early number knowledge. The results obtained indicate that, on average, children learning their traditional counting systems in their own language spent shorter time and made fewer mistakes in solving each task compared to those taught without Tok Ples (using English and/or the lingua franca, Tok Pisin). Possible reasons accounting for these differences are also discussed.

  1. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Design An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Methods Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the ‘Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG’ study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Results Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (p<0.01). Conclusions The regional prevalence of HIV infection in PNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. PMID:26126529

  2. Micro-Level Planning for a Papua New Guinean Elementary School Classroom: "Copycat" Planning and Language Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the government of Papua New Guinea (PNG) enacted educational reform. It officially abandoned its English-only policy at elementary school level, in favour of community languages. In response, the Kairak community of East New Britain Province developed a vernacular literacy programme. This paper, based on original fieldwork…

  3. Idealism amongst New Secondary Teachers in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a byproduct of research started in 1982, suggested to the author through reading "Students into Teachers" (Collins, 1969). No similar study had been carried out in Papua New Guinea (PNG) so this study was designed to find out more about the social background, motivations and conditions of new teachers there. In countries such as the…

  4. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  5. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  6. The vertical birthing position of the Trobrianders, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pöschl, U

    1987-05-01

    During an ethnomedical field study the author succeeded in participating and photographing 4 traditional birthgivings among the Trobrianders/Papua New Guinea. Their various vertical postures are described with special reference to specific Trobriand practices and discussed by literature review. The results suggest that vertical birthing positions are advantageous to horizontal ones and should be reconsidered by modern Western obstetrics.

  7. Mapping of earthquakes vulnerability area in Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad Fawzy Ismullah, M.; Massinai, Muh. Altin

    2016-05-01

    Geohazard is a geological occurrence which may lead to a huge loss for human. A mitigation of these natural disasters is one important thing to be done properly in order to reduce the risks. One of the natural disasters that frequently occurs in the Papua Province is the earthquake. This study applies the principle of Geospatial and its application for mapping the earthquake-prone area in the Papua region. It uses earthquake data, which is recorded for 36 years (1973-2009), fault location map, and ground acceleration map of the area. The earthquakes and fault map are rearranged into an earthquake density map, as well as an earthquake depth density map and fault density map. The overlaid data of these three maps onto ground acceleration map are then (compiled) to obtain an earthquake unit map. Some districts area, such as Sarmi, Nabire, and Dogiyai, are identified by a high vulnerability index. In the other hand, Waropen, Puncak, Merauke, Asmat, Mappi, and Bouven Digoel area shows lower index. Finally, the vulnerability index in other places is detected as moderate.

  8. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Amiya, Rachel M; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper–gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesia. Methods Metabolic indicators of NCD risk were assessed among employees (15 580 at baseline, 6496 prospectively) of a large copper–gold mining operation in Papua, Indonesia, using routinely collected 5-year medical surveillance data. The study cohort comprised individuals aged 18–68 years employed for ≥1 year during 2008–2013. Assessed risk factors were based on repeat measures of cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure and body weight, using WHO criteria. Results Metabolic risk indicator rates were markedly high and increased significantly from baseline through 5-year follow-up (p<0.001). Adjusting for gender and age, longer duration of employment (≥10 years) predicted raised cholesterol (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.13, p=0.003), raised blood pressure (AOR=1.16, p=0.009) and overweight/obesity (AOR=1.14, p=0.001) at baseline; and persistent raised cholesterol (AOR=1.26, p=0.003), and both incident (AOR=1.33, p=0.014) and persistent raised blood glucose (AOR=1.62, p=0.044) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions Individuals employed for longer periods in a mining operations setting in Papua, Indonesia, may face elevated NCD risk through various routes. Workplace health promotion interventions and policies targeting modifiable lifestyle patterns and environmental exposures present an important opportunity to reduce such susceptibilities and mitigate associated health risks. PMID:26231573

  9. Archives, Manuscripts, and Records in and about Papua New Guinea: One Hundred Years of Creation, Dispersion, and Limited Return.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    This study of Papua New Guinea gives a historical overview of the area and its colonization. The first public library was founded in the capital of Port Moresby in 1936. Granted independence in 1976, Papua New Guinea is now a parliamentary democracy. This document traces the location of the various historical archival material dealing with the…

  10. The smokescreen of culture: AIDS and the indigenous in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Numbery, Gerdha; Morin, Jake

    2002-09-01

    In health transition studies on AIDS, government activities typically have been accorded less importance than local cultural practices. Certain social and cultural values, theorists argue, prevent potentially at-risk individuals from taking effective precautions to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. This paper shows how a focus on culture is inadequate to understanding the issue of risk when the AIDS epidemic occurs in a colonial context. A study conducted in 2001 in Papua (West Papua), eastern Indonesia, shows that ongoing colonial relationships between indigenous Papuans and in-migrant Indonesians create inequities in AIDS awareness. Rates of HIV infection in Papua are high, but indigenous Papuans have a low level of awareness. Drawing on a survey of condom use and the sex work industry, this paper shows that government values, and economic conditions, need to be scrutinized as closely as culture in order to provide effective AIDS prevention in Papua. PMID:14736116

  11. Effects of hydrothermal alteration on Pb in the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field, ODP Leg 193, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: A LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick; Scott, Steven D.; Gorton, Michael P.; Zajacz, Zoltan; Halter, Werner

    2007-09-01

    The conventional model of leaching volcanic rocks as a source of metals in a seafloor hydrothermal systems has been tested by examining the behavior of Pb and other trace elements during hydrothermal alteration. ODP Leg 193 drill sites 1188 (Snowcap) and 1189 (Roman Ruins) on Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus Basin offshore eastern Papua New Guinea provide a unique three-dimensional window into an active back-arc hydrothermal system. We investigate by means of a LA-ICP-MS microbeam technique the capacity of Pb to be leached from a host volcanic rock exposed to various types and intensities of alteration. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that utilized bulk analytical techniques but provide a more detailed explanation of the processes. Fresh representative dacitic lavas from the Pual Ridge have an average whole rock Pb content of 5.2 ppm, an average interstitial glass Pb content of 5.6 ppm and an average plagioclase Pb content of 1.0 ppm. Altered matrix samples have highly variable Pb values ranging from 0 to 52.4 ppm. High Pb values in altered samples are associated with a low temperature chlorite and clay mineral assemblage, in some cases overprinted by a high temperature (up to 350 °C) silica-rich "bleaching" alteration. Only the most highly altered matrix samples have REE patterns that differ from the fresh Pual Ridge dacite. This may represent either different lava histories or alteration characteristics that have affected normally immobile REEs. Altered samples with the highest Pb values have similar REE patterns to those of the local unaltered lavas. They are compositionally similar to typical Pual Ridge dacites indicating a genetic relationship between the main regional volcanic suite and the subseafloor hydrothermally altered, Pb-enriched material. Relative loss/gain for Pb between the analyzed altered samples and a calculated precursor show a maximum relative gain of 901%. Samples with relative Pb gain from both drill sites are

  12. High resolution X-ray computed tomography studies of Grasberg porphyry Cu-Au ores, Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, J. Richard; Mote, Alison S.; Ketcham, Richard A.

    2008-07-01

    High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) provides unique information of the geological and metallurgical significance for gold and related ore minerals in the supergiant Grasberg porphyry Cu-Au deposit. Digital radiographs have proved to be an effective means of screening samples for the presence of gold for HRXCT studies. Digital radiograph effectiveness is limited by the thickness of samples (typically to ≤2 cm), as well as the associated minerals. Thus, preselecting samples for gold studies using HRXCT is most effective using digital radiographs combined with assay information. Differentiating between metallic mineral grains with relatively small differences in density, e.g., bornite (5.1 g/cm3) from chalcopyrite (4.2 g/cm3), is relatively straightforward for isolated monominerallic grains or composites in a similar lower-density matrix, but difficulties are encountered with the interpretation of typical intergrown ore minerals. X-ray beam-hardening artifacts lead to inconsistency in attenuation determination, both within and among slice images, complicating quantitative processing. However, differentiation of chalcopyrite and bornite has been successful in smaller-diameter (≤22-mm) cores of Grasberg ores. Small-diameter (≤10 mm) cores of the Grasberg stockwork Cu-Au ore were analyzed using HRXCT methods scanned at the minimum spacing currently available (7.5 μm), and data reduction protocols using the Blob3D program were modified to improve the quantification of grain sizes and shapes. Grains as small as 6.5 μm have been identified. All of these grains are in direct contact with chalcopyrite, providing support for gold distribution in porphyry copper systems being a result of exsolution from copper sulfides. HRXCT scanning (±digital radiography) precisely defines the in situ location of mineral grains of interest within a sample, which then can be studied in conventional petrographic sections, and other types of analytical studies conducted, e

  13. Acetylator phenotypes in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Penketh, R J A; Gibney, S F A; Nurse, G T; Hopkinson, D A

    1983-01-01

    Acetylator phenotypes have been determined in 139 unrelated subjects from the hitherto untested populations of Papua New Guinea, and their relevance to current antituberculous isoniazid chemotherapy is discussed. PMID:6842533

  14. Reduced Risk of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Papua New Guinean Children with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis in Two Cohorts and a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Laurens; Rarau, Patricia; Laman, Moses; Senn, Nicolas; Grimberg, Brian T.; Tavul, Livingstone; Stanisic, Danielle I.; Robinson, Leanne J.; Aponte, John J.; Dabod, Elijah; Reeder, John C.; Siba, Peter; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Davis, Timothy M. E.; King, Christopher L.; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte polymorphism, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) (which results from a 27-base pair deletion in the erythrocyte band 3 gene, SLC4A1Δ27) protects against cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum; however, it is unknown whether this polymorphism also protects against P. vivax infection and disease. Methods and Findings The association between SAO and P. vivax infection was examined through genotyping of 1,975 children enrolled in three independent epidemiological studies conducted in the Madang area of Papua New Guinea. SAO was associated with a statistically significant 46% reduction in the incidence of clinical P. vivax episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.54, 95% CI 0.40–0.72, p<0.0001) in a cohort of infants aged 3–21 months and a significant 52% reduction in P. vivax (blood-stage) reinfection diagnosed by PCR (95% CI 22–71, p = 0.003) and 55% by light microscopy (95% CI 13–77, p = 0.014), respectively, in a cohort of children aged 5–14 years. SAO was also associated with a reduction in risk of P. vivax parasitaemia in children 3–21 months (1,111/µl versus 636/µl, p = 0.011) and prevalence of P. vivax infections in children 15–21 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% CI 0.23–0.67, p = 0.001). In a case-control study of children aged 0.5–10 years, no child with SAO was found among 27 cases with severe P. vivax or mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax malaria (OR = 0, 95% CI 0–1.56, p = 0.11). SAO was associated with protection against severe P. falciparum malaria (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15–0.87, p = 0.014) but no effect was seen on either the risk of acquiring blood-stage infections or uncomplicated episodes with P. falciparum. Although Duffy antigen receptor expression and function were not affected on SAO erythrocytes compared to non-SAO children, high level (>90% binding inhibition) P. vivax Duffy binding protein–specific binding inhibitory antibodies were

  15. Natural and human impacts in a 35 000-year vegetation history in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentfer, Carol; Pavlides, Christina; Specht, Jim

    2010-12-01

    Phytoliths and micro-charcoal from the Yombon Airstrip archaeological site in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea, provide the longest vegetation history record yet available for the New Guinea islands. The record begins about 35 kya with the first evidence for human presence at the site and, with the exception of the Last Glacial Maximum period, is continuous to the present. Three other sites provide supplementary evidence, including plant macro-remains, from the early Holocene onwards. The record is punctuated by a series of volcanic events, which are reflected in the vegetation record by alternating frequencies of closed forest and regrowth elements. Micro-charcoal is present from the oldest levels and fluctuates in frequency throughout the sequence, increasing substantially from the terminal Pleistocene-early Holocene onwards. This coincides with the first appearance of panicoid grasses and a range of potential cultivars including bananas and Saccharum. Increased levels of burning coinciding with the appearance of potential plant cultivars may indicate shifts in plant food production leading to cultivation from the early Holocene onwards. This compares favourably with previously reported evidence from Garua Island off the north coast of New Britain. The combination of trends in burning, vegetation clearance and appearance of potential cultivars on New Britain appears to parallel changes in the Papua New Guinea highlands at a similar time, and suggests regional similarities in subsistence and vegetation management practices from before the LGM onwards. Further studies are needed to clarify the timing and extent of these shifts across the region, and to provide a vegetation picture for the period before human colonisation of New Britain.

  16. Arbovirus disease in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Trevett, A J; Sanders, R C

    1994-06-01

    It is clear that exposure to arthropod-borne viruses is common in the populations of both Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. Clinical disease resulting from these infections has been reported although the paucity of case reports and combined clinical experience suggest that it is rare. Dengue epidemics due to dengue-1 and dengue-2 have occurred and it is likely that dengue-3 is also present in the region. No cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever have been described. Murray Valley encephalitis, Ross River and antigenically related viruses are widespread in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya, particularly in the lowland and coastal areas. Antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus have not been found in blood samples from Papua New Guinea or Irian Jaya. As Papua New Guinea is developed, new areas of the country are opened up and ecosystems are altered. It is important that physicians based in Papua New Guinea, and those who deal with patients living or working here, are aware of the arbovirus diseases which occur and the potential and preventable problems posed by them to both the individual and the community.

  17. Supporting Pacific Island Countries to Strengthen Their Resistance to Tobacco Industry Interference in Tobacco Control: A Case Study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  18. Supporting Pacific Island countries to strengthen their resistance to tobacco industry interference in tobacco control: a case study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  19. Supporting Pacific Island countries to strengthen their resistance to tobacco industry interference in tobacco control: a case study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-08-06

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate.

  20. "Whenever they cry, I cry with them": Reciprocal relationships and the role of ethics in a verbal autopsy study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gouda, H N; Kelly-Hanku, A; Wilson, L; Maraga, S; Riley, I D

    2016-08-01

    Verbal autopsy (VA) methods usually involve an interview with a recently bereaved individual to ascertain the most probable cause of death when a person dies outside of a hospital and/or did not receive a reliable death certificate. A number of concerns have arisen around the ethical and social implications of the use of these methods. In this paper we examine these concerns, looking specifically at the cultural factors surrounding death and mourning in Papua New Guinea, and the potential for VA interviews to cause emotional distress in both the bereaved respondent and the VA fieldworker. Thirty one semi-structured interviews with VA respondents, the VA team and community relations officers as well as observations in the field and team discussions were conducted between June 2013 and August 2014. While our findings reveal that VA participants were often moved to cry and feel sad, they also expressed a number of ways they benefited from the process, and indeed welcomed longer transactions with the VA interviewers. Significantly, this paper highlights the ways in which VA interviewers, who have hitherto been largely neglected in the literature, navigate transactions with the participants and make everyday decisions about their relationships with them in order to ensure that they and VA interviews are accepted by the community. The role of the VA fieldworker should be more carefully considered, as should the implications for training and institutional support that follow. PMID:27376593

  1. Iodixanol Has a Favourable Fibrinolytic Profile Compared to Iohexol in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Elective Angiography: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Treweeke, Andrew T.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Hickson, Kirsty; Miller, John H.; Leslie, Stephen J.; Megson, Ian L.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no consensus and a limited evidence base for choice of contrast agents (CA) in angiography. This study evaluated the impact of iohexol and iodixanol CA on fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), as well as platelet-monocyte conjugates in cardiac patients undergoing elective angiography in a double-blind, randomised parallel group study. Methods Patients (men, 50–70 years old; n = 12) were randomised to receive either iohexol (Omnipaque; n = 6) or iodixanol (Visipaque; n = 6) during elective angiography at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK. Arterial and venous blood samples were drawn prior to CA delivery and following angiography. Assessment of platelet-monocyte conjugation, t-PA and PAI-1 antigen and activity was conducted in samples pre- and post-angiography. Outcome Plasma t-PA antigen was depressed equally in the study groups after angiography, but there was a greater reduction in PAI-1 antigen in the group receiving iodixanol. These findings corresponded to a substantial reduction in t-PA activity in patients receiving iohexol, with no change in those receiving iodixanol (P = 0.023 between the CA groups). Both CAs caused a reduction in platelet-monocyte conjugation, with no difference between the groups. No adverse events were reported during the trial. Conclusion Avoiding reduced plasma t-PA activity might be an important consideration in choosing iodixanol over iohexol in patients at risk of thrombosis following angiography. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN register (ISRCTN51509735) and funded by the Coronary Thrombosis Trust and National Health Service (Highland) R&D Endowments. The funders had no influence over study design or reporting. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51509735 PMID:26784323

  2. Papua New Guinea to emphasize alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-09

    It is reported that Australia's Davy McKee Pacific is to build the first of nine proposed ethanol plants in Papua New Guinea in a bid to produce 50% of the country's transport fuels by 1990. The first $4 million facility, on the Baiyer River, will yield 2 million liters of ethanol a year from the cassava root.

  3. Public Library Development in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijasuriya, D. E. K.; Evans, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents the findings and recommendations of a consultant supported by UNESCO who prepared a public library development plan for Papua New Guinea. Highlights include extending existing urban library services to rural areas; literacy programs; libraries' roles in national development; financial support; policy and legislation; and education and…

  4. A comparative study of intestinal helminths in pre-school-age urban and rural children in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shield, Jennifer M; Kow, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged between 1 month and 10 years from one rural coastal locality, two rural upland localities and two urban localities in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea were examined between September 1980 and September 1982. Hookworm (predominantly Necator americanus), Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura increased in prevalence with age. The prevalence of Strongyloides fuelleborni subspecies kellyi, where present, was either highest in the < 1 year age group or similar in all age groups. N. americanus prevalence was between 59% and 83% in the 3 year age group except at the coastal locality, where it was 15%. A. lumbricoides prevalence in the 3 year age group was very low in one upland locality and between 7% and 41% for the other localities. T. trichiura prevalence in the 3 year age group was between 33% and 55% at the coastal and two urban localities, and very low at the two upland localities. S. f. kellyi prevalence in the < 1 year age group was 48% and 20% respectively at the two upland localities, 2% at one of the urban localities and not detected at the other localities. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected at both urban localities, but not at the coastal locality or at the upland locality where testing was done. Many children had infections of more than one species, and there was a significant association of A. lumbricoides with T. trichiura at the coastal and two urban localities. The presence of S. f. kellyi at one of the urban localities raises the possibility that this once isolated species may now be spreading as infected people visit and settle in the towns. Between 68% and 93% of children in the 3 year age group and between 65% and 100% in the 5 year age group were infected with at least one helminth species.

  5. Male involvement in sexual and reproductive health in the Mendi district, Southern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of male involvement and support for sexual and reproductive health services is seen by many Papua New Guinean women as a barrier to accessing services. Poor utilization of services by both men and women is reflected in high maternal mortality and high rates of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections in the Southern Highlands Province. It is therefore important to understand the type of services provided, men’s perceptions of these services and the Health Sector’s capacity to involve men in its programs. Methods Information from interviews of married men, officers in charge of health facilities, and information from a focus group discussion with village leaders was collected to assess possible constraints to reproductive and sexual health care delivery. Results Although many men had heard about antenatal care, supervised births, family planning and sexually transmitted infections including, HIV/AIDS, many were unaware of their importance and of the types of services provided to address these issues. There was a very strong association between men’s literacy and their knowledge of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) issues, their discussion of these issues with their wives and their wives’ utilisation of sexual and reproductive health services. Some men considered SRH services to be important but gave priority to social obligations. Although men made most decisions for sexual and reproductive issues, pregnancy, child birth and rearing of children were regarded as women’s responsibilities. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS appeared to have changed sexual behaviour in some men. Services for men in this rural setting were inadequate and service providers lacked the capacity to involve men in reproductive health issues. Conclusion Poor knowledge, socio-cultural factors and inadequate and inappropriate services for men hampered utilization of services and impaired support for their wives’ service utilization. Programmatic and policy initiatives

  6. Robert Koch redux: malaria immunology in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stanisic, D I; Mueller, I; Betuela, I; Siba, P; Schofield, L

    2010-08-01

    Over a century ago, the malaria expedition of the brilliant microbiologist Robert Koch to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and German New Guinea (now Papua New Guinea, or PNG), resulted in profound observations that are still central to our current understanding of the epidemiology and acquisition of immunity to the malaria parasite Plasmodium. The tradition of malaria research in PNG pioneered by Koch continues to this day, with a number of recent studies still continuing to elucidate his original concepts and hypotheses. These include age and exposure-related acquisition of immunity, species-specific and cross-species immunity, correlates of protective immunity and determining the prospects for anti-malaria vaccines.

  7. Utilization of urea nitrogen in Papua New Guinea highlanders.

    PubMed

    Rikimaru, T; Fujita, Y; Okuda, T; Kajiwara, N; Date, C; Heywood, P F; Alpers, M P; Koishi, H

    1985-06-01

    The utilization of urea nitrogen was examined in 10 healthy adult men from a village near Lufa, in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. The staple diet of these men was sweet potatoes. [15N]urea was used as tracer for urea released into their intestinal tracts and the utilization of the urea-N was estimated from the trend of 15N. The men were orally given [15N]urea at the beginning of the study and then their daily protein intake, serum protein levels, 15N excretion in the feces and urine, 15N retention in the whole body and 15N incorporation into serum protein were examined. Their daily protein intake (32.2 +/- 8.6 g/day) was low, but their serum protein level (8.05 +/- 0.41 g/100 ml) was within the normal range. 15N retention in the whole body on day 3 was estimated to be 35.4 +/- 20.2% of the total amount administered, calculated from the recoveries in the feces (1.64 +/- 0.85%) and urine (63.0 +/- 20.5%) on days 1-3. The utilization of urea nitrogen in Papua New Guinea highlanders was confirmed from the finding of 15N incorporation into serum proteins on day 3 (0.008 +/- 0.005 atom% excess). This incorporation was negatively correlated with the urinary nitrogen excretion and serum protein level. This correlation suggests that Papua New Guinea highlanders with low urinary nitrogen excretion or a low level in serum protein, who are in a poor state of protein nutrition, tend to utilize more urea nitrogen for the synthesis of serum protein.

  8. Navigating Contested Terrain: Vernacular Education in a Papua New Guinean Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troolin, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of language development in rural Papua New Guinea, in which parents felt the local school was not meeting the educational needs of their children. In this case study, the local, national and global narratives concerning use of the vernacular in education were apparent in the negotiation leading to an apparent…

  9. Cost of treatment in patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma who respond favourably to chemotherpy. The SArcoma treatment and Burden of Illness in North America and Europe (SABINE) study.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, L; Justo, N; Musayev, A; Krishna, A; Burke, T; Pellissier, J; Judson, I; Staddon, A; Blay, J Y

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (mSTS) commonly includes multiple lines of chemotherapy, until a decline in performance status precludes further treatment. The primary objective of this study was to describe the lifetime healthcare resource utilisation and cost among mSTS patients with favourable response to chemotherapy. SABINE was a multi-centre (n = 25), multi-country (n = 9) retrospective chart review study of mSTS patients with favourable response to chemotherapy following 4 cycles. Healthcare resource utilisation was collected from first line until death or end of follow-up. Costs were analysed by health states (defined by treatment line, chemotherapy use and disease progression) and estimated by multiplying the mean weekly cost per health state by the expected number of weeks spent in each health state. Expected per-patient lifetime medical cost was €65 616 (95% CI: €51 454-€85 003); comprised of IV chemotherapy (31.7%), inpatient care (24.8%), concomitant medication (11.0%), oral chemotherapy (8.9%), outpatient visits (8.8%), radiotherapy (6.3%), hospice (4.0%), imaging (3.7%) and laboratory (0.7%). Weekly costs were 280-330% higher during chemotherapy treatment periods than off-chemotherapy, especially after disease progression. Per-patient costs were highest in the USA and lowest in the Netherlands and UK. The economic burden of mSTS is considerable and the amount of resources devoted to its treatment varies across countries.

  10. Magmatic Contribution of Ore Metals to the Conical Seamount Hydrothermal System, Papua New Guinea: a High-Precision Pb Isotope Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfit, M.; Kamenov, G.; Mueller, P.; Jonasson, I.

    2004-12-01

    During RV SONNE cruise SO-133 in 1998 polymetallic gold mineralization was discovered at Conical Seamount, located on the flank of Lihir island, Papua New Guinea. The seamount and the island are composed mainly of trachybasalts and basaltic trachyandesites, although some monzonites are found on Lihir. Sr isotopic analyses suggest that most of the Sr in the mineralized samples is derived from the local alkaline lavas. Elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios in some of the samples suggest that during the waning stages of the hydrothermal system, some of the Sr was contributed either from seawater or the thick sequence of marine sediments underlying the island. High-precision Pb isotopic analyses conducted with MC-ICP-MS show that the ores and volcanic rocks share similar Pb isotopic compositions, suggesting that the Pb in the mineralized zones was ultimately derived from local magmatic sources. The Pb isotopic data, however, reveal small, but significant, differences between the mineralized zones and the associated host lavas. Mineralized samples from Lihir have slightly less radiogenic lead isotopic ratios than their host lavas. These lead isotopic compositions are similar, however, to some of the fresh lavas recovered from Conical seamount and to a monzonite intrusion underlying the Ladolam deposit. Lead isotopic ratios in mineralized samples from Conical seamount, however, are slightly more radiogenic than their host lavas and similar to those of fresh lavas recovered from nearby Tubaf and Edison seamounts. Petrographic data reveal a complex magmatic history for the magma chamber inferred beneath Conical seamount. Based on zoning patterns in the Conical clinopyroxenes, it appears that a sub-seamount magma chamber was recharged with a mafic magma similar to the most primitive, volatile-rich, and xenolith-bearing lavas recovered from Tubaf and Edison seamounts. Rapid cooling of this mafic magma accompanied by exsolution of metal-bearing fluids in the relatively shallow magma

  11. Papua New Guinea: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on oil exploration which is booming in Papua New Guinea (PNG) following a rash of license applications and farm-ins. Most activity is onshore, but success is beginning to drift offshore. Currently, 40 petroleum prospecting licenses (PPL) and one producing license are active, and eight more PPL applications are being considered. PNG is expected to become an oil exporter by September 1992 when initial production is expected from Iagifu, Hedina and Agogo fields.

  12. New and little known Brachodidae from tropical Asia and Papua New Guinea (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea).

    PubMed

    Kallies, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In this study nine new species and a new genus of Brachodidae are described from tropical Asia and Papua New Guinea. Synechodes polias sp. nov. and Synechodes tamila sp. nov. are described from Sulawesi and southern India, respectively. A new genus, Saccocera gen. nov. (type species Miscera orpheus Kallies, 2004), is described to accommodate five species occurring from Taiwan and Sumatra across Melanesia to Papua New Guinea. It differs significantly from the related genera Miscera Walker, 1863 and Synechodes Turner, 1913 in morphological details of the head and the male and female genitalia. Two species of Saccocera are described here, Saccocera panaras sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and Saccocera miangkabau sp. nov. from Sumatra. Furthermore, Miscera minahasa sp. nov. and Paranigilgia mariannae sp. nov. are described from Sulawesi, Paranigilgia brandti sp. nov. and Nigilgia atribractea sp. nov. from Papua, and Nigilgia browni sp. nov. is described from Christmas Island. Finally, Synechodes heppneri Kallies, 1998 syn. nov. is reverted to a junior synonym of Synechodes coniophora Turner, 1913. Nigilgia anactis Diakonoff, 1982 is figured for the first time and its distribution in Asia is discussed.

  13. Can natural selection favour altruism between species?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A

    2013-09-01

    Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species.

  14. More than just a cut: a qualitative study of penile practices and their relationship to masculinity, sexuality and contagion and their implications for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce vaginal transmission of HIV to men. While community acceptability is important in a countries preparedness to introduce MC, it is equally important to map contemporary MC and other penile cutting practices, and the socio-cultural dimensions underpinning these practices. Methods A total of 482 men and women (n = 276 and n = 210, respectively) participated in 82 semi-structured and 45 focus group discussions from four different provinces of Papua New Guinea (PNG), each representing one of the four socially and geographically diverse regions of the country. Results Of the men interviewed 131 self-reported that they had undergone a penile alteration with some reporting multiple types. Practices were diverse and could be grouped into five broad categories: traditional (customary) penile cutting; contemporary penile cutting; medical circumcision; penile inserts; and penile bloodletting practices in which sharp objects are used to incise the glans and or inserted and withdrawn from the male urethra or in order to induce bleeding. Socio-cultural traditions, enhanced sexual pleasure and improved genital hygiene were key motivators for all forms of penile practices. Conclusions The findings from this study highlight the complex and diverse nature of penile practices in PNG and their association with notions of masculinity, sexuality and contagion. Contemporary penile practices are critical to a community’s acceptance of MC and of a country’s ability to successfully implement MC in the context of a rich and dynamic culture of penile practices. If a MC program were to be successfully rolled out in PNG to prevent HIV it would need to work within and build upon these diverse cultural meanings and motivators for penile practices already commonly performed in PNG by men. PMID:22818494

  15. Protection of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, H.; Vince, J.; Boas, P.; Danaya, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the bottle-feeding of babies has been increasing, predominantly among unemployed women of low educational status. Many women are unaware of their legal right to have breaks at work for the purpose of breastfeeding, and a high proportion of workplaces have no facilities for mothers who wish to breastfeed their children. The laws on the feeding of infants should be updated and implemented, and an effort is needed to explain the benefits of breastfeeding and the rights of working mothers. PMID:10212520

  16. The cost of rural health services in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M; Thomason, J; Donaldson, D; Garner, P

    1991-12-01

    In 1988 a countrywide study was conducted on the costs of rural health services in Papua New Guinea. 16% of all health centres and subcentres were surveyed. Information was collected on physical facilities, recurrent costs, staff time allocation, service outputs and quality of services. Wide variation was found in the costs of rural health facilities overall, and significant differences were found between the costs and outputs of health centres and subcentres. Average levels of service output were found to be similar at church and government facilities but average levels of utilization by the population were higher at church facilities. Despite government policy on extension of preventive health care, a strong emphasis was found on curative care. Many facilities were found to have significant excess bed capacity. Recurrent financing for transportation and maintenance was found to be inadequate. PMID:1799090

  17. Rebel girls? Unplanned pregnancy and colonialism in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Munro, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    In highlands Papua, Indonesia, rapid social change under a colonial system of governance has created novel sexual opportunities for young indigenous women. Recent scholarship has viewed similar youthful sexual practices that challenge the status quo as expressions of personal agency. By looking at how young women and their families cope with unplanned pregnancies, we suggest that a more viable analytic approach would be to view sexuality, pregnancy and childbirth as a single unit of analysis. From this perspective, young women's experiences are primarily ones of constraint. Case studies offer insights into the ways a political context of colonial domination limits options and choices for young women who have children born out of wedlock. In particular, this paper describes how the 'settler gaze' - omnipresent colonial norms and judgments - creates regulatory effects in the realm of reproduction. PMID:17963098

  18. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others. PMID:15831107

  19. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  20. Employment Strategy in Papua New Guinea: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Keith

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to other East Asian countries, in Papua New Guinea the economy is stagnating due to high labor costs, overvalued currency, stagnant productivity, high government consumption, and barriers to external and internal investment and exports. (SK)

  1. Papua New Guinea's next generation of medical researchers: Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman.

    PubMed

    Vilakiva, Geraldine; Gibbs, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman are amongst the next generation of health researchers at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with all three women for the purpose of profiling women who are leaders in health and medicine in Papua New Guinea (PNG). They were asked questions about their early life and childhood, education, work life and training, and mentors who have supported their career path and leadership role. All three see opportunities before them to tackle the health challenges facing PNG, find solutions and contribute to human development in their country. At PNGIMR, Pamela is a senior scientific officer in the HIV and STI laboratory; Celestine is a senior scientific officer in the bacteriology laboratory working on pneumococcal vaccines; and Patricia is the study clinician for the Partnership in Health Project, monitoring the impact of the PNG liquefied natural gas (LNG) project.

  2. Papua New Guinea's next generation of medical researchers: Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman.

    PubMed

    Vilakiva, Geraldine; Gibbs, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman are amongst the next generation of health researchers at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with all three women for the purpose of profiling women who are leaders in health and medicine in Papua New Guinea (PNG). They were asked questions about their early life and childhood, education, work life and training, and mentors who have supported their career path and leadership role. All three see opportunities before them to tackle the health challenges facing PNG, find solutions and contribute to human development in their country. At PNGIMR, Pamela is a senior scientific officer in the HIV and STI laboratory; Celestine is a senior scientific officer in the bacteriology laboratory working on pneumococcal vaccines; and Patricia is the study clinician for the Partnership in Health Project, monitoring the impact of the PNG liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. PMID:25423859

  3. Papua New Guinea's next generation of medical researchers: Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman.

    PubMed

    Vilakiva, Geraldine; Gibbs, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman are amongst the next generation of health researchers at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with all three women for the purpose of profiling women who are leaders in health and medicine in Papua New Guinea (PNG). They were asked questions about their early life and childhood, education, work life and training, and mentors who have supported their career path and leadership role. All three see opportunities before them to tackle the health challenges facing PNG, find solutions and contribute to human development in their country. At PNGIMR, Pamela is a senior scientific officer in the HIV and STI laboratory; Celestine is a senior scientific officer in the bacteriology laboratory working on pneumococcal vaccines; and Patricia is the study clinician for the Partnership in Health Project, monitoring the impact of the PNG liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. PMID:25507581

  4. The Distribution of Primary and Secondary School Places between Provinces in Papua New Guinea from 1972 to 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheret, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients of concentration are used to measure the extent to which school places are uniformly distributed between provinces in Papua New Guinea. For the period studied, the distribution has become significantly more uniform, in keeping with the nation's planning objectives for more equal educational opportunity.…

  5. Teaching and Learning Mathematics in the Community Schools of Papua New Guinea. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souviney, Randall

    This final report summarizes two years of research carried out by the Indigenous Mathematics Project at five community schools in Papua New Guinea. The first section gives a brief overview of the study, including a summary of the important results, overall conclusions, and recommendations. It is written using non-technical terms whenever possible,…

  6. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  7. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  8. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Jonathan J.; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species’ life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were  L¯∞ = 159 cm TL and  L¯0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more

  9. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: baseline data from three sites in Papua New Guinea, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Serej; Carter, Robyn; Millan, Korai; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pandey, Sushil; Coulter, Christopher; Siba, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in samples of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases from Papua New Guinea who were diagnosed using acid-fast microscopy. Methods As part of a case detection study for TB, conducted in three provincial hospitals in Papua New Guinea, sputum samples of suspected tuberculous cases aged 15 years or older were collected from November 2010 to July 2012. Mycobacterial species isolated from sputum and grown in culture were examined to distinguish between NTM and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Results NTM were detected in 4% (9/225) of sputum samples grown in culture. Five (2.2%) of them were identified as NTM only and four (1.8%) were identified as mixed cultures containing both MTBC and NTM. Four different NTM species were identified; M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. terrae and M. avium. Discussion This is the first report from Papua New Guinea identifying NTM in three different locations. As NTM cannot be distinguished from M. tuberculosis through smear microscopy, the presence of NTM can lead to a false-positive diagnosis of tuberculosis. The prevalence of NTM should be determined and a diagnostic algorithm developed to confirm acid-fast bacilli in a smear as M. tuberculosis. PMID:26798558

  10. Viruses associated with influenza-like-illnesses in Papua New Guinea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Kono, Jacinta; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Omena, Matthew; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-05-01

    Influenza-like-illness can be caused by a wide range of respiratory viruses. The etiology of influenza-like-illness in developing countries such as Papua New Guinea is poorly understood. The etiological agents associated with influenza-like-illness were investigated retrospectively for 300 nasopharyngeal swabs received by the Papua New Guinea National Influenza Centre in 2010. Real-time PCR/RT-PCR methods were used for the detection of 13 respiratory viruses. Patients with influenza-like-illness were identified according to the World Health Organization case definition: sudden onset of fever (>38°C), with cough and/or sore throat, in the absence of other diagnoses. At least one viral respiratory pathogen was detected in 66.3% of the samples tested. Rhinoviruses (17.0%), influenza A (16.7%), and influenza B (12.7%) were the pathogens detected most frequently. Children <5 years of age presented with a significantly higher rate of at least one viral pathogen and a significantly higher rate of co-infections with multiple viruses, when compared to all other patients >5 years of age. Influenza B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were all detected at significantly higher rates in children <5 years of age. This study confirmed that multiple respiratory viruses are circulating and contributing to the presentation of influenza-like-illness in Papua New Guinea. PMID:24136362

  11. Greater endothelial activation, Weibel-Palade body release and host inflammatory response to Plasmodium vivax, compared with Plasmodium falciparum: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tsin W; Lampah, Daniel A; Tjitra, Emiliana; Piera, Kim; Gitawati, Retno; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2010-07-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms underlying vivax malaria are poorly understood, with few studies comparing endothelial and inflammatory responses with falciparum malaria. In adults with uncomplicated vivax or falciparum malaria, we compared plasma measurements of endothelial Weibel-Palade body release (angiopoietin-2) and activation (ICAM-1, E-selectin), as well as selected cytokines. Despite a lower median parasite count, angiopoietin-2 concentrations were higher in patients with vivax malaria, compared with falciparum malaria. Per peripheral parasite, median plasma angiopoietin-2, ICAM-1, E-selectin, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 concentrations were higher in patients with malaria due to Plasmodium vivax. P. vivax induces greater endothelial Weibel-Palade body release and activation and greater host inflammatory responses, compared with Plasmodium falciparum.

  12. Pelagic production and respiration in the Gulf of Papua during May 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, A. D.; Carleton, J. H.; Duggan, S.

    2007-07-01

    The metabolic balance between production and respiration in plankton communities of the Gulf of Papua was investigated in May 2004. Water samples taken at 19 stations were allocated to groups on the basis of physico-chemical characteristics. Oxygen consumption and production in flasks incubated in the dark and in the light was determined by micro-Winkler titration. Dark bottle respiration in samples influenced by the estuarine plume averaged 3.09±1.92 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 and production within surface light bottles averaged 7.63±3.36 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1. Corresponding values in stations more typical of the central Gulf of Papua were 1.68±1.30 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 and 1.08±2.25 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1. Despite a shallow (<10 m) euphotic zone within the plume stations, phytoplankton production in the surface layers was sufficiently high to subsidise total water column respiration. Integrating production and respiration over the water column resulted in a calculation of net community production (NCP) of 626±504 (SD) mg C m -2 d -1, and community respiration (CR) of 712±492 mg C m -2 d -1 at the plume stations, with an average P: R ratio of 1.97. In the offshore group NCP was 157±450 (SD) mg C m -2 d -1 and CR was 1620±1576 mg C m -2 d -1. The average P: R ratio was 1.27. Three of the 7 stations allocated to the offshore group were net heterotrophic. In contrast to earlier studies in the area indicating that the Gulf of Papua waters is heterotrophic [Robertson, A.I., Dixon, P., Alongi, D.M., 1998. The influence of fluvial discharge on pelagic production in the Gulf of Papua, Northern Coral Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 46, 319-331], our data indicate that in May 2004 the Gulf was in positive metabolic balance, but by only ˜120 mg C m -2 d -1. We conclude that waters of the Gulf of Papua under riverine influence are net autotrophic, but that within the central Gulf there is a fine metabolic balance alternating between autotrophy and

  13. Survey of rickettsial antibodies at two local sites and review of rickettsiosis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kende, Mere; Graves, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The status of rickettsial infection in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is unknown although several reports of typhus-like illnesses infecting predominantly white settlers and the Allied troops during World War 2 were published between 1930 and 1945. We performed a serological survey for evidence of rickettsial infection by measuring rickettsia-specific antibody levels in the blood of 191 non-randomly selected Papua New Guineans living in Port Moresby (n=93) and in the highland villages of Samberigi (n=98). Antibodies were measured by a microimmunofluorescence method using a panel of rickettsial antigens of a number of species and strains. In addition, we have reviewed the current status of rickettsiosis in PNG. Overall, we were able to demonstrate significant titres of antibodies to two groups of rickettsiae, the scrub typhus group (STG) and the spotted fever group (SFG). All positive individuals (7/191) were residents of Port Moresby. None from the highlands showed any significant levels of antibodies to rickettsiae. The strains detected within each group were Gilliam and Karp for STG and, for SFG, Rickettsia honei, R. conorii, R. sibirica, R. rickettsii, R. australis and R. akari. No significant antibody titres to typhus group infection were detected in either Port Moresby or highland volunteers. These findings were not surprising given previous reports of typhus-like illnesses and favourable environmental characteristics for rickettsiae in some parts of PNG. Until a definite status of this disease is known, we suggest that rickettsial infection be included as a differential diagnosis for patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Port Moresby and surrounding areas.

  14. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups. PMID:24866819

  15. A look behind the screens in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Voigt, M

    2001-06-01

    Nursing care is affected by the culture we live in and even when nursing care is given the same way in different societies, it can be given that way for different reasons. This was found when doing a comparison between how certain aspects of nursing care were performed and viewed in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The framework for comparison was derived from part of Lawler's book (1991) Behind the Screens: Nursing, Somology, and the Problem of the Body. The feelings and accounts of staff and students working in Papua New Guinea (in 1997) are compared with those expressed by Australian nurses interviewed by Lawler in the mid 1980s. Interviews and observations in Papua New Guinea are summarised and then analysed looking at similarities and differences between the two cultures especially in giving body care and care after death. PMID:11855116

  16. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  17. Natural selection can favour 'irrational' behaviour.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J M; Trimmer, P C; Houston, A I

    2014-01-01

    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory. However, we show that an individual that is maximizing its rate of food gain can exhibit failure of transitivity and IIA. We show that such violations can be caused because a current option may disappear in the near future or a better option may reappear soon. Current food options can be indicative of food availability in the near future, and this key feature can result in apparently irrational behaviour.

  18. Nutritional status of Papua New Guinea highlanders.

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Kajiwara, N; Date, C; Sugimoto, K; Rikimaru, T; Fujita, Y; Koishi, H

    1981-01-01

    A nutritional survey was held in August, 1978, at Kalugaluvi (altitude: 1,500m) near Lufa, which is 60 km from Goroka, in the Eastern Highland Province of Papua New Guinea. Anthropometric measurements were carried out on 55 males and 37 females aged from 7 to 64 years. whereas the physiques of the children looked as good as those of Japanese of a comparable age, the adult men were shorter than Japanese males, but body weight and chest girth were similar. The skinfold thickness was less than that of the Japanese. From the data collected, it was shown that the physique of the Highlanders was more muscular than that of the Japanese. The food intakes and energy balances of 18 healthy men (20-40 years old) were measured over 2 or 3 consecutive days. The average consumption of sweet potatoes, the staple food, was 956 +/- 305 g per day. The average consumption of taro and yam was 93 +/- 124 g/day and 36 +/- 99 g/day, respectively. Various green leaves, sugar canes, corn, bananas and other foods. (i.e., rice and tinned fish) purchased from trade stores were sometimes eaten. The mean daily energy intake was 2.390 +/- 540 kcal, which was about the same as the daily energy expenditure. The daily protein intake was 35.2 +/- 10.7 g. These results are probably exceptionally high, because the survey was unfortunately held during the yearly festival season of the village when the people often ate fatty port. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that the growth of children and the physique of adults are normal in spite of the extremely low intake of protein. PMID:7328441

  19. Nutritional status of Papua New Guinea highlanders.

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Kajiwara, N; Date, C; Sugimoto, K; Rikimaru, T; Fujita, Y; Koishi, H

    1981-01-01

    A nutritional survey was held in August, 1978, at Kalugaluvi (altitude: 1,500m) near Lufa, which is 60 km from Goroka, in the Eastern Highland Province of Papua New Guinea. Anthropometric measurements were carried out on 55 males and 37 females aged from 7 to 64 years. whereas the physiques of the children looked as good as those of Japanese of a comparable age, the adult men were shorter than Japanese males, but body weight and chest girth were similar. The skinfold thickness was less than that of the Japanese. From the data collected, it was shown that the physique of the Highlanders was more muscular than that of the Japanese. The food intakes and energy balances of 18 healthy men (20-40 years old) were measured over 2 or 3 consecutive days. The average consumption of sweet potatoes, the staple food, was 956 +/- 305 g per day. The average consumption of taro and yam was 93 +/- 124 g/day and 36 +/- 99 g/day, respectively. Various green leaves, sugar canes, corn, bananas and other foods. (i.e., rice and tinned fish) purchased from trade stores were sometimes eaten. The mean daily energy intake was 2.390 +/- 540 kcal, which was about the same as the daily energy expenditure. The daily protein intake was 35.2 +/- 10.7 g. These results are probably exceptionally high, because the survey was unfortunately held during the yearly festival season of the village when the people often ate fatty port. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that the growth of children and the physique of adults are normal in spite of the extremely low intake of protein.

  20. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  1. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  2. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management. PMID:22044056

  3. Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: A Checklist, 1961-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh R., Comp.

    This checklist brings together the bulk of the materials relating to libraries and librarianship in Papua New Guinea, including several that have not been identified previously. The 121 citations for papers, reports, and periodical articles published between 1961 and 1977 are listed in chronological order. Excluded are newspaper reports, official…

  4. The Implementation of Curricular Reform: Tanzania and Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…

  5. Science Education Research in Papua New Guinea 1978-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a science/science education bibliography, to assist science educationalists interested in Papua New Guinea. 392 articles were reviewed. The bibliography was then categorised in a number of ways to indicate patterns of research productivity in various areas of science education, and at different levels of education. A…

  6. Cultural aspects of early childhood growth and nutrition among the Amele of lowland Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C L; Orr-ewing, A K; Heywood, P F

    1984-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition in Papua New Grinea has often been attributed to inadequate practices. Combining the methods of ethnography and nutrition, this study assesses the impact of beliefs and practices concerning breast feeding and supplementation on infant and toddler growth among the Amele of Lowland Madang Province. Results indicate a clear role for notions about lactation and the proper timing of appropriate foods in growth retardation of young children. Conceptualizing developmental stages emically instead of etically is a useful approach to gathering data for nutrition education programs.

  7. Four new orchid species from the Lengguru fold belt, West Papua, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Juswara, Lina; Schuiteman, André; Droissart, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bulbophyllum leucoglossum, Dendrobium centrosepalum, Dendrobium taeniocaule, and Taeniophyllum pyriforme are here described as new species, based on herbarium specimens collected from the Lengguru fold-and-thrust belt in the West Papua Bird’s neck, Indonesian New Guinea. All four novelties were found growing in submontane forest (elevation > 1000 m a.s.l.) on limestone karst. Information concerning the distribution and habitat for these taxa is provided along with diagnostic features, line drawings, high resolution photographs, and a map of collecting localities. More field studies are required to find additional populations of these new species, in order to better characterize their habitat, ecology and conservation status. PMID:27081349

  8. Four new orchid species from the Lengguru fold belt, West Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Juswara, Lina; Schuiteman, André; Droissart, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Bulbophyllum leucoglossum, Dendrobium centrosepalum, Dendrobium taeniocaule, and Taeniophyllum pyriforme are here described as new species, based on herbarium specimens collected from the Lengguru fold-and-thrust belt in the West Papua Bird's neck, Indonesian New Guinea. All four novelties were found growing in submontane forest (elevation > 1000 m a.s.l.) on limestone karst. Information concerning the distribution and habitat for these taxa is provided along with diagnostic features, line drawings, high resolution photographs, and a map of collecting localities. More field studies are required to find additional populations of these new species, in order to better characterize their habitat, ecology and conservation status. PMID:27081349

  9. Cultural aspects of early childhood growth and nutrition among the Amele of lowland Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C L; Orr-ewing, A K; Heywood, P F

    1984-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition in Papua New Grinea has often been attributed to inadequate practices. Combining the methods of ethnography and nutrition, this study assesses the impact of beliefs and practices concerning breast feeding and supplementation on infant and toddler growth among the Amele of Lowland Madang Province. Results indicate a clear role for notions about lactation and the proper timing of appropriate foods in growth retardation of young children. Conceptualizing developmental stages emically instead of etically is a useful approach to gathering data for nutrition education programs. PMID:12266595

  10. Maternal Health Phone Line: Saving Women in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amanda H.A.; Sabumei, Gaius; Mola, Glen; Iedema, Rick

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project which has involved the establishment of a maternal health phone line in Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Mobile phones and landline phones are key information and communication technologies (ICTs). This research study uses the “ICTs for healthcare development” model to ascertain benefits and barriers to the successful implementation of the Childbirth Emergency Phone. PNG has a very high maternal mortality rate. The “three stages of delay” typology was developed by Thaddeus and Maine to determine factors that might delay provision of appropriate medical treatment and hence increase risk of maternal death. The “three stages of delay” typology has been utilised in various developing countries and also in the present study. Research undertaken has involved semi-structured interviews with health workers, both in rural settings and in the labour ward in Alotau. Additional data has been gathered through focus groups with health workers, analysis of notes made during phone calls, interviews with women and community leaders, observations and field visits. One hundred percent of interviewees (n = 42) said the project helped to solve communication barriers between rural health workers and Alotau Provincial Hospital. Specific examples in which the phone line has helped to create positive health outcomes will be outlined in the paper, drawn from research interviews. The Childbirth Emergency Phone project has shown itself to play a critical role in enabling healthcare workers to address life-threatening childbirth complications. The project shows potential for rollout across PNG; potentially reducing maternal morbidity and maternal mortality rates by overcoming communication challenges. PMID:25923199

  11. A prospective survey of cases of complications of induced abortion presenting to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Asa, Isaac; de Costa, Caroline; Mola, Glen

    2012-10-01

    Induced abortion on demand or for socio-economic indications is illegal in Papua New Guinea under the 1974 Criminal Code. Nevertheless, the procedure is known to be widely practised. This prospective study examines the demographic and medical features of women presenting with complications of induced abortion to Goroka Hospital in a 6-month period. It was noted that abortion was most commonly induced using the synthetic prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. Although illegal induced abortion cannot be condoned, it appears that misoprostol, much safer in this context than mechanical or traditional herbal methods, is now being widely used for the purpose of induced abortion in Papua New Guinea, as it is in other developing countries.

  12. Health and nutrition of labourers' families in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, A C

    1984-06-01

    The nutritional status of the wives and children of laborers employed by an oil palm plantation in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea was anthropetrically assessed. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of the introduction of cash cropping on the nutritional status of rural families. The oil palm plantation was a part of a larger oil palm project. The project included 1) the government managed Smallholder Development Scheme, in which small landholdings are leased to and individually farmed by settler farmers and 2) the Nucleus Estate Scheme, in which a large oil palm plantation is operated by private companies under an agreement with the government. The anthropometric study was conducted on a sample of the wives and children of the 474 married laborers employed under the Nucleus Estate Scheme. The sample consisted of 100 wives and 141 children under 5 years of age. In addition, data on household expenditures and dietary patterns were collected in a survey of the households of 30 laborers and compared with a similar survey of households participating in the Smallholders Development Scheme. Anthropometric measurements indicated that the weight for age (W/A) of 17% of the children was less than 80% of W/A Standard. This finding indicated that malnutrition was less prevalent on the estate than in the country as a whole. In 1978, the W/A of 37% of the nation's children was less than 80% of the W/A Standard. In the estate sample, the highest proportion of low W/A children occurred in the 24-47 month age group. Most of the poorly nourished estate children were stunted (an indication of chronic malnutrition) rather than wasted (an indication of short term malnutrition). Among the wives of the laborers, 48% were anemic, about 75% had low reserves of subcutaneous fat, 30% had mid upper arm circumferences (MUCA) less than 85% of the MUAC Standard, and none were below 80% of the weight for height (W/H) Standard. The estate women appeared to have

  13. Health and nutrition of labourers' families in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, A C

    1984-06-01

    The nutritional status of the wives and children of laborers employed by an oil palm plantation in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea was anthropetrically assessed. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of the introduction of cash cropping on the nutritional status of rural families. The oil palm plantation was a part of a larger oil palm project. The project included 1) the government managed Smallholder Development Scheme, in which small landholdings are leased to and individually farmed by settler farmers and 2) the Nucleus Estate Scheme, in which a large oil palm plantation is operated by private companies under an agreement with the government. The anthropometric study was conducted on a sample of the wives and children of the 474 married laborers employed under the Nucleus Estate Scheme. The sample consisted of 100 wives and 141 children under 5 years of age. In addition, data on household expenditures and dietary patterns were collected in a survey of the households of 30 laborers and compared with a similar survey of households participating in the Smallholders Development Scheme. Anthropometric measurements indicated that the weight for age (W/A) of 17% of the children was less than 80% of W/A Standard. This finding indicated that malnutrition was less prevalent on the estate than in the country as a whole. In 1978, the W/A of 37% of the nation's children was less than 80% of the W/A Standard. In the estate sample, the highest proportion of low W/A children occurred in the 24-47 month age group. Most of the poorly nourished estate children were stunted (an indication of chronic malnutrition) rather than wasted (an indication of short term malnutrition). Among the wives of the laborers, 48% were anemic, about 75% had low reserves of subcutaneous fat, 30% had mid upper arm circumferences (MUCA) less than 85% of the MUAC Standard, and none were below 80% of the weight for height (W/H) Standard. The estate women appeared to have

  14. Immunofluorescence assay method to detect dengue virus in Paniai-Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Ahwanah, Nur Laila Fitriati; Churrotin, Siti; Matake, Norifumi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Soegijanto, Soegeng

    2016-03-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV), which include in the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, was endemic in tropical areas and had been transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti. An increasing number of immigrants from endemic areas to the non-endemic areas have emphasized the need for a simple and reliable test for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. The purpose of this study was to detect the dengue virus by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in the general population at Paniai-Papua. The results obtained from this study had showed a significantly better discrimination for DENV specific IgG antibodies. A total of 158 samples, 116 samples were IgG antibodies positive and 42 samples were negative. The conclusion of this study, Papua is not only a malaria endemic area, but also dengue virus infections were detected by IFA method. Therefore, the IFA can be used as an important diagnostic tool, which is a quick and an easy way to test samples from immigrants who come to the non-endemic areas.

  15. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism. PMID:24132090

  16. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism.

  17. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement.

  18. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Methods Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Results Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Conclusions Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions. PMID:26987606

  19. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement. PMID:26933489

  20. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  1. Papua New Guinea: multi-level awareness campaign.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The Population Awareness Campaign in Papua New Guinea has been launched as a nationwide population education effort. Provinical workshops will be held for local leaders and community groups to create an awareness of the ways in which rapid population growth interferes with development efforts. Other activities involving more specific family planning-related messages will be films, radio programs, and plays in the Pidgin language. These are all designed to air in rural areas.

  2. Stressors, coping, and social support among women in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Rachael; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-02-01

    In this study we used an interpretive, ethnographic, qualitative approach to examine Papua New Guinean women's narratives and perceptions about their health and the ways in which these were linked to coping with personal adversity. Women used a variety of strategies to cope with psychosocial stressors and challenging life circumstances, including both reliance on their own agency and active efforts and the seeking of social and spiritual support. We observed that limited access to social and economic resources, combined with gender constraints, made women socially and culturally vulnerable to social strain that affected their physical and emotional health. A number of women used avoidance strategies that were related to lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction and displayed high levels of anxiety. We propose the need to understand the context in which coping takes place and to enhance resilience strategies used by women in developing countries such as Papua New Guinea to manage the multiple stressors associated with confronting life's challenges. PMID:20065306

  3. Nutritional status of children from Papua New Guinea: associations with socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah E; Nicholas Mascie-Taylor, C G

    2002-01-01

    Growth faltering has been well documented in children from Papua New Guinea, although there is evidence that broad processes of modernization, such as cash cropping, have resulted in increased body size. It is not clear, however, what household socioeconomic factors may be associated with larger body size in populations undergoing early stages of modernization. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional status of children between birth and 5 years of age living near Kanabea, Papua New Guinea, a relatively remote outpost in the highland fringe experiencing a limited cash economy. Weight and height were measured on 260 children from 190 households. The mean z-scores of -2.26 +/- 1.50 (SD) for height-for-age, -2.43 +/- 1.25 for weight-for-age, and -1.34 +/- 1.49 for weight-for-height are suggestive of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Using a cut-off value of < or = -2SD, 68.8% of the children were stunted and/or wasted. These values are similar to those from a 1992-93 survey in the district, revealing that malnutrition remains a problem in the area. In this largely traditional horticultural group, educated mothers and mothers who spoke pidgin and/or English in addition to the local language had children with better z-scores.

  4. The new problem of typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea: how do we deal with it?

    PubMed

    Passey, M

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the issues relating to typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea. Before the mid-1980s only sporadic cases of typhoid were reported but it is now one of the greatest public health problems in the highlands and some urban areas. In one study near Goroka an annual incidence rate of 1208 per 100,000 people was found, with settlers from other areas at greater risk than the local landowners. Problems relating to management included differentiation from other diseases, the limitations of the Widal test and poor compliance among outpatients. In Papua New Guinea it appears that transmission is largely from person to person, with little evidence for water-borne transmission. The prolonged convalescent excretion of Salmonella typhi and the difficulties this poses for control of the disease are discussed. Prevention will only be achieved in the long term by improvements in hygiene and sanitation, though more immediate control could be achieved by vaccination with an appropriate vaccine.

  5. Introducing the Chemical Industry into the Science Curriculum in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnamperuma, A. C. W.; Palmer, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a young, developing nation, achieving independence in 1975. Industries which can be classified as chemical industries by western standards, are almost non-existent in Papua New Guinea. As yet, most of the raw materials it produces are exported to other countries to be processed or manufactured into useful products. However,…

  6. Investigations of selected pathogens among village pigs in Central Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Slipranata, Mitra; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Village pig husbandry is an important part of livestock production in Papua Province, Eastern Indonesia. However, high level of disease and mortality constrains production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the selected pathogens in village pigs in the Jayawijaya Region of Papua Province, Indonesia. Two studies were conducted: Study 1 determined the prevalence of selected pathogens in dead or moribund pigs sent to the main local market for sale. Study 2 recorded the prevalence of the selected pathogens, on pig farms in the Subdistrict of Wamena that had not recorded a case of pig mortality during the duration of Study 1. Blood samples of individuals from both groups were tested for CSF antigen and antibody, as well as antibody against PCV2. Organs with evident pathological changes from Study 1 and tonsilar swabs from Study 2 were subjected to bacteriological culture and identification of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Faecal samples from both studies were examined for eggs of strongyle parasites, Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi and coccidia. The main infections in both studies were CSF, PCV2 and strongyle parasites, but prevalence was higher in Study 1 (P < 0.05). T. suis and S. zooepidemicus were prevalent in pigs in Study 1, but rare in healthy pigs (P < 0.05). Infections with coccidia, A. suum and S. ransomi were common but did not differ between groups (P < 0.05), with S. suis infections uncommon in both studies. This suggests that infections with CSF, PCV2, strongyle and T. suis are important pathogens in village pig farms in Jayawijaya. Local pig husbandry practices, such as confining pigs and heat-treating pig feeds, may be practical solutions to help minimize infection in village pigs in Jayawijaya.

  7. Progress in mosquito net coverage in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2004, the Global Fund-supported National Malaria Control Programme of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been implementing country-wide free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution campaigns. In 2009, after the first distribution, only 32.5% of the population used a LLIN, mainly due to an insufficient number of nets available. This study investigated changes in mosquito net ownership and use following the continued free distribution of LLINs across PNG. Methods Five villages from each province and 30 households from each village were randomly sampled in a country-wide household survey in 2010/11. A structured questionnaire administered to household heads recorded information on mosquito net ownership and use alongside household characteristics. Revised ownership and access indicators were applied in the analysis to reveal coverage gaps. Results The survey covered 1,996 households in 77 villages. Ownership of at least one LLIN was reported by 81.8% of households, compared to 64.6% in 2009 (P = 0.002). Sufficient LLINs to cover all household members (one net per two people) were found in 41.3% of the households (21.4% in 2009, P < 0.001). Of all household members, 61.4% had access to a LLIN within their household (44.3% in 2009 P = 0.002), and 48.3% slept under a LLIN (32.5% in 2009, P = 0.001). LLIN use in children under five years amounted to 58.2%, compared to 39.5% in 2009 (P < 0.001). Significant regional differences in coverage and changes over time were observed. A recent LLIN distribution was a key determinant of LLIN ownership (adj. OR = 3.46) while families in high quality houses would frequently not own a LLIN (adj. OR = 0.09). Residents were more likely to use LLINs than household guests (OR = 2.04). Conclusions Repeated LLIN distribution has led to significant increases in mosquito net ownership and use with few regional exceptions. Additional nets are required in areas where access is low, while major

  8. Nursing accounting competencies related to HIV in a Papua New Guinea context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alistair M

    2013-01-01

    Nursing administration is an important part of the campaign to eliminate HIV across Papua New Guinea (PNG). This paper considers the critical importance of developing nursing leadership in effective accounting competencies in relation to HIV projects in PNG. The results of the study's textual analysis of audit reports of the Auditor General of PNG revealed a failure on the part of PNG's main health agencies involved with its national HIV program to provide competent financial reporting. In light of these results, this study shows how improving accounting and other financial competencies among nursing leaders would benefit the implementation of the PNG HIV national strategy. The findings of this study have implications not only for the internal control of HIV nursing competencies but also for nursing leadership related to HIV issues in a developing-country context. PMID:23257353

  9. Nursing accounting competencies related to HIV in a Papua New Guinea context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alistair M

    2013-01-01

    Nursing administration is an important part of the campaign to eliminate HIV across Papua New Guinea (PNG). This paper considers the critical importance of developing nursing leadership in effective accounting competencies in relation to HIV projects in PNG. The results of the study's textual analysis of audit reports of the Auditor General of PNG revealed a failure on the part of PNG's main health agencies involved with its national HIV program to provide competent financial reporting. In light of these results, this study shows how improving accounting and other financial competencies among nursing leaders would benefit the implementation of the PNG HIV national strategy. The findings of this study have implications not only for the internal control of HIV nursing competencies but also for nursing leadership related to HIV issues in a developing-country context.

  10. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-06-01

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. PMID:26029892

  11. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-04-27

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries.

  12. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/ AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-01-01

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as ‘nation-building’. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. PMID:26029892

  13. Arboviruses of human health significance in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jonduo, Marinjho H; Bande, Grace; Horwood, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are important emerging pathogens in many tropical and developing countries of the world. The Southeast Asian and Western Pacific regions have recently experienced large outbreaks of dengue, Japanese encephalitis and chikungunya fever. In Papua New Guinea (PNG) serological surveys and mosquito isolation experiments suggest that arboviruses are prevalent throughout the country. However, the lack of surveillance and clinical reporting means that the distribution and prevalence of these diseases is unknown. In this paper we review the most important arboviruses with regard to human health in the PNG region.

  14. Persistence as the path from motivation to performance in the Papua New Guinea health sector.

    PubMed

    Elich, Luke

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how the individual capacity states of motivation, confidence, skill and ability relate to performance, and identifies a crucial role for the discretionary behaviour of individuals: specifically, employee persistence and innovation. The study Understanding the people and performance link: unlocking the black box undertaken by Purcell and colleagues is relied upon in constructing a theoretical framework for the conceptual interrelationships between performance and the human-resource-mediating variables, which is then applied within the Papua New Guinea (PNG) health sector context. The study by Purcell and colleagues, which was informed by organizations with well-developed and functioning human resource policies and practices, is distinguished from the PNG health sector, where human resource frameworks are largely ineffective--yet it is determined that the importance of 'discretionary behaviour' relative to performance, whilst varied, is undiminished.

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among pregnant women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Michael, Audrey; Kirarock, Wendy S; Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associations with risk factors among pregnant women in their second or third trimester in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Among the 201 pregnant women enrolled in this study, 163 (81%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Infections with protozoan parasites (65%) were more prevalent than infections with nematodes (31%); protozoan infections included Entamoeba histolytica (43%), Giardia lamblia (39%) and Pentatrichomonas hominis (14%), and nematode infections included hookworm (18%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). Factors associated with higher risk of intestinal parasitic infections in pregnancy included being a primigravida for protozoan-only infections and education limited to primary school for nematode infections. Altitude-adjusted haemoglobin levels were assessed at the beginning of labour for 110 women, with 69 (63%) found to be anaemic (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl). There were no associations found between being infected in pregnancy and anaemia. PMID:26288929

  16. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual’s liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned. PMID:23554527

  17. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zunyou

    2013-02-01

    Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual's liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned.

  18. Urbanization, youth and sexuality: insights for an AIDS campaign for youth in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C; Alpers, M

    1996-09-01

    As AIDS increasingly affects youth, the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, at the request of the WHO, entered into a comparative study of youth and sexuality. The study design compared young people living in rural, periurban, and urban environments. The assessment process, in which rural areas where examined for comparability, was divided into three phases, namely, 1) public norms were investigated through focus group discussion with both young people and adults, 2) private lives were recounted and media exposure examined, and 3) vignettes were used for topics such as masturbation, homosexuality, group sex, and rape. The information gathered in this study revealed that marijuana, which is known to enhance disinhibited sexuality, was more widely used than alcohol. Pornography was also reported to be one of the few available sources of information available on sex, particularly in the rural areas, where no other type of reading material provided information on sex and sexuality. Condoms were found to be widely known as protection from STDs by young people, although they were rarely used due the difficulty in acquiring them. Instead, circumcision was widely promoted in all areas as a substitute for condom use in protecting against HIV and STDs. There were no significant differences between the values of urban youth and those of rural youth. Young men were found to be more subject to peer pressure and more concerned with their capacity to earn a living. Although religious values were frequently mentioned in the context of acquiring a Christian spouse, they were not reflected in the behavior of a majority of the youth. These findings suggest that the prevention campaign targeted on the young generation should include a wide distribution of interesting printed materials stating facts about the transmission of STDs. In addition, there should also be a widespread distribution of free or inexpensive condoms in all areas in Papua New Guinea, without any

  19. Surveillance and molecular characterization of group A rotaviruses in Goroka, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul Francis; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Bebes, Sauli; Boniface, Karen; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Siba, Peter Max; Kirkwood, Carl Dunn

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of group A rotaviruses in cases of acute gastroenteritis in Goroka, Papua New Guinea. From April 2008 through November 2010, 813 diarrheal stool samples were collected from children < 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 31.2% of samples using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genotyping revealed the presence of the globally circulating strains G1P[8] (50.0%), G3P[8] (23.0%), and G2P[4] (8.2%). The globally emerging strains G9 and G12 were detected in 1.2% and 6.1% of samples, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in a high proportion of samples (11.9%), with 9.0% and 3.7% of samples displaying multiple G and P genotypes, respectively.

  20. Turbidity regimes over fringing coral reefs near a mining site at Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Séverine; Ridd, Peter V; Day, Geoff

    2003-08-01

    An extensive sediment transport survey took place at Lihir Island (Papua New Guinea), where mining operations involve disposal of waste rocks and soil in nearshore waters. To investigate the potential impact of these practices over neighbouring fringing reefs, turbidity and sediment accumulation were measured continuously for extended periods. Turbidity records provided a map of observed impact zones based on turbidity thresholds. The main zoning features were (a) that an extreme turbidity gradient persists between the inner harbour (turbidity levels of 100-1000 mg l(-1)) and the adjacent reefs (turbidity levels in the order of 10 mg l(-1)), and (b) that observed zones conform with pre-operations impact predictions. Accumulation measurements unveiled no significant sediment accumulation over fringing coral reefs. This study contributes to the understanding of the potential impact of sediment discharge to nearshore waters.

  1. Congenital talipes equinovarus in Papua New Guinea: a difficult yet potentially manageable situation.

    PubMed

    Culverwell, A D; Tapping, C R

    2009-04-01

    Reports in the literature have suggested a high incidence of congenital deformities, including congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), in many Pacific Islands. This study performed a retrospective analysis of cases of CTEV in an isolated region of Papua New Guinea over a 2-year period. Data was collected on the incidence of CTEV, together with an analysis of initial treatment and outcome. The incidence of CTEV was 2.7 per 1,000 live births per year. A peak incidence of CTEV births in September suggested that maternal anaemia secondary to malaria was a significant risk factor. Good functional outcome was confirmed in only 20% of cases following initial treatment. The authors suggest the Ponseti method as a realistic option for treating CTEV in this region and that it could be instigated with minimal resources and training.

  2. CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 variation and HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mehlotra, Rajeev K; Hall, Noemi B; Bruse, Shannon E; John, Bangan; Blood Zikursh, Melinda J; Stein, Catherine M; Siba, Peter M; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphisms in chemokine receptors, serving as HIV co-receptors, and their ligands are among the well-known host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to HIV infection and/or disease progression. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has one of the highest adult HIV prevalences in the Asia-Pacific region. However, information regarding the distribution of polymorphisms in chemokine receptor (CCR5, CCR2) and chemokine (CXCL12) genes in PNG is very limited. In this study, we genotyped a total of nine CCR2-CCR5 polymorphisms, including CCR2 190G >A, CCR5 -2459G >A and Δ32, and CXCL12 801G >A in PNG (n=258), North America (n=184), and five countries in West Africa (n=178). Using this data, we determined previously characterized CCR5 haplotypes. In addition, based on the previously reported associations of CCR2 190, CCR5 -2459, CCR5 open reading frame, and CXCL12 801 genotypes with HIV acquisition and/or disease progression, we calculated composite full risk scores, considering both protective as well as susceptibility effects of the CXCL12 801 AA genotype. We observed a very high frequency of the CCR5 -2459A allele (0.98) in the PNG population, which together with the absence of Δ32 resulted in a very high frequency of the HHE haplotype (0.92). These frequencies were significantly higher than in any other population (all P-values<0.001). Regardless of whether we considered the CXCL12 801 AA genotype protective or susceptible, the risk scores were significantly higher in the PNG population compared with any other population (all P-values<0.001). The results of this study provide new insights regarding CCR5 variation in the PNG population, and suggest that the collective variation in CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 may increase the risk of HIV/AIDS in a large majority of Papua New Guineans.

  3. Fertility-related changes in maternal body composition among the Au of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Tracer, D P

    1991-08-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that organisms make trade-offs between their somatic and reproductive energy budgets. Thus every round of reproduction should result in a concomitant decline in the parents' total energy reserves. Among humans this prediction was corroborated more than 25 years ago when fertility-related nutritional depletion was reported among mothers in the Highlands of New Guinea (Jelliffe and Maddocks, 1964). More recently, however, a number of studies of fertility and maternal nutritional status in both developed and developing nations have reported fertility-related increases in various indices of adiposity and lean body mass. Such findings have called the so-called "maternal depletion syndrome" into question, and have raised serious doubts as to whether the phenomenon is widely generalizable to all populations. In light of this recent controversy, data are presented here on fertility-related changes in maternal adiposity and lean body mass among the Au, a lowland forager-horticulturalist population in Papua New Guinea. While both a short-term decline in adiposity following childbirth, and a long-term fertility-related decline are seen among more traditional Au, individuals with a regular source of wage-income show only the former. There are no significant changes in lean body mass with increasing fertility in either group. The finding of significant socioeconomic variation in the capacity to withstand the stress of repeated reproduction even within this one extremely rural area of Papua New Guinea may lend insight into why previous studies have been unable to find evidence of maternal depletion. The fertility-related decline in adiposity that is reported for the more traditional Au is consistent with the predictions of evolutionary theory. PMID:1928313

  4. Bacterial contamination of sago starch in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Omoloso, A D; Amoa, B; Warner, J M

    2007-12-01

    Sago starch is an important food in lowland Papua New Guinea. Extraction of the starch from the palm and storage were performed by way of traditional methods that have been used for thousands of years. Currently, very little is known about the microbiology of sago starch. Sago samples were collected from areas of high starch utilization and analyzed for the presence of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms. Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection, and pH and water activity on arrival at the laboratory. Sago starch was found to harbor high levels of fecal contamination, as well as various food pathogens including Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and coagulase-positive staphylococci. Clostridium perfringens was only present infrequently in samples and in very low numbers, while Listeria monocytogenes was not isolated from sago starch. The presence of high levels of fecal contamination in sago starch is of particular concern, and may contribute to diarrheal disease in rural Papua New Guinea.

  5. Mother tongue-based bilingual education in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community languages are taught as a subject and used for instruction in the first three years of formal education. English is introduced as a subject in the third year of school and becomes one of the languages of instruction, with the community language, in early primary. In grades seven and eight, teachers use only English for instruction, although community languages can still be used informally. By the early 2000s, over 400 languages were being used in PNG's formal education system. This paper describes the background to PNG's bilingual education programme, then provides an overview of its main features and the positive outcomes as well as the problems encountered since it was initiated 15 years ago.

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Babona, D V; Slama, G; Puiahi, E

    1996-09-01

    In Papua New Guinea, the laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection is based on proof of HIV antibody in the patient's serum. Under the government scheme, the testing is done in 30 laboratories, including the Papua New Guinea HIV Reference Laboratory (NRL), the Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service in Port Moresby, and 19 provincial and 9 district laboratories. An alternative testing strategy was adopted in 1993 based on a WHO recommendation, replacing the classical testing strategy (enzyme immunoassay + Western blot). The alternative testing strategy uses several EIA, rapid or simple HIV antibody assays for the detection and confirmation of the HIV antibody. This approach is faster and cheaper, with the same sensitivity and specificity as the classical testing algorithm. Except for the NRL, the Serodia Fujirebio HIV-1 gelatin particle agglutination assay is used throughout the country as the screening test. The PNG National HIV Reference Laboratory is the only laboratory authorized to perform confirmatory testing and to release positive results. Therefore, all serum samples reactive in the screening assay are sent to the NRL for confirmation by the battery of EIA, rapid or simple assays in accordance with the alternative testing strategy adopted. The paper explains the alternative testing strategy and highlights the principle of each individual test that is employed.

  7. Crystallization seeds favour crystallization only during initial growth

    PubMed Central

    Allahyarov, E.; Sandomirski, K.; Egelhaaf, S.U.; Löwen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization represents the prime example of a disorder–order transition. In realistic situations, however, container walls and impurities are frequently present and hence crystallization is heterogeneously seeded. Rarely the seeds are perfectly compatible with the thermodynamically favoured crystal structure and thus induce elastic distortions, which impede further crystal growth. Here we use a colloidal model system, which not only allows us to quantitatively control the induced distortions but also to visualize and follow heterogeneous crystallization with single-particle resolution. We determine the sequence of intermediate structures by confocal microscopy and computer simulations, and develop a theoretical model that describes our findings. The crystallite first grows on the seed but then, on reaching a critical size, detaches from the seed. The detached and relaxed crystallite continues to grow, except close to the seed, which now prevents crystallization. Hence, crystallization seeds facilitate crystallization only during initial growth and then act as impurities. PMID:25975451

  8. Climate change and habitat conversion favour the same species.

    PubMed

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Karp, Daniel S; Flanders, Jon R; Zook, Jim; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K

    2016-09-01

    Land-use change and climate change are driving a global biodiversity crisis. Yet, how species' responses to climate change are correlated with their responses to land-use change is poorly understood. Here, we assess the linkages between climate and land-use change on birds in Neotropical forest and agriculture. Across > 300 species, we show that affiliation with drier climates is associated with an ability to persist in and colonise agriculture. Further, species shift their habitat use along a precipitation gradient: species prefer forest in drier regions, but use agriculture more in wetter zones. Finally, forest-dependent species that avoid agriculture are most likely to experience decreases in habitable range size if current drying trends in the Neotropics continue as predicted. This linkage suggests a synergy between the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. Because they favour the same species, climate and land-use change will likely homogenise biodiversity more severely than otherwise anticipated. PMID:27396714

  9. Climate change and habitat conversion favour the same species.

    PubMed

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Karp, Daniel S; Flanders, Jon R; Zook, Jim; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K

    2016-09-01

    Land-use change and climate change are driving a global biodiversity crisis. Yet, how species' responses to climate change are correlated with their responses to land-use change is poorly understood. Here, we assess the linkages between climate and land-use change on birds in Neotropical forest and agriculture. Across > 300 species, we show that affiliation with drier climates is associated with an ability to persist in and colonise agriculture. Further, species shift their habitat use along a precipitation gradient: species prefer forest in drier regions, but use agriculture more in wetter zones. Finally, forest-dependent species that avoid agriculture are most likely to experience decreases in habitable range size if current drying trends in the Neotropics continue as predicted. This linkage suggests a synergy between the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. Because they favour the same species, climate and land-use change will likely homogenise biodiversity more severely than otherwise anticipated.

  10. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  11. Why and when is internally driven AGN feedback energetically favoured?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Edward C. D.

    2012-11-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows are the heat given up when gas in a galaxy evolves towards thermodynamic equilibrium. Indeed, while AGN feedback regulates the growth of massive galaxies, its origin can be understood as the spontaneous thermodynamic process which ensures that the (Gibbs) free energy of the system always decreases, enabling the galaxy to reach a more energetically favourable state. In particular, it is shown that feedback heating processes will be favoured whenever the hot atmosphere of a galaxy would effectively gain energy as a result of cooling. For example, as the hot atmosphere of a galaxy cools and contracts, the work done by gravity will be thermalized, with a fraction of the gas also being captured by stars and the supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy. If this gain of energy exceeds the loss of energy that occurs when cooling gas drops out of the atmosphere, the Gibbs free energy of the system would increase overall. Since this is energetically unfavourable, feedback heating is initiated which acts to reduce the net cooling rate of the atmosphere, thereby preventing any build-up of energy. The Gibbs free energy can also decrease in the absence of feedback heating, but only if the loss of energy due to mass dropping out of the atmosphere exceeds the gains of energy described above. Therefore, to ensure that the Gibbs free energy always decreases, a galaxy will necessarily flip between these two states, experiencing episodes of heating and cooling. Due to the close long-term balance between heating and cooling, the gas in a galaxy will evolve quasistatically towards thermodynamic equilibrium, which has the observable appearance of galaxy growth being regulated by AGN feedback. The same mechanism also provides an explanation for why strong AGN feedback occurs more frequently in cool-core galaxy clusters than in non-cool-core clusters.

  12. Have Historical Climate Changes Affected Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) Populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed Central

    Peña M., Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P. M.; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A.

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat. PMID:24759777

  13. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.

  14. The probable role of cannibalism in spreading Trichinella papuae infection in a crocodile farm in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L; Awui, Columba; Langelet, Eric; Soctine, Wenda; Reid, Simon

    2014-07-14

    Between 2003 and 2007, 83 (50%) of 167 crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) purchased as juveniles by a crocodile farm 3 or 4 years earlier from Kikori, Gulf Province, were found to be infected with Trichinella papuae. Between 2005 and 2007 infection was detected in a number of crocodiles at the farm obtained from six localities other than Kikori, as well as in a few animals born on the farm. Up to 2004, all juveniles at the farm, whether wild- or farm-born, were penned together; the practice was then stopped to prevent possible infection through cannibalism. The last infected animal from Kikori was seen in 2007, 4 years after the purchase of crocodiles from there ceased. The last non-Kikori infected crocodile was seen, also, in 2007. None of the 1972 crocodiles (comprising wild- and farm-born animals) tested from 2008 to 2013, using the digestion method, was infected with T. papuae. This indicates that infection of non-Kikori crocodiles was the result of cannibalism within the farm during the years up to 2004 when juvenile crocodiles were kept together, and that the farm is now free of the infection.

  15. Fertility levels, patterns and differentials in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Agyei, W K

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of a survey conducted between November 1979 and March 1980, new evidence is presented on changes in fertility levels, patterns, and differentials in Papua New Guinea. A single-stage systematic sample designed was used to select respondents in both rural and urban areas. 3986 females in the childbearing age group of 15-49 years and 2297 males ranging in age between 20 and 54 years were interviewed. 1066 males and 1857 females lived in rural areas and 1231 males and 2129 females resided in urban areas. Information was collected on the following: births occurring in the 12 months prior to the survey; the number of children ever born of all female respondents; a complete pregnancy history of all female respondents; and the age structure of the female respondents. The results of the estimated fertility measures for the rural and urban areas of Papua New Guinea are high by world standards: adjusted estimates of total fertility rates of between 6-7, gross reproduction rates of 2.99 and 2.76, and net reproduction rates of 2.25 and 2.08 for the urban and rural areas. Fertility was higher for rural respondents in all age groups except in the 30-34 and the 45-49 age groups where the rates were slightly higher for urban respondents. These differences in the fertility rates were substantial, particularly among respondents under 25 years old. The rural total fertility rate was 8.5% higher than the urban rate; the differences in the gross reproduction rate and the net reproduction rate were 8.3% and 8.2%, respectively. In the rural sample, respondents with primary education had a slightly lower fertility than those with no education, but the respondents with secondary and tertiary education showed marked differences than those with primary education, especially in the 20-39 year age groups. The differences among the youngest (15-19) year age group and the older (40-44) and (45-49) age groups were not large. The pattern for the urban sample was similar to the rural

  16. [Biliary atresias operated with favourable results: predictable outcome].

    PubMed

    Broto, J; Gil Vernet, J M; Ormaechea, M

    2005-01-01

    Since 1975, our experience in the treatment of biliary atresia with Kasai's technique has improved little by little, achieving 65% favourable outcome in the last five years. We define "good results" as the complete restoration of biliary flow and normalization of bilirrubin levels. The long-term evolution of these good results can be diverse. The objective of the present work is to analyze the outcome of patients in our series in whom a favourable initial response was achieved, as well as evaluating their present situation and future perspectives. The authors present a total of 17 patients operated by Kasai's technique since 1985, that constitutes the group with good results in our series. The controls were based on general analysis, liver function and periodic ultrasound explorations. All received a standardized medical treatment consisting of vitamin supplements (A, D3, E, K) minerals (zinc, calcium, phosphate, iron) ursodexoxicolic acid, luminal,as well as close control of calorie intake. In two patients the levels of bilirrubine were progressively increased with time, stabilizing at between 5/6 mgs/100 ml, with progressive hepatic hardening, appearance of splenomegalia, indirect signs of portal hypertension and a slight deterioration of hepatic function. One received a transplant at age 12 with Quick levels below 50%. The other, aged 16, continues with an acceptable hepatic function and good quality of life under recommendation of transplant. Eleven patients with ages ranging from fourteen months to seventeen years presented slight and firm hepatomegalia, moderate portal hypertension, GOT 71 +/- 8 mg/100 ml, GPT 97 +/- 11 mg/100 ml and normal bilirrubine levels. From this group, 3 patients, all under five years of age, experienced bleeding from esophageal varices which were controlled by sclerosis and medical treatment (propanolol and isosorbide dinitrate). Recently, one three year-old patient developed a hepatocarcinoma of rapid, mortal evolution. Since then

  17. Prevalence of patients with acute febrile illnesses and positive dengue NS1 tests in a tertiary hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Asigau, Viola; Lavu, Evelyn K; McBride, William J H; Biloh, Eric; Naroi, Francis; Koana, Egi; Ferguson, John K; Laman, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea.

  18. Spatial effects favour the evolution of niche construction.

    PubMed

    Silver, Matt; Di Paolo, Ezequiel

    2006-12-01

    We present an individual-based, spatial implementation of an existing two-locus population genetic model of niche construction. Our analysis reveals that, across a broad range of conditions, niche-construction traits can drive themselves to fixation by simultaneously generating selection that favours 'recipient' trait alleles and linkage disequilibrium between niche-construction and recipient trait alleles. The effect of spatiality is key, since it is the local, resource-mediated interaction between recipient and niche-constructing loci which gives rise to gene linkage. Spatial clustering effects point to a possible mechanism by which an initially rare recipient trait whose selection depends on niche construction could establish in an otherwise hostile environment. The same mechanism could also lead to the spread of an established niche-constructing colony. Similar phenomena are observed in the spatial modelling of two species 'engineering webs'. Here, the activities of two niche-constructing species can combine to drive a particular recipient trait to fixation, or in certain circumstances, maintain the presence of polymorphisms through the preservation of otherwise deleterious alleles. This may have some relevance to ecosystem stability and the maintenance of genetic variation, where the frequencies of key resources are affected by the niche-constructing activities of more than one species. Our model suggests that the stability of multi-species webs in natural populations may increase as the complexity of species-environment interactions increases.

  19. Men's extramarital sexuality in rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Wardlow, Holly

    2007-06-01

    Married women in rural Papua New Guinea are at risk for HIV primarily because of their husbands' extramarital relationships. Labor migration puts these men in social contexts that encourage infidelity. Moreover, many men do not view sexual fidelity as necessary for achieving a happy marriage, but they view drinking and "looking for women" as important for male friendships. Although fear of HIV infection is increasing, the concern that men most often articulated about the consequences of extramarital infidelity was possible violent retaliation for "stealing" another man's wife. Therefore, divorced or separated women who exchange sex for money are considered to be "safe" partners. Interventions that promote fidelity will fail in the absence of a social and economic infrastructure that supports fidelity.

  20. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  1. Men’s Extramarital Sexuality in Rural Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wardlow, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Married women in rural Papua New Guinea are at risk for HIV primarily because of their husbands’ extramarital relationships. Labor migration puts these men in social contexts that encourage infidelity. Moreover, many men do not view sexual fidelity as necessary for achieving a happy marriage, but they view drinking and “looking for women” as important for male friendships. Although fear of HIV infection is increasing, the concern that men most often articulated about the consequences of extramarital infidelity was possible violent retaliation for “stealing” another man’s wife. Therefore, divorced or separated women who exchange sex for money are considered to be “safe” partners. Interventions that promote fidelity will fail in the absence of a social and economic infrastructure that supports fidelity. PMID:17463367

  2. Injuries caused by garfish in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Barss, P G

    1982-01-01

    Garfish, which are found in the Indo-Pacific Ocean areas, have a long, spear-like beak with two marrow jaws and small pointed teeth. They often make sudden leaps while swimming, particularly when attracted by bright lights. In Papua New Guinea people often fish from canoes using a light at night, and serious injuries may be caused by a fish jumping and its beak piercing part of the body. The surface wound may appear deceptively small and innocent, but if the wound is on the chest or abdomen the beak may have penetrated sufficiently deeply to cause internal injuries, and death may result. Patients may have to be admitted to hospital for removal of the beak, which may remain embedded in a limb. Images p77-a PMID:6797662

  3. Intestinal lactase status of adults in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    1979-01-01

    Fifty hospital patients in Port Moresby (mean age 30 yr) without evidence of malnutrition or gastro-intestinal disease, who came from many parts of Papua New Guinea (P.N.G.), were given 50 g lactose orally after an overnight fast. In 49 blood glucose rise was less than 1.1 mmol 1(-1), indicating hypolactasia. Thirty-three gave a clear history of symptoms, usually diarrhoea, after lactose. Adult hypolactasia approaches 100% in P.N.G. There is no indication that the genetic structure of any part of the population of P,N.G. with regard to lactase has been influenced by genetic drift from peoples with persistence of lactase into adult life (PL). PMID:434766

  4. Composition and Behaviour of Trace Metals in Post-oxic Sediments of the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Boyle, S. G.; Tirendi, F.; Payn, C.

    1996-02-01

    Trace metal composition and behaviour were examined in post-oxic muds of the Gulf of Papua in January 1993. Porewater profiles and flux measurements indicate significant Fe and Mn reduction in these coastal muds. Vertical profiles, rates of sediment-water exchange, and correlation analyses imply that these silt-dominated muds mobilize Al and are a sink for Mo. Undetectable or very low porewater concentrations and flux rates of other metals (Ni, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb, Cd) indicate immobilization into solid-phase minerals. Solid-phase metal concentrations are consistent with those in average shale, suggesting pristine conditions in the gulf. Low (<1-2 μM) free sulphides, low clay content, and bioturbation are partly responsible for trace metal composition and concentrations, but several lines of evidence imply non-steady-state diagenesis in these muds: (1) the lack of a clear zonational sequence of solutes with sediment depth; (2) lack of agreement between vertical profiles of dissolved and solid-phases of most metals; (3) significant, but weak, correlations between dissolved metals and dissolved organic carbon, and between solid-phase metals and total organic carbon; and (4) lack of correlation between conservative elements (e.g. dissolved Mo and Cl -; dissolved Al and SiOH). Intense, massive physical reworking is cited as the major factor fostering apparent non-steady-state behaviour of trace metals in the surface muds of the Gulf of Papua. This scenario is very similar to that occurring on the Amazon shelf, and may be typical of other wet tropical regions with high-energy coastlines receiving large amounts of highly weathered, river-borne material.

  5. Modelling Favourability for Invasive Species Encroachment to Identify Areas of Native Species Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Báez, José C.; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  6. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  7. From temporary to permanent townsmen: migrants from the Malalaua District, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Morauta, L; Ryan, D

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain how a group of people moved from being newcomers to town in the 1940s to being one of the most permanent and stable residential elements in Papua New Guinea's towns in the 1970s. Circular and permanent migration, as Young maintains, are not 2 distinct processes, and both initial rural urban movements and migrants' decisions to return or not to return home are examined simultaneously. The hypothetical career of a migrant is considered all the way from village residence to permanent urban residence along with the different decision points that might vary this career. In this case study focus is on 2 sets of factors that affect migration decisions: an imbalance in rural and urban economic conditions and the effects of the migration process itself. The people discussed come from what is now known as the Malalaua District of the Gulf Province and are referred to as Malalauas. Historically, there are several feastures of Malalaua urban migration that are important. Malalaua migration began earlier than that of most urban migrant groups in Papua New Guinea. In the 1963 urban population there were a number of Malalauas who first came to Port Moresby before or during World War 2. Migration from the Malalaua District has continued in a steady stream from the 1940s to the 1970s, although there is no evidence on absolute numbers of new migrants in any 1 year. The pattern of Malalaua migration to towns over the entire period has been largely one of the movement of young single adult males and young female adults moving to town on marriage. Both the absolute numbers of migrants and the proportion of Malalauas absent from the District have risen rapidly over the 20 years to 1972. Finally, children are being born to Malalaua migrants in town. Malalauas are possibly the migrant group most firmly established in town. The Malalauas are one of the most longterm and residential groups in Port Moresby. In Papua New Guinea as a whole they must be one of the

  8. Early Childhood Care and Education in a Changing World: Building on Village Life in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikupu, Andrew; Glover, Anne

    2004-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea, the early childhood care and education of young children is largely a parental and community responsibility. Like many other village-based societies, including those found throughout Africa, Asia and the South Pacific, more than 80% of Papua New Guinean children grow up in subsistence farming and fishing tribal villages. In…

  9. The effect on ambulatory blood pressure of working under favourably and unfavourably perceived supervisors

    PubMed Central

    Wager, N; Fieldman, G; Hussey, T

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role played by employees' perceptions of their supervisors' interactional styles as a possible source of workplace stress that may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates from cardiovascular disorders in workers in the lower strata of organisational hierarchies. Methods: A controlled, quasi-experimental, field study of female healthcare assistants. Allocation to the experimental and control groups was based on participants' responses to a supervisor interactional style questionnaire. Experimental participants (n = 13) reported working under two divergently perceived supervisors at the same workplace, on different days. The control group (n = 15) worked either under one supervisor, or two similarly perceived supervisors. Ambulatory blood pressure was recorded every 30 minutes, over a 12 hour period for three days. Results: The control group showed a 3 mm Hg difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a non-significant difference in diastolic blood pressure (DBP; mean difference 1 mm Hg) between the two supervisor conditions. The experimental group showed significantly higher SBP (15 mm Hg) and DBP (7 mm Hg) when working under a less favoured compared to a favoured supervisor. The degree of divergence in perceptions of supervisors shows a significant positive relation with the difference in blood pressure between the two workdays. Divergence in perceptions of interpersonal fairness is the strongest predictor of difference in blood pressure. Conclusion: An unfavourably perceived supervisor is a potent workplace stressor, which might have a clinically significant impact on supervisees' cardiovascular functioning. PMID:12819279

  10. Information systems for health sector monitoring in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Cibulskis, R. E.; Hiawalyer, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes (i). how a national health information System was designed, tested and implemented in Papua New Guinea, (ii). how the system was integrated with other management information systems, and (iii). how information has been used to support decision-making. It concludes that central coordination of systems design is essential to make sure that information systems are aligned with government priorities and can deliver the information required by managers. While there is often scope for improving the performance of existing information systems, too much emphasis can be placed on revising data collection procedures and creating the perfect information system. Data analysis, even from imperfect systems, can stimulate greater interest in information, which can improve the quality and completeness of reporting and encourage a more methodical approach to planning and monitoring services. Our experience suggests that senior decision-makers and political leaders can play an important role in creating a culture of information use. By demanding health information, using it to formulate policy, and disseminating it through the channels open to them, they can exert greater influence in negotiations with donors and other government departments, encourage a more rational approach to decision-making that will improve the operation of health services, and stimulate greater use of information at lower levels of the health system. The ability of information systems to deliver these benefits is critical to their sustainability. PMID:12378295

  11. Mummy Restoration Project Among the Anga of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G; Nelson, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We report on a unique Mummy restoration project among the anga of papua new guinea. Moimango was a village leader who had gone through the smoked body mummification process about 50 years ago. His smoked body has been displayed, alongside other ancestors, on a cliff niche gallery 308 m (1011 feet) above Koke Village. Although somewhat protected by an overhang, Moimango suffered a great deal of deterioration as he has been unprotected and exposed to the elements. The goals of our 2010 expedition to Koke Village was to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts applied to Moimango initiated by the authors and villagers of Koke in 2008. The restoration process used materials native to the local jungles. We examined Moimango for additional restoration challenges that may have arisen since the 2008 expedition. We discovered that many of the restoration techniques developed and applied in 2008 held up well. We found that the anatomical supports developed from native tapa and kumaka sap were still in place and effective, as well as our lichen eradication method of a suca slurry applied in 2008. Of particular importance was the stability of Moimago's head, which prior to restoration, was held in place by only the mummified muscle and integument of the lateral and posterior neck region. Endoscopic evaluation demonstrated disarticulated C1 and C2 vertebrae. New restoration challenges included construction of a new display chair, realignment and securing of the mandible, replacing and securing a loose tooth, repatching, and recoating with ritualistic red ochre clay.

  12. Mummy Restoration Project Among the Anga of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G; Nelson, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We report on a unique Mummy restoration project among the anga of papua new guinea. Moimango was a village leader who had gone through the smoked body mummification process about 50 years ago. His smoked body has been displayed, alongside other ancestors, on a cliff niche gallery 308 m (1011 feet) above Koke Village. Although somewhat protected by an overhang, Moimango suffered a great deal of deterioration as he has been unprotected and exposed to the elements. The goals of our 2010 expedition to Koke Village was to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts applied to Moimango initiated by the authors and villagers of Koke in 2008. The restoration process used materials native to the local jungles. We examined Moimango for additional restoration challenges that may have arisen since the 2008 expedition. We discovered that many of the restoration techniques developed and applied in 2008 held up well. We found that the anatomical supports developed from native tapa and kumaka sap were still in place and effective, as well as our lichen eradication method of a suca slurry applied in 2008. Of particular importance was the stability of Moimago's head, which prior to restoration, was held in place by only the mummified muscle and integument of the lateral and posterior neck region. Endoscopic evaluation demonstrated disarticulated C1 and C2 vertebrae. New restoration challenges included construction of a new display chair, realignment and securing of the mandible, replacing and securing a loose tooth, repatching, and recoating with ritualistic red ochre clay. PMID:25998636

  13. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed.

  15. Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L

    2006-01-01

    There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), where refugees from across the border have been settled. Only a few surveys have been conducted; the first was in 1986, when one refugee who originated from an infected locality in West Papua was found to be serologically positive, but asymptomatic. Subsequently, there have been unpublished reports of more positive but asymptomatic cases amongst refugees and, it is claimed, amongst local inhabitants that live near the border. A serological survey conducted in PNG in 1999 at the southern end of the border revealed no positive cases of cysticercosis. There are no reports of pigs or dogs affected with cysticercosis in PNG. PMID:16338165

  16. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG.

  17. Factors affecting the use of immunization among urban settlement dwellers in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Freeman, P A; Thomason, J A; Bukenya, G B

    1992-09-01

    This paper examines the importance of selected social factors in the acceptance of childhood immunization in urban settlements in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. The study found that the provision of information to mothers on when to start immunization and how often the child should be immunized were key factors in determining immunization status. Maternal education was found to be positively associated with knowledge of immunization, but was not significantly associated with actual immunization practice. Over 70% of the women studied found out when to attend for immunization from the local maternal and child health (MCH) staff, hence emphasizing their importance in disseminating information. If coverage is to be increased further in urban settlements with mobile populations, maximal use must be made of local community organizations to disseminate the key immunization information and for follow-up of newborns and infants new to the community. Efforts to encourage mothers to deliver under supervision should also continue as this is an important point of first contact for immunization.

  18. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

  19. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    White, William T; Appleyard, Sharon A; Sabub, Benthly; Kyne, Peter M; Harris, Mark; Lis, Rickson; Baje, Leontine; Usu, Thomas; Smart, Jonathan J; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100-105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL). The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia.

  20. Clinothem Lobe Growth and Possible Ties to Downslope Processes in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.; Slingerland, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Gulf of Papua is fed by the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the north, thus creating an ideal environment where end-member cases of river systems and their deltas (e.g. the large-floodplain Brazos River and the narrow-shelved Eel River) can be studied. Input from five rivers into the gulf has constructed a three-dimensional mid-shelf clinothem composed of three depositional lobes, with a central lobe downlapped by two younger lobes to the north and south. This geometry suggests that the three lobes are not syndepositional but rather that clinoform depocenters have shifted 60 km, thus bypassing adjacent accommodation. Newly examined CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic lines and XRF analysis of piston cores from the 2004 NSF MARGINS program reveal distinct lobes offshore that exhibit increased complexity moving shoreward. Evidence of shoreward complexity and lobe interfingering cause us to question the originally proposed mechanism for depocenter shift involving circulation changes. An alternative hypothesis that stems from distinct lobe architecture farther offshore suggests that channelized downslope processes and nearshore storage may play important roles in lobe growth.

  1. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    White, William T.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Sabub, Benthly; Kyne, Peter M.; Harris, Mark; Lis, Rickson; Baje, Leontine; Usu, Thomas; Smart, Jonathan J.; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100–105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL). The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia. PMID:26445387

  2. Etiology of acute, non-malaria, febrile illnesses in Jayapura, northeastern Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Narain H; Taylor, Walter R J; Murphy, Gerald S; Purwaningsih, Sri; Picarima, Helena; Sisson, John; Olson, James G; Baso, Samuel; Wangsasaputra, Ferry; Lesmana, Murad; Oyofo, Buhari A; Simanjuntak, Cyrus H; Subekti, Decy; Corwin, Andrew L; Richie, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, inpatient fever study in malaria-endemic Papua, Indonesia to determine non-malaria fever etiologies. Investigations included malaria blood films, blood culture, paired serologic samples analysis for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, murine typhus, and spotted fever group rickettsia. During 1997-2000, 226 patients (127 males and 99 females) 1-80 years of age (median age = 25 years) were enrolled. Positive blood cultures (n = 34, 15%) were obtained for Salmonella Typhi (n = 13), Escherichia coli (n = 8), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 6), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 5), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 1), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). Twenty (8.8%) patients were positive for leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction. Eighty (35.4%) of 226 patients had ≥ 1 positive serology, diagnostic for 15 rickettsial and 9 dengue cases. Acid-fast bacilli-positive sputum was obtained from three patients. Most common confirmed (81 of 226, 35.8%)/suspected diagnoses were typhoid fever (n = 41), pneumonia (n = 29), leptospirosis (n = 28), urinary tract infections (n = 20), rickettsioses (n = 19), dengue (n = 17), and meningitis/encephalitis (n = 15). There were 17 deaths, 7 (46.7%) were caused by meningitis/encephalitis. Multiple positive serologic results and few confirmed diagnoses indicate the need for improved diagnostics.

  3. Discrepancies between national maternal mortality data and international estimates: the experience of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mola, Glen; Kirby, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Over the past 30 years maternal mortality estimates for Papua New Guinea have varied widely. There is no mandatory vital registration in PNG, and 85% of the population live in rural areas with limited or no access to health services. Demographic Health Survey data for PNG estimates the maternal mortality ratio to be 370 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1996 and 733 in 2006, whereas estimates based upon mathematical models (as calculated by international bodies) gave figures of 930 for 1980 and 230 for 2010. This disparity has been a source of considerable confusion for health workers, policy makers and development partners. In this study, we compared 2009 facility-based survey data with figures from the national Health Information System records. The comparison revealed similar maternal mortality ratios: for provincial hospitals (245 and 295), government health centres (574 and 386), church agency health centres (624 and 624), and nationally (394 and 438). Synthesizing these estimates for supervised births in facilities and data on unsupervised births from a community-based survey in one province indicates a national MMR of about 500. Knowing the maternal mortality ratio is a necessary starting point for working out how to reduce it.

  4. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    White, William T; Appleyard, Sharon A; Sabub, Benthly; Kyne, Peter M; Harris, Mark; Lis, Rickson; Baje, Leontine; Usu, Thomas; Smart, Jonathan J; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100-105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL). The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia. PMID:26445387

  5. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  6. Development of the Holocene Clinoform in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingerland, R.; Milliman, J. D.; Driscoll, N. W.; Walsh, J. P.; Keen, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    The Gulf of Papua (GoP) off the southeastern coast of Papua New Guinea, is a modern example of a marine foreland basin in mid-life. Loading of the Australian plate by New Guinea is creating accommodation space that is being filled by clastic sediment delivered by rivers draining the central mountains. Collectively, the Fly, Turama, Kikori, and Purari rivers discharge >200 x 106 t/yr into the basin. Filling is both longitudinal (Fly and Turama Rivers) and transverse, creating a crescentic shelf, similar to ancient shelves such as the Miocene shelf of the Alpine foreland. To develop a model for GoP-type shallow-marine shelf processes and products we have collected 21 piston cores, 24 gravity cores, 4000 nmi of CHIRP and 1000 nmi of multi-electrode sparker profiles in the GoP, and conducted numerical experiments with NCOM, the US Navy Coastal Ocean Model. Morphologically the GoP shelf is characterized by three treads and two risers, which define two clinoforms; here we focus on the upper Holocene clinoform whose face extends from ~20 to ~80 m water depth, where it downlaps onto an erosional surface etched into topsets of an older clinoform. The face of the Holocene clinoform undulates along strike in a series of subtle promontories and reentrants. Geometrical relationships of stratal packages suggest that the undulations are caused by progradation of sand/mud lobes across the roll-over and oblique transport down the clinoform. Intercalated on- and off-lapping wedges suggest a multi-stage clinoform growth, with upslope sand-rich build-outs alternating with mud-rich toe of slope build-outs. The latest sediments consist of a subjacent heterolithic facies, deposited during a phase of oblique clinoform growth, overlain everywhere by an acoustically transparent facies that forms an on- and down-lapping toe of the wedge. We assume that this transparent facies represent sediment winnowed from topset strata, suggesting that the rate of clinoform growth has slowed. The causes

  7. Building damage in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blong, Russell

    2002-08-01

    Damage information on 173 buildings was collected in the immediate aftermath of the September 1994 eruption which destroyed large sections of Rabaul town, Papua New Guinea. The extent of damage is presented on a five-point scale and related to construction characteristics and tephra load. Total roof loads in Rabaul town ranged from 2 to 16 kN m-2 (about 100- to 950-mm tephra thickness). Most buildings which collapsed completely experienced loads >7.5 kN m-2, but many buildings sustained half this load with little more than cosmetic damage. Timber-framed buildings suffered more than buildings with at least some concrete block walls. However, some old, steel-framed buildings experienced severe damage with tephra loads as low as 2 kN m-2. Comparisons with tephra loads and building damage elsewhere are limited but suggest that Rabaul buildings experiencing roof loads of 2-5 kN m-2 generally survived reasonably well. However, the comparisons are unsatisfactory because of inadequate data on tephra unit weights, roof design, building ages, the quality of workmanship, and the natural variability of construction materials, particularly timber. The Rabaul data suggest that concrete block walls increase building resistance to tephra loads but it is doubtful that conventional residential buildings can be designed to sustain tephra loads exceeding 7 kN m-2. The Rabaul experience also indicates that building codes for volcanic areas need to consider mudfills and post-eruption corrosion of sheet metal roofs and wall cladding. Most importantly, had the majority of buildings in Rabaul survived the September 1994 tephra falls, wet season mudflows a few months later would still have made most of the town unsafe and uninhabitable.

  8. Building damage in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blong, Russell

    Damage information on 173 buildings was collected in the immediate aftermath of the September 1994 eruption which destroyed large sections of Rabaul town, Papua New Guinea. The extent of damage is presented on a five-point scale and related to construction characteristics and tephra load. Total roof loads in Rabaul town ranged from 2 to 16 kN m-2 (about 100- to 950-mm tephra thickness). Most buildings which collapsed completely experienced loads >7.5 kN m-2, but many buildings sustained half this load with little more than cosmetic damage. Timber-framed buildings suffered more than buildings with at least some concrete block walls. However, some old, steel-framed buildings experienced severe damage with tephra loads as low as 2 kN m-2. Comparisons with tephra loads and building damage elsewhere are limited but suggest that Rabaul buildings experiencing roof loads of 2-5 kN m-2 generally survived reasonably well. However, the comparisons are unsatisfactory because of inadequate data on tephra unit weights, roof design, building ages, the quality of workmanship, and the natural variability of construction materials, particularly timber. The Rabaul data suggest that concrete block walls increase building resistance to tephra loads but it is doubtful that conventional residential buildings can be designed to sustain tephra loads exceeding 7 kN m-2. The Rabaul experience also indicates that building codes for volcanic areas need to consider mudfills and post-eruption corrosion of sheet metal roofs and wall cladding. Most importantly, had the majority of buildings in Rabaul survived the September 1994 tephra falls, wet season mudflows a few months later would still have made most of the town unsafe and uninhabitable.

  9. Why increasing longevity may favour a PAYG pension system over a funded system.

    PubMed

    Ediev, Dalkhat M

    2014-03-01

    When pension systems are contrasted it is common to use simplified demographic models, such as overlapping generation models with time-invariant mortality. Breaking with this tradition, we show that for a population with increasing longevity, the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system may be more advantageous than a funded system (FS). Increasing longevity favours the PAYG system because for the workers living longer at retirement than current retirees, it is less costly to fund others' current pensions than their own. At present, the effect amounts to around 15 per cent in terms of the dependency ratio, or six more years at work in the FS, or 1 per cent per annum in terms of the real interest rate. In most developed countries the effect substantially exceeds that of the usually studied biological interest rate.

  10. Antivenomic Characterization of Two Antivenoms Against the Venom of the Taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus, from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, María; Paiva, Owen K.; Pagotto, Ana Helena; Segura, Álvaro; Serrano, Solange M. T.; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Jensen, Simon D.; León, Guillermo; Williams, David J.; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-01-01

    Antivenoms manufactured by bioCSL Limited (Australia) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica) against the venom of the taipan snakes (Oxyuranus scutellatus) from Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG), respectively, were compared using antivenomics, an analytical approach that combines proteomics with immunoaffinity chromatography. Both antivenoms recognized all venom proteins present in venom from PNG O. scutellatus, although a pattern of partial recognition was observed for some components. In the case of the Australian O. scutellatus venom, both antivenoms immunorecognized the majority of the components, but the CSL antivenom showed a stronger pattern of immunoreactivity, which was revealed by the percentage of retained proteins in the immunoaffinity column. Antivenoms interacted with taipoxin in surface plasmon resonance. These observations on antivenomics agree with previous neutralization studies. PMID:25157124

  11. Evaluation of the Global Fund-supported National Malaria Control Program in Papua New Guinea, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Pulford, Justin; Maraga, Seri; Barnadas, Celine; Reimer, Lisa J; Tavul, Livingstone; Jamea-Maiasa, Sharon; Tandrapah, Tony; Maalsen, Anna; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is the major funaer Of the National Malaria Control Program in Papua New Guinea (PNG). One of the requirements of a Global Fund grant is the regular and accurate reporting of program outcomes and impact. Under-performance as well as failure to report can result in reduction or discontinuation of program funding. While national information systems should be in a position to provide accurate and comprehensive information for program evaluation, systems in developing countries are often insufficient. This paper describes the five-year plan for the evaluation of the Global Fund Round 8 malaria grant to PNG (2009-2014) developed by the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). It builds on a complementary set of studies including national surveys and sentinel site surveillance for the assessment of program outcomes and impact. The PNGIMR evaluation plan is an integral part of the Global Fund grant. The evaluation program assesses intervention coverage (at individual, household and health facility levels), antimalarial drug efficacy, indicators of malaria transmission and morbidity (prevalence, incidence), and all-cause mortality. Operational research studies generate complementary information for improving the control program. Through the evaluation, PNGIMR provides scientific expertise to the PNG National Malaria Control Program and contributes to building local capacity in monitoring and evaluation. While a better integration of evaluation activities into routine systems would be desirable, it is unlikely that sufficient capacity for data analysis and reporting could be established at the National Department of Health (NDoH) within a short period of time. Long-term approaches should aim at strengthening the national health information system and building sufficient capacity at NDoH for routine analysis and reporting, while more complex scientific tasks can be supported by the PNGIMR as the de facto

  12. Early diagenetic cycling, incineration, and burial of sedimentary organic carbon in the central Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Robert C.; Blair, Neal E.; Brunskill, Gregg J.

    2008-03-01

    The clinoform complex of the Gulf of Papua represents a major deltaic system in Oceania. Two seasons largely control seafloor dynamics and sedimentary C cycling: the relatively quiescent NW monsoon, and the SE trades, characterized by remobilization and reoxidation of topset deposits. Surface sediments (˜20 cm) are reactive with ΣCO2 production fluxes ˜35-42 mmol m-2 d-1 at mangrove channel and topset sites during the monsoon, and ˜10-20 mmol m-2 d-1 on the foreset-bottomset (>40 m). Fluxes decrease by a factor of ˜0.3 on the topset during the transition period and trades. The 13,14C isotopic compositions of pore water ΣCO2 reveal diagenetic fractionation, with dominant utilization of young (Δ14C = 1.4-31.1‰), terrestrial C substrates inshore (channels, topset δ13C = -29 to -25‰) and a progressive increase of young marine C sources seaward (outer topset, foreset; bottomset δ13C = -22.2 to -19.5). Remineralization patterns of terrestrial and marine Corg demonstrate cross-shelf exchange. Multiple tracers show that a suboxic, mobile mud layer, ˜10-60 cm thick (usually ˜10-30 cm), characterizes the central gulf topset and Umuda Valley off the Fly River and unconformably overlies methanic deposits releasing old ΣCO2 (Δ14C = -159 to -229‰). Residual terrestrial Corg delivered to the bioturbated foreset continues to be remineralized slowly, generating ΣCO2 having net Δ14C = -270 within sediments deposited 100-200 years ago. The reactivity of Corg below ˜0.5 m in the foreset is ˜10-20 times lower than expected based on accumulation rates, reflecting loss of >50% of sedimentary Corg on the topset, which functions as a suboxic incinerator.

  13. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-11-01

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ~30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal

  14. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.

  15. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others. PMID:26568448

  16. Gold--Its Extraction and the Environment: Experiences in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mike; Owens, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the mining of gold has impacted the development of both Australia and Papua, New Guinea. Outlines the essential chemistry of small scale mining, the impact of gold on the economy, and the environmental effect of mercury on both the miners and the environment. (Author/CCM)

  17. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  18. Prevalence of Henipavirus and Rubulavirus Antibodies in Pteropid Bats, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Andrew C.; Yu, Meng; Barr, Jennifer A.; Crameri, Gary; Thalmann, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine seroprevalence of viruses in bats in Papua New Guinea, we sampled 66 bats at 3 locations. We found a seroprevalence of 55% for henipavirus (Hendra or Nipah virus) and 56% for rubulavirus (Tioman or Menangle virus). Notably, 36% of bats surveyed contained antibodies to both types of viruses, indicating concurrent or consecutive infection. PMID:21122242

  19. Equality Trends and Comparisons for the Education System of Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheret, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Equality trends among provinces and individual students in Papua New Guinea and means of monitoring these trends are discussed. The Gini coefficient of concentration was the index used most often, together with its associated Lorenz curve. The association of equality of education with economic equality is noted. Eight graphs and three tables are…

  20. Predominance of modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and active transmission of Beijing sublineage in Jayapura, Indonesia Papua.

    PubMed

    Chaidir, Lidya; Sengstake, Sarah; de Beer, Jessica; Oktavian, Antonius; Krismawati, Hana; Muhapril, Erfin; Kusumadewi, Inri; Annisa, Jessi; Anthony, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Marzuki, Sangkot; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype distribution is different between West and Central Indonesia, but there are no data on the most Eastern part, Papua. We aimed to identify the predominant genotypes of M. tuberculosis responsible for tuberculosis in coastal Papua, their transmission, and the association with patient characteristics. A total of 199 M. tuberculosis isolates were collected. Spoligotyping was applied to describe the population structure of M. tuberculosis, lineage identification was performed using a combination of lineage-specific markers, and genotypic clusters were identified using a combination of 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among isolates based on their spoligopatterns. Strains from modern lineage 4 made up almost half of strains (46.9%), being more abundant than the ancient lineage 1 (33.7%), and modern lineage 2 (19.4%). Thirty-five percent of strains belonged to genotypic clusters, especially strains in the Beijing genotype. Previous TB treatment and mutations associated with drug resistance were more common in patients infected with strains of the Beijing genotype. Papua shows a different distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes compared to other parts of Indonesia. Clustering and drug resistance of modern strains recently introduced to Papua may contribute to the high tuberculosis burden in this region.

  1. Serological survey of human cysticercosis in Irianese refugee camps in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, M; Gottstein, B; Wigglesworth, M C; Eckert, J

    1990-02-01

    In 1984, over 10,000 refugees left the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya, and thus possibly imported Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis into Papua New Guinea, which was believed to be free of T. solium until 1966. In a serological survey carried out in 1986, 50 refugees originating from areas endemic for T. solium and 171 patients from other areas with symptoms suggesting the possibility of cysticercosis were examined. As a sensitive prescreening technique an ELISA was used with a crude antigen extract obtained from T. solium metacestodes of pig origin. Of 221 persons investigated, 79 (36%) were positive in ELISA. For excluding frequently occurring cross-reactions in ELISA, Western-blotting (or EITB, enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot) was employed. In this test the demonstration of antibody activity to the 26 or the 8 kilodalton band has been proved to be species-specific for T. solium cysticercosis. One from 79 patients positive in ELISA was simultaneously positive (26 and 8 kDa) in Western blot, corresponding to the first case found in Papua New Guinea with a highly probable T. solium cysticercosis. This patient, originating from an endemic area in Irian Jaya, had immigrated into Papua New Guinea in 1980. The present work emphasizes the need for using highly specific immunodiagnostic techniques in seroepidemiology of larval cestode infections. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis remains a risk for Papua New Guinea, and refugees originating from endemic areas should be regarded as potential carriers of T. solium. PMID:1969703

  2. Elementary Teacher Education in Papua New Guinea: Towards a Culturally Connected Perspective of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahambu, Casper; Brownlee, Joanne M.; Petriwskyj, E. Anne

    2012-01-01

    Global and national agendas for quality education have led to reforms in Papua New Guinea's (PNG) elementary education, but criticism of the learner-centred Western pedagogies has emerged. One key influence on quality teacher education relates to perspectives of teaching. Existing research shows teachers' beliefs and perceptions of teaching…

  3. Explaining Mathematics Achievement of Mature Internal and External Students at the University of Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeley, Gurcham S.

    1993-01-01

    Develops a causal model that explains over 40% of the variance in matriculation mathematics achievement of mature internal and external students at the University of Papua New Guinea. Background variables seem more important in the learning of mathematics compared to mediating variables for external students than for internal students. (MDH)

  4. Learning to Lead: A Social Justice Perspective on Understanding Elementary Teacher Leadership in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne; Scholes, Laura; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie; Cook, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Leadership in elementary education is currently recognized as a political imperative in Papua New Guinea (PNG), as the nation develops strategies towards equitable access to schooling. One recent initiative aimed at building educational leadership was an intensive Australian Leadership Award Fellowship (ALAF) program funded by AusAID, involving a…

  5. The Costs of Children: Perceptions of Australian and Papua New Guinean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Jeffrey; Callan, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the perceptions of 281 Papua New Guinean students and 329 Australian students of the economic and psychological costs of having children. Australians gave high ratings to the importance of financial and emotional costs, while New Guinea students were more aware of overpopulation and restrictions on parents. (JAC)

  6. The Progress of Five Attempts to Improve the Quality of Secondary Teaching in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    There is a general agreement that academic standards in Papua New Guinea high schools are below those in many other countries. This paper will examine this problem generally and also in relation to the teaching of mathematics and science. At Goroka Teachers' College, which is the only teacher training college for secondary school teachers in Papua…

  7. Knowledge Flow and Capacity Development: A Case of Psychology in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marai, Leo; Haihuie, Samuel; Kavanamur, David

    2005-01-01

    Despite political rhetoric to the contrary, higher education (HE) in Papua New Guinea remains heavily Westernized, resulting in an alienation of HE, and its students, from the development needs of the country. Taking the discipline of psychology as an example, indigenization is not a complete solution to this alienation, since many of the issues…

  8. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  9. Subsidies, Selectivity and the Returns to Education in Urban Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, John; Fatai, Osaiasi Koliniusi

    2006-01-01

    There is debate about whether the rate of return to education in developing countries declines with the level of schooling. This paper reports evidence from urban Papua New Guinea which shows that the average private rate of return to an additional year of education rises with the level of education considered. This pattern is robust to the…

  10. English and Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin English) in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Tok Pisin, New Guinea Pidgin English, is becoming increasingly important as a "lingua franca" in Papua New Guinea, even though English is the country's official language. Urban versus rural and spoken versus written varieties of the pidgin are examined, and the influence of English on Tok Pisin is investigated. 73 references. (Author/CB)

  11. Failure of a massive earthquake-induced landslide dam in Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J. P.; Loveday, I. C.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the recent occurrence of a large earthquake-induced landslide that dammed the Bairaman River in the interior of hte island of New Britian, Papua New Guinea, and the subsequent overtopping and failure of this landslide dam. 

  12. Rigidin E, a New Pyrrolopyrimidine Alkaloid from a Papua New Guinea Tunicate Eudistoma Species

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Rohan A.; Christensen, Lane V.; Richardson, Adam D.; da Rocha, Rosana Moreira; Ireland, Chris M.

    2003-01-01

    A new pyrrolopyrimidine alkaloid, rigidin E (1) and the known metabolites rigidin (2) and 1-methylherbipoline (3) have been isolated from a Papua New Guinea tunicate Eudistoma sp. A combination of spectroscopic data were used to determine the structures of these metabolites.

  13. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  14. Language Choice in an Acutely Multilingual Society: Communication and Development in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoff P.

    Acute intercultural communication problems posed by multilingualism in Papua New Guinea are discussed, and ways in which they are being addressed are examined. An introductory section outlines the language situation in Melanesia. It is noted that the area's language diversity and colonization and missionary activity have resulted in the emergence…

  15. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4) perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to disadvantage

  16. Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress.

    PubMed

    Wittebolle, Lieven; Marzorati, Massimo; Clement, Lieven; Balloi, Annalisa; Daffonchio, Daniele; Heylen, Kim; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2009-04-01

    Owing to the present global biodiversity crisis, the biodiversity-stability relationship and the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning have become major topics in ecology. Biodiversity is a complex term that includes taxonomic, functional, spatial and temporal aspects of organismic diversity, with species richness (the number of species) and evenness (the relative abundance of species) considered among the most important measures. With few exceptions (see, for example, ref. 6), the majority of studies of biodiversity-functioning and biodiversity-stability theory have predominantly examined richness. Here we show, using microbial microcosms, that initial community evenness is a key factor in preserving the functional stability of an ecosystem. Using experimental manipulations of both richness and initial evenness in microcosms with denitrifying bacterial communities, we found that the stability of the net ecosystem denitrification in the face of salinity stress was strongly influenced by the initial evenness of the community. Therefore, when communities are highly uneven, or there is extreme dominance by one or a few species, their functioning is less resistant to environmental stress. Further unravelling how evenness influences ecosystem processes in natural and humanized environments constitutes a major future conceptual challenge.

  17. [Emerging Acinetobacter baumannii infections and factors favouring their occurrence].

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Joly-Guillou, M-L

    2012-10-01

    During the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) has been increasingly responsible for infections occurring in three particular contexts (in terms of patients and environment). Community AB pneumonia is severe infections, mainly described around the Indian Ocean, and which mainly concern patients with major co-morbidities. AB is also responsible for infections occurring among soldiers wounded in action during operations conducted in Iraq or Afghanistan. Lastly, this bacterium is responsible for infections occurring among casualties from natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis. Those infections are often due to multidrug-resistant strains, which can be implicated in nosocomial outbreaks when patients are hospitalized in a local casualty department or during their repatriation thereafter. The source of the contaminations which lead to AB infections following injuries (warfare or natural disasters) is still poorly known. Three hypotheses are usually considered: a contamination of wounds with environmental bacteria, a wound contamination from a previous cutaneous or oropharyngeal endogenous reservoir, or hospital acquisition. The implication of telluric or agricultural primary reservoirs in human AB infections is a common hypothesis which remains to be demonstrated by further specifically designed studies.

  18. Atmospheric and oceanologic conditions favouring large bioproduction of northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Supić, Nastjenjka

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study based on long term data collected in the northern Adriatic relieved winter period to be crucial for the total annual zooplankton production in the region. Namely, yearly averages of some investigated zooplankton species in the 2000-2007 interval were highly related to their February and/or March abundances. The large winter zooplankton abundances appeared in winters of the "A type", in which freshened waters from the Po River spread over the region. Also, the production of phytoplankton was in winters of the "A type" higher than in winters of the "B type", in which these waters are restricted to the coastal areas and do not impact the open sea. That was presumably due to increase in nutrients. In fact, the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate concentration in eastern part reached maximal February values in the 1990-2007 interval in winters of the "A type". Spreading of the Po River water across the northern Adriatic and appearance of the two winter types depends on the existing geostrophic circulation patterns and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions in the preceding months, thus enabling forecast. Obtained results are basis for the future theoretical ecological model which can explain long term changes in bioproduction in the region and be used in planning future environment actions aimed to sustained development, especially as winter phytoplankton and zooplankton production seems to reflect on annual catch of small pelagic fish important for Adriatic fishery, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

  19. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; De Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  20. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  1. Development, labour relations and gender in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fahey, S

    1986-08-01

    The increase in wage labor in the periurban village of Siar, Papua New Guinea, was examined by carrying out field work in 1980. There were 82 households in Siar: 40 (49%) had at least one wage earner, and of these, 8 (20%) had two or more wage earners. This was far less than in urban areas (86%) and far more than in rural villages (6%). 39 males aged 20-49 years and 10 females aged 10-29 years out of the total population of 503 people were in regular employment. 6 of the 9 women between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 2 as domestic servants, and 1 as a shop assistant. 6 of the 21 men between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 6 as laborers in a timber mill, 4 as construction workers, 2 as medical assistants, 2 as plantation workers, and 1 in a bakery. 67% of the women were in skilled employment compared with 51% of men. Most Siar villagers were employed in Madang town with 26 people being employed in private enterprise, 17 employed by the government, and 6 by the Lutheran Mission. Access to employment depended largely on the wantok system of referring kinfolk by people who were employed. In contrast to male employment patterns, there was little opportunity for unskilled females. Most wage laborers were unable to save money because of the demands exerted on them by relatives. The villagers had developed needs to be satisfied by monetized transactions: food, clothing, housing materials, school fees, transport costs, and social activities for beer and cigarettes. On the other hand, several women requested that their employers deduct 15% of their wages for savings. The expenditure for food varied between 38% and 58% of the total cash income of units of villagers. The village's population increased because migrants arrived. In 1977, 247 (37%) Siar villagers were absent, most having left for reasons related to employment. Sexual division in Siar reinforced women's alienation from the means of production and they became doubly subordinated to

  2. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  3. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  4. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  5. A possible role for rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs in spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Reid, S; Husein, A; Hutchinson, G; Copeman, D

    1999-01-01

    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  6. Characterization of the gut microbiota of Papua New Guineans using reverse transcription quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Andrew R; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Ogata, Kiyohito; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Morita, Ayako; Soli, Kevin; Larkins, Jo-Ann; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Odani, Shingo; Baba, Jun; Naito, Yuichi; Tomitsuka, Eriko; Nomoto, Koji; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in composition of gut microbiota in recent years, leading to a better understanding of the role the gut microbiota plays in health and disease. Most studies have been limited in their geographical and socioeconomic diversity to high-income settings, and have been conducted using small sample sizes. To date, few analyses have been conducted in low-income settings, where a better understanding of the gut microbiome could lead to the greatest return in terms of health benefits. Here, we have used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting dominant and sub-dominant groups of microorganisms associated with human gut microbiome in 115 people living a subsistence lifestyle in rural areas of Papua New Guinea. Quantification of Clostridium coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, C. perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium, Atopobium cluster, Prevotella, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus spp. was conducted. Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed two dimensions with Prevotella, clostridia, Atopobium, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus grouping in one dimension, while B. fragilis, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus grouping in the second dimension. Highland people had higher numbers of most groups of bacteria detected, and this is likely a key factor for the differences revealed by PCoA between highland and lowland study participants. Age and sex were not major determinants in microbial population composition. The study demonstrates a gut microbial composition with some similarities to those observed in other low-income settings where traditional diets are consumed, which have previously been suggested to favor energy extraction from a carbohydrate rich diet.

  7. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned. PMID:27444720

  8. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned.

  9. Ba/Ca in Planktonic Foraminifera as a Recorder of Freshwater Input to the Ocean: Proxy Refinement in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the study of paleoclimate, the past several decades have seen large strides in the advancement of proxies designed to reconstruct changes in sea surface temperature (SST); however, techniques for reconstructing ocean salinity are less well developed. The ratio of Ba/Ca in planktic foraminiferal tests has shown initial promise as a tool for reconstructing salinity in continental margin sites near river mouths. In these environments, Ba/Ca shows an inverse correlation with salinity, and often a less clear correlation to nutrients or indicators of productivity, as is more typical in open-ocean settings. An ideal area in which to apply and test foraminiferal Ba/Ca as a proxy for freshwater input is the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), where temperatures are relatively stable, but large variations in precipitation are today driven by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and strength of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon. Foraminiferal Ba/Ca in sediments proximal to a river mouth should therefore reflect changes in riverine input, which in turn reflect variations in precipitation on different timescales. We present here planktic foraminiferal δ18O, Ba/Ca, and Mg/Ca records spanning the last glacial-interglacial transition from marine sediment cores in the Gulf of Papua, located in the WPWP. The δ18O records show an increase in the magnitude of glacial-interglacial (G-IG) δ18O change (∆18O) moving away from the coastline and the mouth of the primary local freshwater source, the Fly River. The reduced amplitude in G-IG ∆18O in the cores closer to shore, manifested by more negative δ18O values before ~20 kyr ago, is likely due to freshwater input from the Fly River, with the effects diminishing with distance from the Fly River source. Temperature and sea level are also changing over the deglaciation, however, contributing to the signal recorded in the calcite δ18O. We use planktic Mg/Ca analyses and independent records of sea level change to isolate the

  10. Fluvial and oceanographic controls on clinoform architecture in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Receiving sediment input from the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers, the Gulf of Papua (GOP) is an ideal environment to study how clinoforms record the response of dispersal systems to sea level rise. Contributions from the Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the clinoform have varied due to differing responses to rising sea levels since the last glacial maximum. Near-bed currents that advect sediment to the northeast further complicate this signal. Pairing geophysical and geochemical data from the 2004 NSF MARGINS Source-to-Sink program, we imaged clinoform architecture with CHIRP seismic profiles, identified clinoform sediment provenance, and constrained depositional timing with radiocarbon dates. Sediment provenance can be identified from higher illite:smectite and quartz:feldspar ratios in Fly River sediment than that from small mountainous rivers draining volcanoclastics. Increasing illite:smectite ratios in surficial sediment imply that the Fly River is presently building out clinoforms; however, for most of the late Holocene, the northeastern rivers contributed the bulk of the sediment. The time-lag for Fly River sediment flux to the clinoform suggests sediment storage within its wide floodplain during the rapid transgressions, compared to shorter time-lags in the small mountainous rivers during transgressions. CHIRP profiles reveal consistent patterns of oblique stacking on top of preexisting topography, creating topographic highs and intervening lows. Aggradation on topographic highs occurs during the lower-energy Monsoon season; however, this sediment is winnowed away by energetic currents during the Trade Wind season and advected to the northeast. Northeast progradation is supported by greater sediment thicknesses and accumulation rates along the northeast sides of GOP promontories. Teasing out influences of oceanographic currents can illuminate contributions of large and small-floodplain rivers in the same basin.

  11. Identification of novel and zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in fish from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ng-Hublin, J; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2013-11-15

    There is still limited information on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in fish. The present study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in cultured freshwater (n=132), wild freshwater (n=206) and wild marine (n=276) fish in Papua New Guinea (PNG) by PCR screening at the 18S rRNA locus. A total of seven fish (2 cultured freshwater, 1 wild freshwater and 4 wild marine fish) were identified as positive for Cryptosporidium. Specifically, Cryptosporidium was found in four different host species (Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; silver barb, Puntius gonionotus; mackerel scad, Decapterus maracellus and oblong silver biddy, Gerres oblongus), giving an overall prevalence of 1.14% (95% CI: 0.3-2%, n=7/614). Of the seven positive isolates, five were identified as C. parvum and two were a novel piscine genotype, which we have named piscine genotype 8. Piscine genotype 8 was identified in two marine oblong silver biddies and exhibited 4.3% genetic distance from piscine genotype 3 at the 18S locus. Further subtyping of C. parvum isolates at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified 3 C. parvum subtypes (IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA19G4R1) all of which are zoonotic and a C. hominis subtype (IdA15G1). The zoonotic Cryptosporidium were identified in fish samples from all three groups; cultured and wild freshwater and wild marine fish. Detection of Cryptosporidium among aquaculture fingerlings warrants further research to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cultured fish. The identification of zoonotic Cryptosporidium genotypes in fish from PNG has important public health implications and should be investigated further.

  12. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  13. Imaging continental breakup using teleseismic body waves: The Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilon, Zachary; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Gaherty, James B.; Jin, Ge

    2015-09-01

    This study images the upper mantle beneath the D'Entrecasteax Islands, Papua New Guinea, providing insight into mantle deformation beneath a highly rifted continent adjacent to propagating spreading centers. Differential travel times from P and S-wave teleseisms recorded during the 2010-2011 CDPapua passive seismic experiment are used to invert for separate VP and VS velocity models of the continental rift. A low-velocity structure marks the E-W axis of the rift, correlating with the thinnest crust, high heat flow, and a linear trend of volcanoes. This slow region extends 250 km along strike from the oceanic spreading centers, demonstrating significant mantle extension ahead of seafloor breakup. The rift remains narrow to depth indicating localization of extension, perhaps as a result of mantle hydration. A high-VP structure at depths of 90-120 km beneath the north of the array is more than 6.5% faster than the rift axis and contains well-located intermediate depth earthquakes. These independent observations place firm constraints on the lateral thermal contrast at depth between the rift axis and cold lithosphere to the north that may be related to recent subduction, although the polarity of subduction cannot be resolved. This geometry is gravitationally unstable; downwelling or small-scale convection could have facilitated rifting and rapid lithospheric removal, although this may require a wet mantle to be realistic on the required time scales. The high-V structure agrees with the maximum P,T conditions recorded by young ultra-high pressure rocks exposed on the rift axis and may be implicated in their genesis.

  14. Emergence of FY*Anull in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic region of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Woolley, Ian; Masinde, Godfred L.; Miller, Stephanie M.; McNamara, David T.; Hazlett, Fred; Mgone, Charles S.; Alpers, Michael P.; Genton, Blaise; Boatin, B. A.; Kazura, James W.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG), numerous blood group polymorphisms and hemoglobinopathies characterize the human population. Human genetic polymorphisms of this nature are common in malarious regions, and all four human malaria parasites are holoendemic below 1500 meters in PNG. At this elevation, a prominent condition characterizing Melanesians is α+-thalassemia. Interestingly, recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that α+-thalassemia is associated with increased susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria among young children. It is further proposed that α+-thalassemia may facilitate so-called “benign” Plasmodium vivax infection to act later in life as a “natural vaccine” against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, in a P. vivax-endemic region of PNG where the resident Abelam-speaking population is characterized by a frequency of α+-thalassemia ≥0.98, we have discovered the mutation responsible for erythrocyte Duffy antigen-negativity (Fy[a−b−]) on the FY*A allele. In this study population there were 23 heterozygous and no homozygous individuals bearing this new allele (allele frequency, 23/1062 = 0.022). Flow cytometric analysis illustrated a 2-fold difference in erythroid-specific Fy-antigen expression between heterozygous (FY*A/FY*Anull) and homozygous (FY*A/FY*A) individuals, suggesting a gene-dosage effect. In further comparisons, we observed a higher prevalence of P. vivax infection in FY*A/FY*A (83/508 = 0.163) compared with FY*A/FY*Anull (2/23 = 0.087) individuals (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 0.47–8.91). Emergence of FY*Anull in this population suggests that P. vivax is involved in selection of this erythroid polymorphism. This mutation would ultimately compromise α+-thalassemia/P. vivax-mediated protection against severe P. falciparum malaria. PMID:10570183

  15. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. PMID:21332621

  16. Polyphased rifting to post-breakup evolution of the Coral Sea region, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulois, Cédric; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Coral Sea Basin, offshore Papua New Guinea, is generally described as a rift propagator that opened through the Australian craton during the Late Cretaceous. Rifting was later followed by spreading activity during Palaeocene to lowermost Eocene times and basin inversion during the Cenozoic. Herein, we specifically describe the extensional structures and show that the area has actually a much longer history that dates back from the Late Palaeozoic. A special focus is made on the northern margin of the Coral Sea Basin along which subsurface and HD topographic data were recently acquired. Extension took place discontinuously from the Late Palaeozoic to the Lower Cenozoic through several rift megacycles that include extensional pulses and relaxation episodes. The first rift megacycle (R1), poorly documented, occurred during the Triassic along an old Permo-Triassic, NS-trending structural fabric. Evidence of Permo-Triassic features is principally observed in the western part of the Coral Sea near the Tasman Line, a major lithospheric discontinuity that marks the eastern limit of the underlying Australian craton in Papua New Guinea. This early Triassic framework was reactivated during a Jurassic rifting stage (R2), resulting in small (~10/20km) tilted basins bounded by major NS, NE-SW and EW normal faults. Extension formed a large basin, floored by oceanic crust that might have connected with the Tethys Ocean. The Owen Stanley Oceanic Basin containing deep-marine sediments now obducted in the Ocean Stanley Thrust Belt are likely to represent this oceanic terrane. Both R1 and R2 megacycles shaped the geometry of the Jurassic Australian margin. A third Cretaceous extensional megacycle (R3) only reactivated the largest faults, cutting through the midst of this early stretched continental margin. It formed wider, poorly tilted basins and terminated with the onset of the Coral Sea seafloor spreading from Danian to Ypresian times (61.8 to 53.4 Myr). Then, the overall

  17. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H; Clayton, Edward H

    2007-06-01

    Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease.

  18. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations. PMID:27443456

  19. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  20. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H; Clayton, Edward H

    2007-06-01

    Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease. PMID:17437143

  1. The organisation and management of curriculum development in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article develops a critical analysis of the international transfer of strategies for curriculum change with reference to an historical review of the Papua New Guinean experience. The research documents how international trends have — for better or worse —played a part in shaping the school curriculum and its organisational and administrative structures in this developing country. While much of lasting benefit has been achieved, it is argued that differing contextual factors are often given insufficient attention when educational ideas cross national boundaries. Relationships between the nature and control of the school curriculum and the nature and distribution of power and influence within, and across, societies are also identified as central to an understanding of the debate. In the light of this analysis, the implications of the economic pre-occupations of the 1990s and renewed international interest in modes of centralized curriculum control, are examined for Papua New Guinea and for developing countries in general.

  2. Maintenance of a reliable laboratory service for tuberculosis intervention in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Makaen, Johnson; Omena, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant strains, in Papua New Guinea highlights the never ending nature of the antituberculosis (anti-TB) campaign in that country and warrants the need for constant vigilance against the condition. Through surveillance, early detection, and management, the spread and incidence of TB can be kept in check. To maintain successful TB control programs, the government and partners committed to this campaign need to overhaul essential aspects of laboratory services. Clinical laboratories play a critical role in diagnostics; their functions cannot be substituted nor relegated. It is time to end neglect of these services in Papua New Guinea and to arm the laboratories in that country with full financial and logistical support so that they can lead the campaign against TB.

  3. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-10-06

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species.

  4. The work of Glendon Lean on the counting systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay

    2001-04-01

    Glendon Lean collated data on nearly 900 counting systems of Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua). Lean's data came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. He read old documents written in English, German, and Dutch. He made comparisons between older and new accounts of the counting systems and compared neighbouring counting systems from both Austronesian and non-Austronesian languages. His work drew attention to the rich diversity of the systems and suggested that systems based on body parts and cyclic systems developed spontaneously. Digit tally systems were also relatively common. Lean's thesis on spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of number systems from Middle East cultures.

  5. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  6. Favourable response of a virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma to preoperative treatment with ketoconazole and postoperative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kruimel, J W; Smals, A G; Beex, L V; Swinkels, L M; Pieters, G F; Kloppenborg, P W

    1991-04-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with an extensive adrenocortical carcinoma with severe virilization and mild Cushing's syndrome. In the tumour there was a primacy of the P450C17 (17,20-lyase) over the P450C21 (21-hydroxylase) route, favouring the synthesis of androgens over corticoids. Preoperatively, the patient was treated with the antimycotic agent ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of steroid synthesis, at a dose of 600 mg/day and after a week 1200 mg/day, to reduce operation risks and to achieve a better metabolic control. This treatment markedly decreased hyperandrogenism and normalized the hypercortisolism. The main effect of ketoconazole was at the 17,20-lyase level and probably at a locus prior in steroidogenesis, i.e. at the P450SCC and/or 17 alpha-hydroxylase level. In contrast with other studies no effect at all was seen on the 11-hydroxylase activity of P450C11. After removal of a massive adrenal carcinoma, extending into the vena cava, vena cava resection and hemihepatectomy because of liver invasion, plasma cortisol and androgen values normalized. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy with o,p'-dichlor-diphenyl-dichloretan (4000 mg daily) hyperandrogenism soon recurred and lung metastases became manifest. Within 2 months after starting combined chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and doxorubicin lung metastases almost completely disappeared with clinical and biochemical resolution of the hyperandrogenic state.

  7. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth?

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise; Tropf, Felix C; Mills, Melinda

    2015-05-01

    The Dutch are the tallest people on earth. Over the last 200 years, they have grown 20 cm in height: a rapid rate of increase that points to environmental causes. This secular trend in height is echoed across all Western populations, but came to an end, or at least levelled off, much earlier than in The Netherlands. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. Using data from the LifeLines study, which follows a large sample of the population of the north of The Netherlands (n = 94 516), we examined how height was related to measures of reproductive success (as a proxy for fitness). Across three decades (1935-1967), height was consistently related to reproductive output (number of children born and number of surviving children), favouring taller men and average height women. This was despite a later age at first birth for taller individuals. Furthermore, even in this low-mortality population, taller women experienced higher child survival, which contributed positively to their increased reproductive success. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall. PMID:25854890

  8. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth?

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise; Tropf, Felix C; Mills, Melinda

    2015-05-01

    The Dutch are the tallest people on earth. Over the last 200 years, they have grown 20 cm in height: a rapid rate of increase that points to environmental causes. This secular trend in height is echoed across all Western populations, but came to an end, or at least levelled off, much earlier than in The Netherlands. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. Using data from the LifeLines study, which follows a large sample of the population of the north of The Netherlands (n = 94 516), we examined how height was related to measures of reproductive success (as a proxy for fitness). Across three decades (1935-1967), height was consistently related to reproductive output (number of children born and number of surviving children), favouring taller men and average height women. This was despite a later age at first birth for taller individuals. Furthermore, even in this low-mortality population, taller women experienced higher child survival, which contributed positively to their increased reproductive success. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall.

  9. Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.

  10. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth?

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise; Tropf, Felix C.; Mills, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch are the tallest people on earth. Over the last 200 years, they have grown 20 cm in height: a rapid rate of increase that points to environmental causes. This secular trend in height is echoed across all Western populations, but came to an end, or at least levelled off, much earlier than in The Netherlands. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. Using data from the LifeLines study, which follows a large sample of the population of the north of The Netherlands (n = 94 516), we examined how height was related to measures of reproductive success (as a proxy for fitness). Across three decades (1935–1967), height was consistently related to reproductive output (number of children born and number of surviving children), favouring taller men and average height women. This was despite a later age at first birth for taller individuals. Furthermore, even in this low-mortality population, taller women experienced higher child survival, which contributed positively to their increased reproductive success. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall. PMID:25854890

  11. Is earthquake activity along the French Atlantic margin favoured by local rheological contrasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazabraud, Yves; Béthoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand

    2013-09-01

    The seismological study of recent seismic crises near Oleron Island confirms the coexistence of an extensional deformation and a transtensive regime in the Atlantic margin of France, which is different from the general western European stress field corresponding to a strike-slip regime. We argue that the switch of the principal stress axes σ1/σ2 in a NW-SE vertical plane is linked with the existence of crustal heterogeneities. Events of magnitude larger than 5 sometimes occur along the Atlantic margin of France, such as the 7 September 1972 (ML = 5.2) earthquake near Oleron island and the 30 September 2002 (ML = 5.7) Hennebont event in Brittany. To test the mechanism of local strain localization, we model the deformation of the hypocentral area of the Hennebont earthquake using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element code. We conclude that the occurrence of moderate earthquakes located in limited parts of the Hercynian shear zones (as the often reactivated swarms near Oleron) could be due to local reactivation of pre-existing faults. These sporadic seismic ruptures are favoured by stress concentration due to rheological heterogeneities.

  12. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence.

  13. Myristicyclins A and B: antimalarial procyanidins from Horsfieldia spicata from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Pond, Cristopher D; Pole, Ann R; Jensen, James B; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian T; Kiapranis, Robert; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Ireland, Chris M

    2014-01-17

    An antimalarial screen for plants collected from Papua New Guinea identified an extract of Horsfieldia spicata as having activity. Isolation of the active constituents led to the identification of two new compounds: myristicyclins A (1) and B (2). Both compounds are procyanidin-like congeners of myristinins lacking a pendant aromatic ring. Myristicyclin A was found to inhibit the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of Plasmodium falciparum at similar concentrations in the mid-μM range. PMID:24350818

  14. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae. PMID:27395949

  15. Myristicyclins A and B: Antimalarial procyanidins from Horsfieldia spicata from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenyu; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Pond, Cristopher D.; Pole, Ann R.; Jensen, James B.; Blankenship, D’Arbra; Grimberg, Brian T.; Kiapranis, Robert; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    An antimalarial screen for plants collected from Papua New Guinea identified an extract of Horsfieldia spicata as having activity. Isolation of the active constituents led to the identification of two new compounds: myristicyclins A (1) and B (2). Both compounds are procyanidin-like congeners of myristinins lacking a pendant aromatic ring. Myristicyclin A was found to inhibit the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of Plasmodium falciparum at similar concentrations in the mid-μM range. PMID:24350818

  16. Myristicyclins A and B: antimalarial procyanidins from Horsfieldia spicata from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Pond, Cristopher D; Pole, Ann R; Jensen, James B; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian T; Kiapranis, Robert; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Ireland, Chris M

    2014-01-17

    An antimalarial screen for plants collected from Papua New Guinea identified an extract of Horsfieldia spicata as having activity. Isolation of the active constituents led to the identification of two new compounds: myristicyclins A (1) and B (2). Both compounds are procyanidin-like congeners of myristinins lacking a pendant aromatic ring. Myristicyclin A was found to inhibit the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of Plasmodium falciparum at similar concentrations in the mid-μM range.

  17. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae.

  18. Surveying health professionals' satisfaction with the Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness Chronic HIV Care training programme: the Papua New Guinea experience.

    PubMed

    Clark, Geoffrey; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2009-12-01

    This study reports findings from a survey of Papua New Guinean registered nurse who completed the Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness (IMAI) Chronic HIV Care training conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. The survey conducted is one component of a mixed method evaluation of the IMAI program in Papua New Guinea. Data from the questionnaires were entered into version 16 of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program. The responses on the effect of the IMAI training program had on various aspects of how care is provided, learning needs and other program outcomes were analysed with a chi-square test being applied to detect any difference in the response given by the different demographic subgroups in terms of gender, age, care status, current employer and past educational attainment. The survey revealed that all thirty-five respondents have a positive impression of the IMAI program and expressed the view that the IMAI program had a positive effect on various aspects of patient care and their learning and experience. Overall, the survey identified that registered nurses who participated in the IMAI Chronic HIV Care training program perceive the program to be beneficial for improving the way HIV care is provided.

  19. The volcanic environment for 40,000 years of human occupation on the Willaumez Isthmus, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neall, V. E.; Wallace, R. C.; Torrence, R.

    2008-10-01

    The stratigraphic sequence of 22 tephra beds and their associated paleosols at two sites selected from our studies in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea provide the essential environmental background for understanding human responses to c. 40 ka years of volcanic activity. Lithology, grain size, and mineralogy of the tephras, interpreted for the first time, elucidate the varying volcanic provenance, especially of the Pleistocene beds, and the environmental conditions which former inhabitants experienced. This sequence provides an important long-term record of how humans coped with volcanic adversity in Papua New Guinea. The stratigraphic record contains abundant evidence for human settlement during the intervals between volcanic eruptions. Following plinian and subplinian eruptions, people abandoned the region for significant periods of time. In some cases, these cataclysmic events caused major cultural disasters characterised by local population extinction and loss of some significant types of cultural behaviour. Despite the punctuated record of settlement and changes in material culture, over the long-term, human populations found effective ways to maintain themselves within an active volcanic environment. Key responses included persistence of mobile and flexible settlement patterns, planned and staged uses of raw materials, social exchange, and increasing levels of landscape management.

  20. Therapeutic response of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, A; Siswantoro, H; Kenangalem, E; Wuwung, M; Brockman, A; Edstein, M D; Laihad, F; Ebsworth, E P; Anstey, N M; Tjitra, E; Price, R N

    2007-04-01

    To determine the level of antimalarial drug resistance in southern Papua, Indonesia, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ+SP) for Plasmodium falciparum infections as well as CQ monotherapy for P. vivax infections. Patients with P. falciparum failing therapy were re-treated with unsupervised quinine+/-doxycycline therapy and those with P. vivax with either unsupervised quinine+/-doxycycline or amodiaquine. In total, 143 patients were enrolled in the study (103 treated with CQ+SP and 40 with CQ). Early treatment failures occurred in four patients (4%) with P. falciparum and six patients (15%) with P. vivax. The failure rate by Day 28 for P. vivax was 65% (95% CI 49-81). After PCR correction for re-infections, the Day 42 recrudescence rate for P. falciparum infections was 48% (95% CI 31-65). Re-treatment with unsupervised quinine+/-doxycycline resulted in further recurrence of malaria in 48% (95% CI 31-65) of P. falciparum infections and 70% (95% CI 37-100) of P. vivax infections. Eleven patients with recurrent P. vivax were re-treated with amodiaquine; there were no early or late treatment failures. In southern Papua, a high prevalence of drug resistance of P. falciparum and P. vivax exists both to first- and second-line therapies. Preliminary data indicate that amodiaquine retains superior efficacy compared with CQ for CQ-resistant P. vivax.

  1. The Impact of Repeated Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Diethylcarbamazine Plus Albendazole on Bancroftian Filariasis in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Gary J.; Kastens, Will; Susapu, Melinda; Laney, Sandra J.; Williams, Steven A.; King, Christopher L.; Kazura, James W.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2008-01-01

    Background This study employed various monitoring methods to assess the impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea, which has the largest filariasis problem in the Pacific region. Methodology/Principal Findings Residents of rural villages near Madang were studied prior to and one year after each of three rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole administered per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The mean MDA compliance rate was 72.9%. Three rounds of MDA decreased microfilaremia rates (Mf, 1 ml night blood by filter) from 18.6% pre-MDA to 1.3% after the third MDA (a 94% decrease). Mf clearance rates in infected persons were 71%, 90.7%, and 98.1% after 1, 2, and 3 rounds of MDA. Rates of filarial antigenemia assessed by card test (a marker for adult worm infection) decreased from 47.5% to 17.1% (a 64% decrease) after 3 rounds of MDA. The filarial antibody rate (IgG4 antibodies to Bm14, an indicator of filarial infection status and/or exposure to mosquito-borne infective larvae) decreased from 59.3% to 25.1% (a 54.6% decrease). Mf, antigen, and antibody rates decreased more rapidly in children <11 years of age (by 100%, 84.2%, and 76.8%, respectively) relative to older individuals, perhaps reflecting their lighter infections and shorter durations of exposure/infection prior to MDA. Incidence rates for microfilaremia, filarial antigenemia, and antifilarial antibodies also decreased significantly after MDA. Filarial DNA rates in Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes that had recently taken a blood meal decreased from 15.1% to 1.0% (a 92.3% decrease). Conclusions/Significance MDA had dramatic effects on all filariasis parameters in the study area and also reduced incidence rates. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine whether residual infection rates in residents of these villages are sufficient to support sustained transmission by the An. punctulatus vector. Lymphatic filariasis

  2. The influence of freshwater and material export on sedimentary facies and benthic processes within the Fly Delta and adjacent Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Christoffersen, P.; Tirendi, F.; Robertson, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    Large volumes of freshwater and suspended material debouch from the Fly River in southwestern Papua New Guinea into the Gulf of Papua, greatly influencing the hydrography and sedimentary processes within the river delta and adjacent shelf region. Sedimentary facies within the subtidal regions of the Fly Delta are composed mainly of compacted and eroded very fine black sand, and highly laminated, muddy sand and sandy mud, progressing to prodelta mud with intermixed primary and biogenic structures in the inner Gulf of Papua. These prodelta muds grade further to mixed terrigenous-carbonate deposits southwards into the northern Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, and to well-bioturbated, fluid mud northwards into the Gulf of Papua. The transition from physically-dominated, estuarine conditions within the delta to more quiescent, marine conditions on the shelf leads to concomitant changes in sediment chemistry, microbial activity and infaunal and epifaunal communities. Particulate (C, N, P) and dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations were a function of sediment type (higher in finer deposits) rather than location (delta vs gulf). C: N: P ratios of solid-phase nutrients varied greatly, but were usually less than those predicted by the Redfield ratio. Mean interstitial concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients were low (μM range), but dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus levels were equivalent to those found in higher latitude systems. Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients were generally low (μmol m -2 day -1). Flux rates were mostly negative (into the sediment) in the delta suggesting that these deposits are a sink for nutrients. In the offshore deposits, dissolved inorganic fluxes were higher and mostly positive indicating that they are a source for dissolved nutrients. Standing crops of bacteria (range: below detection limits— 2.5 × 10 10 cells g -1 dry wt), meiofauna (range: 5-750 individuals 10 cm -2; 9-1006 μg dry wt 10

  3. Reconstructed Ancestral Enzymes Impose a Fitness Cost upon Modern Bacteria Despite Exhibiting Favourable Biochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Joanne K; Prentice, Erica J; Groussin, Mathieu; Arcus, Vickery L

    2015-10-01

    Ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to study historical enzyme evolution, both from biochemical and cellular perspectives. Two properties of reconstructed ancestral proteins/enzymes are commonly reported--high thermostability and high catalytic activity--compared with their contemporaries. Increased protein stability is associated with lower aggregation rates, higher soluble protein abundance and a greater capacity to evolve, and therefore, these proteins could be considered "superior" to their contemporary counterparts. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the favourable in vitro biochemical properties of reconstructed ancestral enzymes and the organismal fitness they confer in vivo. We have previously reconstructed several ancestors of the enzyme LeuB, which is essential for leucine biosynthesis. Our initial fitness experiments revealed that overexpression of ANC4, a reconstructed LeuB that exhibits high stability and activity, was only able to partially rescue the growth of a ΔleuB strain, and that a strain complemented with this enzyme was outcompeted by strains carrying one of its descendants. When we expanded our study to include five reconstructed LeuBs and one contemporary, we found that neither in vitro protein stability nor the catalytic rate was correlated with fitness. Instead, fitness showed a strong, negative correlation with estimated evolutionary age (based on phylogenetic relationships). Our findings suggest that, for reconstructed ancestral enzymes, superior in vitro properties do not translate into organismal fitness in vivo. The molecular basis of the relationship between fitness and the inferred age of ancestral LeuB enzymes is unknown, but may be related to the reconstruction process. We also hypothesise that the ancestral enzymes may be incompatible with the other, contemporary enzymes of the metabolic network. PMID:26349578

  4. Deglacial Shelf Edge Coralgal Reef 19 ky Establishment, Successive 14.5 and 11.5 ky Partial Drowning and Back-stepping along the Papua New Guinea Peninsula Outer Shelf (Gulf of Papua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, B. B.; Droxler, A. W.; Webster, J.; Montagna, P.; Yokoyama, Y.; Jorry, S.; Beaufort, L.; Tachikawa, K.; Humblet, M.

    2014-12-01

    During the last deglaciation, coralgal reefs established themselves on newly flooded continental shelf, accurately recording the stepwise character of the deglacial sea level rise (meltwater pulses). This study, conducted along the Papua New Guinea Peninsula outer shelf (Gulf of Papua), focuses on the analyses of a Calypso core, MD05-2945 (MD-45), and the interpretation of seismic lines obtained during the PECTEN (2005) and PANASH (2004) cruises aboard the R/V's Marion Dufresne and Melville, respectively. Sediments and coralgal detritus were identified, analyzed, and dated with AMS radiocarbon and U/Th.The seismic lines illustrate the establishment of reefal edifices directly on top of a lowstand shelf edge delta, shrinking through time towards the southeast by partial drowning and back-stepping. MD-45 sampled the reef that thrived during the 19 ky meltwater pulse. At its base, a 19.3 kyr BP-old coral colony (Faviid Goniastrea), part of a shallow/inter-tidal framework, was retrieved in living position at 111 mbsl. Then, a clear deepening/drowning pattern is observed; shallow Faviid Goniastrea framework coral is covered by debris from shallow/upper fore-reef corals (Faviids, Galaxeas, Acroporas), and lastly by encrusting/foliacious corals (Agariciids, Pectiniids, Montiporiids, Poritiids) and encrusting algae/digitate Microbialites. When the reef back-stepped 5 km to the SE where it continued to accreted to sea level, Sr/K (excellent proxy for reef derived detritus) drops dramatically and siliciclastics increase at 6 mbsf in MD-45. This coincides also with the end of the coralgal clasts within a well dated gasteropod-rich (Turritella cingulifera) interval (15-14.5 cal kyr BP), contemporaneously with the globally established MWP-1A. At 11.5 kyr, roughly synchronous with MWP-1B, a 3.5 m-thick 98% siliciclastic mud unit, interpreted as the onset of the Indo-Australian Monsoons, was abruptly deposited in MD-45, coinciding with an even more severe back-stepping of the

  5. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  6. Dynamic contact of droplet with superhydrophobic surface in conditions favour icing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, M.; Sobieraj, G.; Gumowski, K.; Rokicki, J.; Psarski, M.; Marczak, J.; Celichowski, G.

    2014-08-01

    Flight like droplet impact with superhydrophobic substrate in conditions favour icing is discussed in this work. Test stand with fast camera and equipment eligible to obtain temperatures and humidity at different ranges, lead to results which can prove, that superhydrophobic surface might be good ice repellent substrate. The influence of air humidity on droplet freezing was confirmed.

  7. Ethnochemistry and Ethnomedicine of Ancient Papua New Guineans and Their Use in Motivating Students in Secondary Schools and Universities in PNG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasinghe, Basil

    2016-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years of Papua New Guinea's human history, Papua New Guineans have been making significant contributions to Science, particularly in the fields of Chemistry and Medicine. However, because of the absence of any written language for over 800 dialects, the information has not been recorded and the contributions of ancient Papua…

  8. Teleseismic body wave tomography within a highly extended continental rift: the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilon, Z.; Abers, G. A.; Jin, G.; Kim, Y.; Gaherty, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea, has been a region of westward-propagating continental extension for 6-8 Ma, grading westward from seafloor spreading to newly thinned continent. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands (DIs) lie immediately to the west of the youngest spreading centres in continental crust that has undergone 140-190 km of extension. These islands are dominated by metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) containing 5-6 Ma ultra-high pressure (UHP) coesite-eclogite exhumed at ~20 mm/yr coeval with extension. An array of 31 PASSCAL broadband seismometers and 8 broadband OBSs was installed around the region from 2010-2011 to investigate the thinned continent close to the onset of seafloor spreading. We present results of a teleseismic P- and S- wave tomography study that images the mantle beneath the rapidly extending continent. Preliminary observations include strong azimuthal dependence of differential travel times, indicating significant lateral velocity variations and inferred thermal gradients. Using Ps receiver functions and SsPmP reflections, we estimate variations in Moho depth to correct for the crustal effect on travel times. We observe large (>1s) travel time delays beneath the DIs in both P and S arrivals, while stations on the Trobriand Islands and Papuan Peninsula exhibit travel time deficits of 1-2 s. This indicates that lithosphere is thinnest beneath the DIs, along the axis of the rift, in agreement with the location of Quaternary volcanism and consistent with results from surface waves [Ge et al., AGU2013 abstract] and a previous, lower-resolution tomographic study nearby. There is also evidence for moderately thinned lithosphere in the basin immediately south of the DIs. We have previously established strong, spreading-parallel anisotropy from SKS splitting caused by mantle olivine fabric beneath the DIs and the Trobriand Platform, inferred to represent asthenospheric flow in response to rifting. Detailed tomography will reveal how thinning of

  9. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  10. Vaccenic acid favourably alters immune function in obese JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Heather J; Gerdung, Christopher A; Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-08-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA) is a ruminant-derived trans-fat and precursor of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of VA on immune function in a model of the metabolic syndrome, JCR:LA-cp rats. Lean (2:1 mix of +/cp and +/+) and obese (cp/cp) rats, aged 8 weeks, were fed a control (0% VA) or a VA diet (1.5% (w/w) VA) for 3 weeks (twenty rats per group). Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) immune cell phenotypes (flow cytometry), ex vivo cytokine production (ELISA) and phospholipid fatty acid concentrations were measured. Obese rats had higher proportions of splenic macrophages, total T-cells, helper T-cells (total and percentage CD25+), cytotoxic T-cells (total and percentage CD25+) and produced higher concentrations of IL-6 to concanavalin A (ConA) compared with lean rats. Obese rats had lower proportions of MLN T-cells, new T-cells (CD3+CD90+) and cytotoxic T-cells, but higher proportions of helper cells that were CD45RC+, CD25+ and CD4lo, and produced higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-10, interferon gamma and TNFalpha in response to ConA compared with lean rats. VA was higher in plasma phospholipids and both VA and CLA (cis-9, trans-11) were higher in MLN phospholipids compared with control-fed rats. Lean VA-fed rats had lower proportions of MLN and splenocyte CD45RC+ helper cells, and helper T-cells. Splenocytes from VA-fed rats produced 16-23% less IL-2, IL-10 and TNFalpha compared with controls. VA normalised production of MLN IL-2 and TNFalpha in obese rats to levels similar to those seen in lean rats. These results indicate that dietary VA favourably alters the pro-inflammatory tendency of mesenteric lymphocytes from JCR:LA-cp rats.

  11. The bacteriology of acute pneumonia and meningitis in children in Papua New Guinea: assumptions, facts and technical strategies.

    PubMed

    Gratten, M; Montgomery, J

    1991-09-01

    Acute respiratory infections in children aged less than 5 years in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea were investigated bacteriologically for 10 years from November 1978. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were responsible for 73% of all bacteria cultured from lung aspirate (83 samples), 85.5% from blood (1024 samples) and 92% from cerebrospinal fluid (155 samples). Nonencapsulated H. influenzae was carried by up to 90% of children and was the predominant haemophilus type cultured from lung tissue. Mixed infections of the lung with two types of H. influenzae (8 cases) and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae (18 cases), commonly together with other organisms of questionable pathogenicity, reflected the proximity of this organ to the upper respiratory tract. Serotype b accounted for 62% and 82% of H. influenzae isolated from bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis cases, respectively. Polymicrobic bacteraemic pneumonia occurred in 16 children. Both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae establish dense, unregulated long-term colonization in the nasopharynx during the neonatal period. Each inhibit autochthonous microflora by mechanisms that are currently unclear. Infections with two or more types occur in 30% (S. pneumoniae) and 60% (H. influenzae) of carriage-positive children. 70-75% of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae isolates from blood concomitantly colonize the upper respiratory tract. Intense exposure of Papua New Guinean children to penicillin at all levels of health care since the 1940s has resulted in widespread relative resistance among pneumococci to this antibiotic. Resistant strains are now found in 32 serotypes, and in children penicillin resistance is present in 75% of all carriage strains and 52% and 22% of blood and cerebrospinal fluid isolates, respectively. Penicillin-susceptible and resistant pneumococcal serotypes commonly coexist in multiply populated carriage sites. Resistance to betalactam antibiotics is rare among H. influenzae

  12. Physiological constraints and the influence of diet on fatty acids in the yolk of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Koopman, Heather N; Able, Stephanie; Walsh, Jennifer; Goebel, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Avian yolk fatty acids (FA) composition is influenced by two main factors: maternal diet and genetic factors that regulate FA metabolism. However, due to embryonic developmental requirements, yolk FA are thought to be physiologically constrained and less useful for dietary and trophic studies. We assessed the relative contributions of diet and physiological constraints in determining the yolk FA composition of a marine bird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) by comparing FA signatures of yolks and prey between a captive, controlled- feeding experiment and a wild population. Captive and wild yolk FA signatures differed even though both groups' yolk lipids were composed primarily of three FA (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1n-9). Differences were due to FA occurring in relatively low abundance, but which mirrored differences in the FA composition of diets. However, yolk FA signatures were correlated across three penguin species suggesting that common developmental constraints can be relatively more important than species-specific differences in diet or egg-laying physiology. While yolk FA are constrained, several minor components of yolk FA are reflective of diets and the calibration coefficients resulting from this study have the potential to be incorporated into predictive models and allow for quantitative dietary and trophic studies using FA analysis of penguin egg yolks.

  13. Cross-sectional dietary deficiencies among a prison population in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the dietary adequacy of prisoners of Beon Prison, Madang, Papua New Guinea in response to a report of possible nutritional deficiency. Methods We undertook an observational, cross-sectional study. All 254 male inmates (May 2010) were eligible to answer a validated interview-based questionnaire; to have a comprehensive dietary assessment; and to provide blood for biochemical analysis (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, homocysteine, zinc, ferritin, and vitamins A, B12 and C). Prison guards were invited to participate as a comparison group. Results 148 male prisoners (58.3%) and 13 male prison guards participated. Prison rations consisted of white rice fortified with thiamin, niacin, and iron, tinned tuna, tinned corned beef, water crackers, and black tea, with occasional intakes of fruit and vegetables. Some prisoners received supplementary food from weekend visitors. From assessment of the prisoners dietary data, median intakes of calcium (137 mg), potassium (677 mg), magnesium (182 mg), riboflavin (0.308 mg), vitamin A (54.1 μg), vitamin E (1.68 mg), vitamin C (5.7 mg) and folate (76.4 μg) were found to be below estimated average requirements (EAR). Following are the prisoners median (P25, P75) concentration of circulating nutrients and the percentage of prisoners with levels below normal reference ranges or recognized cut-off values: serum retinol 0.73 (0.40, 1.21) μmol/L, 46% below 0.7 μmol/L; plasma folate 2.0 (1.4, 2.6) nmol/L, 98% below 6.8 nmol/L; plasma vitamin C 6.3 (1.0, 19.3) μmol/L, 64% below 11.4 μmol/L; serum zinc 9.9 (8.8, 11.1) μmol/L, 66% below 10.7 μmol/L. Guards had diets with a higher dietary diversity that were associated with greater intakes of nutrients and biomarker concentrations. Conclusions The prisoners diets are likely lacking in several micronutrients and recommendations for dietary change have been made to the prison authorities. Ongoing vigilance is

  14. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  15. Phylogeography of colour polymorphism in the coral reef fish Pseudochromis fuscus, from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, Vanessa; van Herwerden, Lynne; Munday, Philip L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2005-11-01

    Body colour has played a significant role in the evolution of coral reef fishes, but the phylogenetic level at which colour variation is expressed and the evolutionary processes driving the development and persistence of different colour patterns are often poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic relationships between multiple colour morphs of Pseudochromis fuscus (family Pseudochromidae), both within and among geographic locations. Pseudochromis fuscus is currently described as a single species, but exhibits at least six discrete colour morphs throughout its range. In this study, P. fuscus from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, formed three genetically distinct clades based on mitochondrial DNA (control region) sequence data: (1) yellow and brown morphs from the GBR and southern PNG, as well as an orange morph from southern PNG; (2) a pink morph from southern PNG; and (3) all three morphs (pink, orange and grey) found in Kimbe Bay, northern PNG. The three groups showed deep levels of divergence ( d=14.6-25.4%), suggesting that P. fuscus is a complex of polychromatic species, rather than a single widespread species with many different colour morphs. Population genetic analyses indicate that the three clades have experienced unique evolutionary histories, possibly from differential effects of sea level fluctuations, barriers to gene flow and historical biogeography.

  16. Late Miocene to Recent formation of the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt and foreland basin as a consequence of Woodlark microplate rotation, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Bryan; Mann, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt and Aure-Moresby foreland basin are located in the eastern Gulf of Papua (GOP), Papua New Guinea (PNG), and formed during late Miocene-Recent as the result of large-scale, counterclockwise rotation of the 355,000 km2 Woodlark microplate. To document the structure, stratigraphy, and age of convergent deformation along the poorly studied, western edge of the rotating Woodlark microplate, we integrate results of 2,538 km of previously unpublished 2-D seismic reflection data with onshore geologic and GPS studies from previous workers. The late Miocene Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt is a 400 km long, northwest-trending fold-belt exposed onshore in Papua New Guinea that plunges to the southeast, where continuous folds and northeast-dipping thrusts can be imaged in the subsurface for more than 250 km. The arcuate trend of the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt along the southwestern coast and offshore areas of the Papuan peninsula parallels the shape of the adjacent, offshore Aure-Moresby foreland basin and the strike of the transpressional segment of the left-lateral Owen-Stanley fault zone (OSFZ) passing along the center of the Papuan peninsula. As the OSFZ becomes more transtensional east of 148°E, folds of the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt along southern coast of the peninsula become less prominent, and the adjacent Aure-Moresby foreland basin transitions into an undeformed Cenozoic passive margin setting. These observations of convergent an left-lateral deformation along the Aure-Moresby fold-thrust belt are consistent with: (1) counterclockwise rotation of the Woodlark microplate known from regional GPS studies; (2) coeval opening of the Woodlark basin along its southern edge in the late Miocene; and (3) rapid subduction at the New Britain trench along its northern edge. The kinematics of the rotating Woodlark microplate are driven by slab pull forces acting on the actively subducting northern edge of the microplate.

  17. New species of Pseudabbreviata (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) and other helminths in two species of Hypsilurus (Sauria: Agamidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2009-08-01

    Pseudabbreviata novaeguineaensis n. sp. from the stomach of Hypsilurus modestus (Agamidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. The new species was also found in the stomach of Hypsilurus papuensis from Papua New Guinea. Pseudabbreviata novaeguineaensis n. sp. represents the sixth species assigned to the genus and the first from the Australo-Papuan Region. The new species differs from other species assigned to Pseudabbreviata by the vulva position in the female and pedunculate papillae arrangement in the male tail morphology. In addition to the new species, H. modestus harbored Meteterakis crombiei, Strongyluris gonyocephali, and larvae of Abbreviata sp. (in cysts).

  18. Common themes in the literature on traditional medicine in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Joan

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature on traditional medical practices and beliefs in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in order to provide context and background information for the Department of Health's National Policy on Traditional Medicine for Papua New Guinea. The literature review examined accounts that refer to all 19 provinces and 50 different cultural groups. PNG is renowned for its cultural diversity and it was evident in the literature review that many beliefs and practices are specific to particular cultural groups. Many cultural groups adopt unique practices based on their own specific explanations of illness. At the same time, the review identified a number of commonalities in concepts of health and illness, treatment-seeking behaviour and reactions to the introduction of western medicine among Papua New Guineans from different geographic areas. Both the diversity and the commonalities provide context and background for the National Policy that was approved by the National Executive Committee in March 2007 and officially launched in April 2009. The commonalities are pertinent to the policy on a national level while the diversity must be considered when the policy is implemented at the local level. Summarizing the commonalities between different cultural groups illuminates central belief and behaviour constructs relating to health and illness. Ideas and similarities in practice or perceptions relating to traditional medicine in PNG that are common across a number of provinces are the subject of this paper. The most common features include a belief in the power of sorcery, which is universal, the importance of adherence to customary law and the healing power of herbs and incantation. These findings are a working draft of the expected norms of traditional medicine in PNG, which can be tested and refined during the process of implementing the National Policy, which, it should be noted, explicitly excludes the use of sorcery.

  19. The Influence of Fluvial Discharge on Pelagic Production in the Gulf of Papua, Northern Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. I.; Dixon, P.; Alongi, D. M.

    1998-03-01

    The influence of river discharge on the behaviour of dissolved and particulate nutrients, and patterns of primary and bacterial production, were investigated in the Gulf of Papua, northern Coral Sea. Inshore, close to the mouths of the Fly and Purari Rivers, buoyant plumes of warmer river water, marked by high total suspended solid concentrations and floating plant debris, overlay cooler saline waters, and their movement with the tides results in marked short-term changes in salinity profiles. Mixing of silicate was conservative, but the behaviour of other nutrients (nitrate, DOC, phosphate) indicated biological uptake and/or production and release from particles. DIN:DIP ratios increased slightly into the gulf indicating possible phosphorus limitation to phytoplankton growth in mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters. At the mouth of the Fly Delta and in inshore waters, decreases in phosphate concentration corresponded to increases in standing stocks of chlorophyll a. Primary production rates were <20 mgC m -2day -1in waters of salinity <4, but ranged from 133 to 942 mgC m -2day -1in river delta and inshore waters. Bacterial production was highly variable (range: 162-886 mgC m -2day -1), but correlated very significantly ( r=0·97) with primary production. Rates of bacterioplankton production nearly equal or exceed primary production rates, indicating that pelagic bacteria in the gulf are utilizing other carbon sources (e.g. riverine DOC and POC) and that gulf waters are net heterotrophic. The pattern of primary production across the estuary—shelf salinity gradient off the southern Papua New Guinea coast is similar to that observed off the Amazon. However, the much lower volume of water exiting the Papuan rivers restricts maximum production to the inshore (<50 km from the coast) rim of the Gulf of Papua. This pattern is mirrored in benthic secondary production indicating close benthic-pelagic coupling.

  20. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

    PubMed

    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings.

  1. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats. PMID:26275507

  2. Effect of Climate Factors on the Childhood Pneumonia in Papua New Guinea: A Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseob; Kim, Jong-Hun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Ha, Mina; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between climate factors and the incidence of childhood pneumonia in Papua New Guinea quantitatively and to evaluate the variability of the effect size according to their geographic properties. The pneumonia incidence in children under five-year and meteorological factors were obtained from six areas, including monthly rainfall and the monthly average daily maximum temperatures during the period from 1997 to 2006 from national health surveillance data. A generalized linear model was applied to measure the effect size of local and regional climate factor. The pooled risk of pneumonia in children per every 10 mm increase of rainfall was 0.24% (95% confidence interval: −0.01%–0.50%), and risk per every 1 °C increase of the monthly mean of the maximum daily temperatures was 4.88% (95% CI: 1.57–8.30). Southern oscillation index and dipole mode index showed an overall negative effect on childhood pneumonia incidence, −0.57% and −4.30%, respectively, and the risk of pneumonia was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (pooled effect: 12.08%). There was a variability in the relationship between climate factors and pneumonia which is assumed to reflect distribution of the determinants of and vulnerability to pneumonia in the community. PMID:26891307

  3. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  4. Pneumonia associated with infection with pneumocystis, respiratory syncytial virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and cytomegalovirus in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Shann, F; Walters, S; Pifer, L L; Graham, D M; Jack, I; Uren, E; Birch, D; Stallman, N D

    1986-01-01

    Paired serum samples were collected from 94 children with pneumonia admitted to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea. All but three of the children were aged 1-24 months. Only nine children were malnourished, with weight for age less than 70% of the Harvard median (three had weight for age less than 60% of the Harvard median). Pneumocystis carinii antigen was detected in the serum of 23 children. Twenty two children had serological evidence of recent infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Five children were probably infected with Chlamydia trachomatis at the time of the study, and there was less convincing serological evidence of current infection in a further 11 children. Five children showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although only one child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to cytomegalovirus, 86 children had this antibody. No child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Ureaplasma urealyticum or Legionella pneumophila. P carinii, respiratory syncytial virus, C trachomatis, M pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus may be important causes of pneumonia in children in developing countries. PMID:3002538

  5. Investigation of Genetic and Morphological Variation in the Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu; Arecaceae) in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    KJÆR, ANDERS; BARFOD, ANDERS S.; ASMUSSEN, CONNY B.; SEBERG, OLE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The genetic and morphological variation in the sago palm (Metroxylon sagu, Arecaceae) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was investigated. • Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to investigate the genetic structure of 76 accessions of M. sagu, collected in seven wild and semi‐wild stands in PNG. • Key Results An analysis of ten quantitative morphological variables revealed that most of these were mutually correlated. Principal component analyses of the same morphological variables showed that neither armature (presence or absence of spines) nor geographical separation was reflected clearly in the quantitative morphological variation. Similarity matrices of genetic, quantitative morphological, geographical and armature data were tested for pair‐wise correlations, using Mantel’s test. The results only showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances. Visual inspection of principal component analyses plots and a neighbour‐joining dendrogram based on genetic distances supported this trend, whereas armature showed no relation with genetic distances. • Conclusions Geographical distribution defines some weak patterns in the genetic variation, whereas the genetic variation does not reflect any patterns in the morphological variation, including armature. The present study supports the accepted taxonomy of M. sagu, recognizing only one species of M. sagu in PNG. PMID:15155379

  6. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats.

  7. Effect of Climate Factors on the Childhood Pneumonia in Papua New Guinea: A Time-Series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseob; Kim, Jong-Hun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Ha, Mina; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-02-15

    This study aimed to assess the association between climate factors and the incidence of childhood pneumonia in Papua New Guinea quantitatively and to evaluate the variability of the effect size according to their geographic properties. The pneumonia incidence in children under five-year and meteorological factors were obtained from six areas, including monthly rainfall and the monthly average daily maximum temperatures during the period from 1997 to 2006 from national health surveillance data. A generalized linear model was applied to measure the effect size of local and regional climate factor. The pooled risk of pneumonia in children per every 10 mm increase of rainfall was 0.24% (95% confidence interval: -0.01%-0.50%), and risk per every 1 °C increase of the monthly mean of the maximum daily temperatures was 4.88% (95% CI: 1.57-8.30). Southern oscillation index and dipole mode index showed an overall negative effect on childhood pneumonia incidence, -0.57% and -4.30%, respectively, and the risk of pneumonia was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (pooled effect: 12.08%). There was a variability in the relationship between climate factors and pneumonia which is assumed to reflect distribution of the determinants of and vulnerability to pneumonia in the community.

  8. How should very low birthweight babies best be managed in Papua New Guinea?

    PubMed

    Brown, N

    1996-03-01

    Short-term outcome in very low birthweight babies has never been closely examined in Papua New Guinea. A cohort of neonates born over a year at Port Moresby General Hospital was followed from birth to death or discharge. Intrauterine growth retardation was an important contributor to low birthweight. Simple, inexpensive care resulted in respectable survival figures. Improving antenatal surveillance will have much more impact in reducing mortality in this group in the future than trying to emulate sophisticated and costly western neonatal care.

  9. Paramoguai kavieng, a new genus and species of camptandriid crab from Papua New Guinea (Crustacea: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Ahyong, Shane T

    2014-08-26

    Paramoguai kavieng is recognised as a new genus and species of camptandriid crab, recently discovered in Papua New Guinea. The new genus closely resembles Moguai Tan & Ng, 1999, from the western Pacific, sharing similar carapace and pereopod structure, but is distinguished chiefly by the fusion of the maxilliped 3 ischiomerus, features of the epistome and front, and position of the anterolateral margins of the carapace. The new genus is unique in the Camptandriidae Stimpson, 1858, in having an epistome with a bilobed buccal margin. Moguai pyriforme Naruse, 2005, from Japan, which differs from P. kavieng primarily in carapace ornamentation and gonopod morphology, is transferred to Paramoguai. 

  10. Bleach processed smear for Acid fast bacilli staining in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Makaen, Johnson; Maure, Tobbias

    2014-01-01

    The conventional method of processing sputum for acid fast bacilli microscopy has been a primary tool for laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea. In routine preparation, untreated sputum is directly smeared on a glass slide without undergoing any stage of processing. Mounting evidence suggests that direct smearing is less sensitive and, to a certain degree, compromises infection control. A few alternatives for processing sputum have been recommended in the literature; however, their consumables are not easily accessible and are expensive for wide use in rural laboratories. The bleach concentration and processing method appears to be the most preferable choice because bleach is inexpensive, readily available, and has bactericidal properties.

  11. Characterization of 19A-like 19F pneumococcal isolates from Papua New Guinea and Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, E.M.; Tikkanen, L.; Balloch, A.; Gould, K.; Yoannes, M.; Phuanukoonnon, S.; Licciardi, P.V.; Russell, F.M.; Mulholland, E.K.; Satzke, C.; Hinds, J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19F is routinely performed by PCR targeting the wzy gene of the capsular biosynthetic locus. However, 19F isolates with genetic similarity to 19A have been reported in the United States and Brazil. We screened 78 pneumococcal carriage isolates and found six 19F wzy variants that originated from children in Papua New Guinea and Fiji. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and opsonophagocytic assays. The 19F wzy variants displayed similar susceptibility to anti-19F IgG antibodies compared to standard 19F isolates. Our findings indicate that these 19F variants may be more common than previously believed. PMID:26339490

  12. Two new species of Dorcopsistrongylus (Strongylida: Strongyloidea) from Dorcopsis muelleri (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Papua Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Smales, Lesley R

    2010-06-01

    In a survey of the brown dorcopsis, Dorcopsis muelleri , on Salawati Island, Papua, Indonesia, 2 new species were found in the stomach. Dorcopsistrongylus ewini n. sp. can be differentiated from its congeners in having the proximal end of the spicule twisted and from Dorcopsistrongylus labiacarinatus in having shorter intestinal diverticula and in the proportions of the elements of the ovejector. Dorcopsistrongylus salawatiensis n. sp. can be differentiated from its congeners in having bilobed lateral lip-like elements and an elongated terminal bulb of the esophagus. A survey of other Dorcopsis and Dorcopsulus spp. may reveal more species of Dorcopsistrongylus . PMID:20557206

  13. Two new species of Dorcopsistrongylus (Strongylida: Strongyloidea) from Dorcopsis muelleri (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Papua Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Smales, Lesley R

    2010-06-01

    In a survey of the brown dorcopsis, Dorcopsis muelleri , on Salawati Island, Papua, Indonesia, 2 new species were found in the stomach. Dorcopsistrongylus ewini n. sp. can be differentiated from its congeners in having the proximal end of the spicule twisted and from Dorcopsistrongylus labiacarinatus in having shorter intestinal diverticula and in the proportions of the elements of the ovejector. Dorcopsistrongylus salawatiensis n. sp. can be differentiated from its congeners in having bilobed lateral lip-like elements and an elongated terminal bulb of the esophagus. A survey of other Dorcopsis and Dorcopsulus spp. may reveal more species of Dorcopsistrongylus .

  14. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation

    PubMed Central

    Bugni, Tim S.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Pole, Ann R.; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of Parmotrema saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. PMID:19289158

  15. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation.

    PubMed

    Bugni, Tim S; Andjelic, Cynthia D; Pole, Ann R; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

    2009-07-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of P. saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. PMID:19289158

  16. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of dust transport from Africa toward Sardinia Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Pintus, Gabriella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Dust events that reach Italy have usually origin in the Sahara and Sahel regions (north-western part of Africa), which represent the dust sources nearest to Italy. In those regions the dust-lifting activity occurs in a remarkable way. Every dust event is different from the others; in fact dust transport and dust concentration in the air can vary remarkably depending on the synoptic situation. In Sardinia, dust events are more frequent in the May-November period, but they can also take place in the December-April period. The main aim of this work was to describe dust outbreaks in Sardinia and to identify the main meteorological scenarios that originate the transport of dust towards the central and western Mediterranean Basin. The evaluation of the geographical dispersion of Saharan dust was performed by using MODIS satellite data and Meteosat imagery combined with SKIRON forecasting model. The origin and the trajectory of the dust carried by winds towards Italy were inferred by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). In addition, PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm) and meteorological data registered by the ARPAS (Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia) monitoring stations were used to highlight the arrival of African air masses in Sardinia. The study was carried out during the 2014. A total of five events occurred during the year (two in spring and three in autumn) were analyzed. The origin of air masses loaded with dust from North Africa was confirmed by satellite imagery and 3-days air mass backward trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The analysis of the PM10 daily pattern registered at northern and southern Sardinia sites showed a rising of values during the dust event. The arrival of air masses from Africa caused the daily mean air temperature to rise whereas relative humidity values decreased. Finally, the results showed that all the event analyzed were

  17. Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the origin and evolution of rocks in the active Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, Nasser Alexander

    Tectonically active regions provide important natural laboratories to glean information that is applicable to developing a better understanding of the geologic record. One such area of the World is Papua New Guinea, much of which is situated in an active and transient plate boundary zone. The focus of this PhD research is to develop a better understanding of rocks in the active Woodlark Rift, situated in Papua New Guinea's southernmost reaches. In this region, rifting and lithospheric rupture is occurring within a former subduction complex where there is a history of continental subduction and (U)HP metamorphism. The lithostratigraphic units exposed in the Woodlark Rift provide an opportunity to better understand the records of plate boundary processes at many scales from micron-sized domains within individual minerals to regional geological relationships. This thesis is composed of three chapters that are independent of one another but are all related to the overall goal of developing a better understanding of the record of plate boundary processes in the rocks currently exposed in the Woodlark Rift. The first chapter, published in its entirety in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2011 v. 309, p. 56 - 66), is entitled 'Lu-Hf garnet geochronology applied to plate boundary zones: Insights from the (U)HP terrane exhumed within the Woodlark Rift'. This chapter focuses on the use of the Lu-Hf isotopic system to date garnets in the Woodlark Rift. Major findings of this study are that some of the rocks in the Woodlark Rift preserve a Lu-Hf garnet isotopic record of initial metamorphism and continental subduction occurring in the Late Mesozoic, whereas others only preserve a record of tectonic processes related to lithospheric rupture during the initiation of rifting in the Late Cenozoic. The second chapter is entitled 'Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the origin of rocks in the active Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea: Recognizing the dispersed

  18. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Houssos, E. E.; Bartzokas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims at determining the synoptic conditions that favour the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin. In a first step, an objective and dynamic algorithm was set up to identify the strong aerosol episodes, based on daily aerosol optical depth values at 550nm (AOD550nm) from MODIS-Terra satellite database over the period 2000-2007. According to the algorithm, strong aerosol episodes occurred in each geographical cell (1o x 1o spatial resolution) of the study area whenever AODmean+2STDV≤AOD550nmstudy region. Finally, the total number of selected days with strong aerosol episodes was equal to 219. In order to study the synoptic conditions, prevailing during the days of strong aerosol episodes, the fields of geopotential height at 500mb and mean sea level pressure (SLP) taken from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project, were used. At first, Factor analysis (S-mode) has been applied, in order to decrease the dimensionality of the raw atmospheric field data (500hPa and SLP). In a further step, Cluster Analysis was also applied to identify/classify the prevailing atmospheric circulation types during the aerosol episodes, into 7 representative clusters. The intra-annual variation of the frequency of occurrence, for each cluster, reveals that strong aerosol episodes mostly occur during spring and summer (89%). This can be attributed either to the stable atmospheric conditions and to the small precipitation amounts (especially in summer) that lead to the accumulation of aerosol particles in the atmosphere or to the prevailing synoptic conditions

  19. Neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization primes T cells for preferential Th2 cytokine expression: A randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    van den Biggelaar, Anita. H.J.; Richmond, Peter C.; Pomat, William S.; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nadal-Sims, Marie A.; Devitt, Catherine J.; Siba, Peter M.; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of neonatal immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) on development of T-cell memory and general immune maturation were studied in a cohort of Papua New Guinean newborns. Neonatal 7vPCV priming (followed by a dose at 1 and 2 months of age) was associated with enhanced Th2, but not Th1, cytokine responses to CRM197 compared to 7vPCV at 1 and 2 months of age only. T cell responses to non-7vPCV vaccine antigens were similar in all groups, but TLR-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses were enhanced in 7vPCV vaccinated compared to controls. Neonatal 7vPCV vaccination primes T cell responses with a polarization towards Th2 with no bystander effects on other T cell responses. PMID:19150378

  20. Neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization primes T cells for preferential Th2 cytokine expression: a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Richmond, Peter C; Pomat, William S; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nadal-Sims, Marie A; Devitt, Catherine J; Siba, Peter M; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G

    2009-02-25

    The effects of neonatal immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) on development of T-cell memory and general immune maturation were studied in a cohort of Papua New Guinean newborns. Neonatal 7vPCV priming (followed by a dose at 1 and 2 months of age) was associated with enhanced Th2, but not Th1, cytokine responses to CRM(197) compared to 7vPCV at 1 and 2 months of age only. T cell responses to non-7vPCV vaccine antigens were similar in all groups, but TLR-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses were enhanced in 7vPCV vaccinated compared to controls. Neonatal 7vPCV vaccination primes T cell responses with a polarization towards Th2 with no bystander effects on other T cell responses. PMID:19150378

  1. Quantifying the Human Impacts on Papua New Guinea Reef Fish Communities across Space and Time.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua A; Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    Describing the drivers of species loss and of community change are important goals in both conservation and ecology. However, it is difficult to determine whether exploited species decline due to direct effects of harvesting or due to other environmental perturbations brought about by proximity to human populations. Here we quantify differences in species richness of coral reef fish communities along a human population gradient in Papua New Guinea to understand the relative impacts of fishing and environmental perturbation. Using data from published species lists we categorize the reef fishes as either fished or non-fished based on their body size and reports from the published literature. Species diversity for both fished and non-fished groups decreases as the size of the local human population increases, and this relationship is stronger in species that are fished. Additionally, comparison of modern and museum collections show that modern reef communities have proportionally fewer fished species relative to 19th century ones. Together these findings show that the reef fish communities of Papua New Guinea experience multiple anthropogenic stressors and that even at low human population levels targeted species experience population declines across both time and space.

  2. Quantifying the Human Impacts on Papua New Guinea Reef Fish Communities across Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua A.; Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Describing the drivers of species loss and of community change are important goals in both conservation and ecology. However, it is difficult to determine whether exploited species decline due to direct effects of harvesting or due to other environmental perturbations brought about by proximity to human populations. Here we quantify differences in species richness of coral reef fish communities along a human population gradient in Papua New Guinea to understand the relative impacts of fishing and environmental perturbation. Using data from published species lists we categorize the reef fishes as either fished or non-fished based on their body size and reports from the published literature. Species diversity for both fished and non-fished groups decreases as the size of the local human population increases, and this relationship is stronger in species that are fished. Additionally, comparison of modern and museum collections show that modern reef communities have proportionally fewer fished species relative to 19th century ones. Together these findings show that the reef fish communities of Papua New Guinea experience multiple anthropogenic stressors and that even at low human population levels targeted species experience population declines across both time and space. PMID:26466336

  3. The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity Patterns, and Ecological Processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martínez, Inés; Stegen, James C.; Maldonado-Gómez, Maria X.; Eren, A. Murat; Siba, Peter M.; Greenhill, Andrew R.; Walter, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Comparisons between the fecal microbiota of humans from industrialized and non-industrialized communities indicate a pronounced impact of westernization on the diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota. However, the exact consequences of westernization on community characteristics are still insufficiently understood, and the ecological processes that drive differences have not been elucidated. Here we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity but lower inter-individual variation. Although the fecal microbiota in PNG and US was largelymore » dominated by shared bacterial lineages, the relative abundance of 25 families, 45 genera, and 230 species-level OTUs differed, and 47 core OTUs in PNG were undetectable in US residents. To gain insight into the ecological mechanisms that cause the observed differences, we quantified community assembly processes in PNG and US microbiomes using a null modeling approach. This analysis demonstrated a significant higher rate of bacterial dispersal in PNG and divergent selective environments in the US. Interestingly, equivalent findings were obtained for other datasets comparing industrialized and non-industrialized microbiomes. Overall, the findings demonstrate a dominant role for microbial dispersal in shaping the human gut microbiota in non-industrialized societies, and point to differential selection pressures across individuals as a major factor shaping microbiomes associated with modern lifestyle.« less

  4. The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity Patterns, and Ecological Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez, Inés; Stegen, James C.; Maldonado-Gómez, Maria X.; Eren, A. Murat; Siba, Peter M.; Greenhill, Andrew R.; Walter, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Comparisons between the fecal microbiota of humans from industrialized and non-industrialized communities indicate a pronounced impact of westernization on the diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota. However, the exact consequences of westernization on community characteristics are still insufficiently understood, and the ecological processes that drive differences have not been elucidated. Here we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity but lower inter-individual variation. Although the fecal microbiota in PNG and US was largely dominated by shared bacterial lineages, the relative abundance of 25 families, 45 genera, and 230 species-level OTUs differed, and 47 core OTUs in PNG were undetectable in US residents. To gain insight into the ecological mechanisms that cause the observed differences, we quantified community assembly processes in PNG and US microbiomes using a null modeling approach. This analysis demonstrated a significant higher rate of bacterial dispersal in PNG and divergent selective environments in the US. Interestingly, equivalent findings were obtained for other datasets comparing industrialized and non-industrialized microbiomes. Overall, the findings demonstrate a dominant role for microbial dispersal in shaping the human gut microbiota in non-industrialized societies, and point to differential selection pressures across individuals as a major factor shaping microbiomes associated with modern lifestyle.

  5. The bacteriology of lower respiratory infections in Papua New Guinean and Australian indigenous children.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Leach, Amanda J

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous children in Australia and children in Papua New Guinea (PNG) share a high burden of respiratory disease. In PNG the focus has been on pneumonia as a major cause of mortality. While pneumonia incidence remains high in Australian Indigenous children, improved access to better health care has resulted in reduced mortality. However, severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis in Australian Indigenous children. Bronchiectasis is associated with significant morbidity, and early death in adulthood. This paper includes an outline of the disease manifestations of acute and chronic lower respiratory infections. The main bacterial pathogens involved in pneumonia, bronchiolitis, bronchitis and bronchiectasis have been determined. Capsular organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b are more often implicated in acute infections, while chronic infections are frequently associated with nontypeable (noncapsular) H. influenzae. Moraxella catarrhalis is more often isolated from very young children. Possible reasons for the high burden of respiratory disease in Papua New Guinean children and Australian Indigenous (primarily Aboriginal) children include early and dense colonization with multiple species and strains of respiratory pathogens. There is a role for vaccines in preventing lower respiratory infection.

  6. Cost Analysis and its Use in Simulation of Policy Options: The Papua New Guinea Education Finance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Describes the structure and operations of a computer simulation model used in Papua New Guinea, developed with technical assistance from UNESCO. Notes that model establishes baseline data on student enrollments, teacher posts, and costs of education, and can be used to simulate policies under consideration and provide output on student flows,…

  7. The Social Cost of Acting "Extra": Students' Moral Judgements of Self, Social Relations, and Academic Success in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how high school students in Papua New Guinea responded to rising educational credentialism and unemployment by drawing on elements of their traditional egalitarian village identity to make moral judgements about appropriate selves and futures. Interview and observation data indicated that students referred to specific western…

  8. From Vernacular to English: A Model of Innovation from within the Hearts of the Indigenous Teachers in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Yasuko; Lister, Ronah

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of initial vernacular education for successful transfer to English. The data is drawn from the personal, innovative experiences of a local vernacular elementary school teacher in Papua New Guinea, who helped individual children to gain literacy skills in the local vernacular. As a result, the children were…

  9. Language Use and the Instructional Strategies of Grade 3 Teachers to Support "Bridging" in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; August, Matilda

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, the Department of Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has adopted vernacular education as a way of ensuring that the educational experiences of children in schools draw on the cultural and linguistic knowledge they bring to the classroom. In PNG, there are many potential vernaculars--apart from the local languages, there are Tok…

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  11. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  12. Environmental, Ethical and Safety Issues in Chemistry/Science Curricula in Papua New Guinea Provincial High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Chemistry occupies only a small portion of the Papua New Guinea science curriculum in grades seven to ten. Science itself occupies only a small proportion of the total curriculum. Nevertheless the existing syllabus, and previous and planned future revisions of it, give considerable prominence to environmental, health and safety issues. There is a…

  13. On Training in Language Documentation and Capacity Building in Papua New Guinea: A Response to Bird et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article, Bird et al. (2013) discuss a workshop held at the University of Goroka in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 2012. The workshop was intended to offer a new methodological framework for language documentation and capacity building that streamlines the documentation process and accelerates the global effort to document endangered…

  14. Late Miocene to Recent inversion of the Aure rift, eastern Papua New Guinea: A consequence of transpression along the Owen-Stanley fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Campos Aguiniga, H.

    2009-12-01

    The north-trending Aure trough formed as a Paleocene failed rift during the opening of the northeast-trending Coral Sea between continental crust in northeastern Australia and Papua New Guinea. This study describes 1,600 km of onshore and offshore seismic data tied to six offshore wells in order to understand the tectonic controls on the style and chronology of deformation. Eocene-middle Miocene fill in the rifted basin includes a 7-km-thick section of marine, fine-grained sandstone and shale. Inversion of the basin fill starting in late Miocene time has created a SW-propagating fold-thrustbelt with the oldest folds and thrusts forming in the late Miocene, and the youngest still forming today. Seismic data allow for the southern extent of the deformed Aure belt to be continued 75 km offshore in the eastern Gulf of Papua where total shortening is estimated to be 18 km for late Miocene strata, 6km for early Pliocene strata, and less than 2km for Plio-Pleistocene and Tertiary strata. The trend of folds and thrusts on the south coast of the Papuan Peninsula closely parallels the strike of the transpressional segment of the left-lateral Owens-Stanley fault zone (OSFZ) along the center of the peninsula. As the OSFZ becomes more transtensional in the eastern part of the Papuan peninsula, folds on the south coast become less prominent. For this reason, it is proposed that the late Miocene age for initial inversion of the Aure trough matches the initiation of left-lateral motion along the OSFZ.

  15. Early diagenetic remineralization of sedimentary organic C in the Gulf of Papua deltaic complex (Papua New Guinea): Net loss of terrestrial C and diagenetic fractionation of C isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Robert C.; Blair, Neal E.

    2004-04-01

    Oceania supplies ˜40% of the global riverine flux of organic carbon, approximately half of which is injected onto broad continental shelves and processed in shallow deltaic systems. The Gulf of Papua, on the south coast of the large island of New Guinea, is one such deltaic clinoform complex. It receives ˜4 Mt yr -1 particulate terrestrial organic carbon with initial particle C org loading ˜0.7 mg m -2. C org loading is reduced to ˜0.3 mg m -2 in the topset-upper foreset zones of the delta despite additional inputs of mangrove and planktonic detritus, and high net sediment accumulation rates of 1-4 cm yr -1. Carbon isotopic analyses (δ 13C, Δ 14C) of ΣCO 2 and C org demonstrate rapid (<100 yr) remineralization of both terrestrial (δ 13C <-28.6) and marine C org (δ 13C ˜-20.5) ranging in average age from modern (bomb) (Δ 14C ˜60) to ˜1000 yr (Δ 14C ˜-140). Efficient and rapid remineralization in the topset-upper foreset zone is promoted by frequent physical reworking, bioturbation, exposure, and reoxidation of deposits. The seafloor in these regions, particularly <20 m, apparently functions as a periodically mixed, suboxic batch reactor dominated by microbial biomass. Although terrestrial sources can be the primary metabolic substrates at inshore sites, relatively young marine C org often preferentially dominates pore water ΣCO 2 relative to bulk C org in the upper foreset. Thus a small quantity of young, rapidly recycled marine organic material is often superimposed on a generally older, less reactive terrestrial background. Whereas the pore water ΣCO 2 reflects both rapidly cycled marine and terrestrial sources, terrestrial material dominates the slower overall net loss of C org from particles in the topset-upper foreset zone (i.e. recycled marine C org leaves little residue). Preferential utilization of C org subpools and diagenetic fractionation of C isotopes supports the reactive continuum model as a conceptual basis for net decomposition

  16. Potassic igneous rocks from the vicinity of epithermal gold mineralization, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel; Franz, Leander; Herzig, Peter M.; Hunt, Steve

    2001-06-01

    Many world-class porphyry copper-gold and epithermal gold deposits worldwide are hosted by volatile-rich and oxidized alkaline rocks. This study investigates potassic igneous rocks from the vicinity of epithermal gold mineralization at Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. The island consists of five Pliocene-Pleistocene stratovolcanoes, one of which hosts Ladolam, one of the largest epithermal gold deposits discovered to date. Petrographically, the rocks range from porphyritic trachybasalts, trachyandesites and latites to rare phonolites and olivine-clinopyroxene cumulates. In some places, these rocks are cut by monzodiorite stocks. According to Al-in-hornblende barometry, the main crystallization of these rocks occurred close to the surface. Titanium-in-hornblende thermometry as well as olivine-spinel geothermometry and oxygen barometry indicate temperatures of 787-965°C at elevated oxygen fugacities ( fO 2) of 1.4-4.8 log units above that of the FMQ buffer. Although previous studies have suggested high fO 2 of alkaline rocks associated with copper-gold mineralization based on abundant primary magnetite contents, this is the first direct determination of the fO 2 of such rocks. High fO 2 of parental melts commonly delays the early crystallization of magmatic sulphides; this is important because metals such as Au and Cu preferentially partition into sulphide phases resulting in their depletion in the melt during increasing fractionation. Geochemically, the rocks range from primitive to relatively evolved compositions, as reflected by their SiO 2 (45.8-55.0 wt.%) and MgO (1.4-15.3 wt.%) contents and variable concentrations of mantle-compatible elements (130-328 ppm V, 1-186 ppm Ni). Their high K 2O content (up to 4.7 wt.%), high average K 2O/Na 2O ratios (0.8) and high average Ce/Yb ratios (14) are typical of high-K igneous rocks transitional to shoshonites. Although these rocks formed by decompression melting related to back-arc rifting in the Manus Basin, the high

  17. Women Favour Dyadic Relationships, but Men Prefer Clubs: Cross-Cultural Evidence from Social Networking

    PubMed Central

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Carney, James; Behncke Izquierdo, Isabel; Krems, Jaimie A.; Townley, Dylan; McDaniell, Elinor; Byrne-Smith, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes. PMID:25775258

  18. Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite

    PubMed Central

    De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

  19. Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite.

    PubMed

    De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

    2008-11-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity.

  20. Harmful filamentous cyanobacteria favoured by reduced water turnover with lake warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Köster, Oliver; Salcher, Michaela M.; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic-induced changes in nutrient ratios have increased the susceptibility of large temperate lakes to several effects of rising air temperatures and the resulting heating of water bodies. First, warming leads to stronger thermal stratification, thus impeding natural complete water turnover (holomixis), which compensates for oxygen deficits in the deep zones. Second, increased water temperatures and nutrient concentrations can directly favour the growth of harmful algae. Thus, lake-restoration programmes have focused on reducing nutrients to limit toxic algal blooms. Here we present evidence that the ubiquitous harmful cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens has become the dominant species in a large lake during the past four decades, although the phosphorus content of the ecosystem decreased fivefold. However, the nitrogen input was not diminished concomitantly, favouring this non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium owing to increased N:P ratios. P. rubescens contains gas vesicles that allow for buoyancy to accumulate within the depth of optimal irradiance. As the toxic cyanobacterium has low consumption by predators, water turnover represents the main mechanism of seasonal population control. Thus, unidirectional lake-restoration measures in parallel with recurrent absence of holomixis owing to lake warming may lead to similar undesired effects that have formerly emerged from fertilization.

  1. Is pollen removal or seed set favoured by flower longevity in a hummingbird-pollinated Salvia species?

    PubMed Central

    Aximoff, Izar Araujo; Freitas, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The period between the beginning of anthesis and flower senescence modulates the transport of pollen by pollinators among conspecific flowers, and its length may therefore influence reproductive success. This study evaluated whether floral longevity favours pollen removal from the anthers over fecundity (seed set) in an ornithophilous species that does not undergo pollen limitation. Methods Field investigations were conducted on floral longevity, nectar production, pollinator behaviour, and variations in fruit set (FS), mean number of seeds per fruit (MSF) and pollen removal by hummingbirds (PR) during the anthesis of Salvia sellowiana in south-east Brazil. Key Results Anthesis of flowers exposed to pollinators lasted 4 d, as well as on flowers with pollen removed from the anthers or deposited on the stigma. The longevity of bagged flowers was significantly higher (approx. 9 d). FS and PR reached 87·2 and 90 %, respectively, in natural conditions. PR increased gradually over the period of anthesis; however, FS and MSF reached their maxima in the first hours of anthesis. Nectar production was continuous, but the secretion rate was reduced after pollination. The removal of nectar from non-pollinated flowers stimulated its production. Conclusions The longevity of anthesis in S. sellowiana seems to be related to the mechanism of gradual dispensing of pollen, resulting in greater male reproductive success. This is in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis. The small number of ovules (four) of S. sellowiana and the high frequency and the foraging mode of its pollinators may favour the selection for floral longevity driven by male fitness in this system. PMID:20622254

  2. Rates and spatial patterns of sediment dispersal across the lower Strickland River floodplain, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, K. M.; Apte, S.; Aalto, R.; Marshall, A.; Dietrich, W.

    2004-12-01

    As part of a NSF Margins Source to sink study, we are exploring the rates and patterns of floodplain sediment vertical accretion on the Middle Fly River and the lower Strickland River, Papua New Guinea. The rivers join at 6 m above sea level where tidal influences are currently weak (except at exceptionally low flow). In response to post-glacial sea level rise both rivers aggraded, but the Strickland, carrying 7 times the sediment load, twice the discharge, and transiting through a much shorter lowland reach, has built a roughly 10 times steeper slope and a much coarser bed than the Fly. We have hypothesized that as a consequence of this difference the rate of sediment loss to the floodplain will be much lower than on the Fly (which is currently about 40% for the Middle Fly Reach). Near the gravel-sand transition, the Strickland floodplain rapidly widens downstream to an average width of approximately 10 km, and the channel has built an elevated meander belt across the roughly 100 km long plain. Recently, sediment laden flood flows have occasionally spilled out of the Strickland through an oxbow and traveled along a small channel into Lake Murray. Lake Murray is directly connected to the Strickland via the Herbert River, a large, deep channel that occasionally reverses and directs Strickland waters to the Lake. To document the spatial pattern of sediment deposition, sediment cores were collected at 11 transects across the floodplain. In addition, samples were collected along the outflow channel, in Lake Murray, and in a separate oxbow fed only by a tie channel. Duplicates and, in places, triplicate core samples were taken to enable independent analysis of sedimentation rates using two methods. Mine tailings introduced into the headwaters of the Strickland since 1990, although of relatively minor importance to the total load of the lower Strickland; provide a distinct elevated Pb and Ag signature in the recently deposited sediment. In over 30 cores, 210Pb analyses

  3. Temporal and geochemical constraints on active volcanism in southeastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, J. P.; Baldwin, S.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Webb, L. E.; Hollocher, K.

    2010-12-01

    Active volcanism in southeastern Papua New Guinea occurs on the Papuan Peninsula (Mt. Lamington and Mt. Victory), in the Woodlark Rift (Dobu Island, SE Goodenough Island, and Western Fergusson Island), and in the Woodlark Basin. In the Woodlark Basin seafloor spreading is active and decompression melting of the mantle produces basalts. However, the cause of volcanism on the Papuan Peninsula and immediately west of active seafloor spreading rift tip in the Woodlark Basin is controversial. Previous studies have suggested active volcanism there results from 1) southward subduction of Solomon Sea lithosphere at the Trobriand Trough or 2) decompression melting as the lithosphere is extended and eventually ruptures. To evaluate these possibilities 20 samples were collected from a bimodal basalt-rhyolite suite in the D’Entrecasteaux Islands approximately 80 km west of the sea floor spreading rift tip. Siliceous ash flow tuffs on Dobu Island, Sanaroa Island, and Eastern Fergusson Island consist of sanidine/anorthoclase + Fe/Ti oxides (illmenite/ magnetite) ± quartz ± nepheline ± clinopyroxene ± xenocrystic olivine. Sanidine and K-feldspar from these ash flow tuffs yielded flat age spectra with 40Ar/39Ar isochron ages of 0.008 ± 0.002 Ma and 0.553 ± 0.001 Ma. ICP-MS trace and REE geochemistry on felsic rocks from Dobu Island and Eastern Fergusson Island yielded multi-element diagrams with enriched incompatible elements, and corresponding negative Nb, Sr, Eu, and Ti anomalies. In contrast, mafic volcanics from SE Goodenough Island are comprised of plagioclase + olivine + Fe/Ti oxides ± orthopyroxene ± clinopyroxene ± hornblende ± biotite. Biotite yielded a 40Ar/39Ar isochron age of 0.376 ± 0.05 Ma. MORB-normalized multi-element diagrams of mafic rocks from SE Goodenough Island are LREE-enriched patterns with negative Nb and positive Sr anomalies. In comparison, multi-element diagrams from previous work on mafic rocks from the New Britain arc to the north also

  4. Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation of amino acids in an avian marine predator, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua)

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kelton W; Polito, Michael J; Abel, Stephanie; McCarthy, Matthew D; Thorrold, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids (AA) has rapidly become a powerful tool in studies of food web architecture, resource use, and biogeochemical cycling. However, applications to avian ecology have been limited because no controlled studies have examined the patterns in AA isotope fractionation in birds. We conducted a controlled CSIA feeding experiment on an avian species, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), to examine patterns in individual AA carbon and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation between diet (D) and consumer (C) (Δ13CC-D and Δ15NC-D, respectively). We found that essential AA δ13C values and source AA δ15N values in feathers showed minimal trophic fractionation between diet and consumer, providing independent but complimentary archival proxies for primary producers and nitrogen sources respectively, at the base of food webs supporting penguins. Variations in nonessential AA Δ13CC-D values reflected differences in macromolecule sources used for biosynthesis (e.g., protein vs. lipids) and provided a metric to assess resource utilization. The avian-specific nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (TDFGlu-Phe = 3.5 ± 0.4‰) that we calculated from the difference in trophic fractionation (Δ15NC-D) of glutamic acid and phenylalanine was significantly lower than the conventional literature value of 7.6‰. Trophic positions of five species of wild penguins calculated using a multi-TDFGlu-Phe equation with the avian-specific TDFGlu-Phe value from our experiment provided estimates that were more ecologically realistic than estimates using a single TDFGlu-Phe of 7.6‰ from the previous literature. Our results provide a quantitative, mechanistic framework for the use of CSIA in nonlethal, archival feathers to study the movement and foraging ecology of avian consumers. PMID:25859333

  5. Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation of amino acids in an avian marine predator, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Polito, Michael J; Abel, Stephanie; McCarthy, Matthew D; Thorrold, Simon R

    2015-03-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids (AA) has rapidly become a powerful tool in studies of food web architecture, resource use, and biogeochemical cycling. However, applications to avian ecology have been limited because no controlled studies have examined the patterns in AA isotope fractionation in birds. We conducted a controlled CSIA feeding experiment on an avian species, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), to examine patterns in individual AA carbon and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation between diet (D) and consumer (C) (Δ(13)CC-D and Δ(15)NC-D, respectively). We found that essential AA δ (13)C values and source AA δ (15)N values in feathers showed minimal trophic fractionation between diet and consumer, providing independent but complimentary archival proxies for primary producers and nitrogen sources respectively, at the base of food webs supporting penguins. Variations in nonessential AA Δ(13)CC-D values reflected differences in macromolecule sources used for biosynthesis (e.g., protein vs. lipids) and provided a metric to assess resource utilization. The avian-specific nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (TDFGlu-Phe = 3.5 ± 0.4‰) that we calculated from the difference in trophic fractionation (Δ(15)NC -D) of glutamic acid and phenylalanine was significantly lower than the conventional literature value of 7.6‰. Trophic positions of five species of wild penguins calculated using a multi-TDFG lu-Phe equation with the avian-specific TDFG lu-Phe value from our experiment provided estimates that were more ecologically realistic than estimates using a single TDFG lu-Phe of 7.6‰ from the previous literature. Our results provide a quantitative, mechanistic framework for the use of CSIA in nonlethal, archival feathers to study the movement and foraging ecology of avian consumers. PMID:25859333

  6. The coherence and correlates of intermittent explosive disorder amongst West Papuan refugees displaced to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-05-15

    Questions remain about the nosological status of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) as a universal diagnosis. Cross-cultural studies are needed to establish whether IED symptoms form a coherent pattern and are distinguishable from other related symptom constellations. A study amongst a refugee population also allows further inquiry of the relationship between exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other adversities with the IED constellation. In the present study amongst West Papuan refugees residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, we apply culturally adapted interview modules to assess symptoms of IED, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, as well as the potentially traumatic events (PTEs) of conflict and ongoing adversity in the post-migration environment. Latent class analysis yielded a PTSD class (23%), a posttraumatic depressive class (14%), an IED class (12%), and a low/no symptom class (49%). Compared to the low/no-symptom class, the PTSD class had high levels of exposure to all PTE domains including childhood-related adversities, witnessing murder, human rights trauma, and traumatic losses, as well as ongoing adversity relating to displacement and separation from families, safety concerns, and lack of access to basic needs and health care. The posttraumatic depression class had greater exposure to traumatic losses and childhood-related adversities, higher levels of stress relating to material loss and deprivation, as well as to displacement and separation from families. In contrast, the IED class was distinguished only by the ongoing stress of displacement and separation from families in the homeland. Our findings provide support for the phenomenological distinctiveness of IED symptoms in this transcultural setting. Although not exclusive to IED, conditions of long-term displacement and separation appear to be a source of ongoing anger and explosive aggression amongst this population.

  7. Ontogeny of Toll-Like and NOD-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immune Responses in Papua New Guinean Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lisciandro, Joanne G.; Prescott, Susan L.; Nadal-Sims, Marie G.; Devitt, Catherine J.; Pomat, William; Siba, Peter M.; Tulic, Meri C.; Holt, Patrick G.; Strickland, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies addressing the ontogeny of the innate immune system in early life have reported mainly on Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in infants living in high-income countries, with little or even no information on other pattern recognition receptors or on early life innate immune responses in children living under very different environmental conditions in less-developed parts of the world. In this study, we describe whole blood innate immune responses to both Toll-like and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor agonists including the widely used vaccine adjuvant ‘alum’ in a group of Papua New Guinean infants aged 1–3 (n = 18), 4–6 (n = 18), 7–12 (n = 21) and 13–18 (n = 10) months old. Depending on the ligands and cytokines studied, different age-related patterns were found: alum-induced IL-1β and CXCL8 responses were found to significantly decline with increasing age; inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) responses to TLR2 and TLR3 agonists increased; and IL-10 responses remained constant or increased during infancy, while TNF-α responses either declined or remained the same. We report for the first time that whole blood innate immune responses to the vaccine adjuvant alum decrease with age in infancy; a finding that may imply that the adjuvant effect of alum in pediatric vaccines could be age-related. Our findings further suggest that patterns of innate immune development may vary between geographically diverse populations, which in line with the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ particularly involves persistence of innate IL-10 responses in populations experiencing higher infectious pressure. PMID:22649499

  8. Ontogeny of Toll-like and NOD-like receptor-mediated innate immune responses in Papua New Guinean infants.

    PubMed

    Lisciandro, Joanne G; Prescott, Susan L; Nadal-Sims, Marie G; Devitt, Catherine J; Pomat, William; Siba, Peter M; Tulic, Meri C; Holt, Patrick G; Strickland, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2012-01-01

    Studies addressing the ontogeny of the innate immune system in early life have reported mainly on Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in infants living in high-income countries, with little or even no information on other pattern recognition receptors or on early life innate immune responses in children living under very different environmental conditions in less-developed parts of the world. In this study, we describe whole blood innate immune responses to both Toll-like and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor agonists including the widely used vaccine adjuvant 'alum' in a group of Papua New Guinean infants aged 1-3 (n = 18), 4-6 (n = 18), 7-12 (n = 21) and 13-18 (n = 10) months old. Depending on the ligands and cytokines studied, different age-related patterns were found: alum-induced IL-1β and CXCL8 responses were found to significantly decline with increasing age; inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) responses to TLR2 and TLR3 agonists increased; and IL-10 responses remained constant or increased during infancy, while TNF-α responses either declined or remained the same. We report for the first time that whole blood innate immune responses to the vaccine adjuvant alum decrease with age in infancy; a finding that may imply that the adjuvant effect of alum in pediatric vaccines could be age-related. Our findings further suggest that patterns of innate immune development may vary between geographically diverse populations, which in line with the 'hygiene hypothesis' particularly involves persistence of innate IL-10 responses in populations experiencing higher infectious pressure. PMID:22649499

  9. Increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from East Java and Papua, Indonesia, in 2004 - implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Sutrisna, A; Soebjakto, O; Wignall, F S; Kaul, S; Limnios, E A; Ray, S; Nguyen, N-L; Tapsall, J W

    2006-12-01

    We examined gonococci isolated in 2004, in East Java and Papua, Indonesia, to review the suitability of ciprofloxacin-based and other treatment regimens. Gonococci from the two provinces were tested in Sydney for susceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin and rifampicin. Of 163 gonococcal isolates from East Java (91) and Papua (72), 120 (74%) of gonococci, 62 (68%) and 58 (80%) from East Java and Papua, respectively, were penicillinase-producing gonococci and 162 displayed high-level tetracycline resistance. Eighty-seven isolates (53%) were ciprofloxacin resistant, 44 (48%) from East Java and 43 (60%) from Papua. All isolates were sensitive to cefixime/ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin were in the range 0.05-8 mg/L. Sixty-nine gonococci (42%) showed combined resistance, to penicillin, tetracycline and quinolones. Quinolone resistance has now reached unacceptable levels, and their use for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Indonesia should be reconsidered.

  10. Refugees in Papua New Guinea: government response and assistance, 1984-1988.

    PubMed

    Preston, R

    1992-01-01

    The refugee situation after the 1984 movement from Indonesia is examined in terms of policy implications and assistance as well as the welfare and education of refugees. Information was collected from government sources and documents and from households in camps and communities over a 3-month period and was published in a government report in February, 1988. This article provides a review of the border issues, resistance and exodus, reactions within Papua New Guinea, 1984-85 border crossings, social and demographic refugee profiles, government response, UN involvement, border refugee camp conditions, repatriation and relocation, reasons for the exodus, and relocation to and conditions in East Awin and the implications. This exodus from West Papua New Guinea (a region now called Irian Jaya) after Indonesia's take over in 1962 represents a unique situation, which also has lessons for other asylum seekers looking for refuge status in friendly neighboring countries. International agreements, such as the Geneva Convention and Protocol, can disrupt social networks and households when the relocation they permit is implemented. Full economic and social participation is hampered by a low quality provision of education and social services. The gain is in removing "destabilizing threats to the host state and society," at the expense of the economic and residential security of the migrants. Humanitarianism hides inequalities; internationalism, in this case, confirmed Indonesian sovereignty and large scale economic exploitation. An estimated 300,000 Melanesians have died since the take over, which amounts to 30% of the total population in 1970. Persecution was the reason for migration to Papua New Guinea; migration numbers are not accurate and range from the official 2000-3000 to 12,000 in 1984. Reactions to the migration have been mixed, and fear of the military might of Indonesia is real. The government was not prepared to cope with the scale of migration and had no plans for

  11. Decomposition and recycling of organic matter in muds of the Gulf of Papua, northern Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Along, Daniel M.

    Most sediment and organic material transported from rivers of southern Papua New Guinea enters into the Gulf of Papua, depositing on the inner shelf as either laminated or bioturbated, silt-dominated mud. These facies are the major trawling grounds for a growing penaeid prawn fishery. In contrast to most other terrigenous shelf deposits, decomposition processes in the upper 20 cm of these Papuan silts are apparently dominated by oxic and suboxic diagenesis. Rates of surface oxygen consumption were high (mean = 26.9; range = 17.8-46.8 mmol O 2 m -2 d -1) as were bacterial numbers (range: 1-4 × 10 10 cells g -1 DW) and rates of bacterial carbon production (tritiated thymidine uptake; range: 3-f0 gC m -2 d -1). Rates of sulfate reduction were low (range: 3.6-6.8 mmol S m -2 d -1) with little (18-25%) of the total reduced 35S0 4 recovered as acid-volatile sulfide. Free sulfides were not detected in porewaters. Total solid-phase S concentrations were low (0.15-0.20% DW) indicating low net S precipitation in the upper 20 cm. Concentrations of dissolved Fe and Mn were elevated in porewaters in the laminated silts. Solid-phase Fe concentrations were moderately high (range: 4.6-5.3% DW) and measured dissolved metal and nutrient fluxes suggest active Fe and Mn reduction (at some stations) and generally high turnover of the porewater N pools. The domination of oxidants other than sulfate and probable C limitation in these moderately Ferich silts, results in aSC signature comparable to freshwater sediments. These diagenetic patterns are reminiscent of those measured in muds on the Amazon shelf and may similarly be attributed to dilution of reactive organic matter combined with intense physical reworking and/or bioturbation, promoting oxidant recharge and favoring decomposition processes other than sulfate reduction. Rapid rates of detrital decomposition lead to fast rates of benthic nutrient release that contribute, on average, 71% and 35% of the daily N and P requirements of

  12. Refugees in Papua New Guinea: government response and assistance, 1984-1988.

    PubMed

    Preston, R

    1992-01-01

    The refugee situation after the 1984 movement from Indonesia is examined in terms of policy implications and assistance as well as the welfare and education of refugees. Information was collected from government sources and documents and from households in camps and communities over a 3-month period and was published in a government report in February, 1988. This article provides a review of the border issues, resistance and exodus, reactions within Papua New Guinea, 1984-85 border crossings, social and demographic refugee profiles, government response, UN involvement, border refugee camp conditions, repatriation and relocation, reasons for the exodus, and relocation to and conditions in East Awin and the implications. This exodus from West Papua New Guinea (a region now called Irian Jaya) after Indonesia's take over in 1962 represents a unique situation, which also has lessons for other asylum seekers looking for refuge status in friendly neighboring countries. International agreements, such as the Geneva Convention and Protocol, can disrupt social networks and households when the relocation they permit is implemented. Full economic and social participation is hampered by a low quality provision of education and social services. The gain is in removing "destabilizing threats to the host state and society," at the expense of the economic and residential security of the migrants. Humanitarianism hides inequalities; internationalism, in this case, confirmed Indonesian sovereignty and large scale economic exploitation. An estimated 300,000 Melanesians have died since the take over, which amounts to 30% of the total population in 1970. Persecution was the reason for migration to Papua New Guinea; migration numbers are not accurate and range from the official 2000-3000 to 12,000 in 1984. Reactions to the migration have been mixed, and fear of the military might of Indonesia is real. The government was not prepared to cope with the scale of migration and had no plans for

  13. HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended. PMID:21445375

  14. Factors Influencing Antiretroviral Adherence and Virological Outcomes in People Living with HIV in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gare, Janet; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Ryan, Claire E; David, Matthew; Kaima, Petronia; Imara, Ulato; Lote, Namarola; Crowe, Suzanne M; Hearps, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is paramount for virological suppression and positive treatment outcomes. ART has been rapidly scaled up in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in recent years, however clinical monitoring of HIV+ individuals on ART is limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two major sexual health clinics in high HIV prevalence provinces in the Highlands Region of PNG to assess ART adherence, factors affecting adherence and the relationship between ART adherence and virological outcomes. Ninety-five HIV+ individuals were recruited and administered a questionnaire to gather demographic and ART adherence information whilst clinical data and pill counts were extracted from patient charts and blood was collected for viral load testing. Bivariate analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ART adherence. Fourteen percent (n = 12) of participants showed evidence of virological failure. Although the majority of participants self-reported excellent ART adherence in the last seven days (78.9%, 75/91), pill count measurements indicated only 40% (34/84) with >95% adherence in the last month. Taking other medications while on ART (p = 0.01) and taking ART for ≥1 year (p = 0.037) were positively associated with adherence by self-report and pill count, respectively. Participants who had never heard of drug resistance were more likely to show virological failure (p = 0.033). Misconception on routes of HIV transmission still persists in the studied population. These findings indicate that non-adherence to ART is high in this region of PNG and continued education and strategies to improve adherence are required to ensure the efficacy of ART and prevent HIV drug resistance.

  15. Factors Influencing Antiretroviral Adherence and Virological Outcomes in People Living with HIV in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gare, Janet; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Ryan, Claire E; David, Matthew; Kaima, Petronia; Imara, Ulato; Lote, Namarola; Crowe, Suzanne M; Hearps, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is paramount for virological suppression and positive treatment outcomes. ART has been rapidly scaled up in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in recent years, however clinical monitoring of HIV+ individuals on ART is limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two major sexual health clinics in high HIV prevalence provinces in the Highlands Region of PNG to assess ART adherence, factors affecting adherence and the relationship between ART adherence and virological outcomes. Ninety-five HIV+ individuals were recruited and administered a questionnaire to gather demographic and ART adherence information whilst clinical data and pill counts were extracted from patient charts and blood was collected for viral load testing. Bivariate analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ART adherence. Fourteen percent (n = 12) of participants showed evidence of virological failure. Although the majority of participants self-reported excellent ART adherence in the last seven days (78.9%, 75/91), pill count measurements indicated only 40% (34/84) with >95% adherence in the last month. Taking other medications while on ART (p = 0.01) and taking ART for ≥1 year (p = 0.037) were positively associated with adherence by self-report and pill count, respectively. Participants who had never heard of drug resistance were more likely to show virological failure (p = 0.033). Misconception on routes of HIV transmission still persists in the studied population. These findings indicate that non-adherence to ART is high in this region of PNG and continued education and strategies to improve adherence are required to ensure the efficacy of ART and prevent HIV drug resistance. PMID:26244516

  16. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Aia, Paul; Kal, Margaret; Lavu, Evelyn; John, Lucy N.; Johnson, Karen; Coulter, Chris; Ershova, Julia; Tosas, Olga; Zignol, Matteo; Ahmadova, Shalala; Islam, Tauhid

    2016-01-01

    Background Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin. Results Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1–4.3%) and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5–29.8%) TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was detected. Thirty percent (6/20) of new and 33.3% (8/24) of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province. Conclusion In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6–6.3%). A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country. PMID:27003160

  17. Factors Influencing Antiretroviral Adherence and Virological Outcomes in People Living with HIV in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gare, Janet; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Ryan, Claire E.; David, Matthew; Kaima, Petronia; Imara, Ulato; Lote, Namarola; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Hearps, Anna C.

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is paramount for virological suppression and positive treatment outcomes. ART has been rapidly scaled up in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in recent years, however clinical monitoring of HIV+ individuals on ART is limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two major sexual health clinics in high HIV prevalence provinces in the Highlands Region of PNG to assess ART adherence, factors affecting adherence and the relationship between ART adherence and virological outcomes. Ninety-five HIV+ individuals were recruited and administered a questionnaire to gather demographic and ART adherence information whilst clinical data and pill counts were extracted from patient charts and blood was collected for viral load testing. Bivariate analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ART adherence. Fourteen percent (n = 12) of participants showed evidence of virological failure. Although the majority of participants self-reported excellent ART adherence in the last seven days (78.9%, 75/91), pill count measurements indicated only 40% (34/84) with >95% adherence in the last month. Taking other medications while on ART (p = 0.01) and taking ART for ≥1 year (p = 0.037) were positively associated with adherence by self-report and pill count, respectively. Participants who had never heard of drug resistance were more likely to show virological failure (p = 0.033). Misconception on routes of HIV transmission still persists in the studied population. These findings indicate that non-adherence to ART is high in this region of PNG and continued education and strategies to improve adherence are required to ensure the efficacy of ART and prevent HIV drug resistance. PMID:26244516

  18. Termination of pregnancy in Papua New Guinea: the traditional and contemporary position.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, I A

    1981-06-01

    There appears to be an increasing need and demand for medical termination of pregnancy both in Papua New Guinea (P.N.G.) and in the developing world generally. Experience elsewhere has demonstrated that where this is denied the mortality and morbidity associated with recourse to illegal abortion is unacceptably high. It is important that all health workers in P.N.G. especially practising clinicians, those in position of authority and those planning the future needs of P.N.G., fully appreciate the advantages of safe medical termination of pregnancy, and understand the legal statutes which delineate the rights of the mother and foetus and define the conditions under which qualified medical practitioners can legally terminate pregnancies. PMID:6950597

  19. The epidemiology of melioidosis in the Balimo region of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Warner, J M; Pelowa, D B; Gal, D; Rai, G; Mayo, M; Currie, B J; Govan, B; Skerratt, L F; Hirst, R G

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei was determined in soil collected from a rural district in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where melioidosis had recently been described, predominately affecting children. In 274 samples, 2.6% tested culture-positive for B. pseudomallei. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SpeI digests and rapid polymorphic DNA PCR with five primers demonstrated a single clone amongst clinical isolates and isolates cultured from the environment that was commonly used by children from whom the clinical isolates were derived. We concluded that individuals in this region most probably acquired the organism through close contact with the environment at these sites. Burkholderia thailandensis, a closely related Burkholderia sp. was isolated from 5.5% of samples tested, an observation similar to that of melioidosis-endemic areas in Thailand. This is the first report of an environmental reservoir for melioidosis in PNG and confirms the Balimo district in PNG as melioidosis endemic. PMID:17714600

  20. The primacy of politics: charting the governance of the Papua New Guinea health system since independence.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To chart the course of health governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since Independence, this article identifies two arks of public sector administration in PNG. Each was instigated by the passing of an Organic Law. The reform periods presaged by the Organic Law on Provincial Government 1976 (OLPG) and the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments 1995 (OLPGLLG) have fundamentally transformed the political and administrative structures governing the country, and in particularly those relating to health. Comparing the organization of the government-operated health system during each of these reform periods not only reveals why PNG's health services have struggled to improve since Independence, but also casts light on the key drivers of fundamental reforms in PNG. Ultimately, the exercise illustrates the 'primacy of politics', and why political concerns invariably trump service delivery concerns. PMID:21877576

  1. Potential transport pathways of terrigenous material in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Timothy R.; Ko, Dong Shan; Slingerland, Rudy L.; Riedlinger, Shelley; Flynn, Peter

    2006-02-01

    This work discusses potential transport pathways of terrigenous material in the Gulf of Papua (GoP), New Guinea, using Lagrangian tracers as proxies for clay minerals and finer particles. The tracers are transported by currents from the East Asia Seas implementation of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model. The results suggest that clay minerals input from rivers along the northwest coast of the GoP accumulate on the inner shelf with high concentrations near the mouth of the Fly and Purari Rivers. Finer particles, which are also representative of dissolved metals, are transported eastward along the GoP coast into the Solomon Sea as well as into the Torres Strait to the west. The results also suggest that some finer particles are entrained by eddies within the northern Coral Sea. These results are in qualitative agreement with observations from the region.

  2. Variation in malaria endemicity in relation to microenvironmental conditions in the Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ataka, Y; Ohtsuka, R; Inaoka, T; Kawabata, M; Ohashi, J; Matsushita, M; Tokunaga, K; Kano, S; Suzuki, M

    2001-01-01

    For 197 adults and adolescents in four villages of three small islands in the Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea, antimalarial antibody titers were examined using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and malaria parasites were detected by the microtiter plate hybridisation (MPH) method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The parasite rate (either Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax, or both) averaged 39.2%, varying from 31.1% to 44.8% among the four villages due to natural and artificial microenvironmental conditions related to breeding sites of mosquitoes (Anopheles farauti). The lack of flat zones owing to geomorphological formation contributed to the lowest parasite rate in the extremely small island. However, human-modified environments such as a wet-land (naturally formed but artificially reformed) and an open well played significant roles in other inter-village differences. The present findings imply significant roles of microenvironment in diversified malaria prevalence and suggest some ways of mitigation of malarial hazards.

  3. Female spirit cults as a window on gender relations in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P J; Strathern, A

    1999-09-01

    Early writings on male cults in the highlands of Papua New Guinea tended to stress the exclusion of women and the collective agency of men. Looking at a subset of these cults from the Western and Southern Highlands Provinces, centering on Female Spirit figures, the authors argue that in these cases the cults are better understood as expressions of a collaborative model, in which gendered cooperation, both in practice and in terms of ritual symbolism, is activated in order to produce fertility and wealth. Positive collaboration is involved as well as structural complementarity. The collaborative model is therefore suggested as an alternative to the model of "male exclusivity" in the analysis of certain cult practices in these parts of the New Guinea highlands region. PMID:12296236

  4. The primacy of politics: charting the governance of the Papua New Guinea health system since independence.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To chart the course of health governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since Independence, this article identifies two arks of public sector administration in PNG. Each was instigated by the passing of an Organic Law. The reform periods presaged by the Organic Law on Provincial Government 1976 (OLPG) and the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments 1995 (OLPGLLG) have fundamentally transformed the political and administrative structures governing the country, and in particularly those relating to health. Comparing the organization of the government-operated health system during each of these reform periods not only reveals why PNG's health services have struggled to improve since Independence, but also casts light on the key drivers of fundamental reforms in PNG. Ultimately, the exercise illustrates the 'primacy of politics', and why political concerns invariably trump service delivery concerns.

  5. Tourism as science and science as tourism: environment, society, self, and other in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    West, Paige

    2008-08-01

    The experience of villagers in Maimafu, in the Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, calls attention to two forms of social interaction between rural people and outsiders that have been little examined in the anthropological literature. One of these is scientific research and the other is scientific tourism, a form of ecotourism that is linked not to science but to self-fashioning and individual gain. Scientific tourists may be seeking an educational adventure that they can turn into symbolic capital on their return home, a way into the world of science, or an experience that can be turned into economic capital through publication in popular magazines. For both researchers and scientific journalists, New Guinea combines the exotic, the about-to-be-lost, the primitive, the untouched, and the spectacular and is therefore a powerful space for imaginary and representational practice.

  6. Occasional parasitic infections of man in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya (New Guinea).

    PubMed

    Barnish, G; Ashford, R W

    1989-04-01

    Most parasites of man in New Guinea are cosmopolitan species, widely distributed and highly prevalent in the island. Reports of other parasite infections are reviewed. This impoverished fauna includes anthroponotic species normally occurring at low prevalences, e.g. Isospora belli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis and a few zoonotic forms with pigs as reservoir hosts, notably Balantidium coli and Entamoeba polecki. Other zoonoses are very few and extremely rare. This may be due to the reduced placental mammal fauna. The potential for the spread of Taenia solium infection is highlighted, as is the unique zoogeographical distribution of the Strongloides species resembling S. fuelleborni. Enterobius gregorii is recorded for the first time from Papua New Guinea. PMID:2690759

  7. Six new species of Philiris Röber, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Six new species of the large lycaenid genus Philiris Röber, 1891 (Philiris petriei sp. n., Philiris bubalisatina sp. n., Philiris baiteta sp. n., Philiris radicala sp. n., Philiris hindenburgensis sp. n. and Philiris parsonsi sp. n.), from Papua New Guinea, are described and illustrated, as are the early stages of the former taxon, with Litsea sp. near callophyllantha K. Schum (Lauraceae) recorded as the larval food plant. The holotypes of all but the latter are deposited in the ANIC, with that of P. parsonsi located in the BMNH. The external facies and male genitalia of all new species are compared in detail to putative known related species, and the types of these, in nearly all cases, are also illustrated. PMID:24715788

  8. Impact of male circumcision on the HIV epidemic in Papua New Guinea: a country with extensive foreskin cutting practices.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard T; Vallely, Andrew; Wilson, David P; Kaldor, John; MacLaren, David; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Siba, Peter; Murray, John M

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which adult medical male circumcision (MC) programs can reduce new HIV infections in a moderate HIV prevalence country like Papua New Guinea (PNG) are uncertain especially given the widespread prevalence of longitudinal foreskin cuts among adult males. We estimated the likely impact of a medical MC intervention in PNG using a mathematical model of HIV transmission. The model was age-structured and incorporated separate components for sex, rural/urban, men who have sex with men and female sex workers. Country-specific data of the prevalence of foreskin cuts, sexually transmitted infections, condom usage, and the acceptability of MC were obtained by our group through related studies. If longitudinal foreskin cutting has a protective efficacy of 20% compared to 60% for MC, then providing MC to 20% of uncut males from 2012 would require 376,000 procedures, avert 7,900 HIV infections by 2032, and require 143 MC per averted infection. Targeting uncut urban youths would achieve the most cost effective returns of 54 MC per HIV infection averted. These numbers of MC required to avert an HIV infection change little even with coverage up to 80% of men. The greater the protective efficacy of longitudinal foreskin cuts against HIV acquisition, the less impact MC interventions will have. Dependent on this efficacy, increasing condom use could have a much greater impact with a 10 percentage point increase averting 18,400 infections over this same period. MC programs could be effective in reducing HIV infections in PNG, particularly in high prevalence populations. However the overall impact is highly dependent on the protective efficacy of existing longitudinal foreskin cutting in preventing HIV.

  9. Health Worker Compliance with a ‘Test And Treat’ Malaria Case Management Protocol in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Pulford, Justin; Smith, Iso; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Hetzel, Manuel W.

    2016-01-01

    The Papua New Guinea (PNG) Department of Health introduced a ‘test and treat’ malaria case management protocol in 2011. This study assesses health worker compliance with the test and treat protocol on a wide range of measures, examines self-reported barriers to health worker compliance as well as health worker attitudes towards the test and treat protocol. Data were collected by cross-sectional survey conducted in randomly selected primary health care facilities in 2012 and repeated in 2014. The combined survey data included passive observation of current or recently febrile patients (N = 771) and interviewer administered questionnaires completed with health workers (N = 265). Across the two surveys, 77.6% of patients were tested for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy, 65.6% of confirmed malaria cases were prescribed the correct antimalarials and 15.3% of febrile patients who tested negative for malaria infection were incorrectly prescribed an antimalarial. Overall compliance with a strictly defined test and treat protocol was 62.8%. A reluctance to test current/recently febrile patients for malaria infection by RDT or microscopy in the absence of acute malaria symptoms, reserving recommended antimalarials for confirmed malaria cases only and choosing to clinically diagnose a malaria infection, despite a negative RDT result were the most frequently reported barriers to protocol compliance. Attitudinal support for the test and treat protocol, as assessed by a nine-item measure, improved across time. In conclusion, health worker compliance with the full test and treat malaria protocol requires improvement in PNG and additional health worker support will likely be required to achieve this. The broader evidence base would suggest any such support should be delivered over a longer period of time, be multi-dimensional and multi-modal. PMID:27391594

  10. Alternating seismic uplift and subsidence in the late Holocene at Madang, Papua New Guinea: Evidence from raised reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudhope, Alexander W.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Chilcott, Colin P.; Berryman, Kelvin R.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Jebb, Matthew; Lipps, Jere H.; Pearce, Robert G.; Scoffm, Terence P.; Shimmield, Graham B.

    2000-06-01

    Well-preserved mid-late Holocene coral reefs are exposed in low coastal cliffs in the vicinity of the Madang lagoon on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. Results from U/Th and 14C dating of corals, surveying, and field mapping indicate several major changes in relative sea level over this period. Specifically, there is evidence for a relative sea level fall of ≥4.5 m about 3000 calendar years B.P., followed by relative sea level rises of ˜1.5 m about 2400 calendar years B.P. and ≥0.5 m about 1200 calendar years B.P. and a subsequent relative sea level fall of ≥3 m some time in the past 1000 years. Since regional eustatic sea levels are believed to have been dropping gradually over this time frame, these observed changes in relative sea level are interpreted as reflecting alternating tectonic uplift and subsidence. Furthermore, the detailed structure and age relationships of the coral deposits indicate that both uplift and subsidence occurred rapidly, most probably as coseismic events with vertical displacements of 0.5 to 4.5 m. These events may be related to rupture on NW-SE trending reverse faults which have been mapped in the nearby Adelbert Range and possibly on NE trending cross faults which have been inferred from seismicity. This interpretation implies a much greater degree of tectonic instability and potential seismic hazard in the region than previously recognized, although the inferred coseismic vertical displacements are shown to be consistent with present-day local seismicity. In a broader context, the study illustrates how detailed analysis of vertical changes in coral reef structure and assemblages may be used as a sensitive indicator of changing relative sea level, capable of resolving century timescale events and reversals.

  11. The Papua New Guinea tsunamis from the 29 March and 5 May 2015 Mw 7.5 earthquake doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, M.; Gusman, A. R.; Harada, T.; Satake, K.

    2015-12-01

    We characterized tsunamis from the 29 March and 5 May 2015 Kokopo, Papua New Guinea Mw 7.5 earthquake doublet by applying teleseismic body-wave inversion and tsunami simulation. These events are the first instrumentally-recorded tsunamis from the New Britain subduction zone. Seismic body-wave inversions using various rupture velocities (Vr) showed almost similar source-time functions and waveform agreements but the spatial distributions of the slips were different. In this study, the rupture velocities were reliably estimated from joint use of seismic and tsunami data for the earthquake doublet; and they (i.e., 1.75 and 1.5 km/s) were smaller than typical Vr values for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The largest slips on the fault were similar (2.1 m and 1.7 m), but the different depths and locations yielded maximum seafloor uplift of ~ 0.4 m and ~ 0.2 m, respectively, which resulted in different tsunami powers. This indicates that even though the earthquake size and rupture durations are similar for an earthquake doublet, the resultant tsunami would be different, depending on the location and depth of the earthquake source, as well as water depth around the source. Simulations of hypothetical tsunami scenarios with large magnitudes of Mw 8.4 and 8.5 from the New Britain subduction zone showed that the shoreline tide gauge zero-to-crest amplitude can reach up to 10 m in Rabaul. Most of the tsunami was confined within the Solomon Sea indicating low tsunami hazards for far-field destinations such as Australia and New Zealand in the south. For other regions, ocean submarine ridges and island chains can significantly reflect back tsunami waves and limit the far-field reach of tsunamis.

  12. ENSO variability during MIS 11 (424-374 ka) from Tridacna gigas at Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayling, Bridget F.; Chappell, John; Gagan, Michael K.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11) from ∼424,000 to 374,000 yrs ago included one of the longest and warmest interglacials of the last 800,000 yrs, and is a potential analogue for the Holocene due to the similarity of Earth's orbital configuration at this time. The question of how the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) responds to warmer background climates remains unanswered and is critical to understand how the ENSO system will evolve under the influence of anthropogenic warming. In this study, we present a 35 yr-long, high-resolution record of MIS 11 climate variability in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) based on coupled measurements of skeletal Mg/Ca and δ18O in giant Tridacna gigas clams from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The δ18O of modern T. gigas from Huon Peninsula faithfully records sea surface temperature, salinity/rainfall and regional ENSO variability. The geochemical integrity of the MIS 11 T. gigas for recording paleo-ENSO events was established through trace element screening, detailed petrography and SEM analysis. The fossil T. gigas δ18O record indicates that ENSO was operating during a 35-yr window in MIS 11, but with fewer events of shorter duration compared to those experienced during the last 100 yrs. The suppressed ENSO variability in the MIS 11 T. gigas record corresponds with a reduction in the amplitude of the average annual cycle in δ18O values. Distinctive changes in local insolation seasonality, and T. gigas δ18O, brought about by changes in Earth's orbit, provide an additional geochronological constraint on the timing of reef growth at Huon Peninsula to around 402 ka during the MIS 11.3 sub-stage (∼424-395 ka).

  13. Host use and crop impacts of Oribius Marshall species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Wesis, P; Niangu, B; Ero, M; Masamdu, R; Autai, M; Elmouttie, D; Clarke, A R

    2010-04-01

    Oribius species are small flightless weevils endemic to the island of New Guinea and far northern Cape York, Australia. The adults feed externally on leaves, developing fruit and green bark, but their impact as pests and general host use patterns are poorly known. Working in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea, we carried out structured host use surveys, farmer surveys, shade-house growth trials and on-farm and on-station impact trials to: (i) estimate the host range of the local Oribius species; (ii) understand adult daily activity patterns; (iii) elucidate feeding habits of the soil dwelling larvae; and (iv) quantify the impacts of adult feeding damage. Oribius inimicus and O. destructor accounted for nearly all the Oribius species encountered locally, of these two O. inimicus was the most abundant. Weevils were collected from 31 of 33 plants surveyed in the Aiyura Valley, and a combination of farmer interviews and literature records provided evidence for the beetles being pestiferous on 43 crops currently or previously grown in the Highlands. Adult weevils had a distinct diurnal pattern of being in the upper plant canopy early in the morning and, to a lesser extent, again late in the afternoon. For the remainder of the day, beetles resided within the canopy, or possibly off the plant. Movement of adults between plants appeared frequent. Pot trials confirmed the larvae are root feeders. Quantified impact studies showed that the weevils are damaging to a range of vegetable and orchard crops (broccoli, capsicum, celery, French bean, Irish potato, lettuce, orange and strawberry), causing average yield losses of around 30-40%, but up to 100% on citrus. Oribius weevils pose a significant and, apparently, growing problem for Highland's agriculture. PMID:19366475

  14. Alternating seismic uplift and subsidence in the late Holocene at Madang, Papua New Guinea: Evidence from raised reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tudhope, A.W.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Chilcott, C.P.; Berryman, K.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Jebb, M.; Lipps, J.H.; Pearce, R.G.; Scoffin, T.P.; Shimmield, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    Well-preserved mid-late Holocene coral reefs are exposed in low coastal cliffs in the vicinity of the Madang lagoon on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. Results from U/Th and 14C dating of corals, surveying, and field mapping indicate several major changes in relative sea level over this period. Specifically, there is evidence for a relative sea level fall of ??? 4.5 m about 3000 calendar years B.P., followed by relative sea level rises of ???1.5 m about 2400 calendar years B.P. and ??? 0.5 m about 1200 calendar years B.P. and a subsequent relative sea level fall of ??? 3 m some time in the past 1000 years. Since regional eustatic sea levels are believed to have been dropping gradually over this time frame, these observed changes in relative sea level are interpreted as reflecting alternating tectonic uplift and subsidence. Furthermore, the detailed structure and age relationships of the coral deposits indicate that both uplift and subsidence occurred rapidly, most probably as coseismic events with vertical displacements of 0.5 to 4.5 m. These events may be related to rupture on NW-SE trending reverse faults which have been mapped in the nearby Adelbert Range and possibly on NE trending cross faults which have been inferred from seismicity. This interpretation implies a much greater degree of tectonic instability and potential seismic hazard in the region than previously recognized, although the inferred coseismic vertical displacements are shown to be consistent with present-day local seismicity. In a broader context, the study illustrates how detailed analysis of vertical changes in coral reef structure and assemblages may be used as a sensitive indicator of changing relative sea level, capable of resolving century timescale events and reversals. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Solving the supply of resveratrol tetramers from Papua New Guinean rainforest anisoptera species that inhibit bacterial type III secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rohan A; Beattie, Karren D; Xu, Min; Yang, Xinzhou; Yin, Sheng; Holla, Harish; Healy, Peter C; Sykes, Melissa; Shelper, Todd; Avery, Vicky M; Elofsson, Mikael; Sundin, Charlotta; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-12-26

    The supply of (-)-hopeaphenol (1) was achieved via enzymatic biotransformation in order to provide material for preclinical investigation. High-throughput screening of a prefractionated natural product library aimed to identify compounds that inhibit the bacterial virulence type III secretion system (T3SS) identified several fractions derived from two Papua New Guinean Anisoptera species, showing activity against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis outer proteins E and H (YopE and YopH). Bioassay-directed isolation from the leaves of A. thurifera, and similarly A. polyandra, resulted in three known resveratrol tetramers, (-)-hopeaphenol (1), vatalbinoside A (2), and vaticanol B (3). Compounds 1-3 displayed IC50 values of 8.8, 12.5, and 9.9 μM in a luminescent reporter-gene assay (YopE) and IC50 values of 2.9, 4.5, and 3.3 μM in an enzyme-based YopH assay, respectively, which suggested that they could potentially act against the T3SS in Yersinia. The structures of 1-3 were confirmed through a combination of spectrometric, chemical methods, and single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of the natural product 1 and the permethyl ether analogue of 3. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the β-glycoside 2 to the aglycone 1 was achieved through biotransformation using the endogenous leaf enzymes. This significantly enhanced the yield of the target bioactive natural product from 0.08% to 1.3% and facilitates ADMET studies of (-)-hopeaphenol (1).

  16. Effects of land use changes on kinetics of potassium release in sweetpotato garden soils of the highlands, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekhar Rao, B. K.

    2014-09-01

    The present study attempts to employ K release parameters to identify soil quality degradation due to changed land use pattern in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) gardens of Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Soils with widely differing exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents were successively extracted 569 h in 0.01 M CaCl2 and K release data was fitted to four mathematical models: first order, power, parabolic diffusion and Elovich equations. Results showed two distinct parts in the K release curves and 58-80% of total K were released to solution phase within 76 h (first 5 extractions) with 20-42% K released in the later parts (after 76 h). Soils from older gardens which were subjected to intensive and prolonged land use showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative K release potential than the gardens which are recently brought to cultivation (new gardens). Among four equations, first order and power equations best described the K release pattern and the constant b, an index of K+ release rates, ranged from 0.005-0.008 mg kg-1h-1 in first order model, and was between 0.14 and 0.83 mg kg-1h-1 in power model for the soils. In the non-volcanic soils, model constant b values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the volcanic soils thus indicative of vulnerability of volcanic soils to K deficiency. The food garden soils need management interventions either through improved fallow management or through mineral fertilizers plus animal manures to sustain productivity.

  17. Chronic malnutrition favours smaller critical size for metamorphosis initiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vijendravarma, R K; Narasimha, S; Kawecki, T J

    2012-02-01

    Critical size at which metamorphosis is initiated represents an important checkpoint in insect development. Here, we use experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to test the long-standing hypothesis that larval malnutrition should favour a smaller critical size. We report that six fly populations subject to 112 generations of laboratory natural selection on an extremely poor larval food evolved an 18% smaller critical size (compared to six unselected control populations). Thus, even though critical size is not plastic with respect to nutrition, smaller critical size can evolve as an adaptation to nutritional stress. We also demonstrate that this reduction in critical size (rather than differences in growth rate) mediates a trade-off in body weight that the selected populations experience on standard food, on which they show a 15-17% smaller adult body weight. This illustrates how developmental mechanisms that control life history may shape constraints and trade-offs in life history evolution.

  18. Soft Gamma-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, Francesca; Bassani, Loredana

    2016-07-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample consists of known and candidate radio galaxies. The sample extraction criteria will be presented and its general properties outlined. In particular we provide strong evidence that this soft gamma-ray selection favours the discovery of large size radio objects, otherwise known as Giant Radio Galaxies or GRG. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these sources are still unclear and this result suggests that they maybe related to exceptional internal properties of the source central engine, like a high jet power or a long activity time. Broad band analysis of new GRG, discovered during this work, will also be presented.

  19. The present and future of the most favoured inflationary models after Planck 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Miguel; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga

    2016-02-01

    The value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in the region allowed by the latest Planck 2015 measurements can be associated to a large variety of inflationary models. We discuss here the potential of future Cosmic Microwave Background cosmological observations in disentangling among the possible theoretical scenarios allowed by our analyses of current Planck temperature and polarization data. Rather than focusing only on r, we focus as well on the running of the primordial power spectrum, αs and the running thereof, βs. If future cosmological measurements, as those from the COrE mission, confirm the current best-fit value for βs gtrsim 10-2 as the preferred one, it will be possible to rule-out the most favoured inflationary models.

  20. Improving paediatric and neonatal care in rural district hospitals in the highlands of Papua New Guinea: a quality improvement approach

    PubMed Central

    Sa’avu, Martin; Duke, Trevor; Matai, Sens

    2014-01-01

    Background In developing countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), district hospitals play a vital role in clinical care, training health-care workers, implementing immunization and other public health programmes and providing necessary data on disease burdens and outcomes. Pneumonia and neonatal conditions are a major cause of child admission and death in hospitals throughout PNG. Oxygen therapy is an essential component of the management of pneumonia and neonatal conditions, but facilities for oxygen and care of the sick newborn are often inadequate, especially in district hospitals. Improving this area may be a vehicle for improving overall quality of care. Method A qualitative study of five rural district hospitals in the highlands provinces of Papua New Guinea was undertaken. A structured survey instrument was used by a paediatrician and a biomedical technician to assess the quality of paediatric care, the case-mix and outcomes, resources for delivery of good-quality care for children with pneumonia and neonatal illnesses, existing oxygen systems and equipment, drugs and consumables, infection-control facilities and the reliability of the electricity supply to each hospital. A floor plan was drawn up for the installation of the oxygen concentrators and a plan for improving care of sick neonates, and a process of addressing other priorities was begun. Results In remote parts of PNG, many district hospitals are run by under-resourced non-government organizations. Most hospitals had general wards in which both adults and children were managed together. Paediatric case-loads ranged between 232 and 840 patients per year with overall case-fatality rates (CFR) of 3–6% and up to 15% among sick neonates. Pneumonia accounts for 28–37% of admissions with a CFR of up to 8%. There were no supervisory visits by paediatricians, and little or no continuing professional development of staff. Essential drugs were mostly available, but basic equipment for the care of sick

  1. Northern Papua New Guinea: Structure and sedimentation in a modern arc-continent collision

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, L.; Silver, E. )

    1990-05-01

    Northern Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Sea are the site of a modern oblique, arc-continent collision, which is progressing from northwest to southeast. By combining offshore seismic data from the Solomon Sea with geologic mapping in the Markham Valley area of northern Papua New Guinea the authors are predicting the outcome of this collision. The Huon Gulf is the present site of initial collision. Seismic profiles show this area is dominated by thin thrust sheets. Onshore, the bulk of the uplifted accretionary wedge is a melange with exotic blocks of a variety of lithologies. Structurally below the melange lies the Leron Formation composed of thick channelized sandstone and conglomerate. It dips north at approximately 40{degree} and is cut by several thrust fault with associated folds. Limestone blocks within the melange are reported to be 2 Ma, and Beryllium 10 anomalies from Bismarck arc volcanoes suggest that initial collision of the Finisterre block (375 km northwest of the present collision point) began no earlier than 3 Ma. This implies the collision is propagating laterally at about 125 km/m.y.. Large outcrops of basalt and gabbro within the melange suggest that segments of oceanic crust were incorporated into the accretionary wedge. Modern sedimentation within the collision zone grades from fluvial sediments in the Markham Valley to deep-water turbidites ponded behind a structural ridge near the point of incipient collision. The Markham submarine canyon occupies the collision front here, and efficiently erodes the accretionary wedge. This setting may serve as a modem analog for deposition of much of the Leron Formation which exhibits tremendous sediment reworking.

  2. Tropical West Pacific moisture dynamics and climate controls on rainfall isotopic ratios in southern Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Donaldi S.; Thompson, Lonnie G.; Setyadi, Gesang

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the controls on stable isotopologues of tropical rainfall is critical for paleoclimatic reconstruction from tropical ice core records. The southern Papua region, Indonesia, has a unique climate regime that allows for the evaluation of the influence of precipitation and convective activity on seasonal rainfall δ18O. The influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on interannual rainfall δ18O variation is also important for paleoclimate reconstruction. Here we present stable isotope analyses of 1332 rain samples collected daily during the period from January 2013 to February 2014 (ENSO-normal) and December 2014 to September 2015 (El Niño) at various elevation stations (9 to 3945 m above sea level) on the southern slope of the central mountain ranges in Papua. The results suggest an altitude effect with an isotopic lapse rate for δ18O (δD) of -2.4‰/km (-18.2‰/km). The temporal δ18O variability (daily to interannual) is controlled mostly by regional convective activity rather than local/regional precipitation amount. The intraseasonal δ18O variation resembles the Madden-Julian Oscillation cycle with major δ18O depletion events associated with active (wet) phases. Moisture origins, transport pathways, moisture convergence, and raindrop evaporation appear to have no significant seasonal effects on δ18O, leading to the conclusion that condensation temperature controls δ18O depletion associated with convective activity. Seasonal δ18O variation is likely associated with atmospheric temperature at the mean condensation level as indicated by the altitude of latent heat release in the troposphere. Rainfall δ18O (δD) is generally enriched by 1.6‰-2‰ (11‰-15‰) during El Niño than during ENSO-normal periods.

  3. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and Against Special Creationism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, Robert

    2013-02-01

    In many places in The Origin of Species, Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as `Inference to the Best Explanation'. The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of consilience, that is, the way in which theories can get additional confirmation through unifying otherwise disparate and independent facts. Then it considers various forms of inference to the best explanation. The second part of the paper applies these methodological considerations to an analysis of some of the many passages in Origin where Darwin presents his case in favour of Natural Selection. This gives a far superior explanation of biological facts compared with Special Creationism which provides either an inferior explanation or no explanation at all. Contrary to the view that Creationism should not be taught, the passages from Darwin show at least that it should be understood if only to show that it offers no explanation of a wide range of obvious biological facts. As such the passages in Origin in which Darwin presents his case against Creationism can serve as a series of excellent exercises in getting students to think about Natural Selection as opposed to Creationism. For this reason alone they ought to be better known. In addition, Darwin's point in these passages can only be understood using principles of scientific method, such as inference to the best explanation, which are essential in showing that Natural Selection is to be preferred to Creationism.

  4. Gastrointestinal helminths (Cestoda, Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae) of Pogonomys loriae and Pogonomys macrourus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2014-11-28

    Pieces of cestode, not indentified further, and 12 species of nematode including 1 new genus, 3 new species and 7 putative new species from the Families Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae were collected from the digestive tracts of 16 Pogonomys loriae and 19 P. macrurous (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi and the heligmonellid Odilia mackerrasae have been described previously from endemic murids. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of ridges in the synlophe, length of spicules and having a vagina with a dorsal diverticulum. Odilia dividua n. sp. is larger than its congeners, has a longer oesophagus, relatively shorter spicules and larger eggs. Pogonomystrongylus domaensis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 7-10 ridges oriented sub frontally with a single left ventral ridge hypertrophied. Species richness of the nematode assemblages of P. loriae and P. macrourus are comparable to those of Abeomelomys sevia, Chiruromys vates and Coccymys rummleri when numbers of hosts examined are considered. Species composition was distinctive with 12, including the 7 putative species, of 14 species presently known only from species of Pogonomys. Similarities between the nematode fauna of endemic rodent hosts from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea were noted.

  5. [Parent-child interaction during activity and rest behavior of inhabitants of Trobriand Islands (Papua New Guinea)].

    PubMed

    Siegmund, R; Tittel, M; Schiefenhövel, W

    1995-01-01

    Sleep/activity patterns were continuously registered using microelectronic actometers on inhabitants of Tauwema (Papua New Guinea) who represent a traditionally living society. Results of analysis of parent-infant interactions of 4 families with infants of 1, 2, 5, and 11 months of age are presented. Results of power spectral analysis suggest that time patterns of mother-infant interactions are changing with the infants AE age. Consequences of this developmental process are discussed.

  6. A new species of Strongyluris (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from the lizard, Lophognathus temporalis (Sauria: Agamidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2013-12-01

    Strongyluris dracocola n. sp. from the intestine of Lophognathus temporalis collected in Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. Strongyluris dracocola n. sp. represents the 32nd species assigned to the genus and the sixth from the Australo-Papuan region. It can be easily separated from the other Australo-Papuan species because it is the only species to have an unpaired median papilla adjacent to the sucker.

  7. Nematodes from the caecum and colon of Pogonomys (Muridae: Anisomyini) from Papua New Guinea with the descriptions of a new genus of Oxyuridae (Nematoda: Oxyurida) and a new species of Trichuridae (Nematoda: Enoplida).

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2013-01-10

    Nematodes, comprising 2 species, a new genus from the family Syphaciidae and a new species from the family Trichuridae were collected from the lower digestive tracts of 4 species of Pogonomys; P. championi, Flannery (12 individuals), P. loriae, Thomas (14 individuals), P. macrourus, (Milne Edwards) (19 individuals) and P. sylvestris, Thomas (27 individuals) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Pogonomicola rugala n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Sypaciidae in having cervical alae with numerous folds and a single weakly defined mamelon. Trichuris germani n. sp. differs from all congeners, including the cosmopolitan T. muris, the only other trichurid reported from the region, by the lengths of the spicules and vagina, the ratio of anterior to posterior body length and the number of convolutions of the testis. The genus Pogonomys, with four species from four nematode families had a relatively rich helminth fauna in the lower digestive tract compared to other ansomyins studied. The Oxyuridae, with three genera comprising 5 species was the dominant group found in the lower digestive tract of the Anisomyini, indicating the possibility that the isolation of the old endemic rodents in New Guinea has been associated with a period of coevolution between anisomyin hosts and their syphaciine parasites.

  8. Cockle emergence at the sediment surface: 'favourization' mechanism by digenean parasites?

    PubMed

    Desclaux, C; de Montaudouin, X; Bachelet, G

    2002-11-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of digenean trematodes on indirect mortality of the cockle Cerastoderma edule, an infaunal bivalve. The tested hypothesis was that parasites altered the burrowing capacity of cockles and thus exposed them at the sediment surface, where they are more vulnerable to predators. If the predator is the final host, this mechanism, which drives the cockle out of the sediment, is considered as a 'favourization'. Cockle populations from 2 stations in Arcachon Bay (France)-Banc d'Arguin (oceanic situation) and La Canelette (lagoonal situation)--were sampled for 1 yr. At La Canelette, monitoring every 2 d showed that 50% of adult cockles regularly migrated to the sediment surface at a rate of 5 cockles m(-2) yr(-1) and disappeared in a few days. In the laboratory, 67% of these 'surface cockles' did not burrow again, suggesting that they would die in the field. Moreover, mortality measured after 7 d in the laboratory was 2 to 5 times higher than mortality of 'buried cockles', at both stations and particularly during summer. Species richness and abundance of digeneans from both stations were compared in 'buried' and 'surface' individuals to determine whether parasites played a role in cockle migration and mortality. Ten and 9 digeneans were found at Banc d'Arguin and La Canelette, respectively, with Himasthla quissetensis and Labratrema minimus being the most prevalent and abundant species at both stations. The abundance of H. quissetensis was slightly higher in surface cockles at Banc d'Arguin, but the difference fluctuated with station and cockle age (or size). L. minimus prevalence was only higher in surface cockles at La Canelette. In the latter station, we estimated that L. minimus and H. quissetensis were responsible for the emergence of 9 and 2%, respectively, of the buried cockles. Although this favourization mechanism may induce some mortality in cockles, it does not alone explain the magnitude of the observed

  9. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males.

    PubMed

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A F; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S

    2013-10-22

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC--dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  10. Future Climate Change Will Favour Non-Specialist Mammals in the (Sub)Arctics

    PubMed Central

    Hof, Anouschka R.; Jansson, Roland; Nilsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Arctic and subarctic (i.e., [sub]arctic) ecosystems are predicted to be particularly susceptible to climate change. The area of tundra is expected to decrease and temperate climates will extend further north, affecting species inhabiting northern environments. Consequently, species at high latitudes should be especially susceptible to climate change, likely experiencing significant range contractions. Contrary to these expectations, our modelling of species distributions suggests that predicted climate change up to 2080 will favour most mammals presently inhabiting (sub)arctic Europe. Assuming full dispersal ability, most species will benefit from climate change, except for a few cold-climate specialists. However, most resident species will contract their ranges if they are not able to track their climatic niches, but no species is predicted to go extinct. If climate would change far beyond current predictions, however, species might disappear. The reason for the relative stability of mammalian presence might be that arctic regions have experienced large climatic shifts in the past, filtering out sensitive and range-restricted taxa. We also provide evidence that for most (sub)arctic mammals it is not climate change per se that will threaten them, but possible constraints on their dispersal ability and changes in community composition. Such impacts of future changes in species communities should receive more attention in literature. PMID:23285098

  11. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  12. Moderate oxygen depletion as a factor favouring the filamentous growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

    PubMed

    Seder-Colomina, Marina; Goubet, Anne; Lacroix, Sébastien; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Esposito, Giovanni; Van Hullebusch, Eric D; Pernelle, Jean-Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Sphaerotilus natans is a neutrophilic iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganism that presents dual morphotype: single cells and ensheathed cells forming filaments. As S. natans has been proposed as a sorbent for inorganic pollutants and it is occasionally involved in bulking episodes, elucidating factors affecting its filamentous growth is of crucial interest. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a factor affecting S. natans filamentation from single cells. A method to quantify S. natans in its filamentous and single-cell morphotypes, based on a differential filtration procedure coupled with quantitative real-time PCR, was developed here. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to validate the filtration step. Under actively aerated conditions (DO maintained at 7.6 ± 0.1 mg l(-1)), S. natans grew mainly as single cells throughout the experiment, while a depletion in DO concentration (to ~3 mg l(-1)) induced its filamentous growth. Indeed, when oxygen was reduced the proportion of single cells diminished from 83.3 ± 5.9 to 14.3 ± 3.4% while the filaments increased from 16.7 ± 5.9 to 85.7 ± 3.4%. Our results suggest that oxygen plays a key role in S. natans filamentation and contribute to better understanding of the filamentous proliferation of this bacterium. In addition, the proposed method will be helpful to evaluate other factors favouring filamentous growth. PMID:25666377

  13. Endoreduplication and fruit growth in tomato: evidence in favour of the karyoplasmic ratio theory.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Christian; Bourdon, Matthieu; Pirrello, Julien; Cheniclet, Catherine; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Frangne, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    The growth of a plant organ depends upon the developmental processes of cell division and cell expansion. The activity of cell divisions sets the number of cells that will make up the organ; the cell expansion activity then determines its final size. Among the various mechanisms that may influence the determination of cell size, endopolyploidy by means of endoreduplication appears to be of great importance in plants. Endoreduplication is widespread in plants and supports the process of differentiation of cells and organs. Its functional role in plant cells is not fully understood, although it is commonly associated with ploidy-dependent cell expansion. During the development of tomato fruit, cells from the (fleshy) pericarp tissue become highly polyploid, reaching a DNA content barely encountered in other plant species (between 2C and 512C). Recent investigations using tomato fruit development as a model provided new data in favour of the long-standing karyoplasmic ratio theory, stating that cells tend to adjust their cytoplasmic volume to the nuclear DNA content. By establishing a highly structured cellular system where multiple physiological functions are integrated, endoreduplication does act as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth during tomato fruit development.

  14. Future climate change will favour non-specialist mammals in the (sub)arctics.

    PubMed

    Hof, Anouschka R; Jansson, Roland; Nilsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Arctic and subarctic (i.e., [sub]arctic) ecosystems are predicted to be particularly susceptible to climate change. The area of tundra is expected to decrease and temperate climates will extend further north, affecting species inhabiting northern environments. Consequently, species at high latitudes should be especially susceptible to climate change, likely experiencing significant range contractions. Contrary to these expectations, our modelling of species distributions suggests that predicted climate change up to 2080 will favour most mammals presently inhabiting (sub)arctic Europe. Assuming full dispersal ability, most species will benefit from climate change, except for a few cold-climate specialists. However, most resident species will contract their ranges if they are not able to track their climatic niches, but no species is predicted to go extinct. If climate would change far beyond current predictions, however, species might disappear. The reason for the relative stability of mammalian presence might be that arctic regions have experienced large climatic shifts in the past, filtering out sensitive and range-restricted taxa. We also provide evidence that for most (sub)arctic mammals it is not climate change per se that will threaten them, but possible constraints on their dispersal ability and changes in community composition. Such impacts of future changes in species communities should receive more attention in literature.

  15. Amplified mid-latitude planetary waves favour particular regional weather extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian

    2014-08-01

    There has been an ostensibly large number of extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the past decade. An open question that is critically important for scientists and policy makers is whether any such increase in weather extremes is natural or anthropogenic in origin. One mechanism proposed to explain the increased frequency of extreme weather events is the amplification of mid-latitude atmospheric planetary waves. Disproportionately large warming in the northern polar regions compared with mid-latitudes--and associated weakening of the north-south temperature gradient--may favour larger amplitude planetary waves, although observational evidence for this remains inconclusive. A better understanding of the role of planetary waves in causing mid-latitude weather extremes is essential for assessing the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of future planetary wave changes. Here we show that months of extreme weather over mid-latitudes are commonly accompanied by significantly amplified quasi-stationary mid-tropospheric planetary waves. Conversely, months of near-average weather over mid-latitudes are often accompanied by significantly attenuated waves. Depending on geographical region, certain types of extreme weather (for example, hot, cold, wet, dry) are more strongly related to wave amplitude changes than others. The findings suggest that amplification of quasi-stationary waves preferentially increases the probabilities of heat waves in western North America and central Asia, cold outbreaks in eastern North America, droughts in central North America, Europe and central Asia, and wet spells in western Asia.

  16. Moderate oxygen depletion as a factor favouring the filamentous growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

    PubMed

    Seder-Colomina, Marina; Goubet, Anne; Lacroix, Sébastien; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Esposito, Giovanni; Van Hullebusch, Eric D; Pernelle, Jean-Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Sphaerotilus natans is a neutrophilic iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganism that presents dual morphotype: single cells and ensheathed cells forming filaments. As S. natans has been proposed as a sorbent for inorganic pollutants and it is occasionally involved in bulking episodes, elucidating factors affecting its filamentous growth is of crucial interest. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a factor affecting S. natans filamentation from single cells. A method to quantify S. natans in its filamentous and single-cell morphotypes, based on a differential filtration procedure coupled with quantitative real-time PCR, was developed here. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to validate the filtration step. Under actively aerated conditions (DO maintained at 7.6 ± 0.1 mg l(-1)), S. natans grew mainly as single cells throughout the experiment, while a depletion in DO concentration (to ~3 mg l(-1)) induced its filamentous growth. Indeed, when oxygen was reduced the proportion of single cells diminished from 83.3 ± 5.9 to 14.3 ± 3.4% while the filaments increased from 16.7 ± 5.9 to 85.7 ± 3.4%. Our results suggest that oxygen plays a key role in S. natans filamentation and contribute to better understanding of the filamentous proliferation of this bacterium. In addition, the proposed method will be helpful to evaluate other factors favouring filamentous growth.

  17. Cross-talk between Ras and Rho signalling pathways in transformation favours proliferation and increased motility.

    PubMed

    Sahai, E; Olson, M F; Marshall, C J

    2001-02-15

    Transformation by oncogenic Ras requires the function of the Rho family GTPases. We find that Ras-transformed cells have elevated levels of RhoA-GTP, which functions to inhibit the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21/Waf1. These high levels of Rho-GTP are not a direct consequence of Ras signalling but are selected for in response to sustained ERK-MAP kinase signalling. While the elevated levels of Rho-GTP control the level of p21/Waf, they no longer regulate the formation of actin stress fibres in transformed cells. We show that the sustained ERK-MAP kinase signalling resulting from transformation by oncogenic Ras down-regulates ROCK1 and Rho-kinase, two Rho effectors required for actin stress fibre formation. The repression of Rho- dependent stress fibre formation by ERK-MAP kinase signalling contributes to the increased motility of Ras-transformed fibroblasts. Overexpression of the ROCK target LIM kinase restores actin stress fibres and inhibits the motility of Ras-transformed fibroblasts. We propose a model in which Ras and Rho signalling pathways cross-talk to promote signalling pathways favouring transformation.

  18. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males

    PubMed Central

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC-dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  19. Organic farming favours insect-pollinated over non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields.

    PubMed

    Batáry, Péter; Sutcliffe, Laura; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of landscape-scale management intensity, local management intensity and edge effect on diversity patterns of insect-pollinated vs. non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields. Nine landscapes were selected differing in percent intensively used agricultural area (IAA), each with a pair of organic and conventional winter wheat fields and a pair of organic and conventional meadows. Within fields, forbs were surveyed at the edge and in the interior. Both diversity and cover of forbs were positively affected by organic management in meadows and wheat fields. This effect, however, differed significantly between pollination types for species richness in both agroecosystem types (i.e. wheat fields and meadows) and for cover in meadows. Thus, we show for the first time in a comprehensive analysis that insect-pollinated plants benefit more from organic management than non-insect pollinated plants regardless of agroecosystem type and landscape complexity. These benefits were more pronounced in meadows than wheat fields. Finally, the community composition of insect-pollinated and non-insect-pollinated forbs differed considerably between management types. In summary, our findings in both agroecosystem types indicate that organic management generally supports a higher species richness and cover of insect-pollinated plants, which is likely to be favourable for the density and diversity of bees and other pollinators.

  20. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values.

    PubMed

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), with recorded values being higher at midday than on the following morning, have been interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of cycles of xylem conduits' embolism and repair. Recent reports have suggested that diurnal PLC changes might arise as a consequence of an experimental artefact, that is, air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems, even if under water, while under substantial tension generated by transpiration. Rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. In the present study, we show that xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements might favour xylem refilling and embolism repair, thus leading to PLC values erroneously lower than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. When xylem tension relaxation procedures were performed on stems where refilling mechanisms had been previously inhibited by mechanical (girdling) or chemical (orthovanadate) treatment, PLC values measured in stems cut under native tension were the same as those measured after sample rehydration/relaxation. Our data call for renewed attention to the procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory, and suggest that girdling might be a recommendable treatment prior to sample collection for PLC measurements.

  1. High serum levels of soluble CD44 variant isoform v5 are associated with favourable clinical outcome in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zeimet, A. G.; Widschwendter, M.; Uhl-Steidl, M.; Müller-Holzner, E.; Daxenbichler, G.; Marth, C.; Dapunt, O.

    1997-01-01

    In 96 ovarian cancer patients, the present study investigates the clinical significance of pretreatment concentrations of soluble CD44 standard (CD44s) and its isoforms v5 and v6 determined in the serum and the ascitic fluid by means of recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Furthermore, CD44 serum concentrations in the ovarian cancer patients were compared with circulating CD44 levels in 50 healthy age-matched female blood donors. Whereas CD44s was found to be higher and CD44v5 to be lower in ovarian cancer patients than healthy control subjects, no statistical difference between the two cohorts was revealed for CD44 isoform v6. In the ascitic fluid samples, variant isoform v5 and v6 were demonstrated at lower concentrations than serum. Multivariate analysis of overall survival demonstrated that a high pretreatment serum level of soluble CD44 isoform v5 is independently associated with favourable clinical outcome in ovarian cancer. When circulating CD44 isoforms were compared with a panel of serum parameters known to be involved in the immunological network, an inverse correlation between serum CD44v5 levels and indicators of cellular immune system activation, such as soluble interleukin 2 receptor, immunostimulatory protein 90K and neopterin, became apparent. PMID:9413956

  2. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  3. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-09-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of 'production diseases' in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  4. Mapping the Extent and Rate of Overbank Deposition Using Mine-Derived Sediment Tracers Along the Strickland River, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, S. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G. M.; Reibe, C.; Aalto, R.; Sanders, J.; Lauer, W.; Simpson, S. L.; Marshall, A.; Bera, M.

    2003-12-01

    As part of collaborative investigation among an NSF sponsored Margins Source to Sink research group, University of Papua New Guinea (PNG) researchers, Porgera Joint Venture (PNG), Ok Tedi Mining Ltd (PNG) and CSIRO (Australia), a field study is being conducted to map the extent and rate of overbank deposition along the Strickland River, which is the dominant drainage to the Fly River delta, Papua New Guinea. A key question is what proportion of the river's sediment load is deposited on the lowland floodplain before the river joins the Fly. Previous studies on the Fly River above the junction with the Strickland concluded that about 40% of the lowland sediment load is lost to the floodplain. It was hypothesized that the historically much higher load on the Strickland had lead to more rapid infilling of accommodation space and consequently current rates of deposition would be proportionately smaller than on the Fly. The Strickland River receives inputs of mine tailings and waste rock from the Porgera gold mine, which is situated at an elevation of 2,500 meters in the upper catchment of the river system. While the contribution to the overall sediment load of the river is small, the mine-derived sediments contain elevated concentrations of several metals and there is both a need to understand their transport, fate and the potential release of dissolved metals as they are transported through the system and an opportunity to use these metals as tracers of sediment transport and deposition. This paper summarizes studies undertaken to examine the extent of overbank deposition of mine-derived sediments in the lower reaches of the Strickland River. Sediment cores were collected along transects at six key points on the lower Strickland River floodplain during 1997 and 2003 and analyzed for a suite of trace elements. In 2003, additional cores were collected at 5 other transects and duplicate cores were collected at all transects for analysis of 210Pb. Particulate silver and

  5. Tropical Glaciers in the Common Era: Papua, Indonesia, Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru and Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution ice core stratigraphic records of δ18O (temperature proxy) demonstrate that the current warming at high elevations in mid- to lower latitudes is unprecedented for at least the last two millennia, although at many sites the Early Holocene was much warmer than at present. Here we discuss the interaction of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and warming trends as recorded in ice core records from high-altitude tropical glaciers and the implications of the warming trends for the future of these glaciers. ENSO has strong impacts on meteorological phenomena that either directly or indirectly affect most regions on the planet and their populations, particularly throughout the Tropics. Here we examine similarities and differences among ice core records from Papua (Indonesia), Quelccaya Ice Cap (Peru) and Kilimanjaro (Tanzania). Quelccaya, Earth's largest tropical ice cap, has provided continuous, annually-resolved proxy records of climatic and environmental variability preserved in many measurable parameters, especially oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios (δ18O, δD) and the net mass balance (accumulation) spanning the last 1800 years. The remarkable similarity between changes in the highland and coastal cultures of Peru and climate variability in the Andes, especially with regard to precipitation, implies a strong connection between prehistoric human activities and climate in this region. The well-documented ice loss on Quelccaya, Kilimanjaro in eastern Africa and the ice fields near Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia presents a possible analog for glacier response in the tropics during the Holocene. The ongoing melting of these ice fields is consistent with model predictions of a vertical amplification of temperature in the Tropics. A sequence of over 50 recently exposed, rooted, soft-bodied plant deposits collected between 2002 and 2011 from the retreating margins of the Quelccaya ice cap provide a longer term perspective for the recent

  6. Changes in patterns of growth and nutritional anthropometry in two rural modernizing Papua New Guinea communities.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    1995-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea growth is slow and adult body size is small. This is often considered an adaptation to the low energy and nutrient densities of the diets in which tubers and root crops predominate. Social and economic change have been a feature of Papua New Guinea, particularly in recent times. In 1969 the human biology of two contrasting communities, one coastal with a long interaction with external influences and cash cropping, the other a highland community with a history of more recent contacts, was investigated. In 1984 repeat measurements of nutritional anthropometry were made on the villagers and those born in the previous 14 years. The coastal boys and girls were taller and heavier in 1984 compared with 1969 but remained below the 5th percentile of reference North American data. Increases were also found in the highland children, particularly girls, but significantly lower means were found in children under 2 years. Although stunting was less common in the coastal children in 1984, 156 cases (37%) versus 175 cases (43%) (chi 2 = 7.69, rho < 0.05), wasting increased in prevalence from 11 cases (3%) to 20 cases (5%) (n.s.), either because of recent food shortages or because height change was greater than weight change. Stunting rose by 3% to 53% (165 cases) in highland children (chi 2 = 7.24, p < 0.05). In adults, heights were 2-3 cm greater in 1984 than 1969, and weights 2-3 kg greater, with peak differences in the 30-39-year-olds. The percentage of coastal women with body mass indices of less than 18.5 kg/m2 fell from 32% to 15% (chi 2 = 27.4, p < 0.01). Mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps skinfolds were significantly higher in all groups. National and regional data suggest that the communities were better off in 1984 than 1969, but social and economic changes were associated with variable benefits in growth and nutritional status. PMID:8815777

  7. Foreskin cutting beliefs and practices and the acceptability of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) reduces HIV acquisition and is a key public health intervention in settings with high HIV prevalence, heterosexual transmission and low MC rates. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), where HIV prevalence is 0.8%, there is no medical MC program for HIV prevention. There are however many different foreskin cutting practices across the country’s 800 language groups. The major form exposes the glans but does not remove the foreskin. This study aimed to describe and quantify foreskin cutting styles, practices and beliefs. It also aimed to assess the acceptability of MC for HIV prevention in PNG. Methods Cross-sectional multicentre study, at two university campuses (Madang Province and National Capital District) and at two ‘rural development’ sites (mining site Enga Province; palm-oil plantation in Oro Province). Structured questionnaires were completed by participants originating from all regions of PNG who were resident at each site for study or work. Results Questionnaires were completed by 861 men and 519 women. Of men, 47% reported a longitudinal foreskin cut (cut through the dorsal surface to expose the glans but foreskin not removed); 43% reported no foreskin cut; and 10% a circumferential foreskin cut (complete removal). Frequency and type of cut varied significantly by region of origin (p < .001). Most men (72-82%) were cut between the ages of 10 – 20 years. Longitudinal cuts were most often done in a village by a friend, with circumferential cuts most often done in a clinic by a health professional. Most uncut men (71%) and longitudinal cut men (84%) stated they would remove their foreskin if it reduced the risk of HIV infection. More than 95% of uncut men and 97% of longitudinal cut men would prefer the procedure in a clinic or hospital. Most men (90%) and women (74%) stated they would remove the foreskin of their son if it reduced the risk of HIV infection. Conclusion Although 57% of men reported some form of foreskin cut

  8. A review of the genus Potemnemus Thomson, 1864 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with description of a new species from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Henrik; Kvamme, Torstein

    2015-01-01

    All preserved type specimens and type series of the genus Potemnemus Thomson, 1864 from museum collections have been examined. The presented taxonomic study is based on examination of morphological characters as well as studies of the genitalia. The genitalia are described for the first time. The type of P. scabrosus Olivier, 1790 is lost, and the original drawing has been designated as a lectotype. The monospecific genus Parapotemnemus Breuning, 1971 nov. syn. is considered to be a junior synonym of Potemnemus Thomson, 1864 based on similarities in both external and male genitalia characters. Potemnemus wheatcrofti (Breuning, 1971) nov. comb. thus becomes a new combination. The holotype of P. wheatcrofti nov. comb. is lost, and a paratype ♂ has been designated as a neotype. Potemnemus nylanderi nov. sp. is described from the eastern parts of Papua New Guinea. The following new synonyms within the genus Potemnemus have been introduced: P. hispidus Gressitt, 1952 nov. syn. is a junior synonym of P. sepicanus Kriesche, 1923, P. detzneri Kriesche, 1923 nov. syn. is a junior synonym of P. trimaculatus Lea, 1918, and P. loriai Breuning, 1956 nov. syn. and P. triturberculatus Breuning, 1942 nov. syn. are both junior synonyms of P. scabrosus (Olivier, 1790). As a result of the present study the following species have been resurrected to species level: Potemnemus trimaculatus Lea, 1918 sp. res., P. wolfi Berchmans, 1925 sp. res., and P. thomsoni Lansberge, 1880 sp. res. The genus Periaptodes Pascoe, 1866 gen. res. has been resurrected as a valid genus based on differences in both external and male genitalia characters, and re-descriptions of the genera Potemnemus and Periaptodes are presented. Consequently, the following species have been transferred back to Periaptodes from Potemnemus: Periaptodes frater (Van de Poll, 1887), P. lictor Pascoe, 1866, P. olivieri (Thomson, 1864), P. potemnemoides Kriesche, 1936. P. testator Pascoe, 1866, P. paratestator Breuning, 1980. P

  9. Soft γ-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Venturi, T.; Molina, M.; Malizia, A.; Dallacasa, D.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of 64 confirmed plus three candidate radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample covers all optical classes and is dominated by objects showing a Fanaroff-Riley type II radio morphology; a large fraction (70 per cent) of the sample is made of `radiative mode' or high-excitation radio galaxies. We measured the source size on images from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at twenty-cm and the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey images and have compared our findings with data in the literature obtaining a good match. We surprisingly found that the soft gamma-ray selection favours the detection of large size radio galaxies: 60 per cent of objects in the sample have size greater than 0.4 Mpc while around 22 per cent reach dimension above 0.7 Mpc at which point they are classified as giant radio galaxies (GRGs), the largest and most energetic single entities in the Universe. Their fraction among soft gamma-ray selected radio galaxies is significantly larger than typically found in radio surveys, where only a few per cent of objects (1-6 per cent) are GRGs. This may partly be due to observational biases affecting radio surveys more than soft gamma-ray surveys, thus disfavouring the detection of GRGs at lower frequencies. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these large radio structures are still unclear with many parameters such as high jet power, long activity time and surrounding environment all playing a role; the first two may be linked to the type of active galactic nucleus discussed in this work and partly explain the high fraction of GRGs found in the present sample. Our result suggests that high energy surveys may be a more efficient way than radio surveys to find these peculiar objects.

  10. Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianduan; Koch, Felix S; Marcus, Claude; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ong, Ken K; Sobko, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood growth affects long-term health and could contribute to health inequalities that persist throughout life. Methods We compared growth data of 4-6 year old children born 1997-2002 in UK (n=15,168), Sweden (n=6,749) and rural China (n=10,327). Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated against the WHO Standard. Obesity and overweight were defined by International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs, and stunting, underweight and thinness by height, weight or BMI < −2 SDS. Associations with maternal education were standardised by calculating the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Mean SDS height, weight and BMI in UK (−0.01; 0.42; 0.62, respectively) and Sweden (0.45; 0.59; 0.45) were higher than in China (−0.98, −0.82, −0.29). Higher maternal education was consistently associated with taller offspring height SDS (SII: UK 0.25; Sweden 0.17; China 1.06). Underweight and stunting were less common in UK (prevalence: 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively) and Sweden (0.3% and 0.6%) than in China (9.5% and 16.4%), where these outcomes were inversely associated with maternal education (SII: −25.8% and −12.7%). Obesity prevalence in UK, Sweden and China was 4.8%, 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Maternal education was inversely associated with offspring obesity in UK (SII: −3.3%) and Sweden (−2.8%), but not in China (+0.3%). Conclusions Higher maternal education was associated with more favourable growth in young children: lower obesity and overweight in UK and Sweden, and lower stunting and underweight in rural China. Public health strategies to optimize growth in early childhood need to acknowledge socioeconomic factors, but possibly with a different emphasis in different settings. PMID:23450064

  11. Harmful and favourable ultraviolet conditions for human health over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Zhdanova, Ekaterina

    2014-05-01

    We provide the analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of ultraviolet (UV) radiation over Northern Eurasia taking into account for both its detrimental (erythema and eye-damage effects) and favourable (vitamin D synthesis) influence on human health. The UV effects on six different skin types are considered in order to cover the variety of skin types of European and Asian inhabitants. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1x 1 degree grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia, which can be of separate interest for the different multidisciplinary scientific applications over the PEEX domain. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol and cloud transmittance from different satellite and re-analysis datasets for calculating the solar UV irradiance at ground. Using model simulations and some experimental data we provide the altitude parameterization for different types of biologically active irradiance in mountainous area taking into account not only for the effects of molecular scattering but for the altitude dependence of aerosol parameters and surface albedo. Based on the new classification of UV resources (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we show that the distribution of harmful (UV deficiency and UV excess) and favorable UV conditions is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. The interactive tool for providing simulations of biologically active irradiance and its attribution to the different

  12. HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic value of HMGCR expression in colorectal cancer was examined. Findings Immunohistochemical expression of HMGCR was assessed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident cases of colorectal cancer in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Pearson’s Chi Square test was applied to explore the associations between HMGCR expression and clinicopathological factors and other investigative biomarkers. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between HMGCR expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) according to negative vs positive HMGCR expression. A total number of 535 (96.0%) tumours were suitable for analysis, of which 61 (11.4%) were HMGCR negative. Positive cytoplasmic HMGCR expression was associated with distant metastasis-free disease at diagnosis (p = 0.002), lack of vascular invasion (p = 0.043), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.033), expression of cyclin D1 (p = <0.001) and p21 (p = <0.001). Positive HMGCR expression was significantly associated with a prolonged CSS in unadjusted Cox regression analysis in the entire cohort (HR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66) and in Stage III-IV disease (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68), but not after adjustment for established clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions Findings from this prospective cohort study demonstrate that HMGCR is differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and that positive expression is associated with favourable tumour characteristics and a prolonged survival in unadjusted analysis. The utility of HMGCR as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant or adjuvant statin treatment in colorectal cancer merits further study. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http

  13. Intravaginal practices and microbicide acceptability in Papua New Guinea: implications for HIV prevention in a moderate-prevalence setting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The acceptability of female-controlled biomedical prevention technologies has not been established in Papua New Guinea, the only country in the Pacific region experiencing a generalised, moderate-prevalence HIV epidemic. Socio-cultural factors likely to impact on future product uptake and effectiveness, such as women’s ability to negotiate safer sexual choices, and intravaginal hygiene and menstrual practices (IVP), remain unclear in this setting. Methods A mixed-method qualitative study was conducted among women and men attending a sexual health clinic in Port Moresby. During in-depth interviews, participants used copies of a hand-drawn template to indicate how they wash/clean the vulva and/or vagina. Interviewers pre-filled commercially available vaginal applicators with 2-3mL KY Jelly® to create a surrogate vaginal microbicide product, which was demonstrated to study participants. Results A total of 28 IDIs were conducted (women=16; men=12). A diverse range of IVP were reported. The majority of women described washing the vulva only with soap and water as part of their daily routine; in preparation for sex; and following sexual intercourse. Several women described cleaning inside the vagina using fingers and soap at these same times. Others reported cleaning inside the vagina using a hose connected to a tap; using vaginal inserts, such as crushed garlic; customary menstrual ‘steaming’ practices; and the use of material fragments, cloth and newspaper to absorb menstrual blood. Unprotected sex during menstruation was common. The majority of both women and men said that they would use a vaginal microbicide gel for HIV/STI protection, should a safe and effective product become available. Microbicide use was considered most appropriate in ‘high-risk’ situations, such as sex with non-regular, transactional or commercial partners. Most women felt confident that they would be able to negotiate vaginal microbicide use with male sexual partners but

  14. Prehistoric birds from New Ireland, Papua New Guinea: Extinctions on a large Melanesian island

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; White, J. Peter; Allen, Jim

    1999-01-01

    At least 50 species of birds are represented in 241 bird bones from five late Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological sites on New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea). The bones include only two of seabirds and none of migrant shorebirds or introduced species. Of the 50 species, at least 12 (petrel, hawk, megapode, quail, four rails, cockatoo, two owls, and crow) are not part of the current avifauna and have not been recorded previously from New Ireland. Larger samples of bones undoubtedly would indicate more extirpated species and refine the chronology of extinction. Humans have lived on New Ireland for ca. 35,000 years, whereas most of the identified bones are 15,000 to 6,000 years old. It is suspected that most or all of New Ireland’s avian extinction was anthropogenic, but this suspicion remains undetermined. Our data show that significant prehistoric losses of birds, which are well documented on Pacific islands more remote than New Ireland, occurred also on large, high, mostly forested islands close to New Guinea. PMID:10051683

  15. Selenium intakes of children from rural Malawi and Papua New Guinea (PNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, U.; Gibson, R.S.; Ferguson, E.L.; Ounpuu, S.; Heywood, P. Papua New Guinea Inst. of Medical Research, Medang )

    1991-03-11

    Selenium intakes of 66 rural Malawian children aged 4-6 y consuming maize-based diets were compared with those of 67 Papua New Guinea (PNG) children aged 6-10 y with diets based on bananas, sweet potatoes, and sago. Representative samples of all staple foods consumed were collected, dried, ground and subsequently analyzed for Se by instrumental neutron activation analysis using {sup 77}Se. Median Se intakes for the Malawian children determined by weighed 3-day records at 3 seasons of the year were: harvest 20 {mu}g/d, 1.24 {mu}g/kg; postharvest 21 {mu}g/d, 1.24 {mu}g/kg; preharvest 15 {mu}g/d, 0.96 {mu}g/kg. For the PNG children the median intake during the rainy season, assessed from two 24 hr interactive recalls, was 20 {mu}g/d, 0.89 {mu}g/kg. Four food groups contributed to {ge}95% of the total Se intake for both the Malawian and the PNG children. Of the children, 55% of the Malawian and 87% of the PNG had average Se intakes {lt} US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA); 16% and 48% respectively, had intakes {lt}66% US RDA. Average Se intakes were below those reported for US and Australian children but above those of children from New Zealand where Se intakes are low.

  16. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Tewalt, S.J.; Hower, J.C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.

    2009-01-01

    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1??wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential.

  17. Erosion and sedimentation from the 17 July, 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, G.; Jaffe, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes erosion and sedimentation associated with the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami. Observed within two months of the tsunami, distinct deposits of a layer averaging 8-cm thick of gray sand rested on a brown muddy soil. In most cases the sand is normally graded, with more coarse sand near the base and fine sand at the top. In some cases the deposit contains rip-up clasts of muddy soil and in some locations it has a mud cap. Detailed measurements of coastal topography, tsunami flow height and direction indicators, and deposit thickness were made in the field, and samples of the deposit were collected for grain-size analysis in the laboratory. Four shore-normal transects were examined in detail to assess the shore-normal and along shore distribution of the tsunami deposit. Near the shoreline, the tsunami eroded approximately 10-25 cm of sand from the beach and berm. The sandy layer deposited by the tsunami began 50-150 m inland from the shoreline and extended across the coastal plain to within about 40 m of the limit of inundation; a total distance of up to 750 m from the beach. As much as 2/3 of the sand in the deposit originated from offshore. Across most of the coastal plain the deposit thickness and mean grain size varied little. In the along-shore direction the deposit thickness varied with the tsunami wave height; both largest near the entrance to Sissano Lagoon.

  18. Sex education to grade seven students in Papua New Guinea, yes or no?

    PubMed

    Bouten, M

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses the provision of sex education to grade 7 students in Papua New Guinea. Since officials in both the government and the Church are still hesitant on the question of including sex education in the curriculum, the author cites the reasons why there is a need to provide factual information about sexuality, STDs, and AIDS to everyone. Among the reminders given to decision-makers are the following: 1) nobody has ever become pregnant or become infected with an STD due to knowledge; 2) preventing people from gaining knowledge is a violation of their basic human rights; 3) there is no evidence to show that sexual knowledge itself leads to sexual experimentation, but there is much evidence that ignorance in this area leads to problems (e.g., abuse by peers, vulnerability to STDs, and pregnancy); 4) young people need to grow up and gain self-confidence; 5) true religion does not withhold knowledge. In the last part of this paper, some methods and practical advice on providing sex education are discussed.

  19. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Suzanne L; Monteleone, Brian D; Webb, Laura E; Fitzgerald, Paul G; Grove, Marty; Hill, E June

    2004-09-16

    As lithospheric plates are subducted, rocks are metamorphosed under high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure conditions to produce eclogites and eclogite facies metamorphic rocks. Because chemical equilibrium is rarely fully achieved, eclogites may preserve in their distinctive mineral assemblages and textures a record of the pressures, temperatures and deformation the rock was subjected to during subduction and subsequent exhumation. Radioactive parent-daughter isotopic variations within minerals reveal the timing of these events. Here we present in situ zircon U/Pb ion microprobe data that dates the timing of eclogite facies metamorphism in eastern Papua New Guinea at 4.3 +/- 0.4 Myr ago, making this the youngest documented eclogite exposed at the Earth's surface. Eclogite exhumation from depths of approximately 75 km was extremely rapid and occurred at plate tectonic rates (cm yr(-1)). The eclogite was exhumed within a portion of the obliquely convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, in an extending region located west of the Woodlark basin sea floor spreading centre. Such rapid exhumation (> 1 cm yr(-1)) of high-pressure and, we infer, ultrahigh-pressure rocks is facilitated by extension within transient plate boundary zones associated with rapid oblique plate convergence. PMID:15372021

  20. Strongyloides cf. fuelleborni and other intestinal helminths in Papua New Guinea: distribution according to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Barnish, G; Ashford, R W

    1990-08-01

    Age graded prevalence rates for Strongyloides cf. fuelleborni, hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris from various regions of Papua New Guinea were standardised using the standardised mortality technique. Using regression analyses on the resultant Standardised Prevalence Ratios (SPRs) of the four intestinal helminths and rainfall, altitude, slope and relief values, and population density for the various regions no environmental preference was shown which would account for their distribution. However, an examination of parasite distribution in relation to landform and rock type showed that Strongyloides was rare or absent from areas of limestone and polygonal karst although these substrates were quite suitable for other helminths. When the prevalence rates for each of the parasites were separated for high and low altitude (greater than 1,000 and less than 1,000 m a.s.l.) and then age standardised it was shown that there was no difference in hookworm prevalence rates for different altitudes. Both Ascaris and Trichuris had higher prevalences at the higher altitudes, whereas the reverse was true for Strongyloides. The data were also examined to determine whether there was any degree of association between the prevalence of one parasite and another. No association was established between hookworm and Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris or Ascaris and Trichuris. A positive correlation was demonstrated between hookworm and Strongyloides, although this appears to be a statistical rather than a real association.

  1. Prehistoric birds from New Ireland, Papua New Guinea: extinctions on a large Melanesian island.

    PubMed

    Steadman, D W; White, J P; Allen, J

    1999-03-01

    At least 50 species of birds are represented in 241 bird bones from five late Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological sites on New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea). The bones include only two of seabirds and none of migrant shorebirds or introduced species. Of the 50 species, at least 12 (petrel, hawk, megapode, quail, four rails, cockatoo, two owls, and crow) are not part of the current avifauna and have not been recorded previously from New Ireland. Larger samples of bones undoubtedly would indicate more extirpated species and refine the chronology of extinction. Humans have lived on New Ireland for ca. 35,000 years, whereas most of the identified bones are 15,000 to 6,000 years old. It is suspected that most or all of New Ireland's avian extinction was anthropogenic, but this suspicion remains undetermined. Our data show that significant prehistoric losses of birds, which are well documented on Pacific islands more remote than New Ireland, occurred also on large, high, mostly forested islands close to New Guinea. PMID:10051683

  2. Forest carbon in lowland Papua New Guinea: Local variation and the importance of small trees

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, John B; Henning, Bridget; Saulei, Simon; Sosanika, Gibson; Weiblen, George D

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to incentivize the reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation require accurate carbon accounting. The extensive tropical forest of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a target for such efforts and yet local carbon estimates are few. Previous estimates, based on models of neotropical vegetation applied to PNG forest plots, did not consider such factors as the unique species composition of New Guinea vegetation, local variation in forest biomass, or the contribution of small trees. We analysed all trees >1 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) in Melanesia's largest forest plot (Wanang) to assess local spatial variation and the role of small trees in carbon storage. Above-ground living biomass (AGLB) of trees averaged 210.72 Mg  ha−1 at Wanang. Carbon storage at Wanang was somewhat lower than in other lowland tropical forests, whereas local variation among 1-ha subplots and the contribution of small trees to total AGLB were substantially higher. We speculate that these differences may be attributed to the dynamics of Wanang forest where erosion of a recently uplifted and unstable terrain appears to be a major source of natural disturbance. These findings emphasize the need for locally calibrated forest carbon estimates if accurate landscape level valuation and monetization of carbon is to be achieved. Such estimates aim to situate PNG forests in the global carbon context and provide baseline information needed to improve the accuracy of PNG carbon monitoring schemes. PMID:26074730

  3. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Suzanne L; Monteleone, Brian D; Webb, Laura E; Fitzgerald, Paul G; Grove, Marty; Hill, E June

    2004-09-16

    As lithospheric plates are subducted, rocks are metamorphosed under high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure conditions to produce eclogites and eclogite facies metamorphic rocks. Because chemical equilibrium is rarely fully achieved, eclogites may preserve in their distinctive mineral assemblages and textures a record of the pressures, temperatures and deformation the rock was subjected to during subduction and subsequent exhumation. Radioactive parent-daughter isotopic variations within minerals reveal the timing of these events. Here we present in situ zircon U/Pb ion microprobe data that dates the timing of eclogite facies metamorphism in eastern Papua New Guinea at 4.3 +/- 0.4 Myr ago, making this the youngest documented eclogite exposed at the Earth's surface. Eclogite exhumation from depths of approximately 75 km was extremely rapid and occurred at plate tectonic rates (cm yr(-1)). The eclogite was exhumed within a portion of the obliquely convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, in an extending region located west of the Woodlark basin sea floor spreading centre. Such rapid exhumation (> 1 cm yr(-1)) of high-pressure and, we infer, ultrahigh-pressure rocks is facilitated by extension within transient plate boundary zones associated with rapid oblique plate convergence.

  4. Ensuring economic, health, and social well-being for Papua New Guinea through trade.

    PubMed

    Fa'alili-Fidow, Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of trade liberalization and open markets on global, regional, and local economies are a key consideration for those involved in government, business, and financial sectors. However, their impacts on health and social well-being of populations are not well-evidenced acknowledged within the health sector, let alone the impact on developing countries. As free trade becomes an inevitable outcome for many developing nations, the full implications of trade on economies, environments, and population health needs to be better articulated in order to ensure fully informed trade negotiations that support equitable outcomes. This article takes a broad look at the key issues for Papua New Guinea (PNG) in trade and how these translate to discrepancies in economic, health, and social benefits for its population. Despite its active trading and high GDP, only 10% of the population experience better economic and social outcomes. The bulk of PNG's population lives in poverty, challenged by geographical, cultural, and political barriers to better income, education, and health. Progress needs to be made to minimize these barriers and to allow more of PNG's population to experience the economic benefits generated through trade activities. A balance needs to be maintained between the desire of developed countries to broaden their markets, and the efforts of developing countries to promote and protect the health and well-being of their populations through increasing participation in global markets. PACER Plus presents an opportunity for pursuing alternative models of trade agreements that support and develop Pacific health.

  5. Impact of logging on aboveground biomass stocks in lowland rain forest, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jane; Shearman, Phil; Ash, Julian; Kirkpatrick, J B

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from logging are poorly quantified across the tropics. There is a need for robust measurement of rain forest biomass and the impacts of logging from which carbon losses can be reliably estimated at regional and global scales. We used a modified Bitterlich plotless technique to measure aboveground live biomass at six unlogged and six logged rain forest areas (coupes) across two approximately 3000-ha regions at the Makapa concession in lowland Papua New Guinea. "Reduced-impact logging" is practiced at Makapa. We found the mean unlogged aboveground biomass in the two regions to be 192.96 +/- 4.44 Mg/ha and 252.92 +/- 7.00 Mg/ha (mean +/- SE), which was reduced by logging to 146.92 +/- 4.58 Mg/ha and 158.84 +/- 4.16, respectively. Killed biomass was not a fixed proportion, but varied with unlogged biomass, with 24% killed in the lower-biomass region, and 37% in the higher-biomass region. Across the two regions logging resulted in a mean aboveground carbon loss of 35 +/- 2.8 Mg/ha. The plotless technique proved efficient at estimating mean aboveground biomass and logging damage. We conclude that substantial bias is likely to occur within biomass estimates derived from single unreplicated plots. PMID:21265444

  6. Cash cropping, subsistence agriculture, and nutritional status among mothers and children in lowland Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shack, K W; Grivetti, L E; Dewey, K G

    1990-01-01

    The influence of cash crop income, subsistence agriculture, and purchased foods on nutritional status was examined among three ethnic groups in lowland Papua New Guinea. In their home areas, these groups had been hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists, and hunter-gatherers with limited agriculture. Multiple regression revealed that cash crop income was positively associated with anthropometric status and energy intake among children. Expenditure on food was related to the child's arm circumference but not to nutrient intake. The amount of food planted in the garden was not related to child nutritional status. In contrast, the amount of food planted was positively associated with body mass index of mothers. Consumption of rice and fish was related to food expenditures. Nutritional status was better among families who were agriculturalists prior to resettlement than among hunter-gatherers. The former had more income from cash crops, smaller households, and planted more food in their gardens. Therefore, cash cropping need not decrease nutritional status if home gardens are maintained.

  7. Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations.

    PubMed Central

    Redd, A J; Stoneking, M

    1999-01-01

    We examined genetic affinities of Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations by using nucleotide variation in the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region (CR). A total of 318 individuals from highland Papua New Guinea (PNG), coastal PNG, and Aboriginal Australian populations were typed with a panel of 29 sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes. The SSO-probe panel included five new probes that were used to type an additional 1,037 individuals from several Asian populations. The SSO-type data guided the selection of 78 individuals from Australia and east Indonesia for CR sequencing. A gene tree of these CR sequences, combined with published sequences from worldwide populations, contains two previously identified highland PNG clusters that do not include any Aboriginal Australians; the highland PNG clusters have coalescent time estimates of approximately 80,000 and 122,000 years ago, suggesting ancient isolation and genetic drift. SSO-type data indicate that 84% of the sample of PNG highlander mtDNA belong to these two clusters. In contrast, the Aboriginal Australian sequences are intermingled throughout the tree and cluster with sequences from multiple populations. Phylogenetic and multidimensional-scaling analyses of CR sequences and SSO types split PNG highland and Aboriginal Australian populations and link Aboriginal Australian populations with populations from the subcontinent of India. These mtDNA results do not support a close relationship between Aboriginal Australian and PNG populations but instead suggest multiple migrations in the peopling of Sahul. PMID:10441589

  8. Field survey and preliminary modeling of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami at Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetya, T.; Harjadi, P.; Nugroho, C.; Okal, E.; Synolakis, C.; Kalligeris, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami was unexpectedly severe at Jayapura (2 S; 140 E), in the Easternmost part of the province of Papua, Indonesia, although it is clearly located outside the lobe of main radiation from the source. Although tidal gauge records did not exceed 80 cm at the harbor, run-up reached 2.8 m in the Southern part of the bay, characterized by very shallow dipping bathymetry. Several houses were destroyed in an ocean village, which fortunately had been evacuated following a warning issued by BMKG. One person was killed when the motorcycle he was riding was swept by the wave, apparently the only casualty of the tsunami in the far field. A river bridge was destroyed, and large shipping containers moved more than 100 m inland. A remarkable aspect of these observations is the papparent delay (at least 2 hours and possibly up to 7) of the main destruction, relative to the first arrival of the wave under the shallow water approximation. This tentatively suggests the influence of dispersed higher-frequency components. We will present the result of the survey and a discussion of preliminary modeling of the effect of bathymetric features in the Caroline basin, and of the non-linear response of the Bay of Jayapura in an attempt to explain the exceptional character of the tsunami at that location.

  9. A retrospective analysis of a community-based health program in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Helen Elizabeth Scott; Barclay, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    The Women and Children's Health Project was a large Australian funded aid Project that sought to improve the health of women and children in Papua New Guinea between 1998 and 2004. Community development and health promotion interventions aimed to increase community support for attended birth and children's health. Green and Kreuter's [Green, L. W. and Kreuter, M. W. (2005) Health Program Planning: An Educational and Ecological Approach, 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York] precede-proceed model of health program planning was applied retrospectively to critique the design, implementation and evaluation of the Project. An outcome evaluation (2006) provided data for this analysis and investigated long-term impact using a multi-methods approach. Application of the precede-proceed model was useful, but the model fails to sufficiently well identify 'inhibiting factors' as part of the educational and ecological assessment during the planning phase. Pre-defined objectives and contractually obligated outputs in a donor funded business model negatively influenced Project activity and outcomes. Despite this and the challenging context for implementation, Project interventions improved interaction between the community and health systems, and improved use of maternal child health services. PMID:19342392

  10. The timing of Late Pleistocene glaciation at Mount Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie; Barrows, Timothy; Hope, Geoff; Pillans, Brad; Fifield, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The highlands of New Guinea were the most extensively glaciated area in the Asian tropical region during the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for glaciation is widespread on most of the mountain peaks above ~3500 m. Glacial landforms include both valley and ice cap forms, but the timing of glaciation remains constrained to only a few local areas. This paper focuses on Mount Wilhelm, which is situated in the central southern region of Papua New Guinea at 5.78°S and is the highest peak (4510 m a.s.l.) We focus on a south easterly valley (Pindaunde Valley) emanating from the peak, where large moraines indicate the maximum ice extent of a valley glacier ~5 km long. Within this extensive moraine complex, recessional moraines document the retreat of the glacier towards the summit region. In order to determine the timing of deglaciation, we collected samples for surface exposure dating using 36Cl and 10Be from diorite boulders positioned on moraine crests. The ages indicate that maximum ice extent was attained during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that ice remained near its maximum extent until after 15 ka but persisted at higher elevations almost until the Holocene. These results are similar to those described from Mt Giluwe to the northwest of Mount Wilhelm, where an ice cap reached its maximum extent at the LGM and remained there for around 3-4,000 years. This indicates that full glacial conditions were only brief in this region of the tropics.

  11. Urogymnus acanthobothrium sp. nov., a new euryhaline whipray (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Last, Peter R; White, William T; Kyne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    The Mumburarr Whipray, Urogymnus acanthobothrium sp. nov. is described from a single specimen taken from the Cambridge Gulf, Western Australia, and from images of 10 other specimens from northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (all observed but not collected). It is a very large ray that attains at least 161 cm disc width, making it amongst the largest of the whiprays. The ventral tail below the caudal sting has a low, short-based fold. A ventral tail fold (or a dorsal fold) has not been recorded for any other himanturin stingray in the Indo-West Pacific. Molecular data suggest it is most closely related to a similar but more widely distributed cognate, U. granulatus. Both of these species share a suboval disc shape, similar squamation patterns, and the tail posterior to the sting is entirely white (at least in small individuals). U. acanthobothrium sp. nov. differs from U. granulatus in having a longer and more angular snout, longer tail, more posteriorly inserted caudal sting, lacks white flecks on the dorsal surface, and the ventral disc is uniformly white (rather than white with a broad black margin). It co-occurs with two other morphologically distinct Urogymnus in the region (U. asperrimus and U. dalyensis). Like U. dalyensis it occurs in both brackish and marine waters. A key is proved to the members of the genus Urogymnus. PMID:27515613

  12. A retrospective analysis of a community-based health program in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Helen Elizabeth Scott; Barclay, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    The Women and Children's Health Project was a large Australian funded aid Project that sought to improve the health of women and children in Papua New Guinea between 1998 and 2004. Community development and health promotion interventions aimed to increase community support for attended birth and children's health. Green and Kreuter's [Green, L. W. and Kreuter, M. W. (2005) Health Program Planning: An Educational and Ecological Approach, 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York] precede-proceed model of health program planning was applied retrospectively to critique the design, implementation and evaluation of the Project. An outcome evaluation (2006) provided data for this analysis and investigated long-term impact using a multi-methods approach. Application of the precede-proceed model was useful, but the model fails to sufficiently well identify 'inhibiting factors' as part of the educational and ecological assessment during the planning phase. Pre-defined objectives and contractually obligated outputs in a donor funded business model negatively influenced Project activity and outcomes. Despite this and the challenging context for implementation, Project interventions improved interaction between the community and health systems, and improved use of maternal child health services.

  13. Urogymnus acanthobothrium sp. nov., a new euryhaline whipray (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Last, Peter R; White, William T; Kyne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    The Mumburarr Whipray, Urogymnus acanthobothrium sp. nov. is described from a single specimen taken from the Cambridge Gulf, Western Australia, and from images of 10 other specimens from northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (all observed but not collected). It is a very large ray that attains at least 161 cm disc width, making it amongst the largest of the whiprays. The ventral tail below the caudal sting has a low, short-based fold. A ventral tail fold (or a dorsal fold) has not been recorded for any other himanturin stingray in the Indo-West Pacific. Molecular data suggest it is most closely related to a similar but more widely distributed cognate, U. granulatus. Both of these species share a suboval disc shape, similar squamation patterns, and the tail posterior to the sting is entirely white (at least in small individuals). U. acanthobothrium sp. nov. differs from U. granulatus in having a longer and more angular snout, longer tail, more posteriorly inserted caudal sting, lacks white flecks on the dorsal surface, and the ventral disc is uniformly white (rather than white with a broad black margin). It co-occurs with two other morphologically distinct Urogymnus in the region (U. asperrimus and U. dalyensis). Like U. dalyensis it occurs in both brackish and marine waters. A key is proved to the members of the genus Urogymnus.

  14. Survey of the capacity for essential surgery and anaesthesia services in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Janet; Tau, Goa; Cherian, Meena Nathan; Vergel de Dios, Jennifer; Mills, David; Fitzpatrick, Jane; Adu-Krow, William; Cheng, Davy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess capacity to provide essential surgical services including emergency, obstetric and anaesthesia care in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in order to support planning for relevant post-2015 sustainable development goals for PNG. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Hospitals and health facilities in PNG. Participants 21 facilities including 3 national/provincial hospitals, 11 district/rural hospitals, and 7 health centres. Outcome measures The WHO Situational Analysis Tool to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care (WHO-SAT) was used to measure each participating facility's capacity to deliver essential surgery and anaesthesia services, including 108 items related to relevant infrastructure, human resources, interventions and equipment. Results While major surgical procedures were provided at each hospital, fewer than 30% had uninterrupted access to oxygen, and 57% had uninterrupted access to resuscitation bag and mask. Most hospitals reported capacity to provide general anaesthesia, though few hospitals reported having at least one certified surgeon, obstetrician and anaesthesiologist. Access to anaesthetic machines, pulse oximetry and blood bank was severely limited. Many non-hospital health centres providing basic surgical procedures, but almost none had uninterrupted access to electricity, running water, oxygen and basic supplies for resuscitation, airway management and obstetric services. Conclusions Capacity for essential surgery and anaesthesia services is severely limited in PNG due to shortfalls in physical infrastructure, human resources, and basic equipment and supplies. Achieving post-2015 sustainable development goals, including universal healthcare, will require significant investment in surgery and anaesthesia capacity in PNG. PMID:26674504

  15. Hydrothermal venting within a coral reef ecosystem, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Thomas; Dix, George R.

    1996-05-01

    Shallow-water (5 10 m) hydrothermal venting in a nearshore coral reef environment at Ambitle Island in the Tabar-Feni island arc, east of Papua New Guinea, occurs as focused discharge of boiling fluid from discrete ports 10 15 cm in diameter, and as dispersed discharge of diffuse bubble streams that issue through the sandy mixed carbonate-volcaniclastic sea floor. Abiotic aragonite and microcrystalline ferroan, low-Mg calcite, interlaminated with Fe-oxyhydroxides, are the prominent hydrothermal precipitates. Geochemical attributes of aragonite (δ18O, δ13C, and fluid inclusions) suggest that cements formed from a solution with salinities <5‰ at temperatures of ˜100 °C, with probable contribution of hydrothermal CO2. Sr isotope ratios in abiotic (hydrothermal) aragonite (˜ 0.704 15) are similar to those in island-arc basalt and denote considerable subsurface water-rock interaction of meteoric water derived from the adjacent volcanic island. The Sr isotope ratio of a coral sample (0.707 46) collected adjacent to a vent portal suggests coral growth within a mixed seawater-hydrothermal environment.

  16. The contribution of church health services to maternal health care provision in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mapira, P; Morgan, C

    2011-01-01

    Access to maternal health services is one key to the reduction of maternal mortality in Papua New Guinea. Church health services (CHS) are known to administer around 45% of rural health facilities. We undertook a descriptive analysis based on health facility service provision data for 2009 from the National Health Information System (NHIS), supported by document review and interviews. We recoded NHIS data on facilities by administration by CHS or government health service, judged their capacity for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and analysed service provision for 2009. For rural services (i.e., outside of provincial capitals), CHS were recorded as providing 58% of health facility childbirth care and 38% of first antenatal visits. Obstetric referral patterns and facility capacity suggested many facilities were likely to have only basic EmOC and limited referral options. Nationally, CHS provided 21% of temporary methods of contraception (measured in couple-year protection) but 85% of referrals for permanent contraception. There was marked variation across provinces with clear implications for where health system strengthening could be beneficial to maternal survival. Our findings also disclosed gaps in the NHIS around monitoring of complicated childbirth and inclusion of community-based care. PMID:24494510

  17. Nutrient processes and chlorophyll in the estuaries and plume of the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Peter

    2004-12-01

    This paper investigates the waters of the Gulf of Papua during three cruises of the TROPICS (Tropical River Ocean Processes In Coastal Settings) programme. Plume characteristics were investigated during Leg 1 (May 1997), and estuarine properties during Leg 5a (September 1997) and Leg 7 (January 1999). During Leg 1 the plume was apparent as a well mixed layer up to 30 m deep extending offshore to a distance of 150 km off the Fly River. Lowest salinities were found off the Taruma Delta. Highest chlorophyll concentrations were found at the inner plume close to the river mouth. Dissolved phosphate and nitrate are removed in this zone, whereas silicate behaves conservatively. Primary productivity within the plume appears to rely upon recycled nutrients, with organic fractions representing the majority of the nutrient pool. In the estuaries nutrients were found to behave differently during the monsoon than during the low flow of the extremely dry conditions associated with the 1997 El Niño event. Normally the Fly is characterised by remineralisation of organic nitrogen in the upper estuary, but during drought conditions DON production and NH4+ uptake suggest that bacterial activity is more prevalent. Ocean Colour and Temperature Scanner imagery shows a number of features of the plume, but generally overestimates chlorophyll concentrations due to the effects of high suspended sediment concentrations and, to a lesser extent, coloured dissolved organic matter.

  18. Improving Health Worker Adherence to Malaria Treatment Guidelines in Papua New Guinea: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Message Reminder Service

    PubMed Central

    Kurumop, Serah F.; Bullen, Chris; Whittaker, Robyn; Betuela, Inoni; Hetzel, Manuel W.; Pulford, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether a text message reminder service designed to support health worker adherence to a revised malaria treatment protocol is feasible and acceptable in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The study took place in six purposively selected health facilities located in the Eastern Highlands Province (EHP) of PNG. Ten text messages designed to remind participants of key elements of the new NMTP were transmitted to 42 health workers twice over a two week period (two text messages per day, Monday to Friday) via the country’s largest mobile network provider. The feasibility and acceptability of the text message reminder service was assessed by transmission reports, participant diaries and group discussions. Findings indicate that the vast majority of text messages were successfully transmitted, participants’ had regular mobile phone access and that most text messages were read most of the time and were considered both acceptable and clinically useful. Nevertheless, the study found that PNG health workers may tire of the service if the same messages are repeated too many times and that health workers may be reluctant to utilize more comprehensive, yet complementary, resources. In conclusion, a text message reminder service to support health worker adherence to the new malaria treatment protocol is feasible and acceptable in PNG. A rigorous pragmatic, effectiveness trial would be justified on the basis of these findings. PMID:24116122

  19. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Two Piperaquine-Containing Artemisinin Combination Therapies in Papua New Guinean Children with Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sam; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Batty, Kevin T.; Kose, Kaye; Griffin, Susan; Siba, Peter M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Mueller, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic differences between piperaquine (PQ) base and PQ tetraphosphate were investigated in 34 Papua New Guinean children aged 5 to 10 years treated for uncomplicated malaria with artemisinin-PQ (ART-PQ) base or dihydroartemisinin-PQ (DHA-PQ) tetraphosphate. Twelve children received ART-PQ base (two daily doses of 3 mg of ART and 18 mg of PQ base as granules/kg of body weight) as recommended by the manufacturer, with regular clinical assessment and blood sampling over 56 days. PQ concentrations in plasma samples collected from 22 children of similar ages with malaria in a previously published pharmacokinetic study of DHA-PQ tetraphosphate (three daily doses of 2.5 mg of ART and 20 mg of PQ tetraphosphate as tablets/kg of body weight) were available for comparison. The disposition of ART was also assessed in the 12 children who received ART-PQ base. Plasma PQ was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, and ART was assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multicompartment pharmacokinetic models for PQ and ART were developed using a population-based approach. ART-PQ base was well tolerated, and initial fever abatement and parasite clearance were prompt. There were no differences between the two treatments in the values for the PQ area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞), with medians of 49,451 (n = 12) and 44,556 (n = 22) μg · h/liter for ART-PQ base and DHA-PQ tetraphosphate, respectively. Recurrent parasitemia was associated with lower PQ exposure. Using a two-compartment ART model, the median AUC0–∞ was 1,652 μg · h/liter. There was evidence of autoinduction of ART metabolism (relative bioavailability for the second dose, 0.27). These and previously published data suggest that a 3-day ART-PQ base regimen should be further evaluated, in line with World Health Organization recommendations for all artemisinin combination therapies. PMID:22470119

  20. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  1. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  2. Heterosis May Result in Selection Favouring the Products of Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, João; Potts, Brad M.; Lopez, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP) with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N) outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S) indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N) was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the products of

  3. Regional climate modulates the canopy mosaic of favourable and risky microclimates for insects.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Sinoquet, Herve; Combes, Didier; Casas, Jerome

    2007-05-01

    of the climatic regime experienced in open air outside canopies. Favourable and risky spots within the canopy do change as a function of the climatic conditions at the regional scale. The shifting nature of the mosaic of suitable and risky habitats may explain the observed uniform distribution of leaf miners within tree canopies. PMID:17439460

  4. The gastrointestinal helminths of Rattus niobe (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of two new genera and three new species (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2016-05-31

    Cestodes, to be identified elsewhere, the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and 15 species of nematode including 2 new genera, a new species and 2 putative new species from the families Heligmonellidae and Oxyuridae, as well as juveniles and a putative heligmonellid that could not be fully identified, were collected from the digestive tracts of 34 Rattus niobe (Muridae: Murinae: Rattini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The ascaridid, Toxocara mackerrasae, the chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi, the heterakid Heterakis sp., the spirurids Protospirura kaindiensis and P. muricola the subulurid Subulura andersoni and the trichurids Eucoleus sp. and Trichuris muris have been reported previously from endemic Rattus spp. Syphacia (Syphacia) niobe n. sp. was distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a round cephalic plate, the lack of cervical and lateral alae, a longer male tail and an attenuated female tail. Nugininema titokis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 10-17 ridges orientated subfrontally at mid body and 2 right ventral ridges hypertrophied anteriorly. Rodentanema aenigma n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe 6-7 ridges at mid body not symmetrical in relation to frontal axis. Species richness of the nematode assemblage was similar to that reported for Rattus leucopus in Papua New Guinea, with about 90% of possible species found as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Species composition included 6 species unique to R. niobe and 7 species reported from at least one other species of Rattus indigenous to New Guinea, as well as juvenile worms, probably ascaridids.

  5. The gastrointestinal helminths of Rattus niobe (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of two new genera and three new species (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2016-01-01

    Cestodes, to be identified elsewhere, the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and 15 species of nematode including 2 new genera, a new species and 2 putative new species from the families Heligmonellidae and Oxyuridae, as well as juveniles and a putative heligmonellid that could not be fully identified, were collected from the digestive tracts of 34 Rattus niobe (Muridae: Murinae: Rattini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The ascaridid, Toxocara mackerrasae, the chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi, the heterakid Heterakis sp., the spirurids Protospirura kaindiensis and P. muricola the subulurid Subulura andersoni and the trichurids Eucoleus sp. and Trichuris muris have been reported previously from endemic Rattus spp. Syphacia (Syphacia) niobe n. sp. was distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a round cephalic plate, the lack of cervical and lateral alae, a longer male tail and an attenuated female tail. Nugininema titokis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 10-17 ridges orientated subfrontally at mid body and 2 right ventral ridges hypertrophied anteriorly. Rodentanema aenigma n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe 6-7 ridges at mid body not symmetrical in relation to frontal axis. Species richness of the nematode assemblage was similar to that reported for Rattus leucopus in Papua New Guinea, with about 90% of possible species found as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Species composition included 6 species unique to R. niobe and 7 species reported from at least one other species of Rattus indigenous to New Guinea, as well as juvenile worms, probably ascaridids. PMID:27395168

  6. Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1995-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

  7. Persuading, protesting and exchanging favours: strategies used by Indian sex workers to win local support for their HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Flora; Shukla, Anuprita; Banerji, Riddhi

    2010-01-01

    Given that the communities which are most vulnerable to HIV often have little control over their own lives and their health-related behaviour, HIV prevention policies increasingly recommend that HIV prevention projects work to build relationships with powerful external groups (i.e., build "bridging social capital"). To aid conceptualisation of how community organisations may build such social capital, this paper outlines a typology of strategies for influencing local stakeholders. We present a study of two successful Indian sex workers' organisations, VAMP and DMSC, focusing on how the organisations have influenced three groups of stakeholders, namely police, politicians and local social organisations. Interviews with project employees (45), with representatives of the three groups of stakeholders (12) and fieldwork diaries recording 6 months of observation in each site provide the data. Three approaches emerged. "Persuading" refers to the practice of holding information-giving meetings with stakeholders and requesting their support. It appears to build "weak social ties". "Protesting" entails a collective confrontation with stakeholders, and appears to be useful when the stakeholder has a public image to protect that would be tarnished by protest, and when the protestors can stake a legitimate claim that their rights are being denied. In "exchanging favours", the sex workers' organisations find creative ways to position themselves as offering valued resources to their stakeholders (such as useful information on criminal activities for the police, a stage and audience for politicians or a celebration for local social organisations) as incentives for their support. In conclusion, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, the implications for social capital theorising and implications for community HIV prevention. PMID:21161773

  8. Persuading, protesting and exchanging favours: strategies used by Indian sex workers to win local support for their HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Flora; Shukla, Anuprita; Banerji, Riddhi

    2010-01-01

    Given that the communities which are most vulnerable to HIV often have little control over their own lives and their health-related behaviour, HIV prevention policies increasingly recommend that HIV prevention projects work to build relationships with powerful external groups (i.e., build "bridging social capital"). To aid conceptualisation of how community organisations may build such social capital, this paper outlines a typology of strategies for influencing local stakeholders. We present a study of two successful Indian sex workers' organisations, VAMP and DMSC, focusing on how the organisations have influenced three groups of stakeholders, namely police, politicians and local social organisations. Interviews with project employees (45), with representatives of the three groups of stakeholders (12) and fieldwork diaries recording 6 months of observation in each site provide the data. Three approaches emerged. "Persuading" refers to the practice of holding information-giving meetings with stakeholders and requesting their support. It appears to build "weak social ties". "Protesting" entails a collective confrontation with stakeholders, and appears to be useful when the stakeholder has a public image to protect that would be tarnished by protest, and when the protestors can stake a legitimate claim that their rights are being denied. In "exchanging favours", the sex workers' organisations find creative ways to position themselves as offering valued resources to their stakeholders (such as useful information on criminal activities for the police, a stage and audience for politicians or a celebration for local social organisations) as incentives for their support. In conclusion, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, the implications for social capital theorising and implications for community HIV prevention.

  9. Geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the evolution of volcanism in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Joseph P.

    The tectonic mechanisms producing Pliocene to active volcanism in eastern Papua New Guinea (PNG) have been debated for decades. In order to assess mechanisms that produce volcanism in the Woodlark Rift, we evaluate the evolution of volcanism in eastern PNG using 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology and whole rock geochemistry. Active volcanism in southeastern Papua New Guinea occurs on the Papuan Peninsula (Mt. Lamington, Mt. Victory and Waiwa), in the Woodlark Rift (Dobu Island, SE Goodenough Island, and Western Fergusson Island), and in the Woodlark Basin. In the Woodlark Basin, seafloor spreading is active and decompression melting of the upper mantle is producing basaltic magmatism. However, the cause of Pliocene and younger volcanism in the Woodlark Rift is controversial. Two hypotheses for the tectonic setting have been proposed to explain Pliocene and younger volcanism in the Woodlark Rift: (1) southward subduction of Solomon Sea lithosphere beneath eastern PNG at the Trobriand Tough and (2) decompression melting of mantle, previously modified by subduction, as the lithosphere undergoes extension associated with the opening of the Woodlark Basin. A comparison of 40Ar/39Ar ages with high field strength element (HFSE) concentrations in primary magmas indicates that HFSE concentrations correlate with age in the Woodlark rift. These data support the hypothesis that Pliocene to active volcanism in the Woodlark Rise and D'Entrecasteaux Islands results from decompression melting of a relict mantle wedge. The subduction zone geochemical signatures (negative HFSE anomalies) in Woodlark Rift lavas younger than 4 m.y. are a relict from older subduction beneath eastern Papua, likely in the middle Miocene. As the lithosphere is extended ahead of the tip of the westward propagating seafloor spreading center in the Woodlark Basin, the composition of volcanism is inherited from prior arc magmatism (via flux melting) and through time evolves toward magmatism associated with a rifting

  10. Microbial and metal water quality in rain catchments compared with traditional drinking water sources in the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Horak, Helena M; Chynoweth, Joshua S; Myers, Ward P; Davis, Jennifer; Fendorf, Scott; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2010-03-01

    In Papua New Guinea, a significant portion of morbidity and mortality is attributed to water-borne diseases. To reduce incidence of disease, communities and non-governmental organizations have installed rain catchments to provide drinking water of improved quality. However, little work has been done to determine whether these rain catchments provide drinking water of better quality than traditional drinking water sources, and if morbidity is decreased in villages with rain catchments. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water produced by rain catchments in comparison with traditional drinking water sources in rural villages in the East Sepik Province. Fifty-four water sources in 22 villages were evaluated for enterococci and Escherichia coli densities as well as 14 health-relevant metals. In addition, we examined how the prevalence of diarrhoeal illness in villages relates to the type of primary drinking water source. The majority of tested metals were below World Health Organization safety limits. Catchment water sources had lower enterococci and E. coli than other water sources. Individuals in villages using Sepik River water as their primary water source had significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea than those primarily using other water sources (streams, dug wells and catchments).

  11. The gastrointestinal helminths of Lorentzimys nouhuysi (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of two new genera and three new species (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2010-06-01

    Helminths, 3 cestode and 8 nematode species, including 2 new genera, 5 new species, and 1 putative new species, of nematode were collected from the digestive tracts of 23 Lorentzimys nouhuysi (Murinae; Hydromyini) from Papua New Guinea. Odilia wauensis n. sp. (Heligmonellidae) most closely resembles Odilia mallomyos Hasegawa and Syafruddin, 1994, but differs from this species in the detail of the synlophe ridges, the length and tip shape of the spicules, the absence of a gubernaculum, and the size of the eggs. Papuastrongylus kishinamiae n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Herpetostrongylidae in the form of the synlophe and spicules, the lack of a gubernaculum, and in being monodelphic. Syphacia lorentzimyos n. sp. and Syphacia mamelonitenuis n. sp. (Oxyuridae) differ from all other species in having a circular cephalic plate and from each other in that S. mamelonitenuis lacks lateral alae. Lorentzicola woolleyae n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Oxyuridae (Syphaciini) in having the peribuccal wall with denticles, a simple esophagus, and males with 3 mamelons of the Syphacia type. The helminth assemblage of L. nouhuysi did not resemble that of any other hydromyin rodent from the region studied thus far.

  12. Bundled turbidite deposition in the central Pandora Trough (Gulf of Papua) since Last Glacial Maximum: Linking sediment nature and accumulation to sea level fluctuations at millennial timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorry, StéPhan J.; Droxler, André W.; Mallarino, Gianni; Dickens, Gerald R.; Bentley, Sam J.; Beaufort, Luc; Peterson, Larry C.; Opdyke, Bradley N.

    2008-03-01

    Since Last Glacial Maximum (23-19 ka), Earth climate warming and deglaciation occurred in two major steps (Bølling-Allerød and Preboreal), interrupted by a short cooling interval referred to as the Younger Dryas (12.5-11.5 ka B.P.). In this study, three cores (MV-33, MV-66, and MD-40) collected in the central part of Pandora Trough (Gulf of Papua) have been analyzed, and they reveal a detailed sedimentary pattern at millennial timescale. Siliciclastic turbidites disappeared during the Bølling-Allerød and Preboreal intervals to systematically reoccur during the Younger Dryas interval. Subsequent to the final disappearance of the siliciclastic turbidites a calciturbidite occurred during meltwater pulse 1B. The Holocene interval was characterized by a lack of siliciclastic turbidites, relatively high carbonate content, and fine bank-derived aragonitic sediment. The observed millennial timescale sedimentary variability can be explained by sea level fluctuations. During the Last Glacial Maximum, siliciclastic turbidites were numerous when the lowstand coastal system was located along the modern shelf edge. Although they did not occur during the intervals of maximum flooding of the shelf (during meltwater pulses 1A and 1B), siliciclastic turbidites reappear briefly during the Younger Dryas, an interval when sea level rise slowed, stopped, or perhaps even fell. The timing of the calciturbidite coincides with the first reflooding of Eastern Fields Reef, an atoll that remained exposed for most of the glacial stages.

  13. Genetic diversity in captive and wild Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, based on mtDNA control region sequences.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Husband, Thomas P

    2009-05-01

    The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) population is at a critical point for assessing long-term viability. This population, established from 19 genetically uncharacterized D. matschiei, has endured a founder effect because only four individuals contributed the majority of offspring. The highly variable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced for five of the female-founders by examining extant representatives of their maternal lineage and compared with wild (n = 13) and captive (n = 18) D. matschiei from Papua New Guinea (PNG). AZA female-founder D. matschiei control region haplotype diversity was low, compared with captive D. matschiei held in PNG. AZA D. matschiei have only two control region haplotypes because four out of five AZA female-founder D. matschiei had an identical sequence. Both AZA haplotypes were identified among the 17 wild and captive D. matschiei haplotypes from PNG. Genomic DNA extracted from wild D. matschiei fecal samples was a reliable source of mtDNA that could be used for a larger scale study. We recommend a nuclear DNA genetic analysis to more fully characterize AZA D. matschiei genetic diversity and to assist their Species Survival Plan((R)). An improved understanding of D. matschiei genetics will contribute substantially to the conservation of these unique animals both in captivity and the wild.

  14. Examining the broader psychosocial effects of mass conflict on PTSD symptoms and functional impairment amongst West Papuan refugees resettled in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chan, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-05-01

    Mass conflict and displacement erode the core psychosocial foundations of society, but there is a dearth of quantitative data examining the long-term mental health effects of these macrocosmic changes, particularly in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional community study (n = 230) of West Papuan refugees residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, testing a moderated-mediation structural equation model of PTSD symptoms in which we examined relationships involving the psychosocial effects of mass conflict and displacement based on the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model, a trauma count (TC) of traumatic events (TEs) related to mass conflict, and a count index of current adversity (AC). A direct and an indirect path via AC led to PTSD symptoms. The ADAPT index exerted two effects on PTSD symptoms, an indirect effect via AC, and a moderating effect on TC. PTSD symptoms were directly associated with functional impairment. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings provide support for a core prediction of the ADAPT model, that is, that undermining of the core psychosocial foundations of society brought about by mass conflict and displacement exerts an indirect and moderating influence on PTSD symptoms. The path model supports the importance of repairing the psychosocial pillars of society as a foundation for addressing trauma-related symptoms and promoting the functioning of refugees.

  15. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    PubMed

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in June (0.87 μg L(-1)) and May (0.77 μg L(-1)) months of 2012 and 2013, respectively, than the rest of the months. However, free cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ∼3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution.

  16. Late quaternary deltaic and carbonate sedimentation in the Gulf of Papua foreland basin: Response to sea-level change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, P.T.; Pattiaratchi, C.B.; Keene, J.B.; Dalrymple, R.W.; Gardner, J.V.; Baker, E.K.; Cole, A.R.; Mitchell, D.; Gibbs, P.; Schroeder, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The rivers that drain the wet, mountainous island of New-Guinea discharge about 1.5 billion tonnes/yr of sediments into the adjacent seas, including the foreland basin between New Guinea and Australia. Despite this huge sediment input, there appears to have been only limited deposition in the Gulf of Papua during the (Holocene) postglacial rise in sea level. Seismic and core data indicate that the transgressive systems tract in the Gulf of Papua is thin and patchy. It is confined to regions within and north of an incised, east-west-trending shelf-valley system. Of the possible explanations for the absence of a significant transgressive systems tract, inland storage and along- and off-shelf transport of the sediment are of greatest significance. Reef growth up to the latitude of the east-west-trending incised-valley system in the southern Gulf of Papua is considered to have been facilitated by a northward-flowing coastal boundary current, the Coral Sea Coastal Current. This current now sweeps turbid, brackish waters and terrigenous sediments discharged by the rivers northwards away from the reefs. An observed northward offset in transgressive sediments in relation to the axis of the shelf valleys suggests that such a northward-flowing shelf current operated during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The northern limit of the Great Barrier Reef could thus be controlled by the balance between fluvial sediment supply and northward advection of suspended sediment by the Coral Sea Coastal Current. This current may also be important in maintaining a supply of clear water to the eastern Gulf of Papua, thus enabling photosynthesis and the flourishing of calcareous-algae (Halimeda) bioherms or biostromes at depths of up to 100 m over much of the middle and outer shelf, directly offshore of the modern Fly Delta. These carbonate sediments represent the exposed maximum flooding surface and condensed section. Modern highstand delta deposits have begun to prograde over this

  17. Protospirura kaindiensis n. sp. (Spirura: Spiruridae) and other helminths from Pseudohydromys (Muridae: Hydromyinae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2001-02-01

    One cestode and 3 species of nematodes are recorded from Pseudohydromys murinus and Pseudohydromys occidentalis (Muridae: Hydromyinae), from Papua New Guinea, for the first time. Heterakis fieldingi (Ascaridida: Heterakidea) has previously been known from Australia. Odilia sp. resembles Odilia praeputialis in the orientation of the synlophe and the number and size of ridges but differs in the length of spicule and lack of a praepuce. Protospirura kaindiensis n. sp. (Spirurida: Spiruridae) is readily distinguished from all other members of the genus by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae and the length of the spicules.

  18. Influence of sea level and monsoon variability on sedimentation in the Western Tropical Pacific, Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, M.; Peterson, L. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Dickens, G. R.; Droxler, A. W.; Opdkye, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Gulf of Papua (GoP) is a tropical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic system located along the southeast continental margin of Papua New Guinea. GoP sediments contain a record of late Quaternary climate changes at the edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool in an area seasonally influenced by movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Results are presented from a suite of sediment cores from the slope of the GoP that document changes in sediment delivery as a result of changes in sea level, monsoon strength, and climate. Patterns of sediment accumulation vary widely on both glacial-interglacial and millennial time scales. High siliciclastic flux occurs during MIS 2. However, even higher siliciclastic fluxes occur during the regressive periods from MIS 3 to 5 and as short pulses during the transgressions (MIS1/2 and 5/6). The greater siliciclastic flux is likely related to falling sea level during this time that remobilized shelf sediment and/or increased tidal scour. Alternating sandy/muddy turbidities and hemipelagic sediment in many trough cores during MIS 3 may be related to fluctuations in sea level and/or climate changes at millennial scale, such as the Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles or Antarctica Warm/Cold Intervals. Short warming events during MIS 3 are documented by Mg/Ca data from G. ruber. Siliciclastic fluxes on the Eastern Plateau are highest during MIS 5b and 5d, which correlate with high summer insolation over Australia that may have increased the strength of the monsoon resulting in an increase in precipitation over Papua New Guinea and a higher siliciclastic flux to the GoP. Initial estimates from paired Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope records from G. ruber indicate decreased salinity during these periods. Spectral analysis of elemental data from X-ray fluorescence shows predominant forcing by precession, but an obliquity signal is also present. In the Gulf of Papua changes in sea level and shelf geometry influence sediment delivery, but changes in climate

  19. Scenario Analysis for Programmatic Tuberculosis Control in Western Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; Waseem, Saba; Ragonnet, Romain; McBryde, Emma S

    2016-06-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) are major health problems in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. While comprehensive expansion of TB control programs is desirable, logistical challenges are considerable, and there is substantial uncertainty regarding the true disease burden. We parameterized our previously described mathematical model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dynamics in Western Province, following an epidemiologic assessment. Five hypothetical scenarios representing alternative programmatic approaches during the period from 2013 to 2023 were developed with local staff. Bayesian uncertainty analyses were undertaken to explicitly acknowledge the uncertainty around key epidemiologic parameters, and an economic evaluation was performed. With continuation of existing programmatic strategies, overall TB incidence remained stable at 555 cases per 100,000 population per year (95% simulation interval (SI): 420, 807), but the proportion of incident cases attributable to MDR-TB increased from 16% to 35%. Comprehensive, provincewide strengthening of existing programs reduced incidence to 353 cases per 100,000 population per year (95% SI: 246, 558), with 46% being cases of MDR-TB, while incorporating programmatic management of MDR-TB into these programs reduced incidence to 233 cases per 100,000 population per year (95% SI: 198, 269) with 14% MDR-TB. Most economic costs were due to hospitalization during the intensive treatment phase. Broad scale-up of TB control activities in Western Province with incorporation of programmatic management of MDR-TB is vital if control is to be achieved. Community-based treatment approaches are important to reduce the associated economic costs.

  20. Submicroscopic and Asymptomatic Plasmodium Parasitaemia Associated with Significant Risk of Anaemia in Papua, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Handayuni, Irene; Trianty, Leily; Utami, Retno A. S.; Tirta, Yusrifar Kharisma; Kenangalem, Enny; Lampah, Daniel; Kusuma, Andreas; Wirjanata, Grennady; Kho, Steven; Simpson, Julie A.; Auburn, Sarah; Douglas, Nicholas M.; Noviyanti, Rintis; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R.; Marfurt, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Submicroscopic Plasmodium infections are an important parasite reservoir, but their clinical relevance is poorly defined. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in southern Papua, Indonesia, using cluster random sampling. Data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for haemoglobin measurement. Plasmodium parasitaemia was determined by blood film microscopy and PCR. Between April and July 2013, 800 households and 2,830 individuals were surveyed. Peripheral parasitaemia was detected in 37.7% (968/2,567) of individuals, 36.8% (357) of whom were identified by blood film examination. Overall the prevalence of P. falciparum parasitaemia was 15.4% (396/2567) and that of P. vivax 18.3% (471/2567). In parasitaemic individuals, submicroscopic infection was significantly more likely in adults (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.82 [95%CI: 2.49–5.86], p<0.001) compared to children, females (AOR = 1.41 [1.07–1.86], p = 0.013), individuals not sleeping under a bednet (AOR = 1.4 [1.0–1.8], p = 0.035), and being afebrile (AOR = 3.2 [1.49–6.93], p = 0.003). The risk of anaemia (according to WHO guidelines) was 32.8% and significantly increased in those with asymptomatic parasitaemia (AOR 2.9 [95% 2.1–4.0], p = 0.007), and submicroscopic P. falciparum infections (AOR 2.5 [95% 1.7–3.6], p = 0.002). Asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections in this area co-endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax constitute two thirds of detectable parasitaemia and are associated with a high risk of anaemia. Novel public health strategies are needed to detect and eliminate these parasite reservoirs, for the benefit both of the patient and the community. PMID:27788243

  1. Porites corals as recorders of mining and environmental impacts: Misima Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, Stewart J.; White , Jamie C.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2002-01-01

    In 1989 open-cut gold mining commenced on Misima Island in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Open-cut mining by its nature causes a significant increase in sedimentation via the exposure of soils to the erosive forces of rain and runoff. This increased sedimentation affected the nearby fringing coral reef to varying degrees, ranging from coral mortality (smothering) to relatively minor short-term impacts. The sediment associated with the mining operation consists of weathered quartz feldspar, greenstone, and schist. These rocks have distinct chemical characteristics (rare earth element patterns and high abundances of manganese, zinc, and lead) and are entering the near-shore environment in considerably higher than normal concentrations. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we analyzed eight colonies (two from high sedimentation, two transitional, two minor, and two unaffected control sites) for Y, La, Ce, Mn, Zn, and Pb. All sites show low steady background levels prior to the commencement of mining in 1988. Subsequently, all sites apart from the control show dramatic increases of Y, La, and Ce associated with the increased sedimentation as well as rapid decreases following the cessation of mining. The elements Zn and Pb exhibit a different behavior, increasing in concentration after 1989 when ore processing began and one year after initial mining operations. Elevated levels of Zn and Pb in corals has continued well after the cessation of mining, indicating ongoing transport into the reef of these metals via sulfate-rich waters. Rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns measured in two corals show significant differences compared to Coral Sea seawater. The corals display enrichments in the light and middle REEs while the heavy REEs are depleted relative to the seawater pattern. This suggests that the nearshore seawater REE pattern is dominated by island sedimentation. Trace element abundances of Misima Island corals clearly record

  2. Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Mt Giluwe volcano, Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, T.T.; Hope, G.S.; Prentice, M.L.; Fifield, L.K.; Tims, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Mt Giluwe shield volcano was the largest area glaciated in Papua New Guinea during the Pleistocene. Despite minimal cooling of the sea surface during the last glacial maximum, glaciers reached elevations as low as 3200 m. To investigate changes in the extent of ice through time we have re-mapped evidence for glaciation on the southwest flank of Mt Giluwe. We find that an ice cap has formed on the flanks of the mountain on at least three, and probably four, separate occasions. To constrain the ages of these glaciations we present 39 new cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages complemented by new radiocarbon dates. Direct dating of the moraines identifies that the maximum extent of glaciation on the mountain was not during the last glacial maximum as previously thought. In conjunction with existing potassium/argon and radiocarbon dating, we recognise four distinct glacial periods between 293-306 ka (Gogon Glaciation), 136-158 ka (Mengane Glaciation), centred at 62 ka (Komia Glaciation) and from >20.3-11.5 ka (Tongo Glaciation). The temperature difference relative to the present during the Tongo Glaciation is likely to be of the order of at least 5 ??C which is a minimum difference for the previous glaciations. During the Tongo Glaciation, ice was briefly at its maximum for less than 1000 years, but stayed near maximum levels for nearly 4000 years, until about 15.4 ka. Over the next 4000 years there was more rapid retreat with ice free conditions by the early Holocene. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Benthic Communities as Indicators of Geological and Biogeochemical Processes in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, J. Y.; Dhir, S.; Chummar, J.; Dantzler, M. M.; Aller, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    Benthic communities inhabiting Gulf of Papua deposits play important roles in determining remineralization and material cycling processes at the seafloor. Faunal abundances, size-frequency distributions, functional groups, and vertical distributions reflect a spectrum of diagenetic depositional environments produced by variations in local sediment transport dynamics and coastal morphology. Thus faunal properties provide a basis for comparison of factors influencing sediment - overlying water interactions, elemental cycling, and material storage. During mid NW monsoon periods (Jan-Feb), macrofaunal densities at Gulf stations are generally low (260 to 1270 m{-2 }), large macroinfauna are absent in the upper ˜25 cm, and small (< 0.5 mm) surface deposit-feeding polychaetes and tubiculous amphipods dominate, reflecting a frequently destabilized seabed and high sedimentation / erosion rates. Although significant numbers of macrofauna have generally been found to be absent over large areas due to frequent physical disturbance, sedimentary structures demonstrate that many regions of the GoP deltaic complex are periodically extensively bioturbated by relatively large and deep-burrowing infauna. Additionally, faunal samples from February 2003 have significantly increased numbers of opportunistic polychaete and crustacean species relative to 1999 and 2000, indicating that there are periods of faunal colonization and community expansion. These changes may correlate with decreased riverine sediment input associated with El Niño conditions. While the macrofaunal community is relatively depauperate and apparently subject to inhibition by inhospitable physical conditions, the microbial community is highly active, diverse, and abundant throughout the upper ˜1m. The dominance of bacteria and microfauna rather than macrofauna in wet tropical environments like the GoP, contrasts with many reactive continental shelf mud deposits in temperate regions.

  4. Maternal work and childhood nutritional status among the Purari, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2003-01-01

    In traditional economies, body size, physical work capacity, subsistence productivity, and nutrition of adults may be interrelated, and one cross-generational effect of these relationships may operate through the household, influencing nutritional status of children. In this analysis, the relationships among adult body size, work productivity in terms of time spent making sago starch, dietary diversity, nutrient availability, and childhood nutritional status are examined in the Purari population of Papua New Guinea, a group largely dependent on the starchy staple palm sago, which is devoid of all nutrients apart from energy. Observations of work scheduling, household food and nutrient availability, and nutritional status were carried out for 16 women, their households, and their children. A multiple regression model of hours spent in sago making on a particular day with days spent in other subsistence activities showed a negative relationship with the number of days spent in sago-making and a positive relationship with the number of days spent fishing. The number of hours spent in sago-making on a particular day was also positively related to daily per capita availability of protein at the household level. This is not a function of maternal nutritional status, however, since there is no association between body size of adult females and the number of hours spent making sago on a particular day. Nor does the greater per capita protein availability at the household level in households where women spend longer on a particular day in sago-making result in improved childhood nutritional status. Since relationships among adult body size, work productivity, dietary diversity, nutrient availability, and childhood nutritional status are only partially demonstrated in this population, it may be that these linkages may only be important if physically arduous work is needed more consistently than is the case in the Purari delta.

  5. Geochemistry and microbial ecology in alkaline hot springs of Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Amend, Jan P

    2014-07-01

    The availability of microbiological and geochemical data from island-based and high-arsenic hydrothermal systems is limited. Here, the microbial diversity in island-based hot springs on Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea) was investigated using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Waramung and Kapkai are alkaline springs high in sulfide and arsenic, related hydrologically to previously described hydrothermal vents in nearby Tutum Bay. Enrichments were carried out at 24 conditions with varying temperature (45, 80 °C), pH (6.5, 8.5), terminal electron acceptors (O2, SO4 (2-), S(0), NO3 (-)), and electron donors (organic carbon, H2, As(III)). Growth was observed in 20 of 72 tubes, with media targeting heterotrophic metabolisms the most successful. 16S ribosomal RNA gene surveys of environmental samples revealed representatives in 15 bacterial phyla and 8 archaeal orders. While the Kapkai 4 bacterial clone library is primarily made up of Thermodesulfobacteria (74%), no bacterial taxon represents a majority in the Kapkai 3 and Waramung samples (40% Proteobacteria and 39% Aquificae, respectively). Deinococcus/Thermus and Thermotogae are observed in all samples. The Thermococcales dominate the archaeal clone libraries (65-85%). Thermoproteales, Desulfurococcales, and uncultured Eury- and Crenarchaeota make up the remaining archaeal taxonomic diversity. The culturing and phylogenetic results are consistent with the geochemistry of the alkaline, saline, and sulfide-rich fluids. When compared to other alkaline, island-based, high-arsenic, or shallow-sea hydrothermal communities, the Ambitle Island archaeal communities are unique in geochemical conditions, and in taxonomic diversity, richness, and evenness.

  6. Malaria morbidity in Papua Indonesia, an area with multidrug resistant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Karyana, Muhammad; Burdarm, Lenny; Yeung, Shunmay; Kenangalem, Enny; Wariker, Noah; Maristela, Rilia; Umana, Ketut Gde; Vemuri, Ram; Okoseray, Maurits J; Penttinen, Pasi M; Ebsworth, Peter; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance has emerged to both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum and yet the comparative epidemiology of these infections is poorly defined. Methods All laboratory-confirmed episodes of malaria in Timika, Papua, Indonesia, presenting to community primary care clinics and an inpatient facility were reviewed over a two-year period. In addition information was gathered from a house-to-house survey to quantify the prevalence of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of people with fever. Results Between January 2004 and December 2005, 99,158 laboratory-confirmed episodes of malaria were reported, of which 58% (57,938) were attributable to P. falciparum and 37% (36,471) to P. vivax. Malaria was most likely to be attributable to pure P. vivax in children under one year of age (55% 2,684/4,889). In the household survey, the prevalence of asexual parasitaemia was 7.5% (290/3,890) for P. falciparum and 6.4% (248/3,890) for P. vivax. The prevalence of P. falciparum infection peaked in young adults aged 15–25 years (9.8% 69/707), compared to P. vivax infection which peaked in children aged 1 to 4 years (9.5% 61/642). Overall 35% (1,813/5,255) of people questioned reported a febrile episode in the preceding month. Of the 60% of people who were estimated to have had malaria, only 39% would have been detected by the surveillance network. The overall incidence of malaria was therefore estimated as 876 per 1,000 per year (Range: 711–906). Conclusion In this region of multidrug-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum, both species are associated with substantial morbidity, but with significant differences in the age-related risk of infection. PMID:18673572

  7. Health assessment of free-ranging and captive Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Travis, Erika K; Watson, Patricia; Dabek, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Medical evaluations were performed on free-ranging and captive Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) in Papua New Guinea. The health assessment included physical examination, morphometrics, cloacal swab; and blood, hair, and feces collection. Radio-collars were placed on free-ranging tree kangaroos to determine home range and forest habitat use. The free-ranging tree kangaroos were lightly anesthetized with tiletamine/zolazepam for the data collection. A total of nine free-ranging and seven captive tree kangaroos were evaluated; medical samples were collected from six and five animals, respectively. Results of physical examination, anesthetic monitoring, serum vitamin, mineral, trace nutrient, and electrolytes, whole blood heavy metal analysis, mycobacterial screening, and fecal examinations are presented. Free-ranging tree kangaroos had significantly lower values for beta carotene, copper, selenium, molybdenum, lead, and arsenic and significantly higher values for vitamin E than captive individuals. Cloacal swabs were all negative for Mycobacterium avium via polymerase chain reaction. Some free-ranging and captive individuals had positive coprologic exams revealing Eimeria spp. oocysts and strongyle spp. type ova. These are the first medical and anesthetic data published on Matschie's tree kangaroos from Papua New Guinea.

  8. Transformations in Kinship, Land Rights and Social Boundaries among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea and the Generative Agency of Children of Interethnic Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schworer, Doris Bacalzo

    2012-01-01

    Among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea, children are active participants in the dynamics of kinship and identity construction. This article explores the transformative capabilities of children of interethnic marriages, particularly those with non-Wampar fathers. It examines children's notions of belonging and rights through their practices and…

  9. Cherax (Astaconephrops) pulcher, a new species of freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lukhaup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cherax (Astaconephrops) pulcher sp. n., from Hoa Creek, close to the village Teminabuan in the southern-central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the morphologically closest species, Cherax boesemani Lukhaup & Pekny, 2008. PMID:26019660

  10. Understanding Learning and Teaching in Papua New Guinea: Elementary Teacher Trainers Engaged in Cultural Authorship in the Context of National Educational Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne M.; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, Papua New Guinea (PNG) has pursued educational reform in elementary teacher education. Because elementary teachers and teacher education are central to the reform agenda, there is a need to gain empirical evidence about how PNG teacher trainers' understandings about learning and teaching impact on their practice. The study…

  11. Moving Away from the Package of Subjects Curriculum in the Secondary School: Some Insights into Possible Problems from an Attempted Innovation in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohoe, Denis J.

    In the early 1980's the Papua New Guinea Department of Education developed a plan to supplement the existing academic curriculum of the four elite matriculation colleges (Grades 11-12) with experiences that gave some initiation into the design and use of technology and some understanding of its impact. The planners encountered difficulties of…

  12. Views on the Philosophy of Science among Undergraduate Science Students and Their Tutors at the University of Papua New Guinea: Origins, Progression, Enculturation and Destinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kichawen, Pongie; Swain, Julian; Monk, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Using a schedule originated by Nott and Wellington to explore science teachers' views on the philosophy of science, data were gathered at the University of Papua New Guinea. Similarities in response were established for successive first year intakes of science undergraduates (1999-2000). Students with experience in national high schools or…

  13. Seeing with Our Own Eyes, Speaking in Our Own Voices: An Experiment in Language, Culture and Education in Papua New Guinea. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpit, Lisa D.

    A recently implemented program in a decentralized provincial district of Papua New Guinea delays the entry of children into English-medium primary school for two years, during which time the children are taught literacy in a village-based school in their indigenous language, a pidgin, with the local customs and culture as the basis of the…

  14. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  15. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  16. Linking petrology and numerical modeling to understand geophysical signals of unrest at Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Patia, H.; Huber, C.

    2012-12-01

    Caldera-forming eruptions are among the most voluminous and explosive eruptions on earth, but they are difficult to anticipate. Caldera unrest in many occasions consists of long periods (years or decades) of waxing and waning deformation and earthquake activity before the actual eruption. This complex behavior has created dilemmas that volcano scientists are confronted to during the reactivation of caldera volcanoes. The unrest of the Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) is a perfect example of the complexity and problems associated with not understanding the processes behind unrest. Above background seismic and deformation signals started in 1971 and intensified between 1983 and 1985. But the onset of eruptive activity only occurred a decade later (19 September 1994), with the simultaneous eruption of two volcanoes on opposite sides of the caldera. Rabaul is therefore a unique site, as it is possible to study the deposits from eruptions after the prolonged period of seismic and deformational activity to gain insights into the processes responsible for the unrest. While Vulcan, the volcano to the west, erupted dacitic pumice and ash during the first few hours producing a high plinian eruption column, Tavurvur, the volcano to the east, erupted andesitic ash at a lower intensity. Eruptions at Tavurvur have continued since then with episodic Strombolian and Vulcanian events. Here we combine a petrologic study of the erupted rocks with a numerical computational study of the magmatic processes to obtain a more complete picture of the causes behind the long period of unrest. Most lavas and tephra erupted since 1994 are andesitic to dacitic and fall on a mixing line between the evolved dacite which produced the 1400y BP caldera and ignimbrite (~68 wt% SiO2) and the basalt which produced the tephra of Kombiu (~49 wt% SiO2), an older volcanic center to the NE of the caldera rim. Mixing proportions were estimated to ~20 wt% basalt in Vulcan 1994, ~28 wt% basalt in Tavurvur 1994

  17. Plate boundaries in the Woodlark Basin and Solomon Sea Region, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodliffe, A. M.; Cameron, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Solomon Sea and Woodlark Basin region of eastern Papua New Guinea is a tectonically complex region between the obliquely converging Pacific and Australian plates. Despite numerous marine geophysical surveys in the region, the exact nature of the tectonic boundaries between the Solomon Sea and the Woodlark Basin remains controversial. Marine geophysical data collected in the last decade provides additional insight into this region and clearly defines the boundaries of the Solomon Sea, Trobriand, Woodlark, and Australian plates. Multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2004 along the Trobriand Trough, together with seismic profiles across the trough, show a prominent deformation front in the trench that defines the southern boundary of the Solomon Sea plate. Petrologic data from volcanoes to the south of this boundary indicate that they have a subduction affinity. Heat flow profiles to the south of the plate boundary show a clear subduction signature. At the eastern termination of the Trobriand Trough the plate boundary forms a triple junction with the NE-SW trending Nubaru strike-slip fault. To the NE this major fault separates the Solomon Sea plate from the Woodlark plate. The morphology of this fault and a CMT solution indicate that it is right-lateral. To the SW the Nubaru strike-slip fault passes to the south of the Trobriand Trough, forming the southern boundary of the Trobriand plate (with the Trobriand Trough as the northern boundary). Further west the trend of the strike slip fault becomes more ENE-WSW. A significant extension component is evident as the fault passes to the north of Egum Graben and meets the Woodlark Basin spreading system at the current rifting to seafloor spreading transition directly to the east of Moresby Seamount. The revised tectonic model for this region has important implications for tectonic reconstructions that include an active rifting to spreading transition and prominent core complexes. In the past, models have assumed a

  18. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic”) the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This

  19. Estimating Sustainable Live-Coral Harvest at Kamiali Wildlife Management Area, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Longenecker, Ken; Bolick, Holly; Langston, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Live coral is harvested throughout the Indo-West Pacific to make lime, used in the consumption of the world’s fourth-most consumed drug, betel nut. Coral harvesting is an environmental concern; however, because lime-making is one of the few sources of income in some areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the practice is unlikely to stop. To better manage coral harvest, we used standard fishery-yield methods to generate sustainable-harvest guidelines for corymbose Acropora species found on the reef flat and crest at Lababia, PNG. We constructed a yield curve (weight-specific net annual-dry-weight production) by: 1) describing the allometric relationship between colony size and dry weight, and using that relationship to estimate the dry weight of Acropora colonies in situ; 2) estimating annual growth of Acropora colonies by estimating in situ, and describing the relationship between, colony dry weight at the beginning and end of one year; and 3) conducting belt-transect surveys to describe weight-frequencies and ultimately to predict annual weight change per square meter for each weight class. Reef habitat covers a total 2,467,550 m2 at Lababia and produces an estimated 248,397 kg/y (dry weight) of corymbose Acropora, of which 203,897 kg is produced on the reef flat/crest. We conservatively estimate that 30,706.6 kg of whole, dry, corymbose, Acropora can be sustainably harvested from the reef flat/crest habitat each year provided each culled colony weighs at least 1805 g when dry (or is at least 46 cm along its major axis). Artisanal lime-makers convert 24.8% of whole-colony weight into marketable lime, thus we estimate 7615.2 g of lime can be sustainably produced annually from corymbose Acropora. This value incorporates several safety margins, and should lead to proper management of live coral harvest. Importantly, the guideline recognizes village rights to exploit its marine resources, is consistent with village needs for income, and balances an equally strong village

  20. Structural deformation and sedimentation in an active Caldera, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary; Tiffin, D.L.; McKee, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    Recent seismic and tectonic activity in Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea, suggests that magma is accumulating at a shallow depth beneath this partially submerged structure and that a new volcano may be developing. Changes in onshore elevation since 1971 (as much as 2 m on south Matupit Island) indicate that rapid and large-scale uplifts have occurred on the seafloor near the center of the caldera. The frequency of seismic events within the caldera has also increased during this period. Earthquake locations define an elliptical ring surrounding the center of this uplift within the caldera. A marine geophysical survey in 1982 by the U.S. Geological Survey's R/V "S.P. Lee" in Rabaul Caldera shows the development of a bulge in the seafloor near the center of the caldera. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that this bulge consists of two domal uplifts bounded and separated by two major north-south-trending fault zones. Deformed sediments overlie these zones; a prominent slump flanks the area of the bulge. Five major acoustic units were identified in the seismic reflection profiles: an acoustic basement and four sedimentary units consisting of irregularly layered, cross-layered, contorted, and well-layered sequences. The acoustic basement is probably composed of crystalline volcanic rocks, and the layered acoustic units are probably sediments, primarily ash deposited in different environments. The cross-layered, irregularly layered, and contorted units appear to have been deposited in a dynamic environment subjected to strong currents, seismicity, and/or mass wasting, while the well-layered units were deposited in a low-energy environment. Locally, well-layered sequences interfinger with the other sedimentary units, indicating a transitional environment that alternated between high-energy and low-energy depositional processes. A submarine channel cuts most of the acoustic units and appears to be the conduit for sediment transport out of the caldera; it

  1. Motivation in Cross-Cultural Settings: A Papua New Guinea Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Genevieve F.; O'Mara, Alison J.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Dowson, Martin

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on motivation and education in developing countries. Although psychological constructs relating to academic engagement and achievement have been identified and researched in a number of cross-cultural settings this body of research has rarely been extended to the developing world. The processes by which students from…

  2. A multidisciplinary study of earth resources imagery of Australia, Antarctica and Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, N. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A thirteen category recognition map was prepared, showing forest, water, grassland, and exposed rock types. Preliminary assessment of classification accuracies showed that water, forest, meadow, and Niobrara shale were the most accurately mapped classes. Unsatisfactory results, were obtained in an attempt to discrimate sparse forest cover over different substrates. As base elevation varied from 7,000 to 13,000 ft, with an atmospheric visibility of 48 km, no changes in water and forest recognition were observed. Granodiorite recognition accuracy decreased monotonically as base elevation increased, even though the training set location was at 10,000 ft elevation. For snow varying in base elevation from 9400 to 8420 ft, recognition decreases from 99% at the 9400 ft training set elevation to 88% at 8420 ft. Calculations of expected radiance at the ERTS sensor from snow reflectance measured at the site and from Turner model calculations of irradiance, transmission and path radiance, reveal that snow signals should not be clipped, assuming that calculations and ERTS calibration constants were correct.

  3. Favoured Free-Time: Comparing Children's Activity Preferences in the UK and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Merris

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a comparative study of the free-time activity preferences of 9- to 11-year-old children in the UK and USA, as drawn by them in art workshops. Six themes emerged relating to sport, outdoor play, family/peers, media, special occasions and other (indefinable) activities. The children's talk about their drawings revealed additional…

  4. Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Proteins Are Key Targets of Naturally Acquired Immunity in Young Papua New Guinean Children

    PubMed Central

    França, Camila T.; He, Wen-Qiang; Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Lin, Enmoore; Kiniboro, Benson; Siba, Peter M.; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Major gaps in our understanding of Plasmodium vivax biology and the acquisition of immunity to this parasite hinder vaccine development. P. vivax merozoites exclusively invade reticulocytes, making parasite proteins that mediate reticulocyte binding and/or invasion potential key vaccine or drug targets. While protein interactions that mediate invasion are still poorly understood, the P. vivax Reticulocyte-Binding Protein family (PvRBP) is thought to be involved in P. vivax restricted host-cell selectivity. Methodology/Principal findings We assessed the binding specificity of five members of the PvRBP family (PvRBP1a, PvRBP1b, PvRBP2a, PvRBP2b, PvRBP2-P2 and a non-binding fragment of PvRBP2c) to normocytes or reticulocytes. PvRBP2b was identified as the only reticulocyte-specific binder (P<0.001), whereas the others preferentially bound to normocytes (PvRBP1a/b P≤0.034), or showed comparable binding to both (PvRBP2a/2-P2, P = 0.38). Furthermore, we measured levels of total and IgG subclasses 1, 2, 3 and 4 to the six PvRBPs in a cohort of young Papua New Guinean children, and assessed their relationship with prospective risk of P. vivax malaria. Children had substantial, highly correlated (rho = 0.49–0.82, P<0.001) antibody levels to all six PvRBPs, with dominant IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. Both total IgG (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 0.63–0.73, P = 0.008–0.041) and IgG1 (IRR 0.56–0.69, P = 0.001–0.035) to PvRBP2b and PvRBP1a were strongly associated with reduced risk of vivax-malaria, independently of age and exposure. Conclusion/Significance These results demonstrate a diversity of erythrocyte-binding phenotypes of PvRBPs, indicating binding to both reticulocyte-specific and normocyte-specific ligands. Our findings provide further insights into the naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax and highlight the importance of PvRBP proteins as targets of naturally acquired humoral immunity. In-depth studies of the role of PvRBPs in P. vivax invasion and

  5. History of human impact on Lake Kutubu, Papua New Guinea: The geochemical signatures of oil and gas mining activities in sediments.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Larissa; Haberle, Simon G; Maher, William A; Krikowa, Frank; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

    2016-04-01

    Lake Kutubu, a large tropical lake in Papua New Guinea, is well known for its ecological importance; however, there have been recent changes to the pristine nature of this lake due to activities associated with the largest oil and gas project in PNG. The aim of this study was to determine the geochemical profile of sediment cores of Lake Kutubu and to comprehend the contamination changes undergone in this lake due to mining activities utilising the hydraulic fracturing method. Sediment core profiles of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Ce, Pb and U, grain size and dating analyses were conducted for five sites in the lake. Grain size and dating demonstrated that the northwest side of Lake Kutubu has sediments of allocthonous origin while the southeast sediments are of autochthonous origin. Ba was the element with the largest changes in concentrations since 1990 and the best tracer of mining activities near the lake. Sites KTB 02 and KTB 10 northwest of the lake showed the most distinct changes in element concentrations. Element enrichment factors (EF = 2.8, 4.2 and 3.2 respectively) demonstrated that Mn, Se and Ba have undergone a moderate enrichment in the lake since mining activities started. Ni, Cd and Se concentrations exceed sediment guidelines in some samples. No guideline is available for Ba, and special attention should be given to this element in this lake. This study demonstrated that Lake Kutubu oil/gas extraction activities are significant sources of elements to this lake and highlights the need for studies on the partitioning and speciation of elements to understand organism metal exposure. PMID:26826474

  6. Pharmacokinetic properties of single-dose primaquine in Papua New Guinean children: feasibility of abbreviated high-dose regimens for radical cure of vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brioni R; Salman, Sam; Benjamin, John; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Robinson, Leanne J; Waita, Elizabeth; Batty, Kevin T; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M E; Betuela, Inoni

    2014-01-01

    Since conventional 14-day primaquine (PMQ) radical cure of vivax malaria is associated with poor compliance, and as total dose, not therapy duration, determines efficacy, a preliminary pharmacokinetic study of two doses (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg of body weight) was conducted in 28 healthy glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-normal Papua New Guinean children, aged 5 to 12 years, to facilitate development of abbreviated high-dose regimens. Dosing was with food and was directly observed, and venous blood samples were drawn during a 168-h postdose period. Detailed safety monitoring was performed for hepatorenal function and hemoglobin and methemoglobin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of PMQ and its metabolite carboxyprimaquine (CPMQ) were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and analyzed using population pharmacokinetic methods. The derived models were used in simulations. Both single-dose regimens were well tolerated with no changes in safety parameters. The mean PMQ central volume of distribution and clearance relative to bioavailability (200 liters/70 kg and 24.6 liters/h/70 kg) were within published ranges for adults. The median predicted maximal concentrations (Cmax) for both PMQ and CPMQ after the last dose of a 1.0 mg/kg 7-day PMQ regimen were approximately double those at the end of 14 days of 0.5 mg/kg daily, while a regimen of 1.0 mg/kg twice daily resulted in a 2.38 and 3.33 times higher Cmax for PMQ and CPMQ, respectively. All predicted median Cmax concentrations were within ranges for adult high-dose studies that also showed acceptable safety and tolerability. The present pharmacokinetic data, the first for PMQ in children, show that further studies of abbreviated high-dose regimens are feasible in this age group. PMID:24189254

  7. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    PubMed

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  8. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    PubMed

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries. PMID:27522595

  9. History of human impact on Lake Kutubu, Papua New Guinea: The geochemical signatures of oil and gas mining activities in sediments.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Larissa; Haberle, Simon G; Maher, William A; Krikowa, Frank; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

    2016-04-01

    Lake Kutubu, a large tropical lake in Papua New Guinea, is well known for its ecological importance; however, there have been recent changes to the pristine nature of this lake due to activities associated with the largest oil and gas project in PNG. The aim of this study was to determine the geochemical profile of sediment cores of Lake Kutubu and to comprehend the contamination changes undergone in this lake due to mining activities utilising the hydraulic fracturing method. Sediment core profiles of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Ce, Pb and U, grain size and dating analyses were conducted for five sites in the lake. Grain size and dating demonstrated that the northwest side of Lake Kutubu has sediments of allocthonous origin while the southeast sediments are of autochthonous origin. Ba was the element with the largest changes in concentrations since 1990 and the best tracer of mining activities near the lake. Sites KTB 02 and KTB 10 northwest of the lake showed the most distinct changes in element concentrations. Element enrichment factors (EF = 2.8, 4.2 and 3.2 respectively) demonstrated that Mn, Se and Ba have undergone a moderate enrichment in the lake since mining activities started. Ni, Cd and Se concentrations exceed sediment guidelines in some samples. No guideline is available for Ba, and special attention should be given to this element in this lake. This study demonstrated that Lake Kutubu oil/gas extraction activities are significant sources of elements to this lake and highlights the need for studies on the partitioning and speciation of elements to understand organism metal exposure.

  10. Effect of shallow-water hydrothermal venting on the biota of Matupi Harbour (Rabaul Caldera, New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, V. G.; Gebruk, A. V.; Shulkin, V. M.; Kamenev, G. M.; Fadeev, V. I.; Kosmynin, V. N.; Malakhov, V. V.; Starynin, D. A.; Obzhirov, A. I.

    1999-01-01

    Coastal hydrothermal vents in the depth range 0-27 m were studied in Matupi Harbour, a marine bight that is partly isolated from the open sea on the north-east coast of New Britain, Papua New Guinea, where volcanoes are active. Planktonic and benthic communities (including bacteria) in the Harbour were compared with adjacent fully marine areas. The environmental parameters assessed included temperature, salinity, O 2, H 2, hydrocarbons, metals, some species of nitrogen and sulphur, inorganic phosphate, silicate and chlorophyll a. There was pronounced stratification of the waters in the Harbour as a result of inflow of heated volcanic fluids, most evident in the surface 0-3 m layer. The volcanic fluids are rich in phytoplankton nutrients and reduced compounds which stimulate growth of bacterial plankton, bacterial production and enhance primary production. The highest values of photosynthetic fixation (almost 100 mg C m 3 d) and bacterial production (216 mg C m 3 d) found in the Harbour are much greater than previously reported for marine ecosystems. The chemosynthetic fraction of bacterial production varied from 15 to 60%, with highest values in the surface and the near-bottom layers. The zooplankton in the Harbour was dominated by cyclopoid copepods and was low in diversity. Bacterial mats were very evident at the areas of venting, dominated by Thiodendron-like species, but both epifauna and infauna were sparse at the vents. However, areas adjacent to the hydrothermal vents showed the richest benthic communities, with epifauna dominated by corals and sponges and infauna by nematodes. It appeared that benthic community development was inhibited by the hot sediment, rapid sedimentation, lack of hard substratum and large numbers of sponge spicules in the sediment. From dating of the last major volcanic eruption (1943), the Harbour provides an excellent model for studying processes of succession and adaptation in marine communities stressed by shallow

  11. Estimating rainforest biomass stocks and carbon loss from deforestation and degradation in Papua New Guinea 1972-2002: Best estimates, uncertainties and research needs.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jane; Shearman, Phil; Ash, Julian; Kirkpatrick, J B

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation is being considered a cost-effective way of mitigating the impacts of global warming. If such reductions are to be implemented, accurate and repeatable measurements of forest cover change and biomass will be required. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), which has one of the world's largest remaining areas of tropical forest, we used the best available data to estimate rainforest carbon stocks, and emissions from deforestation and degradation. We collated all available PNG field measurements which could be used to estimate carbon stocks in logged and unlogged forest. We extrapolated these plot-level estimates across the forested landscape using high-resolution forest mapping. We found the best estimate of forest carbon stocks contained in logged and unlogged forest in 2002 to be 4770 Mt (+/-13%). Our best estimate of gross forest carbon released through deforestation and degradation between 1972 and 2002 was 1178 Mt (+/-18%). By applying a long-term forest change model, we estimated that the carbon loss resulting from deforestation and degradation in 2001 was 53 Mt (+/-18%), rising from 24 Mt (+/-15%) in 1972. Forty-one percent of 2001 emissions resulted from logging, rising from 21% in 1972. Reducing emissions from logging is therefore a priority for PNG. The large uncertainty in our estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes is primarily due to the dearth of field measurements in both logged and unlogged forest, and the lack of PNG logging damage studies. Research priorities for PNG to increase the accuracy of forest carbon stock assessments are the collection of field measurements in unlogged forest and more spatially explicit logging damage studies. PMID:20040396

  12. Recycling of volatiles at subduction zones: Noble gas evidence from the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni arc of papua New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Kenneth; Mcinnes, Brent; Patterson, Desmond

    1994-01-01

    Convergent margin processes play an important but poorly understood role in the distribution of terrestrial volatile species. For example, subduction processes filter volatiles from the subducting package, thereby restricting their return to the mantle. In addition, once extracted from the downgoing slab, volatiles become an essential component in the petrogenesis of island arc magmas. The noble gases, with their systematic variation in physical properties and diversity of radiogenic isotopes, should carry a uniquely valuable record of these processes. However, thus far studies of noble gases in arc volcanics have achieved only limited success in this regard. Subduction-related lavas and geothermal fluids carry (3)He/(4)He ratios equal to or slightly lower than those found in the depleted upper mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts. Apparently slab-derived helium (which should have (3)He/(4)He much less than MORB) is extensively diluted by MORB-like helium from the mantle wedge, making it difficult to use helium as a tracer of convergent margin processes. Interpretation of the heavier noble gases (Ne-Ar-Kr-Xe) in arc lavas has also proven difficult, because the lavas carry low noble gas concentrations and hence are subject to pervasive atmospheric contamination. The low noble gas concentrations may be a consequence of degassing in the high level magma chambers characteristic of arc stratovolcanos. We have recently initiated a project to better constrain the behavior of volatiles in subduction zones through geochemical studies of the tectonically unusual volcanoes of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni (TLTF) arc in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea.

  13. Recycling of volatiles at subduction zones: Noble gas evidence from the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni arc of papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Kenneth; McInnes, Brent; Patterson, Desmond

    Convergent margin processes play an important but poorly understood role in the distribution of terrestrial volatile species. For example, subduction processes filter volatiles from the subducting package, thereby restricting their return to the mantle. In addition, once extracted from the downgoing slab, volatiles become an essential component in the petrogenesis of island arc magmas. The noble gases, with their systematic variation in physical properties and diversity of radiogenic isotopes, should carry a uniquely valuable record of these processes. However, thus far studies of noble gases in arc volcanics have achieved only limited success in this regard. Subduction-related lavas and geothermal fluids carry (3)He/(4)He ratios equal to or slightly lower than those found in the depleted upper mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts. Apparently slab-derived helium (which should have (3)He/(4)He much less than MORB) is extensively diluted by MORB-like helium from the mantle wedge, making it difficult to use helium as a tracer of convergent margin processes. Interpretation of the heavier noble gases (Ne-Ar-Kr-Xe) in arc lavas has also proven difficult, because the lavas carry low noble gas concentrations and hence are subject to pervasive atmospheric contamination. The low noble gas concentrations may be a consequence of degassing in the high level magma chambers characteristic of arc stratovolcanos. We have recently initiated a project to better constrain the behavior of volatiles in subduction zones through geochemical studies of the tectonically unusual volcanoes of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni (TLTF) arc in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea.

  14. Maternal Antibodies to Pneumolysin but Not to Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Delay Early Pneumococcal Carriage in High-Risk Papua New Guinean Infants▿

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jacinta P.; Richmond, Peter C.; Pomat, William S.; Michael, Audrey; Keno, Helen; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nelson, Jan B.; Whinnen, Melissa; Heinrich, Tatjana; Smith, Wendy-Anne; Prescott, Susan L.; Holt, Patrick G.; Siba, Peter M.; Lehmann, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Immunization of pregnant women can be an efficient strategy to induce early protection in infants in developing countries. Pneumococcal protein-based vaccines may have the capacity to induce pneumococcal serotype-independent protection. To understand the potential of maternal pneumococcal protein-specific antibodies in infants in high-risk areas, we studied the placental transfer of naturally acquired antibodies to pneumolysin (Ply) and pneumococcal surface protein A family 1 and 2 (PspA1 and PspA2) in relation to onset of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this study, 76% of the infants carried Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract within the first month of life, at a median age of 19 days. Maternal and cord blood antibody titers to Ply (ρ = 0.824, P < 0.001), PspA1 (ρ = 0.746, P < 0.001), and PspA2 (ρ = 0.631, P < 0.001) were strongly correlated. Maternal pneumococcal carriage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 5.39) and younger maternal age (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00) were independent risk factors for early carriage, while higher cord Ply-specific antibody titers predicted a significantly delayed onset (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) and cord PspA1-specific antibodies a significantly younger onset of carriage in PNG infants (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.40). Maternal vaccination with a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk infants against pneumococcal disease by reducing carriage risks in both mothers and infants. PMID:19776196

  15. Maternal antibodies to pneumolysin but not to pneumococcal surface protein A delay early pneumococcal carriage in high-risk Papua New Guinean infants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jacinta P; Richmond, Peter C; Pomat, William S; Michael, Audrey; Keno, Helen; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nelson, Jan B; Whinnen, Melissa; Heinrich, Tatjana; Smith, Wendy-Anne; Prescott, Susan L; Holt, Patrick G; Siba, Peter M; Lehmann, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2009-11-01

    Immunization of pregnant women can be an efficient strategy to induce early protection in infants in developing countries. Pneumococcal protein-based vaccines may have the capacity to induce pneumococcal serotype-independent protection. To understand the potential of maternal pneumococcal protein-specific antibodies in infants in high-risk areas, we studied the placental transfer of naturally acquired antibodies to pneumolysin (Ply) and pneumococcal surface protein A family 1 and 2 (PspA1 and PspA2) in relation to onset of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this study, 76% of the infants carried Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract within the first month of life, at a median age of 19 days. Maternal and cord blood antibody titers to Ply (rho = 0.824, P < 0.001), PspA1 (rho = 0.746, P < 0.001), and PspA2 (rho = 0.631, P < 0.001) were strongly correlated. Maternal pneumococcal carriage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 5.39) and younger maternal age (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00) were independent risk factors for early carriage, while higher cord Ply-specific antibody titers predicted a significantly delayed onset (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) and cord PspA1-specific antibodies a significantly younger onset of carriage in PNG infants (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.40). Maternal vaccination with a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk infants against pneumococcal disease by reducing carriage risks in both mothers and infants. PMID:19776196

  16. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  17. [The tele-surveillance as a tool to favour social participation of elderly at home].

    PubMed

    Garceau, Mathieu; Vincent, Claude; Robichaud, Line

    2007-01-01

    Little is known as yet about the impact of telesurveillance services on social participation. To document the interaction between telesurveillance services and social participation of the elderly living at home, a study was conducted in the context of a government call center employing nurses. A focus group study was realized with elders (n = 4), caregivers (n = 6), healthcare system practitioners and industry employees (n = 7). A qualitative analysis was performed using the Disability Creation Process model and generally accepted criteria for evaluating telehealth interventions. The results showed, on the one hand, factors that facilitate the use of telesurveillance services (user's intellectual capabilities, acceptance of clinical settings, relevance of recommendations, cost of service, and accessibility) and, on the other, factors that reinforce such use (user behaviors; level of satisfaction; impact on informal caregiver; system's level of performance; technical features; and life-habit aspects such as personal transportation, sleep, housekeeping, personal care, interpersonal relationships, and recreational activities). PMID:17430805

  18. Chickenpox vaccines: new drugs. A favourable risk-benefit balance in some situations.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    (1) Chickenpox is generally mild. Most severe cases of chickenpox occur in immunocompromised patients, adults, and pregnant women (and their foetuses). (2) Two live attenuated chickenpox vaccines derived from the same strain of varicella virus (Oka) are marketed in France, under the trade names Varilrix and Varivax. (3) They have not been adequately evaluated in immunocompromised children. (4) The impact of routine vaccination of women of child-bearing age on complications of chickenpox during pregnancy has not been studied. (5) Immunogenicity studies in several thousand immunocompetent children aged from 1 to 12 years show that the vaccine is almost always immunogenic after a single injection. Other comparative studies in adolescents and adults show that two injections are needed, at least two months apart. (6) A double-blind placebo-controlled trial including 513 immunocompetent children showed that Varilrix prevented 88% of cases of chickenpox after a median follow-up of 29 months, but no data on severe chickenpox were reported. A study that followed up 9202 children aged 1 to 12 years for more than 13 years showed that vaccination with Varivax failed to prevent chickenpox in 12.5% of cases and that 1.7% of these cases were severe. (7) Immunocompetent children vaccinated within three days after exposure to the virus are partially protected, according to one study of Varilrix (104 children) and two small studies of Varivax (10 and 42 children). There are no equivalent studies in adults. (8) Local adverse effects such as fever and rash are common in immunocompetent vaccinees. The rash is sometimes varicella-like and is due to infection by the vaccine strain. Pharmacovigilance studies of Varivax have shown no serious adverse effects. (9) Disseminated and/or persistent infection caused by the vaccine strain has been reported in immunocompromised patients. (10) Vaccination of immunocompetent subjects does not appear to result in a risk of chickenpox transmission to

  19. Analysis of Small x Behaviour of Longitudinal and Heavy Favour Structure Functions of Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Nomita; Das, Mrinal Kumar; Sarma, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The behaviour of structure functions F L , with respect to Bjorken variable x are studied using Taylor series expansion method at small x. At small values of x, all these quantities are dominated by the gluon content of the proton. Here, we use the input distribution of gluon from Donnachie-Landshoff (DL) model to determine the longitudinal and heavy flavour structure function of proton. We compare our results with the recent HERA data and results of DL and Colour Dipole models which shows good agreement with data and fit. We use our results of heavy flavour structure function to analyze the behaviour of DIS cross section ratio R h ( x, Q 2) and reduced cross section in heavy quark lepto-production at small values of x. We have also studied the behaviour of the heavy quark content of the F L structure functions with respect to x.

  20. Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive cause stable linkage disequilibrium and favour reduced recombination on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, W T; Carioscia, S A; Liévano, G; Lynch, V D; Patten, M M

    2016-06-01

    Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive are sex-specific evolutionary forces with the potential to shape genomic architecture. Previous theory has found that pairing two sexually antagonistic loci or combining sexual antagonism with meiotic drive at linked autosomal loci augments genetic variation, produces stable linkage disequilibrium (LD) and favours reduced recombination. However, the influence of these two forces has not been examined on the X chromosome, which is thought to be enriched for sexual antagonism and meiotic drive. We investigate the evolution of the X chromosome under both sexual antagonism and meiotic drive with two models: in one, both loci experience sexual antagonism; in the other, we pair a meiotic drive locus with a sexually antagonistic locus. We find that LD arises between the two loci in both models, even when the two loci freely recombine in females and that driving haplotypes will be enriched for male-beneficial alleles, further skewing sex ratios in these populations. We introduce a new measure of LD, Dz', which accounts for population allele frequencies and is appropriate for instances where these are sex specific. Both models demonstrate that natural selection favours modifiers that reduce the recombination rate. These results inform observed patterns of congealment found on driving X chromosomes and have implications for patterns of natural variation and the evolution of recombination rates on the X chromosome.

  1. Acute cysticercosis favours rapid and more severe lesions caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana infection, a role for alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rivera-Montoya, Irma; Espinoza, Arlett; Romero-Grijalva, Miriam; López-Flores, Roberto; González, Jorge; Terrazas, Luis I

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic helminths have developed complex mechanisms to modulate host immunity. In the present study we found that previous infection of mice with the cestode Taenia crassiceps favours parasitemia and induces larger cutaneous lesions during both Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana co-infections. Analysis of cytokine responses into draining lymph nodes indicated that co-infection of T. crassiceps-Leishmania did not inhibit IFN-gamma production in response to Leishmania antigens, but significantly increased IL-4 production. Additionally, anti-Leishmania-specific IgG1 antibodies and total IgE increased in co-infected mice, whereas, IgG2a titers remained similar. Macrophages from Taenia-infected mice displayed increased mRNA transcripts of arginase-1, Ym1, and Mannose Receptor, as well as greater production of urea (all markers for an alternate activation state) compared to macrophages from Leishmania-infected mice. In contrast, lower mRNA transcripts for IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-23p19, and iNOS were detected in macrophages obtained from cestode-infected mice compared to uninfected and Leishmania-infected mice after LPS stimulation. The presence of cestode also generated impaired macrophage anti-leishmanicidal activity in vitro, as evidenced by the inability of these macrophages to prevent Leishmania growth compared to macrophages from uninfected mice. This was observed despite the fact that both groups of cells were exposed to IFN-gamma. Flow cytometry showed high IFN-gammaR expression on Taenia-induced macrophages. Thus, lack of response to IFN-gamma is not associated with the absence of its receptor. Our data suggest that cestode infection may favour Leishmania installation by inducing alternatively activated macrophages rather than inhibiting Th1-type responses.

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) from Stranger Point, 25 de Mayo/King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia Inés; Fusaro, Bruno; Longarzo, Lucrecia; Coria, Néstor Rubén; Vidal, Virginia; Jerez, Silvia; Ortiz, Juana; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 37 fresh dead individuals (21 chicks, 10 juveniles, and 6 adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2012 and examined for macroparasites. Four adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi), two Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres wetzeli), and one Acanthocephalan (Corynosoma shackletoni). Two species of immature acanthocephalans, Corynosoma hamanni and Corynosoma bullosum, were found in a single host. This is the first record of Tetrameres wetzeli in Gentoo penguins. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species which feeds almost exclusively on krill.

  3. Comparative mtDNA analyses of three sympatric macropodids from a conservation area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), New Guinea pademelon (Thylogale browni), and small dorcopsis (Dorcopsulus vanheurni) are sympatric macropodid taxa, of conservation concern, that inhabit the Yopno-Urawa-Som (YUS) Conservation Area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. We sequenced three partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes from the three taxa to (i) investigate network structure; and (ii) identify conservation units within the YUS Conservation Area. All three taxa displayed a similar pattern in the spatial distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes and the Urawa and Som rivers on the Huon may have acted as a barrier to maternal gene flow. Matschie's tree kangaroo and New Guinea pademelon within the YUS Conservation Area should be managed as single conservation units because mtDNA nucleotides were not fixed for a given geographic area. However, two distinct conservation units were identified for small dorcopsis from the two different mountain ranges within the YUS Conservation Area.

  4. The natural antioxidants, pomegranate extract and soy isoflavones, favourably modulate canine endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Waldenberger, Ferdinand Rudolf; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Ginouvès-Guerdoux, Amandine; McGahie, David; Gatto, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, preceded by vascular endothelial dysfunction, is a prominent cause of death in dogs. L-carnitine and taurine, well known for their antioxidative capacity, beneficially affect cardiovascular disease as well as certain dog cardiomyopathies. It is well established that vascular endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and that "vasoprotective factors" (NO and antioxidants) prevent apoptosis, whereas "risk factors" such as oxidized LDL, hyperglycemia, and free fatty acids trigger it in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Whereas human vascular cell in vitro models are widely established and used for the characterisation of potential vasoprotective substances, such models are not available for canine endothelial cells. In the present study we therefore developed an in vitro model, which allows the testing of the effects of different substances on proliferation and apoptosis in canine aortic endothelial cells. This model was used to test L-carnitine, taurine, pomegranate extract, and Soy Isoflavones in comparison to reference substances (glutathione and pioglitazone) previously shown to modulate human endothelial cell function. L-carnitine and taurine neither exhibited antiproliferative nor antiapoptotic activities in the context of this study. However extracts from pomegranate and soy isoflavones dramatically reduced proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion, being in line with a vasoprotective activity in dogs.

  5. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task

    PubMed Central

    Baciadonna, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning. PMID:24109556

  6. Visual failure from pituitary and parasellar tumours occurring with favourable outcome in pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, M A; Stafford-Bell, M A

    1975-01-01

    Very few cases have been reported of a successful outcome after relief by operation of severe visual failure from a pituitary or other parasellar tumour during the late stages of pregnancy. Two such cases are recorded here together with the obstetric features and follow-up studies of more than three years. Usually the deterioration of vi sion occurs in the latter half of the pregnancy and recovers rapidly after delivery, whether the onset of labour has occurred spontaneously or after induction. In subsequent pregnancies vision deteriorates at an earlier stage and becomes even more marked. Some cases are now occurring even in pregnancies induced by modern fertility drugs. The treatment of choice whenever vision is seriously threatened at any stage of pregnancy is a surgical attack on the pituitary, followed by suitable replacement therapy to ensure that the pregnancy continues. Images PMID:1185230

  7. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity.

    PubMed

    Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Corna, Francesca; Capiluppi, Claudio

    2004-11-01

    The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality.

  8. Galanin modulates the neural niche to favour perineural invasion in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Christina Springstead; Banerjee, Rajat; Inglehart, Ronald C; Liu, Min; Russo, Nickole; Hariharan, Amirtha; van Tubergen, Elizabeth A; Corson, Sara L; Asangani, Irfan A; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; D’Silva, Nisha J

    2015-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is an indicator of poor survival in multiple cancers. Unfortunately, there is no targeted treatment for PNI since the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. PNI is an active process, suggesting that cancer cells communicate with nerves. However, nerve-tumour crosstalk is understudied due to the lack of in vivo models to investigate the mechanisms. Here, we developed an in vivo model of PNI to characterise this interaction. We show that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) initiates nerve-tumour crosstalk via activation of its G-protein-coupled receptor, GALR2. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which GAL from nerves stimulates GALR2 on cancer cells to induce NFATC2-mediated transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 and GAL. Prostaglandin E2 promotes cancer invasion, and in a feedback mechanism, GAL released by cancer induces neuritogenesis, facilitating PNI. This study describes a novel in vivo model for PNI and reveals the dynamic interaction between nerve and cancer. PMID:25917569

  9. Computerised Provider Order Entry Adoption Rates Favourably Impact Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Richard; Shaha, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    Background Research regarding return on investment for electronic health records (EHRs) is sparse.Objective To extend previously established research and examine rigorously whether increasing the adoption of computer-based provider/prescriber order entry (CPOE) leads to a decrease in length of stay (LOS), and to demonstrate that the two are inversely and bidirectionally proportional even while other efforts to decrease LOS are in place.Method The study assessed CPOE, LOS and case mix index (CMI) data in a community hospital in the United States, using a mature and nearly fully deployed vendor product EHR. CPOE rates and LOS over 7 years were determined on a per-patient, per-visit and per-discipline basis and compared with concomitant CMI data.Results An inverse relationship of CPOE to LOS was correlated for 13 disciplines out of 19, and organisation wide for all disciplines combined during the first 5 years of study. During the subsequent 2 years, both CPOE and LOS plateaued, except in eight disciplines where CPOE rates at first declined and LOS concurrently rose slightly, and then returned to the baseline plateau levels. CMI increased during the entire period of evaluation. An inflection point at approximately 60% CPOE adoption predicted the greatest improvement in lowering of LOS.Conclusions Rising and falling rates of CPOE correlated with reductions and rises in LOS, respectively. CPOE appeared statistically to be an independent factor in affecting LOS, over and above other efforts to shorten LOS, thus contributing to lower costs and improved efficiency outcomes as measured by LOS, even as CMI rises. PMID:27348485

  10. Reduced residual conduction gaps and favourable outcome in contact force-guided circumferential pulmonary vein isolation

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Taihei; Kimura, Masaomi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Shingo; Owada, Shingen; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kenichi; Ishida, Yuji; Kinjo, Takahiko; Okumura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Aims Although contact force (CF)-guided circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is useful, AF recurrence at long-term follow-up still remains to be resolved. The purpose of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of CF-guided CPVI and to compare residual conduction gaps during CPVI and long-term outcome between the conventional (non-CF-guided) and the CF-guided CPVI. Methods and results We studied the 50 consecutive PAF patients undergoing CPVI by a ThermoCool EZ Steer catheter (conventional group, mean age 61 ± 10 years) and the other 50 consecutive PAF patients by a ThermoCool SmartTouch catheter (CF group, 65 ± 11 years). The procedure parameters and residual conduction gaps during CPVI, and long-term outcome for 12 months were compared between the two groups. Circumferential pulmonary vein isolation was successfully accomplished without any major complications in both groups. Total procedure and total fluoroscopy times were both significantly shorter in the CF group than in the conventional group (160 ± 30 vs. 245 ± 61 min, P < 0.001, and 17 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 27 min, P < 0.001, respectively). Total number of residual conduction gaps was significantly less in the CF group than in the conventional group (2.7 ± 1.7 vs. 6.3 ± 2.7, P < 0.05). The AF recurrence-free rates after CPVI during 12-month follow-up were 96% (48/50) in the CF group and 82% (41/50) in the conventional group (P = 0.02 by log rank test). Multivariate Cox regression analysis further supported this finding. Conclusion Contact force-guided CPVI is safe and more effective in reducing not only the procedure time but also the AF recurrence than the conventional CPVI, possibly due to reduced residual conduction gaps during CPVI procedure. PMID:26346921

  11. Spatial isolation favours the divergence in microcystin net production by Microcystis in Ugandan freshwater lakes

    PubMed Central

    Okello, William; Ostermaier, Veronika; Portmann, Cyril; Gademann, Karl; Kurmayer, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most abundant toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater. In various freshwater lakes in East Africa MC-producing Microcystis has been reported to dominate the phytoplankton, however the regulation of MC production is poorly understood. From May 2007 to April 2008 the Microcystis abundance, the absolute and relative abundance of the mcyB genotype indicative of MC production and the MC concentrations were recorded monthly in five freshwater lakes in Uganda: (1) in a crater lake (Lake Saka), (2) in three shallow lakes (Lake Mburo, George, Edward), (3) in Lake Victoria (Murchison Bay, Napoleon Gulf). During the whole study period Microcystis was abundant or dominated the phytoplankton. In all samples mcyB-containing cells of Microcystis were found and on average comprised 20 ± 2% (SE) of the total population. The proportion of the mcyB genotype differed significantly between the sampling sites, and while the highest mcyB proportions were recorded in Lake Saka (37 ± 3%), the lowest proportion was recorded in Lake George (1.4 ± 0.2%). Consequently Microcystis from Lake George had the lowest MC cell quotas (0.03 – 1.24 fg MC cell−1) and resulted in the lowest MC concentrations (0 – 0.5 μg L−1) while Microcystis from Lake Saka consistently showed maximum MC cell quotas (14 – 144 fg cell−1) and the highest MC concentrations (0.5 – 10.2 μg L−1). Over the whole study period the average MC content per Microcystis cell depended linearly on the proportion of the mcyB genotype of Microcystis. It is concluded that Microcystis populations differ consistently and independently of the season in mcyB genotype proportion between lakes resulting in population-specific differences in the average MC content per cell. PMID:20219228

  12. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  13. Diverse seed banks favour adaptation of microalgal populations to future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Kremp, Anke; Oja, Johanna; LeTortorec, Anniina H; Hakanen, Päivi; Tahvanainen, Pia; Tuimala, Jarno; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    Selection of suitable genotypes from diverse seed banks may help phytoplankton populations to cope with environmental changes. This study examines whether the high genotypic diversity found in the Baltic cyst pool of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is coupled to phenotypic variability that could aid short-term adaptation. Growth rates, cellular toxicities and bioluminescence of 34 genetically different clones isolated from cyst beds of four Baltic bloom sites were determined in batch culture experiments along temperature and salinity gradients covering present and future conditions in the Baltic Sea. For all parameters a significant effect of genotype on the response to temperature and salinity changes was identified. General or site-specific effects of the two factors remained minor. Clones thriving at future conditions were different from the best performing at present conditions, suggesting that genotypic shifts may be expected in the future. Increased proportions of highly potent saxitoxin were observed as a plastic response to temperature increase, indicating a potential for higher toxicity of future blooms. The observed standing variation in Baltic seed banks of A. ostenfeldii suggests that the population is likely to persist under environmental change. PMID:26913820

  14. Favourable culture conditions for mycelial growth of Hydnum repandum, a medicinal mushroom.

    PubMed

    Peksen, Aysun; Kibar, Beyhan; Yakupoglu, Gokcen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources that affect mycelial growth of Hydnum repandum, a medicinal mushroom, were investigated. Different inoculum media for vegetative inoculum production were also examined. The best suitable pH for mycelial growth was found to be 5.5. Among constant temperatures, the best mycelial growth was obtained at 20 and 25°C. The mycelial growth drastically decreased at 15°C, and no mycelia were obtained at 30°C. Glucose and mannitol were found to be the most suitable carbon sources. Ca(NO3)2 as a nitrogen source gave the best results for mycelial growth. The poorest mycelial growth was noted in sucrose and xylose as carbon sources and in NH4NO3 and (NH4)2HPO4 as nitrogen sources. Peat and peat: vermiculite mixtures (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, v:v) were the best media to use in producing the vegetative inoculum of H. repandum. PMID:24311862

  15. Diverse seed banks favour adaptation of microalgal populations to future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Kremp, Anke; Oja, Johanna; LeTortorec, Anniina H; Hakanen, Päivi; Tahvanainen, Pia; Tuimala, Jarno; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    Selection of suitable genotypes from diverse seed banks may help phytoplankton populations to cope with environmental changes. This study examines whether the high genotypic diversity found in the Baltic cyst pool of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is coupled to phenotypic variability that could aid short-term adaptation. Growth rates, cellular toxicities and bioluminescence of 34 genetically different clones isolated from cyst beds of four Baltic bloom sites were determined in batch culture experiments along temperature and salinity gradients covering present and future conditions in the Baltic Sea. For all parameters a significant effect of genotype on the response to temperature and salinity changes was identified. General or site-specific effects of the two factors remained minor. Clones thriving at future conditions were different from the best performing at present conditions, suggesting that genotypic shifts may be expected in the future. Increased proportions of highly potent saxitoxin were observed as a plastic response to temperature increase, indicating a potential for higher toxicity of future blooms. The observed standing variation in Baltic seed banks of A. ostenfeldii suggests that the population is likely to persist under environmental change.

  16. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple. PMID:26582186

  17. Overexpression of transglutaminase 4 and prostate cancer progression: a potential predictor of less favourable outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Zhen-Sheng; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Yu, Yong-Wei; Qiao, Meng; Zhai, Bei-Bei; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Transglutaminase 4 has been shown to enhance various biological properties of prostate cancer cells, e.g., cell–matrix adhesion, invasiveness and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition. The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between transglutaminase 4 expression and the established features and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Transglutaminase 4 immunostaining was performed on a tissue microarray. The expression of transglutaminase 4 was evaluated by a scoring method based on the intensity and extent of staining. The clinical and pathological information was obtained through a review of medical records. Follow-up data were obtained by consulting the hospital medical records and the prostate cancer database of our department and by contacting patients or family members. We then compared the transglutaminase 4 expression levels between the prostate cancer tissues and the paracarcinoma tissues and evaluated the correlation of transglutaminase 4 expression with the clinical parameters and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Our results indicated that the transglutaminase 4 staining was significantly higher in tumour tissue than in paracarcinoma tissue (P<0.001) and was positively associated with higher Gleason score (P<0.001) and higher prostate-specific antigen level (P=0.005). Patients with transglutaminase 4 overexpression experienced shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival after surgery (P=0.042) in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis (P=0.139), which indicated that transglutaminase 4 may serve as a potential predictor of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. PMID:23974364

  18. Foreign direct investment in the health care sector and most-favoured locations in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Outreville, J François

    2007-12-01

    Given the growing importance of the health care sector and the significant development of trade in health services, foreign direct investment (FDI) in this sector has gathered momentum with the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Despite extensive case based research and publications in recent years on health care markets and the rise of private sectors, it is surprisingly difficult to find evidence on the relative importance of the largest multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the health care sector. The objective of the paper is to identify some of the determinants of foreign investment of the largest MNCs operating in this industry. The list of the largest MNCs has been compiled using company websites and data is available for 41 developing economies for which at least two MNCs have an office (branch and/or affiliate). The results of this study have some important implications. They indicate that location-specific advantages of host countries, including good governance, do provide an explication of the internationalization of firms in some developing countries rather than others.

  19. High benzene concentrations can favour Gram-positive bacteria in groundwaters from a contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Anne; Ball, Andrew S; Lethbridge, Gordon; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to pollution exerts strong selective pressure on microbial communities, which may affect their potential to adapt to current or future environmental challenges. In this microcosm study, we used DNA fingerprinting based on 16S rRNA genes to document the impact of high concentrations of benzene on two bacterial communities from a benzene-contaminated aquifer situated below a petrochemical plant (SIReN, UK). The two groundwaters harboured distinct aerobic benzene-degrading communities able to metabolize benzene to below detection levels (1 microg L(-1)). A benzene concentration of 100 mg L(-1) caused a major shift from Betaproteobacteria to Actinobacteria, in particular Arthrobacter spp. A similar shift from Betaproteobacteria to Arthrobacter spp. and Rhodococcus erythropolis was observed in minimal medium (MM) inoculated with a third groundwater. These Gram-positive-dominated communities were able to grow on benzene at concentrations up to 600 mg L(-1) in groundwater and up to 1000 mg L(-1) in MM, concentrations that cause significant solvent stress to cellular systems. Therefore, Gram-positive bacteria were better competitors than Gram-negative organisms under experimental conditions of high benzene loads, which suggests that solvent-tolerant Gram-positive bacteria can play a role in the natural attenuation of benzene or the remediation of contaminated sites.

  20. Favourable changes in economic well-being and self-rated health among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Adverse economic shocks exert an influence on health perceptions, but little is known about the effect of sudden positive changes in a person’s financial situation on self-rated health, particularly among low income people. This paper explores the association between an increase in the amount of non-contribution pensions, public cash transfers given to Costa Rican elderly of low socio-economic status (SES) and changes in self-rated health over time. The analysis is based on data from CRELES, the “Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging”, which is based on a probabilistic sample of people born in 1945 or earlier, and living in Costa Rica by 2002. The fieldwork for the first and second waves of CRELES was conducted from 2004 to 2006, and from 2006 to 2008, respectively. The Costa Rican Government raised the amount of the non-contribution pension for the poor 100% before July 2007, and an additional 100% after that date. Due to the CRELES fieldwork schedule, the data have a natural quasi-experimental design, given that approximately half of CRELES respondents were interviewed before July 2007, independently of their status in receiving the public cash transfers. Using random effects ordered probit regression models, we find that people who experienced such increase report a greater improvement in self-rated health between waves than those who experienced a smaller increase and than the rest of the interviewees. Results suggest that increases in income may lead to a greater improvement in self-rated health. PMID:21440352